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Sample records for identifying genotype-dependent efficacy

  1. Genotype-dependent lifespan effects in peptone deprived Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Stastna, Jana J.; Snoek, L. Basten; Kammenga, Jan E.; Harvey, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction appears to act as a general non-genetic mechanism that can robustly prolong lifespan. There have however been reports in many systems of cases where restricted food intake either shortens, or does not affect, lifespan. Here we analyze lifespan and the effect of food restriction via deprived peptone levels on lifespan in wild isolates and introgression lines (ILs) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These analyses identify genetic variation in lifespan, in the effect of this variation in diet on lifespan and also in the likelihood of maternal, matricidal, hatching. Importantly, in the wild isolates and the ILs, we identify genotypes in which peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction reduces lifespan. We also identify, in recombinant inbred lines, a locus that affects maternal hatching, a phenotype closely linked to dietary restriction in C. elegans. These results indicate that peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction affects lifespan in C. elegans in a genotype-dependent manner, reducing lifespan in some genotypes. This may operate by a mechanism similar to dietary restriction. PMID:26539794

  2. Genotype-dependent lifespan effects in peptone deprived Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Stastna, Jana J; Snoek, L Basten; Kammenga, Jan E; Harvey, Simon C

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction appears to act as a general non-genetic mechanism that can robustly prolong lifespan. There have however been reports in many systems of cases where restricted food intake either shortens, or does not affect, lifespan. Here we analyze lifespan and the effect of food restriction via deprived peptone levels on lifespan in wild isolates and introgression lines (ILs) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These analyses identify genetic variation in lifespan, in the effect of this variation in diet on lifespan and also in the likelihood of maternal, matricidal, hatching. Importantly, in the wild isolates and the ILs, we identify genotypes in which peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction reduces lifespan. We also identify, in recombinant inbred lines, a locus that affects maternal hatching, a phenotype closely linked to dietary restriction in C. elegans. These results indicate that peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction affects lifespan in C. elegans in a genotype-dependent manner, reducing lifespan in some genotypes. This may operate by a mechanism similar to dietary restriction. PMID:26539794

  3. The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as “migration load.” The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

  4. Identifying Events that Impact Self-Efficacy in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one's own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of…

  5. CYP2D6 Genotype Dependent Oxycodone Metabolism in Postoperative Patients

    PubMed Central

    Stamer, Ulrike M.; Zhang, Lan; Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz E.; Stuber, Frank; Musshoff, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme on oxycodone's metabolism and clinical efficacy is currently being discussed. However, there are only spare data from postoperative settings. The hypothesis of this study is that genotype dependent CYP2D6 activity influences plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites and impacts analgesic consumption. Methods Patients received oxycodone 0.05 mg/kg before emerging from anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for the subsequent 48 postoperative hours. Blood samples were drawn at 30, 90 and 180 minutes after the initial oxycodone dose. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites oxymorphone, noroxycodone and noroxymorphone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed and 121 patients were allocated to the following genotype groups: PM (poor metabolizer: no functionally active CYP2D6 allele), HZ/IM (heterozygous subjects, intermediate metabolizers with decreased CYP2D6 activity), EM (extensive metabolizers, normal CYP2D6 activity) and UM (ultrarapid metabolizers, increased CYP2D6 activity). Primary endpoint was the genotype dependent metabolite ratio of plasma concentrations oxymorphone/oxycodone. Secondary endpoint was the genotype dependent analgesic consumption with calculation of equianalgesic doses compared to the standard non-CYP dependent opioid piritramide. Results Metabolism differed between CYP2D6 genotypes. Mean (95%-CI) oxymophone/oxycodone ratios were 0.10 (0.02/0.19), 0.13 (0.11/0.16), 0.18 (0.16/0.20) and 0.28 (0.07/0.49) in PM, HZ/IM, EM and UM, respectively (p?=?0.005). Oxycodone consumption up to the 12th hour was highest in PM (p?=?0.005), resulting in lowest equianalgesic doses of piritramide versus oxycodone for PM (1.6 (1.4/1.8); EM and UM 2.2 (2.1/2.3); p<0.001). Pain scores did not differ between genotypes. Conclusions In this postoperative setting, the number of functionally active CYP2D6 alleles had an impact on oxycodone metabolism. The genotype also impacted analgesic consumption, thereby causing variation of equianalgesic doses piritramide : oxycodone. Different analgesic needs by genotypes were met by PCA technology in this postoperative cohort. PMID:23555934

  6. Identifying Determinants of EGFR-Targeted Therapeutic Biochemical Efficacy Using Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Monast, C S; Lazzara, M J

    2014-01-01

    We modeled cellular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine phosphorylation dynamics in the presence of receptor-targeting kinase inhibitors (e.g., gefitinib) or antibodies (e.g., cetuximab) to identify systematically the factors that contribute most to the ability of the therapeutics to antagonize EGFR phosphorylation, an effect we define here as biochemical efficacy. Our model identifies distinct processes as controlling gefitinib or cetuximab biochemical efficacy, suggests biochemical efficacy is favored in the presence of certain EGFR ligands, and suggests new drug design principles. For example, the model predicts that gefitinib biochemical efficacy is preferentially sensitive to perturbations in the activity of tyrosine phosphatases regulating EGFR, but that cetuximab biochemical efficacy is preferentially sensitive to perturbations in ligand binding. Our results highlight numerous other considerations that determine biochemical efficacy beyond those reflected by equilibrium affinities. By integrating these considerations, our model also predicts minimum therapeutic combination concentrations to maximally reduce receptor phosphorylation. PMID:25317724

  7. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this…

  8. User-identified gel characteristics: a qualitative exploration of perceived product efficacy of topical vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Underhill, Kristen; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara; Rosen, Rochelle K; Katz, David F

    2014-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that certain vaginal gel products--microbicides containing antiretroviral drugs--may reduce HIV infection risk among women. But for vaginal gels to avert HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), at-risk women must be willing to use them as directed. These products must therefore be "acceptable" to women and an important component of acceptability is users' perception that the product will work to prevent infection. We sought to understand how women's perceptions of vaginal gel properties may shape their understanding of product efficacy for HIV and STI prevention. Sixteen women completed two in-depth qualitative interviews (k = 32) to identify the range and types of sensory perceptions they experienced when using two vaginal gels. We identified emergent themes and linkages between users' sensory perceptions and their beliefs about product efficacy. Users' predictions about product efficacy for preventing infection corresponded to measurable physical properties, including gel volume, location in the vagina, coating behavior, sensation of the gel in the vagina, leakage, and gel changes during coital acts. Although the women described similar sensory experiences (e.g., gel leaked from the vagina), they interpreted these experiences to have varying implications for product efficacy (e.g., leakage was predicted to increase or decrease efficacy). To improve microbicide acceptability, gel developers should investigate and deliberately incorporate properties that influence users' perceptions of efficacy. When a microbicide is approved for use, providers should educate users to anticipate and understand their sensory experiences; improving users' experience can maximize adherence and product effectiveness. PMID:24452632

  9. Learning to identify CNS drug action and efficacy using multistudy fMRI data.

    PubMed

    Duff, Eugene P; Vennart, William; Wise, Richard G; Howard, Matthew A; Harris, Richard E; Lee, Michael; Wartolowska, Karolina; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Wilson, Frederick J; Whitlock, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Woolrich, Mark W; Smith, Stephen M

    2015-02-11

    The therapeutic effects of centrally acting pharmaceuticals can manifest gradually and unreliably in patients, making the drug discovery process slow and expensive. Biological markers providing early evidence for clinical efficacy could help prioritize development of the more promising drug candidates. A potential source of such markers is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive imaging technique that can complement molecular imaging. fMRI has been used to characterize how drugs cause changes in brain activity. However, variation in study protocols and analysis techniques has made it difficult to identify consistent associations between subtle modulations of brain activity and clinical efficacy. We present and validate a general protocol for functional imaging-based assessment of drug activity in the central nervous system. The protocol uses machine learning methods and data from multiple published studies to identify reliable associations between drug-related activity modulations and drug efficacy, which can then be used to assess new data. A proof-of-concept version of this approach was developed and is shown here for analgesics (pain medication), and validated with eight separate studies of analgesic compounds. Our results show that the systematic integration of multistudy data permits the generalized inferences required for drug discovery. Multistudy integrative strategies of this type could help optimize the drug discovery and validation pipeline. PMID:25673761

  10. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-08-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this study and were invited to complete two instruments, physics learning profile and physics learning self-efficacy (PLSE). The main results indicated that, first, the two instruments developed in this study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Second, three fundamental physics learning profiles, the reproductive, transitional, and constructive profiles, were characterized based on the cluster analysis. It is also evident that the three learning profiles demonstrated different levels of self-efficacy for the five PLSE dimensions. The students with a reproductive profile tended to possess the lowest PLSE across the five dimensions. The students with a transitional profile may possess higher confidence in higher-order cognitive skills and laboratory activities than those with a reproductive profile. However, only those with a constructive profile, highlighting a comprehensive understanding of physics knowledge/concepts as well as de-emphasizing physics learning as preparing for tests and calculating and practising tutorial problems, possessed stronger PLSE in applying what they learned to real-world contexts as well as in scientifically communicating with others.

  11. High efficacy vasopermeability drug candidates identified by screening in an ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane model

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Desmond; Luhrs, Keith A.; Zhou, Longen; Schulte, Wendy; Chase, Jennifer; Frosch, Christian; Haberl, Udo; Nguyen, Van; Roy, Aparna I.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries; Parseghian, Missag H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of rodent models to evaluate efficacy during testing is accompanied by significant economic and regulatory hurdles which compound the costs of screening for promising drug candidates. Vasopermeation Enhancement Agents (VEAs) are a new class of biologics that are designed to increase the uptake of cancer therapeutics at the tumor site by modifying vascular permeability in the tumor to increase the therapeutic index of co-administered drugs. To evaluate the efficacy of a panel of VEA clinical candidates, we compared the rodent Miles assay to an equivalent assay in the ex ovo chicken embryo model. Both model systems identified the same candidate (PVL 10) as the most active promoter of vasopermeation in non-tumor tissues. An ex ovo chicken embryo system was utilized to test each candidate VEA in two human tumor models at a range of concentrations. Vasopermeation activity due to VEA was dependent on tumor type, with HEp3 tumors displaying higher levels of vasopermeation than MDA-MB-435. One candidate (PVL 10) proved optimal for HEp3 tumors and another (PVL 2) for MDA-MB-435. The use of the ex ovo chicken embryo model provides a rapid and less costly alternative to the use of rodent models for preclinical screening of drug candidates. PMID:26510887

  12. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  13. [Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change. PMID:18592707

  14. Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

  15. The genotype dependent presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as tertiary amine in Jacobaea vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Lotte; Cheng, Dandan; Mulder, Patrick P J; Vrieling, Klaas; van Veen, Johannes A; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

    2011-02-01

    Secondary metabolites such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. PAs can occur in plants in two forms: tertiary amine (free base) and N-oxide. PA extraction and detection are of great importance for the understanding of the role of PAs as plant defense compounds, as the tertiary PA form is known for its stronger influence on several generalist insects, whereas the N-oxide form is claimed to be less deterrent. We measured PA N-oxides and their reduced tertiary amines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We show that the occurrence of tertiary PAs is not an artifact of the extraction and detection method. We found up to 50% of tertiary PAs in shoots of Jacobine - chemotype plants of Jacobaea vulgaris. Jacobine and its derivatives (jacoline, jaconine, jacozine and dehydrojaconine) may occur for more than 20% in reduced form in the shoots and more than 10% in the roots. For 22 PAs detected in F(2) hybrids (J. vulgaris × Jacobaea aquatica), we calculate the tertiary amine percentage (TA%=the tertiary amine concentration/(tertiary amine concentration+the corresponding N-oxide concentration) × 100). We found that the TA% for various PAs was genotype-dependent. Furthermore, TA% for the different PAs were correlated and the highest correlations occurred between PAs which share high structural similarity. PMID:21159354

  16. A chemical genetic screen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies carbon-source-dependent growth inhibitors devoid of in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pethe, Kevin; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Rhee, Kyu; Kuhen, Kelli; Phong, Wai Yee; Patel, Viral; Beer, David; Walker, John R.; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Jiricek, Jan; Keller, Thomas H.; Chatterjee, Arnab; Tan, Mai Ping; Ujjini, Manjunatha; Rao, Srinivasa P.S.; Camacho, Luis; Bifani, Pablo; Mak, Puiying A.; Ma, Ida; Barnes, S. Whitney; Chen, Zhong; Plouffe, David; Thayalan, Pamela; Ng, Seow Hwee; Au, Melvin; Lee, Boon Heng; Tan, Bee Huat; Ravindran, Sindhu; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Lin, Xiuhua; Goh, Anne; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry; Dartois, Veronique; Peters, Eric C.; Glynne, Richard; Brenner, Sydney; Dick, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine–imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics. PMID:20975714

  17. THE EFFICACY OF THREE OBJECTIVE SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFYING BEEF CUTS THAT CAN BE GUARANTEED TENDER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracies of three objective systems (BeefCam, Colorimeter, and Slice Shear Force) for identifying guaranteed tender beef. Three hundred eight carcasses (105 Top Choice, 101 Low Choice, and 102 Select from two commercial plants were tested. The thr...

  18. Identifying Statistical Concepts Associated with High and Low Levels of Self-Efficacy to Teach Statistics in Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell-Williams, Leigh M.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Pierce, Rebecca L.; Lesser, Lawrence M.; Murphy, Teri J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous mathematics and science education research indicates that knowledge and beliefs, including teaching efficacy, affect teachers' actions and effectiveness in a classroom. Our middle grades and high school Self-Efficacy to Teach Statistics (SETS) instruments, aligned with the statistical concepts in national and state guidelines such as the…

  19. Collective efficacy as identified by teachers at Heritage Middle School, East Central Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Naumann, Luisa Maria

    2008-10-10

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the collective efficacy of teachers at Heritage Middle School in the East Central Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas, and to determine the relationship ...

  20. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-11-21

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

  1. Neural Correlates of Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease Identified by Performance–Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Robin, Donald A.; Vogel, Deanie; Ramig, Lorraine O.

    2009-01-01

    LSVT® LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) is efficacious in the treatment of speech disorders in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), particularly hypophonia. Functional imaging in patients with IPD has shown abnormalities in several speech regions and changes in these areas immediately following treatment. This study serves to extend the analysis by correlating changes of regional neural activity with the main behavioral change following treatment, namely, increased vocal intensity. Ten IPD participants with hypophonia were studied before and after LSVT LOUD. Cerebral blood flow during rest and reading conditions were measured by H215O-positron emission tomography. Z-score images were generated by contrasting reading with rest conditions for pre- and post-LSVT LOUD sessions. Neuronal activity during reading in the pre- versus post-LSVT LOUD contrast was correlated with corresponding change in vocal intensity to generate correlation images. Behaviorally, vocal intensity for speech tasks increased significantly after LSVT LOUD. The contrast and correlation analyses indicate a treatment-dependent shift to the right hemisphere with modification in the speech motor regions as well as in prefrontal and temporal areas. We interpret the modification of activity in these regions to be a top–down effect of LSVT LOUD. The absence of an effect of LSVT LOUD on the basal ganglion supports this argument. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of LSVT LOUD in IPD hypophonia results from a shift in cortical activity to the right hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the short-term changes in the speech motor and multimodal integration areas can occur in a top–down manner. PMID:19639554

  2. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

  3. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  4. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  5. Virus-Like Particle Secretion and Genotype-Dependent Immunogenicity of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Galula, Jedhan U.; Shen, Wen-Fan; Chuang, Shih-Te

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. We also found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. IMPORTANCE Five genotype-specific dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine candidates were evaluated for their immunogenicity, homologous and heterologous neutralizing (Nt) antibody titers, and cross-genotype protection in a murine model. The immunity elicited by our prototype vaccine candidate (Asian 1 genotype strain 16681) in mice was protective against viruses of other genotypes but not against virus of the Sylvatic genotype, whose emergence and potential risk after introduction into the human population have previously been demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of a lack of protection elicited by the prototype vaccine may at least be contributed by the absence of a flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive, highly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1B7-5-like epitope in DENV-2 of the Sylvatic genotype. The DENV DNA vaccine directs the synthesis and assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) and induces immune responses similar to those elicited by live-attenuated vaccines, and its flexibility permits the fast deployment of vaccine to combat emerging viruses, such as Sylvatic genotype viruses. The enhanced VLP secretion obtained by replacement of ectodomain I-II (EDI-II) of the Cosmopolitan genotype vaccine construct (VD2-Cosmopolitan) with the Asian 1 EDI-II elicited significantly higher total IgG and Nt antibody titers and suggests a novel approach to enhance the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. A DENV vaccine capable of eliciting protective immunity against viruses of existing and emerging genotypes should be the focus of future DENV vaccine development. PMID:25008922

  6. Genotype-Dependent Variability in Residual Cone Structure in Achromatopsia: Toward Developing Metrics for Assessing Cone Health

    PubMed Central

    Dubis, Adam M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Aboshiha, Jonathan; Langlo, Christopher S.; Sundaram, Venki; Liu, Benjamin; Collison, Frederick; Fishman, Gerald A.; Moore, Anthony T.; Webster, Andrew R.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy trials for inherited photoreceptor disorders are planned. Anatomical metrics to select the best candidates and outcomes are needed. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging enables visualization of photoreceptor structure, although analytical tools are lacking. Here we present criteria to assess residual photoreceptor integrity in achromatopsia (ACHM). Methods. Two AOSLOs, at the Medical College of Wisconsin and Moorfields Eye Hospital, were used to image the photoreceptor mosaic of 11 subjects with ACHM and 7 age-matched controls. Images were obtained, processed, and montaged using previously described methods. Cone density and reflectivity were quantified to assess residual cone photoreceptor structure. Results. All subjects with ACHM had reduced numbers of cone photoreceptors, albeit to a variable degree. In addition, the relative cone reflectivity varied greatly. Interestingly, subjects with GNAT2-associated ACHM had the greatest number of residual cones and the reflectivity of those cones was significantly greater than that of the cones in the subjects with CNGA3/CNGB3-associated ACHM. Conclusions. We present cone reflectivity as a metric that can be used to characterize cone structure in ACHM. This method may be applicable to subjects with other cone disorders. In ACHM, we hypothesize that cone numerosity (and/or density) combined with cone reflectivity could be used to gauge the therapeutic potential. As gene replacement would not be expected to add cones, reflectivity could be a more powerful AO-metric for monitoring the cellular response to treatment and could provide a more immediate indicator of efficacy than behavioral measures, which may take longer to change. PMID:25277229

  7. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  8. FKBP5 Genotype-Dependent DNA Methylation and mRNA Regulation After Psychosocial Stress in Remitted Depression and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Poidinger, Maximilian; Merz, Franziska; Pfister, Hildegard; Brückl, Tanja; Zimmermann, Petra; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polymorphisms in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene have been shown to influence glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, stress response regulation, and depression risk in traumatized subjects, with most consistent findings reported for the functional variant rs1360780. In the present study, we investigated whether the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780 and lifetime history of major depression are associated with DNA methylation and FKBP5 gene expression after psychosocial stress. Methods: A total of 116 individuals with a positive (n = 61) and negative (n = 55) lifetime history of major depression participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. We assessed plasma cortisol concentrations, FKBP5 mRNA expression, and CpG methylation of FKBP5 intron 7 in peripheral blood cells. Results: Genotype-dependent plasma cortisol response to psychosocial stress exposure was observed in healthy controls, with the highest and longest-lasting cortisol increase in subjects with the TT genotype of the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780, and healthy controls carrying the T risk allele responded with a blunted FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress. No genotype effects could be found in remitted depression. Conclusions: The FKBP5 rs1360780 polymorphism is associated with plasma cortisol and FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress in healthy controls but not in remitted depression. Preliminary results of the DNA methylation analysis suggest that epigenetic modifications could be involved. PMID:25522420

  9. Isoniazid mediates the CYP2B6*6 genotype-dependent interaction between efavirenz and antituberculosis drug therapy through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H; Almutairi, Fawziah E; Greenblatt, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Sheng, Hongyan; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M; Bourgea, Joanne; Patten, Christopher J; Kwara, Awewura

    2014-07-01

    Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 ?M) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 ?M) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 ?M; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min(-1)) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 ?M; kinact = 0.024 min(-1)) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6. PMID:24820076

  10. Isoniazid Mediates the CYP2B6*6 Genotype-Dependent Interaction between Efavirenz and Antituberculosis Drug Therapy through Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2A6

    PubMed Central

    Almutairi, Fawziah E.; Greenblatt, David J.; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Sheng, Hongyan; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Bourgea, Joanne; Patten, Christopher J.; Kwara, Awewura

    2014-01-01

    Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 ?M) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 ?M) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 ?M; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min?1) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 ?M; kinact = 0.024 min?1) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6. PMID:24820076

  11. Neural networks and Fuzzy clustering methods for assessing the efficacy of microarray based intrinsic gene signatures in breast cancer classification and the character and relations of identified subtypes.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun

    2015-01-01

    In the classification of breast cancer subtypes using microarray data, hierarchical clustering is commonly used. Although this form of clustering shows basic cluster patterns, more needs to be done to investigate the accuracy of clusters as well as to extract meaningful cluster characteristics and their relations to increase our confidence in their use in a clinical setting. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the efficacy of three reported gene subsets in distinguishing breast cancer subtypes was performed using four advanced computational intelligence methods-Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Emergent Self-Organizing Maps (ESOM), Fuzzy Clustering by Local Approximation of Memberships (FLAME), and Fuzzy C-means (FCM)-each differing in the way they view data in terms of distance measures and fuzzy or crisp clustering. The gene subsets consisted of 71, 93, and 71 genes reported in the literature from three comprehensive experimental studies for distinguishing Luminal (A and B), Basal, Normal breast-like, and HER2 subtypes. Given the costly procedures involved in clinical studies, the proposed 93-gene set can be used for preliminary classification of breast cancer. Then, as a decision aid, SOM can be used to map the gene signature of a new patient to locate them with respect to all subtypes to get a comprehensive view of the classification. These can be followed by a deeper investigation in the light of the observations made in this study regarding overlapping subtypes. Results from the study could be used as the base for further refining the gene signatures from later experiments and from new experiments designed to separate overlapping clusters as well as to maximally separate all clusters. PMID:25502389

  12. High-throughput screening for GPR119 modulators identifies a novel compound with anti-diabetic efficacy in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Ting; He, Min; Yang, Dehua; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean; Renard, Pierre; Wang, Ming-Wei

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is highly expressed in pancreatic ? cells and enteroendocrine cells. It is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, thereby representing a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although a number of GPR119 agonists were developed, no positive allosteric modulator (PAM) to this receptor has been reported. Here we describe a high-throughput assay for screening GPR119 PAMs and agonists simultaneously. Following screening of a small molecule compound library containing 312,000 synthetic and natural product-derived samples, one potent GPR119 agonist with novel chemical structure, MW1219, was identified. Exposure of MIN6 and GLUTag cells to MW1219 enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and GLP-1 release; once-daily oral dosing of MW1219 for 6 weeks in diabetic db/db mice reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improved plasma glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels; it also increased glucose tolerance. The results demonstrate that MW1219 is capable of effectively controlling blood glucose level and may have the potential to be developed as a new class of anti-diabetic agents. PMID:23704946

  13. Prospective cohort study to evaluate the efficacy of taxane plus platinum and CPT-11plus platinum regimes and to identify prognostic risk factors in cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kecheng; Li, Xiong; Yang, Ru; Shen, Jian; Chen, Zhilan; Qin, Xiaomin; Wang, Shaoshuai; Jia, Yao; Tang, Fangxu; Zhou, Hang; Sun, Haiying; Zhou, Jin; Guo, Lili; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Long; Xiong, Jiaqiang; Wang, Congyi; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang; Hu, Ting; Wang, Shixuan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the response, toxicity and survival of taxanes plus platinum (TP) and CPT-11plus platinum (CP) as neoadjuvant chemotherapies with previously untreated cervical cancer, and to identify prognostic risk factors in these patients. Methods: A cohort study was performed to evaluate the result of TP and CP regimes in the treatment of cervical cancer patients. Results: The study included 567 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) staged as FIGO IB-IIB in our clinical departments. Clinical response was found in 76.1% and 78% of patients in the TP and CP arms, respectively, and no treatment-related deaths were reported. During the follow-up period, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for the TP and CP arms were not different (P = 0.384 for DFS, P = 0.800 for OS). The CP regime showed higher survival rate for endophytic growth style (P = 0.013 for DFS, P = 0.027 for OS). The CP regime also showed higher DFS and OS for G2 tumor (P = 0.027 for DFS, P = 0.032 for OS). In multivariate cox’s proportional hazards regression model, the average death rates were much greater in the non-responder group (HR, 2.68), in the older (> 44 years) group (HR, 2.51), and in the FIGO stage II b patients (HR, 2.84). Conclusions: The CP regime showed higher survival rate for endophytic growth style or G2 tumor. Clinical response, age and FIGO stage were independent prognostic risk factors in this study for both DFS and OS. PMID:26628986

  14. KAG-308, a newly-identified EP4-selective agonist shows efficacy for treating ulcerative colitis and can bring about lower risk of colorectal carcinogenesis by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Murata, Takahiko; Amakawa, Masahiro; Miyake, Yoshihide; Handa, Tango; Konishi, Katsuhiko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Tanaka, Takuji; Takeuchi, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Agonists for EP4 receptor, a prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype, appear to be a promising therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC) due to their anti-inflammatory and epithelial regeneration activities. However, the clinical development of orally-available EP4 agonists for mild to moderate UC has not yet been reported. Furthermore, the possibility of an increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) through direct proliferative effects on epithelial cells via EP4 signaling has not been ruled out. Recently, we identified KAG-308 as an orally-available EP4-selective agonist. Here, we investigated the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of KAG-308. Then, we compared KAG-308 and sulfasalazine (SASP) for their abilities to prevent colitis and promote mucosal healing in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Finally, the effect of KAG-308 treatment on CAC was evaluated in an azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced CAC mouse model. KAG-308 selectively activated EP4 and potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-? production in peripheral whole blood and T cells. Oral administration of KAG-308, which showed relatively high bioavailability, suppressed the onset of DSS-induced colitis and promoted histological mucosal healing, while SASP did not. KAG-308 also prevented colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting colitis development and consequently decreasing mortality in a CAC model, whereas SASP had marginal effects. In contrast, MF-482, an EP4 antagonist, increased mortality. These results indicated that orally-administered KAG-308 suppressed colitis development and promoted mucosal healing. Moreover, it exhibited preventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis, and thus may be a new therapeutic strategy for the management of UC that confers a reduced risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:25704618

  15. Genome-Wide Transcription Profiles Reveal Genotype-Dependent Responses of Biological Pathways and Gene-Families in Daphnia Exposed to Single and Mixed Stressors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

  16. A genome-wide survey and functional brain imaging study identify CTNNBL1 as a memory-related gene

    PubMed Central

    Papassotiropoulos, A; Stefanova, E; Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Ackermann, S; Spalek, K; Rasch, B; Heck, A; Aerni, A; Hanser, E; Demougin, P; Huynh, K-D; Luechinger, R; Klarhöfer, M; Novakovic, I; Kostic, V; Boesiger, P; Scheffler, K; de Quervain, D J-F

    2013-01-01

    Unbiased genome-wide screens combined with imaging data on brain function may identify novel molecular pathways related to human cognition. Here we performed a dense genome-wide screen to identify episodic memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain-expressed beta-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) was significantly (P=7 × 10?8) associated with verbal memory performance in a cognitively healthy cohort from Switzerland (n=1073) and was replicated in a second cohort from Serbia (n=524; P=0.003). Gene expression studies showed CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in beta-catenin-like protein 1 mRNA levels in the human cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 322 subjects detected CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activations. Converging evidence from independent experiments and different methodological approaches suggests a role for CTNNBL1 in human memory. PMID:22105620

  17. GENOTYPE DEPENDENT INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  18. The Relative Importance of Specific Self-Efficacy Sources in Pretraining Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…

  19. [Efficacy studies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

  20. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Wigal, J K; Creer, T L; Kotses, H

    1991-05-01

    Many individuals with COPD develop a lack of confidence regarding their ability to avoid breathing difficulty while participating in certain activities, however minimal the physical demands of the activity may be. This lack of confidence may be expressed as low self-efficacy. As a result of low self-efficacy, COPD patients may refrain from many routine activities of daily living. Identifying situations in which individuals with COPD experience low self-efficacy would allow the development of specific treatment interventions designed to increase the patient's self-efficacy in those situations and consequently increase activity. We developed a 34-item COPD Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) to assess self-efficacy in individuals afflicted with COPD. The CSES has good test-retest reliability (r = .77), excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .95), and a five-factor structure (negative affect, intense emotional arousal, physical exertion, weather/environmental, and behavioral risk factors. PMID:2019177

  1. Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…

  2. Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Hayes, Coleen

    2011-01-01

    Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

  3. Distalgesic; safety and efficacy. Efficacy: UK experience.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, R D

    1984-08-01

    The UK experience of Distalgesic efficacy is examined, and 18 trials have been reviewed, of which only five were controlled and only three contained a placebo. Three trials are examined in detail and the problems of trial methodology discussed. The assessment of analgesic effect in chronic painful conditions presents considerable problems. Despite the fact that Distalgesic appears to be a useful analgesic in the clinical situation, long-term controlled studies of its effectiveness in chronic pain are still awaited. PMID:6384026

  4. Pediatric dyslipidemias: Prescription medication efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Browne, Barry; Vasquez, Susie

    2008-06-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of patients with severe pediatric dyslipidemias remains problematic and is of significant concern for health care professionals treating these individuals. Issues include selection of appropriate treatment modalities, lack of pediatric indications for some therapies, duration of treatment, and possible adverse effects with early initiation of potentially life-long therapies. The objective of this review is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the various prescription medications used to treat severe pediatric dyslipidemias, particularly heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. A PubMed search was used to identify published literature evaluating safety and efficacy of various pharmacologic interventions in severe pediatric dyslipidemias. In addition, product monographs for various branded and generic products identified in the published literature were reviewed for pediatrics-related information. Clinical trials literature, review articles, and national guidelines provide limited information indicating short-term safety and efficacy of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, bile acid sequestrants, ezetimibe, fibrates, niacin formulations, and combinations of these agents in pediatric patients. However, no long-term data regarding safety and efficacy are currently available. No long-term risk-benefit data are available for pediatric use of agents used for severe pediatric dyslipidemias, mostly familial hypercholesterolemia. Extended-duration clinical trials and observational data are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment for these patients. PMID:21291737

  5. The Self-Efficacy of Special Education Directors in the State of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Catana C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of special education directors serving in public schools in the state of Texas. Within the review of literature the following key components were identified: special education administration, self-efficacy--theoretical perspective and self-efficacy and outcomes-based research. A…

  6. Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Punum

    2012-01-01

    Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…

  7. Genotype dependent interspecific hybridization of Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  8. Treatment Efficacy: Voice Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramig, Lorraine Olson; Verdolini, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research on the efficacy of treatment for voice disorders. Voice disorders are defined, their frequency of occurrence is reported, and their impact on individuals is documented. Treatment related to vocal misuse, medical or physical conditions, and psychogenic disorders are discussed and case studies are presented. (Author/CR)

  9. Efficacy of iodine urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Broga, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Urinalysis is one of the monitoring techniques recommended for identifying potential thyroid uptake by most of the organizations involved with radiation protection. However, little exists in the literature outlining the methodology to be used or the efficacy of this monitoring technique. The research upon which this dissertation was based was designed to assess the efficacy of urinalysis. A review of the applicable kinetic models was done to determine their appropriateness. Computer modeling and graphics were used to assess the variances between the two most appropriate models. A study was done using normal subjects to acquire data to be used to evaluate the overall efficacy of iodine urinalysis. The results of the study indicate that an integral sampling technique is the most accurate for back-calculating thyroid activities. A new set of parameters called adjusted man are proposed. The study concludes that iodine urinalysis can be efficaciously used to identify thyroid uptakes.

  10. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, Emily L; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M; Young, Sera L

    2016-02-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments' purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura's social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113

  11. The Exploration of Elementary School Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy and Information Commitments: A Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Wang, Li-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' Internet self-efficacy and information commitments. More importantly, this study also attempted to identify possible factors that affect the teachers' Internet self-efficacy. The participants were 301 elementary school teachers. In this study, the Internet Self-efficacy Survey (ISS) and the Information…

  12. Efficacy of radioiodine urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Broga, D.W.; Berk, H.W.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Little exists in the literature to support the efficacy of urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid uptake of radioiodine. A review was made of a variety of kinetic models. Computer analysis and graphics were used to assess the variables in the two models chosen for this study. The applicability of each model was tested by using data obtained from a group of euthyroid subjects. The results indicate that using an integral urine-sampling method and a three-component model yields minimum detectable thyroid uptakes which fall well below required reporting limits. Furthermore, the results show that integral urine samples obtained in the first few hours post exposure may be used to predict major thyroid uptakes in time for effective thyroid blocking.

  13. School Nurses' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy in Providing Diabetes Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kelly L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure school nurses' perceived self-efficacy in providing diabetes care and education to children and to identify factors that correlate with higher self-efficacy levels in the performance of these tasks. The results of this study revealed that the surveyed school nurses perceived a moderate level of…

  14. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

    2011-01-01

    Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

  15. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Izadi, Mehri; Ahmadian, Mansooreh Vahed

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between Iranian EFL juniors' self-efficacy beliefs and their employed vocabulary learning strategies. The participants were 50 juniors studying English Translation at University of Sistan & Baluchestan. The self-efficacy and vocabulary learning strategies questionnaires were administered to identify the…

  16. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  17. A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others

    Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…

  18. Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…

  19. The German Teacher Trainers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to identify the interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs of German teacher trainers' in Turkey. It is a descriptive survey and the population of the study consists of German teacher trainers who have worked in the seven regions of Turkey during the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample comprises 52 German teacher trainers chosen…

  20. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  1. Measuring self-efficacy in the context of HIV risk reduction: research challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, A D; Carey, M P

    1998-11-01

    Self-efficacy theory has had considerable influence in studies of health-related behaviors, including the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. However, imprecise operationalization of self-efficacy theory in HIV prevention research is common and has important implications for the prediction of risk-reducing behavior from self-efficacy beliefs. In many instances, constructs other than self-efficacy have been assessed. In this article, the operationalization and measurement of self-efficacy in the context of HIV-risk-reduction research are reviewed and challenges inherent to such efforts are identified. Recommendations for enhancing the prediction of risk-reducing behavior from self-efficacy beliefs are also provided. PMID:9848807

  2. Identifying Savings Opportunities 

    E-print Network

    Chari, S.

    1993-01-01

    process to identify any opportunity through change of process. Such opportunities to change end-use processes in the auto parts manufacturing facility were not identified. Change the Entire System Of all the DSM measures, this is the hardest one...

  3. The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

    2011-01-01

    The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

  4. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H.; Gilhuis, H. Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G.; Brands, Augustina M.

    2015-01-01

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS) were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18), cognition (CDR System), fatigue (MFIS-5), depressive symptoms (BDI), disease impact (MSIS-29), and disability (EDSS). Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001), Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001), and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01), and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01). Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy. PMID:26064686

  5. Improved efficacy in onychomycosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Paquet, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    The success rate of onychomycosis treatment is limited by several factors, including the access of the therapeutic agent to the fungal mass, the presence of conidia, and the susceptibility of the different infectious agents to the antifungals. Different strategies used to improve efficacy of the currently available antifungal treatments, their rationale, and the published evidence of their beneficial effects are reviewed. An improved efficacy was demonstrated for some of these strategies, such as combined oral and topical antifungal therapies, whereas most of them lack clear and direct evidence of an increase in therapeutic success. PMID:24079584

  6. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  7. Understanding Reduced Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy in Low Socio-Economic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Lopman, Benjamin A.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gladstone, Beryl; Patel, Manish; Glasser, John; Gambhir, Manoj; Atchison, Christina; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Edmunds, W. John; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance. Methods We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by natural infection and immune response to vaccination. We then examined factors affecting efficacy. Results Vaccination was predicted to prevent 93%, 86% and 51% of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in high, middle and low SES, respectively. Also predicted was that vaccines are most effective against severe disease and efficacy declines with age in low but not high SES. Reduced immunogenicity of vaccination and reduced protection conferred by natural infection are the main factors that compromise efficacy in low SES. Discussion The continued risk of severe disease in non-primary natural infections in low SES is a key factor underpinning reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. Predicted efficacy was remarkably consistent with observed clinical trial results from different SES, validating the model. The phenomenon of reduced vaccine efficacy can be predicted by intrinsic immunological and epidemiological factors of low SES populations. Modifying aspects of the vaccine (e.g. improving immunogenicity in low SES) and vaccination program (e.g. additional doses) may bring improvements. PMID:22879893

  8. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  9. On Identifying the Sound Sources in a Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    A space-time filtering approach is used to divide an unbounded turbulent flow into its radiating and non-radiating components. The result is then used to clarify a number of issues including the possibility of identifying the sources of the sound in such flows. It is also used to investigate the efficacy of some of the more recent computational approaches.

  10. Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

  11. Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jay W.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the effect of a communication designed to enhance the self-efficacy beliefs of introductory psychology students. Neutral e-mail messages of messages designed to enhance self-efficacy were sent to 76 college students. Results show that self-efficacy beliefs were related to examination scores and were significantly affected by the…

  12. Identifying Extreme Exposure Values

    Cancer.gov

    There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

  13. Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

  14. Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

  15. Parent-Teacher Relationship, Instructor Self-Efficacy and Their Effects on Student Goal Attainment in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 35 years, researchers examining the factors that contribute to student achievement have identified teacher self-efficacy (a teacher's belief that they have the ability to influence student achievement) as one contributing characteristic. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has been applied to a wealth of research looking at the early…

  16. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

    2002-03-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

  17. Teenage goals and self-efficacy beliefs as precursors of adult career and family outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study identified and examined patterns of goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs in mid- and late adolescence as predictors of work and family outcomes in adulthood. A pattern approach was applied to appropriately identify relationships among work- and family-related goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs. Using a sample of 995 individuals, five distinct patterns of work-family goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs emerged. Individuals who assigned comparable importance to work and family goals and expressed corresponding self-efficacy beliefs in adolescence were more likely to achieve career and family outcomes in adulthood than individuals who expressed a strong preference for one domain over the other. The results supported the idea that work and family can be coordinated for mutual benefit. Furthermore, findings from the pattern approach provided an integrative view of work-family motivation and goal achievement complementing findings from traditional methods such as regression analysis. PMID:25242815

  18. Predictors of Self-Efficacy for HIV Prevention Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a critical element for HIV prevention, however little is known about the predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women. In this cross-sectional study we assessed if age, living with a partner, employment status, HIV knowledge, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence (IPV) predicted self-efficacy for HIV prevention in 548 Hispanic women in South Florida who participated in a randomized controlled trial (SEPA). The majority of Hispanic women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, with less HIV knowledge, and a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:22795758

  19. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  20. Dependence of macrophage phagocytic efficacy on antibody concentration.

    PubMed

    Macura, Natasa; Zhang, Tong; Casadevall, Arturo

    2007-04-01

    Macrophages ingest the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans only in the presence of opsonins, and this provides a remarkably clean system for the detailed analysis of phagocytosis. This system is also unusual in that antibody-mediated phagocytosis involves ingestion through both Fc and complement receptors in the absence of complement. Mathematical modeling was used to analyze and explain the experimental data that the macrophage phagocytic index increased with increasing doses of antibody despite saturating concentrations and declined at high concentrations. A model was developed that explains the increase in phagocytic index with increasing antibody doses, differentiates among the contributions from Fc and complement receptors, and provides a tool for estimating antibody concentrations that optimize efficacy of phagocytosis. Experimental results and model calculations revealed that blocking of Fc receptors by excess antibody caused a reduction in phagocytic index but increased phagocytosis through complement receptors rapidly compensated for this effect. At high antibody concentrations, a further reduction in phagocytic index was caused by interference with complement receptor ingestion as a consequence of saturation of the fungal capsule. The ability of our model to predict the antibody dose dependence of the macrophage phagocytic efficacy for C. neoformans strongly suggest that the major variables that determine the efficacy of this process have been identified. The model predicts that the affinity constant of the opsonic antibody for the Fc receptor and the association-dissociation constant of antibody from the microbial antigen are critical parameters determining the efficacy of phagocytosis. PMID:17283107

  1. Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.

    PubMed

    Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

    2013-03-01

    In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

  2. "Tener Exito": Stories of Self-Efficacy from Undocumented Latinos in the Pursuit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the evolvement of self-efficacy and the lived experiences of five undocumented Latino/as during their first semester in a Texas college or university. The snowball sampling method was used to identify participants who were undocumented, immigrated as children and enrolled in K-12 public school, and self-identified

  3. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  4. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  5. Identifying Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish K.; Kuperman, Gilad J.; Teich, Jonathan M.; Leape, Lucian; Shea, Brian; Rittenberg, Eve; Burdick, Elisabeth; Seger, Diane Lew; Vliet, Martha Vander; Bates, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are both common and costly. Most hospitals identify ADEs using spontaneous reporting, but this approach lacks sensitivity; chart review identifies more events but is expensive. Computer-based approaches to ADE identification appear promising, but they have not been directly compared with chart review and they are not widely used. Objectives: To develop a computer-based ADE monitor, and to compare the rate and type of ADEs found with the monitor with those discovered by chart review and by stimulated voluntary report. Design: Prospective cohort study in one tertiary-care hospital. Participants: All patients admitted to nine medical and surgical units in a tertiary-care hospital over an eight-month period. Main Outcome Measure: Adverse drug events identified by the computer-based monitor, by chart review, and by stimulated voluntary report. Methods: A computer-based monitoring program identified alerts, which were situations suggesting that an ADE might be present (e.g., an order for an antidote such as naloxone). A trained reviewer then examined patients' hospital records to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The results of the computer-based monitoring strategy were compared with two other ADE detection strategies: intensive chart review and stimulated voluntary report by nurses and pharmacists. The monitor and the chart review strategies were independent, and the reviewers were blinded. Results: The computer monitoring strategy identified 2,620 alerts, of which 275 were determined to be ADEs. The chart review found 398 ADEs, whereas voluntary report detected 23. Of the 617 ADEs detected by at least one method, 76 ADEs were detected by both computer monitor and chart review. The computer monitor identified 45 percent; chart review, 65 percent; and voluntary report, 4 percent. The ADEs identified by computer monitor were more likely to be classified as “severe” than were those identified by chart review (51 versus 42 percent, p =.04). The positive predictive value of computer-generated alerts was 16 percent during the first eight weeks of the study; rule modifications increased this to 23 percent in the final eight weeks. The computer strategy required 11 person-hours per week to execute, whereas chart review required 55 person-hours per week and voluntary report strategy required 5. Conclusions: The computer-based monitor identified fewer ADEs than did chart review but many more ADEs than did stimulated voluntary report. The overlap among the ADEs identified using different methods was small, suggesting that the incidence of ADEs may be higher than previously reported and that different detection methods capture different events. The computer-based monitoring system represents an efficient approach for measuring ADE frequency and gauging the effectiveness of ADE prevention programs. PMID:9609500

  6. Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence: perceptions of district personnel of implementation and impact on collective teacher efficacy 

    E-print Network

    LeRoy, Kathryn A.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those elements of the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence that central office leaders, principals, and teachers perceive as having an impact on collective teacher efficacy. The study...

  7. Predictors of low levels of self-efficacy among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haejung; Lim, Yeonjung; Kim, Sungmin; Park, Hye-Kyung; Ahn, Jong-Joon; Kim, Yunseong; Lee, Bong Chun

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify related factors of low levels of self-efficacy in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). A cross-sectional research design used descriptive statistics, ?(2) test, t-test, and binary logistic regression. Two hundred and forty-five patients with COPD were recruited from five hospitals in South Korea. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale, the Bristol COPD Knowledge Questionnaire, Personal Resource Questionnaire 2000, BODE index, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version were utilized to assess self-efficacy, disease-related knowledge, social support, disease severity, and physical activity, respectively. The BODE index, affect-oriented coping, and duration since diagnosis of COPD were included as significant predictors of self-efficacy. These findings suggest possible screening methods to identify patients with low levels of self-efficacy and future intervention targeting for these patients would strengthen the efficiency of an intervention. PMID:23682708

  8. Pixantrone: merging safety with efficacy.

    PubMed

    Papadatos-Pastos, Dionysios; Pettengell, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    Pixantrone is a novel anthracycline derivative, manufactured by Cell Therapeutics Incorporated, WA, USA. It was developed with the aim to retain the efficacy of anthracyclines and be less cardiotoxic. Initial safety trials and single-arm, Phase II trials have shown preliminary evidence of anticancer activity and manageable toxicity. These results were validated in multicenter, randomized clinical trials where pixantrone was used as single agent or in combination with other cytotoxics. Following the results of PIX301, it is now approved by the EMA for use as monotherapy in pretreated patients with refractory non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Ongoing trials are assessing the use of pixantrone in combination with other drugs. PMID:23373776

  9. Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

    Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

  10. Self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in patients with heart failure: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Feizi, Awat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasandokht, Tolu; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite exercise is recommended as an adjunct to medication therapy in patients with heart failure (HF), non-adherence to exercise is a major problem. While improving self-efficacy is an effective way to increase physical activity, the evidence concerning the relationship between strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise among HF has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of interventions to change the self-efficacy on exercise in patients with HF. METHODS A systematic database search was conducted for articles reporting exercise self-efficacy interventions. Databases such as PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched with restrictions to the years 2000-June 2014. A search of relevant databases identified 10 studies. Published randomized controlled intervention studies focusing strategies to change self-ef?cacy to exercise adherence in HF were eligible for inclusion. In addition, studies that have applied self-efficacy-based interventions to improve exercise are discussed. RESULTS Limited published data exist evaluating the self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in HF. Dominant strategies to improve patients’ self-efficacy were performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal. CONCLUSION Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of an exercise intervention is beneficial. Moreover, exercise interventions aimed at integrating the four strategies of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate exercise and recover HF symptoms. Findings of this study suggest that a positive relationship exists between self-efficacy and initiating and maintaining exercise in HF, especially in the short-term period. PMID:25815022

  11. Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

  12. Efficacy of Postexposure Therapy against Glanders in Mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, is a CDC Tier 1 Select Agent for which there is no preventive vaccine and antibiotic therapy is difficult. In this study, we show that a combination of vaccination using killed cellular vaccine and therapy using moxifloxacin, azithromycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim can protect BALB/c mice from lethal infection even when given 5 days after infectious challenge. Vaccination only, or antibiotic therapy only, was not efficacious. Although antibiotics evaluated experimentally can protect when given before or 1 day after challenge, this time course is not realistic in the cases of natural infection or biological attack, when the patient seeks treatment after symptoms develop or after a biological attack has been confirmed and the agent has been identified. Antibiotics can be efficacious after a prolonged interval between exposure and treatment, but only if the animals were previously vaccinated. PMID:25645854

  13. The Efficacy of Soccer Headgear

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Broglio, Michael D.; Sell, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The potential for risks associated with chronic soccer heading has led some soccer leagues to mandate the use of soccer headgear. Although manufacturers have designed and promoted these headbands to decrease the forces associated with heading a soccer ball, their efficacy has not been tested. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of 3 brands of soccer headgear: Headers, Headblast, and Protector, as compared with a non-headband condition. Design and Setting: A force platform was mounted vertically with each headband attached with a length of hook-and-loop tape. A JUGS Soccer Machine projected balls at the platform and headband at 56.45 kph (35 mph). Measurements: We measured vertical ground reaction force for 50 trials of each condition and calculated peak force, time to peak force, and impulse. Results: We found a significant reduction in peak force of impact with all 3 headbands. The Protector headband also showed the greatest decrease in time to peak force and impulse, whereas the Headers headband showed a significant increase in impulse. Conclusions: All 3 headbands were effective at reducing the peak impact force. The Protector headband appeared the most effective at reducing time to peak force and impulse within the design of this study. The clinical effectiveness of these products remains to be seen. PMID:14608431

  14. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  15. Identifying Distant AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

    2014-07-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/H? versus [NII]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]?3869, and [OII]??3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

  16. Electron attachment identifies carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-17

    The rate of electron attachment to a compound dissolved in a nonpolar solvent identifies carcinogens and noncarcinogens with sensitivity and specificity comparable to the Ames Salmonella bioassay, according to George Bakale, a professor in the radiology department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland. Bakale described a pulse conductivity technique for measuring the rate of electron attachment to compounds and the results of studies of known carcinogens and noncarcinogens dissolved in isooctane or cyclohexane. A positive response occurs when that rate is equal to the diffusion-controlled rate of electron attachment, indicating that the chemical can interact efficiently with electron-rich molecules such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the molecule generally considered to be the target for the initiation of chemical carcinogenesis. Using that criterion, the technique correctly identifies 55 of 65 known carcinogens and 48 of 55 noncarcinogens. That translates to a sensitivity (correct identification of carcinogens) of 85%. The pulse conductivity technique is a relative of pulse radiolysis. The researchers irradiate the solution under study with a short pulse of 1-MeV electrons, which creates a homogeneous distribution of electrons and ions. The solution is between parallel plates across which an electric potential is applied. The electrons in solution move in the electric field setting up a current. The decay of the current follows pseudo-first-order kinetics allowing a simple calculation of the rate of electron attachment from the half-life of the electrons in solution.

  17. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

  18. Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

  19. Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

  20. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  1. Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

    2012-05-24

    To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

  2. Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious. PMID:25000697

  3. Teacher Efficacy: Influence of Principal Leadership Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine A.

    This paper presents findings of a study that explored the relationships among principals' leadership behaviors and teacher efficacy in Wisconsin middle schools involved in building-level change efforts. An adaptation of Bandura's social cognitive learning theory of self-efficacy (A. Woolfolk and W. Hoy 1993) provided the theoretical framework.…

  4. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

  5. Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)

    Cancer.gov

    The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

  6. Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

  7. Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavelle, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: While "teaching self-efficacy" has been supported as an important construct related to teacher competence (eg. Goddard, Hoy & Hoy, 2000), little is known about how in-service teachers think about themselves as writers, or writing self-efficacy, particularly as it relates to writing performance. The present study is a preliminary…

  8. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  9. Efficacy of the ADEC in Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder in Clinically Referred Toddlers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E.; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36 months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n = 114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental…

  10. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Golden, Matthew R; Martin, David H

    2015-12-15

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been causally linked with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, preterm birth, spontaneous abortion, and infertility in women, yet treatment has proven challenging. To inform treatment recommendations, we reviewed English-language studies describing antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance-associated mutations, and clinical efficacy of antibiotic therapy, identified via a systematic search of PubMed supplemented by expert referral. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from some contemporary isolates exhibited high-level susceptibility to most macrolides and quinolones, and moderate susceptibility to most tetracyclines, whereas other contemporary isolates had high MICs to the same antibiotics. Randomized trials demonstrated poor efficacy of doxycycline and better, but declining, efficacy of single-dose azithromycin therapy. Treatment failures after extended doses of azithromycin similarly increased, and circulating macrolide resistance was present in high levels in several areas. Moxifloxacin remains the most effective therapy, but treatment failures and quinolone resistance are emerging. Surveillance of M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns is urgently needed. PMID:26602619

  11. An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…

  12. The efficacy of anthelmintics against Thysaniezia giardi in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Davies, P V; Récio, M

    1981-09-01

    Two field cases of apparent inefficacy of albendazole against cestodes in lambs were investigated. In both farms Thysaniezia giardi was identified and 2 critical controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of 5 anthelmintics against T. giardi. Albendazole dosed at 3,8 mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg live mass, mebendazole at 15 mg/kg were totally ineffective against T. giardi. Treatment with resorantel at 65 mg/kg or niclosamide at 50 mg/kg however, caused expulsion of the strobilae within 16--24 hours after treatment and at autopsy, lambs were free of scoleces of T. giardi. PMID:7310792

  13. Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use. PMID:23730395

  14. Sertindole: a clinical efficacy profile.

    PubMed

    Hale, A

    2002-01-01

    Sertindole is an effective atypical antipsychotic drug that is associated with significant improvements in the symptoms of schizophrenia. It is at least as efficacious as haloperidol and risperidone in treating the overall and positive symptoms of schizophrenia and has been shown to have advantages over these two drugs with respect to the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In clinical trials, notable improvements in patients' quality of life were observed, which suggest that patients prescribed sertindole would be more likely to adhere to treatment and continue taking the drug as part of their long-term treatment regimen. Continued treatment gives patients the best chance of avoiding relapse. Indeed, other benefits of sertindole demonstrated in clinical trials include relatively low relapse and re-admission rates. Sertindole could theoretically reduce the financial burden of schizophrenia on health- and social-care systems by reducing the need for re-hospitalization and by enabling patients to manage their illness and to live as normal a life as possible. PMID:24931885

  15. The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurien, Sarah Anjali

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious and believe they are able to effectively teach science are more comfortable teaching science (Plourde, 2002) and more likely to commit classroom time to teaching science. Additionally, they are better equipped to challenge and support students as they develop their science skills and efficacy beliefs. Therefore, it was expected that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for science would be related to their students' science efficacy. Similarly, it was predicted that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for inquiry science would be related to their students' inquiry science efficacy. It was expected that the relation between teacher and student efficacy would not differ by students' gender. Data was collected from 26 middle school science teachers who were participating in a professional development program and 660 students from their classes. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were completed to evaluate the relation between teacher and student efficacy for science and inquiry science. Planned analyses revealed no significant predictors of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. Exploratory analyses were then conducted which added student grade and a measure evaluating the quality of teacher-student relationships to the original HLM analyses. Results indicated a significant interaction between the quality of teacher-student relationships and student grade on the prediction of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. A discussion of the results along with limitations of the study and avenues for future research will be provided.

  16. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Idris

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

  17. A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoretz, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

  18. The Adoption and Integration of Technology Within the Classroom: Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, Kevin W.

    Many teachers are failing to incorporate technology into their classroom instruction. Researchers have reported a general failure in this regard; however, minimal study is available on the role of teacher self-efficacy in incorporating technology into pedagogy. This sequential, mixed-method study sought to discover whether a significant correlation exists between teacher self-efficacy and technology adoption within an urban K--12 school district. The conceptual framework for the research is grounded in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. A sample of K--12 faculty members completed a 38-item Likert-type survey designed to measure self-efficacy as it relates to the integration of technology within the classroom. Quantitative data were analyzed using a Pearson product-moment correlation to identify relationships between self-efficacy and technology adoption. In the qualitative phase of the study, 6 participants were interviewed. Constant comparison was performed to analyze the transcribed interview data. The findings indicated a positive correlation between teacher self-efficacy and the integration of technology. The results provide valuable information needed to address the concerns and fears of teachers as they integrate technology into their classroom instruction. Implications for social change include providing educators and administrators with the needed data to develop the skills required to teach technology to their students. Acquiring technical skills will prepare students to become more competitive in a technology based society and for further educational endeavors.

  19. Postoperative self-efficacy and psychological morbidity in radical prostatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Gomes, Cássia Regina Gontijo; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2015-01-01

    Objective: evaluate the general and perceived self-efficacy, psychological morbidity, and knowledge about postoperative care of patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. Identify the relationships between the variables and know the predictors of self-efficacy. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted with 76 hospitalized men. The scales used were the General and Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, in addition to sociodemographic, clinical and knowledge questionnaires. Results: a negative relationship was found for self-efficacy in relation to anxiety and depression. Psychological morbidity was a significant predictor variable for self-efficacy. An active professional situation and the waiting time for surgery also proved to be relevant variables for anxiety and knowledge, respectively. Conclusion: participants had a good level of general and perceived self-efficacy and small percentage of depression. With these findings, it is possible to produce the profile of patients about their psychological needs after radical prostatectomy and, thus, allow the nursing professionals to act holistically, considering not only the need for care of physical nature, but also of psychosocial nature. PMID:26487129

  20. Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

  2. Confidence: A Better Predictor of Academic Achievement than Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun; Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a study that assessed confidence together with scales measuring self-belief--i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety--among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics (N = 1940) and English (N = 1786). Our…

  3. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  4. Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

    2013-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

  5. Longitudinal Associations among Undergraduates' Research Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robnett, Rachael D.; Chemers, Martin M.; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that undergraduates tend to identify more strongly with the field of science after participating in scientific research. However, mediators that might account for this association are not well understood. In the current study, we propose that science self-efficacy may serve this mediational function. Specifically, data from a…

  6. Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

  7. Sex Educators and Self-Efficacy: Toward a Taxonomy of Enactive Mastery Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Robin E.

    2012-01-01

    Enactive mastery experiences have been identified as the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs. Yet little is known about enactive mastery experiences, including how such experiences manifest in naturally occurring situations (as opposed to simulated situations). This study draws from semistructured interviews (N = 50) with sex…

  8. The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

    According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

  9. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole ...

  10. The Teacher Self-Efficacy Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Effects on Principal Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberry, James E.

    2010-01-01

    School principal's practices are affected by many factors on a daily basis. Various factors affecting their practice are invisible to the eye and silent by the spoken word. However, the problem exists that there is a lack of research identifying the experiences of practicing principals regarding teacher self-efficacy. Furthermore, there is not…

  11. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  12. Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

  13. Parameters for defining efficacy in fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Shisha, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    Complications of the bone-healing process, especially in elderly, osteoporotic patients, are cause of important medical and economical burden. At the same time, there is no clinical study today to have shown the efficacy of a pharmacological treatment to enhance fracture repair. The author analyzes the potential criteria that could be used for the evaluation of treatment efficacy to enhance fracture healing in the frame of a clinical study. PMID:22461284

  14. The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

  15. Reflections on the efficacy of pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fine, P E; Clarkson, J A

    1987-01-01

    The literature on the protection imparted by conventional whole-cell pertussis vaccines was reviewed, and the extent to which the great variation in estimates of vaccine efficacy is attributable to methodologic problems in study design and analysis or to biologic features of the natural history of pertussis was explored. The protection against disease imparted by pertussis vaccines may be greater than that against infection. Estimates of vaccine efficacy from case-control studies are higher than those from studies of household secondary-attack rates; likewise, estimates of efficacy are higher when based on clinically severe or bacteriologically positive cases rather than simply on notified cases. Some of the reported differences in protection by different vaccines may be attributable to relations between the antigenic composition of the vaccine used and that of the circulating strain of Bordetella pertussis. Failure to consider age trends has sometimes led to spuriously high estimates of efficacy. Many biases can affect efficacy studies, and it is usually difficult to assess whether the net effect has been to underestimate or to overestimate "true" efficacy. The immunity imparted by conventional pertussis vaccines may be neither as solid nor as stable as that imparted by many live-virus vaccines. These issues must be considered during the evaluation of acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:3317732

  16. Clinical and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Antimicrobial Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Hydrogels have been shown to have a significant role to play in wound healing. Hydrogels are used to assist in the management of dry, sloughy, or necrotic wounds. However, recent scientific evidence has shown that biofilms delay wound healing and increase a wound propensity to infection. It is therefore essential that hydrogels incorporating antimicrobials demonstrate efficacy on biofilms. Consequently, it is the aim of this article to review the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on wounds with specific reference to their efficacy on biofilms. Recent Advances: Technologies being developed for the management of wounds are rapidly expanding. In particularly next-generation hydrogels, incorporating copolymers, have been reported to enable the smart release of antimicrobials. This has led to the development of a more tailored patient-specific antimicrobial hydrogel therapy. Critical Issues: Evidence relating to the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on biofilms within both the in vitro and in vivo environments is lacking. Future Direction: Studies that investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial hydrogel wound dressings on both in vivo and in vitro biofilms are important. However, there is a significant need for better and more reproducible in vivo biofilm models. Until this is possible, data generated from appropriate and representative in vitro models will help to assist researchers and clinicians in evaluating antimicrobial and antibiofilm hydrogel technology for the extrapolation of efficacy data relevant to biofilms present in the in vivo environment. PMID:26155382

  17. Genomic architecture of pharmacological efficacy and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Aparna; Kroetz, Deanna L; Tantisira, Kelan G; McGeachie, Michael; Cheng, Cheng; Plenge, Robert; Stahl, Eli; Sadee, Wolfgang; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Pendergrass, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic disciplines address pharmacological traits, including efficacy and adverse events. Pharmacogenomics studies have identified pervasive genetic effects on treatment outcomes, resulting in the development of genetic biomarkers for optimization of drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics-based tests are already being applied in clinical decision making. However, despite substantial progress in identifying the genetic etiology of pharmacological response, current biomarker panels still largely rely on single gene tests with a large portion of the genetic effects remaining to be discovered. Future research must account for the combined effects of multiple genetic variants, incorporate pathway-based approaches, explore gene-gene interactions and nonprotein coding functional genetic variants, extend studies across ancestral populations, and prioritize laboratory characterization of molecular mechanisms. Because genetic factors can play a key role in drug response, accurate biomarker tests capturing the main genetic factors determining treatment outcomes have substantial potential for improving individual clinical care. PMID:25521360

  18. Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Amal; Ephrussi, Corey; Lamanna, Meredith; Scheirer, Jorge; Alweis, Richard; Wasser, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK). Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU) was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.). A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002). Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011). Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI) (p=0.003 and p=0.044). Conclusion Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of ergocalciferol than 50,000 IU for 8 weeks. Further studies, including prospective, randomized trials, are needed to determine an optimal treatment protocol to account for the numerous variables. PMID:23882348

  19. The genotype-dependent influence of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xinglu; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Xiaolian; Choi, Ki Young; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Guofeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    In many cases cancer is caused by gene deficiency that is being passed along from generation to generation. Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising applications in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, however, the potential relationship between cancer-prone individuals and response to CNT exposure as a prerequisite for development of personalized nanomedicine, is still poorly understood. Here we report that intravenous injections of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into p53 (a well-known cancer susceptible gene) heterozygous pregnant mice can induce p53- dependent responses in fetal development. Larger sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes moved across the blood-placenta barrier (BPB), restricted the development of fetuses, and induced brain deformity, whereas single-walled and smaller sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes showed no or less fetotoxicity. A molecular mechanism study found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes directly triggered p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Based on the molecular mechanism, we also incorporated N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a FDA approved antioxidant, to prevent CNTs induced nuclear DNA damage and reduce brain development abnormalities. Our findings suggest that CNTs might have genetic background-dependent toxic effect on the normal development of the embryo, and provide new insights into protection against nanoparticle-induced toxicity in potential clinical applications. PMID:24344357

  20. Osteoradionecrosis in Head-and-Neck Cancer Has a Distinct Genotype-Dependent Cause

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Andrew J.; West, Catharine M.; Risk, Janet M.; Slevin, Nick J.; Chan, Clara; Crichton, Siobhan; Rinck, Gabrielle; Howell, Dawn; Shaw, Richard J.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We performed a case-control study to establish whether the development of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) was related to a variant allele substituting T for C at -509 of the transforming growth factor-{beta}1 gene (TGF-{beta}1). Patients and Methods: A total of 140 patients, 39 with and 101 without ORN, who underwent radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, were studied. None of the patients had clinical evidence of recurrence at this time. DNA extracted from blood was genotyped for the -509 C-T variant allele of the TGF-{beta}1 gene. Results: There were no significant differences in patient, cancer treatment, or tumor characteristics between the two groups. Of the 39 patients who developed ORN, 9 were homozygous for the common CC allele, 19 were heterozygous, and 11 were homozygous for the rare TT genotype. Of the 101 patients without ORN, the distribution was 56 (CC), 33 (CT), and 12 (TT). The difference in distribution was significant, giving an increased risk of ORN of 5.7 (95% CI, 1.7-19.2) for homozygote TT patients (p = 0.001) and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.3-10.0) for heterozygotes (p = 0.004) when compared with patients with the CC genotype. Postradiotherapy dentoalveolar surgery preceding the development of ORN was associated with the CC genotype (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our findings support the postulate that the development of ORN is related to the presence of the T variant allele at -509 within the TGF-{beta}1 gene.

  1. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice. PMID:19089630

  2. Dopamine Transporter Genotype Dependent Effects of Apomorphine on Cold Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Ebstein, Richard P.; Eisenberg, Elon

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n?=?105) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3?-UTR 40-bp VNTR) within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively). In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance. PMID:23704939

  3. Tetranychus urticae-triggered responses promote genotype-dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus.

    PubMed

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes ?-ocimene, ?-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as ?-ocimene and d-limonene. PMID:25771705

  4. Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Jonsson, Pär; Moritz, Thomas; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Tohge, Takayuki; Saito, Kazuki

    2007-01-01

    Background Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4]) plants regarding the alteration of metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the GC-TOF/MS analysis, we acquired quantitative information regarding over 170 metabolites, which has been analyzed by a novel score (ZMC, z-score of metabolite correlation) describing a characteristic metabolite in terms of correlation. Although the 2 mutants revealed no apparent morphological abnormalities, the overall correlation values in mto1 were much lower than those of the wild-type and tt4 plants, indicating the loss of overall network stability due to the uncontrolled accumulation of methionine. In the tt4 mutant, a new correlation between malate and sinapate was observed although the levels of malate, sinapate, and sinapoylmalate remain unchanged, suggesting an adaptive reconfiguration of the network. Gene-expression correlations presumably responsible for these metabolic networks were determined using the metabolite correlations as clues. Conclusion Two Arabidopsis mutants, mto1 and tt4, exhibited the following changes in entire metabolome networks: the overall loss of metabolic stability (mto1) or the generation of a metabolic network of a backup pathway for the lost physiological functions (tt4). The expansion of metabolite correlation to gene-expression correlation provides detailed insights into the systemic understanding of the plant cellular process regarding metabolome and transcriptome. PMID:18028551

  5. Using self-efficacy theory to educate a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case study of 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ka??kç?, Magfiret K

    2011-02-01

    Self-efficacy is important in determining which activities or situations an individual will perform or avoid. This is a case study report to explore the utility of structured education programme on strengthening self-efficacy in an older adult with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To comprehensively evaluate this intervention, a combined qualitative and quantitative approach was used. Although qualitative data were collected following the interview guide, quantitative data were collected by the demographic data form and the COPD Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) at the preprogramme and postprogramme stage. The patient's self-efficacy scores improved after 8 weeks of the structured education programme and remained relatively constant on all the repeated measurements after education. Qualitative data were identified as 'difficulties' and 'facilities'. This study indicates that, by applying a self-efficacy theory, a planned education programme could be useful in improving both short-term and long-term self-efficacy in patients with COPD. PMID:21251148

  6. Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Teaching Efficacy and Cultural Efficacy of Novice Science Teachers in High-Needs Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Bilica, Kimberly; Wandless, Ana; Gdovin, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to investigate what relationship exists between teaching efficacy and cultural efficacy of novice science teachers in high-needs, high-minority urban schools. One major theme--the importance of establishing positive teacher-student relationships--surrounding teaching efficacy in the context of cultural efficacy

  8. Generalized Self-Efficacy, Holland Theme Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lori D.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of Self-Efficacy Scale, Skills Confidence Inventory; ACT Assessment, and grade point average (GPA) results for 189 women and 91 men revealed strong relationships between generalized self-efficacy and confidence in Investigative and Enterprising occupations for both and Conventional occupations for men. ACT scores were related to…

  9. Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

    2004-01-01

    The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

  10. Protective efficacy of piperine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Suden, Pankaj; Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Ram, Anshu Beulah; Khajuria, Anamika; Bani, Sarang; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2014-07-01

    Piperine a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activity to enhance the efficacy of rifampicin in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In-vitro immunomodulation of piperine was tested on mouse splenocytes for lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and macrophage activation. Protective efficacy of piperine was tested in a mice infection model of M. tuberculosis for the activation of Th-1 response and synergistic combination efficacy with rifampicin. Murine splenocytes exposed to piperine exhibited proliferation of T and B cell, increased Th-1 cytokines and enhanced macrophage activation. Piperine (1 mg/kg) in mice infected with M. tuberculosis activated the differentiation of T cells into Th-1 sub-population (CD4+ / CD8+ subsets). There was an increase in secretion of Th-1 cytokines (IFN-? and IL-2) by these cells. The qRT-PCR studies revealed corresponding increases in the mRNA transcripts of IFN-? and IL-2 in the infected lung tissues. Combination of piperine and rifampicin (1 mg/kg) exhibited better efficacy of and resulted in additional 1.4 to 0.8 log reduction in lung cfu as compared to rifampicin alone. The up-regulation of Th1 immunity by piperine can be synergistically combined with rifampicin to improve its therapeutic efficacy in immune-compromised TB patients. PMID:24880706

  11. Psychometric properties of the Swedish childbirth self-efficacy inventory (Swe-CBSEI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported that women who are admitted to delivery wards in early labour process before an active stage of labour has started run an increased risk of instrumental deliveries. Therefore, it is essential to focus on factors such as self-efficacy that can enhance a woman’s own ability to cope with the first stage of labour. However, there was no Swedish instrument measuring childbirth self-efficacy available. Thus, the aim of the study was to translate the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and to psychometrically test the Swedish version on first- time mothers within the Swedish culture. Methods The method included a forward-backward translation with face and content validity. The psychometric properties were evaluated using a Principal Component Analysis and by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and inter-item correlations. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used to describe and compare the scales. All data were collected from January 2011 to June 2012, from 406 pregnant women during the gestational week 35-42. Results The Swedish version of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory indicated good reliability and the Principal Component Analysis showed a three-component structure. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test indicated that the women could differentiate between the concepts outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectatancy and between the two labour stages, active stage and the second stage of labour. Conclusions The Swedish version of Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory is a reliable and valid instrument. The inventory can act as a tool to identify those women who need extra support and to evaluate the efforts of improving women’s self-efficacy during pregnancy. PMID:24383788

  12. Near Identifiability of Dynamical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaegh, F. Y.; Bekey, G. A.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts regarding approximate mathematical models treated rigorously. Paper presents new results in analysis of structural identifiability, equivalence, and near equivalence between mathematical models and physical processes they represent. Helps establish rigorous mathematical basis for concepts related to structural identifiability and equivalence revealing fundamental requirements, tacit assumptions, and sources of error. "Structural identifiability," as used by workers in this field, loosely translates as meaning ability to specify unique mathematical model and set of model parameters that accurately predict behavior of corresponding physical system.

  13. The roles of social factor and internet self-efficacy in nurses' web-based continuing learning.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships among social factor, Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning in a clinical nursing setting. The participants recruited were 244 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan. Three instruments were used to assess their perceptions of social factor, Internet self-efficacy (including basic and advanced Internet self-efficacy) and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, affection and behavior). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to identify the hypothesized structural model. The results of this study support that social factor is a significant factor correlated to Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection). In addition, nurses' basic Internet self-efficacy plays a key role in attitudes including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection. However, advanced self-efficacy was not correlated to any of the attitudes. The behavior dimension was not linked to social factor or Internet self-efficacy, but was linked to perceived ease of use and affection. PMID:23669599

  14. Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring. PMID:25878702

  15. Moderation and Mediation of an Efficacious Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963

  16. Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

  17. A Bayesian Adaptive Phase I-II Clinical Trial for Evaluating Efficacy and Toxicity with Delayed Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Modiano, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional phase I oncology trials, the safety of a new chemotherapeutic agent is tested in a dose escalation study to identify the maximum tolerated dose, which is defined as the highest dose with acceptable toxicity. An alternate approach is to jointly model toxicity and efficacy and allow dose finding to be directed by a pre-specified trade-off between efficacy and toxicity. With this goal in mind, several designs have been proposed to jointly model toxicity and efficacy in a phase I-II dose escalation study. A factor limiting the use of these designs is that toxicity and efficacy must be observed in a timely manner. Purpose One approach to overcoming this problem is to model toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. This would allow new subjects to be enrolled before full information is available for previous subjects while incorporating partial information when adaptively assigning new subjects to a dose level. Methods We propose a phase I-II dose escalation study for evaluating toxicity and efficacy with delayed outcomes by jointly modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. We apply our proposed design to a phase I-II clinical trial of a novel targeted toxin for canine hemangiosarcoma. Results Our simulation results show that our design identifies the optimal dose at a similar rate to dose finding that treats toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes but with a substantial savings in study duration. Limitations Our proposed design has acceptable operating characteristics and dramatically reduces the trial duration compared to a design that considers toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes but comes at the cost of enrolling additional subjects when all dose levels are unacceptable. Conclusions We developed a novel phase I-II design that accounts for delayed outcomes by modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. Our design has similar operating characteristics to efficacy/toxicity trade-off designs that consider efficacy and toxicity as binary outcomes but with a dramatically shorter study duration. PMID:24082004

  18. Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

  19. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Lobritz, Michael A.; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B. M.; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H.; Schwarz, Eric G.; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes—the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26100898

  20. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Lobritz, Michael A; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B M; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H; Schwarz, Eric G; Dwyer, Daniel J; Khalil, Ahmad S; Collins, James J

    2015-07-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes--the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26100898

  1. Hidden consequences of political efficacy: Testing an efficacy-apathy model of political mobilization.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of M?ori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were M?ori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of M?ori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25774896

  2. Identifying the Emergency Management Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesa, Adele M.

    1987-01-01

    In building an emergency management library collection within a training institution, technical data become secondary to identifying common goals, methods, and systems found at the federal, state, and local levels for responding to and planning for disasters and crises. These goals help identify emergency management skills public officials should…

  3. Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars Education Center and Info Line practical solutions to everyday questions Toll free Info Line 1-877-398-4769 M-F · 9 AM - 2 PM Corn earworm, Fall armyworm, and European corn borer caterpillars can all infest the ears of sweet corn. The most reliable way to identify

  4. Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, P; Söderling, E M; Nelson, S; Chi, D L; Nakai, Y

    2012-09-01

    Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

  5. Clinical Evidence for Polyol Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, P.; Söderling, E.M.; Nelson, S.; Chi, D.L.; Nakai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

  6. AN EFFICIENT EARLY PHASE 2 PROCEDURE TO SCREEN MEDICATIONS FOR EFFICACY IN SMOKING CESSATION

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e. FDA early Phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. Objectives This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, and validation of an efficient crossover procedure for sensitivity in detecting medication efficacy for smoking cessation. First-line FDA-approved medications of nicotine patch, varenicline, and bupropion were tested, as model drugs, in 3 separate placebo-controlled studies. We also tested specificity of our procedure in identifying a drug that lacks efficacy, using modafinil. Results This crossover procedure showed sensitivity (increased days of abstinence) during week-long “practice” quit attempts with each of the active cessation medications (positive controls) vs. placebo, but not with modafinil (negative control) vs. placebo, as hypothesized. Sensitivity to medication efficacy signal was observed only in smokers high in intrinsic quit motivation (i.e. already preparing to quit soon) and not smokers low in intrinsic quit motivation, even if monetarily reinforced for abstinence (i.e., given extrinsic motivation). Conclusions A crossover procedure requiring less time and fewer subjects than formal trials may provide an efficient strategy for a go/no-go decision whether to advance to subsequent Phase 2 randomized clinical trials with a novel drug. Future research is needed to replicate our results and evaluate this procedure with novel compounds, identify factors that may limit its utility, and evaluate its applicability to testing efficacy of compounds for treating other forms of addiction. PMID:24297304

  7. Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L.; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [?2.36, ?0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

  8. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  9. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  10. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques.

    Experiments w...

  11. Teacher Efficacy of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Teacher Efficacy Scale in Physical Education (TESPE) in Turkey's conditions, and to test if there are any differences in gender and teaching experience of Turkish PE teachers. Turkish version of the scale was administered to 257 physical education teachers (184…

  12. Pygmalion or Golem? Teacher Affect and Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how teacher expectations, their empathy, and their own sense of self-efficacy have an effect on their teaching and on their students. Points out some parallels between the affective issues in the classroom (the expectations teachers have of students) and in composition programs (the expectations administrators have for teachers of…

  13. Self-Efficacy, an Oriental Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It also points to an important metamorphosis that is taking place…

  14. Self-Efficacy in Weight Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Matthew M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Developed and validated Weight Efficacy Life-Style Questionnaire (WEL), which consists of five situational factors: Negative Emotions, Availability, Social Pressure, Physical Discomfort, and Positive Activities. Found hierarchical model to provide best fit to data. Results from two studies (total n=382) showed WEL to be sensitive to changes in…

  15. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  16. Determination of repellent efficacy of natural compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has performed repellent testing, initially for the U.S. military. In recent years, there has been a collaborative effort to evaluate a number of natural extracts and compounds for their repellent efficacy. Plant-produced compounds are u...

  17. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can change her mind after some period of exposure and opt out. Also, as with medical abortion, a contraceptive can fail, usually with the risk of failure depending heavily on whether or not the woman follows the protocol for that method precisely. Finally, as with medical abortion, medical conditions may arise that necessitate discontinuing use of the contraceptive method. In both cases, these medical conditions are sometimes open to interpretation or subject to the skill, judgment, or experience of the clinician involved. The appropriate information to collect for a multiple decrement life table analysis of medical abortion includes data on compliance with the protocol, timing of the event of interest (abortion) when it is observable, and, because we argue that these should be regarded as events of interest, a typology of any surgical interventions that are conducted during the woman's participation in the study. PMID:10640155

  18. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disappear in a day but may last longer. Fleas Flea bites are usually identified by the presence of ... together, –often where clothes fit tightly (waist, buttocks). Fleas are commonly found in floors, rugs, and are ...

  19. Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

  20. DCC Briefing Paper: Persistent Identifiers 

    E-print Network

    Davidson, Joy

    The persistent identification of digital resources can play a vital role in enabling their accessibility and re-usability over time. However, progress in defining the nature and functional requirements for identifier systems ...

  1. Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Senay

    Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

  2. Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith,

    E-print Network

    New Mexico, University of

    Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith, ¢¡ Stephanie Forrest-665-3493. Running head: Annual influenza vaccination. Classification: Medical Science Keywords: influenza, vaccination, original antigenic sin, vaccine efficacy, repeated vaccination. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Conclusions have

  3. A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy

    E-print Network

    Lovell, Emily Marie

    2011-01-01

    The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

  4. A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

  5. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy

  6. College Instructors' Sense of Teaching and Collective Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; Looney, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an exploratory investigation of college-level instructors' sense of teaching and collective efficacy. We investigated the relations of teacher- and collective-efficacy with a series of variables: experience, professional level, age, gender, academic domain (for teacher-efficacy only), and academic…

  7. Examining Dimensions of Self-Efficacy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…

  8. Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

  9. Self-Efficacy and Learning in Sorority and Fraternity Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jon G., Jr.; Oberle, Crystal D.; Lilley, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Past research consistently reveals that "self-efficacy," referring to one's perceived ability to obtain a desired outcome, in academic courses is linked to academic achievement and motivation in those courses. In particular, high self-efficacy in courses is associated with high academic performance, and low self-efficacy in courses is associated…

  10. Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Competence of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Delila; Bodenhorn, Nancy; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between school counselor self efficacy and perceived multicultural competence self efficacy in a sample of 157 school counselors. Results reveal School Counselor Self-Efficacy (SCSE) cultural acceptance subscale was a statistically significant predictor of all three multicultural competencies (MCC: Terminology,…

  11. Teacher Efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Willhite, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is the belief teachers have in their ability to impact student learning. Efficacy includes teacher confidence in instructional, management and collaboration skills. The following study addresses teacher efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (PDS). The PDS experience provides an opportunity for mentor…

  12. Examination of Faculty Self-Efficacy Related to Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.; Anderson, Mary L.; Xia, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Through this study we sought to gain understanding of the challenges professors face as they make the transition to teaching online. We measured professors' online teaching self-efficacy using survey research methods. Results showed that online teaching self-efficacy was high among the professors surveyed with no self-efficacy scores lower than…

  13. A Shifting Paradigm: Preservice Teachers' Multicultural Attitudes and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Boham, Mikaela D.; Conlon-Khan, Lori; Fuentealba, Molly J.; Hall, Cynthia J.; Hoetker, Gregory A.; Hooley, Diana S.; Jang, Bong Seok; Luckey, Kristina L.; Moneymaker, Kelley J.; Shapiro, Matthew A.; Zenkert, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Effective teaching in multicultural settings requires the awareness and ability to adapt to diverse needs and viewpoints. Teachers' multicultural efficacy may be gained from coursework or interactions within diverse communities. In this study the authors determined preservice teachers' multicultural efficacy using the Multicultural Efficacy Scale…

  14. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n?=?420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (??=?0.36, p?efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID:24304903

  15. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  16. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy. PMID:26042918

  17. Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations with Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout.…

  18. The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy of the Principal and the Collective Efficacy of the Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Autry, Susan Camille Wolken

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the relationship between the principal's sense of self efficacy and the faculty's sense of collective efficacy in independent schools in the metropolitan area of Washington, D.C. Principals and teachers from sixteen private schools participated by completing surveys on efficacy. Principals completed the Principal…

  19. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-03-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  20. Association of Learning Styles with Research Self-Efficacy: Study of Short-Term Research Training Program for Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A.; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A.; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a predictor of research career success. Method Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students’ gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Results Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to post-training. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students’ gender or ranking of their medical school. Conclusions Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. PMID:25079678

  1. Differences in Nationwide Cohorts of Acupuncture Users Identified Using Structured and Free Text Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Doug; Kuang, Jinqiu; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Integrative medicine including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more available through mainstream health providers. Acupuncture is one of the most widely used CAM therapies, though its efficacy for treating various conditions requires further investigation. To assist with such investigations, we set out to identify acupuncture patient cohorts using a nationwide clinical data repository. Acupuncture patients were identified using both structured data and unstructured free text notes: 44,960 acupuncture patients were identified using structured data consisting of CPT codes;. Using unstructured free text clinical notes, we trained a support vector classifier with 86% accuracy and was able to identify an additional 101,628 acupuncture patients not identified through structured data (a 226% increase). In addition, characteristics of the patients identified through structured and unstructured data were compared, which show differences in geographic locations and medical service usage patterns. Patients identified with structured data displayed a consistently higher use of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) medical system. PMID:25954409

  2. Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment

    E-print Network

    Miko?aj Rybi?ski; Zuzanna Szyma?ska; S?awomir Lasota; Anna Gambin

    2013-03-06

    Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response mechanism (HSR), main component of which are heat-shock proteins (HSP). Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby, hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy of the anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalise the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a proof of concept mathematical analysis of HSR we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. thermotolerance.

  3. Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rybi?ski, Miko?aj; Szyma?ska, Zuzanna; Lasota, S?awomir; Gambin, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia, have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response (HSR) mechanism, the main component of which are heat-shock proteins. Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia-treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy for anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalize the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a mathematical analysis of HSR, we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. PMID:23985732

  4. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  5. Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. PMID:25436106

  6. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  7. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology Integration Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semiz, Kivanc; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations (ITOE) of pre-service physical education teachers, (2) examine the relationships among TPACK, TISE and ITOE, and lastly (3) examine the differences…

  8. The Relationship between Listening Strategies Used by Egyptian EFL College Sophomores and Their Listening Comprehension and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Egyptian EFL college sophomores (N = 84). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use, and listening comprehension and self-efficacy, and 3) differences in listening comprehension and…

  9. Efficacies of commercial sticky yellow rectangles against eight Rhagoletis fly species (Dipt., Tephritidae) in Washington state, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps are used against Rhagoletis flies (Dipt., Tephritidae) for detection in fly management and ecological studies. Here, the main objective was to identify the most efficacious of five commercial sticky yellow rectangles baited with ammonium carbonate against R. indifferens Curran, R. pomonella (...

  10. University Students' Self-Efficacy and Their Attitudes Toward the Internet: The Role of Students' Perceptions of the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Hsinyi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes and the self-efficacy that characterize learners relative to the Internet have been identified as important factors that affect learners' motivation, interests and performance in Internet-based learning environments. Meanwhile, learners' perceptions of the Internet may shape learners' attitudes and online behaviours. This study…

  11. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  12. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

  13. Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

  14. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  15. RESEARCH ARTICLE Identifying Bioaccumulative Halogenated

    E-print Network

    Lewison, Rebecca

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Identifying Bioaccumulative Halogenated Organic Compounds Using a Nontargeted×GC/TOF-MS) to characterize halogenated organic com- pounds (HOCs) in California Black skimmer (Rynchops niger) eggs. Our), triclosan, permethrin, heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (MBP), as well as four halogenated unknown

  16. RESEARCH ESSAY Identifying Proteins Involved

    E-print Network

    Haughn, George

    RESEARCH ESSAY Identifying Proteins Involved in Plant Cell Wall Modification: How Forward Genetics of plant cell walls. Plant cells make pectin and secrete it to the wall, where it acts as an adhesive, keeping cells glued together. When plants need to shed organs, such as when trees lose their leaves

  17. 3. Uniform Resource Identifiers 3-1 Uniform Resource Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. · Tim Berners-Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] · Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url-primer.html] · T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. · T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  18. [Validity and reliability of a scale to assess self-efficacy for physical activity in elderly].

    PubMed

    Borges, Rossana Arruda; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Meurer, Simone Teresinha; Benedetti, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the confirmatory factor validity and reliability of a self-efficacy scale for physical activity in a sample of 118 elderly (78% women) from 60 to 90 years of age. Mplus 6.1 was used to evaluate the confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and temporal stability. The original scale consisted of five items with dichotomous answers (yes/no), independently for walking and moderate and vigorous physical activity. The analysis excluded the item related to confidence in performing physical activities when on vacation. Two constructs were identified, called "self-efficacy for walking" and "self-efficacy for moderate and vigorous physical activity", with a factor load ? 0.50. Internal consistency was adequate both for walking (> 0.70) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (> 0.80), and temporal stability was adequate for all the items. In conclusion, the self-efficacy scale for physical activity showed adequate validity, reliability, and internal consistency for evaluating this construct in elderly Brazilians. PMID:25945980

  19. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Julia; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness

    2012-01-01

    Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (n = 1007), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents (n = 1127) with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa. PMID:23251106

  20. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5–25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8–31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management. PMID:24993798

  1. Investigation of preservative efficacy and microbiological content of some cosmetics found on the market.

    PubMed

    Birteksöz Tan, Ay?e Seher; Tüysüz, Mayram; Ötük, Gülten

    2013-01-01

    In this study, microbial content and preservative efficacy of various cosmetic products, which are produced and sold in markets of our country, were investigated. Microbial content and preservative efficacies of products were investigated according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) method. Microorganism counts of out 14 of 93 cosmetic products were recovered in the range between 1.5 x 10(2)-5.5 x 10(5) cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common contaminant identified in samples (from six different products) and was followed by Burkholderia cepacia (from four different products). Gram negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a yeast Candida krusei, were also isolated from samples. Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were not recovered from any of samples. Preservative efficacies of fourteen out of ninety-three products did not meet the general efficacy of antimicrobial preservation criteria of the USP. Among these fourteen products, degradation and color change by Aspergillus niger was observed in one of samples. According to results, it was observed that pathogen and potential pathogen microorganisms can be found in unused cosmetic products and also preservatives may be ineffective in preventing them. Thus, in order to prevent the contamination that can occur during production, manufacturers are required to manufacture products in compliance with wholesome manufacturing practices and, considering consumer health, it is necessary to add an effective preservative as determined by regulations. PMID:23261741

  2. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy relates to an individual's perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE) and academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N = 435) were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post-exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence academic resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students. PMID:26640447

  3. Efficacy and safety of pregabalin in generalised anxiety disorder: A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, David S; den Boer, Johan A; Lyndon, Gavin; Emir, Birol; Schweizer, Edward; Haswell, Hannah

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this review is to summarise the literature on the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Of 241 literature citations, 13 clinical trials were identified that were specifically designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in GAD, including 11 randomised double-blind trials and two open-label studies. Pregabalin efficacy has been consistently demonstrated across the licensed dose range of 150-600 mg/day. Efficacy has been reported for pregabalin monotherapy in elderly patients with GAD, patients with severe anxiety, and for adjunctive therapy when added to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor in patients who have failed to respond to an initial course of antidepressant therapy. The two most common adverse events with pregabalin are somnolence and dizziness, both of which appear to be dose-related. Pregabalin appears to have a low potential for causing withdrawal symptoms when long-term therapy is discontinued; however, tapering over the course of at least one week is recommended. A review of available evidence indicates that pregabalin is a well-tolerated and consistently effective treatment for GAD, with a unique mechanism of action that makes it a useful addition to the therapeutic armamentarium. PMID:26259772

  4. Production of anti-fungal volatiles by non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and its efficacy in suppression of verticillium wilt of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The study aimed to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strain CanR-46, and to determine the anti-fungal spectrum and the control efficacy of the Fo-VOCs. Methods: The Fo-VOCs were identified by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of the...

  5. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls. This study investigated the response of three medically significant microorganisms grown in the RWV to antibiotics that could be used on spaceflight missions. Our findings suggest potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during spaceflight and indicate that future studies on the antibiotic response require additional basic research using the RWV and/or true spaceflight. However, while this analogue has reinforced these potential alterations, the results suggest the best approach for applied forward work is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight, including human and rodent studies. The complex nature of the analysis for many antibiotics and organism suggests the best approach to determine in vivo responses during pharmaceutical treatment is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight.

  6. Malaria vaccines: identifying Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage targets

    PubMed Central

    Longley, Rhea J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Spencer, Alexandra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria remains a top priority for global health researchers. Despite the huge rise in recognition of malaria as a global health problem and the concurrent rise in funding over the past 10–15 years, malaria continues to remain a widespread burden. The evidence of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides is a growing concern. Hence, an efficacious and durable preventative vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective tools and have successfully been used in the prevention and control of many diseases, however, the development of a vaccine for the Plasmodium parasite has proved difficult. Given the early success of whole sporozoite mosquito-bite delivered vaccination strategies, we know that a vaccine for malaria is an achievable goal, with sub-unit vaccines holding great promise as they are simple and cheap to both manufacture and deploy. However a major difficulty in development of sub-unit vaccines lies within choosing the appropriate antigenic target from the 5000 or so genes expressed by the parasite. Given the liver-stage of malaria represents a bottle-neck in the parasite’s life cycle, there is widespread agreement that a multi-component sub-unit malaria vaccine should preferably contain a liver-stage target. In this article we review progress in identifying and screening Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage targets for use in a malaria vaccine. PMID:26441899

  7. Aminothiazoles: Hit to lead development to identify antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Bhuniya, Debnath; Mukkavilli, Rao; Shivahare, Rahul; Launay, Delphine; Dere, Ravindra T; Deshpande, Anil; Verma, Aditya; Vishwakarma, Preeti; Moger, Manjunath; Pradhan, Ashok; Pati, Hari; Gopinath, Vadiraj S; Gupta, Suman; Puri, Sunil K; Martin, Denis

    2015-09-18

    As part of Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative's lead optimization program for the development of new chemical entities to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a series of aminothiazoles were synthesized and screened for in vitro efficacy, solubility and microsomal stability. The primary aim of identifying a lead structure with sub-micromolar activity was achieved. Out of 43 compounds synthesized, 16 compounds showed in vitro activity at less than 1 ?M against VL. Compound 32 showed excellent antileishmanial potency (IC50 = 3 nM) and had all the acceptable properties except for metabolic instability. Blocking the metabolic soft spots in compound 32, where the 4-methoxy pyridine substituent was replaced by 5-ethoxy group, led to compound 36 (IC50 = 280 nM) with improved stability. To understand the disposition of 36, in vivo pharmacokinetic study was conducted in a mouse model. Compound 36 showed high clearance (91 mL/min/kg); short half-life (0.48 h) after intravenous administration (1 mg/kg) and exposure (AUC0-24) following oral administration was 362 ng h/mL with absolute bioavailability of 8%. To summarize, 43 analogs were synthesized out of which 15 compounds showed very potent sub-nanomolar efficacy in in vitro systems but the liability of metabolic instability seemed to be the major challenge for this chemical class and remains to be addressed. PMID:26318065

  8. Novel Composite Efficacy Measure To Demonstrate the Rationale and Efficacy of Combination Antiviral–Anti-Inflammatory Treatment for Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Spruance, Spotswood L.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size—a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P < 0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P < 0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

  9. Methods for Identifying Pair Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brendan; Caputo, Regina; Atwood, William; Ritz, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The flux of very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is attenuated via interactions with extragalactic background photons and is converted into e+e- pairs. With non-zero intergalactic magnetic fields, the electrons and positrons will deflect as they propagate and simultaneously lose energy by upscattering cosmic microwave background photons. "Pair halos," the visible consequences of these electromagnetic cascades, are faint and difficult to observe against their AGN counterparts. We investigate three methods for indirectly identifying pair halos, using a two-component approach to model the AGN core/halo image. We estimate each method's sensitivity by utilizing a new, detailed Monte Carlo pair-halo simulation.

  10. The Efficacy of Strontium and Potassium Toothpastes in Treating Dentine Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, B. F. A.; Gillam, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present paper was to review the published literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of the efficacy of strontium and potassium toothpastes in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Methods. Following a review of 94 relevant papers both from searching electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, 13 studies were identified, and 7 papers (1 for strontium-based toothpastes and 6 for potassium-based toothpastes) were finally accepted for inclusion. The main outcome measures were the methodology and assessment used by Investigators in studies designed to evaluate DH. Results. The results of the present paper would indicate that the reported efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving DH is questionable. Conclusions. The results from the present paper would appear to support the conclusions of previous investigators that there is only minimal evidence for the efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving symptoms of DH. PMID:23653647

  11. Predictive biomarkers of sorafenib efficacy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Are we getting there?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its efficacy is modest with low response rates and short response duration. Predictive biomarkers for sorafenib efficacy are necessary. However, efforts to determine biomarkers for sorafenib have led only to potential candidates rather than clinically useful predictors. Studies based on patient cohorts identified the potential of blood levels of angiopoietin-2, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and transforming growth factor-?1 for predicting sorafenib efficacy. Alpha-fetoprotein response, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment-related side effects may serve as early surrogate markers. Novel approaches based on super-responders or experimental mouse models may provide new directions in biomarker research. These studies identified tumor amplification of FGF3/FGF4 or VEGFA and tumor expression of phospho-Mapk14 and phospho-Atf2 as possible predictive markers that await validation. A group effort that considers various prognostic factors and proper collection of tumor tissues before treatment is imperative for the success of future biomarker research in advanced HCC. PMID:26420960

  12. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  13. Identifying teaching in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

    2010-08-01

    After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20628167

  14. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  15. Teacher Efficacy Beliefs: Understanding the Relationship between Efficacy and Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Within the last three decades there has been a surge of interest in how teacher beliefs affect the teaching and learning process. A major focus of the research in teacher beliefs has been in understanding the nature of teacher self-efficacy beliefs and how it affects the choices, decisions, and effectiveness of teachers. Bandura's work (1982,…

  16. Large screen approaches to identify novel malaria vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Duffy, Patrick; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Felgner, Philip L; Doolan, Denise L

    2015-12-22

    Until recently, malaria vaccine development efforts have focused almost exclusively on a handful of well characterized Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Despite dedicated work by many researchers on different continents spanning more than half a century, a successful malaria vaccine remains elusive. Sequencing of the P. falciparum genome has revealed more than five thousand genes, providing the foundation for systematic approaches to discover candidate vaccine antigens. We are taking advantage of this wealth of information to discover new antigens that may be more effective vaccine targets. Herein, we describe different approaches to large-scale screening of the P. falciparum genome to identify targets of either antibody responses or T cell responses using human specimens collected in Controlled Human Malaria Infections (CHMI) or under conditions of natural exposure in the field. These genome, proteome and transcriptome based approaches offer enormous potential for the development of an efficacious malaria vaccine. PMID:26428458

  17. Identifying and Treating Pre-Clinical and Early Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Felson, David T.; Hodgson, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and nonsurgical treatments of disease have limited efficacy. Studies suggest, at least for disease in the knee, that most persons with painful OA already have extensive structural disease including malalignment, which may preclude successful stabilization or reversal of disease. This provides a strong rationale for developing strategies to prevent disease or to identify and treat it early. A variety of approaches, reviewed here, are likely to capture those at high risk of or with early disease; imaging techniques offer great promise of characterizing structural changes before they are irreversible. However, given the absence of effective treatments, it is unclear whether structural disease could be successfully slowed or prevented in those with early symptoms or those at high risk of disease. PMID:25437286

  18. [Parental self-efficacy in family-centered early intervention].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus; Hintermair, Manfred; Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Parental self-efficacy is seen as an important concern in family-centered early intervention. This article reports the data from 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment. The relationship between parental self-efficacy, parental stress and several parent and child variables is analyzed. The results support the relevance of parental self-efficacy for parental coping. Some recommendations for promoting their experience of participation and partnership in early intervention services are discussed. PMID:22550769

  19. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. PMID:25937455

  20. Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Laura K; Baldwin, Charles A; Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L

    2009-04-01

    Ranavirus can cause disease in reptiles and amphibians. Because survival time outside of a host remains uncertain, equipment must be disinfected to prevent transmission of ranaviruses. However, disinfectant efficacy against amphibian ranaviruses has not been investigated for chlorhexidine (Nolvasan), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or potassium compounds. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of Nolvasan (0.25, 0.75 and 2.0%), bleach (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%), and Virkon S (1.0%) at inactivating Ranavirus at 1 and 5 min contact durations. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) (2.0 and 5.0 ppm) was also tested with a 60 min contact time. Nolvasan at 0.75 and 2.0% and bleach at 3.0 and 5.0% concentration were effective for both contact durations. Virkon S was effective for both durations, but KMnO4 was not effective at either concentration. Concentrations of Nolvasan, bleach and Virkon S that are at least 0.75, 3.0 and 1.0%, respectively, are effective at inactivating Ranavirus after 1 min exposure time. PMID:19476278

  1. Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Efficacy of Phytoestrogens in Cultured

    E-print Network

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    - protective and neurotrophic efficacy of phytoestrogens were conducted. Six phytoestrogens, genistein neuroprotective effects analogous to that of antioxidants, but that these mol- ecules are not functional

  2. Comparative efficacy of combination bronchodilator therapies in COPD: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huisman, Eline L; Cockle, Sarah M; Ismaila, Afisi S; Karabis, Andreas; Punekar, Yogesh Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Background Several new fixed-dose combination bronchodilators have been recently launched, and assessing their efficacy relative to each other, and with open dual combinations is desirable. This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed the efficacy of umeclidinium and vilanterol (UMEC/VI) with that of available dual bronchodilators in single/separate inhalers. Methods A systematic literature review identified randomized controlled trials of ?10 weeks among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (?40 years), assessing the efficacy of combination bronchodilators in single or separate inhalers. Comparative assessment was conducted on change from baseline in trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total scores, transitional dyspnea index (TDI) focal scores, and rescue medication use at 12 weeks and 24 weeks using an NMA within a Bayesian framework. Results A systematic literature review identified 77 articles of 26 trials comparing UMEC/VI, indacaterol/glycopyrronium (QVA149), formoterol plus tiotropium (TIO) 18 ?g, salmeterol plus TIO, or indacaterol plus TIO, with TIO and placebo as common comparators at 12 weeks and approximately 24 weeks. The NMA showed that at 24 weeks, efficacy of UMEC/VI was not significantly different compared with QVA149 on trough FEV1 (14.1 mL [95% credible interval: ?14.2, 42.3]), SGRQ total score (0.18 [?1.28, 1.63]), TDI focal score (?0.30 [?0.73, 0.13]), and rescue medication use (0.02 [?0.27, 0.32]); compared with salmeterol plus TIO on trough FEV1 (67.4 mL [?25.3, 159.4]), SGRQ total score (?0.11 [?1.84, 1.61]), and TDI focal score (0.58 [?0.33, 1.50]); and compared with formoterol plus TIO 18 ?g on SGRQ total score (?0.68 [?1.77, 0.39]). Results at week 12 were consistent with week 24 outcomes. Due to lack of availability of evidence, no comparison was made with formoterol plus TIO on FEV1 or TDI at 24 weeks. Conclusion UMEC/VI has comparable efficacy to other dual-bronchodilator combinations on available efficacy endpoints. PMID:26392761

  3. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self-efficacy). Conclusions Self-efficacy is associated with increased interest levels for rural medicine and rural medical career intent. PMID:26671960

  4. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuebo; Shi, Xian; Tang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is one of the important parts of therapeutic methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and has been widely used for the treatment of nerve deafness in recent years. The current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness compared with conventional medicine therapy. Methods: PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy and side effects between acupuncture and conventional medicine therapies up to 2013/06. Results: A total of 12 studies, including 527 patients assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness. Overall, the efficacy of acupuncture was significantly better than that of the conventional western medication (RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) or traditional Chinese medicines (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.84), and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with conventional western medication or traditional Chinese medicine was better than that of the conventional western medication alone (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.29-1.77) or traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.95). Based on the comparison of number of deafness patients who were completely cured, the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with traditional Chinese medicines was better than that of traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 4.62, 95% CI: 1.38-15.47). Conclusions: Acupuncture therapy can significantly improve the hearing of patients with nerve deafness, and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with medication is superior to medication alone. PMID:25932209

  5. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  6. Antiretroviral therapy adherence in a sample of men with low socioeconomic status: The role of task-specific treatment self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Houston, Eric; Fominaya, Adam W

    2015-12-01

    Disparities continue to persist in HIV care and treatment outcomes among racial/ethnic minorities, men who have sex with men (MSM), and individuals with low socioeconomic status. Much research has identified treatment self-efficacy as a key factor in antiretroviral therapy adherence and subsequent treatment outcomes. Few studies, however, have elaborated on these links and their potential in reducing HIV treatment disparities by examining the role of task-specific types of treatment self-efficacy. In this study, we examined the effect of four types of task-specific treatment self-efficacy on antiretroviral adherence among patients in a predominantly racial/ethnic minority sample of HIV-seropositive MSM with low socioeconomic status. We grouped participants by duration of treatment to determine whether certain types of self-efficacy were more salient based on treatment experience. We found that participants with optimal adherence tended to have higher levels of task-specific self-efficacy related to medication management and mood management than participants with suboptimal adherence. After a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only task-specific self-efficacy for medication management showed significant effects on adherence. Findings suggest that using focused, task-specific measures of treatment self-efficacy could strengthen our ability to aid patients at risk for adherence difficulties and tailor interventions to more effectively meet their needs. PMID:25439192

  7. Identifying and Bounding Ethnic Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Spielman, Seth; Xu, Hongwei; Klein, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents three novel approaches to the question of how best to identify ethnic neighborhoods (or more generally, neighborhoods defined any aspect of their population composition) and to define their boundaries. It takes advantage of unusual data on the residential locations of all residents of Newark, NJ, in 1880 to avoid having to accept arbitrary administrative units (like census tracts) as the building blocks of neighborhoods. For theoretical reasons the street segment is chosen as the basic unit of analysis. All three methods use information on the ethnic composition of buildings or street segments and the ethnicity of their neighbors. One approach is a variation of k-functions calculated for each adult resident, which are then subjected to a cluster analysis to detect discrete patterns. The second is an application of an energy minimization algorithm commonly used to enhance digital images. The third is a Bayesian approach previously used to study county-level disability data. Results of all three methods depend on decisions about technical procedures and criteria that are made by the investigator. Resulting maps are roughly similar, but there is no one best solution. We conclude that researchers should continue to seek alternative methods, and that the preferred method depends on how one’s conceptualization of neighborhoods matches the empirical approach. PMID:24039327

  8. Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

  9. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  10. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  11. Evaluating the Potential Efficacy of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) Removals

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Andrew B.; Allen, Michael S.; Frazer, Thomas K.; Sherman, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (Lvul), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  12. Evaluating the potential efficacy of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) removals.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Andrew B; Allen, Micheal S; Allen, Michael S; Frazer, Thomas K; Sherman, Krista D

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (L(vul)), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  13. Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

    2008-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

  14. Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-02-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1 ? 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ? 50% inhibition at a 1 ? 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  15. Efficacy of screening for cervical cancer: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Guzick, D S

    1978-01-01

    Cytologic screening for cervical cancer currently enjoys wide acceptance, but there remains controversy in the literature concerning its efficacy in prolonging life. On the basis of a literature review, several conclusions are reached: 1) Cervical screening can identify women who are at greater-than-average risk of developing invasive cervical cancer by detecting asymptomatic lesions that would frequently progress to invasion if left untreated; 2) Therapy based on confirmed positive smears can reduce the incidence and mortality rates of invasive cervical cancer, as shown by declining rates in many centers that had constant or increasing rates before screening began, lower rates for geographic areas and occupational groups having less screening, and lower rates among screened women than unscreened women; and 3) Attempts to estimate the amount of life prolongation attributable to cervical screening have not yet yielded reliable figures, because of difficulties with the models or data used. However, in view of the available evidence, it is suggested that incomplete data should not prevent a vigorous continuation of screening where it is already extensive, and an escalation where it is not. PMID:626255

  16. Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2010-02-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

  17. The efficacy of relaxation training with children.

    PubMed

    Richter, N C

    1984-06-01

    This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training is at least as effective as other treatment approaches for a variety of learning, behavioral, and physiological disorders when it is continued over an extended period of time and is augmented by other supportive measures. Needs for future research include better follow-up studies and further investigations with a behaviorally disruptive population. PMID:6373871

  18. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

  19. [Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].

    PubMed

    Beani, J-C

    2012-04-01

    Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk associated with cosmetic substances that are "reprotoxic" and/or affect endocrine function, as a result of which various filters are currently being reassessed for such risk. The greater alleged safety of mineral filters, based on the absence of introduction of risk of photosensitisation (as a result of which they are preferred for use in young children), no longer seems so clear since the introduction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the form of nanoparticles. Afssaps drew up a risk assessment report concerning cutaneous penetration, genotoxicity and oncogenesis for TiO(2) and ZnO in nanoparticle form; further studies are needed before any general conclusions may be drawn. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is also carrying out an evaluation of the use of TiO(2) and of ZnO as UV filters. Finally, current data do not suggest that SPPs exert any harmful effects by inhibiting the beneficial effects of the sun, in particular, vitamin D synthesis. PMID:22482479

  20. Boosting vaccine efficacy the natural (killer) way.

    PubMed

    Rydyznski, Carolyn E; Waggoner, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    Coordination of the innate and adaptive immune systems is paramount to the development of protective humoral and cellular immunity following vaccination. Natural killer (NK) cells are front-line soldiers of the innate immune system, and recent studies have revealed functions for NK cells in long-lived immune memory and the regulation of adaptive immune responses. These findings suggest that NK cells may play important roles in the development of efficacious vaccines, as well as, in some contexts, failed immunizations. Here, we review the current understanding of the immunomodulatory and memory differentiation capabilities of NK cells. We examine the context dependency of the mechanisms and the nature of NK cell-mediated modulation of the immune response, and discuss how these insights may impact immunization strategies and the development of next-generation vaccines. PMID:26272882

  1. The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

    2011-01-01

    This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

  2. DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

  3. 78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... applications. Improving the efficiency and ] effectiveness of medical product development is a national... Hamburg has emphasized FDA's role as a public health Agency (Ref. 1). In accordance with its..., launched the Regulatory Science Initiative, a call to action to enhance the science and knowledge...

  4. 78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...Agency's ability to promote innovation across industry, research...public health and advance innovation in regulatory decision making...provide new opportunities for innovation in medical product development...measurement of drug response. FDA scientists conducted an analysis of...

  5. Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L.; Ulm, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

  6. Perfectionism and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…

  7. Self-Efficacy and Statistics Performance among Sport Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Andrew M.; Hall, Ross; Lane, John

    2004-01-01

    The present study explored predictive paths between performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, and performance among Sport Studies students taking a Level 1 statistics module. Fifty-eight Level 1 Sport Studies undergraduate degree students completed a 44-item self-efficacy measure and an assessment of perceived academic success at the start of…

  8. The Sources that Influence Student Teachers' Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Sunjin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation study is to examine the variables that impact student teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy during their reading and writing lessons. Extending Bandura's four sources of efficacy beliefs--performance or mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal or social persuasion, and physiological and/or…

  9. Career Development, Collective Efficacy, and Individual Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Janet B.; Humphrey, Ronald H.; Sleeth, Randall G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that perceived collective efficacy would mediate the effects of self-efficacy on individual task performance. Design/methodology/approach: An assessment center design with 147 participants in 49 three-person groups was used. Findings: It is found that for individuals working on an…

  10. Developing Collective Classroom Efficacy: The Teacher's Role as Community Organizer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, LeAnn G.; Broughton, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    Collective efficacy reveals how well group members relate to one another while working toward common goals. It also reveals group resilience and the willingness of group members to continue working through difficult situations. The purpose of this study is to explore collective efficacy at the classroom level, using Vygotsky's view of individual…

  11. The Impact of Collaborative Structures on Perceived Collective Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how core content high school teachers perceive the collective efficacy of faculties of their schools and whether those teachers who were involved in high school collaborative teams which met daily within the school day for instructional purposes had a greater perception of collective efficacy than those who were not. This…

  12. Perceptions of Self-Efficacy among STEM Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Ronda J.; Petri, Alexis N.; Day, Arden D.; Truman, Kevin Z.; Duffy, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies examine the relationship between self-efficacy and positive outcomes for postsecondary students. Collectively they echo that self-efficacy is an essential component to positive outcomes. Relatively few studies focused on students with disabilities majoring in STEM fields. Twenty postsecondary students with disabilities…

  13. The Effects of Adult Learning on Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Cathie; Feinstein, Leon

    2005-01-01

    We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self-efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self-efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and…

  14. Study Skills Course Impact on Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…

  15. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  16. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  17. The Accuracy of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In the present era of outcome assessment and accountability, self-efficacy is a popular outcome measure in outdoor and adventure education. Self-efficacy beliefs are context specific perceptions an individual possesses about a likelihood of success in future tasks and are related to well-being confidence, and persistence. However, recent research…

  18. Teacher Efficacy of High School Mathematics Co-Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimpola, Raquel C.

    2011-01-01

    High school mathematics inclusion classes help provide all students the access to rigorous curriculum. This study provides information about the teacher efficacy of high school mathematics co-teachers. It considers the influence of the amount of collaborative planning time on the efficacy of co-teachers. A quantitative research design was used,…

  19. Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

  20. Patents and the quality, safety and efficacy of medicines.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, Karen; Du Preez, Willem; Padayachee, Silverani

    2015-11-01

    The impact of patent circumvention potentially has serious implications with regard to medicine quality, safety and efficacy, even if it was intended to improve accessibility and affordability of medicines. Companies should therefore conduct adequate research in order to understand the effect of patent circumvention on the quality, safety and efficacy of medicine. PMID:26632315

  1. Factor Structure of the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilized exercise self-efficacy ratings from undergraduate students to assess the factor structure of the Self-Efficacy to Regulate Exercise Scale (Bandura, 1997, 2006). An exploratory factor analysis (n = 759) indicated a two-factor model solution and three separate confirmatory factor analyses (n = 1,798) supported this…

  2. Mental Health Promotion in Schools by Strengthening Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerusalem, Matthias; Hessling, Johannes Klein

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review two school intervention projects aiming to promote students' self-efficacy in Germany. Self-efficacy, defined as people's "beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments", is a core prevention criterion of mental health. It is…

  3. Early Career Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Balanced Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Petra

    2012-01-01

    According to Bandura (1986; 1997), perceptions of efficacy are based on four sources: enactive attainment; vicarious experience; physiological and emotional states; and verbal persuasion. The factors affecting Early Career Teachers' self-efficacy for reading instruction are closely related to these four sources. It is not difficult to imagine an…

  4. Assessing Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy in Three Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Giunta, Laura Di; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tramontano, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RESE) scale was developed to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing negative (NEG) and in expressing positive (POS) affect (G. V. Caprara & M. Gerbino, 2001). In this study of young adults, the factorial structure of the RESE scale was found to be similar in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia: In…

  5. The Coaching Efficacy Scale II--High School Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Chase, Melissa A.; Reckase, Mark D.; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this validity study was to improve measurement of coaching efficacy, an important variable in models of coaching effectiveness. A revised version of the coaching efficacy scale (CES) was developed for head coaches of high school teams (CES II-HST). Data were collected from head coaches of 14 relevant high school sports (N = 799).…

  6. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy

  7. Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality…

  8. Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

  9. Development of the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenhorn, Nancy; Skaggs, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of scores from the 43-item School Counselor Self-Efficacy (SCSE) Scale. Self-efficacy, according to social cognitive theory, is a mediating factor in performance. Practicing school counselors and master's-level students completed the SCSE. Factor structure, construct validity, and…

  10. Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Turkish Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…

  11. A Self-Efficacy Scale for Chemical Dependency in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Mary, Sharon; Russo, Thomas J.

    This study was conducted to develop a scale that assesses perceptions of self-efficacy in potentially stressful situations for chemically dependent adolescents. Adolescent subjects (N=100) currently receiving treatment for chemical dependency were given a 20-situation questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES). Students were…

  12. Classroom Teachers' Efficacy in Teaching Healthy Behaviour Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This study, grounded in Self-Efficacy Theory, investigated classroom teachers' self-efficacy changes related to teaching healthy behaviour content after participating in ongoing workshops. Participants were 50 male and female teachers at the primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 33) levels from two schools in one Native American community. Teacher…

  13. Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineburg, Amy Cheek

    2010-01-01

    Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

  14. Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although many instruments have been developed to measure organizational constructs such as citizenship, climate, and organization-based esteem, to date no scale has been designed specifically to measure efficacy at the organizational level. Tools to measure organizational efficacy in a business context have been recommended for over two decades.…

  15. Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy among Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Hansenne, Michel; Delcour, Romy; Cloes, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of…

  16. Creative Self-Efficacy Development and Creative Performance over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated…

  17. Does Digital Game Interactivity Always Promote Self-Efficacy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Hao

    2015-11-01

    Interactive digital games can promote self-efficacy by engaging players in enactive and observational learning. However, interactivity does not always lead to greater self-efficacy. Important constructs in social cognitive theory, such as performance outcome and perceived similarity, are often not accounted for in studies that have tested the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. This study assessed the effects of interactive digital games compared with passive digital games based on video comparison, a common experimental design used to test the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. In addition, this study also evaluated player performance and measured perceived similarity to the observed player. Findings suggested that in general, digital game interactivity predicted higher self-efficacy compared with noninteractive passive games. However, in the noninteractive conditions, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were moderated by perceived similarity between the observer and the observed player. When the observed player was perceived to be similar to the observer, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were comparable to the interactive game, but when the observed player was perceived as dissimilar to the observer, observing the dissimilar player failed to increase observer self-efficacy. Implications for interactivity manipulations and game developers are discussed. PMID:26378739

  18. Changing Expectations, Same Perspective: Preservice Teachers' Judgments of Professional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Graham; Spendlove, David; Shortt, Damien

    2015-01-01

    This two-part study tracks and measures the professional self-efficacy judgements of two cohorts of pre-service teachers (PST). In Part One, the GTCE's Code of Conduct and Practice (GTCE, 2009) was used to help form an instrument which tracked changes in the professional self-efficacy judgements of 211 PST through a one-year graduate program.…

  19. College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

  20. Music Teachers' Computer Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer anxiety and self-efficacy of music teachers in terms of different variables. The research is implemented on 124 music teachers. A personal information form and scales of Computer Anxiety and Self Efficacy are implemented on 124 music teachers. Data are analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and…

  1. Developing the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for teacher candidates and to compare scale scores. The sample of this survey model study consists of 310 students studying in a faculty of education. The "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" developed by the author was used for data collection.…

  2. TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL Nicholas Garber herbicides and AF36 have not previously been investigated. AF36 product efficacy in the field is dependant spores was quantified after exposure to the common herbicides: Buctril® 4EC, Bueno® 6, Caparol® 4L, Direx

  3. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  4. Self-Efficacy, Stress, and Academic Success in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajacova, Anna; Lynch, Scott M.; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27…

  5. Business Student Computer Self-Efficacy: Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Rex; Schmidt, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes computer self-efficacy for two independent samples of students enrolled in an introduction to information systems course in 1996 and 2006. We administered two validated and frequently employed measures of general computer self-efficacy to each group of students and collected demographic and computer-use data. Our findings…

  6. The Antecedents and Correlates of Parental Perceptions of Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    Examined were antecedents and behavioral correlates of parental perceptions of efficacy, using data from a national survey of 3,000 parents and a study of 65 mother-infant dyads. Survey data were used to determine what factors are predictive of parental perceptions of efficacy. Dyadic data were used primarily to examine the relation between…

  7. A Reanalysis of Engineering Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…

  8. Influence of dietary composition on coccidiosis vaccination efficacy in broilers 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jason Thomas

    2007-04-25

    for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2006 Major Subject: Poultry Science INFLUENCE OF DIETARY COMPOSITION ON COCCIDIOSIS VACCINATION EFFICACY IN BROILERS A Dissertation by JASON THOMAS LEE Submitted... Michael Head of Department, Alan Sams December 2006 Major Subject: Poultry Science iii ABSTRACT Influence of Dietary Composition on Coccidiosis Vaccination Efficacy in Broilers. (December 2006) Jason Thomas Lee, B.S., Texas A...

  9. Teacher Stress: The Mediating Role of Collective Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) examine the factor structure of measures of teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and job satisfaction, and (b) explore the mediating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 951 teachers from elementary and secondary schools in…

  10. Career Self-Efficacy: Exemplary Recent Research and Emerging Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses what the author views as exemplary work illustrating important directions in research on the applications of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to career theory, assessment, and counseling. The author begins with research on measuring career self-efficacy, following which research testing the postulated behavioral consequences…

  11. Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...

  12. Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. Results In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. Conclusions The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25628734

  13. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    GHARETEPEH, AMENEH; SAFARI, YAHYA; PASHAEI, TAHEREH; RAZAEI, MANSOUR; BAGHER KAJBAF, MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001). Conclusion Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops. PMID:25927067

  14. Promoting Self-Efficacy in Minimally Invasive Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Kevin C.; Kaul, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    Many surgeons continue to actively pursue surgical approaches that are less invasive for their patients. This pursuit requires the surgeon to adapt to new instruments, techniques, technologies, knowledge bases, visual perspectives, and motor skills, among other changes. The premise of this paper is that surgeons adopting minimally invasive approaches are particularly obligated to maintain an accurate perception of their own competencies and learning needs in these areas (ie, self-efficacy). The psychological literature on the topic of self-efficacy is vast and provides valuable information that can help assure that an individual develops and maintains accurate self-efficacy beliefs. The current paper briefly summarizes the practical implications of psychological research on self-efficacy for minimally invasive surgery training. Specific approaches to training and the provision of feedback are described in relation to potential types of discrepancies that may exist between perceived and actual efficacy. PMID:19366532

  15. Synaptic efficacy cluster formation across the dendrite via STDP.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Nicolangelo; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2006-07-31

    The role of spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in shaping the strength of a synapse located on the dendritic tree has gained recent interest. Previous theoretical studies using STDP have mostly used simplified integrate-and-fire models to investigate the evolution of synaptic efficacy with time. Such studies usually show that the final weight distribution is unimodal or bimodal resulting from a multiplicative or additive STDP rule, respectively. However, very little is known about how STDP shapes the spatial organization of synaptic efficacies. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that spatial clustering of synaptic efficacies can occur on the dendrite via STDP, where changes in synaptic efficacy are driven by timing differences between synaptic inputs and the generation of local dendritic spikes. Specifically, when the model neuron is stimulated by two independent groups of correlated afferent inputs, the synaptic efficacies from each group, are not only spatially clustered on the dendrite but also spatially complementary to each other. PMID:16762502

  16. Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calik, Temel; Sezgin, Ferudun; Kavgaci, Hasan; Cagatay Kilinc, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. In this regard, a model based on hypotheses was designed to determine the relationships among variables. The study sample consisted of 328 classroom and branch…

  17. Academic Self-Efficacy in the College Classroom: An Examination of Undergraduate Students' Reported Efficacy for Learning Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Timothy W., II; Aagaard, Lola; Skidmore, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's ability to accomplish particular tasks. Academic self-efficacy relates to one's belief in ability to accomplish learning activities. A convenient cluster sample (n = 105) of undergraduate students at a regional university in the midsouth was administered a survey that measured student academic…

  18. The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

  19. The Relationships between Academic Self-Efficacy, Computer Self-Efficacy, Prior Experience, and Satisfaction with Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jan, Shazia K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between academic self-efficacy (ASE), computer self-efficacy (CSE), prior experience, and satisfaction with online learning and explored how ASE, CSE, and satisfaction vary with age and gender. One hundred and three graduate students enrolled in purely online courses in January 2014 at a university in the…

  20. Efficacy and Safety of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengqian; Xiong, Xingjiang; Li, Shengjie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The cardioprotective role of xuefu zhuyu decoction (XZD), a well-known classical herbal formula, has been documented for hypertension treatment recently. This study aims to summarize the efficacy and safety of XZD in treating hypertension. Seven databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of XZD in hypertensive patients. Fifteen studies involving 1364 hypertensive patients were included. All studies compared XZD and antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs used alone. In all, 15 studies reported significant effects of XZD for lowering blood pressure compared with the control group (P?efficacious than antihypertensive drugs in improving total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, homocysteine, hemorheology, carotid intima-media thickness, and left ventricular mass index (P?

  1. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  2. Semen enhances HIV infectivity and impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides.

    PubMed

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R; Kluge, Silvia F; Müller, Janis A; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2014-11-12

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. We report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 co-receptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help to explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  3. Inhibition of p-STAT3 Enhances IFN-? Efficacy Against Metastatic Melanoma in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Gelbard, Alexander; Wei, Jun; Reina-Ortiz, Chantal; Wang, Yongtao; Yang, Eric C.; Hailemichael, Yared; Fokt, Izabela; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Qiao, Wei; Fuller, Gregory N.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Priebe, Waldemar; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Melanoma is a common and deadly tumor that upon metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) has a median survival duration of less than 6 months. Activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been identified as a key mediator that drives the fundamental components of melanoma malignancy, including immune suppression in melanoma patients. We hypothesized that WP1193, a novel inhibitor of STAT3 signaling, would enhance the anti-tumor activity of IFN-? against metastatic melanoma. Experimental Design Combinational therapy of STAT3 blockade agents with IFN-? was investigated in a metastatic and an established syngeneic intracerebral murine tumor model of melanoma. The immunological in vivo mechanisms of efficacy were investigated by T cell and NK cell cytotoxic assays. Results IFN-? immunotherapy was synergistic with WP1193 demonstrating marked in vivo efficacy against metastatic and established intracerebral melanoma. At autopsy, it was noted that there was a decreased trend in mice with melanoma developing leptomeningeal disease (LMD) treated with combinational therapy. The combinational approach enhanced both NK and T cell-mediated anti-tumor cytotoxicity. Conclusions The immune modulatory effects of STAT3 blockade can enhance the therapeutic efficacy of IFN-? immunotherapy by enhancing both innate and adaptive cytotoxic T cell activities. This combination therapy has the potential in the treatment of metastatic melanoma that is typically refractory to this type of immune therapeutic approach. PMID:20388845

  4. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

  5. Diagnostic Efficacy of a Single Progesterone Determination to Assess Full-Term Pregnancy in the Bitch.

    PubMed

    Rota, A; Charles, C; Starvaggi Cucuzza, A; Pregel, P

    2015-12-01

    In clinical settings, when the reproductive history of a near-term bitch is limited to mating dates, the possibility to accurately assess whether pregnancy is at term could be very useful in order to be able to plan a correct management of parturition or to safely perform an elective Caesarean section. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of a single progesterone determination, measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA), in predicting the occurrence of parturition on the following day. At least one blood sample was collected from 51 pre-partum bitches during the 3 days before parturition and on day of parturition. The efficacy of progesterone as a marker of the end of pregnancy was tested using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Youden's index was calculated to select the optimal cut-off value (with 95% confidence interval), aiming at maximizing the correct identification of negative events, so not to risk to diagnose as full term a bitch which is not. Progesterone concentration lower than 3.4 ng/ml correctly identified the bitches whelping the following day; however, because of the obliged prudential approach, sensitivity was low (46.88%), and 17 of 32 full-term bitches were missed. Due to a very large individual variation, a single progesterone determination has low diagnostic efficacy, although it can represent a useful first screening. PMID:26510871

  6. A Proposal for Integrated Efficacy-to-Effectiveness (E2E) Clinical Trials

    E-print Network

    Selker, H. P.

    We propose an “efficacy-to-effectiveness” (E2E) clinical trial design, in which an effectiveness trial would commence seamlessly upon completion of the efficacy trial. Efficacy trials use inclusion/exclusion criteria to ...

  7. Immunogenicity and efficacy of oral vaccines in developing countries: lessons from a live cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Levine, Myron M

    2010-01-01

    Oral vaccines, whether living or non-living, viral or bacterial, elicit diminished immune responses or have lower efficacy in developing countries than in developed countries. Here I describe studies with a live oral cholera vaccine that include older children no longer deriving immune support from breast milk or maternal antibodies and that identify some of the factors accounting for the lower immunogenicity, as well as suggesting counter-measures that may enhance the effectiveness of oral immunization in developing countries. The fundamental breakthrough is likely to require reversing effects of the 'environmental enteropathy' that is often present in children living in fecally contaminated, impoverished environments. PMID:20920375

  8. Immunogenicity and efficacy of oral vaccines in developing countries: lessons from a live cholera vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Oral vaccines, whether living or non-living, viral or bacterial, elicit diminished immune responses or have lower efficacy in developing countries than in developed countries. Here I describe studies with a live oral cholera vaccine that include older children no longer deriving immune support from breast milk or maternal antibodies and that identify some of the factors accounting for the lower immunogenicity, as well as suggesting counter-measures that may enhance the effectiveness of oral immunization in developing countries. The fundamental breakthrough is likely to require reversing effects of the 'environmental enteropathy' that is often present in children living in fecally contaminated, impoverished environments. PMID:20920375

  9. Efficacy of intraperitoneal amino acid (IPAA) dialysate in an Asian vegetarian patient with chronic hypoalbuminaemia.

    PubMed

    Steele, M; Yokum, D; Armstrong, A

    1998-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition is commonly found in chronic CAPD patients and is a matter of concern since low serum albumin levels correlate with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recognition of this link has therefore led to a growing interest in the efficacy of IPAA therapy as a possible treatment option. The present case study took place within a larger, ongoing clinical trial and outlines our experience of administering one exchange of 1.1% IPAA (Nutrineal, Baxter Healthcare Ltd) per day over 18 weeks to a patient identified as being protein malnourished. PMID:10392063

  10. Investigating the efficacy of terrorist network visualizations

    E-print Network

    Berardi, Christopher W. (Christopher Walter)

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence analysts are increasingly tasked to sift through enormous volumes of data to identify the proverbial intelligence "needle in a haystack." One specific domain exemplifying this new intelligence paradigm ...

  11. The influence of classroom experiences on community college students self-efficacy, attitude, and future intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Linda Mulderig

    Science and technology are an integral part of everyday life. Therefore it is necessary that the general population have some understanding and appreciation for science. Participating in activities that are science-related is one way a person could enhance their understanding and appreciation for science. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the attitude and self-efficacy beliefs a person holds regarding an object or activity will influence behavioral intentions (Ajzen, 1991). Therefore, if science educators can have a positive influence on their students' attitude and sense of efficacy toward science, perhaps the result will be a populace who willingly participates in science-related activities, ultimately gaining a better understanding and appreciation for science. The present study examined the relationships between the classroom environment students experienced during a ten week period of introductory chemistry and their attitudes toward chemistry (and general science), chemistry self-efficacy, and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities in the future. The participants of this study (N = 189) were Midwestern community college students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course. The efficacy scale of the Chemistry Attitude and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ) developed by Dalgety, Coll, and Jones (2003) was used to measure student chemistry self-efficacy. The attitude scale used in this study consisted of the attitude toward chemistry items of CAEQ and five additional items pertaining to general science attitude. The classroom environment scale was defined by two measures: (1) instructional pedagogies and (2) teacher immediacy behaviors. The items within the instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy measures were based on previous research that focused on identifying teaching techniques and teacher attributes that were conducive to promoting an engaging, supportive classroom environment that would promote better attitude toward science and stronger science self-efficacy beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude items revealed that students did not differentiate between general science attitude and chemistry attitude. Therefore, all twenty-six attitude items were combined into one attitude measure. Additionally, factor analysis revealed that the items designed to measure the separate dimensions of instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy behavior both loaded highly on the same factor, resulting in the combing of these two sets of items into one measure of classroom environment. Structural equations modeling (SEM) analyses of the relationships between student perceptions of the classroom environment and their attitude, efficacy and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities revealed that a positive classroom environment was associated with positive changes in both attitude toward chemistry/science and chemistry self-efficacy, as hypothesized. These analyses also supported the hypothesis that a positive change in chemistry self-efficacy beliefs mediated student intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities. However, the findings did not support the hypothesis that positive changes in attitude toward chemistry/science would mediate participation in chemistry-related activities.

  12. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

  13. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

  14. Different residues in the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine binding pocket mediate benzodiazepine efficacy and binding.

    PubMed

    Morlock, Elaine V; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2011-07-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) exert their therapeutic actions by binding to the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) and allosterically modulating GABA-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)). A variety of ligands with divergent structures bind to the BZD site, and the structural mechanisms that couple their binding to potentiation of I(GABA) are not well understood. In this study, we measured the effects of individually mutating 22 residues throughout the BZD binding pocket on the abilities of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and flurazepam to potentiate I(GABA). Wild-type and mutant ?(1)?(2)?(2) GABA(A)Rs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. GABA EC(50), BZD EC(50), and BZD maximal potentiation were measured. These data, combined with previous radioligand binding data describing the mutations' effects on BZD apparent binding affinities (J Neurosci 28:3490-3499, 2008; J Med Chem 51:7243-7252, 2008), were used to distinguish residues within the BZD pocket that contribute to BZD efficacy and BZD binding. We identified six residues whose mutation altered BZD maximal potentiation of I(GABA) (BZD efficacy) without altering BZD binding apparent affinity, three residues whose mutation altered binding but had no effect on BZD efficacy, and four residues whose mutation affected both binding and efficacy. Moreover, depending on the BZD ligand, the effects of some mutations were different, indicating that the structural mechanisms underlying the ability of BZD ligands with divergent structures to potentiate I(GABA) are distinct. PMID:21447642

  15. Efficacy of Strychnos spinosa (Lam.) and Solanum incanum L. aqueous fruit extracts against cattle ticks.

    PubMed

    Madzimure, James; Nyahangare, Emmanuel T; Hamudikuwanda, Humphrey; Hove, Thokozani; Belmain, Steve R; Stevenson, Philip C; Mvumi, Brighton M

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa aqueous fruit extracts was evaluated against cattle ticks in on-station experiments and laboratory tick bioassays. In the on-station experiment using cattle, fruit extracts were applied at three concentrations 5, 10, and 20 % (w/v) and compared with a commercial acaricide, Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and no treatment (negative control). The treatments were applied at weekly intervals for 6 weeks as surface sprays on 32 Mashona cattle in a completely randomized design experiment. Ticks on individual cattle were identified, counted, and recorded daily. Peripheral blood samples were collected for parasite screening. In the laboratory, tick bioassays were conducted at four concentrations, 5, 10, 20, and 40% (w/v) fruit extracts compared to Tickbuster (amitraz) spray (positive control) and distilled water (negative control). The extracts were incubated with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus tick larvae and mortalities for each treatment level recorded after 24 and 48 h. The 5% Solanum incanum treatment had higher efficacy ratio (P < 0.05) than the other fruit extract concentrations of the same plant species. Efficacy ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in the 5% S. spinosa-treated cattle than in the untreated control but lower (P < 0.05) than that for the amitraz treatment. The bioassays indicated that there was a high efficacy ratio for the lowest fruit extract concentrations when ticks were exposed to acaricidal treatments for 48 h compared to 24 h. Overall, the results indicate that Solanum incanum and Strychnos spinosa individually have some acaricidal effect. PMID:23456785

  16. Antidepressant efficacy of agomelatine: meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review published and unpublished efficacy studies of agomelatine in people with depression. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Literature search (Pubmed, Embase, Medline), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, European Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory file for agomelatine, manufacturers of agomelatine (Servier). Eligibility criteria Double blind randomised placebo and comparator controlled trials of agomelatine in depression with standard depression rating scales. Data synthesis Studies were pooled by using a random effects model with DerSimonian and Laird weights for comparisons with placebo and comparator antidepressant. The primary efficacy measure (change in rating scale score) was summarised with standardised mean difference (SMD; a measure of effect size) and secondary outcome measures with relative risks. All results were presented with 95% confidence intervals. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by visual inspection of funnel plots and by the I2 statistic. Moderators of effect were explored by meta-regression. Results We identified 20 trials with 7460 participants meeting inclusion criteria (11 in the published literature, four from the European Medicines Agency file, and five from the manufacturer). Almost all studies used the 17 item Hamilton depression rating scale (score 0-50). Agomelatine was significantly more effective than placebo with an effect size (SMD) of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.35) and relative risk of response 1.25 (1.11 to 1.4). Compared with other antidepressants, agomelatine showed equal efficacy (SMD 0.00, ?0.09 to 0.10). Significant heterogeneity was uncovered in most analyses, though risk of bias was low. Published studies were more likely than unpublished studies to have results that suggested advantages for agomelatine. Conclusions Agomelatine is an effective antidepressant with similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. Published trials generally had more favourable results than unpublished studies. PMID:24647162

  17. Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis--Where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Peter T

    2015-04-01

    Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. PMID:25622864

  18. Risk Recognition, Attachment Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and State Dissociation Predict Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to predict revictimization. Methods Participants were N?=?85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, state dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety predicted group membership. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, state dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. Conclusions This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and state dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher state dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization. PMID:25238153

  19. Efficacy and safety of metformin or oral contraceptives, or both in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Young-Mo; Choi, Eun Joo

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinopathy that affects approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women throughout their lives. Women with PCOS present with heterogeneous symptoms including ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. Therefore, lifelong individualized management should be considered. Pharmacological agents commonly used to manage the symptoms are metformin and oral contraceptive pills. Although these medications have been beneficial in treating PCOS symptoms, their efficacy and safety are still not entirely elucidated. This study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or their combination in the treatment of PCOS and to define their specific individual roles. Methods A literature search of original studies published in PubMed and Scopus was conducted to identify studies comparing metformin with oral contraceptives or evaluating the combination of both in PCOS. Results Eight clinical trials involving 313 patients were examined in the review. The intervention dosage of metformin ranged from 1,000 to 2,000 mg/d and that of oral contraceptives was ethinylestradiol 35 µg and cyproterone acetate 2 mg. Lower body mass index was observed with regimens including metformin, but increased body mass index was observed in monotherapy with oral contraceptives. Administration of metformin or oral contraceptives, especially as monotherapy, had a negative effect on lipid profiles. In addition, there are still uncertainties surrounding the effects of metformin or oral contraceptives in the management of insulin level, although they improved total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin levels. In the included studies, significant side effects due to metformin or oral contraceptives were not reported. Conclusion The clinical trials suggest that metformin or oral contraceptives are at least patient convenient, efficacious, and safe for the treatment of PCOS. However, well-designed, prospective, long-term, large-scale, randomized clinical trials are necessary to elucidate the efficacy and safety of metformin, oral contraceptives, or both in the treatment of PCOS, and to elucidate their individual roles in the treatment of this condition. PMID:26366087

  20. Impact of smoking on estrogenic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2015-02-01

    Depending on the type, duration and intensity of cigarette smoking, the efficacy of endogenous and exogenous estrogen can be reduced or completely cancelled. Not only does smoking diminish the beneficial effects of estrogen on hot flushes and urogenital symptoms and its positive effects on lipid metabolism, but smoking also can reduce estrogen's ability to prevent osteoporosis and perhaps also cardiovascular diseases. This is mainly caused by dose-dependent elevated hepatic clearance, partially in conjunction with lower estrogen levels, and has been demonstrated so far only with oral estrogen applications. Compensation for the failure of therapeutic action should not be made by increasing the dose in smokers since this might result in the production of potentially mutagenic estrogen metabolites associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. Since the favorable effects of estrogens seem to be not lost in smokers when estrogens are applied transdermally, this route should be preferred in smokers. The most important conclusion from the data presented is that the effects of smoking are very complex and dependent on a multiplicity of factors, so that different types of clinically relevant negative effects must be expected. Women who continue to smoke despite all warnings should be informed that smoking, in addition to all its other negative effects, can also jeopardize the success of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25072165

  1. Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Estibalitz; Martínez-Teipel, Blanca; Armengol, Ricard; Barba, Clara; Coderch, Luisa

    2012-12-01

    Hair is exposed every day to a range of harmful effects such as sunlight, pollution, cosmetic treatments, grooming practices and cleansing. The UV components of sunlight damage human hair, causing fibre degradation. UV-B attacks the melanin pigments and the protein fractions (keratin) of hair and UV-A produces free radical/reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the interaction of endogenous photosensitizers. Hair was dyed and the efficacy of two antioxidant formulations was demonstrated after UV exposure by evaluating, surface morphology, protein and amino acid degradation, lipidic peroxidation, colour and shine changes and strength/relaxation properties. UV treatment resulted in an increase in protein and lipid degradation, changes in colour and shine and in adverse consequences for the mechanical properties. Natural antioxidants obtained from artichoke and rice applied to pretreated hair improved mechanical properties and preserved colour and shine of fibres, coating them and protecting them against UV. Furthermore, the lipidic peroxidation of the protein degradation caused by UV was reduced for some treated fibres, suggesting an improvement in fibre integrity. This was more marked in the case of the fibres treated using the artichoke extract, whereas the rice extract was better preserving shine and colour of hair fibres. PMID:23123594

  2. Fecal microbiota transplantation: current clinical efficacy and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Kathryn A; Broussard, Elizabeth K; Surawicz, Christina M

    2015-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has gained mainstream attention with its remarkable efficacy in treating recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) when there are no other effective therapies. Methods of selecting donors and routes of administration vary among studies, but there are now randomized controlled trials showing efficacy of FMT in treating RCDI. Ongoing trials of FMT for other disease such as inflammatory bowel disease are underway; this therapy should not be used for these conditions unless there is strong evidence for efficacy. Long-term safety data are sorely needed, as well as clarification of regulatory concerns. PMID:26566371

  3. Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard

    2014-10-01

    Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of intervention.

  4. New salivary anti-haemostatics containing protective epitopes from Ornithodoros moubata ticks: Assessment of their individual and combined vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martín, Verónica; Manzano-Román, Raúl; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2015-09-15

    Ornithodoros moubata is the main vector of the pathogens causing African swine fever and human relapsing fever in Africa. The development of an efficient vaccine against this tick would facilitate its control and the prevention of the diseases it transmits to a considerable extent. Previous efforts to identify vaccine target candidates led us to the discovery of novel salivary proteins that probably act as anti-haemostatics at the host-tick interface, including a secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), a 7DB-like protein (7DB-like), a riboprotein 60S L10 (RP-60S), an apyrase (APY), and a new platelet aggregation inhibitor peptide, designated mougrin (MOU). In this work, the corresponding recombinant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and their individual vaccine efficacy was tested in rabbit vaccination trials. All of them, except the less immunogenic RP-60S, induced strong humoral responses that reduced tick feeding and survival, providing vaccine efficacies of 44.2%, 43.2% and 27.2%, 19.9% and 17.3% for PLA2, APY, MOU, RP-60S and 7DB-like, respectively. In the case of the more protective recombinant antigens (PLA2, APY and MOU), the immunodominant protective linear B-cell epitopes were identified and their combined vaccine efficacy was tested in a second vaccine trial using different adjuvants. In comparison with the best efficacy of individual antigens, the multicomponent vaccine increased vaccine efficacy by 13.6%, indicating additive protective effects rather than a synergistic effect. Tick saliva inoculated during natural tick-host contacts had a boosting effect on vaccinated animals, increasing specific antibody levels and protection. PMID:26293586

  5. The Efficacy of Surfactant Replacement Therapy in the Growth-Restricted Preterm Infant: What is the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Atul; Sasi, Arun; Miller, Suzanne L.; Jenkin, Graham; Polglase, Graeme R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) is an integral part of management of preterm surfactant deficiency respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Its role in the management of RDS has been extensively studied. However, its efficacy in the management of lung disease in preterm infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has not been systematically studied. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous SRT in the management of preterm IUGR lung disease. Methods: A systematic search of all available randomized clinical trials (RCT) of SRT in preterm IUGR infants was done according to the standard Cochrane collaboration search strategy. Neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared between the preterm IUGR and appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) preterm infant populations in eligible studies. Results: No study was identified which evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of exogenous SRT in preterm IUGR infants as compared to preterm AGA-infants. The only study identified through the search strategy used small for gestational age (SGA; defined as less than tenth centile for birth weight) as a proxy for IUGR. The RCT evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of SRT in preterm SGA group as compared to AGA-infants. The rate of intubation, severity of RDS, rate of surfactant administration, pulmonary air leaks, and days on the ventilator did not differ between both groups. However, the requirement for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (p?efficacy of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. A variety of research strategies will be needed to enhance our understanding of the role and rationale for use of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. PMID:25401096

  6. Virtual school teacher's science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzoff, Phuong Pham

    The purpose of this study was to examine how much K-12 science teachers working in a virtual school experience a community of practice and how that experience affects personal science-teaching efficacy and science-teaching outcome expectancy. The study was rooted in theoretical frameworks from Lave and Wenger's (1991) community of practice and Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy beliefs. The researcher used three surveys to examine schoolteachers' experiences of a community of practice and science-teaching efficacy beliefs. The instrument combined Mangieri's (2008) virtual teacher demographic survey, Riggs and Enochs (1990) Science-teaching efficacy Beliefs Instrument-A (STEBI-A), and Cadiz, Sawyer, and Griffith's (2009) Experienced Community of Practice (eCoP) instrument. The results showed a significant linear statistical relationship between the science teachers' experiences of community of practice and personal science-teaching efficacy. In addition, the study found that there was also a significant linear statistical relationship between teachers' community of practice experiences and science-teaching outcome expectancy. The results from this study were in line with numerous studies that have found teachers who are involved in a community of practice report higher science-teaching efficacy beliefs (Akerson, Cullen, & Hanson, 2009; Fazio, 2009; Lakshmanan, Heath, Perlmutter, & Elder, 2011; Liu, Lee, & Lin, 2010; Sinclair, Naizer, & Ledbetter, 2010). The researcher concluded that school leaders, policymakers, and researchers should increase professional learning opportunities that are grounded in social constructivist theoretical frameworks in order to increase teachers' science efficacy.

  7. Evaluation of Structural Treatment Efficacy against Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Using Meta-Analysis of Multiple Studies Conducted in Food Facilities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James F; Buckman, Karrie A; Fields, Paul G; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2015-10-01

    The phase out of methyl bromide for the treatment of structures where grain is milled or processed has triggered a need to evaluate the effectiveness of alternative structural treatments such as sulfuryl fluoride and heat. Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (red flour beetle) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (confused flour beetle) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are primary targets for structural treatments, and impact of treatments on these species was evaluated in this study. Efficacy was measured by comparing beetle captures in pheromone- and kairomone-baited traps immediately before and immediately after treatments. Studies were conducted primarily in commercial wheat mills and rice mills, with the treatments conducted by commercial applicators. A meta-analysis approach was used to evaluate efficacy data collected from 111 treatments applied in 39 facilities. Findings confirm that structural fumigations and heat treatments greatly reduce pest populations within food facilities, but there was significant variation in the efficacy of individual treatments. Generally, the different treatment types (sulfuryl fluoride, methyl bromide, and heat) provided similar reductions in beetle capture using multiple metrics of beetle activity. The novel application of meta-analysis to structural treatment efficacy assessment generated a robust estimate of overall treatment efficacy, provided insights into factors potentially impacting efficacy, and identified data gaps that need further research. PMID:26453702

  8. An Investigation of the Relationship between Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Technology Integration and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbitt, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the relationship between measures of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice teachers about technology integration. Within a single-group, pretest-posttest design, a correlational analysis identified several knowledge domains in the TPACK model that the…

  9. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Risk Factors for Falls, Fear of Falling, and Falls Efficacy in a Cohort of Middle-Aged African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Miller, J. Phillip; Wilson, Margaret-Mary G.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to cross-sectionally and longitudinally identify risk factors for falls, fear of falling, and falls efficacy in late-middle-aged African Americans. Design and Methods: We performed in-home assessments on a probability sample of 998 African Americans and conducted two annual follow-up interviews. Multiple…

  10. Self-Efficacy for Career Development: A Study of Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists, and Speech-Language Pathologists in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Constance; Bennett, Onda; Costello, Patti

    2005-01-01

    Group achievements and social change are rooted in self-efficacy. This concept has important implications for career development in a changing environment. Associations that represent professionals involved with physical rehabilitation in the United States have identified activities that they feel are essential for the survival of the…

  11. An Examination of the Relationship between Preservice Teachers' Level of Technology Integration Self-Efficacy (TISE) and Level of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and identify the relationship between preservice teachers' level of technology integration self-efficacy (TISE) and their level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). Survey responses were solicited from 197 preservice teachers who are Interdisciplinary Studies Majors in the Quality Urban…

  12. A Comparison of the Influences of Different Training Approaches on Trainees' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy to Achieve Training Outcomes among Bankers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, WenRou

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influences of the classroom training and the structured on-the-job training (S-OJT) approaches on trainees' self-efficacy to achieve the training outcomes among bankers in Taiwan. Based on the conditions for training effectiveness identified in the literature, the study examined whether trainees with…

  13. Self-Efficacy, Loneliness, Effort, and Hope: Developmental Differences in the Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities and Their Non-Learning Disabled Peers at Two Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackaye, Timothy; Margalit, Malka

    2008-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) examine differences between two age groups of adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD) in their general and specific self-efficacy beliefs (in history and mathematics), their academic achievement (in history and mathematics), and their loneliness, effort, and hope; and (b) identify predictors of…

  14. School Level Factors Predicting Teachers' Senses of Professional Engagement, Efficacy, Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Anne M.

    Findings of a study that identified the school-level factors that affect teachers' dispositions toward their work are presented in this paper, which focuses on teacher satisfaction, professional engagement, commitment, and efficacy. Data were derived from the teachers' survey portion of the Teachers and Administrators Survey (ATS) from the High…

  15. Efficacy of glucocorticoids in rodents of severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of corticosteroid in the management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains contentious and is still being debated despite many pre-clinical studies demonstrating benefits. The limitations of clinical research on corticosteroid in SAP are disparities with regard to benefit, a lack of adequate safety data and insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroid in experimental SAP and take a closer look at the relation between the animal studies and prospective trials. Methods: Studies investigating corticosteroid use in rodent animal models of SAP were identified by searching multiple three electronic databases through October 2013, and by reviewing references lists of obtained articles. Data on mortality, changes of ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas were extracted. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled efficacy. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: We identified 15 published papers which met our inclusion criteria. Corticosteroid prolonged survival by a factor of 0.35 (95% CI 0.21-0.59). Prophylactic use of corticosteroid showed efficacy with regards to ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas, whereas therapeutic use did not. Efficacy was higher in large dose and dexamethasone groups. Study characteristics, namely type of steroids, rout of delivery, genders and strains of animal, accounted for a significant proportion of between-study heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was observed. Conclusions: On the whole, corticosteroids have showed beneficial effects in rodent animal models of SAP. Prophylactic use of corticosteroid has failed to validate usefulness in prophylaxis of postendoscopic retrogradcholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Further appropriate and informative animal experiments should be performed before conducting clinical trials investigating therapeutic use in SAP. PMID:25120741

  16. IL4 Limits the Efficacy of Tumor-Targeted Antibody Therapy in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Rishi; Wang, Shangzi; Xu, Wei; Jablonski, Sandra A.; Weiner, Louis M.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-targeted antibody therapy has had a major impact on reducing morbidity and mortality in a wide range of cancers. Antibodies mediate their antitumor activity in part by activating immune effector cells; however, the tumor microenvironment (TME) is enriched with cellular and soluble mediators that actively suppress generation of antitumor immunity. Here, we investigate the potential of prospectively identifying and neutralizing an immunomodulatory soluble mediator within the TME to enhance therapeutic efficacy of the HER2-directed antibody trastuzumab. Using the D5-HER2 cell line and an immunocompetent human HER2 transgenic animal (hmHER2Tg) in which human HER2 is a self-antigen, we determined that IL4 was present in the TME and produced by both tumor and stromal cells. A siRNA-based screening approach identified Stat5a as a novel negative regulator of IL4 production by D5-HER2 tumor cells. Furthermore, IL4 neutralization using the anti-IL4 antibody 11B11 enhanced the efficacy of trastuzumab and modulated the TME. For example, IL4 neutralization resulted in reduced levels of myeloid chemoattractants CCL2, CCL11, and CXCL5 in the TME. Combination therapy with 11B11 and trastuzumab resulted in a reduction of tumor-infiltrating CD11b+CD206+ myeloid cells compared to monotherapy. These data suggest that IL4 neutralization enhances the efficacy of trastuzumab by influencing the phenotype of myeloid cells within the TME and provides further rationale for combining tumor-targeted antibody therapy with agents that neutralize factors in the TME that suppress generation of productive antitumor immune responses. PMID:25204776

  17. The efficacy of microarray screening for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    van Huet, Ramon A. C.; Pierrache, Laurence H.M.; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Wijs, Ilse J.; Collin, Rob W. J.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of multiple versions of a commercially available arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray chip for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). Methods We included 250 probands suspected of arRP who were genetically analyzed with the APEX microarray between January 2008 and November 2013. The mode of inheritance had to be autosomal recessive according to the pedigree (including isolated cases). If the microarray identified a heterozygous mutation, we performed Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries of that specific gene. The efficacy of this microarray chip with the additional Sanger sequencing approach was determined by the percentage of patients that received a molecular diagnosis. We also collected data from genetic tests other than the APEX analysis for arRP to provide a detailed description of the molecular diagnoses in our study cohort. Results The APEX microarray chip for arRP identified the molecular diagnosis in 21 (8.5%) of the patients in our cohort. Additional Sanger sequencing yielded a second mutation in 17 patients (6.8%), thereby establishing the molecular diagnosis. In total, 38 patients (15.2%) received a molecular diagnosis after analysis using the microarray and additional Sanger sequencing approach. Further genetic analyses after a negative result of the arRP microarray (n = 107) resulted in a molecular diagnosis of arRP (n = 23), autosomal dominant RP (n = 5), X-linked RP (n = 2), and choroideremia (n = 1). Conclusions The efficacy of the commercially available APEX microarray chips for arRP appears to be low, most likely caused by the limitations of this technique and the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of RP. Diagnostic yields up to 40% have been reported for next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques that, as expected, thereby outperform targeted APEX analysis. PMID:25999674

  18. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine ...

  19. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  20. Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Gwendolen E.; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR ; Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J.; Raber, Jacob; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

  1. Genotype-dependent molecular evolution of sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions in vitro affects their zoonotic potential.

    PubMed

    Krejciova, Zuzana; Barria, Marcelo A; Jones, Michael; Ironside, James W; Jeffrey, Martin; González, Lorenzo; Head, Mark W

    2014-09-19

    Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the United Kingdom sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie while maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modeled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggests that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie it would lose its ability to affect humans. PMID:25100723

  2. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ? 24 kg/m2, ? 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  3. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ? 24 kg/m(2), ? 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  4. Negative self-efficacy and goal effects revisited.

    PubMed

    Bandura, Albert; Locke, Edwin A

    2003-02-01

    The authors address the verification of the functional properties of self-efficacy beliefs and document how self-efficacy beliefs operate in concert with goal systems within a sociocognitive theory of self-regulation in contrast to the focus of control theory on discrepancy reduction. Social cognitive theory posits proactive discrepancy production by adoption of goal challenges working in concert with reactive discrepancy reduction in realizing them. Converging evidence from diverse methodological and analytic strategies verifies that perceived self-efficacy and personal goals enhance motivation and performance attainments. The large body of evidence, as evaluated by 9 meta-analyses for the effect sizes of self-efficacy beliefs and by the vast body of research on goal setting, contradicts findings (J. B. Vancouver, C. M. Thompson, & A. A. Williams, 2001; J. B. Vancouver, C. M. Thompson, E. C. Tischner, & D. J. Putka 2002) that belief in one's capabilities and personal goals is self-debilitating. PMID:12675397

  5. Local bacteria affect the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Lehouritis, Panos; Cummins, Joanne; Stanton, Michael; Murphy, Carola T.; McCarthy, Florence O.; Reid, Gregor; Urbaniak, Camilla; Byrne, William L.; Tangney, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the potential effects of bacteria on the efficacy of frequently used chemotherapies was examined. Bacteria and cancer cell lines were examined in vitro and in vivo for changes in the efficacy of cancer cell killing mediated by chemotherapeutic agents. Of 30 drugs examined in vitro, the efficacy of 10 was found to be significantly inhibited by certain bacteria, while the same bacteria improved the efficacy of six others. HPLC and mass spectrometry analyses of sample drugs (gemcitabine, fludarabine, cladribine, CB1954) demonstrated modification of drug chemical structure. The chemoresistance or increased cytotoxicity observed in vitro with sample drugs (gemcitabine and CB1954) was replicated in in vivo murine subcutaneous tumour models. These findings suggest that bacterial presence in the body due to systemic or local infection may influence tumour responses or off-target toxicity during chemotherapy. PMID:26416623

  6. Microneedle delivery for improved efficacy of antiretroviral and antibiotic drugs

    E-print Network

    Stauber, Zachary Jason

    2012-01-01

    Two classes of drugs, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, could benefit greatly from delivery through microneedles. Microneedles (MN) offer an increase in efficacy for these drugs by providing delivery to the lymphatic system ...

  7. Phytotoxicity and Efficacy of Sumagic (Uniconazole) for Growth Control of

    E-print Network

    Lieth, J. Heinrich

    Phytotoxicity and Efficacy of Sumagic (Uniconazole) for Growth Control of Ornamental Kale (Brassica: Ornamental kale Brassica oleracea `Nagoya Mix' REASON: Growth Control SOIL TYPE OR TYPE OF POTTING MIX: UC

  8. Efficacy Beliefs of Beginning Hispanic Teachers and the Organizational Health of Schools in a South Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Gisela S.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and school organizational health. Teachers' sense of efficacy was measured using three dimensions of teacher efficacy: efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, and efficacy in classroom management. Organizational health was…

  9. Infection with parasitic nematodes confounds vaccination efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Joseph F.; Steenhard, Nina R.; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I.; Dawson, Harry D.; Iweala, Onyinye I.; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Noland, Gregory S.; Kumar, Nirbhay; Anthony, Robert M.; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Weinstock, Joel; Gause, William C.

    2007-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells produce signature cytokine patterns, induced largely by intracellular versus extracellular pathogens that provide the cellular and molecular basis for counter regulatory expression of protective immunity during concurrent infections. The production of IL-12 and IFN-?, for example, resulting from exposure to many bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens is responsible for Th1-derived protective responses that also can inhibit development of Th2-cells expressing IL-4-dependent immunity to extracellular helminth parasites and vice versa. In a similar manner, concurrent helminth infection alters optimal vaccine-induced responses in humans and livestock; however, the consequences of this condition have not been adequately studied especially in the context of a challenge infection following vaccination. Demands for new and effective vaccines to control chronic and emerging diseases, and the need for rapid deployment of vaccines for bio security concerns requires a systematic evaluation of confounding factors that limit vaccine efficacy. One common albeit overlooked confounder is the presence of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in populations of humans and livestock targeted for vaccination. This is particularly important in areas of the world were helminth infections are prevalent, but the interplay between parasites and emerging diseases that can be transmitted worldwide make this a global issue. In addition, it is not clear if the epidemic in allergic disease in industrialized countries substitutes for geohelminth infection to interfere with effective vaccination regimens. This presentation will focus on recent vaccination studies in mice experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides polygyrus to model the condition of gastrointestinal parasite infestation in mammalian populations targeted for vaccination. In addition, a large animal vaccination and challenge model against Mycoplasma hyopneumonia in swine exposed to Ascaris suum will provide a specific example of the need for further work in this area, and for controlled field studies to assess the impact of other similar scenarios. PMID:17587500

  10. Efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes.

    PubMed

    Beltz, S D; Doering, P L

    1993-12-01

    Findings on the efficacy of nutritional supplements used by athletes are reviewed. Many athletes have turned away from anabolic steroids and toward nutritional supplements in the hope of gaining a competitive edge without threatening their health. Athletes may require slightly more protein than sedentary people do to maintain positive nitrogen balance, but it is dubious whether extra dietary protein will help someone to achieve athletic goals. Purified amino acids have become a popular if expensive form of protein supplementation; there is no scientific evidence, however, to support their use. Excessive protein supplementation can lead to dehydration, gout, liver and kidney damage, calcium loss, and gastrointestinal effects. Supplementation with vitamins and minerals in excess of recommended daily allowances appears to have no effect on muscle mass or athletic performance. Other substances touted as having ergogenic properties are carnitine, cobamamide, growth hormone releasers, octacosanol, and ginseng; again, there is no reliable scientific evidence to support claims that products containing these compounds have ergogenic potential, and heavy supplementation may lead to adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are promoted through unsubstantiated claims by magazine advertisements, health food stores, coaches, and other sources. The FDA considers nutritional supplements to be foodstuffs, not drugs, and therefore has not required that they be proved safe and effective. Dosage guidelines are inadequate, and quality control is poor. The FDA has begun to revise regulations governing labeling and health claims for these products. There is little if any evidence that nutritional supplements have ergogenic effects in athletes consuming a balanced diet, and some products have the potential for harm. PMID:8137607

  11. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants. PMID:15923059

  12. Comparative evaluation of biofilm disinfectant efficacy tests.

    PubMed

    Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli; Goeres, Darla M; Hamilton, Martin A

    2007-08-01

    Regulatory agencies are receiving registration applications for unprecedented, antibiofilm label claims for disinfectants. Reliable, practical, and relevant laboratory biofilm test methods are required to support such claims. This investigation describes the influence of fluid dynamics on the relevancy of a laboratory test. Several disinfectant formulations were tested using three different biofilm testing systems run side-by-side: the CDC biofilm reactor system that created turbulent flow (Reynolds number between 800 and 1850), the drip flow biofilm reactor system that created slow laminar flow (Reynolds number between 12 and 20), and the static biofilm system that involved no fluid flow. Each comparative experiment also included a dried surface carrier test and a dried biofilm test. All five disinfectant tests used glass coupons and followed the same steps for treatment, neutralization, viable cell counting, and calculating the log reduction (LR). Three different disinfectants, chlorine, a quaternary ammonium compound, and a phenolic, were each applied at two concentrations. Experiments were conducted separately with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and every experiment was independently repeated. The results showed that biofilm grown in the CDC reactor produced the smallest LR, the static biofilm produced the largest LR, and biofilm grown in the drip flow reactor produced an intermediate LR. The differences were large enough to be of practical importance. The dried surface test often produced a significantly higher LR than the tests against hydrated or dried biofilm. The dried biofilm test produced LR values similar to those for the corresponding hydrated biofilm test. These results show that the efficacy of a disinfectant must be measured by using a laboratory method where biofilm is grown under fluid flow conditions similar to the environment where the disinfectant will be applied. PMID:17524505

  13. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n?=?8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n?=?8) did not receive any intervention. After 12?weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12?weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6)?=?0.06, p?=?0.92, ? de Wilks?=?0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7)?=?2.11, p?=?0.17, ? de Wilks?=?0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27)?=?0.18, p?=?0.94, ? de Wilks?=?0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation. PMID:26042031

  14. Characterizing axillary web syndrome: ultrasonographic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Koehler, L A; Hunter, D W; Haddad, T C; Blaes, A H; Hirsch, A T; Ludewig, P M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if ultrasound could successfully characterize axillary web syndrome (AWS) and clarify the pathophysiologic basis of AWS as a vascular or lymphatic abnormality, or an abnormal tissue structure. This prospective study evaluated women who developed AWS following breast cancer surgery. Using an 18 MHz ultrasound transducer, images were taken of the AWS cord and compared to mirror images on the contralateral side. A blinded radiologist assessed the ultrasound characteristics of and structural changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue and formulated an opinion as to the side in which AWS was located. Seventeen subjects participated in the study. No structure or abnormality consistent with AWS could be identified by ultrasound. There were no statistical differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral side in skin thickness; subcutaneous reflector thickness, number or disorganization; or subcutaneous tissue echodensity (p>0.05). The radiologist correctly identified the side with AWS in 12 of 17 subjects (=0.41). A distinct ultrasonographic structure or abnormality could not be identified in subjects with AWS using 18 MHz ultrasound. The inability to identify a specific structure excludes the possibility that AWS is associated with vein thrombosis or a fascial abnormality, and supports the theory that AWS may be pathology that is not visible with 18 MHz ultrasound, such as microlymphatic stasis or binding of fibrin or other proteins in the interstitial space. PMID:25915976

  15. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying information..., http://www.pbgc.gov, the following identifying information with respect to each member of the...

  16. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying information..., http://www.pbgc.gov, the following identifying information with respect to each member of the...

  17. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Erial, NJ); Staskawicz, Brian J. (Castro Valley, CA); Bent, Andrew F. (Piedmont, CA); Innes, Roger W. (Bloomington, IN)

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  18. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  19. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  20. Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy: A Context Specific Self-Efficacy Measure for Traumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Benight, Charles C.; Shoji, Kotaro; James, Lori E.; Waldrep, Edward E.; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Cieslak, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of a Trauma Coping Self-Efficacy (CSE-T) scale that assesses general trauma-related coping self-efficacy perceptions were assessed. Measurement equivalence was assessed using several different samples: hospitalized trauma patients (n1 = 74, n2 = 69, n3 = 60), three samples of disaster survivors (n1 = 273, n2 = 227, n3 = 138), and trauma exposed college students (N = 242). This is the first multi-sample evaluation of the psychometric properties for a general trauma-related CSE measure. Results showed that a brief and parsimonious 9-item version of the CSE performed well across the samples with a robust factor structure; factor structure and factor loadings were similar across study samples. The 9-item scale CSE-T demonstrated measurement equivalence across samples indicating that the underlying concept of general post-traumatic CSE is organized in a similar manner in the different trauma-exposed groups. These results offer strong support for cross-event construct validity of the CSE-T scale. Associations of the CSE-T with important expected covariates showed significant evidence for convergent validity. Finally, discriminant validity was also supported. Replication of the factor structure, internal reliability, and other evidence for construct validity is a critical next step for future research. PMID:26524542

  1. Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in colorado.

    PubMed

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  2. The Role of Self-Efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management: Preliminary Validation of a Disease-Specific Measure

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L.; Taft, Tiffany H.

    2010-01-01

    IBDs require self-management skills that may be influenced by self-efficacy (SE). Self Efficacy represents an individual’s perception of his or her ability to organize and execute the behaviors necessary to manage disease. The goal of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of IBD-specific SE that can be used in clinical and research contexts. 122 adults with a verified IBD diagnosis participated in the study. Data were pooled from two sources: patients from an outpatient university gastroenterology clinic (n = 42) and a sample of online respondents (n = 80). All participants (N = 122) completed the IBD-Self-Efficacy Scale (IBD-SES) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Additionally, online participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; while the clinic sample completed the Perceived Health Competence Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Short Form Version 2 Health Survey. The IBD-SES was initially constructed to identify 4 distinct theoretical domains of self-efficacy: a) managing stress and emotions, b) managing medical care, c) managing symptoms and disease, and d) maintaining remission. The 29-item IBD-SES has high internal consistency (r = 0.96), high test-retest reliability (r = 0.90), and demonstrates strong construct and concurrent validity with established measures. The IBD-SES is a critical first step towards addressing an important psychological construct that could influence treatment outcomes in IBD. PMID:20848516

  3. Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

  4. Efficacy of biological agents administered as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison analysis

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Alberto; Bizzi, Emanuele; Egan, Colin Gerard; Bernardi, Mauro; Petrella, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Background Biological agents provide an important therapeutic alternative for rheumatoid arthritis patients refractory to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Few head-to-head comparative trials are available. Purpose The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the relative efficacy of different biologic agents indicated for use as monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Methods A systemic literature search was performed on electronic databases to identify articles reporting double-blind randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of biologic agents indicated for monotherapy. Efficacy was assessed using American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20, 50, and 70 criteria at 16–24 weeks. Relative efficacy was estimated using Bayesian mixed-treatment comparison models. Outcome measures were expressed as odds ratio and 95% credible intervals. Results Ten randomized controlled trials were selected for data extraction and analysis. Mixed-treatment comparison analysis revealed that tocilizumab offered 100% probability of being the best treatment for inducing an ACR20 response versus placebo, methotrexate, adalimumab, or etanercept. Likewise, for ACR50 and ACR70 outcome responses, tocilizumab had a 99.8% or 98.7% probability of being the best treatment, respectively, compared to other treatments or placebo. Tocilizumab increased the relative probability of being the best treatment (vs methotrexate) by 3.2-fold (odds ratio: 2.1–3.89) for all ACR outcomes. Conclusion Tocilizumab offered the greatest possibility of obtaining an ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 outcome vs other monotherapies or placebo. PMID:26366085

  5. A novel tick antigen shows high vaccine efficacy against the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Fernández, Erlinda; Encinosa, Pedro E; Bello, Yamil; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Ruiz, Lázaro Cepero; Pérez, Danny; González, Mayte; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Méndez, Luis; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2012-02-27

    Ticks are acaridae ectoparasites that, while taking a blood meal, can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa and filarial nematodes, which cause a variety of human and animal illnesses. The use of chemical pesticides constitutes the primary measure for control of these ectoparasites. However, the intensive use of these chemicals has drawbacks such as the contamination of food, environmental pollution and development of resistance by ectoparasites. Vaccination is considered a promising alternative for controlling infestations by ectoparasites. Although emerging tick proteins have been identified recently, and have been proposed as potential targets for generating protective molecules, only a limited number of them have been evaluated in vaccine trials. More than 80 proteins are found in eukaryotic ribosomes. The protein P0 is essential for the assembly of the 60S ribosomal subunit. We have identified an immunogenic region of the ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus sp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to host P0. The efficacy of a 20 amino acid synthetic peptide from this sequence was assayed as a vaccine antigen against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment on rabbits. A remarkable diminution in the viability of newly molted nymphs from larvae fed on vaccinated rabbits was observed. The number of adults and the number of eggs hatching were significantly reduced, with an overall efficacy of 90%. Our results demonstrated that immunization with an immunogenic peptide of tick protein P0 greatly reduced survival of ticks, suggesting that it has promise as an effective tick control agent. PMID:22245603

  6. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse

    PubMed Central

    HIDAKA, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Mitsutoshi; ANDO, Kunihide; FUJII, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2–5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  7. Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies.

    PubMed

    Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone for the treatment of malaria. However, confirmed resistance to artemisinins in South-East Asia, and reports of reduced efficacy of ACTs raise major concerns for malaria treatment and control. Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs. It is important to determine the extent to which reduced efficacy of ACTs reflects true resistance versus sub-optimal dosing, and quantify other factors that determine treatment failure. Pooled analyses of individual patient data from multiple clinical trials, by investigators in the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, have shown high overall efficacy for three widely used ACTs, artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Analyses also highlight that suboptimal dosing leads to increased risk of treatment failure, especially among children. In the most recent study, an analysis of clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine, widely used among children in Africa, revealed a superior efficacy for fixed-dose combination tablets compared to loose non-fixed dose combinations. This highlights the benefits of fixed-dose combinations as a practical strategy for ensuring optimal antimalarial dosing and maximizing efficacy. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/66. PMID:25956929

  8. An Analysis of Teacher Self-Efficacy, Teacher Trust, and Collective Efficacy in a Southwest Texas School District 

    E-print Network

    Ball, Jeanette

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of the study was to investigate relationships among teacher selfefficacy, trust, and collective efficacy among teachers in a southwest Texas school district. The research included three established surveys combined to create a single...

  9. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of vilazodone for treating major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Lei; Wan, Dong-Jun; Liu, Ruo-Zhuo; Dong, Zhao; Chen, Min; Yu, Sheng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Vilazodone is a novel serotonin (5-HT)-reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A partial agonist that was recently developed for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review to better evaluate the efficacy and safety of vilazodone. Materials and methods We performed a thorough literature search to identify all randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials that were designed to investigate the efficacy of vilazodone for the treatment of MDD, and that were published in electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. A manual search was also conducted to investigate the relevant references of the retrieved studies. Subsequently, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic literature review. Results A total of five randomized controlled trials were finally included, involving 1,200 patients with vilazodone and 1,193 patients with placebo. The primary efficacy end point of the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (standardized mean difference ?3.58, 95% confidence interval ?4.59 to ?2.56; P<0.00001), and the key secondary efficacy end points (Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale, Clinical Global Impression - Improvement scale, and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) indicated that vilazodone was more effective than placebo. Most common adverse events, including diarrhea and nausea, were evaluated, and safety assessments indicated that vilazodone was well tolerated (diarrhea odds ratio 3.54, 95% confidence interval 2.81–4.45; P<0.00001; nausea odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence interval 3.00–4.96; P<0.00001; discontinuations due to adverse events odds ratio 2.71, 95% confidence interval 1.81–4.05; P<0.00001). Conclusion Our findings indicate that the novel antidepressant vilazodone is effective and safe for MDD, with a low occurrence of side effects. It offers promise as an effective oral drug for the treatment of MDD, with a balance of efficacy and tolerability. PMID:26345981

  10. Long-term efficacy of infliximab maintenance therapy for perianal Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Bando, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Takesue, Yoshio; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Tomita, Naohiro

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term efficacy of seton drainage with infliximab maintenance therapy in treatment of stricture for perianal Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Sixty-two patients with perianal CD who required surgical treatment with or without infliximab between September 2000 and April 2010 were identified from our clinic’s database. The activities of the perianal lesions were evaluated using the modified perianal CD activity index (mPDAI) score. The primary endpoint was a clinical response at 12-15 wk after surgery as a short-term efficacy. Secondary endpoints were recurrence as reflected in the mPDAI score, defined as increased points in every major element. The clinical responses were classified as completely healed (mPDAI = 0), partially improved (mPDAI score decreased more than 4 points), and failure or recurrence (mPDAI score increased or decreased less than 3 points). RESULTS: There were 43 males and 19 females, of whom 26 were consecutively treated with infliximab after surgery as maintenance therapy. Complete healing was not seen. Failure was seen in 10/36 (27.8%) patients without infliximab and 4/26 (15.4%) patients with infliximab (P = 0.25). Partial improvement was seen in 26/36 (72.2%) patients without infliximab and 22/26 (88.5%) patients with infliximab (P = 0.25). Short-term improvement was achieved in 48/62 (77.4%) patients. Although the mPDAI score improved significantly with surgery regardless of infliximab, it decreased more from baseline in patients with infliximab (50.0%) than in those without infliximab (28.6%), (P = 0.003). In the long-term, recurrence rates were low regardless of infliximab in patients without anorectal stricture. In patients with anorectal stricture, cumulative recurrence incidences increased gradually and exceeded 40% at 5 years regardless of infliximab. No efficacy of infliximab treatment was found (P = 0.97). Although the cumulative rate of ostomy creation was also low in patients without stricture and high in patients with stricture, no protective efficacy was found with infliximab treatment (P = 0.6 without stricture, P = 0.22 with stricture). CONCLUSION: Infliximab treatment was demonstrated to have short-term efficacy for perianal lesions. Long-term benefit with infliximab was not proven, at least in patients with anorectal stricture. PMID:21448422

  11. Use of mixed-treatment-comparison methods in estimating efficacy of treatments for heavy menstrual bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of pharmacological and surgical treatments have been developed for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), which can have negative physical, social, psychological, and economic consequences. We conducted a systematic literature review and mixed-treatment-comparison (MTC) meta-analysis of available data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to derive estimates of efficacy for 8 classes of treatments for HMB, to inform health-economic analysis and future studies. Methods A systematic review identified RCTs that reported data on menstrual blood loss (MBL) at baseline and one or more follow-up times. Eight treatment classes were considered: COCs, danazol, endometrial ablation, LNG-IUS, placebo, progestogens given for less than 2 weeks out of 4 during the menstrual cycle, progestogens given for close to 3 weeks out of 4, and TXA. The primary measure of efficacy was the proportion of women who achieved MBL < 80 mL per cycle (month), as measured by the alkaline hematin method. A score less than 100 on an established pictorial blood-loss assessment chart (PBAC) was considered an acceptable substitute for MBL < 80 mL. Estimates of efficacy by treatment class and time were obtained from a Bayesian MTC model. The model also included effects for treatment class, study, and the combination of treatment class and study and an adjustment for baseline mean MBL. Several methodological challenges complicated the analysis. Some trials reported various summary statistics for MBL or PBAC, requiring estimation (with less precision) of % MBL < 80 mL or % PBAC < 100. Also, reported follow-up times varied substantially. Results The evidence network involved 34 RCTs, with follow-up times from 1 to 36 months. Efficacy at 3 months of follow-up (estimated as the posterior median) ranged from 87.5% for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) to 14.2% for progestogens administered for less than 2 weeks out of 4 in the menstrual cycle. The 95% credible intervals for most estimates were quite wide, mainly because of the limited evidence for many combinations of treatment class and follow-up time and the uncertainty from estimating % MBL < 80 mL or % PBAC < 100 from summary statistics. Conclusions LNG-IUS and endometrial ablation are very efficacious in treating HMB. The study yielded useful insights on using MTC in sparse evidence networks. Diversity of outcome measures and follow-up times in the HMB literature presented considerable challenges. The Bayesian credible intervals reflected the various sources of uncertainty. PMID:23786677

  12. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

  13. Changes in Self-Efficacy and Task Value in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether course content self-efficacy, online technologies self-efficacy, and task value change over the course of a semester. Sixty-nine participating students from four classes provided data through two instruments: (1) the self-efficacy instrument and (2) the task value instrument. Students' self-efficacy

  14. Persistence at an Urban Community College: The Implications of Self-Efficacy and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Edlin, Margot; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how self-efficacy and motivation affected student persistence at an urban community college. Self-efficacy was studied at two dimensions: self-regulated learning efficacy and self-efficacy for academic achievement. Motivation was also investigated at two levels: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Results show that…

  15. Singapore Teachers' Personal and General Efficacy for Teaching Primary Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Peter; Tan, Geok-Chin Ivy

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the sense of Teacher Efficacy (TE) belief held by Singapore teachers for teaching primary social studies. Teacher Efficacy, which comprises Personal Teaching Efficacy (PTE) and General Teaching Efficacy (GTE), was measured. A group of 116 primary school teachers attending a social studies in-service…

  16. Tinkering and Technical Self-Efficacy of Engineering Students at the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dale R.; Wood, Lorelei; Corkins, James; Krause, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy in engineering is important because individuals with low self-efficacy have lower levels of achievement and persistence in engineering majors. To examine self-efficacy among community college engineering students, an instrument to specifically measure two important aspects of engineering, tinkering and technical self-efficacy, was…

  17. Practicum Experiences as Sources of Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Maria; Costa, João; Onofre, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This study examines physical education pre-service teachers' (PTs) self-efficacy and practicum experiences as self-efficacy sources through a mixed-method approach. For the quantitative phase, a self-efficacy questionnaire was applied to 141 PTs. Results showed a stronger self-efficacy in the relationship with students and discipline promotion.…

  18. Building Self-Efficacy for Exercise among Rural High School Students: It Takes Ongoing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hortz, Brian; Petosa, R. Lingyak; Grim, Melissa L.; Stevens, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy has been associated with adolescent exercise. Previous studies have revealed that self-efficacy is relatively resistant to change. Effective strategies to build self-efficacy among adolescents are needed. Purpose: To describe the changes in self-efficacy and leisure time exercise produced by the "Planning to be…

  19. A hidden efficacy of seemingly unproductive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Manu

    Contrary to the fairly established notion in the learning sciences that un-scaffolded, ill-structured problem-solving processes rarely lead to meaningful learning, this study reports a hidden efficacy of such processes in a synchronous, computer-supported, collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. A contrasting-case, double-transfer design investigated the effect of problem type (well- vs. ill-structured problems in Newtonian Kinematics) on collaborative processes and outcomes as well as the transfer of problem-solving skills to the individual. N = 104 triads of 11th-grade science students were randomly assigned to solve either well- or ill-structured problems. Thereafter, all participants individually solved well-structured problems followed by ill-structured problems. Findings suggested that compared to well-structured problem-solving groups, ill-structured problem-solving groups struggled with defining the problem and spent much of their sustained interactional effort around problem critiquing and solution evaluation within a discussion that was highly complex, chaotic, and divergent. As such, they found it difficult to converge on the causes of the problem, set appropriate criteria for a solution, and develop a solution, which, in turn, decreased their group performance. Thus, on many counts, production in ill-structured problem-solving groups seemed unproductive when compared to production in well-structured problem-solving groups. Notwithstanding, the contrasting-case, double-transfer design of this study provided participants in the ill-structured condition with an opportunity to spontaneously contrast the ill-structured problems that they had solved in groups with the well-structured problems they solved on an individual basis afterwards. This contrast helped them separate the relevant from the irrelevant components of ill-structured problems, thereby facilitating a spontaneous transfer of problem-solving skills, which, in the absence of the contrast, might have remained unrealized. Therefore, despite the seemingly unproductive production in ill-structured problem-solving groups, participants from these groups outperformed their counterparts in the well-structured condition on not only the well-structured problems' post-test but also the ill-structured one thereafter. Findings and their implications for CSCL research and practice are discussed. Leveraging on the laws of self-organization and complexity, specific implications for scaffolding learning processes and the development of adaptive expertise are drawn.

  20. Antidepressant Efficacy of the Antimuscarinic Drug Scopolamine

    PubMed Central

    Furey, Maura L.; Drevets, Wayne C.

    2010-01-01

    Context The need for improved therapeutic agents that more quickly and effectively treat depression is critical. In a pilot study we evaluated the role of the cholinergic system in cognitive symptoms of depression and unexpectedly observed rapid reductions in depression severity following the administration of the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine hydrobromide (4 ?g/kg intravenously) compared with placebo (P=.002). Subsequently a clinical trial was designed to assess more specifically the antidepressant efficacy of scopolamine. Objective To evaluate scopolamine as a potential antidepressant agent. Design Two studies were conducted: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study followed by a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial. Setting The National Institute of Mental Health. Patients Currently depressed outpatients aged 18 to 50 years meeting DSM-IV criteria for recurrent major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Of 39 eligible patients, 19 were randomized and 18 completed the trial. Interventions Multiple sessions including intravenous infusions of placebo or scopolamine hydrobromide (4 ?g/kg). Individuals were randomized to a placebo/ scopolamine or scopolamine/placebo sequence (series of 3 placebo sessions and series of 3 scopolamine sessions). Sessions occurred 3 to 5 days apart. Main Outcome Measures Psychiatric evaluations using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale were performed to assess antidepressant and antianxiety responses to scopolamine. Results The placebo/scopolamine group showed no significant change during placebo infusion vs baseline; reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores (P<.001 for both) were observed after the administration of scopolamine compared with placebo. The scopolamine/placebo group also showed reductions in depression and anxiety rating scale scores (P<.001 for both) after the administration of scopolamine, relative to baseline, and these effects persisted as they received placebo. In both groups, improvement was significant at the first evaluation after scopolamine administration (P?.002). Conclusion Rapid, robust antidepressant responses to the antimuscarinic scopolamine occurred in currently depressed patients who predominantly had poor prognoses. PMID:17015814

  1. A Priori Identifiability Analysis of Cardiovascular Models

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Saccomani, Maria P.; Shroff, Sanjeev G.

    2013-01-01

    Model parameters, estimated from experimentally measured data, can provide insight into biological processes that are not experimentally measurable. Whether this optimized parameter set is a physiologically relevant complement to the experimentally measured data, however, depends on the optimized parameter set being unique, a model property known as a priori global identifiability. However, a priori identifiability analysis is not common practice in the biological world, due to the lack of easy-to-use tools. Here we present a program, Differential Algebra for Identifiability of Systems (DAISY), that facilitates identifiability analysis. We applied DAISY to several cardiovascular models: systemic arterial circulation (Windkessel, T-Tube) and cardiac muscle contraction (complex stiffness, crossbridge cycling-based). All models were globally identifiable except the T-Tube model. In this instance, DAISY was able to provide insight into making the model identifiable. We applied numerical parameter optimization techniques to estimate unknown parameters in a model DAISY found globally identifiable. While all the parameters could be accurately estimated, a sensitivity analysis was first necessary to identify the required experimental data. Global identifiability is a prerequisite for numerical parameter optimization, and in a variety of cardiovascular models, DAISY provided a reliable, fast, and simple platform to provide this identifiability analysis.

  2. A Plume Tracing, Source Identifying Technique for Mars Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Don; Lamb, Brian; Hovde, Chris; Ferrara, Tom

    2015-11-01

    We have developed and field-tested a technique to identify and characterize the source of an effluent plume (biogenic or otherwise) on Mars, using a slow-moving vehicle like a Mars Rover. The technique is based on terrestrial plume characterization methods (EPA Method 33a), and uses puff models of variable complexity to predict the plume behavior for a given source. The technique is developed assuming that a Mars Rover would be equipped with a high-performance eddy-sensing 3-D anemometer (e.g., a Martian Sonic Anemometer), as well as a fast-response tracer molecule-specific sensor (e.g., a TLS methane sensor). The platform is assumed to move only once a day, but have the ability to observe throughout the day and night. Data obtained from any one sol while the effluent plume meanders across the rover can be used to estimate the azimuth, range and strength of the source, but combining observations from multiple sols and locations is used to improve the estimate of the souce location and strength.We have conducted preliminary field tests using a Sonic Anemometer (Gill and Campbell) and fast-response methane sensors (LICOR and Picarro) on mobile platforms using both controlled and existing methane releases to prove our algorithm in simple terrain, and with varying atmospheric stability. We will discuss our results and the efficacy of our algorithm in real world conditions.

  3. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters. PMID:18328107

  4. Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58) and assistant nurses (n = 79) replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1) and work ability (model 2) for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p < 0.001), while for care aides, the safety climate, seniority and age contributed to work ability (R2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001). Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides), and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in practice and in further research. Proactive workplace interventions need to focus on potentially modifiable factors such as self-efficacy, safety climate, physical job demands and musculoskeletal wellbeing. PMID:22236253

  5. Efficacy of tendon and nerve gliding exercises for carpal tunnel syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Dol

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of evidence for the efficacy of tendon and nerve gliding exercises in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Four electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials on the efficacy of tendon and nerve gliding exercises for carpal tunnel syndrome. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. [Results] Four trials were identified and included in the review. The results of critical appraisal of quality ranged between low and moderate risk of bias. The available data could only be included as a narrative description. Symptom severity decreased and functional status improved with combined treatment, involving a tendon or nerve gliding exercise group plus conventional treatments, compared with the use of conventional treatments alone. [Conclusion] Evidence from 4 randomized controlled trials suggests that tendon and nerve gliding exercises, when combined with conventional treatments, may have a favorable effect in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, further randomized controlled trials designed to assess the effect of tendon and nerve gliding exercises alone are required to investigate the hypothesis that such exercises alleviate carpal tunnel syndrome, and to confirm and further elucidate the efficacy of standardized physical exercise programs in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:26357452

  6. Impact of rehabilitation on self-concept following traumatic brain injury: An exploratory systematic review of intervention methodology and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Haslam, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To date, reviews of rehabilitation efficacy after traumatic brain injury (TBI) have overlooked the impact on sense of self, focusing instead on functional impairment and psychological distress. The present review sought to address this gap by critically appraising the methodology and efficacy of intervention studies that assess changes in self-concept. A systematic search of PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL and PubMed was conducted from inception to September 2013 to identify studies reporting pre- and post-intervention changes on validated measures of self-esteem or self-concept in adults with TBI. Methodological quality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 17 studies (10 RCTs, 4 non-RCT group studies, 3 case studies) was identified, which examined the impact of psychotherapy, family-based support, cognitive rehabilitation or activity-based interventions on self-concept. The findings on the efficacy of these interventions were mixed, with only 10 studies showing some evidence of improvement in self-concept based on within-group or pre-post comparisons. Such findings highlight the need for greater focus on the impact of rehabilitation on self-understanding with improved assessment and intervention methodology. We draw upon theories of identity reconstruction and highlight implications for the design and evaluation of identity-oriented interventions that can supplement existing rehabilitation programmes for people with TBI. PMID:25384260

  7. In Vivo Efficacy of HD0471953: A Novel GPR119 Agonist for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Chun Hwa; Ha, Tae-Young; Yang, Jin; Rhee, Jae-Keol

    2013-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has emerged as a promising new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The expression of GPR119 on the pancreatic B cells and intestinal L cells provides a unique opportunity for a single drug to promote insulin and GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we identified a novel small molecule GPR119 agonist, HD0471953, from our large library of synthetic compounds based on its ability to anti-hyperglycemic effects on T2DM murine models. We have tested the acute efficacy of HD0471953 by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with normal C57BL/6J mice. Then, chronic administrations of HD0471953 were performed to evaluate the efficacy on various diabetic rodent models. Single administration of HD0471953 showed improved glycemic control with a dose-dependent manner in OGTT with normal mice, and the insulin and GLP-1 were also increased. To identify chronic efficacy, we have observed a decline of blood glucose and fasting insulin in a dose-dependent manner of 10, 20, and 50?mpk in db/db mice. The results suggest that HD0471953 may be a potentially promising anti-hyperglycemic agent for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24386644

  8. In vivo efficacy of HD0471953: a novel GPR119 agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Ra; Kim, Dae-Hoon; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Chun Hwa; Ha, Tae-Young; Yang, Jin; Rhee, Jae-Keol

    2013-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has emerged as a promising new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The expression of GPR119 on the pancreatic B cells and intestinal L cells provides a unique opportunity for a single drug to promote insulin and GLP-1 secretion. In this study, we identified a novel small molecule GPR119 agonist, HD0471953, from our large library of synthetic compounds based on its ability to anti-hyperglycemic effects on T2DM murine models. We have tested the acute efficacy of HD0471953 by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with normal C57BL/6J mice. Then, chronic administrations of HD0471953 were performed to evaluate the efficacy on various diabetic rodent models. Single administration of HD0471953 showed improved glycemic control with a dose-dependent manner in OGTT with normal mice, and the insulin and GLP-1 were also increased. To identify chronic efficacy, we have observed a decline of blood glucose and fasting insulin in a dose-dependent manner of 10, 20, and 50 mpk in db/db mice. The results suggest that HD0471953 may be a potentially promising anti-hyperglycemic agent for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24386644

  9. Effective wound management: identifying criteria for infection.

    PubMed

    Moore, Zena; Cowman, Seamus

    This article provides an overview of the European Wound Management Association's (2005) position document Identifying Criteria for Wound Infection and outlines its relevance and clinical applicability. The document is divided into four parts: understanding wound infection; clinical identification of wound infection--a Delphi approach; identifying criteria for pressure ulcer infection; and identifying surgical site infection in wounds healing by primary intention. Each part is discussed separately. PMID:17345911

  10. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  11. Functional kinomics identifies candidate therapeutic targets in head and neck cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Our functional kinomics approach identified novel survival kinases in HNSCC involved in G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, SFK, PI3K, and FAK pathways. RNAi-mediated knockdown and chemical inhibition of the WEE1 kinase with a specific inhibitor, MK-1775, had a significant effect on both viability and apoptosis. Sensitivity to the MK-1775 kinase inhibitor is in part determined by p53 mutational status, and due to unscheduled mitotic entry. MK-1775 displays single-agent activity and potentiates the efficacy of cisplatin in a p53-mutant HNSCC xenograft model.

  12. Functional kinomics identifies candidate therapeutic targets in head and neck cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Our functional kinomics approach identified novel survival kinases in HNSCC involved in G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, SFK, PI3K, and FAK pathways. RNAi-mediated knockdown and chemical inhibition of the WEE1 kinase with a specific inhibitor, MK-1775, had a significant effect on both viability and apoptosis. Sensitivity to the MK-1775 kinase inhibitor is in part determined by p53 mutational status, and due to unscheduled mitotic entry. MK-1775 displays single-agent activity and potentiates the efficacy of cisplatin in a p53-mutant HNSCC xenograft model.

  13. Melanoma-associated antigen expression and the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    HARTMANN, STEFAN; BRANDS, ROMAN C.; KÜCHLER, NORA; FUCHS, ANDREAS; LINZ, CHRISTIAN; KÜBLER, ALEXANDER C.; MÜLLER-RICHTER, URS D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) has been identified in a variety of types of cancer. The expression of several MAGE subgroups is correlated with poor prognosis and chemotherapeutic resistance. One target of chemotherapeutic treatment in head and neck cancer is the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in the context of melanoma-associated antigens is discussed in the present study. Five human squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were treated with the EGFR TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib. The efficacy of these agents was measured using a crystal violet assay. Furthermore, the expression levels of MAGE-A1, -A5, -A8, -A9, -A11 and -A12 were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The association between TKI efficacy and MAGE-A expression was analyzed by linear regression. The cell lines revealed inhomogeneous expression patterns for the MAGE-A subgroups. Four of the five cell lines demonstrated a good response to erlotinib and gefitinib. However, treatment with erlotinib induced better results than those of gefitinib, and revealed a concentration-dependent effect. The expression of MAGE-A5 and -A11 were significantly correlated with lower efficacy of erlotinib and gefitinib. By contrast, MAGE-A12 was associated with a superior response to these two drugs. One cell line, which expressed all investigated MAGE-A subgroups, was entirely resistant to the two TKIs. These results revealed a notable correlation between MAGE-A5 and -A11 and lower efficacy of EGFR TKIs. Pretreatment analysis of MAGE-A status may therefore aid improvement of chemoprevention using erlotinib and gefitinib in head and neck cancer.

  14. Meta-analysis on efficacy and safety of new oral anticoagulants for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in elderly elective postarthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ranjan; Giri, Smith; Karmacharya, Paras; Aryal, Madan Raj; Poudel, Dilli Ram; Ghimire, Sushil; Jehangir, Asad; Shaikh, Bilal; Rettew, Andrew; Donato, Anthony A

    2015-12-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) increases with age. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have been increasingly studied for VTE prophylaxis in patients with elective postarthroplasty. Although the elderly population accounts for a significant proportion of patients requiring VTE prophylaxis, safety and efficacy of NOACs in this subgroup for VTE prophylaxis has not been well studied. Relevant studies were identified through electronic literature searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov (from inception to 12 August 2014). Phase III randomized controlled trials that compared NOACs against low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the prevention of VTE prophylaxis in patients with elective postarthroplasty were included. We defined our elderly population as adults of at least 75 years and assessed the reported safety and efficacy outcomes with NOACs in this population. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated and between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the I statistic. In nine trials involving 29?403 patients, the risk of VTE or VTE-related deaths in elderly patients with elective postarthroplasty was similar with NOACs compared with LMWH (OR 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.30-1.26; P?=?0.18; I?=?44%) but bleeding risk was significantly lower (OR 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.94; P?=?0.02; I?=?0%). Analysis of individual NOACs showed superior efficacy but similar safety for apixaban when compared with LMWH. Efficacy and safety profiles of rivaroxaban and dabigatran were similar to LMWH. In elderly patients with elective postarthroplasty, NOACs have similar efficacy but superior safety when compared with enoxaparin for VTE prophylaxis. PMID:26258674

  15. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this study may provide a gender-based increase in self-efficacy and future research should focus on exploring this possibility.

  16. Creating a Reliable and Valid Self-Efficacy Questionnaire and English Test To Raise Learners' L2 Achievement via Raising Their Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templin, Stephen A.; Guile, Timothy C.; Okuma, Takanobu

    This study investigated whether a self-efficacy course would raise English-as-a-Second-Language learners' English ability by raising their self-efficacy. It also examined the reliability and validity of a self-efficacy questionnaire and English test. Participants were 293 Japanese college freshmen. Researchers developed two versions of an English…

  17. Outcomes of Occupational Self-Efficacy in Older Workers.

    PubMed

    Paggi, Michelle E; Jopp, Daniela S

    2015-04-01

    Because of the increasing number of older workers, it is important to develop models of work-related constructs for this population. The present article developed a model surrounding occupational self-efficacy, testing its relation to other factors (e.g., intrinsic job motivation), predictors (e.g., self-perceptions of aging), and outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction). Employed adults of ages 50 and older (n?=?313) were recruited via organizations and social media sites. Study participants (M?=?59.7, SD?=?6.1, range?=?50-78) volunteered to fill out an Internet survey. Occupational self-efficacy predicted job satisfaction, and intrinsic job motivation fully mediated this relationship. More negative self-perceptions of aging predicted poorer occupational self-efficacy. Occupational self-efficacy also predicted life satisfaction. Expected retirement age and job performance were unrelated to occupational self-efficacy. These findings may inform workplace interventions that seek to maintain or increase older worker job and life satisfaction. PMID:26394821

  18. The relationship among shame, guilt, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Kim M; Baldwin, John R; Ewald, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The perception of the self has been one of the fundamental constructs in psychotherapy, with attention devoted to shame, guilt, and, more recently, one's perception of ability to influence a situation-that is, self-efficacy; however, the relationship between these constructs merits scholarly attention. In the present study, researchers analyze the survey responses of 194 college students to determine relationships between shame and guilt as measured by the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA 3, Tangney & Dearing, 2002), and self-efficacy as measured by the general and social self-efficacy scales (by Sherer, Maddux, Mercandante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, & Rogers, 1982). Results support a hypothesis that higher shame scores were related to reduced self-efficacy; however, scores did not reveal a significant correlation between guilt and self-efficacy. Post-hoc analyses suggest some differences based on gender and private-versus-public school setting. The researchers draw theoretical and counseling implications from the findings. PMID:16770913

  19. A Reanalysis of Engineering Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-12-01

    This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted from this study. (1) No significant differences in overall mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found by gender. However, this study found differences between men's and women's mean coping self-efficacy (CSE) and engineering career outcome expectations (ECOE) subscale scores. Freshmen men had significantly higher ECOE compared to upperclassmen women. (2) Overall, fifthyear men had significantly lower mean ESE scores compared to all other groups. (3) When the fifth-year group was removed from the data set, all first-year students had significantly lower subscale scores compared to all other years. In addition, men in their first-year of engineering had significantly lower subscale scores compared to other groups of men. (4) No significant differences in overall ESE scores were found among first to fifth-year women. Also, no significant differences in self-efficacy subscale scores were found among first to fifth-year women.

  20. Patients' self-efficacy within online health communities: facilitating chronic disease self-management behaviors through peer education.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erin

    2016-03-01

    In order to combat the growing burden of chronic disease, evidence-based self-management programs have been designed to teach patients about the disease and its affect on their lives. Self-efficacy is a key component in chronic disease self-management. This research used online ethnography and discourse analysis (N = 8,231) to examine self-efficacy within the computer-mediated communication (CMC) of four online health communities used by people with arthritis. Specifically, online opinion leaders were identified for examination. Across the four communities, there was a cyclical process that involved "disease veterans" sharing their experiences and gaining credibility within the community, new(er) members suffering from disease symptoms and sharing their experiences online, and finally, asking others for help with arthritis self-management behaviors. Three themes follow: (1) sharing disease experience, (2) suffering from disease symptoms, and (3) asking for help. Practical implications for health promotion and education are discussed. PMID:26325224

  1. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Relieving Cancer-Related Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-ming; Huang, Yi-xue; Shen, Hong-hui; Sang, Xiu-xiu; Ma, Xiao; Zhao, Yan-ling; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread popular use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies, a rigorous evidence based on the efficacy of compound kushen injection (CKI) for cancer-related pain is lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of compound kushen injection and provided information for current or future research and clinical application. Sixteen trials were identified with a total of 1564 patients. The total pain relief rate of CKI plus chemotherapy is better than chemotherapy except for colorectal cancer. The treatment groups achieved a reduction in the incidences of leukopenia and gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal functional lesion. However, there is paucity of multi-institutional RCTs evaluating compound kushen injection for cancer pain with adequate power, duration, and sham control. The quantity and quality of RCTs are lower so that we still have to boost the research level through scientific design and normative report. PMID:26504481

  2. The efficacy of complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP) and predictive factors of lymphedema severity and response to CDP in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL).

    PubMed

    Liao, Su-Fen; Li, Shu-Hua; Huang, Hsin-Ya; Chen, Shou-Tung; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wei, Ta-Sen

    2013-10-01

    BCRL is the most common morbidity in women with breast cancer. We performed a retrospective analysis of 107 BCRL patients to identify the efficacy of CDP and the predictors of lymphedema severity and response to CDP. The patients received 12 sessions of CDP, the duration of lymphedema was 22.4 months, and 56% of BCRL occurred within 2 years after surgery. Lymphedema severity, baseline and post-CDP percentage of excess volume (PEV), was 27.7% and 14.9%. The baseline PEV was correlated with the duration of lymphedema. The CDP efficacy, percentage reduction of excess volume (PREV), was 50.5%, and was correlated with PEV, duration of lymphedema and age. Baseline lymphedema severity was the most important predictive factor for CDP efficacy. The breast cancer therapy characteristics did not affect PEV or PREV. This study showed the effectiveness of an intensive CDP interventions. The key to predicting successful lymphedema treatment is the baseline PEV. PMID:23321586

  3. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  4. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  5. Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Identifying Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing Using Virtual Intelligence Techniques SPE 72385 Results & Discussion Conclusion #12;SPE 72385 OBJECTIVE To identify Best Practices in Hydraulic Fracturing, are fractured upon completion to provide economic amounts of gas. #12;SPE 72385 BACKGROUND A dataset

  6. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  7. On Identifying Name Equivalences in Digital Libraries

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    On Identifying Name Equivalences in Digital Libraries Dror G. Feitelson School of Computer Science by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example-to-many rather than one-to-one causes various problems in using digital libraries. For example, · The ACM portal1

  8. Self-Identifying Emergency Radio Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.

    1987-01-01

    Rescue teams aided by knowledge of vehicle in distress. Similar to conventional emergency transmitters except contains additional timing and modulating circuits. Additions to standard emergency transmitter enable transmitter to send rescuers identifying signal in addition to conventional distress signal created by sweep generator. Data generator contains identifying code.

  9. Squibs and Discussions Identifying Sources of Disagreement

    E-print Network

    as would be desirable for reliable data analysis. Identifying the main sources responsible for poorSquibs and Discussions Identifying Sources of Disagreement: Generalizability Theory in Manual for its application based on published data. 1. Introduction Manual annotations are still a major source

  10. Alternative Methodologies for Identifying Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, William J.; And Others

    If an effective school is defined as a school that causes student improvement on a number of important educational outcomes, the problem of identifying effective schools becomes one of establishing legitimate predictions of student performance and comparing those predictions to actual student or school outcomes. In attempting to identify effective…

  11. Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer

    E-print Network

    Jin, Huidong "Warren"

    Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer Jie Chen1 , Hongxing He1 , Huidong Jin1 of identifying and describing risk groups for colorectal cancer (CRC) from population based administrative health are applied to the colorectal cancer patients' profiles in contrast to background pa- tients' profiles

  12. Identifying Websites with Flow Simulation Pierre Senellart

    E-print Network

    Senellart, Pierre

    Identifying Websites with Flow Simulation Pierre Senellart ´Ecole normale sup´erieure, 45 rue d Abstract. We present in this paper a method to discover the set of webpages contained in a logical website and website importance computation. To identify the boundaries of a website, we combine the use of an online

  13. A report on the clinical efficacy of a new Bougie-internal urethrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hyn, Choe Sung; Jong, Kim Han; Chol, Choe Un

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We compare the clinical efficacy of the new bougie-internal urethrectomy (BIU) with internal urethrotomy and urethroplasty to treat urethral stricture disease. Methods: We prospectively studied 186 people with urethral stricture disease. Of these, 84 were identified for urethroplasty and 102 for internal urethrotomy (endoscopic urethrotomy). Among the 84 identified for urethroplasty, 52 received BIU (Group 1) and the remaining 32 received urethroplasty. Among the 102 identified for internal urethrotomy, 58 received BIU (Group 2) and the remaining 44 received the internal urethrotomy. After surgery, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of the BIU (operative invasions, voiding flow rates, complications, sequelae) compared with the endoscopic treatment and urethroplasty. Results: Patient age ranged from 20 to 70 years. The follow-up period was 2 years. In the BIU Group 1, the BIU Group 2, and the internal urethrotomy (endoscopic treatment), the length of strictures were 2.9 ± 1.5, 2.8 ± 1.3, 1.6 ± 0.7, and 1.5 ± 0.6, respectively. In the BIU Group 1, the urethroplasty, the BIU Group 2, and the internal urethrotomy (endoscopic treatment), the amount of bleeding was 34.1 ± 17.1, 172.2 ± 29.8, 28.5 ± 9.8, and 49.7 ± 13.6 mL, respectively. In the BIU Group 1, the urethroplasty, the BIU Group 2, and the internal urethrotomy, the recurrence rates were 5.8%, 86%, 6.8% and 25%, and the average flow rates were 18.1 ± 4.8, 13.1 ± 3.9, 18.2 ± 3.6, 10.1 ± 3.1 mL/s, respectively. There was no sequealae (sexual dysfunction, penile change) in both BIU groups. Conclusions: The new BIU could be considered first-line treatment in all patients with indications for visual internal urethrotomy and urethroplasty. PMID:26279714

  14. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-08-23

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease inmore »ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions.« less

  15. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-08-23

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions.

  16. Determination of Antibiotic Efficacy against Bacillus anthracis in a Mouse Aerosol Challenge Model?

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Henry S.; Bassett, Jennifer; Miller, Lynda; Hartings, Justin M.; Ivins, Bruce E.; Pitt, M. Louise; Fritz, David; Norris, Sarah L.; Byrne, W. Russell

    2007-01-01

    An anthrax spore aerosol infection mouse model was developed as a first test of in vivo efficacy of antibiotics identified as active against Bacillus anthracis. Whole-body, 50% lethal dose (LD50) aerosol challenge doses in a range of 1.9 × 103 to 3.4 × 104 CFU with spores of the fully virulent Ames strain were established for three inbred and one outbred mouse strain (A/J, BALB/c, C57BL, and Swiss Webster). The BALB/c strain was further developed as a model for antibiotic efficacy. Time course microbiological examinations of tissue burdens in mice after challenge showed that spores could remain dormant in the lungs while vegetative cells disseminated to the mediastinal lymph nodes and then to the spleen, accompanied by bacteremia. For antibiotic efficacy studies, BALB/c mice were challenged with 50 to 100 LD50 of spores followed by intraperitoneal injection of either ciprofloxacin at 30 mg/kg of body weight (every 12 h [q12h]) or doxycycline at 40 mg/kg (q6h). A control group was treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) q6h. Treatment was begun 24 h after challenge with groups of 10 mice for 14 or 21 days. The PBS-treated control mice all succumbed (10/10) to inhalation anthrax infection within 72 h. Sixty-day survival rates for ciprofloxacin and doxycycline-treated groups were 8/10 and 9/10, respectively, for 14-day treatment and 10/10 and 7/10 for 21-day treatment. Delayed treatment with ciprofloxacin initiated 36 and 48 h postexposure resulted in 80% survival and was statistically no different than early (24 h) postexposure treatment. Results using this mouse model correlate closely with clinical observations of inhalational anthrax in humans and with earlier antibiotic studies in the nonhuman primate inhalational anthrax model. PMID:17296745

  17. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Del Valle, Sara Y; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-12-21

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  18. Pharmacological and combined interventions for the acute depressive episode: focus on efficacy and tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre R; Fraguas, Renerio; Fregni, Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Background: Use of antidepressants is the gold standard therapy for major depression. However, despite the large number of commercially available antidepressant drugs there are several differences among them in efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness. In addition the optimal augmentation strategy is still not clear when dealing with treatment-resistant depression, a condition that affects 15% to 40% of depressed patients. Methods: We therefore reviewed the main characteristics of these drugs regarding their efficacy, tolerability, side effects and cost-effectiveness, by accessing all meta-analyses and systematic reviews published from 2004 to 2009. In addition, we reviewed the augmentation strategy of associated antidepressants with neurostimulation therapies (such as transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS] and transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS]). A search was undertaken in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scielo databases. We included: 21 meta-analyses of antidepressant trials, 15 neurostimulation clinical trials and 8 studies of pharmacoeconomics. We then performed a comprehensive review on these articles. Results and Conclusion: Although recent meta-analyses suggest sertraline and escitalopram might have increased efficacy/tolerability, other studies and large pragmatic trials have not found these to be superior to other antidepressant drugs. Also, we did not identify any superior drug in terms of cost-effectiveness due to the different designs observed among pharmacoecomics studies. Side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems and weight gain were common causes of discontinuation. Tolerability was an important issue for novel neurostimulation interventions, such as TMS and tDCS. These therapies might be interesting augmentation strategies, considering their benign profile of side effects, if proper safety parameters are adopted. PMID:19956554

  19. Efficacy of a smoking quit line in the military: Baseline design and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Phyllis A.; Klesges, Robert C.; Talcott, Gerald W.; DeBon, Margaret; Womack, Catherine; Thomas, Fridtjof; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Thirty percent of all military personnel smoke cigarettes. Because of the negative health consequences and their impact on physical fitness, overall health, and military readiness, the Department of Defense has identified the reduction of tobacco use as a priority of US military forces. This study aims to evaluate the one-year efficacy of a proactive versus reactive smoking quit line in the US military with adjunctive nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in both groups. This paper reports on the baseline variables of the first 1000 participants randomized, the design, and proposed analysis of the randomized two-arm clinical trial “Efficacy of a Tobacco Quit Line in the Military”. Participants are adult smokers who are Armed Forces Active Duty personnel, retirees, Reservist, National Guard and family member healthcare beneficiaries. All participants are randomized to either the Counselor Initiated (proactive) group, receiving 6 counseling sessions in addition to an 8-week supply of NRT, or the Self-Paced (reactive) group, in which they may call the quit line themselves to receive the same counseling sessions, in addition to a 2-week supply of NRT. The primary outcome measure of the study is self-reported smoking abstinence at 1-year follow-up. Results from this study will be the first to provide evidence for the efficacy of an intensive Counselor Initiated quit line with provided NRT in military personnel and could lead to dissemination throughout the US Air Force, the armed forces population as a whole and ultimately to civilian personnel that do not have ready access to preventive health services. PMID:22561390

  20. Exploration of the Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationships for Fosfomycin Efficacy Using an In Vitro Infection Model.

    PubMed

    VanScoy, Brian D; McCauley, Jennifer; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Forrest, Alan; Ambrose, Paul G

    2015-12-01

    Fosfomycin, a phosphonic class antibiotic with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, has been used outside the United States since the early 1970s for the treatment of a variety of infections. In the United States, an oral (tromethamine salt) formulation is used for uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Recently, there has been interest in the use of an intravenous solution (ZTI-01) for the treatment of a broad range of infections associated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this era of multidrug-resistant bacteria with few treatment options, it is critical to understand the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) determinants for fosfomycin efficacy. Since such data are limited, a one-compartment in vitro infection model was used to determine the PK-PD index associated with efficacy and the magnitude of this measure necessary for various levels of effect. One challenge isolate (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, for which the fosfomycin agar MIC is 0.5 mg/liter and the broth microdilution MIC is 1 mg/liter) was evaluated in the dose fractionation studies, and two additional clinical E. coli isolates were evaluated in the dose-ranging studies. Mutation frequency studies indicated the presence of an inherently fosfomycin resistant E. coli subpopulation (agar MIC = 32 to 64 mg/liter) within the standard starting inoculum of a susceptibility test. Due to the presence of this resistant subpopulation, we identified the percentage of the dosing interval that drug concentrations were above the inherent resistance inhibitory concentration found at baseline to be the PK-PD index associated with efficacy (r(2) = 0.777). The magnitudes of this PK-PD index associated with net bacterial stasis and 1- and 2-log10 CFU/ml reductions from baseline at 24 h were 11.9, 20.9, and 32.8, respectively. These data provide useful information for modernizing and optimizing ZTI-01 dosing regimens for further study. PMID:26100706

  1. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  2. Immunogenicity, safety and efficacy of tetravalent rhesus-human, reassortant rotavirus vaccine in Belém, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Linhares, A. C.; Gabbay, Y. B.; Mascarenhas, J. D.; de Freitas, R. B.; Oliveira, C. S.; Bellesi, N.; Monteiro, T. A.; Lins-Lainson, Z.; Ramos, F. L.; Valente, S. A.

    1996-01-01

    A tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus (RRV-TV) vaccine (4 x 10(4) plaque-forming units/dose) was evaluated for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 540 Brazilian infants. Doses of vaccine or placebo were given at ages 1, 3 and 5 months. No significant differences were noted in the occurrence of diarrhoea or vomiting in vaccine and placebo recipients following each dose. Low-grade fever occurred on days 3-5 in 2-3% of vaccinees after the first dose, but not after the second or third doses of vaccine. An IgA antibody response to rhesus rotavirus (RRV) occurred in 58% of vaccinees and 33% of placebo recipients. Neutralizing antibody responses to individual serotypes did not exceed 20% when measured by fluorescent focus reduction, but exceeded 40% when assayed by plaque reduction neutralization. There were 91 cases of rotavirus diarrhoea among the 3-dose (vaccine or placebo) recipients during two years of follow-up, 36 of them among children given the vaccine. Overall vaccine efficacy was 8% (P = 0.005) against any diarrhoea and 35% (P = 0.03) against any rotavirus diarrhoea. Protection during the first year of follow-up, when G serotype 1 rotavirus predominated, was 57% (P = 0.008), but fell to 12% in the second year. Similar results were obtained when analysis was restricted to episodes in which rotavirus was the only identified pathogen. There was a tendency for enhanced protection by vaccine against illness associated with an average of 6 or more stools per day. These results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further studies of this vaccine in developing countries using a higher dosage in an attempt to improve its immunogenicity and efficacy. PMID:9002329

  3. ?-Arrestin-Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Agonists Engender Unique Biological Efficacy in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gesty-Palmer, Diane; Yuan, Ling; Martin, Bronwen; Wood, William H.; Lee, Mi-Hye; Janech, Michael G.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Zheng, W. Jim; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Biased G protein-coupled receptor agonists are orthosteric ligands that possess pathway-selective efficacy, activating or inhibiting only a subset of the signaling repertoire of their cognate receptors. In vitro, d-Trp12,Tyr34-bPTH(7–34) [bPTH(7–34)], a biased agonist for the type 1 PTH receptor, antagonizes receptor-G protein coupling but activates arrestin-dependent signaling. In vivo, both bPTH(7–34) and the conventional agonist hPTH(1–34) stimulate anabolic bone formation. To understand how two PTH receptor ligands with markedly different in vitro efficacy could elicit similar in vivo responses, we analyzed transcriptional profiles from calvarial bone of mice treated for 8 wk with vehicle, bPTH(7–34) or hPTH(1–34). Treatment of wild-type mice with bPTH(7–34) primarily affected pathways that promote expansion of the osteoblast pool, notably cell cycle regulation, cell survival, and migration. These responses were absent in ?-arrestin2-null mice, identifying them as downstream targets of ?-arrestin2-mediated signaling. In contrast, hPTH(1–34) primarily affected pathways classically associated with enhanced bone formation, including collagen synthesis and matrix mineralization. hPTH(1–34) actions were less dependent on ?-arrestin2, as might be expected of a ligand capable of G protein activation. In vitro, bPTH(7–34) slowed the rate of preosteoblast proliferation, enhanced osteoblast survival when exposed to an apoptotic stimulus, and stimulated cell migration in wild-type, but not ?-arrestin2-null, calvarial osteoblasts. These results suggest that bPTH(7–34) and hPTH(1–34) affect bone mass in vivo through predominantly separate genomic mechanisms created by largely distinct receptor-signaling networks and demonstrate that functional selectivity can be exploited to change the quality of G protein-coupled receptor efficacy. PMID:23315939

  4. Effects of individualized bone density feedback and educational interventions on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy: a 12-yr prospective study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Feitong; Laslett, Laura L; Wills, Karen; Oldenburg, Brian; Jones, Graeme; Winzenberg, Tania

    2014-01-01

    This is 12-yr follow-up of a randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the long-term effects of bone density feedback and osteoporosis education on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy. We examined the effects of feedback of bone density-defined fracture risk (high [T-score <0] vs normal [T-score ?0] risk) and 2 different educational interventions (the group-based Osteoporosis Prevention and Self-Management Course [OPSMC] vs an osteoporosis leaflet) on osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy in women aged 25-44. Seventy-four percent (N = 347) of 470 participants at baseline participated at 12 yr. Overall, the scores were higher for osteoporosis knowledge but lower for self-efficacy at 12 yr. However, neither intervention had an effect on the change in knowledge (T-score, ? = 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.3 to 1.1; OPSMC, ? = 0.2, 95% CI = -0.5 to 0.9) or self-efficacy (T-score, ? = -1.1, 95% CI = -2.5 to 0.4; OPSMC, ? = -0.2, 95% CI = -1.6 to 1.3). Women in households with an unemployed main financial provider had a decrease in knowledge at 12 yr compared with those in households with an employed main financial provider in whom knowledge increased (? = -1.95, 95% CI = -3.40 to -0.50), but there were no other predictors of change identified for knowledge or self-efficacy. In conclusion, beneficial effects of both OPSMC and feedback of high fracture risk on osteoporosis knowledge seen previously at 2 yr were not sustained after 12 yr although overall knowledge was still significantly higher than at baseline. Neither intervention improved osteoporosis self-efficacy. More frequent osteoporosis education and bone density feedback may be required to maintain knowledge, and other approaches to improve self-efficacy are necessary. PMID:25220886

  5. Comparing effectiveness with efficacy: outcomes of palliative chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, L.D.; Zhang–Salomons, J.; Mates, M.; Booth, C.M.; King, W.D.; Mackillop, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Randomized controlled trials (rcts) are the “gold standard” for establishing treatment efficacy; however, efficacy does not automatically translate to a comparable level of effectiveness in routine practice. Our objectives were to ? describe outcomes of palliative platinum-doublet chemotherapy (ppdc) in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) in routine practice, in terms of survival and well-being; and? compare the effectiveness of ppdc in routine practice with its efficacy in rcts. Methods Electronic treatment records were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify patients who underwent ppdc for nsclc at Ontario’s regional cancer centres between April 2008 and December 2011. At each visit to the cancer centre, a patient’s symptoms are recorded using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (esas). Score on the esas “well-being” item was used here as a proxy for quality of life (qol). Survival in the cohort was compared with survival in rcts, adjusting for differences in case mix. Changes in the esas score were measured 2 months after treatment start. The proportion of patients having improved or stable well-being was compared with the proportion having improved or stable qol in relevant rcts. Results We identified 906 patients with pre-ppdc esas records. Median survival was 31 weeks compared with 28–48 weeks in rcts. After accounting for deaths and cases lost to follow-up, we estimated that, at 2 months, 62% of the cohort had improved or stable well-being compared with 55%–63% who had improved or stable qol in rcts. Conclusions The effectiveness of ppdc for nsclc in routine practice in Ontario is consistent with its efficacy in rcts, both in terms of survival and improvement in well-being. PMID:26089717

  6. Review of oral cholera vaccines: efficacy in young children

    PubMed Central

    Aumatell, Cristina Masuet; Torrell, JM Ramon; Zuckerman, Jane N

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young children are one of the most vulnerable groups who may be infected with cholera. The following literature review of the efficacy of the currently available cholera vaccines provides a clear evidence base for the clinical administration of cholera vaccine, particularly in an epidemic situation. Aim: To assess the efficacy of oral cholera vaccines in preventing cases of cholera in young children. Methods: A systematic literature review was undertaken for the period 1983 to 2011 using PubMed and the search terms “oral cholera vaccines,” “children,” and “efficacy,” limited to “clinical trials” and “human studies”. Results: Oral cholera vaccine provides an acceptable level of protection in young children, with the level of protection being greater at 12 or 24 months following immunization. Conclusions: Children exposed to a potential risk of cholera are recommended to be vaccinated with an oral cholera vaccine, irrespective of whether its constituents include the B subunit. PMID:22114507

  7. Glycosylation of Therapeutic Proteins: An Effective Strategy to Optimize Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Solá, Ricardo J.; Griebenow, Kai

    2009-01-01

    During their development and administration, protein-based drugs routinely display suboptimum therapeutic efficacies due to their poor physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These innate liabilities have driven the development of molecular level strategies to improve the therapeutic behavior of protein drugs. Among, the currently developed approaches, glycoengineering is one of the most promising due fact that it has been shown to simultaneously afford improvements over most of the parameters necessary for optimization of protein drug in vivo efficacy (e.g., in vitro and in vivo molecular stability, pharmacodynamic responses, and pharmacokinetic profiles) while allowing for targeting to the desired site of action. The intent of this article is to provide an account of the effects that glycosylation has on the therapeutic efficacy of protein drugs and to describe the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation leads to such effects. PMID:20055529

  8. Understanding Women's Success in Physics through Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    2015-03-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and is a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. Considerable research has shown a connection between students' confidence in their ability to perform well (also known as self-efficacy) and persistence in science fields. In this presentation I will build from research that suggests men and women draw from different types experiences when evaluating their self-efficacy. I will demonstrate through a logistic regression analysis that self-efficacy is a positive predictor of success for women and men in introductory physics, and that the sources these students draw upon differ by gender. Through qualitative data, I will also present a variety of ways that students may develop their confidence in their ability to succeed in physics.

  9. Protective efficacy of a whole cell pertussis vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Blennow, Margareta; Olin, Patrick; Granström, Marta; Bernier, Roger H

    1988-01-01

    A trial of the efficacy of a plain whole cell pertussis vaccine was conducted in Sweden. In this non-blinded trial 525 infants aged 2 months who were born on days with an even number received three doses of vaccine one month apart and 615 infants of the same age who were born on days with an odd number were enrolled as controls. During the 18 months of follow up there were 55 cases of pertussis. The attack rate was 1·5% (8/525) among the vaccinated children and 7·6% (47/615) among the unvaccinated children (p<0·001). The estimated efficacy of the vaccine was 80% (95% confidence interval 58 to 90). The estimated efficacy of pertussis vaccine was similar to that observed in British trials over 30 years ago. PMID:3135011

  10. Efficacy and ligand bias at the ?-opioid receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, E

    2013-01-01

    In order to describe drug action at a GPCR, a full understanding of the pharmacological terms affinity, efficacy and potency is necessary. This is true whether comparing the ability of different agonists to produce a measurable response in a cell or tissue, or determining the relative ability of an agonist to activate a single receptor subtype and produce multiple responses. There is a great deal of interest in the ?-opioid receptor (MOP receptor) and the ligands that act at this GPCR not only because of the clinically important analgesic effects produced by MOP agonists but also because of their liability to induce adverse effects such as respiratory depression and dependence. Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these effects, as well as the ability to develop new, more effective MOP receptor drugs, depends upon the accurate determination of the efficacy with which these ligands induce coupling of MOP receptors to downstream signalling events. In this review, which is written with the minimum of mathematical content, the basic meaning of terms including efficacy, intrinsic activity and intrinsic efficacy is discussed, along with their relevance to the field of MOP receptor pharmacology, and in particular in relation to biased agonism at this important GPCR. Linked Articles Recent reviews on aspects of efficacy can be found at: Kenakin, T (2013). New concepts in pharmacological efficacy at 7TM receptors: IUPHAR Review 2. British Journal of Pharmacology 168: 554–575. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.02223.x Roche D, Gil D and Giraldo J (2013). Mechanistic analysis of the function of agonists and allosteric modulators: reconciling two-state and operational models. British Journal of Pharmacology 169: 1189–1202. doi: 10.1111/bph.12231 PMID:23646826

  11. Efficacy of rabdosia rubescens in the treatment of gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sui; Liu, Jiarong; Zhang, Handong

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of rabdosia rubescens against gingivitis and compared the therapeutic efficacy of different dosage forms of rabdosia rubescens. A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-simulation, positive-controlled and parallel trial was conducted. A total of 136 patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of gingivitis were enrolled. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: test group (n=67), in which rabdosia rubescens drop pill (960 mg) and 4 tablets of simulation agent of rabdosia rubescen were orally given to the subjects three times a day for 5 days; and control group (n=69), in which the subjects were administered the tablets of rabdosia rubescens (1000 mg) and 24 drop pills of simulation agent of rabdosia rubescens thrice daily for 5 days. The experimental protocols and diagnostic criteria were established by expert panel prior to the experiment. The clinical symptoms were graded according to the severity of the disease and quantified. The total scores and scores for each clinical symptom of gingivitis were assessed at baseline and on the 6th day post-treatment. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between the two groups and in each group itself before and after the treatment. The results showed that in the two groups, the subjects who were given rabdosia rubescens, drop pill or tablet, had a decrease in total scores and scores for each clinical symptom when compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). There was significant difference in the therapeutic efficacy between the test group and the control group with the efficacy rate being 92.54% and 79.71% respectively (P<0.05). It was concluded that rabdosia rubescens showed great promise in treating gingivitis. And rabdosia rubescens drop pill was more efficacious than rabdosia rubescens tablet. PMID:19821105

  12. Discovery of the development candidate N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide: a safe and efficacious once monthly oral agent for the control of fleas and ticks on companion animals.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Peter T; Colletti, Steven L; Fisher, Michael H; Wyvratt, Matthew J; Shih, Thomas L; Ayer, Michelle B; Li, Chunshi; Lim, Julie; Ok, Dong; Salva, Steve; Warmke, Lynn M; Zakson, Michelle; Michael, Bruce F; Demontigny, Pierre; Ostlind, Dan A; Fink, David; Drag, Marlene; Schmatz, Dennis M; Shoop, Wesley L

    2009-06-11

    Nodulisporic acid A (1) is a structurally complex fungal metabolite that exhibits systemic efficacy against fleas via modulation of an invertebrate specific glutamate-gated ion channel. In order to identify a nodulisporamide suitable for monthly oral dosing in dogs, a library of 335 nodulisporamides was examined in an artificial flea feeding system for intrinsic systemic potency as well as in a mouse/bedbug assay for systemic efficacy and safety. A cohort of 66 nodulisporamides were selected for evaluation in a dog/flea model; pharmacokinetic analysis correlated plasma levels with flea efficacy. These efforts resulted in the identification of the development candidate N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide (3) as a potent and efficacious once monthly oral agent for the control of fleas and ticks on dogs and cats which was directly compared to the topical agents fipronil and imidacloprid, with favorable results obtained. Multidose studies over 3 months confirmed the in vivo ectoparasiticidal efficacy and established that 3 lacked overt mammalian toxicity. Tissue distribution studies in mice using [(14)C]-labeled 3 indicate that adipose beds serve as ligand depots, contributing to the long terminal half-lives of these compounds. PMID:19445514

  13. Comprehensive Sieve Analysis of Breakthrough HIV-1 Sequences in the RV144 Vaccine Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Paul T.; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J.; deCamp, Allan C.; Magaret, Craig A.; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B.; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L.; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Michael, Nelson L.; Schief, William R.; Mullins, James I.; Kim, Jerome H.; Gilbert, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or “signatures” and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p < 0.0001), suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens. PMID:25646817

  14. Advertisements impact the physiological efficacy of a branded drug.

    PubMed

    Kamenica, Emir; Naclerio, Robert; Malani, Anup

    2013-08-01

    We conducted randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the efficacy of a branded drug. We compared the objectively measured, physiological effect of Claritin (Merck & Co.), a leading antihistamine medication, across subjects randomized to watch a movie spliced with advertisements for Claritin or advertisements for Zyrtec (McNeil), a competitor antihistamine. Among subjects who test negative for common allergies, exposure to Claritin advertisements rather than Zyrtec advertisements increases the efficacy of Claritin. We conclude that branded drugs can interact with exposure to television advertisements. PMID:23878212

  15. Advertisements impact the physiological efficacy of a branded drug

    PubMed Central

    Kamenica, Emir; Naclerio, Robert; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    We conducted randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the efficacy of a branded drug. We compared the objectively measured, physiological effect of Claritin (Merck & Co.), a leading antihistamine medication, across subjects randomized to watch a movie spliced with advertisements for Claritin or advertisements for Zyrtec (McNeil), a competitor antihistamine. Among subjects who test negative for common allergies, exposure to Claritin advertisements rather than Zyrtec advertisements increases the efficacy of Claritin. We conclude that branded drugs can interact with exposure to television advertisements. PMID:23878212

  16. Safety and efficacy of azacitidine in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Carlos E; Martin-Santos, Taida; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical efficacy, different dosages, treatment schedules, and safety of azacitidine are reviewed. Summary: Azacitidine is the first drug FDA-approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes that has demonstrated improvements in overall survival and delaying time to progression to acute myelogenous leukemia. The recommended dosage of azacitidine is 75 mg/m2 daily for 7 days, with different treatment schedules validated. It appears to be well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being myelosuppression. Several other off-label recommendations were also analyzed. Conclusion: Azacitidine is the first DNA hypomethylating agent approved by FDA for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes with demonstrated efficacy. PMID:20957213

  17. Parameter identifiability of linear dynamical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, K.; Willems, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    It is assumed that the system matrices of a stationary linear dynamical system were parametrized by a set of unknown parameters. The question considered here is, when can such a set of unknown parameters be identified from the observed data? Conditions for the local identifiability of a parametrization are derived in three situations: (1) when input/output observations are made, (2) when there exists an unknown feedback matrix in the system and (3) when the system is assumed to be driven by white noise and only output observations are made. Also a sufficient condition for global identifiability is derived.

  18. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population. PMID:26547044

  19. The efficacy of behavioral interventions for cancer treatment-related side effects.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Elizabeth A; DuHamel, Katherine N; Montgomery, Guy H

    2003-10-01

    The use of increasingly aggressive methods of cancer treatment (e.g., cytotoxic doses of chemotherapy and total body irradiation) has resulted in the need for more effective management of pain, nausea, and other aversive side effects. One of the most promising approaches is nonpharmacologic intervention based on behavioral research and theory. The purpose of this article is to review the efficacy of behavioral intervention methods in controlling aversive side effects of cancer treatments. Sixty-seven published studies were identified for review. Results indicated that: (1) behavioral intervention can effectively control anticipatory nausea and vomiting in adult and pediatric patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. However, evidence for the efficacy of behavioral intervention to control post-chemotherapy nausea and vomiting is mixed; (2) behavioral intervention integrating several behavioral techniques can decrease levels of anxiety and distress associated with invasive treatments and cancer diagnosis; and (3) although a variety of behavioral methods have been shown to reduce acute treatment-related pain, not all behavioral techniques are equally effective. Hypnotic-like methods involving relaxation, suggestion, and imagery appear to have the greatest impact on cancer-related pain management. The use of behavioral theory and techniques has an important place in the care of patients undergoing invasive cancer treatments. PMID:14613052

  20. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  1. Discovery of olodaterol, a novel inhaled beta2-adrenoceptor agonist with a 24 h bronchodilatory efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bouyssou, Thierry; Hoenke, Christoph; Rudolf, Klaus; Lustenberger, Philipp; Pestel, Sabine; Sieger, Peter; Lotz, Ralf; Heine, Claudia; Büttner, Frank H; Schnapp, Andreas; Konetzki, Ingo

    2010-02-15

    Compound 4p was identified from a series of 6-hydroxy-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-ones as potent agonist of the human beta2-adrenoceptor with a high beta1/beta2-selectivity. A complete reversal of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction which lasted over the whole study period of 5h was demonstrated for 4p in a guinea pig in vivo model without any signs of cardiovascular effects up to 10-fold above the first dose reaching 100% bronchoprotection. The enantiomerically pure (R)-form of 4p exerted a bronchodilatory efficacy over 24 h in dogs and guinea pigs in the absence of systemic pharmacodynamic effects. Formoterol which was tested as comparator in the same in vivo models of acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction did not retain efficacy after 24 h. In summary, the preclinical profile of compound (R)-4p (olodaterol, also known as BI 1744 CL) suggests a potential for once-daily dosing in man accompanied with an improved safety profile. PMID:20096576

  2. A Self-Efficacy Scale for Clinical Nurse Leaders: Results of a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, Mattia J; Nokes, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, the Clinical Nurse Leader (CNL) role is the first new nursing role introduced in more than 30 years. The hallmark of CNL practice is the management of client-centered care and clinical excellence at the point of care. As part of multifaceted efforts to implement the CNL role, understanding how an individual's self-efficacy with the identified role competencies changes over time has important implications for individuals, educational programs preparing CNLs, and health care organizations employing CNLs. In this study, preliminary psychometric analyses assessing the construct validity, reliability, and discriminant validity for a new state-specific scale (CNL Self-Efficacy Scale) that assesses nurses' perceptions of their ability to function effectively as a CNL are reported. Because self-confidence is a key predictor of successful role transition, job satisfaction, and job performance, measuring individuals' self-confidence with the core competencies associated with the CNL role over time will be important to gain the full benefit of this innovative, unit-based advanced generalist role. PMID:26259337

  3. Wash-out kinetics and efficacy of a modified lavage technique for alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Francesco; Bauer, Peter C; Griese, Matthias; Wessendorf, Thomas E; Guzman, Josune; Costabel, Ulrich

    2012-12-01

    Whole lung lavage (WLL) is the standard treatment for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). This study aimed to provide data about the kinetics of the protein wash-out, to identify factors influencing the protein concentration in the recovered fluid and to assess the efficacy of a modified lavage technique. Samples of 180 WLLs from 42 adult PAP patients were collected. 110 WLLs were performed according to the classical technique. In 70 WLLs, repeated manual ventilation was applied during the procedure. Spectrophotometry was used to measure the protein concentration in the recovered fluid. The initial protein concentration in the recovered fluid was 460 mg · dL(-1), the final concentration was 26 mg · dL(-1) and the total amount of removed proteins during a lavage was 17.5 g. A history of dust exposure was associated with a higher residual protein concentration in the recovered fluid (p=0.000013). The amount of removed proteins correlated inversely with the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (p=0.001) and oxygen tension (p=0.004). The modified technique removed a greater amount of proteins than the classical technique and prolonged the time to relapse (p=0.011). Exposure to dust seems to influence the kinetics of the protein wash-out. Applying manual ventilation during the procedure can enhance the efficacy of WLL. PMID:22496317

  4. Efficacy of lifestyle interventions on clinical and neuroimaging outcomes in elderly.

    PubMed

    Rolandi, Elena; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Cavedo, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is constantly growing worldwide in absence of any effective treatment. Methodology and technique advancements facilitated the early diagnosis of AD leading to a shift toward preclinical AD stages investigation in order to delay the disease onset in individuals at risk for AD. Recent evidence demonstrating the aging related multifactorial nature of AD supported the hypothesis that modifiable environmental factors can accelerate or delay the disease onset. In particular, healthy dietary habits, constant physical and cognitive activities are associated with reduced brain atrophy, amyloid load and incidence of AD cases. Due to these promising results, an emerging field of studies is currently investigating the efficacy of interventions addressing different lifestyle habits in cognitive intact elderly individuals as a potential preventive strategy against AD onset. We provide a critical overview of the current evidence on nonpharmacologic treatments in elderly individuals, discussing their efficacy on clinical and neuroimaging outcomes and identifying current methodological issues. Future perspectives, relevant for the scientific community and the worldwide public health institutes will be further discussed. PMID:26589097

  5. Efficacy and safety of topical eprinomectin to control Myocoptes musculinus infestation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Min, Anna Rita Molinar; Osella, Luca; Bellardi, Sergio; Marchetti, Roberto; Pollicino, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Myocoptes musculinus is the most common fur mite identified among laboratory mice; infested mice, in addition to dermatological signs, may also be prone to secondary infections, affecting the outcome of a research trial. This trial was conducted in order to assess the safety and efficacy of a single topical administration of eprinomectin (5mg/kg BW) in a naturally infested laboratory mice colony. A safety trial was conducted on 20 uninfested pregnant females assigned to two groups, receiving eprinomectin and mineral oil, respectively. The mice were examined daily for signs of illness or toxicity; nests were individually weighted at 21 and 28 days postpartum. No acute toxicity was observed, all treated females gave full term delivery and number and mean weight of newborns ranged in the physiological values. To evaluate the efficacy, 20 naturally infested non-pregnant females were divided into two groups, treated as in the safety trial. Animals were observed daily for 15 min until 21 days post-treatment (DPT) and a "pruritus index" (PI: scratching and gnawing acts/mouse/min) was calculated. Pelage examination was performed on DPT 7, 14, 21 and 50. The "PI" was significantly lower in the treated group and mites were eradicated from all infested animals. A single topical administration of eprinomectin at a (high) dosage of 5mg/kg BW was safe and effective to control M. musculinus in mice. PMID:25054506

  6. Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops.

    PubMed

    Prado, Sara G; Jandricic, Sarah E; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies) and abiotic (climate and lighting). For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids) can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness) seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels. PMID:26463203

  7. Efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Hofmann, Makary T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of interventions incorporating motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and identify correlates of treatment effects. Data Sources MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycInfo, and other sources including grey literature. Study Selection Title/abstract search terms were motivational interview* OR motivational enhancement AND smok*, cigarette*, tobacco, OR nicotine. Randomized trials reporting number of smokers abstinent at follow up were eligible. Data Extraction Data were independently coded by the first and third authors. We coded for a variety of study, participant, and intervention related variables. Data Synthesis A random effects logistic regression with both a random intercept and a random slope for the treatment effect. Results Thirty-one smoking cessation research trials were selected for the study: 8 comprised adolescent samples, 8 comprised adults with chronic physical or mental illness, 5 comprised pregnant/postpartum women, and 10 comprised other adult samples. Analysis of the trials (9,485 individual participants) showed an overall odds ratio comparing likelihood of abstinence in the MI versus control condition of OR=1.45, 95% Confidence Interval or CI = 1.14-1.83). Additional potential correlates of treatment effects such as study, sample, and intervention characteristics were examined. Conclusions This is the most comprehensive review of MI for smoking cessation conducted to-date. These findings suggest that current MI smoking cessation approaches can be effective for adolescents and adults. However, comparative efficacy trials could be useful. PMID:20675688

  8. Protective and survival efficacies of Rv0160c protein in murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susmita K; Tripathi, Dinesh K; Singh, Pramod K; Sharma, Sharad; Srivastava, Kishore K

    2013-07-01

    The proline-glutamic acid (PE) and proline-proline-glutamic acid (PPE) multi-gene families code for approximately 10% of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome. These proteins are thought to be virulence factors that participate in impounding the host immune responses. While some members have been studied, the functions of most PE/PPE proteins are yet to be explored. The studies presented here have specifically characterized the roles of one of the PE proteins of Mtb, Rv0160c (PE4), in mycobacterial persistence and in prophylactic efficacy. We have expressed Rv0160c in a non-pathogenic fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis strain and demonstrated that the protein improves the survival of mycobacteria in macrophages and in mice. The protein has also shown its effect under physiological stress of bacteria, as evidenced by elevated expression in acidic and in hypoxic conditions. In mice, the level of Rv0160c was noticeably high during the chronic stage of tuberculosis. The seroreactivity of the protein against different categories of tuberculosis patients revealed a strong B-cell humoral response in freshly infected pulmonary tuberculosis patients. In mice, it exhibited increased IL-2, TNF, and IL-6 production. The antigenic properties of the protein directed towards the protective efficacy against the Mtb challenge. All together, our findings have identified Rv0160c as an in vivo expressed immunodominant antigen which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of mycobacterial disease and could prove to be a good preventive antigen for tuberculosis. PMID:23104642

  9. In vitro praziquantel test capable of detecting reduced in vivo efficacy in Schistosoma mansoni human infections.

    PubMed

    Lamberton, Poppy H L; Hogan, Sarah C; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Fenwick, Alan; Webster, Joanne P

    2010-12-01

    Although great reductions in human schistosomiasis have been observed after praziquantel (PZQ) mass drug administration (MDA), some individuals remain infected after multiple treatments. Many MDA programs now require monitoring for drug efficacy as a key component. No molecular tools for PZQ resistance currently exist and investigations into the dose of PZQ required to kill 50% of adult worms in vivo (ED(50)) present ethical, logistical, and temporal restraints. We, therefore, assessed the feasibility and accuracy of a rapid, inexpensive in vitro PZQ test in the laboratory and directly in the field in Uganda under MDA in conjunction with highly detailed infection intensity, clearance, and reinfection data. This test strongly differentiated between subsequently cleared and uncleared infections as well as differences between parasite populations pre- and post-PZQ treatments, advocating its use for on-the-spot monitoring of PZQ efficacy in natural foci. After only a few treatments, uncleared parasites were identified to be phenotypically different from drug-sensitive parasites, emphasizing the urgent need for monitoring of these repeatedly PZQ-treated populations. PMID:21118946

  10. Efficacy of metacognitive therapy for prolonged grief disorder: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wenn, Jenine; O'Connor, Moira; Breen, Lauren J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies of effective psychotherapy for individuals suffering from the effects of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) are scarce. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a metacognitive therapy programme designed specifically for PGD, to reduce the psychological distress and loss of functioning resulting from bereavement. Methods and analysis The proposed trial comprises three phases. Phase 1 consists of a review of the literature and semistructured interviews with key members of the target population to inform the development of a metacognitive therapy programme for Prolonged Grief. Phase 2 involves a randomised controlled trial to implement and evaluate the programme. Male and female adults (N=34) will be randomly assigned to either a wait list or an intervention group. Measures of PGD, anxiety, depression, rumination, metacognitions and quality of life will be taken pretreatment and posttreatment and at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up. The generalised linear mixed model will be used to assess treatment efficacy. Phase 3 will test the social validity of the programme. Discussion This study is the first empirical investigation of the efficacy of a targeted metacognitive treatment programme for PGD. A focus on identifying and changing the metacognitive mechanisms underpinning the development and maintenance of prolonged grief is likely to be beneficial to theory and practice. Ethics Ethics approval was obtained from Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval number HR 41/2013.) Trial registration number ACTRN12613001270707. PMID:26646828

  11. Ecological Interactions Affecting the Efficacy of Aphidius colemani in Greenhouse Crops

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Sara G.; Jandricic, Sarah E.; Frank, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Aphidius colemani Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid used for biological control of many economically important pest aphids. Given its widespread use, a vast array of literature on this natural enemy exists. Though often highly effective for aphid suppression, the literature reveals that A. colemani efficacy within greenhouse production systems can be reduced by many stressors, both biotic (plants, aphid hosts, other natural enemies) and abiotic (climate and lighting). For example, effects from 3rd and 4th trophic levels (fungal-based control products, hyperparasitoids) can suddenly decimate A. colemani populations. But, the most chronic negative effects (reduced parasitoid foraging efficiency, fitness) seem to be from stressors at the first trophic level. Negative effects from the 1st trophic level are difficult to mediate since growers are usually constrained to particular plant varieties due to market demands. Major research gaps identified by our review include determining how plants, aphid hosts, and A. colemani interact to affect the net aphid population, and how production conditions such as temperature, humidity and lighting affect both the population growth rate of A. colemani and its target pest. Decades of research have made A. colemani an essential part of biological control programs in greenhouse crops. Future gains in A. colemani efficacy and aphid biological control will require an interdisciplinary, systems approach that considers plant production and climate effects at all trophic levels. PMID:26463203

  12. Treatment Research for Trauma/PTSD in Youth and Adults: Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kolko, David J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Springgate, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Population-based demands for trauma services have accelerated interest in rapid deployment of efficacious interventions to address the diverse mental health consequences of traumatic experiences. However, optimal strategies for supporting either implementation or dissemination of trauma-focused interventions within healthcare or mental healthcare systems are under developed. Methods This paper offers suggestions for adapting treatment research parameters in order to advance the science on the implementable and practical use of trauma-focused interventions within a public health framework. To this end, we briefly examine the current status of the research evidence in this area and discuss efficacy and effectiveness treatment research parameters with specific attention to the implications for developing the research base on implementation and dissemination of effective trauma practices for children. Results Examples from current studies are used to identify approaches for developing, testing, and enhancing strategies to roll-out effective treatment practices in real-world settings. Conclusions New approaches that reflect the contexts in which these practices are implemented may enhance the feasibility, acceptability, replicability, and sustainability of trauma treatments and services and thus improve outcomes for a broader population of youth and families. PMID:20851266

  13. Short-Term Safety and Efficacy of Calcium Montmorillonite Clay (UPSN) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E.; Rychlik, Kristal A.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Romoser, Amelia A.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  14. Efficacy, Dosage, and Duration of Action of Branched Chain Amino Acid Therapy for Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Jaclynn A.; Lim, Miranda M.; Johnson, Brian N.; Palmer, Chris P.; Putnam, Brendan J.; Kirschen, Matthew P.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in long-lasting cognitive impairments for which there is currently no accepted treatment. A well-established mouse model of mild to moderate TBI, lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), shows changes in network excitability in the hippocampus including a decrease in net synaptic efficacy in area CA1 and an increase in net synaptic efficacy in dentate gyrus. Previous studies identified a novel therapy consisting of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which restored normal mouse hippocampal responses and ameliorated cognitive impairment following FPI. However, the optimal BCAA dose and length of treatment needed to improve cognitive recovery is unknown. In the current study, mice underwent FPI then consumed 100?mM BCAA supplemented water ad libitum for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10?days. BCAA therapy ameliorated cognitive impairment at 5 and 10?days duration. Neither BCAA supplementation at 50?mM nor BCAAs when dosed 5?days on then 5?days off was sufficient to ameliorate cognitive impairment. These results suggest that brain injury causes alterations in hippocampal function, which underlie and contribute to hippocampal cognitive impairment, which are reversible with at least 5?days of BCAA treatment, and that sustaining this effect is dependent on continuous treatment. Our findings have profound implications for the clinical investigation of TBI therapy. PMID:25870584

  15. Guanabenz (Wytensin™) selectively enhances uptake and efficacy of hydrophobically modified siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Maire F.; Alterman, Julia F.; Nikan, Mehran; Cao, Hong; Didiot, Marie C.; Hassler, Matthew R.; Coles, Andrew H.; Khvorova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to the pharmaceutical success of oligonucleotide therapeutics (ONTs) is efficient delivery from the point of injection to the intracellular setting where functional gene silencing occurs. In particular, a significant fraction of internalized ONTs are nonproductively sequestered in endo-lysosomal compartments. Here, we describe a two-step, robust assay for high-throughput de novo detection of small bioactive molecules that enhance cellular uptake, endosomal escape, and efficacy of ONTs. Using this assay, we screened the LOPAC (Sigma–Aldrich) Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds and discovered that Guanabenz acetate (Wytensin™), an FDA-approved drug formerly used as an antihypertensive agent, is capable of markedly increasing the cellular internalization and target mRNA silencing of hydrophobically modified siRNAs (hsiRNAs), yielding a ?100-fold decrease in hsiRNA IC50 (from 132 nM to 2.4 nM). This is one of the first descriptions of a high-throughput small-molecule screen to identify novel chemistries that specifically enhance siRNA intracellular efficacy, and can be applied toward expansion of the chemical diversity of ONTs. PMID:26400165

  16. Short-term safety and efficacy of calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) in children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E; Rychlik, Kristal A; Zychowski, Katherine E; Romoser, Amelia A; Phillips, Timothy D; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-10-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  17. Field study on the efficacy of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation in horses.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, André Antonio; Santos, Anderson Tintino dos; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2011-01-01

    Twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg(-1). Horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control) groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. Clinical evaluations and EPG counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. Nineteen nematode species were identified: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Habronema muscae, Habronema spp., Parascaris equorum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Oxyuris equi and Triodontophorus spp. The mean EPG counts of treated and non-treated (control) groups on Days ?15, 0, +5, +14 and +19 were 1925, 1340, 0, 12.5, 0, 1470, 790, 875, 1605 and 1240 respectively. The efficacy of treatment on Days +5, +14 and +19 was 100, 99.2 and 100% respectively, with a significant difference compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The product was considered to be safe with no findings of clinical significant changes during the study. PMID:21722495

  18. A comparative study of instructional efficacy between first and second-career teachers in secondary school math and science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Royal Anthony

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use Dr. James Stronge’s taxonomy of the qualities of effective teachers to determine whether there are significant differences in the instructional efficacy between first- and second-career teachers who teach math and science. Methodology: A causal-comparative study examined the effects of variables that cannot be manipulated experimentally. The survey instrument was a 50-tem self-identifying questionnaire addressing the 6 research questions used to determine significance between first- and second-career teachers in their classroom efficacy. Findings: A Mann-Whitney U-test determined there was an overall significant difference [p < 0.01] between first- and second-career teachers in their classroom efficacy, with second-career teachers being more aligned with research-based best practices for efficacy. Conclusions: The existing construct for hiring teachers should be reconsidered, so that teachers identified as effective by research-based methods are employed from the outset. Adult maturation patterns suggest that early adults serving as instructors are less effective for at least the first 3 to 5 years of the teachers’ career. This could be resolved by amending the criteria for teacher entry into the classroom. Maturity of the teacher plays a significant role in their classroom efficacy. Existing research has provided a construct for identifying effective teachers. Recommendations: Require teaching graduates to gain at least 5 years of practical experience in the disciplines in which they seek a license to teach before entering the classroom. Increase the age for teachers entering the profession to at least 26 before allowing them into the classroom to allow for adult maturation processes to occur. Increase the rigor for a teaching certification to the point where only high content knowledge instructors could pass. Require all potential teachers to be certified on a regular basis so that they have to keep up with the technology and the most current information of their professions. Develop an assessment to allow the instructor to display knowledge of the research-based best practices for instruction.

  19. Relationship of Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Urban Public School Students to Performance on a High-Stakes Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, Kolajo A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of "self-efficacy" for "Enlisting Social Resources, Self-Regulatory Efficacy, self-efficacy" for "Self-Regulated Learning," and "self-efficacy" for "Academic Achievement" (Bandura's Children's "Self-Efficacy Scale," 2006) of urban public school students to performance on the high stakes…

  20. International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Research 2014 May 2014 International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma A higher level of a small ... is toxic and cannot be used indefinitely. A biomarker that reflects disease severity would enable physicians to ...

  1. Identifying key odorants from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Odor emissions from animal agriculutre negatively impact air qualitly in surrounding communities. Current analytical practices are biased against agriculutral odorants and thus inadequate for odor quantification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different techniques ability to identify ...

  2. Identifying global zoogeographical regions: lessons from Wallace

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    When dividing the world into zoogeographical regions, Alfred Russel Wallace stipulated a set propagation clustering, Alfred Russel Wallace, amphibians, biogeo- graphical regions, bioregionalizationSPECIAL PAPER Identifying global zoogeographical regions: lessons from Wallace Marta Rueda1

  3. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-print Network

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  4. Jet-Medium Interactions with Identified Particles

    E-print Network

    Anne M. Sickles

    2009-09-14

    Identified particles have long been of great interest at RHIC in large part because of the baryon/meson differences observed at intermediate $p_T$ and the implications for hadronization via quark coalescence. With recent high statistics data identified particles are also now central to understanding the details of the jet-medium interactions and energy loss and hadron formation at intermediate and high $p_T$. In particular, high $p_T$ identified particle spectra along with two-particle correlations triggered with direct photons, neutral pions or electrons from heavy flavor decay with hadrons can provide information about how medium modifications to jet fragmentation depend on parton type. I will review recent results with identified particles both in heavy ion systems and the reference measurements in p+p collisions.

  5. Safety, efficacy and indications of prescription of maraviroc in clinical practice: Factors associated with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Llibre, Josep M; Rivero, Antonio; Rojas, Jhon F; Garcia Del Toro, Miguel; Herrero, Cristina; Arroyo, David; Pineda, Juan A; Pasquau, Juan; Masiá, Mar; Crespo, Manel; Blanco, José R; Moreno, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Maraviroc is approved for treatment-experienced HIV+ adults in twice-daily administration. Limited data are available on safety, efficacy and use in routine clinical practice, outside of restrictive clinical trials. This retrospective multicenter (27 centers) study included 667 subjects starting a regimen with maraviroc. The primary endpoint was plasma HIV-RNA <50copies/mL and CD4(+) cell count change at 48 and 96weeks (FDA snapshot analysis). 94.4% had CCR5 tropism (58.3% Trofile™, 29.2% population genotype, and 12% genotyping proviral DNA). Half of the subjects received the drug in scenarios or dosages outside the initial approval. Maraviroc was prescribed for salvage in 346 (51.9%) individuals, as a switch strategy due to toxicity in 135 (38.7%), for immune discordance in 75 (11.2%), and for simplification in 48 (7.2%). After salvage therapy, 223 (64.5%) subjects had HIV-RNA <50copies/mL at 48weeks, and 178 (51.4%) at 96weeks. Darunavir/r was included in 224 (64.7%) subjects and associated with higher rates of virological and immunologic efficacy (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis MSM (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.29-3.94) and baseline HIV-RNA <100,000copies/mL (OR 1.96; 1.06-3.70) were associated with virological suppression. An increase in CD4(+) counts was seen at 48 and 96weeks in subjects with immune discordance (p<0.001). Maraviroc was used once-daily in 142 (21.3%) subjects overall, and 68 (57.4%) in switch/simplification. No new safety signals were identified. Besides in salvage regimens, maraviroc was frequently used in switch due to toxicity, simplification, and immune discordance. The efficacy in salvage in clinical practice was higher than in phase III clinical trials, likely due to availability of new active drugs in the regimen. These results increase our understanding of the efficacy, safety, and conditions of prescription of maraviroc beyond the initial registrational trials and the early manufacturer pharmacovigilance programs. PMID:25977241

  6. Danish version of 'The COPD self-efficacy scale': translation and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Emme, Christina; Mortensen, Erik L; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Ostergaard, Birte; Phanareth, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to translate 'The COPD self-efficacy scale' (CSES) into Danish and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish version (CSES-DK). CSES enables assessment of self-efficacy in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The scale consists of 34 items, describing situations which may cause dyspnoea in patients with COPD. The CSES was translated into Danish using a standard forward-backward translation procedure. To estimate the reliability, measurements of internal consistency and repeatability were applied. The validity of the Danish version was evaluated by examining the associations between the CSES-DK score and socio-demographic variables (age, gender, education, disease severity and self-rated health). Factor analysis was conducted to compare the internal structure of the Danish version and the American source version. The study included 151 patients with COPD, recruited from three outpatient clinics. Estimates of reliability were in accordance with the original version of CSES (Cronbach's ? = 0.97, test-retest r = 0.82, p < 0.001). Significant correlations were obtained between the CSES-DK total score and vocational training and education (r = 0.27, p = 0.001), disease severity (r = -0.27, p = 0.001) and self-rated health (r = -0.41, p < 0.001), indicating construct validity. Five factors were extracted from both versions of CSES. However, in the CSES-DK, only one factor concerns emotions, whereas two factors describing emotions were obtained for the original scale. Furthermore, important discrepancies exist with respect to the direction of the scoring of CSES. In some studies, a high score indicates high self-efficacy, whereas it indicates low self-efficacy in other studies, which complicates the comparison of studies. The Danish version of CSES showed acceptable measurements of reliability and validity. Potential limitations of the scale were identified, and discrepancies exist between the factor structure of the original and Danish version. Consequently, more studies of the factor structure should be conducted on both the original CSES and the translated versions of the instrument. PMID:22272564

  7. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  8. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Help Evasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method: All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation to smoking ("n" = 845), alcohol…

  9. Efficacy of an Individualized Reading Intervention with Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Fall, Anna-Maria; Pyle, Nicole; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluates the efficacy of an intensive, reading intervention, a dropout prevention intervention, and an intensive, reading intervention plus dropout prevention on high school students' reading achievement and rates of dropout/school engagement. This paper focuses on the reading intervention and on reading outcomes. Data on the drop out…

  10. Differential genetic variation of chickens and MD vaccine protective efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, the type of vaccine, vaccine dosage, the virulence and dose of challenging viruses, and the interval between vaccination and viral challenge. Studies on human immune responses to vaccinations suggest host genetic...

  11. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  12. Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Self-Efficacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazu, Ibrahim Yasar; Erten, Pinar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine teachers' views on technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), their self-efficacy, and whether these views changed according to sex, age, period of service, faculty graduated from, branch, access to the internet, the use of technology level, and access to in-service training which is oriented to the…

  13. Sources of Self-Efficacy in Mathematics: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N=1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N=824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best.…

  14. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed. PMID:21067285

  15. Interests, Self-Efficacy, and Choice Goals: An Experimental Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Larson, Lisa M.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian

    2010-01-01

    An experimental design was used to test the hypothesis that vocational interests can be a precursor to the development of self-efficacy. Participants (n = 180) rated job descriptions for careers in the domains of information technology, sales, and teaching that contained information on activities and work values. Participants rated those job…

  16. [Preparation of bioindicators for controlling the efficacy of sterilization processes].

    PubMed

    Kalinina, N M; Tikhonova, A S; Motina, G L; Cha?kovskaia, S M; Semenov, S M

    1983-08-01

    A test microbe for the control of the efficacy of vacuum steam sterilization was selected. Conditions for the spore cultivation were developed. The optimal bioindicator composition, test microbe loading, nutrient medium, pH indicator, carbohydrates and a carrier were defined. PMID:6638973

  17. The Efficacy of Entrepreneurship Education: Perspectives of Irish Graduate Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs' experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs'…

  18. Assessing Performance and Self Efficacy of Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reid; Dent, Lauren; Jenkins, Kathleen; Cronin, C. H.; House, Lynn J.; Jenkins, K. B.

    This symposium evolved from a research interest and the need to develop validity, reliability, and accountability measures to be used in the teacher education program at Delta State University, Mississippi. Researchers wanted to study student teacher self-efficacy and to establish a continuing database on the program's student teachers. The papers…

  19. Project Report Assessing the Efficacy of the Coonamessett Farm (Cfarm)

    E-print Network

    Project Report Assessing the Efficacy of the Coonamessett Farm (Cfarm) Turtle Excluder Sea Scallop Dredge in Reducing Injury to Loggerhead Sea Turtle Carcasses Prepared by Ronald Smolowitz Matt Weeks (Cfarm) Turtle Excluder Sea Scallop Dredge in Reducing Injury to Loggerhead Sea Turtle Carcasses Abstract

  20. Benchmarks for Psychotherapy Efficacy in Adult Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Takuya; Wampold, Bruce E.; Serlin, Ronald C.; Kircher, John C.; Brown, George S.

    2007-01-01

    This study estimates pretreatment-posttreatment effect size benchmarks for the treatment of major depression in adults that may be useful in evaluating psychotherapy effectiveness in clinical practice. Treatment efficacy benchmarks for major depression were derived for 3 different types of outcome measures: the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression…