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1

Diffusion Model for Genotype-Dependent Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A diffusion model for the joint action of genotype-dependent migration and genotype-independent population regulation is derived and investigated. The diploid, monoecious population occupies a finite chain of equally spaced colonies; generations are discrete and nonoverlapping; mating is random in each colony. A boundary-value problem is deduced for the gene frequencies at a multiallelic locus in the absence of mutation, selection,

Thomas Nagylaki; Michael Moody

1980-01-01

2

Identifying events that impact self-efficacy in physics learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one’s own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of self-efficacy have required participants to recollect past events. This reliance on participant memory makes it difficult to understand what impact particular events may have on developing self-efficacy in the moment. We use video recordings of three undergraduate Modeling Instruction students solving a physics problem to characterize SEOs in a moment-by-moment analysis. We then validate these characterizations of the development of self-efficacy by reviewing the problem-solving session with the participants and find evidence that the SEOs identified are taken up and impact self-efficacy. This characterization and validation of SEOs in the moment represents a first step towards establishing a methodology for analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-12-01

3

Identifying Events that Impact Self-Efficacy in Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one's own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of…

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-01-01

4

Identifying Efficacious Treatment Components of Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents: A Preliminary Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents (PCT-A) is a developmentally sensitive and efficacious treatment for adolescents with panic disorder. The present study is a preliminary examination of the relative efficacy of individual treatment components in PCT-A in a sample of treatment completers; the study identified when rapid improvements in panic…

Micco, Jamie A.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2007-01-01

5

Does smoking abstinence self-efficacy vary across situations? Identifying context-specificity within the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire.  

PubMed

According to self-efficacy and relapse theories. abstinence self-efficacy (ASE) ratings should be context-specific: they should vary across situations. This variability may be important, as it could signal high-risk for relapse situations. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify situational variability in a novel ASE assessment (Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire. or RSEQ). Results supported a hierarchical structure, where both context-specific and unidimensional measures of ASE exist within the assessment. Context-specific factors included Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Restrictive Situations (to smoking). Idle Time, Social-Food Situations, Low Arousal, and Craving. Multiple context-specific factors and the aggregate factor predicted cessation outcome, even after controlling for concurrent smoking rate. However, the context rated with the least confidence proved to be the best outcome predictor, suggesting the existence of "Achilles' heel" situations. These data indicate the internal and predictive validity of the RSEQ. PMID:11495181

Gwaltney, C J; Shiffman, S; Norman, G J; Paty, J A; Kassel, J D; Gnys, M; Hickcox, M; Waters, A; Balabanis, M

2001-06-01

6

78 FR 60290 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Reopening of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...Availability of Masked and De- identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments,'' which appeared in the...

2013-10-01

7

Teacher and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: Identifying potential areas for support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data

Elise T. Pas; Catherine P. Bradshaw; Patricia A. Hershfeldt

8

Promoter and genotype dependent transient expression of a reporter gene in plant protoplasts.  

PubMed

For analysis of expression of three different plant promoters such as CaMV 35S, rbc S and mas, compact plasmid vectors were constructed by use of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and nos termination signal. The plasmid molecules were introduced into tobacco and tomato protoplasts by using the Mg2+/PEG transformation protocol described by Negrutiu et al. The transient assays revealed maximum expression two days after DNA uptake. The comparative studies show the following order of promoters mas, CaMV 35S, rbc S as far as the activity is concerned. We also detected genotype-dependent promoter activity in the case of tomato. PMID:1841483

Stefanov, I; Ilubaev, S; Fehér, A; Margóczi, K; Dudits, D

1991-01-01

9

Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

10

Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: identifying potential areas for support.  

PubMed

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data were collected 3 times across 2 academic years from 600 teachers at 31 elementary schools. The results indicated that both teacher efficacy and burnout increased over time. Teacher preparedness and perceptions of teacher affiliation and leadership were significantly associated with both the intercept and growth of teacher efficacy and burnout; however, school-level factors were generally unrelated to both outcomes. Implications for screenings and teacher-targeted interventions are discussed. PMID:22386082

Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hershfeldt, Patricia A

2011-08-15

11

Utilization of genomic signatures to identify high-efficacy candidate drugs for chemorefractory endometrial cancers.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer, one of the most common gynecologic malignancies, is increasing in Japan, nearly doubling over the last decade. High-grade disease patients are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy with platinum agents; therefore, discovery of efficacious new drugs in this setting is required to benefit chemorefractory cases. The 50% growth-inhibitory (GI50) concentration of 27 clinically relevant drugs was measured in the NCI60 panel of cell lines. Gene expression data were analyzed using Bayesian binary regression, to first generate a response signature for each drug and then to calculate individual susceptibility scores using in vivo endometrial cancer data (GSE2109; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) and in vitro data (GSE25458), as well as to identify candidate drugs for chemorefractory cases. Using these candidates, cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase assays were performed in vitro. The tumor growth-inhibitory effect of the candidate was also assessed in vivo using nude mice. Through microarray analysis, fludarabine and temsirolimus showed higher susceptibility scores in high-grade cases compared to cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Fludarabine significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the cisplatin-resistant endometrial cancer cell line, HEC1A, relative to HEC50B (p < 0.001). Fludarabine treatment also enhanced caspase-3/7 activity in HEC1A relative to HEC50B cells (p < 0.001), and inhibited the growth of HEC1A xenograft tumors relative to cisplatin (p < 0.05). These results support that identification and use of genomic signatures can lead to identification of new therapeutic candidates that may prove beneficial to chemoresistant cases. Fludarabine may be useful in targeting high-grade, chemorefractory endometrial cancer. PMID:23595697

Kharma, Budiman; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murphy, Susan K; Kang, Hyun Sook; Yamanoi, Koji; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Konishi, Ikuo

2013-05-25

12

University Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Identifying Suicidal Warning Signs and Helping Suicidal Friends Find Campus Intervention Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Currently, suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 18 to 24 years of age and the second leading cause of death on college campuses. A sample of students (N = 1,019) from three midwestern universities were surveyed regarding their perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicide warning signs and campus suicide intervention…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Strader, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

13

Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early symptoms of relapse and obtain treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder (manic›depressive psychosis) to identify early symptoms of relapse and seek prompt treatment from health services. Design Single blind randomised controlled trial with matching on four baseline variables using a minimisation algorithm. Setting Mental health services in four NHS trusts (one teaching, three non›teaching). Subjects 69 patients with bipolar disorder

Alison Perry; Nicholas Tarrier; Richard Morriss; Eilis McCarthy; Kate Limb

14

Opposite imbalances between mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine responses to stress by the same genotype depending on living conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The balance between mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) response to stress may represent a major diathesis in psychopathology. These experiments evaluated the influence of variable living conditions on this phenotype and on behavioral coping. Mesocortical and mesoaccumbens DA responses to stress challenge (restraint) were analyzed in individually housed or food restricted mice of an inbred strain to control for genotype-dependent

S Cabib; R Ventura; S Puglisi-Allegra

2002-01-01

15

Efficacy of identifying stocked crappies in a Tennessee reservoir through oxytetracycline marking  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oxytetracycline (OTC) immersion was used to identify black-nosed crappies, a morphological variation of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, during fall 1997. The technique effectively marked 97% of the treated fish. Analysis of one otolith per fish by one reader successfully identified 98% of marked and unmarked fish in a blind test. Marks were formed before annulus formation and were not obscured by annulus-related autofluorescence, suggesting that OTC can be effectively used late in the year (October and November) in Tennessee.

Isermann, D. A.; Bettoli, P. W.; Sammons, S. M.

1999-01-01

16

A chemical genetic screen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies carbon-source-dependent growth inhibitors devoid of in vivo efficacy  

PubMed Central

Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine–imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics.

Pethe, Kevin; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Rhee, Kyu; Kuhen, Kelli; Phong, Wai Yee; Patel, Viral; Beer, David; Walker, John R.; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Jiricek, Jan; Keller, Thomas H.; Chatterjee, Arnab; Tan, Mai Ping; Ujjini, Manjunatha; Rao, Srinivasa P.S.; Camacho, Luis; Bifani, Pablo; Mak, Puiying A.; Ma, Ida; Barnes, S. Whitney; Chen, Zhong; Plouffe, David; Thayalan, Pamela; Ng, Seow Hwee; Au, Melvin; Lee, Boon Heng; Tan, Bee Huat; Ravindran, Sindhu; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Lin, Xiuhua; Goh, Anne; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry; Dartois, Veronique; Peters, Eric C.; Glynne, Richard; Brenner, Sydney; Dick, Thomas

2010-01-01

17

A chemical genetic screen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies carbon-source-dependent growth inhibitors devoid of in vivo efficacy.  

PubMed

Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine-imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics. PMID:20975714

Pethe, Kevin; Sequeira, Patricia C; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Rhee, Kyu; Kuhen, Kelli; Phong, Wai Yee; Patel, Viral; Beer, David; Walker, John R; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Jiricek, Jan; Keller, Thomas H; Chatterjee, Arnab; Tan, Mai Ping; Ujjini, Manjunatha; Rao, Srinivasa P S; Camacho, Luis; Bifani, Pablo; Mak, Puiying A; Ma, Ida; Barnes, S Whitney; Chen, Zhong; Plouffe, David; Thayalan, Pamela; Ng, Seow Hwee; Au, Melvin; Lee, Boon Heng; Tan, Bee Huat; Ravindran, Sindhu; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Lin, Xiuhua; Goh, Anne; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry; Dartois, Veronique; Peters, Eric C; Glynne, Richard; Brenner, Sydney; Dick, Thomas

2010-08-24

18

Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt.

Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

2009-01-01

19

Partial support for ZNF804A genotype-dependent alterations in prefrontal connectivity.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in ZNF804A as a common risk-variant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Whereas the molecular function of ZNF804A is yet unclear, recent imaging genetics studies have started to characterize the neural systems architecture linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. Carring rs1344706 risk-alleles was associated with a decrease in functional connectivity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs) as well as an increase in connectivity between the DLPFC and the hippocampal formation (HF) in the context of a working memory task. The present study aimed at replicating these findings in an independent sample of 94 healthy subjects. Subjects were genotyped for rs1344706 and performed a working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate no support for a decrease of functional coupling between the bilateral DLPFCs at higher ZNF804A risk status. However, the current data show the previously described alteration in functional coupling between the right DLPFC and the HFs, albeit with weaker effects. Decoupled by default, the functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and anterior HFs increased with the number of rs1344706 risk alleles. The present data support fronto-hippocampal dysconnectivity as intermediate phenotype linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. We discuss the issues in replicating the interhemispheric DLPFC coupling in light of the effect sizes rs1344706 genotype has on brain function, concluding that further independent replication studies are fundamentally needed to ascertain the role of rs1344706 in the functional integration of neural systems. PMID:22042765

Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Krug, Axel; Knake, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

2011-10-31

20

A Genotype Dependent Intermediate ECG Phenotype in Patients with Persistent Lone Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is heterogeneous at the clinical and molecular levels. Association studies have reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNE1 and SCN5A may predispose to AF. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific AF-associated genotypes confer variation on the appearance of AF assessed by analysis of fibrillatory rate of the atria. Methods and Results Twenty-six non-related patients (21 male, mean age 55 ± 12 years) with persistent lone AF (median AF duration 5 weeks) not taking class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs were studied. Fibrillatory rate was obtained by spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time-frequency analysis of the index surface ECG. Genotypes at the AF-associated loci in KCNE1 (S38G) and SCN5A (H558R) were determined by direct DNA sequencing. The atrial fibrillatory rate was 418±50 fibrillations per minute (fpm, range 336–521) in the study cohort. Carriers of the 38GG KCNE1 genotype (n=13) had significantly lower fibrillatory rates (392±36 vs 443±49 fpm, p=.006) compared to those with GS or SS genotype (n=13). Six patients (23 %) with fibrillatory rates > 450 fpm, all had either the GS or SS genotype (chi2 p=.008). In contrast, both the heterozygeous and homozygeous SCN5A H558R polymorphism had no effect on fibrillatory rate. There were no significant associations between fibrillatory rate and clinical (age, gender, AF duration, drug treatment) or echocardiographic (left atrial diameter, LVEF) variables. In multivariate analysis, KCNE1 (S38G) was the only independent predictor of fibrillatory rate (R=.528, B=45.091, p=.006). Conclusions Atrial fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface ECG is at least in part determined by KCNE1 (S38G) genotype, suggesting this variant exerts functional effects on atrial electrophysiology. This intermediate ECG phenotype may be useful for elaborating genetic influences on AF mechanisms and identifying subsets of patients for variability in AF susceptibility or response to therapies.

Husser, Daniela; Stridh, Martin; Sornmo, Leif; Roden, Dan M.; Darbar, Dawood; Bollmann, Andreas

2008-01-01

21

Perceived Organizational Climate and Internet Self-Efficacy: Identifying the Best Climate To Promote E-Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes a research project designed to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational culture and the current general level of Internet self-efficacy as well as with two sub-categories of expertise: use of course management shell software and Web authoring software. The perceived organizational dimension of "employee…

Burnett, Dale; Skamp, Keith; Ellis, Allan

22

Ascorbic acid synthesis and metabolism in maize are subject to complex and genotype-dependent feedback regulation during endosperm development.  

PubMed

L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant and electron donor whose metabolism in plants is under strict feedback control. The factors that influence L-ascorbic acid accumulation in staple crops are only partially understood. One way to gain insight into the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism is to investigate the endogenous pathways in various genetic backgrounds and characterize their interactions with transgenes encoding relevant enzymes. In an initial step, we investigated the developmental profile of L-ascorbic acid accumulation in the endosperm of three diverse maize genotypes and a transgenic line expressing rice dehydroascorbate reductase, which enhances L-ascorbic acid recycling. We determined the transcript levels of all the key genes in the L-ascorbic acid metabolic pathways as well as the specific levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate. L-ascorbic acid levels were high 20 days after pollination and declined thereafter. We found significant genotype-dependent variations in the transcript levels of some genes, with particular complexity in the ascorbic acid recycling pathway. Our data will help to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism in plants, particularly the impact of genetic background on the strict regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism in endosperm cells. PMID:23744785

Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Bassie, Ludovic; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2013-07-11

23

Acetylator Genotype-dependent Expression of Arylamine \\/V-Acetyltransferase in Human Colon Cytosol from Non-Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human epidemiological studies suggest an association between rapid acetylator phenotype and colorectal cancer. Acetylator genotype-depend ent expression by the human colon of arylamine \\/V-acetylation capacity, catalyzed by acetyl coenzyme A-dependent \\/V-acetyltransferase(s) (EC 2.3.1.5) (NAT), may be an important risk factor in the initiation of colorectal cancer. Human colon cytosols from 48 fresh surgical samples were investigated for NAT activity toward

Ward G. Kirlin; Fredrick Ogolla; Allen F. Andrews; Alma Trinidad; Ronald J. Ferguson; Tokunbo Yerokun; Mandi Mpezo

24

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

2011-10-12

25

Potential immunogenic polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei identified by shotgun expression library and evaluation of their efficacy for serodiagnosis of melioidosis.  

PubMed

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei. PMID:23532805

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, S D; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-03-13

26

Potential Immunogenic Polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identified by Shotgun Expression Library and Evaluation of Their Efficacy for Serodiagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei.

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-01-01

27

Host genotype dependency and growth enhancing ability of VA-mycorrhizal fungi for Eleusine coracana (finger millet)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inoculation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) plants with one of six different vesicular, arbuscular, mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi increased plant biomass, height, leaf area and absolute growth rate; however, effectiveness of the various VAM fungi varied significantly. Maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal efficacy was observed with plants inoculated with Glomus caledonicum. Among five host genotypes tested for mycorrhizal dependency against

L. Tewari; B. N. Johri; S. M. Tandon

1993-01-01

28

RNAi-based screening of the human kinome identifies Akt-cooperating kinases: a new approach to designing efficacious multitargeted kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Tumors comprise genetically heterogeneous cell populations, whose growth and survival depend on multiple signaling pathways. This has spurred the development of multitargeted therapies, including small molecules that can inhibit multiple kinases. A major challenge in designing such molecules is to determine which kinases to inhibit in each cancer to maximize efficacy and therapeutic index. We describe an approach to this problem implementing RNA interference technology. In order to identify Akt-cooperating kinases, we screened a library of kinase-directed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for enhanced cancer cell killing in the presence of Akt inhibitor A-443654. siRNAs targeting casein kinase I gamma 3 (CSNK1G3) or the inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) significantly enhanced A-443654-mediated cell killing, and caused decreases in Akt Ser-473 and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Small molecules targeting CSNK1G3 and/or IPMK in addition to Akt may thus exhibit increased efficacy and have the potential for improved therapeutic index. PMID:16247451

Morgan-Lappe, S; Woods, K W; Li, Q; Anderson, M G; Schurdak, M E; Luo, Y; Giranda, V L; Fesik, S W; Leverson, J D

2006-03-01

29

A systematic review to identify challenges of demonstrating efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM).  

PubMed

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV but few MSM-specific evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been identified for this vulnerable group. We conducted a systematic review to identify reasons for the small number of EBIs for MSM. We also compared study, intervention and sample characteristics of EBIs versus non-EBIs to better understand the challenges of demonstrating efficacy evidence. Thirty-three MSM-specific studies were evaluated: Nine (27 %) were considered EBIs while 24 (73 %) were non-EBIs. Non-EBIs had multiple methodological limitations; the most common was not finding a significant positive effect. Compared to EBIs, non-EBIs were less likely to use peer intervention deliverers, include sexual communication in their interventions, and intervene at the community level. Incorporating characteristics associated with EBIs may strengthen behavioral interventions for MSM. More EBIs are needed for substance-using MSM, MSM of color, MSM residing in the south and MSM in couples. PMID:23397183

Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Marshall, Khiya J; Kay, Linda; Vosburgh, H Waverly; Spikes, Pilgrim; Lyles, Cynthia M; Purcell, David W

2013-05-01

30

Role in virulence and protective efficacy in pigs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium secreted components identified by signature-tagged mutagenesis.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen of worldwide importance and pigs are a significant reservoir of human infection. Signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify genes required by S. Typhimurium to colonize porcine intestines. A library of 1045 signature-tagged mutants of S. Typhimurium ST4/74 Nal(R) was screened following oral inoculation of pigs in duplicate. A total of 119 attenuating mutations were identified in 95 different genes, many of which encode known or putative secreted or surface-anchored molecules. A large number of attenuating mutations were located within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI)-1 and -2, confirming important roles for type III secretion systems (T3SS)-1 and -2 in intestinal colonization of pigs. Roles for genes encoded in other pathogenicity islands and islets, including the SPI-6-encoded Saf atypical fimbriae, were also identified. Given the role of secreted factors and the protection conferred against other pathogens by vaccination with extracellular and type III secreted proteins, the efficacy of a secreted protein vaccine from wild-type S. Typhimurium following intramuscular vaccination of pigs was evaluated. Serum IgG responses against type III secreted proteins were induced following vaccination and a significant reduction in faecal excretion of S. Typhimurium was observed in the acute phase of infection compared to mock-vaccinated animals. Vaccination with secreted proteins from an isogenic S. Typhimurium prgH mutant produced comparable levels of protection to vaccination with the preparation from the parent strain, indicating that protection was not reliant on T3SS-1 secreted proteins. The data provide valuable information for the control of Salmonella in pigs. PMID:17526851

Carnell, Sonya C; Bowen, Alison; Morgan, Eirwen; Maskell, Duncan J; Wallis, Timothy S; Stevens, Mark P

2007-06-01

31

Fungi in Thailand: a case study of the efficacy of an ITS barcode for automatically identifying species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon genera.  

PubMed

Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI), we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1) Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2) Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3) Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, however. The URL http://tinyurl.com/spouge-barcode contains computer programs and other supplementary material relevant to this article. PMID:23390499

Suwannasai, Nuttika; Martín, María P; Phosri, Cherdchai; Sihanonth, Prakitsin; Whalley, Anthony J S; Spouge, John L

2013-02-04

32

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and

Michael Patterson; Allison Poussard; Katherine Taylor; Alexey Seregin; Jeanon Smith; Bi-Hung Peng; Aida Walker; Jenna Linde; Jennifer Smith; Milagros Salazar; Slobodan Paessler

2011-01-01

33

Role in virulence and protective efficacy in pigs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium secreted components identified by signature-tagged mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen of worldwide importance and pigs are a significant reservoir of human infection. Signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify genes required by S. Typhimurium to colonize porcine intestines. A library of 1045 signature-tagged mutants of S. Typhimurium ST4\\/74 NalR was screened following oral inoculation of pigs in duplicate.

Sonya C. Carnell; Alison Bowen; Eirwen Morgan; Duncan J. Maskell; Timothy S. Wallis; Mark P. Stevens

2007-01-01

34

Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated.

Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

2004-01-01

35

Genome-Wide Association Study of Genetic Predictors of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Treatment Efficacy in Rheumatoid Arthritis Identifies Associations with Polymorphisms at Seven Loci  

PubMed Central

Objective Anti–tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents are successful therapies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, inadequate response occurs in 30–40% of patients treated. Knowledge of the genetic factors that influence response may facilitate personalized therapy. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic predictors of response to anti-TNF therapy in RA and to validate our findings in independent cohorts. Methods Data from genome-wide association (GWA) studies were available from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium for 566 anti-TNF–treated RA patients. Multivariate linear regression analysis of changes in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints at 6 months was conducted at each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) using an additive model. Associated markers (P < 10?3) were genotyped in 2 independent replication cohorts (n = 379 and n = 341), and a combined analysis was performed. Results Of 171 successfully genotyped markers demonstrating association with treatment response in the GWA data, 7 were corroborated in the combined analysis. The strongest effect was at rs17301249, mapping to the EYA4 gene on chromosome 6: the minor allele conferred improved response to treatment (coefficient ?0.27, P = 5.67?05). The minor allele of rs1532269, mapping to the PDZD2 gene, was associated with a reduced treatment response (coefficient 0.20, P = 7.37?04). The remaining associated SNPs mapped to intergenic regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 11, and 12. Conclusion Using a genome-wide strategy, we have identified and validated the association of 7 genetic loci with response to anti-TNF treatment in RA. Additional confirmation of these findings in further cohorts will be required.

Plant, Darren; Bowes, John; Potter, Catherine; Hyrich, Kimme L; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Isaacs, John D; Barton, Anne

2011-01-01

36

High-throughput screening for GPR119 modulators identifies a novel compound with anti-diabetic efficacy in db/db mice.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is highly expressed in pancreatic ? cells and enteroendocrine cells. It is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release, thereby representing a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Although a number of GPR119 agonists were developed, no positive allosteric modulator (PAM) to this receptor has been reported. Here we describe a high-throughput assay for screening GPR119 PAMs and agonists simultaneously. Following screening of a small molecule compound library containing 312,000 synthetic and natural product-derived samples, one potent GPR119 agonist with novel chemical structure, MW1219, was identified. Exposure of MIN6 and GLUTag cells to MW1219 enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and GLP-1 release; once-daily oral dosing of MW1219 for 6 weeks in diabetic db/db mice reduced hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and improved plasma glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels; it also increased glucose tolerance. The results demonstrate that MW1219 is capable of effectively controlling blood glucose level and may have the potential to be developed as a new class of anti-diabetic agents. PMID:23704946

Zhang, Meng; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Ting; He, Min; Yang, Dehua; Nosjean, Olivier; Boutin, Jean; Renard, Pierre; Wang, Ming-Wei

2013-05-21

37

The Case for Reconceptualizing Teacher Efficacy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores possible uses of teacher efficacy research by democratic teacher educators. The many possible meanings of teacher efficacy levels make it problematic for teacher educators to interpret and use teacher efficacy. Beneficial teacher efficacy doubts and problematic types of teacher efficacy confidence are identified, including…

Wheatley, K.F.

2005-01-01

38

Efficacy of intraoperative monitoring of transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography activity to identify acute-versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root palsy during cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

Object Deltoid muscle weakness due to C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery is an uncommon but potentially debilitating complication. Symptoms can manifest upon emergence from anesthesia or days to weeks following surgery. There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of spontaneous electromyography (spEMG) monitoring in detecting evolving C-5 nerve root compromise. By contrast, transcranial electrical stimulation-induced motor evoked potential (tceMEP) monitoring has been shown to be highly sensitive and specific in identifying impending C-5 injury. In this study the authors sought to 1) determine the frequency of immediate versus delayed-onset C-5 nerve root injury following cervical spine surgery, 2) identify risk factors associated with the development of C-5 palsies, and 3) determine whether tceMEP and spEMG neuromonitoring can help to identify acutely evolving C-5 injury as well as predict delayed-onset deltoid muscle paresis. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed the neuromonitoring and surgical records of all patients who had undergone cervical spine surgery involving the C-4 and/or C-5 level in the period from 2006 to 2008. Real-time tceMEP and spEMG monitoring from the deltoid muscle was performed as part of a multimodal neuromonitoring protocol during all surgeries. Charts were reviewed to identify patients who had experienced significant changes in tceMEPs and/or episodes of neurotonic spEMG activity during surgery, as well as those who had shown new-onset deltoid weakness either immediately upon emergence from the anesthesia or in a delayed fashion. Results Two hundred twenty-nine patients undergoing 235 cervical spine surgeries involving the C4-5 level served as the study cohort. The overall incidence of perioperative C-5 nerve root injury was 5.1%. The incidence was greatest (50%) in cases with dual corpectomies at the C-4 and C-5 spinal levels. All patients who emerged from anesthesia with deltoid weakness had significant and unresolved changes in tceMEPs during surgery, whereas only 1 had remarkable spEMG activity. Sensitivity and specificity of tceMEP monitoring for identifying acute-onset deltoid weakness were 100% and 99%, respectively. By contrast, sensitivity and specificity for spEMG were only 20% and 92%, respectively. Neither modality was effective in identifying patients who demonstrated delayed-onset deltoid weakness. Conclusions The risk of new-onset deltoid muscle weakness following cervical spine surgery is greatest for patients undergoing 2-level corpectomies involving C-4 and C-5. Transcranial electrical stimulation-induced MEP monitoring is a highly sensitive and specific technique for detecting C-5 radiculopathy that manifests immediately upon waking from anesthesia. While the absence of sustained spEMG activity does not rule out nerve root irritation, the presence of excessive neurotonic discharges serves both to alert the surgeon of such potentially injurious events and to prompt neuromonitoring personnel about the need for additional tceMEP testing. Delayed-onset C-5 nerve root injury cannot be predicted by intraoperative neuromonitoring via either modality. PMID:23889183

Bhalodia, Vidya M; Schwartz, Daniel M; Sestokas, Anthony K; Bloomgarden, Gary; Arkins, Thomas; Tomak, Patrick; Gorelick, Judith; Wijesekera, Shirvinda; Beiner, John; Goodrich, Isaac

2013-07-26

39

A genome-wide survey and functional brain imaging study identify CTNNBL1 as a memory-related gene  

PubMed Central

Unbiased genome-wide screens combined with imaging data on brain function may identify novel molecular pathways related to human cognition. Here we performed a dense genome-wide screen to identify episodic memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain-expressed beta-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) was significantly (P=7 × 10?8) associated with verbal memory performance in a cognitively healthy cohort from Switzerland (n=1073) and was replicated in a second cohort from Serbia (n=524; P=0.003). Gene expression studies showed CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in beta-catenin-like protein 1 mRNA levels in the human cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 322 subjects detected CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activations. Converging evidence from independent experiments and different methodological approaches suggests a role for CTNNBL1 in human memory.

Papassotiropoulos, A; Stefanova, E; Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Ackermann, S; Spalek, K; Rasch, B; Heck, A; Aerni, A; Hanser, E; Demougin, P; Huynh, K-D; Luechinger, R; Klarhofer, M; Novakovic, I; Kostic, V; Boesiger, P; Scheffler, K; de Quervain, D J-F

2013-01-01

40

A genome-wide survey and functional brain imaging study identify CTNNBL1 as a memory-related gene.  

PubMed

Unbiased genome-wide screens combined with imaging data on brain function may identify novel molecular pathways related to human cognition. Here we performed a dense genome-wide screen to identify episodic memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain-expressed beta-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) was significantly (P=7 × 10(-8)) associated with verbal memory performance in a cognitively healthy cohort from Switzerland (n=1073) and was replicated in a second cohort from Serbia (n=524; P=0.003). Gene expression studies showed CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in beta-catenin-like protein 1 mRNA levels in the human cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 322 subjects detected CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activations. Converging evidence from independent experiments and different methodological approaches suggests a role for CTNNBL1 in human memory. PMID:22105620

Papassotiropoulos, A; Stefanova, E; Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Ackermann, S; Spalek, K; Rasch, B; Heck, A; Aerni, A; Hanser, E; Demougin, P; Huynh, K-D; Luechinger, R; Klarhöfer, M; Novakovic, I; Kostic, V; Boesiger, P; Scheffler, K; de Quervain, D J-F

2011-11-22

41

Identifying harms.  

PubMed

Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956

Harrosh, Shlomit

2011-03-25

42

Identify Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-03

43

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

44

Identifying Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two part activity will allow students to investigate biological diversity in the area of their school. They will first prepare a taxonomic key to distinguish between the four insects or spiders that they have selected. All of the keys are combined and students then perform a transect study of a neighborhood field or school playing ground. Finally as a class students will compile a list of the animals and plants that are found within a mile of their school. They may need to use field guides, local resources, taxonomic keys, and species lists to help identify these organisms. Once they have compiled their list they will organize the species into the taxonomic groups they have studied.

Dispezio, Michael

45

Identifying and treating plantar warts.  

PubMed

This article aims to help health practitioners to identify plantar warts, and to provide information on available treatments. The efficacy of various treatments is inconclusive. Topical treatments are recommended instead of other often costly and sometimes unsuccessful treatments such as cryotherapy. Improved education and self-management are encouraged to minimise spread of the virus and to ease discomfort. PMID:16866235

Watkins, P

46

Efficacy of fractal analysis in identifying glaucomatous damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a novel fractal-based technique to analyze pseudo 2D representation of 1D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement data vector set for early detection of glaucoma. In our proposed technique, we first convert the 1D RNFL data vector sets into pseudo 2D images and then exploit 2D fractal analysis (FA) technique to obtain the representative features. These 2D fractal-based features are further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the final classification between normal and glaucomatous eyes is obtained using Fischer's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An independent dataset is used for training and testing the classifier. The technique is used on randomly selected GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) eye data from 227 study participants (116 patients with glaucoma and 111 patients with healthy eyes). We compute sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) for statistical performance comparison with other known techniques. Our classification performance shows that fractal-based technique is superior to the standard machine classifier Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI).

Kim, P. Y.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Gunvant, P.; Tóth, M.; Holló, G.; Essock, E. A.

2010-03-01

47

Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…

Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

2012-01-01

48

Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents.

Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

2013-01-01

49

Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article self-efficacy research is reviewed in domains relevant to education. Research addressing cognitive skills, social skills, motor skills, and career choices has shown that self-efficacy is an important construct that helps to explain students' learning and performance of achievement-related behaviors. Research also has identified variables that are associated with educational contexts and that signal to students how well

Dale H. Schunk

1989-01-01

50

Teacher Efficacy, Empowerment, and a Focused Instructional Climate: Does Student Achievement Benefit?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a study designed to identify the relationships among the context variables of sense of efficacy, teacher empowerment, and school climate as perceived by 1,802 Kansas City (Missouri) teachers. Factors related to teacher sense of efficacy (teaching efficacy and personal efficacy), to teacher empowerment, defined as the…

Moore, William P.; Esselman, Mary E.

51

Toward unique identifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the creation and use of unique identifiers for intellectual property. General concepts applicable to unique identifiers are defined and discussed [identifier, digital object, dumb and intelligent identifiers, readability, affordance or computability, multiple identification, resolution, metadata, persistence, granularity, derivatives (e.g., versions, formats, manifestations, and copies), check digits, and intermediate objects]. Requirements for unique identifiers are reviewed. Capacity issues

NORMAN PASKIN

1999-01-01

52

Opposite genotype-dependent mesocorticolimbic dopamine response to stress.  

PubMed

Identification of relevant phenotypes related to neural functioning has yet to receive the needed attention, although behavioral phenotyping, through comparative studies in inbred strains of mice, has produced some major findings (Cabib et al., 2000; Crabbe, 1999; Gerlai, 1996; Lathe, 1996). Central responses to stress play a major psychopathogenic role in the presence of a genetic liability (Fowels, 1992), and mesocortical and mesoacumbens dopamine metabolism and release are the most relevant among these responses (Abercrombie et al., 1989; Cabib and Puglisi-Allegra, 1994; Chrapusta et al., 1997; Di Chiara et al., 1999; Hervé et al., 1979; Imperato et al., 1991). Therefore, in the present study, we assessed strain-dependent differences in mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine responses to a widely utilized stressful procedure (restraint), by comparing mice of the oldest and most studied inbred strains (Cabib et al., 2000): the C57BL/6JIco and DBA/2JIco. We found that stress produced inhibition of mesoaccumbens dopamine release accompanied by a very fast and strong activation of mesocortical dopamine metabolism in C57BL/6JIco mice, and the opposite in mice of the DBA/2JIco strain. These results suggest a genetic control over the balance between mesocortical and mesoaccumbens dopamine responses to stress, and provide a model for pre-clinical studies on molecular genetics of depression. PMID:11440796

Ventura, R; Cabib, S; Puglisi-Allegra, S

2001-01-01

53

Genotype-Dependent Leaf Senescence in Maize 1  

PubMed Central

Objective of research was (a) to evaluate the influence of pollination-prevention on various metabolic parameters of the two maize inbreds B73 and B14A and their F1, and (b) to gain information on the inheritance of leaf senescence, in response to pollination-prevention. The results show that the visual pattern of leaf senescence, in response to prevention of ear pollination, contrasts markedly between the two inbred lines. Relative to control plants, prevention of ear pollination, causes a premature senescence in B73 and B73 × B14A plants, while leaves of unpollinated B14A remain green and similar in appearance to pollinated controls. Furthermore, prevention of ear pollination induces a sizable reduction of dry matter accumulation of all above-ground material and changes in various metabolic parameters. An accumulation of sucrose in the leaves of unpollinated B73 and B73 × B14A plants is correlated with the development of premature senescence. Finally, the genetic analysis supports suggestions that a single dominant gene is responsible for the differences observed, in the visual pattern of leaf senescence, in response to prevention of ear pollination.

Ceppi, Davide; Sala, Mario; Gentinetta, Eugenio; Verderio, Alberto; Motto, Mario

1987-01-01

54

Identifying Unmet Demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brand preferences and marketplace demand are a reflection of the importance of underlying needs of consumers and the efficacy of product attributes for delivering value. Dog owners, for example, may look to dog foods to provide specific benefits for their pets (e.g., shiny coats) that may not be available from current offerings. An analysis of consumer wants for these consumers

Sandeep R. Chandukala; Yancy D. Edwards; Greg M. Allenby

2011-01-01

55

Timings for Efficacy Studies  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... HPV-009, A double blind, controlled, randomized, phase III study of the efficacy of an HPV16/18 VLP vaccine in the prevention of advanced cervical ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/vaccines/approvedproducts

56

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

57

The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the…

Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

1988-01-01

58

Efficacy dilution in randomized placebo-controlled vaginal microbicide trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To date different vaginal gel microbicides have been evaluated in phase 2b\\/3 trials, but none have demonstrated effectiveness for preventing HIV infection. Failure to demonstrate effectiveness however does not necessarily indicate that a product is truly inefficacious, as several sources of efficacy dilution may compromise our ability to identify products that may have been truly efficacious. METHODS: For four

Benoît R Mâsse; Marie-Claude Boily; Dobromir Dimitrov; Kamal Desai

2009-01-01

59

Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

Moore-Hayes, Coleen

2011-01-01

60

Attack efficacy in volleyball: elite male teams.  

PubMed

The goal was to identify performance indicators predicting attack efficacy in volleyball's game phase denominated Complex II, i.e., the counter-attack. 28 games from the 2007 Men's World Cup were analyzed. Attack efficacy was predicted by three primary variables: Attack tempo, Attack type, and Number of blockers. Power attack and Attack tempo 1 increased the probability of an Attack point. The supremacy of Attack tempo 3 and the high frequency of Two blockers and Three blockers reflected the difficulty of efficient attack during Complex II. Despite unfavourable conditions, attackers managed to execute Power attacks in the majority of the situations, and score a high frequency of Attack points. PMID:22185054

Castro, José; Souza, Adriano; Mesquita, Isabel

2011-10-01

61

Gang Identifiers and Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails.…

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

62

Identifiability of Finite Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the class of mixtures of the family of normal distributions or of Gamma (Type III) distributions or binomial distributions is not identifiable (see [3], [4] or Section 2 below for the meaning of this statement). In [4] it was shown that the class of all mixtures of a one-parameter additively-closed family of distributions is identifiable. Here, attention will

Henry Teicher

1963-01-01

63

Efficacy of climate forcings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

2005-09-01

64

Testing the efficacy of chaplaincy care.  

PubMed

The current article reviews the research conducted in the United States on the clinical practice of chaplains with patients and family members, referrals to chaplains, patient satisfaction with chaplaincy services, and the limited literature on the efficacy of chaplain interventions. It also discusses the methodological limitations of studies conducted on these topics and makes suggestions for improving future chaplaincy research. The authors conclude that past studies have not adequately defined chaplain interventions, nor sufficiently documented the clinical practice of chaplains, and that more and better designed studies are needed to test the efficacy of chaplaincy interventions. The authors recommend that chaplains generate research-based definitions of spirituality, spiritual care, and chaplaincy practice; and that more research be conducted to describe the unique contributions of chaplains to spiritual care, identify best chaplaincy practices to optimize patient and family health outcomes, and test the efficacy of chaplaincy care. PMID:22029504

Jankowski, Katherine R B; Handzo, George F; Flannelly, Kevin J

2011-01-01

65

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified to develop targeted treatment options and consequently, improve clinical out...

Y. Shrestha

2009-01-01

66

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified in order to drive development of more efficient targeted or personalized can...

Y. Shrestha

2010-01-01

67

Identifying Recalled Products  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Identifying ...

68

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

69

Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.  

PubMed

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:19466645

Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

2009-06-01

70

Career self-efficacy in occupational therapy practice.  

PubMed

Career expectations contribute to job satisfaction, which ultimately affects personnel retention. This paper focuses on a current trend in career literature: career self-efficacy, judgments about the efficacy of one's career choice and adjustment. Career self-efficacy is relevant to occupational therapy in that therapists are leaving the profession because of unmet career expectations. This paper explores Bandura's self-efficacy theory (the basis of career self-efficacy) and discusses the authors' experience in clinical practice and education relating the application of career self-efficacy to occupational therapy. Suggested methods for enhancing career self-efficacy include the implementation of a professional development course based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory; incorporation of self-efficacy content into the professional theory and practice courses; clinical supervision that creates realistic self-perceptions of performance during the field-work experience; and transitional programs for entry-level practitioners that identify and explore personal career expectations and support for the experienced practitioner. PMID:8109613

Bush, J V; Powell, N J; Herzberg, G

1993-10-01

71

Prompt Review of Priority Efficacy Supplements  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Standards for the Prompt Review of Efficacy Supplements, Including Priority Efficacy Supplements ... Efficacy Supplements, Including ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

72

Teacher efficacy: A construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

1984-01-01

73

A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that creating a model to impact the retention rates of women in physics should include attending to self-efficacy and designing activities in the classroom that create self-efficacy opportunities.

Sawtelle, Vashti

74

Bayesian estimation of vaccine efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protective vaccine efficacy, VES, is measured as one minus the incidence rate ratio (IRR) or the relative risk (RR) in the vaccinated group compared with the unvaccinated group. In this paper, we systematically present Bayesian estimation of protective vaccine efficacy based on the Poisson and binomial distributions. We also propose a new tool, the vaccine efficacy acceptability curve, to represent

Haitao Chu; M Elizabeth Halloran

2004-01-01

75

Identifying Marine Phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, anyone who needed to accurately identify marine phytoplankton had one of four choices: use the outdated Englishlanguage volumes by E. E. Cupp and N. I. Hendey plus the more recent book by J. Dodge, acquire a working knowledge of German and use the old volumes by Schiller and Hustedt, spend huge amounts of time in an exceedingly well-equipped

Paul E. Hargraves

1998-01-01

76

ECG to identify individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrocardiogram (ECG also called EKG) trace expresses cardiac features that are unique to an individual. The ECG processing followed a logical series of experiments with quantifiable metrics. Data filters were designed based upon the observed noise sources. Fiducial points were identified on the filtered data and extracted digitally for each heartbeat. From the fiducial points, stable features were computed

Steven A. Israel; John M. Irvine; Andrew Cheng; Mark D. Wiederhold; Brenda K. Wiederhold

2005-01-01

77

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

West, Mrs.

2013-03-07

78

Modeling Efficacy: The Effect of Perceived Parental Efficacy on the Self-Efficacy of Early Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of early adolescents' perceptions of parents' efficacy and parents' behaviors on the self-efficacy of early adolescents. Eighty-two young people between the ages of 9 and 15 years provided data on themselves and their parents in structured interviews. Separate path analyses for same and opposite sex parents for boys and girls provide evidence that perceived efficacy

Les B. Whitbeck

1987-01-01

79

Identifying topic sentencehood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments were conducted to assess two models of topic sentencehood identification: the derived model and the free model. According to the derived model, topic sentences are identified in the context of the paragraph and in terms of how well\\u000a each sentence in the paragraph captures the paragraph’s theme. In contrast, according to the free model, topic sentences can\\u000a be

Philip M. McCarthy; Adam M. Renner; Michael G. Duncan; Nicholas D. Duran; Erin J. Lightman; Danielle S. McNamara

2008-01-01

80

Efficacy of school urinary screening for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: In order to evaluate the efficacy of a school urinary screening programme, children with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) type 1 were studied.Methods: A total of 52 patients who had been diagnosed with MPGN type 1 from 1970 to 1997 were studied; 35 were identified after 1974 on screening (group S), and 17 were identified by presenting symptoms (group N), mostly

Y Kawasaki; J Suzuki; R Nozawa; H Suzuki

2002-01-01

81

Proactive approach identifies benefits.  

PubMed

The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics in Iowa City, has developed strategies to identify uninsured patients early in the stay, and help them access ongoing care in the community. Twelve healthcare benefit assistance program social workers educate patients and families about financial options and help them apply for government-sponsored programs. Through a Revolving Fund agreement, the hospital pays the Medicaid rate to post-acute facilities while patients' Social Security Disability is pending and is paid back when the disability coverage is approved. Dedicated social workers help patients who need brand name medications and can't afford them sign up for national pharmaceutical assistance programs. PMID:22462097

2012-04-01

82

Self-efficacy, imagery use, and adherence during injury rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Previous observational studies examining imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence during injury rehabilitation have been cross-sectional and thus have not provided a clear representation of what occurs over the course of the rehabilitation period. The objectives of this research were (1) to examine the temporal patterns of imagery, self-efficacy, and rehabilitation adherence during an 8-week rehabilitation program and (2) to identify the time-order relationships between imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence. The design of the study was prospective and observational. 90 injured people (n=57 males; n=33 females) aged 18-78 years attending an injury rehabilitation clinic participated. The main outcome measures were imagery (cognitive, motivational, and healing), self-efficacy (task and coping), and rehabilitation adherence (duration, quality, and frequency). Results indicated that task efficacy, imagery use, and adherence levels remained stable, while coping efficacy declined over time. During the course of rehabilitation, moderate to strong reciprocal relationships existed between self-efficacy and adherence to rehabilitation. Weak to moderate relationships were found between imagery use and rehabilitation adherence. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions steeped in self-efficacy and imagery aimed at improving rehabilitation adherence and treatment outcome. PMID:21496107

Wesch, N; Hall, C; Prapavessis, H; Maddison, R; Bassett, S; Foley, L; Brooks, S; Forwell, L

2011-04-18

83

Development and validation of a physical self-efficacy scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 6 studies, involving 861 undergraduates, to develop an individual-difference measure of physical self-efficacy with adequate psychometric properties. Factor analysis of 90 test items identified 2 underlying dimensions within a global measure of physical self-efficacy: Perceived Physical Ability and Physical Self-Presentation Confidence. Ss with positive perceptions of their physical competence outperformed Ss with poorer self-regard on 3 tasks involving the

Richard M. Ryckman; Michael A. Robbins; Billy Thornton; Peggy Cantrell

1982-01-01

84

Sources of Self-efficacy in a Science Methods Course for Primary Teacher Education Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-efficacy has been shown to be an issue of concern for primary teacher education students - many of them have low self-efficacy and this can negatively affect their future teaching of science. Previous research has identified four factors that may contribute towards self-efficacy: enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological/affective states. It could also be argued that there are additional sources of self-efficacy that apply to primary teacher education students, namely cognitive content mastery, cognitive pedagogical mastery and simulated modelling. The main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the relative importance of the various sources of self-efficacy in a primary science methods course. Data on changes in self-efficacy and sources of self-efficacy were collected throughout the course using formal and informal surveys. It was found that the main source of self-efficacy was cognitive pedagogical mastery.

Palmer, D. H.

2006-12-01

85

Genetic identifiers of epilepsy.  

PubMed

Epilepsy affects >0.5% of the world's population and has a large genetic component. The most common human genetic epilepsies display a complex pattern of inheritance, and the identity of the susceptibility genes is largely unknown despite recent advances in molecular biology. However, genetic identifiers of certain types of epilepsy with neurodegenerative characteristics and of a small number of familial idiopathic epilepsies have been uncovered to date. This article reviews recent progress made in molecular genetics of epilepsy, focusing mostly on idiopathic epilepsy together with our own discovery of novel mutations in the genes of autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy and benign familial neonatal convulsions (BFNCs), and the genetic locus of benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy. Pathogenesis of epilepsy as a channelopathy and of BFNC also is discussed. PMID:12383274

Kaneko, Sunao; Iwasa, Hiroto; Okada, Motohiro

2002-01-01

86

The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. Effect sizes for psychodynamic psychotherapy are as large as those reported for other therapies that have been actively promoted as \\

Jonathan Shedler

2009-01-01

87

Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

Fernandez, Griffin W.

2009-01-01

88

Teacher Efficacy Measurement and Change.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on the concept of teacher efficacy spans over 20 years, but much remains to be learned. Although precise definitions of the concept have always been problematic, in general, teacher efficacy is defined as teacher's belief or conviction that they can influence how well students learn (T. Guskey and P. Passaro, 1994). Efforts to clarify…

Guskey, Thomas R.

89

Efficacy of Office Ergonomics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries associated with computer use is increasing. Education has been advocated as a prevention method for reducing the incidence and severity of these injuries. Although the inclusion of education in prevention programs has become a popular practice, its efficacy is poorly defined. The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of worker education programs in

Paula C. Bohr

2000-01-01

90

"Yes, we can!": Perceptions of collective efficacy sources in volleyball.  

PubMed

Collective efficacy can be defined as a group's shared confidence that they will successfully achieve their goal. We examined which behaviours and events are perceived as sources of collective efficacy beliefs in a volleyball context. In study 1, volleyball coaches from the highest volleyball leagues (n = 33) in Belgium indicated the most important sources of collective efficacy. This list was then adapted based on the literature and on feedback given by an expert focus group, resulting in a 40-item questionnaire. In Study 2, coaches and players from all levels of volleyball in Belgium (n = 2365) rated each of these sources on their predictive value for collective efficacy. A principal component analysis revealed that the 40 sources could be divided into eight internally consistent factors. Positive supportive communication (e.g., enthusiasm after making a point) was identified as the factor most predictive for positive collective efficacy beliefs. The factor referring to the negative emotional reactions of players (e.g., discouraging body language) was the most predictive for negative collective efficacy beliefs. These findings offer a starting point for the design of continuous measurements of collective efficacy through observation. PMID:22364359

Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Berckmans, Daniel; Ceux, Tanja; De Backer, Maarten; Boen, Filip

2012-02-27

91

Identifying spiders through DNA barcodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With almost 40 000 species, the spiders provide important model systems for studies of sociality, mating systems, and sexual dimorphism. However, work on this group is regularly constrained by difficulties in species identi- fication. DNA-based identification systems represent a promising approach to resolve this taxonomic impediment, but their efficacy has only been tested in a few groups. In this study,

Rowan D. H. Barrett; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

92

Infliximab: Efficacy in psoriasis.  

PubMed

Moderate to severe psoriasis often needs to be addressed with standard disease modifying therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin or ultraviolet radiation, which have their potential benefits and limitations. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is elevated in psoriatic plaques compared to non lesional skin as well as in the plasma of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Infliximab, a TNF-? blocker, has been recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults who have failed to respond to these therapies or who cannot tolerate them. Its specific action on the bound and membrane forms of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? has made it the molecule of choice for obtaining quicker and longer remission in recalcitrant cases. However, the widespread use of infliximab in the Indian subcontinent is limited by its cost. This article reviews the international guidelines for use of infliximab, its dosage patterns, and efficacy in chronic plaque psoriasis, nail psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis, and pustular psoriasis as well as Indian experience. PMID:23974692

Arsiwala, Shehnaz

2013-07-01

93

Evaluating Social–Cognitive Mechanisms That Regulate Self-Efficacy in Response to Provocative Smoking Cues: An Experimental Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers' self-efficacy appraisals strongly predict smoking outcomes. However, the cognitive structures that regulate smokers' self-efficacy appraisals have not yet been identified. Knowledge of such structures could assist in designing treatments that target self-efficacy appraisals to improve smoking outcomes. This study evaluated whether 2 abstinence-related self-schemas, the abstainer ideal- and abstainer ought-possible selves, regulated self-efficacy to resist smoking when smokers were

William G. Shadel; Daniel Cervone

2006-01-01

94

Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish, using a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether there is any evidence from randomised controlled clinical\\u000a trials of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in patients with any disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data sources: Published and unpublished reports of controlled clinical trials available up to June 1998, identified by searching bibliographic\\u000a databases (Medline, Embase, Biosis, PsychInfo, Cinahl, British Library Stock Alert Service,

M. Cucherat; M. C. Haugh; M. Gooch; J.-P. Boissel

2000-01-01

95

IMAP statement on contraceptive efficacy.  

PubMed

Unwanted pregnancy may have serious negative effects upon the health and well-being of individuals and families. The use of effective contraception is therefore important. Efficacy, however, is not the only factor considered by clients when choosing a contraceptive method, so counsellors and service providers should not promote methods on the sole basis of their efficacy, irrespective of client preference. With regard to method efficacy, important considerations which may affect the choice of a method are the availability of emergency contraception and access to safe abortion services in the event of method failure. Biological factors such as age, parity, and whether a woman is breast feeding may affect contraceptive efficacy and should be a consideration when choosing a method. Contraceptive efficacy is usually measured in terms of failure rates calculated from the number of pregnancies which occur during a specified period of contraceptive use. Method failure is that attributable to the method, while user failure is that attributable to incorrect use of the method in addition to method failure. The failure rates for specific methods of contraception reported in the literature vary, sometimes substantially. The article briefly considers the measurement of efficacy and human factors affecting contraceptive efficacy with regard to clients, providers, and managers. PMID:12319092

1994-08-01

96

Longitudinal Efficacy Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In order to collect a thesaurus of gifted descriptors and to develop variables and item clusters appropriate for use in impact research, 847 people (404 elementary and 242 secondary school students identified as gifted, 91 elementary and 62 secondary teachers of the gifted, and 73 parents of gifted children) were interviewed. The three major…

Fearn, Leif

97

Behavior Problems of Children With Autism, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy has been identified in the general parenting literature as an important variable affecting parent outcomes. In the present study, 26 mothers and 20 fathers of children with autism reported on their self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression. Teachers rated the behavior problems of the children. Regression analyses showed that self-efficacy mediated the effect of child behavior problems on mothers' anxiety and

Richard P. Hastings; Tony Brown

2002-01-01

98

Efficacy in Letter-Writing to an Entertainment-Education Radio Serial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of efficacy, both self and collective, in the adoption of prosocial behaviors has not been examined in the context of large-scale communication campaigns that use mass media interventions. Our purpose is to identify efficacious dimensions in letter-writers' communication to an entertainment-education radio drama serial in India. An entertainment-education program can influence audience members' sense of efficacy, an effect

Sweety Law; Arvind Singhal

1999-01-01

99

Career decision-making self-efficacy and institutional integration of underprepared college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation applied, as the theoretical base, a model of student persistence and departure (Tinto, 1987) to explore the nature of the relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and integration. Career decision-making self-efficacy identifies students' perceived confidence (self-efficacy) in their ability to plan and execute vocationally relevant tasks in the educational environment. The sample comprised 418 underprepared students. Data were analyzed

Shari L. Peterson

1993-01-01

100

Tracing the development of preservice teachers’ efficacy beliefs in teaching mathematics during fieldwork  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching mathematics; it aims at testing and validating an existing\\u000a scale for measuring efficacy beliefs in the domain of mathematics, examining the development of preservice teachers’ efficacy\\u000a beliefs in mathematics during fieldwork, and identifying factors that contribute to the development of these beliefs. Exploratory\\u000a factor analysis applied to longitudinal data collected

Charalambos Y. Charalambous; George N. Philippou; Leonidas Kyriakides

2008-01-01

101

Terrorism and Hazardous Material Trucking: Promoting Perceived Collective Efficacy for Terrorism Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism

Keith James

2008-01-01

102

Self-efficacy instruments for patients with chronic diseases suffer from methodological limitations - a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Measurement of self-efficacy requires carefully developed and validated instruments. It is currently unclear whether available self-efficacy instruments for chronic diseases fulfill these requirements. Our aim was to systematically identify all existing self-efficacy scales for five major chronic diseases and to assess their development and validation process. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and

Anja Frei; Anna Svarin; Claudia Steurer-Stey; Milo A Puhan

2009-01-01

103

A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

2011-01-01

104

Identifying Diverse HIV Risk Groups Among American Indian Young Adults: The Utility of Cluster Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the utility of cluster analysis for identifying diverse HIV risk groups found in a community-based sample. Within a group of 706 American Indian young adults, we used cluster analysis to identify four profiles of HIV risk\\/protection. The High Efficacy\\/Low Risk cluster had high levels of knowledge\\/education, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations about HIV protection, with low levels of risk

Christina M. Mitchell; Carol E. Kaufman; Janette Beals

2004-01-01

105

Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category. FDA Data Element Number. ... Geriatric Use Supplement Clinical Efficacy Trials Category. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

106

Teacher Report and Direct Assessment of Preferences for Identifying Reinforcers for Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers were asked to identify and rank 10 preferred stimuli for 9 toddlers, and a hierarchy of preference for these items was determined via a direct preference assessment. The reinforcing efficacy of the most highly preferred items identified by each method was evaluated concurrently in a reinforcer assessment. The reinforcer assessment showed that all stimuli identified as highly preferred via

CATHERINE A. COTE; R ACHEL H. THOMPSON; Gregory P Hanley; PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR

2007-01-01

107

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2013-09-01

108

Predispositions toward Green Issues: The Potential Efficacy of Advertising Appeals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green advertising appeals have become increasingly popular as more and more environmentally friendly products are introduced. Consequently, identifying which green appeals are the most effective becomes a critical issue. This study used two samples to examine the potential efficacy of seven distinct green issues as advertising appeals. Results suggest that health-oriented green appeals might be the most effective advertising message

Marla Royne Stafford; Thomas F. Stafford; Jhinuk Chowdhury

1996-01-01

109

Reducing Intestinal Nematode Infection: Efficacy of Albendazole and Mebendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of mebendazole and albendazole for treating intestinal nematode infections in human populations is raising concerns that careful monitoring pro- cedures should be in place to identify any emergence of drug resistance. In this article, Andy Bennett and Helen Guyatt discuss whether benchmark parasitological drug efficacy rates can be defined for these anthelmintics, by analysing published data on

Andrew Bennett; Helen Guyatt

2000-01-01

110

Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students'…

Warwick, Jon

2012-01-01

111

Collective Efficacy and Major Depression in Urban Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

Depression contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and disability. Population-level factors that shape depression may be efficient targets for intervention to decrease the depression burden. The authors aimed to identify the relation between neighborhood collective efficacy and major depression. Analyses were conducted on data from the New York Social Environment Study (n = 4,000), a representative study of residents of New York, New York, conducted in 2005. Neighborhood collective efficacy was measured as the average neighborhood response on a well-established scale. Major depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire. A marginal modeling approach was applied to present results on the additive scale relevant to public health and intervention. Analyses were adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, recent life events that could contribute to both depression and change in residence, and individual perception of collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was related to major depression among older adults; marginal models estimated a 6.2% (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 17.5) lower prevalence of depression if all older adults (65 years and older) had lived in high versus low collective efficacy neighborhoods. Similar results were suggested among younger adults; however, the confidence interval crossed the null. These and other study findings suggest that community-randomized trials targeting collective efficacy merit consideration.

Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro

2011-01-01

112

Social and Cultural Meanings of Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

This article describes the influences of social context on women’s health behavior through illustration of the powerful influences of social capital (the benefits and challenges that accrue from participation in social networks and groups) on experiences and perceptions of self-efficacy. The authors conducted inductive interviews with Latino and Filipino academics and social service providers and with U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas and Filipinas to explore direct and indirect influences of social context on health behaviors such as mammography screening. Iterative thematic analysis identified themes (meanings of efficacy, spheres of efficacy, constraints on efficacy, sources of social capital, and differential access to and quality of social capital) that link the domain of social capital with the behavioral construct perceived self-efficacy. The authors conclude that social capital addresses aspects of social context absent in the current self-efficacy construct and that these aspects have important implications for scholars’ and practitioners’ understandings of health behavior and intervention development.

Burke, Nancy J.; Bird, Joyce A.; Clark, Melissa A.; Rakowski, William; Guerra, Claudia; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

113

The Practical Evaluation of DNA Barcode Efficacy*  

PubMed Central

This chapter describes a workflow for measuring the efficacy of a barcode in identifying species. First, assemble individual sequence databases corresponding to each barcode marker. A controlled collection of taxonomic data is preferable to GenBank data, because GenBank data can be problematic, particularly when comparing barcodes based on more than one marker. To ensure proper controls when evaluating species identification, specimens not having a sequence in every marker database should be discarded. Second, select a computer algorithm for assigning species to barcode sequences. No algorithm has yet improved notably on assigning a specimen to the species of its nearest neighbor within a barcode database. Because global sequence alignments (e.g., with the Needleman–Wunsch algorithm, or some related algorithm) examine entire barcode sequences, they generally produce better species assignments than local sequence alignments (e.g., with BLAST). No neighboring method (e.g., global sequence similarity, global sequence distance, or evolutionary distance based on a global alignment) has yet shown a notable superiority in identifying species. Finally, “the probability of correct identification” (PCI) provides an appropriate measurement of barcode efficacy. The overall PCI for a data set is the average of the species PCIs, taken over all species in the data set. This chapter states explicitly how to calculate PCI, how to estimate its statistical sampling error, and how to use data on PCR failure to set limits on how much improvements in PCR technology can improve species identification.

Spouge, John L.; Marino-Ramirez, Leonardo

2012-01-01

114

School Nurses' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy in Providing Diabetes Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to measure school nurses' perceived self-efficacy in providing diabetes care and education to children and to identify factors that correlate with higher self-efficacy levels in the performance of these tasks. The results of this study revealed that the surveyed school nurses perceived a moderate level of…

Fisher, Kelly L.

2006-01-01

115

Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: Efficacy and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy NA, Nicole Irwin MC, Hoff C. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: efficacy and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1721-5. Objectives: To describe the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in the management of spasticity in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify risk factors for complications. Design: Consecutive case series of 25 implanted ITB

Nancy A. Murphy; Melanie C. Nicole Irwin; Charles Hoff

2002-01-01

116

A Highly Efficacious Lymphocyte Chemoattractant, Stromal Cell-derived Factor 1 (SDF-1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chemotactic factors are postulated to direct emigration of lymphocytes from the blood stream into sites of inflammation. Members of a family ofchemotactic cytokines, termed chemokines, have been shown to attract lymphocytes but efficacy, i.e., the maximal percentage of attracted cells, has been low. We have identified a highly efficacious lymphocyte chemotactic activity in the supernatants of the murine bone

Conrad C. Bleul; Robert C. Fuhlbrigge; Jose M. Casasnovas; Alessandro Aiuti; Timothy A. Springer

1996-01-01

117

Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

2009-01-01

118

Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

2011-01-01

119

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

120

The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled treatment outcome studies that examined the efficacy of EMDR in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder have yielded a range of results, with the efficacy of EMDR varying across studies. The current study sought to determine if differences in outcome were related to methodological differences. The research was reviewed to identify meth- odological strengths, weaknesses, and empirical findings.

Louise Maxfield; Lee Hyer

2002-01-01

121

Factor Structure, Stability, and Predictive Validity of College Students' Relationship Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored the underlying structure, stability, and predictive validity of college students' scores on a measure of relationship maintenance self-efficacy beliefs. Three identified efficacy-related factors were found to be stable; related in expected directions with gender, commitment status, and adult attachment orientations; and…

Lopez, Frederick G.; Morua, Wendy; Rice, Kenneth G.

2007-01-01

122

Efficacy of Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Elderly Patients with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There have been no reports on the efficacy of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in elderly patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy and identify the predictors of a successful outcome of NPPV in patients over the age of 75 years with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the data of

Yohei Kida; Yoshiaki Minakata; Yoichi Yamada; Masakazu Ichinose

2012-01-01

123

Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

2012-01-01

124

Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines.

Toh, May Fern

2010-01-01

125

Efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics in reduction mammoplasty.  

PubMed

The use of prophylactic antibiotics in reduction mammoplasty has been random and its efficacy unproven. This study reviewed 106 consecutive inferior pedicle technique reduction mammoplasties. Two groups were identified; 47 patients received prophylactic antibiotics and 59 patients did not. The decision of who received prophylactic antibiotics was random based on resident rotation and resident preoperative orders. The demographics were equal between the antibiotic group and the control group. The wound infection rate and the rate of delayed healing were examined in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences in the infection rate or the rate of delayed wound healing in either the antibiotic group or the control group. Individual risk factors were also studied in each group. These risk factors included obesity, older age, smoking history, and large reductions. The use of prophylactic antibiotics did not reduce the infection rate in any of these high-risk groups. Comparing the individual risk factors for the remainder of the patient population showed that the infection rate was higher in obese patients but was unaffected by prophylactic antibiotics. Delayed healing was also higher in larger reductions but also was unaffected by the use of prophylactic antibiotics. We conclude that the use of prophylactic antibiotics in reduction mammoplasty is not efficacious in reducing the rate of wound infection or delayed healing. PMID:7857040

Serletti, J M; Davenport, M S; Herrera, H R; Caldwell, E H

1994-11-01

126

DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI ® ) SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

precise specification of an identified entity's attributes (metadata). DOI ® names may identify physical, digital, or abstract entities, at any level of granularity. Through multiple resolution, a DOI name can be associated with multiple pieces of data, each of which may be dynamically updated. Once assigned, a DOI name can be used to locate an entity, or to provide services

Norman Paskin

127

Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges of humanitarian logisticians with respect to different types of disasters, phases of disaster relief and the type of humanitarian organization. A conceptual model is constructed that serves as a basis to identify these challenges. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a country as a case, namely Ghana.

Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen Spens

2009-01-01

128

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

129

The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. Effect sizes for psychodynamic therapy are as large as those reported for other therapies that have been actively promoted as "empirically supported" and "evidence based." In addition, patients who receive psychodynamic therapy maintain therapeutic gains and appear to continue to…

Shedler, Jonathan

2010-01-01

130

Measuring protection: efficacy versus effectiveness.  

PubMed

In the clinical development of a vaccine, an efficacy study asks the question, "Does the vaccine work?" In contrast, an effectiveness study asks the question "Does vaccination help people?". In general, vaccine development proceeds from a study of immunogenicity to a randomized controlled trial that determines vaccine efficacy under ideal conditions. Efficacy studies, however, have several limitations. In an immunogenicity study, when a vaccine is given according to different schedules, the object of the study is not the vaccine itself but the schedules; i.e., what is important is not the "relative immunogenicity" of the vaccine, but which schedule is more protective given the occurrence of the disease that is to be prevented. Furthermore, a clinical trial of vaccine efficacy is unable to predict accurately the level of protection that will be achieved in public health practice. Vaccination effectiveness can be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial, although few such studies have been undertaken. Effectiveness is usually assessed retrospectively, sometimes using a screening test, but more often in a case-control or cohort study. In these studies, rigorous risk adjustment is necessary to ensure the comparability of study populations. Retrospective studies also provide a means for assessing serious but rare vaccine-associated adverse events, an undertaking often needed to maintain public confidence in vaccination programmes. Many vaccines currently under development will be replacement rather than new vaccines, and they are unlikely to be evaluated in traditional efficacy trials. In future years, effectiveness studies, some of them using large administrative databases, will become increasingly important features of vaccine development and the formulation of public policy for immunization. PMID:9855432

Fedson, D S

1998-01-01

131

Teacher Report and Direct Assessment of Preferences for Identifying Reinforcers for Young Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers were asked to identify and rank 10 preferred stimuli for 9 toddlers, and a hierarchy of preference for these items was determined via a direct preference assessment. The reinforcing efficacy of the most highly preferred items identified by each method was evaluated concurrently in a reinforcer assessment. The reinforcer assessment showed…

Cote, Catherine A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; McKerchar, Paige M.

2007-01-01

132

The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management\\u000a of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the\\u000a treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. This paper describes the validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy\\u000a Scale (HIV-ASES) with two samples of HIV+ adults

Mallory O. Johnson; Torsten B. Neilands; Samantha E. Dilworth; Stephen F. Morin; Robert H. Remien; Margaret A. Chesney

2007-01-01

133

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

134

Resistance Training: Identifying Best Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resistance training increases muscle strength. Muscle strength gains are influenced by program design. This review attempted to identify design choices that would be best practices. A best practice is a design option that produces significantly better res...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2010-01-01

135

Identifying Strengths within Alternative Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acknowledges and shares some insights into the education systems of the United Kingdom and Russia, identifying the positive attributes. Concludes that there are noticeable strengths in the systems and in the teachers of both countries. (ASK)

Stokoe, Rob; Illushin, Leonid

1998-01-01

136

Observing, Describing, and Identifying Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They then correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. . The intended outcome is that students will be able to identify cloud types using standard cloud classification names.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

137

The influence of theme identifiability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we used the Deese\\/Roediger-McDermott paradigm to analyze the relationship between theme identifiability\\u000a of word lists and false memories in adults and children. We conducted two normative studies to determine the identifiability\\u000a levels for critical unpresented words in 40 associative lists in adults and in 16 associative lists in children. Then, in\\u000a three experiments, false memories for

Paula Carneiro; Angel Fernandez; Ana Rita Dias

2009-01-01

138

Molecular recognition: identifying compounds and their targets.  

PubMed

As a result of gene sequencing and proteomic efforts, thousands of new genes and proteins are now available as potential drug targets. The milieu of these proteins is complex and interactive; thousands of proteins activate, inhibit, and control each other's actions. The effect of blocking or activating a protein in a cell is far-reaching, and can affect whole, as well as adjacent pathways. This network of pathways is dynamic and a cellular response can change depending on the stimulus. In this section, the identification and role of individual proteins within the context of networked pathways, and the regulation of the activity of these proteins is discussed. Diverse chemical libraries, combinatorial libraries, natural products, as well as unnatural natural products that are derived from combinatorial biology (Chiu [2001] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98:8548-8553), provide the chemical diversity in the search for new drugs to block new targets. Identifying new compounds that can become drugs is a long, expensive, and arduous task and potential targets must be carefully defined so as not to waste valuable resources. Equally important is the selection of compounds to be future drug candidates. Target selectivity in no way guarantees clinical efficacy, as the compound must meet pharmaceutical requirements, such as solubility, absorption, tissue distribution, and lack of toxicity. Thus matching biological diversity with chemical diversity involves something more than tight interactions, it involves interactions of the compounds with a variety host factors that can modulate its activity. PMID:11842421

Fernandes, P B

2001-01-01

139

Confirmatory Analysis of Computer Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extended previous exploratory work on computer self-efficacy and tested a four-factor self-efficacy model. Results for 414 college students demonstrate support for the hypothesized model. Survey questions appeared relevant in most situations. (SLD)|

Torkzadeh, Gholamreza; Koufteros, Xenophon; Pflughoeft, Kurt

2003-01-01

140

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

141

Self-Efficacy of Developmental College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an explanation of self-efficacy and differences between self-efficacy and other aspects of the self-system. Examines the self-efficacy for mathematical problem solving and verbal comprehension of a group of students, including developmental learners. Indicates that developmental students as a group lack the ability to monitor their own…

Young, Dawn B.; Ley, Kathryn

2002-01-01

142

Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to

Megan Tschannen-Moran; Anita Woolfolk Hoy

2001-01-01

143

The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title. The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review. Aim. This paper is a report of a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of reflexology in any condition. Background. Anecdotal evidence has shown potential benefits of reflexology in a variety of health conditions. However, the efficacy of reflexology has yet to be

Mei-Yeh Wang; Pei-Shan Tsai; Pi-Hsia Lee; Wen-Yin Chang; Che-Ming Yang

2008-01-01

144

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

145

Drug Efficacy Testing in Mice  

PubMed Central

The traditional path of drug development passes from in vitro screening and response assessment to validation of drug efficacy in cell line xenografts. While xenografts have their merits, historically, more often than not, they have not served as an accurate predictor of drug efficacy in humans. The refinement and increased availability of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of cancer has made GEMMs an attractive avenue for the preclinical testing of therapeutic agents. The histopathologic and genetic resemblance of GEMMs to human cancer are an important measure to evaluate their suitability for pre-clinical studies and a number of studies using kinase inhibitors have now been performed in GEMMs. We have highlighted several of the salient advantages and challenges associated with GEMM studies. Well-characterized GEM models of human cancer should aide in the prioritization of both established and novel therapeutics.

Kim, William Y.

2013-01-01

146

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

147

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

148

Relationship between Counseling Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between school counselors' counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling self-efficacy. In addition, this study measured school counselors' levels of general school counseling self-efficacy, multicultural counseling self-efficacy, and the relationship between school…

Crook, Tylon

2010-01-01

149

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

150

[Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].  

PubMed

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus. PMID:23547382

Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

2013-01-01

151

Behavior problems of children with autism, parental self-efficacy, and mental health.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy has been identified in the general parenting literature as an important variable affecting parent outcomes. In the present study, 26 mothers and 20 fathers of children with autism reported on their self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression. Teachers rated the behavior problems of the children. Regression analyses showed that self-efficacy mediated the effect of child behavior problems on mothers' anxiety and depression, but there was no evidence that it functioned as a mediator for fathers. However, there was evidence that self-efficacy moderated the effect of child behavior problems on fathers' anxiety. No evidence for the moderating effect of self-efficacy was apparent for mothers. Methodological issues and the theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:11966335

Hastings, Richard P; Brown, Tony

2002-05-01

152

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Teaching: The Importance of Interpersonal-Relations Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perceived self-efficacy and burnout among teachers. Self-efficacy has been defined operationally based on a three-dimensional conceptualization: task, relations and organization. Efficacy variables were three classroom efficacy factors: instruction (task), discipline control (task), and consideration (relations), and two organizational efficacy factors: inclusion (task) and influence (relations). Burnout was measured as both a three-dimensional measure comprised

Isaac A. Friedman

2003-01-01

153

Identifying High Performance ERP Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and

Erik Stensrud; Ingunn Myrtveit

2003-01-01

154

Gender-Differences in Self-Efficacy ICT Related to Various ICT-User Profiles in Finland and Norway. How Do Self-Efficacy, Gender and ICT-User Profiles Relate to Findings from PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to…

Tomte, Cathrine; Hatlevik, Ove E.

2011-01-01

155

Gender-Differences in Self-Efficacy ICT Related to Various ICT-User Profiles in Finland and Norway. How Do Self-Efficacy, Gender and ICT-User Profiles Relate to Findings from PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to…

Tomte, Cathrine; Hatlevik, Ove E.

2011-01-01

156

Situational correlates of abstinence self-efficacy.  

PubMed

Little is known about the situations that are associated with changes in self-efficacy during an attempt to quit smoking. In this study, 214 smokers used palmtop computers to record momentary self-efficacy ratings and situational context during a quit attempt. Higher urge to smoke and negative affect were associated with reduced self-efficacy. Although alcohol and coffee consumption are associated with heightened lapse risk, they were unrelated to abstinence self-efficacy. Individuals with low baseline self-efficacy generally reported lower self-efficacy across situations, but these differences were more pronounced under conditions of high urge and negative affect. These results suggest that self-efficacy may be reactive to affect-motivational states during a quit attempt. Whether these influences represent cognitive biases or objective risk assessments is not known. PMID:16351386

Gwaltney, Chad J; Shiffman, Saul; Sayette, Michael A

2005-11-01

157

Most tumour necrosis factor inhibitor trials in rheumatology are undeservedly called 'efficacy and safety' trials: a survey of power considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Many randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are labelled efficacy and safety while due consideration for power is provided only for efficacy outcomes. This in turn necessitates a discussion of the inadequacy of sample size (type II error) for identifying harm. This is particularly important in RCTs of TNF inhibitors as harm related to these agents is still a matter of

Y. Yazici; N. M. Adler; H. Yazici

2008-01-01

158

Development and Validation of In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Context of Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery.…

Shaukat, Sadia

2011-01-01

159

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

160

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

161

Mental efficacy, social support resources and aging well of veteran athletes and older adults in Greece: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors have been identified as important contributors to aging well. However, few studies examined how mental efficacy and social support contribute to aging well of veteran athletes versus older adults. This study examined the impact of mental efficacy and social support on aging well of Greek veteran track and field athletes versus non-athletes. Older adults (N=259) and veteran athletes

Yvonne Harahousou; Odysseus Trikkos; Nickos Kabitsis

2012-01-01

162

Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.  

PubMed

Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

2010-04-01

163

Identifying misidentifications: a phenomenological study.  

PubMed

This study assessed how well the current classification system of the delusional misidentification syndromes (DMSs) represents the full range of misidentification phenomena encountered in self-descriptions of psychotic patients. To this end, a sample of 58 self-descriptions of ex-patients who had suffered from an episode of psychosis were reviewed. Misidentifications fitting the definition of one of the DMSs were identified in only 3 cases, whereas those fitting a general and broad definition were identified in 16 cases. It is argued that the restrictive nature of the currently dominant DMSs classification may have led to the neglect of a wide range of misidentification phenomena which do not fit the descriptions of any one of the classic DMSs. Proper identification, description and classification of these non-DMS misidentification phenomena is needed. PMID:9561552

Mojtabai, R

1998-01-01

164

The PHENIX Muon Identifier Prototype  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Muon Identifier (MuID) subsystem is an integral part of the Muon Arms for the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collidier. The Muon Arm detector is designed to study the properties of vector mesons in hot and dense nuclear matter through their muon decay channel. The MuID uses Iarocci (or streamer) tubes sandwiched between steel absorbers to discriminate between minimum ionizing muons and showering hadrons, such as pions and protons. This will help identify J/? suppression, if it exists. A full scale prototype of one panel of the MuID has been constructed at ORNL for various R&D experiments. The results from tests of the electronics, such as HV settings, operating the tubes in streamer vs. proportional mode, different cable types, and amplifier arrangement, will be discussed. Also to be presented are the outcomes from mechanical tests of the panel and performance and efficiency of the tubes with different gas mixtures.

Held, Samuel

1997-04-01

165

Factors associated with self-efficacy for managing recovery in the trauma intensive care population: A prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to identify factors associated with self-efficacy for managing recovery in the trauma intensive care population. INTRODUCTION: Injury accounts for 6.5% of disease burden in Australia, with similar levels being reported in other developed countries. While some studies regarding self-efficacy have identified a relationship to patient recovery post acute injury, others have been inconclusive. This study will identify factors associated with self-efficacy for managing recovery in the trauma intensive care population. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients aged ?18 years, admitted to a metropolitan tertiary hospital in South East Queensland between June 2008 and August 2010 for the acute treatment of injury. Demographic, injury, acute care and psychosocial factors were considered. The primary outcome was self-efficacy measured by the 6-item self-efficacy scale (SES) 1 and 6 months post hospital discharge. All factors significant (p<0.10) on univariate analysis were included in multivariable modelling where p<0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients were included. The mean self-efficacy score at 1 and 6 months was similar (6.8 vs 6.9 respectively). Self-efficacy at 1 month, psychological distress (K-10) Score and illness perception (K10) Score accounted for 68.4% (adjusted R(2)) of the variance in 6 month self-efficacy (F3,75)=57.17, p<0.001. Illness perception was the strongest contributor to 6 month self-efficacy (beta=-0.516), followed by psychological distress (beta=-0.243) and self-efficacy at 1 month (beta=0.205). CONCLUSION: Significant factors associated with self-efficacy for managing recovery at 6 months included 1 month self-efficacy, illness perception and psychological distress. To promote patient recovery, screening patients at 1 month in order to commence relevant interventions could be beneficial. PMID:23747123

Connolly, Fiona R; Aitken, Leanne M; Tower, Marion; Macfarlane, Bonnie

2013-06-01

166

Identifying Electromagnetic Attacks against Airports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a new and sophisticated approach to detect and locate the origin of electromagnetic attacks. At the example of an airport, a normal electromagnetic environment is defined, in which electromagnetic attacks shall be identified. After a brief consideration of the capabilities of high power electromagnetic sources to produce high field strength values, this contribution finally presents the approach of a sensor network, realizing the identification of electromagnetic attacks.

Kreth, A.; Genender, E.; Doering, O.; Garbe, H.

2012-05-01

167

Identifying Two-Sided Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show how the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify the crucial elements that make a market two-sided and, drawing from both theory and practice,

Lapo Filistrucchi; Damien Geradin; Eric van Damme

2012-01-01

168

Identifying Two-Sided Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets focusing on the different definitions that have been proposed. In particular, we show that the well-known definition given by Evans is a particular case of the more general definition proposed by Rochet and Tirole. We then identify the crucial elements that make a market two-sided and, drawing from both theory and practice,

L. Filistrucchi; D. A. A. G. Geradin; E. E. C. van Damme

2012-01-01

169

Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

1995-12-01

170

The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. Effect sizes for psychodynamic therapy are as large as those reported for other therapies that have been actively promoted as "empirically supported" and "evidence based." In addition, patients who receive psychodynamic therapy maintain therapeutic gains and appear to continue to improve after treatment ends. Finally, nonpsychodynamic therapies may be effective in part because the more skilled practitioners utilize techniques that have long been central to psychodynamic theory and practice. The perception that psychodynamic approaches lack empirical support does not accord with available scientific evidence and may reflect selective dissemination of research findings. PMID:20141265

Shedler, Jonathan

171

Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.  

PubMed

In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

2013-01-22

172

The Role of Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, Attitudes and Previous Math Achievement in Students' Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1997), self-efficacy has an important role in students' achievement. The present study was designed in order to investigate the role of personal variables on students' math achievement. To achieve this goal, four variables, i.e., math self-efficacy, mathematics anxiety, math attitudes and prior math achievement were identified on the basis of theoretical principles and research

Mas' oud Kabiri; Ali Reza Kiamanesh

173

Promoting and Measuring Family Caregiver Self-Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a 5-item scale that assesses family caregivers' self-efficacy in communicating with physicians about ill family members (Perceived Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions–PECPI) in the context of an evaluation study of an online training in health care communication skills for caregivers. A national sample of 197 self-identified family caregivers participated in an online webinar and completed

Crystal Dea Moore; Kevin M. Cook

2011-01-01

174

Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and

Senay Yasar

2008-01-01

175

Safety and efficacy of transaortic renal endarterectomy as an adjunct to aortic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A study was undertaken to assess the safety and efficacy of transaortic endarterectomy for orificial atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ASRD), particularly in conjunction with surgery for concomitant aortic disease.Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients with ASRD treated with transaortic orificial eversion endarterectomy were studied retrospectively to identify surgical indications, technical features, operative morbidity and mortality rates, and efficacy.Results: A total of 76

Daniel G. Clair; Michael Belkin; Anthony D. Whittemore; John A. Mannick; Magruder C. Donaldson

1995-01-01

176

The impact of baseline faecal egg counts on the efficacy of single-dose albendazole against Trichuris trichiura.  

PubMed

There is considerable variation in the efficacy of single-dose albendazole (400mg) against Trichuris trichiura across human trials. Factors contributing to this variation have not yet been identified. We assessed the impact of mean baseline faecal egg counts (FEC) on the efficacy of single-dose albendazole against T. trichiura in five previously conducted trials. Our results suggest that efficacy measured by reduction in mean FECs decreased significantly (p<0.0001) when mean baseline FECs increased, highlighting that this parameter should be considered as an important confounding factor for drug efficacy. PMID:22189084

Levecke, B; Mekonnen, Z; Albonico, M; Vercruysse, J

2011-12-19

177

The Efficacy of Soccer Headgear  

PubMed Central

Objective: The potential for risks associated with chronic soccer heading has led some soccer leagues to mandate the use of soccer headgear. Although manufacturers have designed and promoted these headbands to decrease the forces associated with heading a soccer ball, their efficacy has not been tested. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of 3 brands of soccer headgear: Headers, Headblast, and Protector, as compared with a non-headband condition. Design and Setting: A force platform was mounted vertically with each headband attached with a length of hook-and-loop tape. A JUGS Soccer Machine projected balls at the platform and headband at 56.45 kph (35 mph). Measurements: We measured vertical ground reaction force for 50 trials of each condition and calculated peak force, time to peak force, and impulse. Results: We found a significant reduction in peak force of impact with all 3 headbands. The Protector headband also showed the greatest decrease in time to peak force and impulse, whereas the Headers headband showed a significant increase in impulse. Conclusions: All 3 headbands were effective at reducing the peak impact force. The Protector headband appeared the most effective at reducing time to peak force and impulse within the design of this study. The clinical effectiveness of these products remains to be seen.

Ju, Yan-Ying; Broglio, Michael D.; Sell, Timothy C.

2003-01-01

178

Self-efficacy, motivation, and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the relation of self-efficacy to motivation and performance in cognitive and sport domains. Self-efficacy refers to one's beliefs about accomplishing a task and can influence choice of activities. effort, persistence. and achievement. People enter activities with varying levels of self-efficacy derived from prior experience, personal qualities, and social support. As they work on tasks they acquire information

Dale H. Schunk

1995-01-01

179

Research Streams in Rater Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two studies using different methodologies to advance research in the understanding of rater self-efficacy. In the first study, an experimental investigation of the effects of a program designed to augment rater self-efficacy perceptions found that student raters provided with Self-Efficacy Training for Raters (SET-R) produced less elevated ratings subsequent to training as well as reported lower levels of

H. John Bernardin; Peter Villanova

2005-01-01

180

Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Vaccines against Cervical HPV Infection and Diseases among Women: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess efficacy and safety of prophylactic HPV vaccines against cervical cancer precursor events in women. METHODS: Randomized-controlled trials of HPV vaccines were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, conference abstracts and references of identified studies, and assessed by two independent reviewers. Efficacy data were synthesized using fixed-effect models,

Beibei Lu; Ambuj Kumar; Xavier Castellsagué; Anna R Giuliano

2011-01-01

181

Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.  

PubMed

Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability. PMID:10204285

Morrow, B H

1999-03-01

182

Identifying infection hotspots early on.  

PubMed

According to many published studies, 'ducting in ventilation and air-conditioning are largely overlooked and ignored, as they are out of sight and out of mind', despite mounting evidence indicating a higher risk in spreading airborne infections'. So says Ghasson Shabha BSc (Arch) MSc, PhD (Arch), MBIFM, Associate CIBSE, PG Cert Ed, of the Faculty of Technology, Engineering and the Environment (TEE), at the Birmingham School of the Built Environment (BSBE) at Birmingham City University, who adds that CIBSE estimates that fewer than 5% of buildings with air-conditioning systems above 12 kW have been inspected so far. Here he argues that incorporating 3D building information modelling software into existing computer-aided facilities management software systems will enable hospitals' 'infection hotspots' to be far more quickly identified, and subsequently monitored, to prevent future problems. PMID:22574469

Shabha, Ghasson

2012-04-01

183

Important caves to be identified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Criteria to identify significant caves on federal land are being developed by the Interior Department's Bureau of Land Management and the Agriculture Department's Forest Service under requirements of the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. The departments gave advance notice of proposed rulemaking March 3 and invited suggestions and comments from the public for 30 days.The law requires protection, to the extent practical, of significant caves on lands administered by the Secretaries of Agriculture and Interior and includes authority to issue and revoke permits for collection and removal of cave resources and special provisions for regulation of cave resources on Indian lands. Final regulations must be published by August 18, 1989.

184

Maternal Environment Influences Cocaine Intake in Adulthood in a Genotype-Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAccumulating epidemiological evidence points to the role of genetic background as a modulator of the capacity of adverse early experiences to give rise to mental illness. However, direct evidence of such gene-environment interaction in the context of substance abuse is scarce. In the present study we investigated whether the impact of early life experiences on cocaine intake in adulthood depends

Rixt van der Veen; Muriel Koehl; D. Nora Abrous; E. Ronald de Kloet; Pier-Vincenzo Piazza; Véronique Deroche-Gamonet; Huibert D. Mansvelder

2008-01-01

185

Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and Viniimk 8931, which are commercially important for Turkey. Seeds germinated on Murashige and Skoog

Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit; Nermin Gozukirmizi; Belma Derman Semiz

186

Dopamine transporter genotype dependent effects of apomorphine on cold pain tolerance in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n?=?105) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3'-UTR 40-bp VNTR) within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively). In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance. PMID:23704939

Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Ebstein, Richard P; Eisenberg, Elon

2013-05-21

187

Genotype-dependent responses to levels of sibling competition over maternal resources in mice.  

PubMed

Research on phenotypic plasticity has often focused on how a given genotype responds to the changing physical environments such as temperature or diet. However, for many species the social environment has an equally important role because of competition for resources. During early development, the level of competition for limited (maternally provided) resources will often depend critically on the number of siblings. Therefore, competition among siblings should drive the evolution of genes that allow flexible responses to realized levels of competition and maternal resource availability. However, it is unknown whether genetically based differences between individuals exist in their response to the social environment that affect their future development. Using a quantitative trait locus approach in an experimental population of mice we demonstrate that effects of sibling number on body weight depend on individual genotype at seven loci, over and above the general negative litter size effect. Overall, these litter size-by-genotype interactions considerably modified the degree to which increasing litter size caused reduced weight. For example at one locus this effect leads to a 7% difference in body weight at week 7 between individuals experiencing the extremes of the normal range of litter sizes in our population (five to nine litter mates). The observed interaction between genotype and the competitive environment can produce differences in body weight that are similar in magnitude to the main effect of litter size on weight. Our results show that different genotypes respond to the social environment differentially and that interaction effects of genotype with litter size can be as important as genotype-independent effects of litter size. PMID:22126849

Hager, R; Cheverud, J M; Wolf, J B

2011-11-30

188

Haptoglobin Genotype-Dependent Anti-Inflammatory Signaling in CD163(+) Macrophages.  

PubMed

Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is notable that individuals homozygous for the Hp 2 allele (a poorer antioxidant) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the Hp 1 allele. In this study, we examined whether scavenging of polymorphic Hp:Hb complexes differentially generated downstream anti-inflammatory signals in cultured human macrophages culminating in interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. We describe an anti-inflammatory signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation upstream of Akt phosphorylation (pSer473Akt) and IL-10 secretion. The pathway is mediated specifically through CD163 and is blocked by anti-CD163 antibody or phagocytosis inhibitor. However, levels of pSer473Akt and IL-10 were significantly diminished when scavenging polymorphic Hp2-2:Hb complexes compared to Hp1-1:Hb complexes (P < 0.05). Impaired anti-inflammatory macrophage signaling through a CD163/pAkt/IL-10 axis may thus represent a possible Hp2-2 disease mechanism in atherosclerosis. PMID:23710416

Landis, R Clive; Philippidis, Pandelis; Domin, Jan; Boyle, Joseph J; Haskard, Dorian O

2013-04-23

189

Maternal Environment Influences Cocaine Intake in Adulthood in a Genotype-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence points to the role of genetic background as a modulator of the capacity of adverse early experiences to give rise to mental illness. However, direct evidence of such gene-environment interaction in the context of substance abuse is scarce. In the present study we investigated whether the impact of early life experiences on cocaine intake in adulthood depends on genetic background. In addition, we studied other behavioral dimensions associated with drug abuse, i.e. anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. Methodology/Principal Findings For this purpose, we manipulated the maternal environment of two inbred mouse strains, the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J by fostering them with non-related mothers, i.e. the C3H/HeN and AKR strains. These mother strains show respectively high and low pup-oriented behavior. As adults, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J were tested either for cocaine intravenous self-administration or in the elevated plus-maze and forced swim test (FST). We found that the impact of maternal environment on cocaine use and a depression-related behavior depends upon genotype, as cocaine self-administration and behavior in the FST were influenced by maternal environment in DBA/2J, but not in C57BL/6J mice. Anxiety was not influenced by maternal environment in either strain. Conclusions/Significance Our experimental approach could contribute to the identification of the psychobiological factors determining the susceptibility or the resilience of certain individuals to develop psychopathologies.

Abrous, D. Nora; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Deroche-Gamonet, Veronique

2008-01-01

190

Genotype-Dependent Effects of TGF-?1 on Mast Cell Function: Targeting the Stat5 Pathway.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that TGF-?1 suppresses IgE-mediated signaling in human and mouse mast cells in vitro, an effect that correlated with decreased expression of the high-affinity IgE receptor, Fc?RI. The in vivo effects of TGF-?1 and the means by which it suppresses mast cells have been less clear. This study shows that TGF-?1 suppresses Fc?RI and c-Kit expression in vivo. By examining changes in cytokine production concurrent with Fc?RI expression, we found that TGF-?1 suppresses TNF production independent of Fc?RI levels. Rather, IgE-mediated signaling was altered. TGF-?1 significantly reduced expression of Fyn and Stat5, proteins critical for cytokine induction. These changes may partly explain the effects of TGF-?1, because Stat5B overexpression blocked TGF-mediated suppression of IgE-induced cytokine production. We also found that Stat5B is required for mast cell migration toward stem cell factor, and that TGF-?1 reduced this migration. We found evidence that genetic background may alter TGF responses. TGF-?1 greatly reduced mast cell numbers in Th1-prone C57BL/6, but not Th2-prone 129/Sv mice. Furthermore, TGF-?1 did not suppress IgE-induced cytokine release and did increase c-Kit-mediated migration in 129/Sv mast cells. These data correlated with high basal Fyn and Stat5 expression in 129/Sv cells, which was not reduced by TGF-?1 treatment. Finally, primary human mast cell populations also showed variable sensitivity to TGF-?1-mediated changes in Stat5 and IgE-mediated IL-6 secretion. We propose that TGF-?1 regulates mast cell homeostasis, and that this feedback suppression may be dependent on genetic context, predisposing some individuals to atopic disease. PMID:24068671

Fernando, Josephine; Faber, Travis W; Pullen, Nicholas A; Falanga, Yves T; Kolawole, Elizabeth Motunrayo; Oskeritzian, Carole A; Barnstein, Brian O; Bandara, Geethani; Li, Geqiang; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Spiegel, Sarah; Straus, David B; Conrad, Daniel H; Bunting, Kevin D; Ryan, John J

2013-09-25

191

Genotype dependent and cigarette specific effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression and enzyme activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the interactive effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genotypes and cigarette smoking on protein levels and enzyme activity in 33 postpartum placentas. Whilst the eNOS protein levels were lower in the rare allele (0.48±0.11, n=9 vs. 1.05±0.10, n=24, P<0.01), the eNOS enzyme activity was about 7-fold higher in the rare allele (4556.2±255.4 vs. 621.8±180.5 cpm\\/mg\\/min, P<0.01). Smokers

Xing Li Wang; Ah Siew Sim; Min Xia Wang; George A. C. Murrell; Brian Trudinger; Jian Wang

2000-01-01

192

Haptoglobin Genotype-Dependent Anti-Inflammatory Signaling in CD163+ Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Intraplaque hemorrhage causes adaptive remodelling of macrophages towards a protective phenotype specialized towards handling iron and lipid overload, denoted Mhem. The Mhem phenotype expresses elevated levels of hemoglobin (Hb) scavenger receptor, CD163, capable of endocytosing pro-oxidant free Hb complexed to acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp). It is notable that individuals homozygous for the Hp 2 allele (a poorer antioxidant) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease compared to the Hp 1 allele. In this study, we examined whether scavenging of polymorphic Hp:Hb complexes differentially generated downstream anti-inflammatory signals in cultured human macrophages culminating in interleukin (IL)-10 secretion. We describe an anti-inflammatory signalling pathway involving phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activation upstream of Akt phosphorylation (pSer473Akt) and IL-10 secretion. The pathway is mediated specifically through CD163 and is blocked by anti-CD163 antibody or phagocytosis inhibitor. However, levels of pSer473Akt and IL-10 were significantly diminished when scavenging polymorphic Hp2-2:Hb complexes compared to Hp1-1:Hb complexes (P < 0.05). Impaired anti-inflammatory macrophage signaling through a CD163/pAkt/IL-10 axis may thus represent a possible Hp2-2 disease mechanism in atherosclerosis.

Landis, R. Clive; Philippidis, Pandelis; Domin, Jan; Boyle, Joseph J.; Haskard, Dorian O.

2013-01-01

193

Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4]) plants regarding the alteration of metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the GC-TOF/MS analysis, we acquired quantitative information regarding over 170 metabolites, which has been analyzed by a novel score (ZMC, z-score of metabolite correlation) describing a characteristic metabolite in terms of correlation. Although the 2 mutants revealed no apparent morphological abnormalities, the overall correlation values in mto1 were much lower than those of the wild-type and tt4 plants, indicating the loss of overall network stability due to the uncontrolled accumulation of methionine. In the tt4 mutant, a new correlation between malate and sinapate was observed although the levels of malate, sinapate, and sinapoylmalate remain unchanged, suggesting an adaptive reconfiguration of the network. Gene-expression correlations presumably responsible for these metabolic networks were determined using the metabolite correlations as clues. Conclusion Two Arabidopsis mutants, mto1 and tt4, exhibited the following changes in entire metabolome networks: the overall loss of metabolic stability (mto1) or the generation of a metabolic network of a backup pathway for the lost physiological functions (tt4). The expansion of metabolite correlation to gene-expression correlation provides detailed insights into the systemic understanding of the plant cellular process regarding metabolome and transcriptome.

Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Jonsson, Par; Moritz, Thomas; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Tohge, Takayuki; Saito, Kazuki

2007-01-01

194

Age and genotype-dependence of bone material properties in the osteogenesis imperfecta murine model (oim)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical mineralization of long bones was studied in collagen ?2(I)-deficient mice (oim) used as a model for human osteogenesis imperfecta. Aspects of the age development of the mice were characterized by combining nanometer- to micrometer-scale structural analysis with microhardness measurements. Bone structure was determined from homozygous (oim\\/oim) and heterozygous (oim\\/+) mice and their normal (+\\/+) littermates as a function of

B Grabner; W. J Landis; P Roschger; S Rinnerthaler; H Peterlik; K Klaushofer; P Fratzl

2001-01-01

195

Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4])

Miyako Kusano; Atsushi Fukushima; Masanori Arita; Pär Jonsson; Thomas Moritz; Makoto Kobayashi; Naomi Hayashi; Takayuki Tohge; Kazuki Saito

2007-01-01

196

Dopamine Transporter Genotype Dependent Effects of Apomorphine on Cold Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n?=?105) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3?-UTR 40-bp VNTR) within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively). In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance.

Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Ebstein, Richard P.; Eisenberg, Elon

2013-01-01

197

Genotype-dependent tumor regression in Marek's disease mediated at the level of tumor immunity.  

PubMed

Marek's disease (MD) of chickens is a unique natural model of Hodgkin's and Non Hodgkin's lymphomas in which the neoplastically-transformed cells over-express CD30 (CD30(hi)) antigen. All chicken genotypes can be infected with MD virus and develop microscopic lymphomas. From 21 days post infection (dpi) microscopic lymphomas regress in resistant chickens but, in contrast, they progress to gross lymphomas in susceptible chickens. Here we test our hypothesis that in resistant chickens at 21 dpi the tissue microenvironment is pro T-helper (Th)-1 and compatible with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunity but in susceptible lines it is pro Th-2 or pro T-regulatory (T-reg) and antagonistic to CTL immunity. We used the B2, non-MHC-associated, MD resistance/susceptibility system (line [L]6(1)/line [L]7(2)) and quantified the levels of key mRNAs that can be used to define Th-1 (IL-2, IL-12, IL-18, IFNgamma), Th-2 (IL-4, IL-10) and T-reg (TGFbeta, GPR-83, CTLA-4, SMAD-7) lymphocyte phenotypes. We measured gene expression in both whole tissues (represents tissue microenvironment and tumor microenvironment) and in the lymphoma lesions (tumor microenvironment) themselves. Gene ontology-based modeling of our results shows that the dominant phenotype in whole tissue as well as in microscopic lymphoma lesions, is pro T-reg in both L6(1) and L7(2) but a minor pro Th-1 and anti Th-2 tissue microenvironment exists in L6(1) whereas there is an anti Th-1 and pro Th-2 tissue microenvironment in L7(2). The tumor microenvironment per se is pro T-reg, anti Th-1 and pro Th-2 in both L6(1) and L7(2). Together our data suggests that the neoplastic transformation is essentially the same in both L6(1) and L7(2) and that resistance/susceptibility is mediated at the level of tumor immunity in the tissues. PMID:19308678

Kumar, Shyamesh; Buza, Joram J; Burgess, Shane C

2009-03-18

198

Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

2009-01-01

199

Complexity modeling: identify instability early.  

PubMed

Biological systems are innately complex, display nonlinear behavior, and respond to both disease and its treatment in similar complex ways. Complex systems display self-organization and predictive behavior along a range of possible states, often referred to as chaotic behavior, and can be both characterized and quantified in terms of this chaotic behavior, which defined strange attractors (?) and variability. In this context, disease can be characterized as a difference in a disease state ? and a healthy ?. Furthermore, effectiveness of treatment can be defined as a minimization problem to decrease the phase-state difference between disease and health ? values, such that effective treatment is defined as the ability to restore the healthy ?. Importantly, this approach will be effective without anything being known about the physiologic processes that define health or disease. The implication is that this approach is a powerful tool to define the determinants of instability as compared with normal variability, to answer why disease is not healthy, and to identify all potentially effective treatment options independent of known pharmacology and physiology. PMID:21164410

Pinsky, Michael R

2010-10-01

200

Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

Showstack, Randy

2011-03-01

201

Identifying compartmentalization in gas reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Compartmentalization as a function of depositional systems is now recognized as a common type of reservoir heterogeneity that limits recovery from oil and gas reservoirs. US Department of Energy (DOE) estimates indicate that substantial quantities of gas resources will not be recovered from presently identified reservoirs under historic development practices. The Secondary Natural Gas Recovery (SGR) project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI), state of Texas and DOE quantified compartmentalization over intervals as large as 2,000 feet in several different fluvial deltaic reservoirs. Early recognition of compartmentalized behavior can be used to pursue a more rapid development plan including efficient well spacing and elimination of redundant wells. Three classes of reservoir compartment sizes were delineated in the SGR project using methods discussed in this article. Forward stochastic modeling of gas recovery from these compartment-size classes established well spacing requirements that would yield maximum gas contact efficiency. The presence of reservoir compartmentalization was also shown to correlate with reserve growth. Also, those reservoirs classified as having smaller compartment sizes exhibited the greatest reserve growth potential. Utilization of tools, such as personal computer-based methods discussed, enables better engineering interpretation of actual field behavior. Some of these tools require minimal production data, which is readily available on CD-ROM or via modem at very low cost.

Junkin, J.; Cooper, K. [Petrotek Engineering Corp., Englewood, CO (United States); Sippel, M. [Sippel (Mark), Englewood, CO (United States)

1997-01-01

202

Identifying safety behaviors in insomnia.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to systematically elicit the safety behaviors employed by people with insomnia. Safety behaviors have been identified as contributing to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. They include overt or covert strategies designed to prevent a feared outcome. However, they contribute to the maintenance of the disorder because they prevent unambiguous disconfirmation of unrealistic beliefs and they increase the likelihood that the fear would actually occur. A questionnaire based on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale was developed to elicit safety behaviors and was administered to 33 people meeting criteria for primary insomnia and 33 nonpatient controls. The data indicated that people with insomnia use a wide range of safety behaviors to prevent feared outcomes. Blind raters determined that the safety behaviors reported included those that: interfere with the regularity of the sleep cycle, interfere with sleep directly, cause paradoxical fuelling of presleep cognitive activity, exacerbate day-time sleepiness, contribute to the day being unpleasant or boring, and those that increase preoccupation with sleep. The clinical implications of these findings and areas for further research are discussed. PMID:11838025

Harvey, Allison G

2002-01-01

203

Are we legitimate yet? : A closer look at the casual relationship mechanisms among principal leadership, teacher self-efficacy and collective efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Failure to identify any significant relationships between principal leadership and student achievement has proved concerns about the assumed value and legitimacy of principal leadership. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current literature by empirically testing the relationships between the principal leadership and the teacher self-efficacy, a construct which has a proven impact on student

Türker Kurt; Ibrahim Duyar; Temel Çalik

2012-01-01

204

Self-Efficacy for Creative Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Efficacy Scale for Creative Productivity (ESCreP) was developed to measure students' convictions that they could be creative producers. Self-efficacy, an individual's estimation of ability to perform a behavior, is based upon performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional or physiological arousal. Three…

Schack, Gina

205

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

206

Self-Efficacy in Academic Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explored the contributions made by self-efficacy theory to the study of self-regulation and motivation in academic settings. Findings on the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance are first summarized. The conceptual difference between the definition and use of perceptions of competence in social cognitive theory…

Pajares, Frank

207

Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The theory of self-efficacy (beliefs concerning one's capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels), has developed since A. Bandura's work (1977) and continues to be applied to a variety of educational settings and grade levels. This paper addresses various issues pertaining to self-efficacy in settings involving academic…

Schunk, Dale H.

208

teachers' changes in personal teaching efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal teaching efficacy is associated with a teacher's effectiveness in the classroom. To enhance this efficacy in a computer-simulated training program, both personal traits and guided practices need to be considered concurrently. In this study, it was hypothesised that the interactive effects from the coupling of personal traits with guided practices would be a reliable predictor of the degree of

Yu-Chu Yeh

209

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

210

Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that

James Trussell; Charlotte Ellertson

1999-01-01

211

Treatment Outcomes and Efficacy in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces six articles which address treatment outcomes and efficacy in audiology and speech-language pathology in the schools. Stresses the importance of practitioners participating in studies of treatment outcomes and efficacy to demonstrate that their evaluations and treatments make a significant difference to individuals served. (DB)|

Logemann, Jeri A.

1998-01-01

212

Online teaching efficacy of nurse faculty.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine variables that affect nurse faculty self-efficacy levels and participation in online teaching. Specifically, this study sought to understand how teaching experience and preparatory experiences might correlate with high or low self-efficacy perceptions of online teaching in the domains of student engagement, instructional strategies, classroom management, and use of computers. The 32-item Michigan Nurse Educators Sense of Efficacy for Online Teaching instrument was used to measure online teaching efficacy through a Web-based survey that collected data from a cross-section of Michigan nurse educators employed at public accredited higher education institutions. Findings revealed that the 140 nurse educators in this study had "some" to "quite a bit" of online teaching efficacy. High online teaching efficacy scores correlated positively with mastery and preparatory experiences. Primarily, the highest levels of online teaching efficacy resulted after teaching at least three online courses. This study has implications for nurse administrators interested in growing online offerings in their schools. For nurse educators, important motivating variables include the use of satisfactory preparatory experiences and release time through the third online teaching experience. These experiences are related to higher online teaching efficacy that correlates to participation in online teaching. PMID:20488426

Robinia, Kristi A; Anderson, Mary L

213

Asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate asthma management self-efficacy in parents of primary school-age children with asthma and to explore possible associations between parent asthma management self-efficacy, parent and child characteristics, asthma task difficulty and asthma management responsibility. A cross-sectional descriptive survey of 113 parents was conducted to assess the level of parent asthma management self-efficacy, asthma task difficulty and confidence, asthma responsibility and socio-demographic characteristics. The findings indicate that parents had higher self-efficacy for attack prevention than attack management. Parents had higher self-efficacy for asthma management tasks that are simple, skills based and performed frequently such as medication administration and less confidence and greater difficulty with tasks associated with judgement and decision-making. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified English language, child asthma responsibility and parent education as predictors of higher asthma management self-efficacy, while an older child was associated with lower parent asthma management self-efficacy. The implications of these results for planning and targeting health education and self-management interventions for parents and children are discussed. PMID:23424000

Brown, Nicola; Gallagher, Robyn; Fowler, Cathrine; Wales, Sandra

2013-02-21

214

Self-efficacy as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

2012-04-29

215

Spirituality, Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease  

PubMed Central

Spirituality and self-efficacy both have been identified as factors that contribute to management of chronic illnesses and quality of life (QOL). For individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD), the lifespan is increasing, but adults report low self-efficacy, ineffective coping skills and poor QOL. The care of adult patients with SCD requires a complex, multidisciplinary team approach with a focus not only on physiological, psychological, and social needs, but also on spiritual needs. However, spirituality, self-efficacy and QOL have been little studied in individuals with SCD. This study explored the relationships among spirituality, self-efficacy, and QOL in adults with SCD. The study used a descriptive correlational design. Prospective participants, 18 years and older, were invited to participate in the study through a mail out and electronic survey. Individuals who reported high levels of spirituality and self-efficacy reported high levels of QOL. Self-efficacy and spirituality accounted for more than 50%, of the variance in QOL. This study provides information about the roles that spirituality, self-efficacy, and QOL play in the lives of adults with SCD and gives direction for developing holistic interventions.

Adegbola, Maxine

2011-01-01

216

Dose-finding design driven by efficacy in onco-hematology phase I/II trials.  

PubMed

We present an adaptive model-based procedure for dose finding in phase I/II clinical trials when both efficacy and toxicity responses are available. In this setting, previous designs aimed at identifying the maximum tolerated dose as a surrogate for efficacy or the most successful dose, defined as the dose with the highest probability of efficacy without toxicity. Rather than using this definition of success, we propose considering all responses conditionally on the probability that dose-limiting toxicity is under a pre-specified threshold. The presented approach uses a joint model for the probability of an efficacy response and toxicity, and is evaluated through simulations. A retrospective application to a Phase I trial conducted in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is presented. PMID:21394754

Seegers, V; Chevret, S; Resche-Rigon, M

2011-03-11

217

Correspondence between single versus daily preference assessment outcomes and reinforcer efficacy under progressive-ratio schedules.  

PubMed

Research has suggested that a daily multiple-stimulus-without-replacement (MSWO) preference assessment may be more sensitive to changes in preference than other assessment formats, thereby resulting in greater correspondence with reinforcer efficacy over time (DeLeon et al., 2001). However, most prior studies have measured reinforcer efficacy using rate of responding under single-operant arrangements and dense schedules or under concurrent-operants arrangements. An alternative measure of reinforcer efficacy involves the evaluation of responding under progressive-ratio (PR) schedules. In the present study, 7 participants were given a single paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment followed by daily MSWO preference assessments. After each daily MSWO, participants responded for each stimulus on a PR schedule. The correspondence between break points and preferences, as assessed by the 2 assessment formats, was examined. Results demonstrated that both preference assessments did equally well at predicting reinforcer efficacy, although the PS more consistently identified the most effective reinforcer. PMID:23322931

Call, Nathan A; Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M; Findley, Addie J; Reavis, Andrea R; Shillingsburg, M Alice

2012-01-01

218

Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

2010-01-01

219

Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

2010-01-01

220

Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice.  

PubMed

Traditionally, acupuncture is embedded in naturalistic theories that are compatible with Confucianism and Taoism. Such ideas as yin-yang, qi, dampness, and wind represent East Asian conceptual frameworks that emphasize the reliability of ordinary, human sensory awareness. Many physicians who practice acupuncture reject such prescientific notions. Numerous randomized, controlled trials and more than 25 systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the clinical efficacy of acupuncture. Evidence from these trials indicates that acupuncture is effective for emesis developing after surgery or chemotherapy in adults and for nausea associated with pregnancy. Good evidence exists that acupuncture is also effective for relieving dental pain. For such conditions as chronic pain, back pain, and headache, the data are equivocal or contradictory. Clinical research on acupuncture poses unique methodologic challenges. Properly performed acupuncture seems to be a safe procedure. Basic-science research provides evidence that begins to offer plausible mechanisms for the presumed physiologic effects of acupuncture. Multiple research approaches have shown that acupuncture activates endogenous opioid mechanisms. Recent data, obtained by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, suggest that acupuncture has regionally specific, quantifiable effects on relevant brain structures. Acupuncture may stimulate gene expression of neuropeptides. The training and provision of acupuncture care in the United States are rapidly expanding. PMID:11874310

Kaptchuk, Ted J

2002-03-01

221

An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…

Tuncer, Murat

2013-01-01

222

Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race  

PubMed Central

Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use.

Moraska, Albert

2013-01-01

223

The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious and believe they are able to effectively teach science are more comfortable teaching science (Plourde, 2002) and more likely to commit classroom time to teaching science. Additionally, they are better equipped to challenge and support students as they develop their science skills and efficacy beliefs. Therefore, it was expected that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for science would be related to their students' science efficacy. Similarly, it was predicted that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for inquiry science would be related to their students' inquiry science efficacy. It was expected that the relation between teacher and student efficacy would not differ by students' gender. Data was collected from 26 middle school science teachers who were participating in a professional development program and 660 students from their classes. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were completed to evaluate the relation between teacher and student efficacy for science and inquiry science. Planned analyses revealed no significant predictors of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. Exploratory analyses were then conducted which added student grade and a measure evaluating the quality of teacher-student relationships to the original HLM analyses. Results indicated a significant interaction between the quality of teacher-student relationships and student grade on the prediction of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. A discussion of the results along with limitations of the study and avenues for future research will be provided.

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

224

An in vivo rodent model for identifying and characterizing acaricides.  

PubMed

Evaluation of candidate acaricides in livestock or companion animals is expensive, time-consuming, and usually requires large quantities of test material. To identify promising substances at the earliest possible stage of the development process, robust and predictive surrogate animal models, capable of rapidly characterizing potency with minimal compound requirements, are necessary. The objective of this study was to generate an in vivo surrogate animal bioassay capable of rapidly and accurately predicting the topical activity of acaricides emerging from in vitro acaricide bioassays. The rat acaricide test (RAT) requires adult rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769), a flexible tick containment device fastened to their dorso-thoracic region, and the nymphal stage of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). The feeding kinetics of A. americanum nymphs on rats was assessed, and compound efficacies were determined by measuring tick survivorship and engorgement weight on acaricide-treated animals. Results from this bioassay demonstrated efficacy with fipronil, ivermectin, permethrin, and chlorpyrifos, and dose-response relationships for each acaricide were determined. The rank order of potencies was fipronil > ivermectin > chlorpyrifos = permethrin for nymphal mortality and fipronil > ivermectin > chlorpyrifos > permethrin for inhibition of nymphal engorgement. The activity of permethrin against nymphs in the RAT was positively correlated with potency values for technical and commercial permethrin formulations against adult A. americanum infestations on cattle. The RAT proved to be an economical, rapid surrogate animal bioassay that together with the in vitro acaricide bioassay can be used for the rapid identification, characterization, and prioritization of candidate acaricides. PMID:16739411

Gutierrez, Jesus A; Zhao, Xiaowen; Kemper, Connie J; Plummer, Philip R; Bauer, Steven M; Hutchens, Douglas E; Smith, Charles K; White, W Hunter

2006-05-01

225

Collective Efficacy and Group Functioning: The Effect of Performance Feedback on Efficacy Assessments, Goal Setting, Task Persistence and Overall Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the effect of collective efficacy on group functioning across a series of cognitive tasks. Specifically, this experiment used performance feedback to manipulate efficacy levels in order to investigate the effect of efficacy on group go...

H. M. Meisenhelder

2002-01-01

226

Guidance for Industry: Safety, Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetic ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... they may jeopardize the patient or subject and ... either previously untreated or previously treated patients). ... conducted to establish efficacy and safety. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

227

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

228

Chen: History and Efficacy of Propoxyphene Products  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... FDA established the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) program. ... Propoxyphene products underwent the DESI process in the 1960's ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

229

Testing Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this four year funding period, attempts were made to determine the efficacy of the compound Niclosamide as a potential Topical Antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae (ineffective larval) of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haemotobium, and S.japonicum in mon...

J. I. Bruce

1990-01-01

230

Developing Self-Efficacy through Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A coach's role is to develop and sustain the athlete's self-efficacy by ensuring performance success, communicating effectively, using role-modeling techniques, reducing anxiety-producing factors, and using positive reinforcement. (JN)|

Feltz, Deborah L.; Weiss, Maureen R.

1982-01-01

231

BLA EFFICACY SUPPLEMENT MEDICAL FINAL REVIEW ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... EFFICACY SUPPLEMENT BASED ON POST MARKETING COMMITMENT ROUTINE ... frequency of bleeding episodes in adults and children (0-16 ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

232

Efficacy of ibandronate: a long term confirmation  

PubMed Central

Data deriving from randomized clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analyses, including treatment regimens unlicensed for use in clinical practice, clearly support that 150 mg once-monthly oral and 3 mg quarterly i.v. doses of ibandronate are associated with efficacy, safety and tolerability; notably both these marketed regimens, which largely correspond to ACE ?10.8 mg, may in addition provide a significant efficacy on non-vertebral and clinical fracture (Fx) efficacy. The MOBILE and the DIVA LTE studies confirmed a sustained efficacy of monthly oral and quarterly i.v. regimens respectively, over 5 years. Furthermore, improved adherence rates with monthly ibandronate, deriving from studies evaluating large prescription databases, promise to enhance fracture protection and decrease the social and economic burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Di Munno, Ombretta; Delle Sedie, Andrea

2010-01-01

233

Principals’ efficacy beliefs about teacher evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

School principals have been criticized for their inaction in dealing with incompetent or low-performing teachers. Bandura’s self-efficacy theory suggests that principals’ beliefs in their own efficacy regarding the tasks of the evaluation may affect their motivation to perform the tasks of supervision. This survey of elementary and middle school principals suggests that principals place high value on the task of

Suzanne R. Painter

2000-01-01

234

Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bicycle helmet efficacy was quantified using a formal meta-analytic approach based on peer-reviewed studies. Only those studies with individual injury and helmet use data were included. Based on studies from several countries published in the period 1987–1998, the summary odds ratio estimate for efficacy is 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.55) for head injury, 0.42 (0.26, 0.67) for brain injury,

R. G. Attewell; K. Glase; M. McFadden

2001-01-01

235

Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study consisted of developing the Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES). The KTSES is a 30-item scale measuring a person's self-efficacy for tasks corresponding to Kuder's 10 occupational interest areas (Kuder Zytowski, 1991). Responses from the KTSES were compared with responses to the Self-Esteem Inventory (SES; Rosenberg, 1965) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor Betz, 1983) to

Jennifer L. Lucas; Connie R. Wanberg; Donald G. Zytowski

1997-01-01

236

Principal self-efficacy and work engagement: assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian\\u000a Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal\\u000a self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work engagement was measured\\u000a by a modified version of the Utrecht Work

Roger A. Federici; Einar M. Skaalvik

237

The Efficacy of Mental Health Outreach Programs to Religious Settings: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature has documented the opportunities to improve mental health care by developing programs to work with clergy for identifying and supporting individuals with mental illness. A successful program would integrate and coordinate mental health service rehabilitative and treatment programs with religious community resources. The authors systematically reviewed the efficaciousness of providing mental health outreach to religious settings. Although many

Harvinder Singh; Asim A. Shah; Vikas Gupta; John Coverdale; Toi Blakley Harris

2012-01-01

238

Indirect Comparison in Evaluating Relative Efficacy Illustrated by Antimicrobial Prophylaxis in Colorectal Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to explore the potential usefulness and limitations of indirect comparisons in evaluating the relative efficacy of interventions. From a systematic review of antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery, we identified 11 sets of randomized trials that can be used to compare antibiotics both directly and indirectly. The discrepancy between the direct and the indirect comparison is defined as

Fujian Song; Anne-Marie Glenny; Douglas G Altman

2000-01-01

239

The Relevance of Pharmacokinetic Studies in Designing Efficacy Trials in Juvenile Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Identifying evidence-based dosing strategies is a key part of new drug develop- ment in pediatric populations. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies can provide important information regarding how best to dose medications in children and adolescents. Utilizing scientifically supported dosing strategies provides the best chance for any given drug to demonstrate both efficacy and acceptable tolerability in definitive, placebo-controlled studies. Methods: Results

Robert L. Findling; Nora K. McNamara; Robert J. Stansbrey; Norah C. Feeny; Christopher M. Young; Franco V. Peric; Eric A. Youngstrom

2006-01-01

240

The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

241

Relationship between Teacher Efficacy and Beliefs about Education among Preservice Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence suggests that teacher beliefs drive instructional pedagogy. Yet, although antecedents of educational beliefs have been identified (e.g., family influences), these factors tend to be immutable, thereby having only minimal implications for intervention. Teacher efficacy appears to offer a viable avenue for research on the antecedents of…

Witcher, Lisa A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Witcher, Ann E.; Minor, Lynn C.; James, Terry L.

242

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

243

A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teaching Mathematics with Concrete Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics is often prescribed as an efficacious teaching strategy. To examine the empirical evidence regarding the use of manipulatives during mathematics instruction, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. This search identified 55 studies that compared instruction with manipulatives to a control…

Carbonneau, Kira J.; Marley, Scott C.; Selig, James P.

2013-01-01

244

Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roll Back Malaria aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and costeffective control strategies. However, the evidence-base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified

Jürg Utzinger; Yesim Tozan; Burton H. Singer

2001-01-01

245

The efficacy of laparoscopic examination of the internal inguinal ring in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of physicians to identify a patent processus vaginalis by laparoscopic examination of the internal ring is now well established, but the efficacy on patient outcome is not. The authors reviewed their experience to determine the effect of diagnostic laparoscopy of the internal ring on the management of children with inguinal hernias. The records of 150 children who underwent

Paul A Grossmann; Stephen A Wolf; James W Hopkins; Norman F Paradise

1995-01-01

246

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

247

Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

2008-01-01

248

Affective Teaching for Data Driven Learning: How Can Strengths-Based Training Support Urban Teacher Efficacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine urban teachers' identified strengths in varied cognitive, affective, and psychological capacities, and their impact on self-efficacy and teacher practices. Clifton and Anderson in the Gallup Organization's Strengths Quest (2004) presented compelling evidence suggesting a mind-set of "what's right with me"…

Marcos, Teri

2008-01-01

249

Social support and efficacy cognitions in exercise adherence: A latent growth curve analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a considerable amount of research has established the beneficial effects of social support on health and well-being, relatively little work has focused on identifying those processes by which social support influences various health promoting behaviors. Various lines of research demonstrate converging evidence which suggests that self-efficacy may operate as one possible mediator linking psychosocial influences to positive health functioning

Terry E. Duncan; Edward McAuley

1993-01-01

250

Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

2000-01-01

251

Efficacy of transabdominal ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of early pregnancy complications in an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of ultrasound in an emergency department in the diagnosis of early pregnancy complications, the efficacy of a study protocol in identifying ectopic pregnancies, and the agreement on ultrasound findings among emergency department staff and gynaecologists. METHODS: All women presenting with early pregnancy complications had a transabdominal ultrasound scan performed by the attending doctor and checked

T W Wong; C C Lau; A Yeung; L Lo; C M Tai

1998-01-01

252

DISENTANGLING MENTORS' ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS' EFFICACY BELIEFS IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper builds on a broader work aiming to identify factors that affect the development of prospective primary teachers' efficacy beliefs (TEB) with respect to teaching mathematics. Eight student teachers were interviewed in the beginning, in the middle and in the end of a fieldwork course; they were encouraged to reflect on their experiences throughout the

George Philippou; Charalambos Y. Charalambous

2005-01-01

253

Internal and External Dimensions of Computer Self-Efficacy: An Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have found computer self-efficacy (CSE) to be important to technology adoption. Past research has treated CSE as a unitary concept. This paper proposes that CSE has two dimensions-internal and external. The idea that CSE has internal and external dimensions is based on attribution theory, which identifies the human tendency to attribute events to causes that are either internal or

Jason Bennett Thatcher; J. Christopher Zimmer; Michael J. Gundlach; D. Harrison McKnight

2008-01-01

254

Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

Huang, Chiungjung

2013-01-01

255

Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

2011-01-01

256

Efficacy and Tolerability of Topiramate in Children Younger Than 2 Years Old  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in children with epilepsy younger than 2 years of age, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated at our institution between 2001 and 2003. Thirteen children ages 5 to 23 months, five boys and eight girls, were identified. Seizure types were partial (five), generalized tonic-clonic (three), myoclonic (one), and infantile spasms

Ignacio Valencia; Carmen Fons; Sanjeev V. Kothare; Divya S. Khurana; Sabrina Yum; H. Huntley Hardison; Agustin Legido

2005-01-01

257

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination  

PubMed Central

Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33–35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the long term, whereas the Keitel study [Keitel, W. A., Cate, T. R., Couch, R. B., Huggins, L. L. & Hess, K. R. (1997) Vaccine 15, 1114–1122] concluded that repeat vaccination provided continual protection. We propose an explanation, the antigenic distance hypothesis, and test it by analyzing seven influenza outbreaks that occurred during the Hoskins and Keitel studies. The hypothesis is that variation in repeat vaccine efficacy is due to differences in antigenic distances among vaccine strains and between the vaccine strains and the epidemic strain in each outbreak. To test the hypothesis, antigenic distances were calculated from historical hemagglutination inhibition assay tables, and a computer model of the immune response was used to predict the vaccine efficacy of individuals given different vaccinations. The model accurately predicted the observed vaccine efficacies in repeat vaccinees relative to the efficacy in first-time vaccinees (correlation 0.87). Thus, the antigenic distance hypothesis offers a parsimonious explanation of the differences between and within the Hoskins and Keitel studies. These results have implications for the selection of influenza vaccine strains, and also for vaccination strategies for other antigenically variable pathogens that might require repeated vaccination.

Smith, Derek J.; Forrest, Stephanie; Ackley, David H.; Perelson, Alan S.

1999-01-01

258

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination.  

PubMed

Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the long term, whereas the Keitel study [Keitel, W. A., Cate, T. R., Couch, R. B., Huggins, L. L. & Hess, K. R. (1997) Vaccine 15, 1114-1122] concluded that repeat vaccination provided continual protection. We propose an explanation, the antigenic distance hypothesis, and test it by analyzing seven influenza outbreaks that occurred during the Hoskins and Keitel studies. The hypothesis is that variation in repeat vaccine efficacy is due to differences in antigenic distances among vaccine strains and between the vaccine strains and the epidemic strain in each outbreak. To test the hypothesis, antigenic distances were calculated from historical hemagglutination inhibition assay tables, and a computer model of the immune response was used to predict the vaccine efficacy of individuals given different vaccinations. The model accurately predicted the observed vaccine efficacies in repeat vaccinees relative to the efficacy in first-time vaccinees (correlation 0.87). Thus, the antigenic distance hypothesis offers a parsimonious explanation of the differences between and within the Hoskins and Keitel studies. These results have implications for the selection of influenza vaccine strains, and also for vaccination strategies for other antigenically variable pathogens that might require repeated vaccination. PMID:10570188

Smith, D J; Forrest, S; Ackley, D H; Perelson, A S

1999-11-23

259

The Adoption and Integration of Technology Within the Classroom: Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many teachers are failing to incorporate technology into their classroom instruction. Researchers have reported a general failure in this regard; however, minimal study is available on the role of teacher self-efficacy in incorporating technology into pedagogy. This sequential, mixed-method study sought to discover whether a significant correlation exists between teacher self-efficacy and technology adoption within an urban K--12 school district. The conceptual framework for the research is grounded in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. A sample of K--12 faculty members completed a 38-item Likert-type survey designed to measure self-efficacy as it relates to the integration of technology within the classroom. Quantitative data were analyzed using a Pearson product-moment correlation to identify relationships between self-efficacy and technology adoption. In the qualitative phase of the study, 6 participants were interviewed. Constant comparison was performed to analyze the transcribed interview data. The findings indicated a positive correlation between teacher self-efficacy and the integration of technology. The results provide valuable information needed to address the concerns and fears of teachers as they integrate technology into their classroom instruction. Implications for social change include providing educators and administrators with the needed data to develop the skills required to teach technology to their students. Acquiring technical skills will prepare students to become more competitive in a technology based society and for further educational endeavors.

Haight, Kevin W.

260

Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

2013-08-23

261

Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablet: a review of efficacy and compliance.  

PubMed

Medication nonadherence, especially in psychiatric disorders, has been associated with treatment failure and other negative outcomes. Orally disintegrating formulations have been developed as an alternative to improve medication adherence. This report reviews the properties, efficacy, and safety profile of olanzapine as an orally disintegrating tablet, and explores their association with medication compliance compared with standard oral formulation. Medical literature, published on orally disintegrating formulation of olanzapine identified using Pubmed and EMBASE, was used. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from the company developing the drug. Studies evaluating the biostability, biodisposability, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine as treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Measurement tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA). Orally disintegrating olanzapine, an effective atypical antipsychotic with an acceptable safety profile, can facilitate the burden of treatment on patients and caregivers due to its ease of administration. This is especially important in diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which can be chronic and require long-term treatment. PMID:18801113

San, Luis; Casillas, Marta; Ciudad, Antonio; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

2008-01-01

262

A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

Skoretz, Yvonne M.

2011-01-01

263

Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapies to Aid Smoking Cessation in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Adolescent smoking remains a public health problem. Despite concerns regarding adolescent nicotine dependence, few well-designed smoking cessation studies have been conducted with teen smokers. This is particularly true regarding pharmacological treatments for nicotine dependence. Currently, pharmacological aids are not recommended for treating adolescent nicotine dependence, as efficacy has not been shown in this population. This review includes studies that have examined the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking abstinence and/or reduction in cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers who want to quit smoking, lab-based adolescent studies that have examined the effectiveness of these medications in reducing cravings and/or withdrawal symptoms, and/or studies that have assessed the tolerability of medications for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers. This review provides information on the pharmacologic action of each medication, the efficacy of each medication for adolescent smoking cessation, the tolerability of each medication based on reported adverse events, and compliance with the medication protocols. Thirteen relevant articles were identified and included in the review. Nicotine patch, nicotine gum, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion, and varenicline have been studied in adolescent smokers. The adverse events reported in the studies on pharmacology for adolescent smoking suggest that the side effect profiles for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are similar to those reported in adult studies. There is some evidence of efficacy of nicotine patch and bupropion at end of treatment (efficacy of varenicline has not been assessed), but none of the medications included in this review were efficacious in promoting long-term smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. It is noted that many of the study protocols did not follow the recommended dose or length of pharmacotherapy for adults, rendering it difficult to determine the true efficacy of medication for adolescent smoking cessation. Future efficacy studies are warranted before recommending pharmacotherapy for adolescent smoking cessation.

Bailey, Steffani R.; Crew, Erin E.; Riske, Emily C.; Ammerman, Seth; Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

2012-01-01

264

Comparative efficacy of escitalopram in the treatment of major depressive disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Escitalopram is an allosteric selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) with some indication of superior efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorder. In this systematic review, we critically evaluate the evidence for comparative efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram, focusing on pooled and meta-analysis studies. Methods: A literature search was conducted for escitalopram studies that quantitatively synthesized data from comparative randomized controlled trials in MDD. Studies were excluded if they did not focus on efficacy, involved primarily subgroups of patients, or synthesized data included in subsequent studies. Outcomes extracted from the included studies were weighted mean difference or standard mean difference, response and remission rates, and withdrawal rate owing to adverse events. Results: The search initially identified 24 eligible studies, of which 12 (six pooled analysis and six meta-analysis studies) met the criteria for review. The pooled and meta-analysis studies with citalopram showed significant but modest differences in favor of escitalopram, with weighted mean differences ranging from 1.13 to 1.73 points on the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, response rate differences of 7.0%–8.3%, and remission rate differences of 5.1%–17.6%. Pooled analysis studies showed efficacy differences compared with duloxetine and with serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors combined, but meta-analysis studies did not. The effect sizes of the efficacy differences increased in the severely depressed patient subgroups. Conclusion: Based on pooled and meta-analysis studies, escitalopram demonstrates superior efficacy compared with citalopram and with SSRIs combined. Escitalopram shows similar efficacy to serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors but the number of trials in these comparisons is limited. Efficacy differences are modest but clinically relevant, especially in more severely depressed patients.

Ali, Mazen K; Lam, Raymond W

2011-01-01

265

University students' self?efficacy and their attitudes toward the Internet: the role of students' perceptions of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attitudes and the self?efficacy that characterize learners relative to the Internet have been identified as important factors that affect learners’ motivation, interests and performance in Internet?based learning environments. Meanwhile, learners’ perceptions of the Internet may shape learners’ attitudes and online behaviours. This study investigates university students’ attitudes and self?efficacy towards the Internet, and explores the role that university students’

Hsinyi Peng

2006-01-01

266

Efficacy and Significance of Sentinel Lymph Node Identification with Technetium99m-labeled Tin Colloids for Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is thought to reflect the metastatic status of the remaining axillary lymph nodes in patients\\u000a with breast cancer. We used technetium-99m-labeled tin colloids to identify SLN. The efficacy and significance of SLN identification\\u000a using this method were investigated in terms of number, size, location, and tumor metastasis. The efficacy of the emulsion\\u000a charcoal injection method

Kazuhiko Sato; Hoshio Hiraide; Minoru Uematsu; Kuniyoshi Tamaki; Hirofumi Ishikawa; Tamio Yamasaki; Seiichi Tamai; Shoichi Kusano; Hidetaka Mochizuki

1998-01-01

267

Maternal Self-Efficacy of Mothers of Children with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, Down Syndrome, and Autism in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the perception of maternal self-efficacy among 95 Kuwaiti mothers of children with Developmental\\u000a Disabilities (DD) to determine the differences in perception of maternal self-efficacy variables among the mothers based on\\u000a demographic variables: Child’s age, Gender, Type of disability, Leisure time, and Mother’s age. A survey was conducted using\\u000a Kandari’s (2005, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simmons College,

Humoud Al-Qashan

2010-01-01

268

Self-Efficacy as a Mediator of Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes on the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the role of self-efficacy in mediating gender differences on Investigative and Realistic General Occupational Themes of the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory. Ss were 77 male and 71 female entering university freshmen. Canonical correlations identified a science\\/technical factor relating high Investigative and Realistic theme standard scores to high Investigative and Realistic theme efficacy ratings. Path analyses suggested a correlational structure wherein

Richard T. Lapan; Kathleen R. Boggs; Weston H. Morrill

1989-01-01

269

Self-Efficacy as a Factor in Abstinence from Alcohol\\/Other Drug Abuse: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased self-efficacy or confidence to remain abstinent has been identified as one mechanism explaining behavior change, with investigations of this mechanism occurring most frequently in prospective mutual-help research. This study meta-analytically combined 11 studies to address critical questions about the nature and magnitude of change in self-efficacy in predicting drinking reductions among 12-step exposed individuals. Findings suggested that changes in

Alyssa A. Forcehimes; J. Scott Tonigan

2008-01-01

270

Development and validation of in-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the context of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery. Validation of the four scales for the Pakistani teachers was achieved by obtaining unidimensional factors. Cronbach

Sadia Shaukat

2011-01-01

271

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND COLLECTIVE EFFICACY  

PubMed Central

Collective efficacy, or perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a “cause”, but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for, or the etiology of personal reports of neighborhood collective efficacy. We analyzed data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study (LA FANS) together with geographical data from Los Angeles County to determine which social and environmental features were associated with personal reports of collective efficacy, including presence of parks, alcohol outlets, elementary schools and fast food outlets. We used multi-level modeling controlling for age, education, annual family income, sex, marital status, employment and race/ethnicity at the individual level. At the tract level we controlled for tract level disadvantage, the number of off-sale alcohol outlets per roadway mile; the number of parks and the number of fast-food outlets within the tract and within one-half mile of the tract’s boundaries. We found that parks were independently and positively associated with collective efficacy; alcohol outlets were negatively associated with collective efficacy only when tract level disadvantage was not included in the model. Fast food outlets and elementary schools were not linearly related to collective efficacy. Certain environmental features may set the stage for neighborhood social interactions, thus serving as a foundation for underlying health and well-being. Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health.

Cohen, Deborah A; Inagami, Sanae; Finch, Brian

2009-01-01

272

The built environment and collective efficacy.  

PubMed

Collective efficacy, i.e., perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a "cause", but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for or the etiology of personal reports of neighborhood collective efficacy. We analyzed data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study (LAFANS) together with geographical data from Los Angeles County to determine which social and environmental features were associated with personal reports of collective efficacy, including presence of parks, alcohol outlets, elementary schools and fast food outlets. We used multi-level modeling controlling for age, education, annual family income, sex, marital status, employment and race/ethnicity at the individual level. At the tract level, we controlled for tract-level disadvantage, the number of off-sale alcohol outlets per roadway mile, the number of parks and the number of fast food outlets within the tract and within 1/2 mile of the tract's boundaries. We found that parks were independently and positively associated with collective efficacy; alcohol outlets were negatively associated with collective efficacy only when tract-level disadvantage was not included in the model. Fast food outlets and elementary schools were not linearly related to collective efficacy. Certain environmental features may set the stage for neighborhood social interactions, thus serving as a foundation for underlying health and well-being. Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health. PMID:17644395

Cohen, Deborah A; Inagami, Sanae; Finch, Brian

2007-06-16

273

The potential benefits of teacher efficacy doubts for educational reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the benefits that specific teacher efficacy doubts can have for educational reforms, especially for progressive, meaning-centered reforms. Teachers’ efficacy doubts may support reform in several ways, perhaps most significantly by supporting teacher learning. Similar benefits can be expected for specific teacher doubts regarding collective teacher efficacy. The important role of efficacy doubts in progressive, meaning-centered teaching is

Karl F Wheatley

2002-01-01

274

Cognitive processes in intimate conflict: II. efficacy and learned helplessness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, in presenting the second part of a cognitive model of family conflict, discusses the influence of efficacy expectations on conflict attitudes and behavior. It proposes (a) that high efficacy enhances persistence in family problem solving, while low efficacy inhibits such efforts, and (b) that chronic low efficacy may lead to learned helplessness responses in family members. Drawing together

William J. Doherty

1981-01-01

275

Self-efficacy and imagery use in older adult exercisers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and imagery use in older male (n = 40) and female (n = 52) exercisers. Participants’ self-efficacy was evaluated using the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Exercisers, and their use of imagery was evaluated using the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire. Results revealed that older adult exercisers were most efficacious in

Natascha N. Wesch; Marcia I. Milne; Shauna M. Burke; Craig R. Hall

2006-01-01

276

Moderating the collective and self-efficacy relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teacher collective efficacy and three components of teacher self-efficacy – instructional, social, and management. In addition, teacher role and school level are suggested as moderators. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study design examined the relationship between teacher collective efficacy and self-efficacy over time. Data were collected from 97 junior

Smadar Lev; Meni Koslowsky

2009-01-01

277

Efficacy Methods to Evaluate Health Communication and Marketing Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy

W. Douglas Evans; Jennifer Uhrig; Kevin Davis; Lauren McCormack

2009-01-01

278

Self-efficacy instruments for patients with chronic diseases suffer from methodological limitations - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Measurement of self-efficacy requires carefully developed and validated instruments. It is currently unclear whether available self-efficacy instruments for chronic diseases fulfill these requirements. Our aim was to systematically identify all existing self-efficacy scales for five major chronic diseases and to assess their development and validation process. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and EMBASE) to identify studies describing the development and/or validation process of self-efficacy instruments for the five chronic diseases diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, arthritis, and heart failure. Two members of the review team independently selected articles meeting inclusion criteria. The self-efficacy instruments were evaluated in terms of their development (aim of instrument, a priori considerations, identification of items, selection of items, development of domains, answer options) and validation (test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, validity, responsiveness) process. Results Of 584 potentially eligible papers we included 25 (13 for diabetes, 5 for asthma, 4 for arthritis, 3 for COPD, 0 for heart failure) which covered 26 different self-efficacy instrument versions. For 8 instruments (30.8%), the authors described the aim before the scales were developed whereas for the other instruments the aim was unclear. In one study (3.8%) a priori considerations were specified. In none of the studies a systematic literature search was carried out to identify items. The item selection process was often not clearly described (38.5%). Test-retest reliability was assessed for 9 instruments (34.6%), validity using a correlational approach for 18 (69.2%), and responsiveness to change for 3 (11.5%) instruments. Conclusion The development and validation process of the majority of the self-efficacy instruments had major limitations. The aim of the instruments was often not specified and for most instruments, not all measurement properties that are important to support the specific aim of the instrument (for example responsiveness for evaluative instruments) were assessed. Researchers who develop and validate self-efficacy instruments should adhere more closely to important methodological concepts for development and validation of patient-reported outcomes and report their methods more transparently. We propose a systematic five step approach for the development and validation of self-efficacy instruments.

Frei, Anja; Svarin, Anna; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Puhan, Milo A

2009-01-01

279

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

280

Relations of Perceived Social Efficacy and Social Goal Pursuit to Self-Efficacy for Academic Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful functioning in a classroom setting requires students to interact effectively and form positive social relationships both with teachers and peers. Self-efficacy for success in schoolwork, therefore, should depend in part on students' perceptions of their social efficacy and on their endorsement of goals to be responsible class members and to form intimate peer relationships. Survey data from 753 fifth-grade

Helen Patrick; Lynley Hicks; Allison M. Ryan

1997-01-01

281

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

282

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

283

Evaluating the antifracture efficacy of bisphosphonates.  

PubMed

Oral bisphosphonate dosing schedules have evolved from the original daily regimens to weekly (alendronate and risedronate) and monthly (risedronate and ibandronate) regimens. Intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates are administered less frequently-quarterly ibandronate injection and yearly zoledronic acid i.v. infusion. Comparative fracture efficacy among BP options is increasingly a focus of debate. The approved daily oral BPs and annual zoledronic acid infusion demonstrated vertebral fracture prevention in clinical trials; however, nonvertebral fracture prevention results varied. Nondaily regimens of licensed agents (except for zoledronic acid) were approved via "bridging trials", which compared changes in bone mineral density and bone turnover markers with the approved daily regimen and generally collected fractures as adverse events. Head-to-head antifracture efficacy trials directly comparing available BPs are unlikely because the required sample sizes, durations and costs would be prohibitively large. Observational studies and the concept of annual cumulative exposure, used recently to evaluate the efficacy of nondaily ibandronate regimens, provide alternative methods to compare BP efficacy. At this time, the available trial and meta-analysis evidence supports effective reduction of vertebral fractures and NVFs with all approved BP regimens. This article presents a comprehensive review of the key efficacy data for currently available BPs, including their nondaily regimens, to assist clinicians in assessing treatment options for NVF prevention. PMID:19463108

Pazianas, Michael; Epstein, Solomon; Zaidi, Mone

2009-05-01

284

MODERATOR EFFECTS OF SELF-EFFICACY ON OCCUPATIONAL STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses self-efficacy as a moderator in the occupational stress process. Specifically, it analyses the comple- mentarity between two self-efficacy measures: generalised and professional. The initial hypothesis was that specific self- efficacy will moderate more stress-strain relationships than generalised self-efficacy. Based on data collected from 140 wor- kers that use new technologies in their jobs, we found that self-efficacy

Rosa Grau; Marisa Salanova; José María Peiró

285

Digital Object Identifiers for scientific data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a system for identifying content objects in the digital environment. DOIs are names assigned to any entity for use on Internet digital networks. Scientific data sets may be identified by DOIs, and several efforts are now underway in this area. This paper outlines the underlying architecture of the DOI system, and two such efforts

Norman Paskin

2005-01-01

286

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2010-10-01

287

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2009-10-01

288

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

289

[Efficacy of prolonged therapy of vascular dementia].  

PubMed

This open study was designed to assess efficacy and safety of long-term therapy with cerebrolysin in 48 patients aged 59-77 years with mild and moderately severe vascular dementia. The slowdown in the progress of this condition during the 3-year treatment period was evaluated. The efficacy and safety of the drug was assessed clinically and with the use of standard scales and neuropsychological tests. The long-term therapy with cerebrolysin was shown to be safe and highly efficacious as indicated by the improvement of cognitive and motor functions both at early and late stages of the treatment regardless of the severity of the disease. It is concluded that long-term therapy with cerebrolysin slows down the progress of vascular dementia and prevent deterioration of cognitive abilities. PMID:22242270

2011-01-01

290

Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy.  

PubMed

Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

Milgrom, P; Söderling, E M; Nelson, S; Chi, D L; Nakai, Y

2012-09-01

291

Clinical Evidence for Polyol Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem.

Milgrom, P.; Soderling, E.M.; Nelson, S.; Chi, D.L.; Nakai, Y.

2012-01-01

292

DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-EFFICACY SCALE FOR ASSESSING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SCIENCE SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the development of a self-efficacy scale for assessing secondary school students' science self-efficacy (SSE) beliefs. Differences in the way self-efficacy and self-concept are assessed is discussed in light of the conceptual difference between self-efficacy and other self-percepts. Steps in the formulation of the scale in accordance with theoretical guidelines on how self-efficacy should be assessed and measures

Mary Wong; Siew Lian

293

Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed.

Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

2011-01-01

294

Identifying proteins that can form tyrosine-cysteine crosslinks.  

PubMed

Protein cofactors represent a unique class of redox active posttranslational protein modifications formed in or by metalloproteins. Once formed, protein cofactors provide a one-electron oxidant, which is tethered to the protein backbone. Twenty-five proteins are known to contain protein cofactors, but this number is likely limited by the use of crystallography as the identification technique. In order to address this limitation, a search of all reported protein structures for chemical environments conducive to forming a protein cofactor through tyrosine and cysteine side chain crosslinking yielded three hundred candidate proteins. Using hydrogen bonding and metal center proximity, the three hundred proteins were narrowed to four highly viable candidates. An orphan metalloprotein (BF4112) was examined to validate this methodology, which identifies proteins capable of crosslinking tyrosine and cysteine sidechains. A tyrosine-cysteine crosslink was formed in BF4112 using copper-dioxygen chemistry, as in galactose oxidase. Liquid chromatography-MALDI mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy confirmed tyrosine-cysteine crosslink formation in BF4112. This finding demonstrates the efficacy of these predictive methods and the minimal constraints, provided by the BF4112 protein structure, in tyrosine-cysteine crosslink formation. This search method, when coupled with physiological evidence for crosslink formation and function as a cofactor, could identify additional protein-derived cofactors. PMID:22797281

Martinie, Ryan J; Godakumbura, Pahan I; Porter, Elizabeth G; Divakaran, Anand; Burkhart, Brandon J; Wertz, John T; Benson, David E

2012-07-16

295

Which atypical antipsychotics are identified by screening tests?  

PubMed

Only two tests were specific for antipsychotic potential. All effective antipsychotics blocked pharmacologically induced locomotion and affected firing in the mesolimbic DA neurons. The remaining single- (Table 1) and repeated- (Table 2) dose tests identified the atypical antipsychotics. Clozapine, thioridazine, sulpiride, tiospirone, and molindone were atypical in both types of study. Pimozide, pipamperone, aceperon, methylperon, and clotiapine were atypical in single-dose studies, clopenthixol in repeated-dose studies. Since the biochemical abnormality causing psychoses is unknown, it may be that current methods of screening for new antipsychotics are inadequate and possibly inappropriate. If a neurotransmitter other than DA is the primary cause, then totally new tests may be needed. Present tests, especially those involving behavioral paradigms, may continue to select out compounds that cause EPS side-effects. New methods such as positron emission tomography scanning and other brain-imaging techniques hold the promise of studying specific types and subtypes of receptors in the living human brain. The recent discovery of chromosomal abnormalities in psychotic illness may provide new insights into the biochemical causes of such disorders and lead to completely new compounds that will be both safer and more effective. In the meantime we plan to review the literature on the clinical use of the compounds identified as atypical in this article and to develop research protocols to assess their efficacy in treatment-resistant psychoses and intractable conditions such as tardive dyskinesia. PMID:2568176

Moore, N C; Gershon, S

1989-06-01

296

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

297

Lornoxicam efficacy in acute pain (LEAP) trial.  

PubMed

Parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are useful agents in the treatment of postoperative pain and other acute traumatic painful conditions such as fractures. Clinical trials with lornoxicam, an oxicam derivative, document its efficacy as a potent analgesic with excellent anti-inflammatory properties in painful and or/inflammatory conditions including postoperative pain and arthritic conditions. However, there is no documentation of the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous lornoxicam in Indian patients with acute painful conditions such painful traumatic conditions requiring hospitalisation and parenteral analgesics. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous lornoxicam in Indian patients with postoperative pain or other acute painful traumatic conditions requiring hospitalisation and parenteral analgesia in in-office practice conditions. In this multicentric, prospective, open, non-comparative phase IV, postmarketing surveillance study patients admitted in the nursing home for either postoperative pain or painful conditions requiring hospitalisation and parenteral analgesia were enrolled in the study after obtaining their informed consent. Of the 161 patients fulfilling the selection criteria, 148 met the selection criteria and were included in the efficacy analysis. Patients were treated with intravenous lornoxicam 8 mg twice or three times daily as required for up to 3 days. Efficacy variables included changes in severity of pain scores compared to baseline values, onset of pain relief and overall global efficacy. Tolerability was assessed through monitoring of treatment-emergent adverse events, physical examination, assessments of vital signs, and overall global assessment of tolerability. Results indicated that within 1 hour of administration of intravenous lornoxicam, the mean scores of pain severity were reduced by 39.46% and by 6 hours, there was a further 52% reduction in the mean scores. Therapy with intravenous lornoxicam was associated with a faster onset of action with 15.4% patients reporting pain relief within 10 minutes and 55.9% patients within 10 to 30 minutes. Overall, global assessment of efficacy was rated as good to excellent in 95.3% of the patients. Therapy with intravenous lornoxicam was well tolerated with only 5 patients reporting adverse events such as headache (n=3) and gastritis (n=1) of mild to moderate intensity but transient. Overall, global tolerability was rated as good to excellent in 98.4% of the total cases and fair in only 1.6% of the cases. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that intravenous lornoxicam is a potent NSAID with an optimal efficacy/toxicity ratio and thus could be a suitable therapeutic option in the management of patients with painful traumatic conditions requiring parenteral NSAIDs and hospitalisation. PMID:19370957

Sharma, Akhilesh; Pingle, Anup; Baliga, Vidyagauri P

2008-12-01

298

Efficacy of posaconazole in murine experimental sporotrichosis.  

PubMed

We developed a murine model of systemic sporotrichosis by using three strains of each of the two commonest species causing sporotrichosis, i.e., Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, in order to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole (PSC). The drug was administered at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day by gavage, and one group was treated with amphotericin B (AMB) as a control treatment. Posaconazole, especially at 5 mg/kg, showed good efficacy against all the strains tested, regardless of their MICs, as measured by prolonged survival, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:22330929

Fernández-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Guarro, Josep

2012-02-13

299

Factors influencing satisfaction and efficacy of services at a free-standing psychiatric occupational therapy clinic.  

PubMed

As the number of therapists in mental health settings continues to decline, research is needed to explore the scope, satisfaction, and efficacy of services. In this study, we used Patton's (1997) Utilization-Focused Program Evaluation to explore scope of services, therapist and client satisfaction, and perceived efficacy of services in a free-standing community-based mental health occupational therapy clinic. Surveys were administered to 36 clients and 9 therapists and followed up by qualitative interviews with 6 therapists. We identified characteristics unique to a free-standing psychiatric occupational therapy clinic, along with factors contributing to satisfaction and perceived efficacy of services. The importance of a supportive therapeutic environment and emphasis on the therapist-client relationship were cited as key factors influencing both satisfaction and effectiveness of service. Results are presented and compared with the existing literature. PMID:20092105

Haertl, Kristine; Behrens, Kari; Houtujec, Jill; Rue, Ashley; Ten Haken, Rachel

300

Strengthening resistance self-efficacy: influence of teaching approaches and gender on different consumption groups.  

PubMed

Our study focused on strengthening the individual self-efficacy of low achieving 8th graders reducing drug-specific peer pressure through theoretical and practical training. The subject of the intervention was based on a substance-specific life skills program offering both teacher-centered and student-centered teaching approaches. A cluster analysis identified four consumption groups in our pre-test setting: (1) A "potentially curious" sample; (2) an "actually curious" sample; (3) an "experimenter" sample; and (4) a "consumer" sample. Self-efficacy was measured three times in a pre-, post-, and retention-test design. Only the "potentially curious" sub-sample showed higher resistance self-efficacy, boys and girls revealed no differences. Altogether, a short- and middle-term consistent increase was detected in both teaching methods. Consequences to increase the efficiency of drug prevention measurements are being discussed. PMID:20443457

Heyne, Thomas; Bogner, Franz X

2009-01-01

301

Translating efficacious behavioral principles for diabetes prevention into practice.  

PubMed

This case study describes the process of translating efficacy-based Diabetes Prevention Program principles into a practical format for delivery within a managed care organization. Using Rogers' innovation-decision process model, the authors tracked the adoption, implementation, and short-term effectiveness of a clinical program. Effectiveness was documented using a pre-post design to detect changes in physical activity and dietary habits. Participants (N = 298) were Kaiser Permanente of Colorado patients enrolled in diabetes-prevention classes. Changes were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and one-way analysis of variance. Participants significantly increased reported minutes of moderate (p < .001, mu = 84.52, CI: 58.44-110.61) and vigorous (t = 2.220, p = .028, mu = 19.05, CI: 2.10-36.00) physical activity and their daily servings of fruits and vegetables (p < .001, mu = 0.20, CI: 0.13-0.27). By identifying the underlying strategies that led to efficacy, professionals can implement sound diabetes-prevention programs that fit within their context. PMID:17494949

Smith-Ray, Renae L; Almeida, Fabio A; Bajaj, Jennifer; Foland, Sally; Gilson, Michele; Heikkinen, Susan; Seagle, Helen; Estabrooks, Paul A

2007-05-09

302

Efficacy of biofeedback for migraine: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

In this article, we meta-analytically examined the efficacy of biofeedback (BFB) in treating migraine. A computerized literature search of the databases Medline, PsycInfo, Psyndex and the Cochrane library, enhanced by a hand search, identified 86 outcome studies. A total of 55 studies, including randomized controlled trials as well as pre-post trials, met our inclusion criteria and were integrated. A medium effect size (d =0.58, 95% CI=0.52, 0.64) resulted for all BFB interventions and proved stable over an average follow-up phase of 17 months. Also, BFB was more effective than control conditions. Frequency of migraine attacks and perceived self-efficacy demonstrated the strongest improvements. Blood-volume-pulse feedback yielded higher effect sizes than peripheral skin temperature feedback and electromyography feedback. Moderator analyses revealed BFB in combination with home training to be more effective than therapies without home training. The influence of the meta-analytical methods on the effect sizes was systematically explored and the results proved to be robust across different methods of effect size calculation. Furthermore, there was no substantial relation between the validity of the integrated studies and the direct treatment effects. Finally, an intention-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment effects remained stable, even when drop-outs were considered as nonresponders. PMID:17084028

Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Martin, Alexandra

2006-11-02

303

Predicting drug efficacy using integrative models for chronic respiratory diseases.  

PubMed

Animal models are vital instruments of the drug discovery process. In addition to assessing the efficacy of candidate molecules, in vivo disease models also help validate the therapeutic potential of molecular targets. Over recent years, several molecules that have shown efficacy in preclinical models of respiratory diseases have failed to translate into new medicines for chronic respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. As such, many scientists have argued that these systems are of limited value; however, we propose that a more careful and thorough approach to the characterization of these models and the interpretation of data generated using these systems would improve their translational utility. Herein, we describe two key elements of our strategy aiming to improve the predictive nature of these models: 1) Novel bioinformatics methods that can be used to identify animal models that best represent specific patient populations; and 2) Innovative physiological techniques that will improve our ability to discover drugs that can restore the functional capacity of lungs damaged during the course of the disease. PMID:23517645

Stevenson, Christopher S; Sridhar, Sriram; Phillips, Jonathan E

2013-04-01

304

Efficacy of absorption of laser energy in the ''Sokol'' facility  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of an investigation of the absorption of laser energy by glass-shell microspheres. The experiments were performed with the high-power ''Sokol'' facility at laser energy flux densities qroughly-equal0.3--2 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ at the target. A numerical analysis of the efficacy of laser-energy absorption, based on the classical inverse-bremsstrahlung mechanism, is carried out with the aim of identifying the major absorption mechanism. Allowance is made for the refraction of the laser radiation in the ''corona'' and for the ''steepening'' of the density profile. The magnitude of the resonance absorption is estimated. The measured absorption efficacy and absorption coefficient agree well with the calculation results as well as with the results of experiments performed with the ''Cyclops Laser'' facility in the same flux-density range. The parameters of the fast-ion ''jets'' registered in the experiments with the ''Sokol'' facility are close to those measurements with the ''Kal'mar'' facility at the same laser-energy flux densities.

Zysin, Y.A; Abramov, I.A.; Volenko, V.V.; Voloshin, N.P.; Zuev, A.I.; Ivanov, A.F.; Lykov, V.A.; Myalitsin, L.A.; Osadchuk, L.A.; Saukov, A.I.

1982-10-01

305

Anti-cancer efficacy of silybin derivatives -- a structure-activity relationship.  

PubMed

Silybin or silibinin, a flavonolignan isolated from Milk thistle seeds, is one of the popular dietary supplements and has been extensively studied for its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer properties. We have envisioned that potency of silybin could be further enhanced through suitable modification/s in its chemical structure. Accordingly, here, we synthesized and characterized a series of silybin derivatives namely 2,3-dehydrosilybin (DHS), 7-O-methylsilybin (7OM), 7-O-galloylsilybin (7OG), 7,23-disulphatesilybin (DSS), 7-O-palmitoylsilybin (7OP), and 23-O-palmitoylsilybin (23OP); and compared their anti-cancer efficacy using human bladder cancer HTB9, colon cancer HCT116 and prostate carcinoma PC3 cells. In all the 3 cell lines, DHS, 7OM and 7OG demonstrated better growth inhibitory effects and compared to silybin, while other silybin derivatives showed lesser or no efficacy. Next, we prepared the optical isomers (A and B) of silybin, DHS, 7OM and 7OG, and compared their anti-cancer efficacy. Isomers of these three silybin derivatives also showed better efficacy compared with respective silybin isomers, but in each, there was no clear cut silybin A versus B isomer activity preference. Further studies in HTB cells found that DHS, 7OM and 7OG exert better apoptotic activity than silibinin. Clonogenic assays in HTB9 cells further confirmed that both the racemic mixtures as well as pure optical isomers of DHS, 7OM and 7OG were more effective than silybin. Overall, these results clearly suggest that the anti-cancer efficacy of silybin could be significantly enhanced through structural modifications, and identify strong anti-cancer efficacy of silybin derivatives, namely DHS, 7OM, and 7OG, signifying that their efficacy and toxicity should be evaluated in relevant pre-clinical cancer models in rodents. PMID:23555889

Agarwal, Chapla; Wadhwa, Ritambhara; Deep, Gagan; Biedermann, David; Gažák, Radek; K?en, Vladimír; Agarwal, Rajesh

2013-03-28

306

Middle school science teachers' teaching self-efficacy and students' science self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 2061, initiated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), developed recommendations for what is essential in education to produce scientifically literate citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that teachers teach effectively. There is an abundance of literature that focuses on the effects of a teacher's science teaching self-efficacy and a student's science self-efficacy. However, there is no literature on the relationship between the two self-efficacies. This study investigated if there is a differential change in students' science self-efficacy over an academic term after instruction from a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy. Quantitative analysis of STEBI scores for teachers showed that mean STEBI scores did not change over one academic term. A t test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean SMTSL scores for students' science self-efficacy over the course of one academic term for a) the entire sample, b) each science class, and c) each grade level. In addition, ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean gain factor of students rated as low, medium, and high on science self-efficacy as measured by the SMTSL, when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between the pre- and post-instructional rankings of SMTSL by grade level when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. This is the first study of its kind. Studies indicated that teaching strategies typically practiced by teachers with high science teaching were beneficial to physics self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005). Although it was unsuccessful at determining whether or not a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy has a differential affect on students' science self-efficacy, it is worth repeating on a more diverse sample of teacher and students over a longer period of time.

Pisa, Danielle

307

Efficacy of Eight Months of Nightly Zolpidem: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To evaluate the long-term (8 months) efficacy of zolpidem in adults with chronic primary insomnia using polysomnography. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: Sleep disorders and research center. Participants: Healthy participants (n = 91), ages 23-70, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia. Interventions: Nightly zolpidem, 10 mg (5 mg for patients > 60 yrs) or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 8 months. Measurements and Results: Polysomnographic sleep parameters and morning subject assessments of sleep on 2 nights in months 1 and 8. Relative to placebo, zolpidem significantly increased overall total sleep time and sleep efficiency, reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset when assessed at months 1 and 8. Overall, subjective evaluations of efficacy were not shown among treatment groups. Conclusions: In adults with primary insomnia, nightly zolpidem administration remained efficacious across 8 months of nightly use. Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006525; Trial Name: Safety and Efficacy of Chronic Hypnotic Use; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01006525. Citation: Randall S; Roehrs TA; Roth T. Efficacy of eight months of nightly zolpidem: a prospective placebo-controlled study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1551-1557.

Randall, Surilla; Roehrs, Timothy A.; Roth, Thomas

2012-01-01

308

Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

2012-01-01

309

Evaluating the Efficacy of a Malaria Vaccine*  

PubMed Central

Malaria is a major public health problem. An effective vaccine against malaria is actively being sought. We formulate a potential outcomes definition of the efficacy of a malaria vaccine for preventing fever. A challenge in estimating this efficacy is that there is no sure way to determine whether a fever was caused by malaria. We study the properties of two approaches for estimating efficacy: (1) use a deterministic case definition of a malaria caused fever as the conjunction of fever and parasite density above a certain cutoff; (2) use a probabilistic case definition in which the probability that each fever was caused by malaria is estimated. We compare these approaches in a simulation study and find that both approaches can potentially have large biases. We suggest a strategy for choosing an estimator based on the investigator's prior knowledge about the area in which the trial is being conducted and the range of vaccine efficacies over which the investigator would like the estimator to have good properties.

Small, Dylan S.; Cheng, Jing; Ten Have, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

310

Efficacy in argumentation for creationist apologetic application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem addressed by this dissertation is the need to determine the receptivity of people of differing world-view philosophies to various apologetic (Creationist) evidences. Creationist apologetics are tools employed with undefined efficacy. It may just be that there are different perceptual nuances that people hold that causes them to have differing responses to the various evidences. Identification of the different

Kyle Charles Frazier

2004-01-01

311

Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Competency Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated relationships between teacher sense of efficacy, superintendents' ratings of teacher competency, and selected demographic and background variables in 155 teachers. Using discriminant analysis, superior and average competency teachers could be differentiated from low competency teachers on four significant variables, one of which was…

Trentham, Landa; And Others

1985-01-01

312

Testing the Efficacy of Chaplaincy Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article reviews the research conducted in the United States on the clinical practice of chaplains with patients and family members, referrals to chaplains, patient satisfaction with chaplaincy services, and the limited literature on the efficacy of chaplain interventions. It also discusses the methodological limitations of studies conducted on these topics and makes suggestions for improving future chaplaincy research.

Katherine R. B. Jankowski; George F. Handzo; Kevin J. Flannelly

2011-01-01

313

Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model…

Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

2009-01-01

314

Efficacy Testing for Hair Care Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the efficacy testing of hair care products, a number of methods are available. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are most suitable for surface evaluation; the swelling properties in the course of a treatment are determined using a fiber-swelling analyzer, and the luster may be reliably determined by means of a multiangle goniophotometer. Further, surface tension is a

Hartwig Höcker

1999-01-01

315

Assessing Self-Efficacy During Marital Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new instrument is presented which is useful for assessing adjustment during marital separation. This brief scale is based on Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. The instrument contains 18 coping behaviors relevant to the adjustment task and may be utilized in monitoring therapeutic progress.

Gary Marcus; Jerald Forster

1988-01-01

316

Evaluating Ritual Efficacy: Evidence from the Supernatural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in…

Legare, Cristine H.; Souza, Andre L.

2012-01-01

317

Self-efficacy conception of anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social cognitive theory, perceived self-efficacy to exercise control over potential threats plays a central role in anxiety arousal. Threat is a relational property reflecting the match between perceived coping capabilities and potentially hurtful aspects of the environment. People who believe they can exercise control over potential threats do not engage in apprehensive thinking and are not perturbed by them.

Albert Bandura

1988-01-01

318

Current Directions in Self-efficacy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ved support from agrowing body of findings from diverse fields. Self-efficacy beliefs have been found related toclinical problems such as phobias (Bandura, 1983), addiction (Marlatt, Baer, & Quigley, 1995),depression (Davis & Yates, 1982), social skills (Moe & Zeiss, 1982), assertiveness (Lee, 1983,1984); to stress in a variety of contexts (Jerusalem & Mittag, 1995); to smoking behavior (Garcia,Schmitz, & Doerfler, 1990);

Frank Pajares

1997-01-01

319

Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

2009-01-01

320

Self-Efficacy, Taiwan Elementary Teachers Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It promotes the position that the success Taiwan has experienced in…

Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin

2005-01-01

321

Self-Efficacy, an Oriental Twist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It also points to an important metamorphosis that is taking place…

Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin

2005-01-01

322

Importance of food in probiotic efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods are carriers for the delivery of probiotics to the human body. In addition, foods help to buffer the probiotic through the gastrointestinal tract, regulate their colonization and contain other functional ingredients, such as bioactive components, which may interact with probiotics to alter their functionality and efficacy. The growth and survival of probiotics during gastric transit is affected by the

R. D. C. S. Ranadheera; S. K. Baines; M. C. Adams

2010-01-01

323

Anthrax vaccine efficacy in golden Syrian hamsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed, AVA) was tested in golden Syrian hamsters against a virulent Bacillus anthracis spore challenge. Groups of golden Syrian hamsters were vaccinated at either 0 and 4 weeks or 0, 4 and 8 weeks, then challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) at 10 weeks with spores of various B. anthracis isolates. Although ELISA

P. F Fellows; M. K Linscott; S. F Little; P Gibbs; B. E Ivins

2002-01-01

324

The roles of social factor and internet self-efficacy in nurses' web-based continuing learning.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to explore the relationships among social factor, Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning in a clinical nursing setting. The participants recruited were 244 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan. Three instruments were used to assess their perceptions of social factor, Internet self-efficacy (including basic and advanced Internet self-efficacy) and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, affection and behavior). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to identify the hypothesized structural model. The results of this study support that social factor is a significant factor correlated to Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection). In addition, nurses' basic Internet self-efficacy plays a key role in attitudes including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection. However, advanced self-efficacy was not correlated to any of the attitudes. The behavior dimension was not linked to social factor or Internet self-efficacy, but was linked to perceived ease of use and affection. PMID:23669599

Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2013-05-10

325

Relationship of Health Behavior Theories with Self-Efficacy among Insufficiently Active Hypertensive African-American Women  

PubMed Central

Objective While self-efficacy plays an important role in physical activity, relatively little research has examined this construct in minorities. This study identified theoretical correlates associated with self-efficacy amongst insufficiently active, hypertensive Black women. Methods Correlates of self-efficacy to: (1) overcoming barriers to physical activity; (2) making time for activity; and (3) “sticking with” physical activity were studied. Results Sixty-one women (M = 50.48 ± 4.2 years) participated. We accounted for 32% of the variance in confidence in overcoming barriers. Women confident in overcoming barriers reported less worry about physical activity. The TTM processes of change were also in the model: consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, counter conditioning, and self liberation. We accounted for 16% of the variance in “making time” self-efficacy. An aversiveness barrier (e.g., physical activity is boring, physical activity is hard work) was the dominant variable in the model. Confidence to ‘stick with’ physical activity was associated with self-reevaluation (i.e., reflection on how personal values correspond to behavior). Social support and competing demands were not associated with self-efficacy. Conclusions Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, results suggest that self-efficacy is behavior specific and each measure likely provides unique information. Practice Implications Interventions should be tailored to address specific self-efficacy types.

Martin, Michelle Y.; Person, Sharina; Kratt, Polly; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Kim, Young; Salas, Maribel; Pisu, Maria

2011-01-01

326

Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control. PMID:22773010

Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

2012-07-07

327

Discrimination of SM-Identified Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment

Susan Wright

2006-01-01

328

Ion Technique for Identifying Gamma Detector Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent demands for radiation detector materials with better energy resolution at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient analysis techniques. Ions can easily deposit their energy in thin films or small crystals, and the radiation response can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. In an effort to identify gamma detector

Yanwen Zhang; Xia Xiang; Julie L. Rausch; Xiaotao T. Zu; William J. Weber

2009-01-01

329

Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-01-01

330

Identifying enablers for future e-Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The starting point of the project is the observation that new information and communication technologies (ICT) are often introduced without taking into account the requirements of elderly and\\/or disabled users, resulting in products and services that are hardly usable by those users. A method for identifying enablers for future e-Services is described. In short it identifies usability problems with future

M. Bocker; H. Huttenrauch; M. Pluke; A. Rodriguez-Ascaso; M. Schneider; E. Zetterstrom

2010-01-01

331

Marking Identifiable Scripts: Following up Student Concerns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduction: Medical student concern that the submission of named examination scripts to examiners could cause bias initiated a study on the effect of identified and de-identified scripts on assessment outcome. Methods: Data were collected from a convenience examination sample of Year 1 (n = 88 students; n = 29 questions) and Year 2 scripts (n =…

Owen, Cathy; Stefaniak, John; Corrigan, Gerry

2010-01-01

332

Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-01-01

333

Identifying sequentially untestable faults using illegal states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of identifying untestable faults in synchronous sequential circuits without assuming a global reset mechanism. First, we present an efficient algorithm to identify illegal states in the circuit. An important feature of this algorithm is its functional partitioning, which results in efficient processing of large circuits. The algorithm incrementally builds the set of illegal states which

David E. Long; Mahesh A. Iyer; Miron Abramovici

1995-01-01

334

Questionnaire for Identifying Writer's Block (QIWB).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to identify students with writer's block, this measure is an attitude questionnaire of 24 items separated into five subscales: blocking, lateness, premature editing, strategies for complexity, and attitudes. If teachers or researchers wish simply to identify blockers, they can administer only the items within the behavioral…

Rose, Mike

335

Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

Cox, Elena K.

336

Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

Sullivan, Betsy Ann

337

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes.

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

338

Self-efficacy expectations with regard to different tasks in smoking cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy expectations are important psychological determinants of smoking cessation. The present study aimed at exploring different sorts of self-efficacy. The following self-efficacy scales were composed: Emotional self-efficacy, Social self-efficacy, Skill self-efficacy, Relapse self-efficacy and Try self-efficacy. In a sample of 752 smokers with low motivation to quit, two subsequent self-report measurements of self-efficacy were conducted. Firstly, we investigated to what

Arie Dijkstra; Hein De Vries

2000-01-01

339

Self-efficacy and depressive affect in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to extend Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, we investigated the hypothesis that increases in self-efficacy, based on mastery experiences, would lead to improvements in mood and problem solving among dysphoric subjects.

Jeffrey Schwartz; Jefferson M. Fish

1989-01-01

340

Development of a Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The construct of self-efficacy has been used extensively to analyze and predict what motivates human behavior, to include leadership behaviors. The connection between self-efficacy and leader effectiveness may be critical to finding new ways of selecting ...

S. D. Platt

2010-01-01

341

Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training (ASSET)  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe paper presents the development of a coding tool for self-efficacy orientated interventions in diabetes self-management programmes (Analysis System for Self-Efficacy Training, ASSET) and explores its construct validity and clinical utility.

Katarzyna M. Zinken; Sue Cradock; T. Chas Skinner

2008-01-01

342

Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed measures of current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE) and self-efficacy to learn statistics (SELS) to address whether statistics self-efficacy is related to statistics performance, and whether self-efficacy for statistics increases during an introductory statistics course. Both instruments yielded reliable, one-factor solutions that were related positively to each other and to two measures of statistics performance (i.e., specific statistics problems and

Sara J Finney; Gregory Schraw

2003-01-01

343

The General Self-Efficacy Scale: Multicultural Validation Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

General self-efficacy is the belief in one's competence to cope with a broad range of stressful or challenging demands, whereas specific self-efficacy is constrained to a particular task at hand. Relations between general self-efficacy and social cognitive variables (intention, implementation intentions, outcome expectancies, and self-regulation), behavior-specific self-efficacy, health behaviors, well-being, and coping strategies were examined among 1,933 respondents in 3

Aleksandra Luszczynska; Urte Scholz; Ralf Schwarzer

2005-01-01

344

Self-efficacy and interest: Experimental studies of optimal incompetence  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does self-efficacy affect interest? The interest-and-interests model assumes that factors that induce interest—novelty, complexity, conflict, and uncertainty—do so non-linearly. Self-efficacy should thus affect interest quadratically, because it reflects uncertainty about an activity’s outcome. When self-efficacy is low, interest is low because the activity’s outcome is certain. When self-efficacy is moderate, the person’s success on the task seems likely, but

Paul J. Silvia

2003-01-01

345

Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

Yasar, Senay

346

Parental Negative Affect and Adolescent Efficacy for Diabetes Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated whether parental perceptions of adolescent efficacy are colored by parental negative affect and are associated with adolescents’ self-perceptions of efficacy for diabetes management. Adolescents (n = 183, M age = 12.53) with Type 1 diabetes and their mothers and fathers separately reported perceptions of adolescents’ efficacy for diabetes management and parents reported their own negative affect (depressed

Jorie M. Butler; Cynthia A. Berg; Pamela King; Donna Gelfand; Katherine Fortenberry; Carol Foster; Deborah Wiebe

2009-01-01

347

Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

2012-01-01

348

Peer Models: Influence on Children's Self-Efficacy and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The influence on children's self-efficacy and achievement through observation of peer models learning cognitive skills was investigated. The effects of modeled mastery and coping behaviors were explored. Observing a peer model led to higher self-efficacy for learning, posttest self-efficacy, and achievement. (Author/DWH)|

Schunk, Dale H.; Hanson, Antoinette R.

1985-01-01

349

Sources of collective and individual efficacy of collegiate athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine sources of information athletes select for self?efficacy and collective efficacy information, the potential for additional categories of efficacy information, and patterns of sources among individual players or teams. Information was collected from 34 women collegiate basketball players prior to 12 basketball games. Results indicated that players do not choose the same sources

Melissa A. Chase; Deborah L. Feltz; Cathy D. Lirgg

2003-01-01

350

A Shifting Paradigm: Preservice Teachers' Multicultural Attitudes and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective teaching in multicultural settings requires the awareness and ability to adapt to diverse needs and viewpoints. Teachers' multicultural efficacy may be gained from coursework or interactions within diverse communities. In this study the authors determined preservice teachers' multicultural efficacy using the Multicultural Efficacy Scale…

Nadelson, Louis S.; Boham, Mikaela D.; Conlon-Khan, Lori; Fuentealba, Molly J.; Hall, Cynthia J.; Hoetker, Gregory A.; Hooley, Diana S.; Jang, Bong Seok; Luckey, Kristina L.; Moneymaker, Kelley J.; Shapiro, Matthew A.; Zenkert, A. J.

2012-01-01

351

Elementary School Teachers' Sense of Efficacy for Character Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors describe the efficacy beliefs of practicing elementary school teachers regarding character education. The Character Education Efficacy Belief Instrument, developed and validated by the authors, was completed by a sample of 254 elementary school teachers in a large midwestern suburban school district. The results suggest that elementary school teachers feel efficacious about most aspects of character

Andrew J. Milson; Lisa M. Mehlig

2002-01-01

352

Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of two experimental tests of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. The first study investigated the hypothesis that systematic desensitization effects changes in avoidance behavior by creating and strengthening expectations of personal efficacy. Thorough extinction of anxiety arousal to visualized threats by desensitization treatment produced differential increases in self-efficacy. In accord with prediction, microanalysis of congruence

Albert Bandura; Nancy E. Adams

1977-01-01

353

Beginning teacher efficacy and the practicum in an EFL context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades, there has been compelling evidence describing the powerful effects of teachers’ sense of efficacy on their instructional activities as well as student outcomes. The present study explored the change of efficacy of prospective teachers over the student teaching period and the factors that might contribute to the change. Data collected through the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale

Derin Atay

2007-01-01

354

Optimal models to evaluate the protective efficacy of tuberculosis vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BCG has been used widely as a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis (TB) for 80 years, yet there is still considerable controversy about its efficacy. Many experimental variables have obscured the true efficacy of BCG. The absence of appropriate animal models for the study of protective efficacy and the lack of in vitro correlates of protective immunity have impeded progress. Laboratory

J. F. T. Griffin; D. N. Chinn; C. R. Rodgers; C. G. Mackintosh

2001-01-01

355

Tests of the generality of self-efficacy theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present set of studies tested the explanatory and predictive generality of self-efficacy theory across additional treatment modalities and behavioral domains. Microanalysis of changes accompanying symbolic modeling indicates that this mode of treatment enhances coping behavior partly through its effects on perceived efficacy. Cognizing modeled mastery of threats increased phobics' self-percepts of efficacy, which, in turn, predicted their specific performance

Albert Bandura; Nancy E. Adams; Arthur B. Hardy; Gary N. Howells

1980-01-01

356

Second Order Model of Self-Efficacy Measures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assumptions underlying the multifaceted, hierarchical structure of self-efficacy previously hypothesized by R. Shavelson, J. Hubner, and G. Stanton (1976) for the construct of self-concept were tested. The self-efficacy interpretation of the Science Self-Efficacy Scale (H. Kennedy, 1996), a relatively new measure, was studied with 331 (151 female…

Kennedy, Helen L.

357

Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy

Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

2006-01-01

358

Asthma management efficacy of school nurses in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the key health care providers in school settings, the school nurses’ asthma management efficacy is crucial to children's health and their continued participation in school learning activities. This article describes the psychometric testing of the asthma management efficacy scale (AMES) for use with school nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to assess the asthma management efficacy of 60

B. S Gau; S. D Horner; S. C Chang; Y. C Chen

2002-01-01

359

Examining Dimensions of Self-Efficacy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…

Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon

2013-01-01

360

Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis.…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

361

Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Support and Teaching Efficacy in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty's perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty' teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were…

Chang, Te-Sheng; McKeachie, Wilbert; Lin, Yi-Guang

2010-01-01

362

University Faculty Members' Perceptions of Their Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate faculty members' perceptions of teaching efficacy and their relation to faculty members' backgrounds. A questionnaire measuring six dimensions of teaching efficacy was distributed to faculty members at 17 universities in Taiwan, yielding 513 complete sets of responses. Faculty members felt efficacious,…

Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Huei-Hsuan; Song, Mei-Mei

2011-01-01

363

[How to improve efficacy of onychomycosis treatment?].  

PubMed

Onychomycosis is a public health concern because of its high world wide prevalence, and its potential for spread of fungal elements to others. About one half of all patients presenting to dermatologists' offices for nail disorders have onychomycosis. This kind of infection may impact upon physical, functional, and emotional aspects of life. Onychomycosis can be treated with the new generation of oral antifungals. Efficacy rates for fingernail onychomycosis are high; however, for toenail onychomycosis, efficacy rates may range from 60% to 80%. Relapse rates have been estimated to be 15% to 20% measured at 2 years following therapy initiation. Because many factors may be associated with a suboptimal clinical response, consideration to measures that reflect the most appropriate pharmacologic and supportive regimens must be made in order to meet the challenge of onychomycosis cure. In some situations supplemental therapy consisting of extra antifungal or adjunctive (topical/surgical) therapy may be beneficial. PMID:16886434

Nowicki, R

2001-01-01

364

Efficacy of silver-coated medical devices.  

PubMed

Silver coating of medical devices is believed to prevent device-associated infection. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies, as well as clinical observations on silver-nylon, silver-intramedullary pins, silver oxide Foley catheters and silver-coated vascular prostheses have been performed during the past 30 years. Nevertheless, randomized clinical studies showing efficacy of such coated medical devices in high-risk patient populations are rare, have dealt with very small numbers of patients or are controversial. Physico-chemical, pharmacological and microbiological data explaining the antimicrobial efficacy of silver in prophylaxis of implants are presented here, as well as the scientific background for the established clinical benefits of silver-preparations in burns. PMID:9868616

Schierholz, J M; Lucas, L J; Rump, A; Pulverer, G

1998-12-01

365

Activities for Identifying Similarities and Differences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article discusses the four forms of identifying similarities and differences: comparing, classifying, creating metaphors, and creating analogies and how these strategies can be used in an elementary classroom.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

366

Methods of Identifying Kinetically Stable Proteins.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides a fast and efficient means for identifying kinetically stable proteins. As used herein the term 'kinetically stable protein' means a protein that is trapped in a specific conformation due to an unusually high unfolding barri...

M. Manning W. Colon

2005-01-01

367

NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Research News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The new functional variant, or allele, is ...

368

Methods for identifying and isolating stem cells  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods and systems for a) identifying and isolating stem cells, b) assessing mitochondrial distribution and structure in living cells and c) performing fluorescence microscopy on living cells while the cells remain within a condition-controlled cell culture chamber.

2010-07-06

369

Identifying Deterrents To Participation In Continuing Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to contribute to theory-building in the area of participation, the present inquiry sought to explore the underlying structure of the many reasons adults give for not participating in continuing education (i.e., to identify \\

Craig S. Scanlan; Gordon G. Darkenwald

1984-01-01

370

Partners in Research Identifying Common Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) undertook this project to develop a methodology for systematically matching research interests of private sector organizations with its own in order to identify potential research partners. The method...

1997-01-01

371

Identifying Somatic Genetic Changes in Prostate Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metastatic prostate cancer is not a curable disease and approximately 30% of men undergoing radical prostectomy will relapse, so there is a need to identify new markers of development and progression of prostate cancer, particularly those that can be used...

K. L. Nathanson

2005-01-01

372

Identifying the Outcomes of Socialization: Two Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The outcomes of the process of organizational socialization have been inadequately defined and researched. This report contains a review of outcomes mentioned or measured by past researchers, followed by two studies intended to identify outcomes. The firs...

C. D. Fisher

1982-01-01

373

Laboratory Investigation That Identified the Cause of ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Laboratory investigation that identified the ... October 3, 2012 Science Board Meeting ... Each video experiment is 1 hour long • Spatial scale: ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

374

Limitations of Pseudogenes in Identifying Gene Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of previously established genes has been proposed as a major force in evolutionary change. While the sequencing of\\u000a many new species offers the opportunity to identify cases of gene loss, the best method to do this with is unclear. A number\\u000a of methods to identify gene losses rely on the presence of a pseudogene for each loss. If

James C. Costello; Mira V. Han; Matthew W. Hahn

2008-01-01

375

Identifier-tracking model reference adaptive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model reference adaptive control is a major design method for controlling plants with uncertain parameters. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a new design approach for a differentiator-free model reference adaptive control of a single-input single-output linear time-invariant plant. The proposed method, called the “Identifier-tracking model reference adaptive control”, uses a stacked identifier structure that is new

K. S. Yeung; W. D. Chung; H. Yu

2008-01-01

376

Cinacalcet is efficacious in pediatric dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary hyperparathyroidism (high-turnover bone disease, or HTBD) is manifested by elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels.\\u000a Control of HTBD may be achieved by maintaining low serum phosphorous levels and administering vitamin D therapy, although\\u000a some patients continue to exhibit high PTH levels. We report the results of the efficacy of the calcimimetic cinacalcet in\\u000a six hemodialysis (HD) and three peritoneal dialysis

Douglas M. Silverstein; Kanwal K. Kher; Asha Moudgil; Mona Khurana; Jennifer Wilcox; Kathleen Moylan

2008-01-01

377

Self-Efficacy: Conditioning the Entrepreneurial Mindset  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since Bandura’s original work (Bandura 1977a), the self-efficacy concept has become an important variable within social psychology\\u000a research. However, it has also been invoked in numerous other areas of research: organization theory, human resource theory,\\u000a cognition and behavioral theory, as well as identity theory, in connection with topics such as health, stress, leadership,\\u000a commitment, ethnicity, religion, gender, culture, social class,

René Mauer; Helle Neergaard; Anne Kirketerp Linstad

378

Evaluating the Antifracture Efficacy of Bisphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral bisphosphonate dosing schedules have evolved from the original daily regimens to weekly (alendronate and risedronate) and monthly (risedronate and ibandronate) regimens. Intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates are administered less frequently—quarterly ibandronate injection and yearly zoledronic acid i.v. infusion. Comparative fracture efficacy among BP options is increasingly a focus of debate. The approved daily oral BPs and annual zoledronic acid infusion demonstrated

Michael Pazianas; Solomon Epstein; Mone Zaidi

2009-01-01

379

Endolymphatic mastoid shunt: A reevaluation of efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : The main goal of this paper was to statistically reevaluate the efficacy of the endolymphatic shunt procedure for Meniere’s disease. Methods : Thomsen et al (Arch Otolaryngol 1981;107:271-7) reported on the placebo effect in surgery for Meniere’s disease in a controlled double-blind study. Thirty patients with typical Meniere’s disease in whom medical treatment failed participated in the study.

D. BRADLEY WELLING; H. N. NAGARAJA

2000-01-01

380

[Efficacy of integrated treatments for schizophrenia patients].  

PubMed

This article outlines two examples of cognitive-behavior group therapy approaches for an integrative treatment of psychosis: the Integrated Psychological Therapy (IPT) and the Integrated Neurocognitive Therapy (INT). We present their theoretical background, content and conceptualization as well as recent empirical evidence for their efficacy. The article concludes that adapting these approaches to early intervention for people with high risk of psychosis seems promising. PMID:23132195

Schmidt, Stefanie J; Roder, Volker

2012-12-01

381

Efficacy of silver-coated medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver coating of medical devices is believed to prevent device-associated infection. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies, as well as clinical observations on silver—nylon, silver-intramedullary pins, silver oxide Foley catheters and silver-coated vascular prostheses have been performed during the past 30 years. Nevertheless, randomized clinical studies showing efficacy of such coated medical devices in high-risk patient populations are rare, have dealt

J. M. Schierholz; L. J. Lucas; A. Rump; G. Pulverer

1998-01-01

382

Associations Between Classroom Environment and Academic Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted on associations between classroom psychosocial environment and academic efficacy. A sample of 1055\\u000a mathematics students from Australian secondary schools responded to an instrument that assessed ten dimensions of mathematics\\u000a classroom environment (viz. Student Cohesiveness, Teacher Support, Investigation, Task Orientation, Cooperation, Equity, Involvement,\\u000a Personal Relevance, Shared Control, Student Negotiation). These scales were from two existing instruments, namely, What

Jeffrey P. Dorman

2001-01-01

383

Creative self-efficacy: An intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers (one-day course). Students from a mathematics and statistics course constituted a

Gro Ellen Mathisen; Kolbjorn S. Bronnick

2009-01-01

384

A forward chemical screen identifies antibiotic adjuvants in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Multi-drug-resistant infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens are rapidly increasing, highlighting the need for new chemotherapies. Unlike Gram-positive bacteria, where many different chemical classes of antibiotics show efficacy, Gram-negatives are intrinsically insensitive to many antimicrobials including the macrolides, rifamycins, and aminocoumarins, despite intracellular targets that are susceptible to these drugs. The basis for this insensitivity is the presence of the impermeant outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria in addition to the expression of pumps and porins that reduce intracellular concentrations of many molecules. Compounds that sensitize Gram-negative cells to "Gram-positive antibiotics", antibiotic adjuvants, offer an orthogonal approach to addressing the crisis of multi-drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. We performed a forward chemical genetic screen of 30,000 small molecules designed to identify such antibiotic adjuvants of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin in Escherichia coli. Four compounds from this screen were shown to be synergistic with novobiocin including inhibitors of the bacterial cytoskeleton protein MreB, cell wall biosynthesis enzymes, and DNA synthesis. All of these molecules were associated with altered cell shape and small molecule permeability, suggesting a unifying mechanism for these antibiotic adjuvants. The potential exists to expand this approach as a means to develop novel combination therapies for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:22698393

Taylor, Patricia L; Rossi, Laura; De Pascale, Gianfranco; Wright, Gerard D

2012-06-22

385

IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT  

SciTech Connect

The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J., E-mail: rmarcus@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-20

386

Efficacy of anticholinergic drugs in asthma.  

PubMed

Although bronchial hyperresponsiveness to cholinergic agents is a main feature of asthma, the role of anticholinergic drugs in chronic asthma management has been largely underestimated. Several single-dose studies comparing acute bronchodilation induced by ipratropium bromide with salbutamol have shown that salbutamol was more effective than ipratropium in asthma treatment. Recently, tiotropium has been studied in asthma, when added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids in unselected moderate asthmatics or in patients with uncontrolled asthma, or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and history of asthma. Later, studies on patients with Arg/Arg ?(2)-receptor polymorphism demonstrated a similar efficacy of tiotropium in comparison with salmeterol when both were added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Further long-term studies are currently in progress, for the evaluation of the efficacy of tiotropium on clinical asthma control, and on the rate and severity of asthma exacerbations, as well as the potential modification of inflammatory mechanisms and varying efficacy in specific asthma phenotypes (such as smoking asthmatics). PMID:22788945

Novelli, Federica; Malagrinò, Laura; Dente, Federico L; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

2012-06-01

387

Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations With Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout. Participants were 244 elementary and middle school teachers. The analysis supported the conceptualization of teacher self-efficacy

Einar M. Skaalvik; Sidsel Skaalvik

2007-01-01

388

Discriminant and Predictive Validity of Academic Self-Concept, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Mathematics-Specific Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether global academic self-concept and academic self-efficacy beliefs that vary in domain specificity–globality represent distinct or common underlying dimensions. Participants were 205 university students who completed measures of academic self-concept, global academic self-efficacy, and domain-specific mathematics self-efficacy. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that each of the variables represented separate, though related, latent dimensions of self-perception. Self-efficacy and self-concept

Robert W. Lent; Steven D. Brown

1997-01-01

389

Self-efficacy for science: An investigation of middle school students' self-efficacy and science achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated Self-Efficacy for science and achievement in science at the middle school level. Combining science grade Self-Efficacy and laboratory skills Self-Efficacy described Self-Efficacy for science; achievement in science was described by a combination of science class grade and science lab grade. In an effort to minimize variables, this study was conducted within a race-homogeneous eighth grade student population.

Adam Rosen

2008-01-01

390

The relationship of task self-efficacy and role efficacy beliefs to role performance in Spanish youth soccer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between role efficacy and role performance after controlling for the effects of task self-efficacy. Two hundred and ninety-five Spanish youth soccer players from 20 teams completed self-report measures of task self-efficacy, role efficacy and role performance at the mid-point of a competitive season. The 20 team coaches also provided ratings

Steven R Bray; Isabel Balaguer; Joan L Duda

2004-01-01

391

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing anxiety sensitivity: A meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. control conditions in the reduction of anxiety sensitivity. A computerized search was conducted to indentify CBT outcome studies that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as a dependent variable. Of the 989 studies that were identified, 24 randomized-controlled trials with a total of 1851 participants met inclusion criteria and

Jasper A. J. Smits; Angela C. Berry; Candyce D. Tart; Mark B. Powers

2008-01-01

392

Efficacy and efficiency of a lean cataract pathway: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe demand for cataract surgery is rising, calling for pathways that have good access and are cost-effective. Lean thinking is a management strategy, aimed at improving quality while reducing costs. Lean production processes are designed to identify gaps between expected and actual performance.AimTo analyse the efficacy and efficiency of a lean cataract pathway.MethodsLean care delivered to a prospective cohort (616

Ellen Joan van Vliet; Walter Sermeus; Claudia M van Gaalen; Johannes C A Sol; Jan M H Vissers

2010-01-01

393

Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore the variability in reliability scores on a commonly used career scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE). Reliability generalization was employed to identify typical score reliability, variability of score reliability, and variables explaining this variability. Forty-nine pieces of work were examined, and the results revealed that 41% of them reported score

Johanna E. Nilsson; Christa K. Schmidt; William D. Meek

2002-01-01

394

Toward the Development of a Family Business Self-Efficacy Scale: A Resource-Based Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the importance of succession planning in family-owned businesses, our research is focused on identifying the key dimensions that could comprise a family business self-efficacy scale. We employed an explorative qualitative research methodology by querying a group of family business presidents to describe the skills critical for success. Using a resource-based perspective and relevant family business succession literature, we organized

Alex DeNoble; Sanford Ehrlich; Gangaram Singh

2007-01-01

395

Weight control self-efficacy types and transitions affect weight-loss outcomes in obese women.  

PubMed

Matching obesity treatments to heterogeneous clients is a recent evolution in the development of more effective weight-control programs, yet most interventions emphasize the external features of treatments rather than the internal belief structures of individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Q methodology would identify distinct types of weight-control self-efficacy beliefs in obese women that would be linked to outcomes of a weight-loss program. Fifty-four women (45 +/- 9 yrs, Mean +/- SD) 136 +/- 10% over ideal body weight participated in a 9-month nutritional/behavioral weight loss program. Two major self-efficacy categories emerged through factor analysis of Q sorts: assureds and disbelievers. The assureds (n = 28) had the strongest self-efficacy beliefs and at baseline reported significantly (p < .01) greater self-esteem and less depression than the disbelievers (n = 26). By posttreatment, the assureds had lost significantly more weight (10 +/- 6 vs. 7 +/- 7 kg). Regrouping the data for analysis by posttreatment self-efficacy types demonstrated transitions in the self-efficacy beliefs of the women during treatment. Those who were disbelievers at baseline but became assureds posttreatment (n = 7) lost twice as much weight as the women who started and finished as disbelievers (n = 19) (10 +/- 7 kg vs. 5 +/- 5 kg). The posttreatment assureds (n = 32) lost significantly more weight than the disbelievers (n = 22) (10 +/- 6 vs. 6 +/- 5 kg), and reported better self esteem, mood, and eating patterns. Thus, assessment of intrinsic belief systems, particularly weight-control self-efficacy, may provide new directions for designing interventions that target distinctly different needs of obese women to affect greater weight loss and more positive affective states. PMID:8729712

Dennis, K E; Goldberg, A P

396

A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids.  

PubMed

Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm's prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. "Major fragments" (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic's efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

Slocombe, J Owen D

2004-04-01

397

Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations with Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout.…

Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

2007-01-01

398

The Relationship between the Self-Efficacy of the Principal and the Collective Efficacy of the Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focused on the relationship between the principal's sense of self efficacy and the faculty's sense of collective efficacy in independent schools in the metropolitan area of Washington, D.C. Principals and teachers from sixteen private schools participated by completing surveys on efficacy. Principals completed the Principal…

Autry, Susan Camille Wolken

2010-01-01

399

Development of a Scale to Measure Pharmacists' Self-Efficacy in Performing Medication Therapy Management Services  

PubMed Central

Background Measuring community pharmacists’ self-efficacy in performing medication therapy management (MTM) services can be useful for tailoring interventions and predicting participation. Objective To identify relevant survey constructs related to the Wisconsin Pharmacy Quality Collaborative (WPQC) MTM program and to evaluate scale validity. Methods The 31-item MTM Self-efficacy Scale was developed using previous research, identifying critical program components, and beta-testing. After administration to pharmacists in the 53 WPQC pilot sites, summary statistics and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were conducted. Parallel analysis was used to determine the optimal number of factors. Internal consistency reliabilities were calculated. Results Baseline participation rate was 94% (N=76). The 11-point scale (0–10) item means ranged from 2.83±3.05 to 7.82±2.19. Parallel analysis produced a 3-factor solution, accounting for 56% of the variance. Low factor loadings or unacceptably high cross-loadings resulted in 17 item deletions. The final EFA on the remaining 14 items retained the original 3-factor solution and increased the proportion of explained variance (72%). The factors relate to MTM tasks (alpha = 0.92), personal interactions (alpha = 0.86), and goal setting (alpha = 0.84). Overall Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90. Conclusion Constructs for measuring self-efficacy were identified that may aid in future research predicting whether pharmacists engage in and persist in providing MTM services.

Martin, Beth A.; Chui, Michelle A; Thorpe, Joshua M; Mott, David A.; Kreling, David H.

2010-01-01

400

Identifying Surfaces on the Pale Blue Dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing color of an unresolved planet hint at its cloud structure and surface features. Principal component analysis has previously been shown to robustly identify the number of surfaces contributing to disk-integrated observations. We have taken an important next step by showing that one can identify the reflectance spectra of unknown surface types, based solely on time-resolved, disk-integrated multi-band photometry. We test our method on disk-integrated observations of Earth taken by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission. Critically, we borrow analysis tools from the remote sensing community, where spatially-resolved spectral data are routinely analyzed in an automated way to identify known (eg. boreal forest) as well as unknown surfaces (eg. military bunkers). Our study indicates that planned missions like the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will be able to identify new surfaces on exoplanets, and also offers a relatively model-independent avenue to identifying surface liquid water on other worlds.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, T. E.

2013-01-01

401

Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

2012-09-01

402

Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

2012-01-01

403

The Effect of a Training Program in Communication Skills on Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication has been identified as one of the core clinical skills for all health care providers, but it is especially important for primary health care disciplines. Findings suggest the need for more attention to communication skills in continued physician education. This work aims at evaluating the effect of a communication skills training program on physicians' knowledge, attitude and self efficacy

Mona E. Shama; Fatma A. Meky; Nagwa Y. Abou; El Enein; Mohamed Y. Mahdy

404

A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

2008-01-01

405

Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

406

A review of the efficacy and safety of key ingredients of over-the-counter products for weight management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Over-the-counter (OTC) weight management products are popular with the public. Manufacturers frequently claim beneficial effects of these products, however current legislation does not compel them to support these claims with research. This paper identifies the key ingredients of OTC weight management products and evaluates evidence for their safety and efficacy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using Medline, published evidence on key

C. H. S. Ruxton; E. J. Gardner

2005-01-01

407

A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

2008-01-01

408

A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

2008-01-01

409

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology Integration Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations (ITOE) of pre-service physical education teachers, (2) examine the relationships among TPACK, TISE and ITOE, and lastly (3) examine the differences…

Semiz, Kivanc; Ince, Mustafa Levent

2012-01-01

410

INVESTIGATING THE SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS OF SCIENCE AND ELEMENTARY TEACHERS WITH RESPECT TO SOME VARIABLES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to identify how the level of the primary school science and elementary teachers' self- efficacy beliefs changed in terms of some variables such as branch, gender, seniority, weekly lesson hours, in- service training, satisfaction with her\\/his job, socio-economic level of the school, and satisfaction with the working environment. In this study, which is bases on

ÖZ-YETERL' K; KENLER AÇISINDAN' NCELENMES; Asuman Seda

411

Social Indicators, Dysfunctional Career Cognitions, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Work Role Participation of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…

Hodge, Sharon

412

Efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain and sciatica: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain. Data was obtained using computer-aided search of published randomized clinical trials and assessment of the methods of the studies. Twelve randomized clinical trials evaluating epidural steroid injections were identified. Data was extracted based on scores for quality of the methods, using 4 categories

Bart W. Koes; Rob J. P. M. Scholten; Jan M. A. Mens; Lex M. Bouter

1995-01-01

413

The Trainee in Context: Examining the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Transfer Climate for Transfer of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Trainee perceptions of transfer climate have been found to be an important predictor of transfer of training. Self-efficacy has also been identified as an important individual difference related to transfer. Few studies have examined how these variables work together to enhance or limit performance following training. In a field study of 37…

Sookhai, Fiona; Budworth, Marie-Helene

2010-01-01

414

University Students' Self-Efficacy and Their Attitudes Toward the Internet: The Role of Students' Perceptions of the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The attitudes and the self-efficacy that characterize learners relative to the Internet have been identified as important factors that affect learners' motivation, interests and performance in Internet-based learning environments. Meanwhile, learners' perceptions of the Internet may shape learners' attitudes and online behaviours. This study…

Peng, Hsinyi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien

2006-01-01

415

Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% triclosan handwash products in an acute clinical ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 1% triclosan as handwash antiseptics is well established. Few published studies have identified hand bacteria found in glove juice samples, and most studies have used nonclinical study subjects. We report a longitudinal comparative study to determine the effect of 4% CHG and 1% triclosan on the composition of the hand bacterial

Joan L. Faoagali; Narelle George; Jonathan Fong; Jenny Davy; Muriel Dowser

1999-01-01

416

Examining the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Self-Efficacy Among Elementary Teachers in Southeast Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian study (Penrose, Perry & Ball, 2007) identified Emotional Intelligence levels in teachers as a predictor of teacher self-efficacy, with significant impact on student achievement outcomes. Sutton and Wheatley (2003) asserted the role of emotion in influencing teacher work and, therefore, student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a correlation between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and teacher

Denise Bryan

2011-01-01

417

Efficacy of predictive modeling as a scientific criterion in dermal hazard identification for assignment of skin notations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin notations (SNs) represent a hazard characterization tool for alerting workers of health hazards associated with dermal contact with chemicals. This study evaluated the efficacy of a predictive model utilized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to identify dermal hazards based on potential of systemic absorption compared to hazard assignments based on dermal lethal dose 50% or

Chen-Peng Chen; Heinz W. Ahlers; G. Scott Dotson; Yi-Chun Lin; Wei-Chen Chang; Andrew Maier; Bernard Gadagbui

2011-01-01

418

[Immune efficacy of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by baculovirus vector].  

PubMed

To construct a recombinant baculovirus expressing glycoprotein (GP) of RV SRV9 strain and test the immunological efficacy in mice, open reading frame of rabies virus GP gene of SRV9 strain was cloned into the shuttle vector Bacmid to construct the recombinant shuttle plasmid Bacmid-G and transfection was performed into S f9 cells with the recombinant shuttle plasmid. CPE appeared in cell cultures was identified by electronmicroscopy. Western-blot, IFA and immunity tests in mice were performed to identify the immunoreactivity and immunogenicity of the expression products. Our results showed a recombinant baculovirus expressing GP protein of rabies virus SRV9 was obtained. The expression products possessed a favorable immunogenicity and fall immunized mice could develop 100% protective level of anti-rabies neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, The SRV9 glycoprotein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in this study had good immunogenicity and could induce anti-rabies neutralizing antibody, which laid the foundation of further development of rabies subunit vaccine. PMID:23233923

Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shou-Feng; Liu, Ye; Fu, Yun-Hong; Sun, Cheng-Long; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ting; Song, Fei-Fei; Hu, Rong-Liang

2012-09-01

419

Clinical efficacy of respiratory gated conformal radiation therapy.  

PubMed

One major limitation of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy that has not been adequately addressed is respiration-induced organ motion. During respiration, tumors in the abdomen can typically move from 1 to 3 centimeters. Because the size and shape of external radiation treatment fields do not change during treatment, the field size of the x-ray beam must be enlarged to encompass the tumor through the entire respiration cycle. Several manufacturers are developing respiratory gating systems. These systems allow the selective delivery of absorbed doses to moving target volumes in the abdomen during time intervals when the target volume is within the intended location. Before respiratory gated radiotherapy can be implemented clinically, the efficacy of the procedure must be justified. The magnitude of dosimetric and geometric uncertainties associated with respiratory motion must be identified to determine if gating can provide an advantage over conventional treatment techniques. In addition, clinical situations and specific types of cancer that could benefit from respiratory gating must also be identified. PMID:10379508

Ramsey, C R; Scaperoth, D; Arwood, D; Oliver, A L

1999-01-01

420

Identifying priorities for prepared childbirth research.  

PubMed

Priorities for research on prepared childbirth were identified by means of a statewide Delphi Study. Sample groups of childbirth educators and maternity nurses formulated research topics and set priorities among the topics. Overall, 50 items were specified in four categories: Prenatal Education/Preparation, Labor and Delivery (normal), Postpartum, and Complications. Data were analyzed to identify priorities in each category and to determine the levels of consensus among samples. The need for research on specific areas of prepared childbirth, as perceived by these sample groups, is reported. Although a high level of consensus is apparent, interesting differences emerged. PMID:6392676

Thomas, B S

421

Systems biology for identifying liver toxicity pathways  

PubMed Central

Drug-induced liver toxicity is one of the leading causes of acute liver failure in the United States, exceeding all other causes combined. The objective of this paper is to describe systems biology methods for identifying pathways involved in liver toxicity induced by free fatty acids (FFA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in human hepatoblastoma cells (HepG2/C3A). Systems biology approaches were developed to integrate multi-level data, i.e., gene expression, metabolite profile, toxicity measurements and a priori knowledge to identify gene targets for modulating liver toxicity. Targets that modulate liver toxicity, in vitro, were computationally predicted and some targets were experimentally validated.

Li, Zheng; Chan, Christina

2009-01-01

422

Method for identifying an intestinal phenotype  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method for identifying cells having a predisposition to develop an intestinal phenotype, wherein the cells are characterized by the loss of expression of the RUNX3 gene and the expression of one or more intestinal marker genes. In particular, the invention is directed to the identification of cells, which exhibit an intestinal phenotype representing a precursor of gastric cancer. Furthermore, the invention discloses a method for identifying a compound inhibiting the development of an intestinal phenotype in cells having a predisposition to develop an intestinal phenotype. Finally, the invention also relates to kits of parts for performing these methods.

2009-11-03

423

Factors Related to Self-Efficacy in Persons With Scleroderma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Scleroderma (SSc) is rare, and few studies have examined self-efficacy in persons with the disease. Self-efficacy is one precursor that has been shown to initiate changes in behavior when managing chronic disease. The objective of this study was to explore the levels of self-efficacy in persons with SSc, compare self-efficacy in persons with limited or diffuse SSc, and determine correlations between self-efficacy, physical function, and psychological variables. Methods Sixty-two participants with SSc completed measures assessing self-efficacy, depression, fatigue, pain, hand function, and activity limitations. The mean age of participants was 52.9 years. The mean educational level was 15.8 years. Sixty-seven percent were married, and 87.1% were women. Thirty participants had diffuse SSc, 27 had limited SSc, and 5 were unclassified. Results The only significant differences between the two disease subtypes were in hand function and self-efficacy function subscale scores. Total self-efficacy scores significantly correlated with marital status, employment, self-reported health, depression, functional ability, fatigue, pain, and hand function. Similarly, self-efficacy function scale scores significantly correlated with employment, self-reported health, functional ability, pain, and hand function. Self-efficacy pain scale scores significantly correlated with fatigability. The self-efficacy other scale scores significantly correlated with depression and fatigability. Participants with higher levels of pain and depression, more fatigue, more general disability, and more hand disability had lower self-efficacy. Conclusion Self-efficacy correlates with physical function and psychological variables, and could predict how patients manage their health. Self-efficacy may increase through participation in educational programs focusing on self-management of these variables.

Buck, Una; Poole, Janet L.; Mendelson, Cindy

2010-01-01

424

Dense Subgroup Identifying in Social Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densest coherent subgraphs can provide valuable knowledge about the underlying internal structure of a social network, and mining frequently occurring coherent subgraphs of a large network has been witnessed several applications and received considerable attention in the graph mining community recently. However, some key players are not always appeared in the clique, therefore, clique detection could not identify some

Ye Conghuan

2011-01-01

425

Using lice to identify cowbird hosts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avian lice may link fledgling Brown-headed Cowbirds to the host species that raised them. Lice, if host-specific and transferred to nestling cowbirds, could serve to identify the principal host species raising cowbirds in a local area. This approach of trapping cowbird fledglings in a feeding flock, then collecting and identifying the lice they carry is economical. The alternative requires a team of people to locate large numbers of parasitized host nests. We trapped 250 cowbird fledglings during June-August 1994 on Patuxent Research Center, and from them we collected 426 lice identified as representing 6 genera and 12 species. We. also collected and identified 347 lice from 30 known host species that were mist-netted on our Center. The lice found on cowbird fledglings in this population can be linked to Wood Thrush, Red-eyed Vireo, Common Yellowthroat, Rufous-sided Towhee, Red-winged Blackbird, Common Grackle, Song Sparrow, Field Sparrow, and Tree sparrow, based on this study and also on published reports.

Hahn, D C; Osenton, P C; Price, R W

1995-01-01

426

p63 identifies keratinocyte stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferative compartment of stratified squamous epithelia consists of stem and transient amplifying (TA) keratinocytes. Some polypeptides are more abundant in putative epidermal stem cells than in TA cells, but no polypeptide confined to the stem cells has yet been identified. Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes

Graziella Pellegrini; Elena Dellambra; Osvaldo Golisano; Enrica Martinelli; Ivana Fantozzi; Sergio Bondanza; Diego Ponzin; Frank McKeon; Michele de Luca

2001-01-01

427

Do Colleges Identify or Develop Intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most colleges and univer- sities emphasize identifying smartness much more than developing smartness. This value is made explicit in the many influential rankings of colleges and universities, in which elitist schools who recruit students with high SAT scores, grade point averages, and class rankings are declared \\

Randy Moore

428

Transmitter Identifier Systems for CB Radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for Automatic Transmitter Identifier Systems (ATIS) is justified based on rule compliance and television interference (TVI) problems. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule making activities relative to ATIS are reviewed. The functional requirements of an ATIS are proposed that will satisfy the rule compliance and TVI needs while at the same time provide selective calling (SELCALL) features. The potential

Stuart J. Lipoff

1977-01-01

429

Device for Identifying a Circumferential Position.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device is described which accurately and reproducibly identifies points on the circumference of a non-vertical pipe for use as reference marks for pipe inspections. The device comprises a light-permeable disk-shaped chamber having a plurality of pockets...

C. R. Mikesell

1982-01-01

430

An approach to identify urban groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the proportion in which waters from different origins are mixed in a given water sample is relevant for many hydrogeological problems, such as quantifying total recharge, assessing groundwater pollution risks, or managing water resources. Our work is motivated by urban hydrogeology, where waters with different chemical signature can be identified (losses from water supply and sewage networks, infiltration from

E. Vázquez-Suñé; J. Carrera; I. Tubau; X. Sánchez-Vila; A. Soler

2010-01-01

431

Student Success Factors: Identifying Key Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors' main aim in this study was to identify key predictors of Master of Business Administration (MBA) students' academic performance. The authors measured performance by the students' cumulative grade point average achieved, using data from the Students Information Systems and Application database. The authors found that a student's…

Sulaiman, Ainin; Mohezar, Suhana

2006-01-01

432

Scanning electronic documents for personally identifiable information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sometimes, it is necessary to remove author names and other per- sonally identifiable information (PII) from documents befo re pub- lication. We have implemented a novel defensive tool for detect- ing such data automatically. By using the detection tool, we have learned about where PII may be stored in documents and how it is put there. A key observation is

Tuomas Aura; Thomas A. Kuhn; Michael Roe

2006-01-01

433

Identifying the components of effective service advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the components that make up an effective service advertisement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is achieved by examining a sample of service advertisements that have been recognised for their success. The advertisements are analysed with reference to two areas of discussion; the use of rational and emotional appeals and the presence of

Kathleen Mortimer

2008-01-01

434

Digital object identifier system: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to describe the digital object identifier (DOI) system, an implementation of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives handle system, where a handle is designed to provide an efficient, extensible, and secured global name to an intellectual object. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Explains the overview of DOI system, its components with examples in addition to benefits of DOI

Rajesh Chandrakar

2006-01-01

435

Identifying responsive inner-city policemen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed police responsiveness using a technique that identified positive and negative attitudes of policemen toward inner-city residents. Ss were 30 policemen who scored most negatively and 32 who scored most positively on a 4-scale questionnaire (Policemen's View of Citizens' Support, General Faith in People, Police Fear of Citizens or Police Defensive Posture, and Police Stereotype of Poor People). Analysis of

Rita M. Kelly; Martin G. Farber

1974-01-01

436

Researchers identify biomarker for smoker's lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein — ASCL1 — is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET. The findings appear in the online issue of the journal Oncogene.

437

Identifying Effectiveness Criteria for Internet Payment Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines Internet payment systems (IPS): third-party, card, secure Web server, electronic token, financial electronic data interchange (EDI), and micropayment based. Reports the results of a Delphi survey of experts identifying and classifying IPS effectiveness criteria and classifying types of IPS providers. Includes the survey invitation letter…

Shon, Tae-Hwan; Swatman, Paula M. C.

1998-01-01

438

Identifying primitives for a calorimeter trigger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on how to utilize the information from a finely segmented calorimeter in a trigger system have a significant impact on the overall trigger design. The GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider will utilize calorimeter information in all levels of its trigger. Algorithms are being developed to provide local and global triggers. Identifying which primitives are

C. Allen; J. L. Ritchie; D. R. Marlow

1992-01-01

439

Identifying Fallacies of Reference in Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experience of teaching informal logic (sometimes called practical logic) at the introductory level over the last fifteen years has allowed the author the opportunity to identify some interesting problems. These problems have been encountered by students attempting to understand some of the ideas presented in the informal logic course and by…

Gough, Jim

2009-01-01

440

Identifying Benefit Segments among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using concept of market segmentation (dividing market into distinct groups requiring different product benefits), surveyed 398 college students to determine benefit segments among students selecting a college to attend and factors describing each benefit segment. Identified one major segment of students (classroomers) plus three minor segments…

Brown, Joseph D.

1991-01-01

441

Methods for Identifying Versioned and Plagiarized Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes research that was conducted to develop and evaluate techniques for identifying plagiarism, revisions, and different versions of online documents. Highlights include ranking; parsing; similarity measures; identity measures; fingerprinting documents; measuring effectiveness via recall and precision; and experiments on two document…

Hoad, Timothy C.; Zobel, Justin

2003-01-01

442

Identifying Benefit Segments among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept of market segmentation (dividing market into distinct groups requiring different product benefits), surveyed 398 college students to determine benefit segments among students selecting a college to attend and factors describing each benefit segment. Identified one major segment of students (classroomers) plus three minor segments…

Brown, Joseph D.

1991-01-01

443

Identifying talent and giftedness Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of identifying gifted and talented individuals within a given population has many components. Program planners must be knowledgeable when determining an operational definition and selection criteria. The entire process should also incorporate the values of concerned and participating persons as well as concern for available resources. The successful melding of these components is necessary if the identification process

Robert A. Male; Philip Perrone

1979-01-01

444

Identifying DOS Attacks Using Data Pattern Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a denial of service attack, it is difficult for a firewall to differentiate legitimate packets from rogue packets, particularly in large networks carrying substantial levels of traffic. Large networks commonly use network intrusion detection systems to identify such attacks, however new viruses and worms can escape detection until their signatures are known and classified as an attack. Commonly used

Mohammed Salem; Helen Armstrong

2008-01-01

445

Revisiting the Concept of Identifiable Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although eutely in nematodes was known, giant neurons in several taxa and unique motor neurons to leg muscles in decapod crustaceans, the idea that many animals have many identifiable neurons with relatively consistent dynamical properties and connections was only slowly established in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This has to be one of the important quiet revolutions in neurobiology.

Theodore Holmes Bullock

2000-01-01

446

Identifying redundancy in source code using fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype implementation of a mechanism that uses fingerprints to identify exact repetitions of text in large program source trees has been built and successfully applied to a legacy source of over 300 megabytes. This prototype system has provided useful information as well as establishing the scalability of the technology. The approach will form the basis of a suite of

J. Howard Johnson

1993-01-01

447

Identifying elephant flows through periodically sampled packets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying elephant flows is very important in developing effective and efficient traffic engineering schemes. In addition, obtaining the statistics of these flows is also very useful for network operation and management. On the other hand, with the rapid growth of link speed in recent years, packet sampling has become a very attractive and scalable means to measure flow statistics; however,

Tatsuya Mori; Masato Uchida; Ryoichi Kawahara; Jianping Pan; Shigeki Goto

2004-01-01

448

Identifying important characteristics of municipal carbon footprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local climate action has been identified as a vital contributor to global mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper focuses on the GHG emissions resulting from the provision of local public services, illustrated through the Carbon Footprint (CF) indicator. The CF of all 429 Norwegian municipalities is calculated and compared to variables of interest. Results show that the CF

Hogne N. Larsen; Edgar G. Hertwich

2010-01-01

449

Identifying Sexual Harassment: A Classroom Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…

Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer

2002-01-01

450

Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

2002-01-01

451

Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2009-01-01

452

Identifying Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to assist in identifying patients at risk with protein-calorie malnutrition and in corrrecting this nutritional deficiency. Representative topics are nutrients; protein, mineral, and vitamin sources, functions, and deficiency symptoms; malnutrition; nutritional deficiency…

Walker, Susan S.; Barker, Ellen M.

453

Activity: Identifying a solid using density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Effective measurement techniques include the concept of measurement uncertainty. Students may make erroneous conclusions analyzing data using measurements that do not include the uncertainty of the measurement. In this lab, students determine a density range for a metal and identify the material based on this range.

Greg Schmidt, Henry S.

454

Identifying Low-Performance Public Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues involved in the identification of schools with the lowest student performance and uses test data for New York City elementary schools to demonstrate the extent to which choices about how to aggregate individual test results can affect the identification of low-performing schools. Introduces fuzzy logic as a tool for identifying

Ammar, Salwa; Bifulco, Robert; Duncombe, William; Wright, Ronald

2000-01-01

455

Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number…

Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

2009-01-01

456

Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

457

Identifying Careless Responses in Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been suggested for identifying careless respondents via indices computed from the data, yet almost no prior

Adam W. Meade; S. Bartholomew Craig

2012-01-01

458

Inverted File Compression through Document Identifier Reassignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of inverted files in information retrieval systems and proposes a document identifier reassignment method to reduce the average gap values in an inverted file. Highlights include the d-gap technique; document similarity; heuristic algorithms; file compression; and performance evaluation from a simulation environment. (LRW)|

Shieh, Wann-Yun; Chen, Tien-Fu; Shann, Jean Jyh-Jiun; Chung, Chung-Ping

2003-01-01

459

Identifying Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to assist in identifying patients at risk with protein-calorie malnutrition and in corrrecting this nutritional deficiency. Representative topics are nutrients; protein, mineral, and vitamin sources, functions, and deficiency symptoms; malnutrition; nutritional deficiency…

Walker, Susan S.; Barker, Ellen M.

460

National Board Certification Identifies Strong Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced certification through the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is an effective way to identify highly skilled teachers, according to a congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. Students taught by NBPTS-certified teachers make greater gains on achievement tests than students taught by…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

2009-01-01

461

Identifying Causal Relationships in Clinical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of causal variables is a central component in the design of many treatment programs. This article reviews the underlying principles and methods of identifying important causal variables for clients in pretreatment psychological assessment. The article defines causal and functional relationships, and reviews methods of deriving causal inferences about clients' behavior problems. These include rational derivation, causally focused self-report

Stephen N. Haynes; E. Huland Spain; Jill Oliveira

1993-01-01

462

Identifying comparative sentences in text documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the problem of identifying comparative sentences in text documents. The problem is related to but quite different from sentiment\\/opinion sentence identification or classification. Sentiment classification studies the problem of classifying a document or a sentence based on the subjective opinion of the author. An important application area of sentiment\\/opinion identification is business intelligence as a product manufacturer

Nitin Jindal; Bing Liu

2006-01-01

463

Using social media to identify events  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to automatically detect and identify events from social media sharing web sites. Our approach is based on the observation that many photos and videos are taken and shared when events occur. We select 9 venues across the globe that demonstrate a significant activity according to the EventMedia dataset and we thoroughly evaluate our approach against an

Xueliang Liu; Raphaël Troncy; Benoit Huet

2011-01-01

464

Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (n = 1007), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents (n = 1127) with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

Louw, Julia; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness

2012-01-01

465

Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of its efficacy.  

PubMed

Since conventional hormone replacement therapy has fallen out of favour, alternatives are being sought by many women. These therapies include herbal preparations such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). The purpose of this update of a previous systematic review is to evaluate the clinical evidence for or against the efficacy of black cohosh in alleviating menopausal symptoms. Five computerized databases (Medline, Embase, Amed, Phytobase and Cochrane Library) were searched to identify all clinical data that provided evidence on the efficacy of C. racemosa. Bibliographies of the articles thus located were scanned for further relevant publications. Only double blind, randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the evaluation of efficacy. No language restrictions were imposed. Trials were excluded if they did not focus on menopausal problems, they included women suffering medically induced menopause, they did not use black cohosh monopreparations, or they did not use placebo or a standard drug treatment for the control group. Six studies with a total of 1112 peri- and post-menopausal women met our inclusion criteria. The evidence from these RCTs does not consistently demonstrate an effect of black cohosh on menopausal symptoms; a beneficial effect of black cohosh on peri-menopausal women cannot be excluded. The efficacy of black cohosh as a treatment for menopausal symptoms is uncertain and further rigorous trials seem warranted. PMID:18585461

Borrelli, Francesca; Ernst, Edzard

2008-06-08

466

Psychometric characteristics of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory in South Africa.  

PubMed

The psychometric properties of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory are reported, based on responses of 200 (88 men and 112 women) elementary science teachers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Previous factor analytic studies of this inventory have identified a two-factor solution but this has not been investigated in a South African context. The reliability estimated as internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) was .87. Principal components analysis with varimax rotation indicated a two-factor solution accounting for 38.1% of variance, with Cronbach alphas of .92 and .73 for the Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Belief subscale (Factor 1) and the Science Teaching Outcome Expectancy subscale (Factor 2), respectively. Principal components analysis of the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Inventory yielded two conceptually meaningful components, similar to those reported in literature. Although one item did not meet the conditions for acceptance, this inventory may be useful in understanding science teachers' efficacy beliefs in South Africa. These particular findings are preliminary but hopeful. Studies using confirmatory analysis to address the cross-national invariance of this inventory are needed. PMID:12674300

Mji, Andile; Kiviet, Agnes M

2003-02-01

467

Automated igneous rock identifiers for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key task for human or robotic explorers on the surface of Mars is choosing which particular rock or mineral samples should be selected for more intensive study. The usual challenges of such a task are compounded by the lack of sensory input available to a suited astronaut or the limited downlink bandwidth available to a rover. Additional challenges facing a human mission include limited surface time and the similarities in appearance of important minerals (e.g. carbonates, silicates, salts). Yet the choice of which sample to collect is critical. To address this challenge we are developing science analysis algorithms to interface with a Geologist's Field Assistant (GFA) device that will allow robotic or human remote explorers to better sense and explore their surroundings during limited surface excursions [1]. We aim for our algorithms to interpret spectral and imaging data obtained by various sensors. Our algorithms, for example, will identify key minerals, rocks, and sediments from mid-IR, Raman, and visible/near-IR spectra as well as from high-resolution and microscopic images to help interpret data and to provide high-level advice to the remote explorer. A top-level system will consider multiple inputs from raw sensor data output by imagers and spectrometers (visible/near-IR, mid-IR, and Raman) as well as human opinion to identify rock and mineral samples. Our prototype image analysis system identifies some igneous rocks from texture and color information. Spectral analysis algorithms have also been developed that successfully identify quartz, silica polymorphs, calcite, pyroxene, and jarosite from both visible/near-IR and mid-IR spectra. We have also developed spectral recognizers that identify high-iron pyroxenes and iron-bearing minerals using visible/near-IR spectra only. We are building a combined image and spectral database of rocks and minerals with which to continue development of our algorithms. Future plans include developing algorithms to identify key igneous, sedimentary, and some metamorphic rocks. In a preliminary test, our texture and color analysis algorithms were able to correctly distinguish 9 out of 10 granite samples from diorites and 5 out of 6 diorite samples from granite samples. Our texture algorithm was able to correctly identify plutonic rocks 88% of the time and volcanic rocks 91% of the time.

Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Gazis, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Alena, R.; Hart, S. D.; Horton, A.

2003-04-01

468

Data Identifiers and Citations Enable Reproducible Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern science often involves data processing with tremendous volumes of data. Keeping track of that data has been a growing challenge for data center. Researchers who access and use that data don't always reference and cite their data sources adequately for consumers of their research to follow their methodology or reproduce their analyses or experiments. Recent research has led to recommendations for good identifiers and citations that can help address this problem. This paper will describe some of the best practices in data identifiers, reference and citation. Using a simplified example scenario based on a long term remote sensing satellite mission, it will explore issues in identifying dynamic data sets and the importance of good data citations for reproducibility. It will describe the difference between granule and collection level identifiers, using UUIDs and DOIs to illustrate some recommendations for developing identifiers and assigning them during data processing. As data processors create data products, the provenance of the input products and precise steps that led to their creation are recorded and published for users of the data to see. As researchers access the data from an archive, they can use the provenance to help understand the genesis of the data, which could have effects on their usage of the data. By citing the data on publishing their research, others can retrieve the precise data used in their research and reproduce the analyses and experiments to confirm the results. Describing the experiment to a sufficient extent to reproduce the research enforces a formal approach that lends credibility to the results, and ultimately, to the policies of decision makers depending on that research.

Tilmes, C.

2011-12-01

469

An integrated in vitro and in vivo high throughput screen identifies treatment leads for ependymoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Using a mouse model of ependymoma—a chemoresistant brain tumor—we combined multi-cell high-throughput screening (HTS), kinome-wide binding assays, and in vivo efficacy studies, to identify potential treatments with predicted toxicity against neural stem cells (NSC). We identified kinases within the insulin signaling pathway and centrosome cycle as regulators of ependymoma cell proliferation, and their corresponding inhibitors as potential therapies. FDA approved drugs not currently used to treat ependymoma were also identified that posses selective toxicity against ependymoma cells relative to normal NSCs both in vitro and in vivo e.g., 5-fluoruracil. Our comprehensive approach advances understanding of the biology and treatment of ependymoma including the discovery of several treatment leads for immediate clinical translation.

Atkinson, Jennifer M.; Shelat, Anang A.; Carcaboso, Angel Montero; Kranenburg, Tanya A.; Arnold, Alexander; Boulos, Nidal; Wright, Karen; Johnson, Robert A.; Poppleton, Helen; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Feau, Clementine; Phoenix, Timothy; Gibson, Paul; Zhu, Liqin; Tong, Yiai; Eden, Chris; Ellison, David W.; Priebe, Waldemar; Koul, Dimpy; Yung, W. K. Alfred; Gajjar, Amar; Stewart, Clinton F.; Guy, R. Kip; Gilbertson, Richard J.

2011-01-01

470

Research and Teaching: Engaging Students - An Examination of the Effects of Teaching Strategies on Self-Efficacy and Course Climate in a Nonmajors Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the success of self-efficacy theory for predicting student success in scientific study, and the demonstrated effect that teaching approaches have on student self-efficacy in majors courses, the purpose of this study is to ask if similar relationships between pedagogy and self-efficacy exist in introductory science courses for non-physical science majors. In particular, this study proposes to identify which, if any, teaching approaches affect student self-efficacy in physics, and to identify the sources of efficacy through which those pedagogies have their effect. An additional goal of the study is to probe the relationship among teaching approaches, course climate, and student confidence. A three-part student survey instrument was developed to gather information about the course, physics self-efficacy, and demographics. Demographic information included math background, ACT score, GPA, race/ethnicity, age, sex, and major. Question and answer, collaborative learning, conceptual problems, electronic applications, and inquiry labs were found to make significant, unique contributions to self-efficacy and/or classroom climate.

Fencl, Heidi S.; Scheel, Karen R.

2012-01-20

471

Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science) was undertaken (6/1/11). The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II) to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Further research is needed to establish the evidence for other treatment modalities and treatment for tinea pedis for people with diabetes. Future efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of treatment intervention.

2011-01-01

472

EFFICACY OF MEDITATION IN GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER  

PubMed Central

A study was conducted to compare the efficacy of meditation with that of imipramine and chlordiazepoxide in the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder. At the end of five weeks, meditation was found to be as effective as pharmacotherapy in controlling symptoms of anxiety. It was superior in altering trait anxiety (TMAS Scores). Meditation is an easy to learn and cost effective therapy. It has a distinct edge over pharmacotherapy in that it is does not have the associated problems of habit formation,-withdrawal effects, overdosage or other undesirable effects.

Vahia, Vihang N.; Shetty, Harish K.; Motiwala, Shakera; Thakkar, Gira; Fernandes, Lizabeth; Sharma, Jagdish Chandra

1993-01-01

473

Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.  

PubMed Central

The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products.

Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

1980-01-01

474

Efficacy of tailored-print interventions to promote physical activity: a systematic review of randomised trials  

PubMed Central

Objective Computer-tailored physical activity interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Recent reviews have comprehensively synthesised published research on computer-tailored interventions delivered via interactive technology (e.g. web-based programs) but there is a paucity of synthesis for interventions delivered via traditional print-based media in the physical activity domain (i.e. tailored-print interventions). The current study provides a systematic review of the tailored-print literature, to identify key factors relating to efficacy in tailored-print physical activity interventions. Method Computer-tailored print intervention studies published up until May 2010 were identified through a search of three databases: Medline, CINAHL, and Psycinfo; and by searching reference lists of relevant publications, hand searching journals and by reviewing publications lists of 11 key authors who have published in this field. Results The search identified 12 interventions with evaluations reported in 26 publications. Seven out of the 12 identified studies reported positive intervention effects on physical activity behaviour, ranging from one month to 24 months post-baseline and 3 months to 18 months post-intervention. The majority of studies reporting positive intervention effects were theory-based interventions with multiple intervention contacts. Conclusion There is preliminary evidence that tailored-print interventions are a promising approach to promoting physical activity in adult populations. Future research is needed to further identify key factors relating to efficacy and to determine if this approach is cost-effective and sustainable in the long-term.

2011-01-01

475

[Exploring the life events self-efficacy of schizophrenic outpatients].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the life events self-efficacy of schizophrenic outpatients and the relationships between personal demographic data, psychotic symptoms, stressful life events and self-efficacy. 135 outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia were assessed with personal demographic data, a psychotic symptoms scale, a stressful life events scale and a self-efficacy scale. We found a standardized score for life events self-efficacy of 69.41; the lowest score was for social skills self-efficacy. Patients who believed in religion showed higher life events self-efficacy. Life events self-efficacy was inversely related to stress of life events and to psychotic symptoms. The predictors of self-efficacy were negative symptoms, stress of life events, positive symptoms, and religion, which together accounted for 45.7% of variance. Among these predictors, negative symptoms were the strongest predictors, and accounted for 35.4% of variance. Based on these findings, we suggest that nursing personnel should utilize the concept of self-efficacy in caring for schizophrenic patients and develop more effective therapy designed to promote life events self-efficacy. PMID:15045892

Yu, Ching-Yun; Chung, Hsin-Hsin

2004-02-01

476

Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Internet Self-Efficacy in Web-based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study of junior high school students in Seoul, Korea that examined the effects of student motivation on performance in Web-based instruction. Tested the applicability of the self-efficacy theory in Web-based contexts through motivational surveys, path analyses, written tests, and search tests. Internet self-efficacy scale and sample…

Joo, Young-Ju; Bong, Mimi; Choi, Ha-Jeen

2000-01-01

477

Identifying sex and age of akiapolaau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for identifying the sex and age of the Akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), an endangered honeycreeper found only on the island of Hawaii, were developed by examination and measurement of 73 museum specimens and 24 live birds captured in mist nests. Akiapolaau probably undergo a single annual molt, with most birds molting between February and July. The mottled juvenal plumage is replaced by a first basic plumage characterized by yellowish-gray or yellowish-green underparts and often by retained wingbars. Male Akiapolaau may not attain adult plumage until their third molt. In adult females, only the throat and upper breast become yellow, whereas in adult males the superciliaries, cheeks, and entire underparts are yellow. Adult males have greater exposed culmen, gonys, wing chord, tail, and tarsus lengths than do females. Akiapolaau in first prebasic molt or older can be identified as to sex by culmen length, that of males being >23.4 mm.

Pratt, T.K.; Fancy, S.G.; Harada, C.K.; Lindsey, G.D.; Jacobi, J.D.

1994-01-01

478

Using filtering effects to identify objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reflecting signals off of targets is a method widely used to locate objects, but the reflected signal also contains information that can be used to identify the object. In radar or sonar, the signal amplitudes used are small enough that only linear effects are present, so we can consider the effect of the target on the signal as a linear filter. Using the known effects of linear filters on chaotic signals, we can create a reference that allows us to match a particular target to a particular reflected signal. Furthermore, if some parts of this ``filter'' vary only slowly as the aspect angle of the object changes, we can produce a reference that averages out the parts that are highly angle dependent so that one reference can be used to identify the target over a range of angles.

Carroll, T. L.; Rachford, Frederic J.

2012-06-01

479

Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.  

PubMed

When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969

Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

480

Ion Technique for Identifying Gamma Detector Candidates  

SciTech Connect

Recent demands for radiation detector materials with better energy resolution at room temperature have prompted research efforts on both accelerated material discovery and efficient analysis techniques. Ions can easily deposit their energy in thin films or small crystals and the radiation response can be used to identify material properties relevant to detector performance. In an effort to identify gamma detector candidates using small crystals or film samples, an ion technique is developed to measure relative light yield and energy resolution of candidate materials and to evaluate radiation detection performance. Employing a unique time-of-flight (TOF) telescope, light yield and energy resolution resulting from ion excitation are investigated over a continuous energy region. The efficiency of this ion technique is demonstrated using both organic (plastic scintillator) and inorganic (CaF2:Eu, YAP:Ce, CsI:Tl and BGO) scintillators.

Zhang, Yanwen; Xiang, Xia; Rausch, Julie L.; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Weber, William J.

2009-06-15

481

Identifying and intervening in relational aggression.  

PubMed

Chronic victimization by bullies has been associated with academic failure in adolescence, as well as adjustment difficulties, depression, and suicidal ideation. Relational aggression is a form of bullying that is a problem for adolescent girls. It often takes the form of damaging peer relationships and includes verbal assaults such as teasing or name calling, as well as psychological attacks such as gossip, social exclusion, and strategic friendship manipulations. A girl's ability to identify these indirect attacks may be imperative for her to enact an effective defense. Because many students do not recognize relational aggression as a form of bullying, their experiences often go unreported to parents or teachers. School nurses may be the front line of defense. With this in mind, school nurses must be informed about bullying behaviors, equipped to identify these behaviors, and prepared to intervene with victims as well as perpetrators of bullying. PMID:15283614

Raskauskas, Juliana; Stoltz, Ann D

2004-08-01

482

Pediatric nutrition assessment: identifying children at risk.  

PubMed

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials. Level 2 involves individualized nutrition assessment and intervention for problems such as anemia, chronic constipation, low- or high-calorie diets, feeding problems, and growth monitoring. Level 3 nutrition services are for children with identified disabilities such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and metabolic disorders that require specific complex nutrition interventions. The five major components of assessment of nutritional status in children are: anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, dietary, and feeding skill development. PMID:9336567

Baer, M T; Harris, A B

1997-10-01

483

Identifying Interesting Networks of Criminal Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Electronic Records Management Systems (RMS) make it possible for investigators to quickly query large volumes of Law\\u000a Enforcement (LE) data, much more can be done to effectively use police records to support investigational processes. Detectives\\u000a frequently identify interesting networks of association and draw them up in link charts to help generate leads, focus investigations,\\u000a and facilitate communication. A variety

Byron Marshall

2008-01-01

484

Identified particles in quark and gluon jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of about 1.4 million hadronic Z decays, selected among the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1994, was used to measure for the first time the momentum spectra of K+, K0, p, ? and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. As observed