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1

Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718. PMID:24350656

2013-01-01

2

The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal.  

PubMed

Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as "migration load." The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

2013-11-01

3

Identifying Efficacious Treatment Components of Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents: A Preliminary Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents (PCT-A) is a developmentally sensitive and efficacious treatment for adolescents with panic disorder. The present study is a preliminary examination of the relative efficacy of individual treatment components in PCT-A in a sample of treatment completers; the study identified when rapid improvements in panic…

Micco, Jamie A.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2007-01-01

4

P4-401: Identifying cognitive enhancement in man: Identifying efficacy in the dementias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limitations of the ADAS-cog as a tool to assess the efficacy of drugs to tr eat Alzheimer's disease are becoming widely recognized. One major deficiency is that it does not assess attention, and this limitation is even more serious in other dementias where deficits to attention are recognized as primary diagnostic symptoms, e.g. Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's

Keith Wesnes; Steve Satek; James M. Ferguson; Patrick Turk; Brian Saxby

2008-01-01

5

Does Art Therapy Work? Identifying the Active Ingredients of Art Therapy Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy research is beginning to identify more precisely the active ingredients that produce change in treatment and to test commonly held assumptions about efficacy. This editorial discusses the progression from clinical observation to single-case research and randomized controlled trials in building an evidence-based model of art therapy.

Lynn Kapitan

2012-01-01

6

Learning to identify CNS drug action and efficacy using multistudy fMRI data.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effects of centrally acting pharmaceuticals can manifest gradually and unreliably in patients, making the drug discovery process slow and expensive. Biological markers providing early evidence for clinical efficacy could help prioritize development of the more promising drug candidates. A potential source of such markers is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive imaging technique that can complement molecular imaging. fMRI has been used to characterize how drugs cause changes in brain activity. However, variation in study protocols and analysis techniques has made it difficult to identify consistent associations between subtle modulations of brain activity and clinical efficacy. We present and validate a general protocol for functional imaging-based assessment of drug activity in the central nervous system. The protocol uses machine learning methods and data from multiple published studies to identify reliable associations between drug-related activity modulations and drug efficacy, which can then be used to assess new data. A proof-of-concept version of this approach was developed and is shown here for analgesics (pain medication), and validated with eight separate studies of analgesic compounds. Our results show that the systematic integration of multistudy data permits the generalized inferences required for drug discovery. Multistudy integrative strategies of this type could help optimize the drug discovery and validation pipeline. PMID:25673761

Duff, Eugene P; Vennart, William; Wise, Richard G; Howard, Matthew A; Harris, Richard E; Lee, Michael; Wartolowska, Karolina; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Wilson, Frederick J; Whitlock, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Woolrich, Mark W; Smith, Stephen M

2015-02-11

7

Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this study and were invited to complete two instruments, physics learning profile and physics learning self-efficacy (PLSE). The main results indicated that, first, the two instruments developed in this study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Second, three fundamental physics learning profiles, the reproductive, transitional, and constructive profiles, were characterized based on the cluster analysis. It is also evident that the three learning profiles demonstrated different levels of self-efficacy for the five PLSE dimensions. The students with a reproductive profile tended to possess the lowest PLSE across the five dimensions. The students with a transitional profile may possess higher confidence in higher-order cognitive skills and laboratory activities than those with a reproductive profile. However, only those with a constructive profile, highlighting a comprehensive understanding of physics knowledge/concepts as well as de-emphasizing physics learning as preparing for tests and calculating and practising tutorial problems, possessed stronger PLSE in applying what they learned to real-world contexts as well as in scientifically communicating with others.

Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2014-09-01

8

Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early symptoms of relapse and obtain treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder (manic›depressive psychosis) to identify early symptoms of relapse and seek prompt treatment from health services. Design Single blind randomised controlled trial with matching on four baseline variables using a minimisation algorithm. Setting Mental health services in four NHS trusts (one teaching, three non›teaching). Subjects 69 patients with bipolar disorder

Alison Perry; Nicholas Tarrier; Richard Morriss; Eilis McCarthy; Kate Limb

9

University Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Identifying Suicidal Warning Signs and Helping Suicidal Friends Find Campus Intervention Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 18 to 24 years of age and the second leading cause of death on college campuses. A sample of students (N = 1,019) from three midwestern universities were surveyed regarding their perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicide warning signs and campus suicide intervention resources.…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Strader, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

10

Differentiated expression of microRNAs may regulate genotype-dependent traits in cotton.  

PubMed

miRNA is an exogenous non-coding RNA with 21-24nt in length, which plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes. In plants, miRNAs regulate organ development, phase change, signal transduction and response to different biotic and abiotic stresses at the post-transcriptional levels. Although there are many studies on plant miRNAs, no studies have been focused on the genotype dependence. Genotype-dependent traits may be controlled by the differential expression of certain miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression profile patterns of 11 selected miRNAs in 5 different organs in 5 different cotton cultivars and their implication on plant development. Our results demonstrate that miRNAs have different expression patterns in different plant organs in different genotypes, which implicate their different traits, including early flowering. miR172 is a miRNA controlling floral development and phase change; our results show that miR172 has a higher expression level in the flower bud than in any other organ, our results also show that Baimian cultivars have a higher expression of miR172 than TM-1. This suggests that Baimian cultivars have an earlier transition from vegetable growth to reproductive growth, which is confirmed by our development data on floral branch development. Our result also shows that several miRNAs, including miR159 and miR162, were highly expressed in Baimian cultivars. The results obtained in this study would provide new insight for improving cotton using miRNA-based biotechnology. PMID:24971502

Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Ma, Jun; He, Qiuling; Zhang, Baohong

2014-09-01

11

Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

12

The Efficacy of Wire and Glue Hair Snares in Identifying Mesocarnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Track plates and cameras are proven methods for detecting and identifying fishers (Martes pennanti) and other mesocarnivores. But these methods are inadequate to achieve demographic and population-monitoring objectives that require identifying sex and individuals. Although noninvasive collection of biological material for genetic analysis (i.e., hair-snaring methods) may help achieve these objectives, they have yet to be evaluated. We incorporated wire-

WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; FREDRICK V. SCHLEXER; KRISTINE L. PILGRIM; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

13

THE EFFICACY OF THREE OBJECTIVE SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFYING BEEF CUTS THAT CAN BE GUARANTEED TENDER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the accuracies of three objective systems (BeefCam, Colorimeter, and Slice Shear Force) for identifying guaranteed tender beef. Three hundred eight carcasses (105 Top Choice, 101 Low Choice, and 102 Select from two commercial plants were tested. The thr...

14

Identifying the relationship between feedback provided in computer-assisted instructional modules, science self-efficacy, and academic achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback has been identified as a key variable in developing academic self-efficacy. The types of feedback can vary from a traditional, objectivist approach that focuses on minimizing learner errors to a more constructivist approach, focusing on facilitating understanding. The influx of computer-based courses, whether online or through a series of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) modules require that the current research of effective feedback techniques in the classroom be extended to computer environments in order to impact their instructional design. In this study, exposure to different types of feedback during a chemistry CAI module was studied in relation to science self-efficacy (SSE) and performance on an objective-driven assessment (ODA) of the chemistry concepts covered in the unit. The quantitative analysis consisted of two separate ANCOVAs on the dependent variables, using pretest as the covariate and group as the fixed factor. No significant differences were found for either variable between the three groups on adjusted posttest means for the ODA and SSE measures (.95F(2, 106) = 1.311, p = 0.274 and .95F(2, 106) = 1.080, p = 0.344, respectively). However, a mixed methods approach yielded valuable qualitative insights into why only one overall quantitative effect was observed. These findings are discussed in relation to the need to further refine the instruments and methods used in order to more fully explore the possibility that type of feedback might play a role in developing SSE, and consequently, improve academic performance in science. Future research building on this study may reveal significance that could impact instructional design practices for developing online and computer-based instruction.

Mazingo, Diann Etsuko

15

Genotype-dependent whole plant regeneration from protoplasts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts are useful for subcellular studies, in vitro selection, somatic hybridization and transformation. Whole plant regeneration from protoplasts is a prerequisite to producing altered crop plants using these methods. Whole plant regeneration was achieved from leaf- and suspension culture-derived protoplasts of T. pratense. Regeneration was most dependent upon identifying genotypes with genetic capacity to regenerate. Additional factors that were used

J. R. Myers; J. W. Grosser; N. L. Taylor; G. B. Collins

1989-01-01

16

Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt. PMID:19732460

Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

2009-01-01

17

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

2011-11-21

18

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals  

PubMed Central

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume’s 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

2011-01-01

19

Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

2014-01-01

20

Neural Correlates of Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease Identified by Performance–Correlation Analysis  

PubMed Central

LSVT® LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) is efficacious in the treatment of speech disorders in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), particularly hypophonia. Functional imaging in patients with IPD has shown abnormalities in several speech regions and changes in these areas immediately following treatment. This study serves to extend the analysis by correlating changes of regional neural activity with the main behavioral change following treatment, namely, increased vocal intensity. Ten IPD participants with hypophonia were studied before and after LSVT LOUD. Cerebral blood flow during rest and reading conditions were measured by H215O-positron emission tomography. Z-score images were generated by contrasting reading with rest conditions for pre- and post-LSVT LOUD sessions. Neuronal activity during reading in the pre- versus post-LSVT LOUD contrast was correlated with corresponding change in vocal intensity to generate correlation images. Behaviorally, vocal intensity for speech tasks increased significantly after LSVT LOUD. The contrast and correlation analyses indicate a treatment-dependent shift to the right hemisphere with modification in the speech motor regions as well as in prefrontal and temporal areas. We interpret the modification of activity in these regions to be a top–down effect of LSVT LOUD. The absence of an effect of LSVT LOUD on the basal ganglion supports this argument. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of LSVT LOUD in IPD hypophonia results from a shift in cortical activity to the right hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the short-term changes in the speech motor and multimodal integration areas can occur in a top–down manner. PMID:19639554

Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Robin, Donald A.; Vogel, Deanie; Ramig, Lorraine O.

2009-01-01

21

Host genotype dependency and growth enhancing ability of VA-mycorrhizal fungi for Eleusine coracana (finger millet).  

PubMed

Inoculation of finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) plants with one of six different vesicular, arbuscular, mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi increased plant biomass, height, leaf area and absolute growth rate; however, effectiveness of the various VAM fungi varied significantly. Maximum root colonization and mycorrhizal efficacy was observed with plants inoculated with Glomus caledonicum. Among five host genotypes tested for mycorrhizal dependency against G. caledonicum, genotype HR-374 gave the highest plant biomass, mycorrhizal efficacy and root colonization, the inoculation resulting in increased mineral (phosphate, nitrogen, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+)) content and uptake in shoots. PMID:24419945

Tewari, L; Johri, B N; Tandon, S M

1993-03-01

22

Potential Immunogenic Polypeptides of Burkholderia pseudomallei Identified by Shotgun Expression Library and Evaluation of Their Efficacy for Serodiagnosis of Melioidosis  

PubMed Central

The search for novel immunogenic polypeptides to improve the accuracy and reliability of serologic diagnostic methods for Burkholderia pseudomallei infection is ongoing. We employed a rapid and efficient approach to identify such polypeptides with sera from melioidosis patients using a small insert genomic expression library created from clinically confirmed local virulent isolates of B. pseudomallei. After 2 rounds of immunoscreening, 6 sero-positive clones expressing immunogenic peptides were sequenced and their identities were: benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit, a putative 200 kDa antigen p200, phosphotransferase enzyme family protein, short chain dehydrogenase and 2 hypothetical proteins. These immunogens were then transferred to an ELISA platform for further large scale screening. By combining shotgun expression library and ELISA assays, we identified 2 polypeptides BPSS1904 (benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase beta subunit) and BPSL3130 (hypothetical protein), which had sensitivities of 78.9% and 79.4% and specificities of 88.1% and 94.8%, respectively in ELISA test, thus suggesting that both are potential candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of infections caused by B. pseudomallei. PMID:23532805

Puah, Suat Moi; Puthucheary, SD; Chua, Kek Heng

2013-01-01

23

Evaluation of the protective efficacy of four novel identified membrane associated proteins of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.  

PubMed

Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can also cause epidemics of life-threatening infections in humans. Surface proteins of pathogens play a critical role in the interaction with host system or environment, as they take part in processes like virulence, cytotoxicity, adhesion, signaling or transport, etc. Thus, surface proteins identified by the screening of immunoproteomic techniques are promising vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers. In this study, four membrane associated proteins (MAP) identified by immunoproteomic method were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins with his-tag. Screening for vaccine candidates were firstly performed by protection assay in vivo and immunization with Sbp markedly protected mice against systemic S. suis 2 infection. The immune responses and protective of Sbp were further evaluated. The results showed that Sbp could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect mice from lethal challenge with S. suis 2. The antiserum against Sbp could efficiently impede survival of bacterial in whole blood killing assay and conferred significant protection against S. suis 2 infection in passive immunization assays. The findings indicate that Sbp may serve as an important factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2 and would be a promising subunit vaccine candidate. PMID:25820064

Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yan; Deng, Limei; Zheng, Chengkun; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng; Li, Jinquan

2015-05-01

24

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

25

Identifiers Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

26

Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

2013-01-01

27

Virus-Like Particle Secretion and Genotype-Dependent Immunogenicity of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 DNA Vaccine  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. We also found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. IMPORTANCE Five genotype-specific dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine candidates were evaluated for their immunogenicity, homologous and heterologous neutralizing (Nt) antibody titers, and cross-genotype protection in a murine model. The immunity elicited by our prototype vaccine candidate (Asian 1 genotype strain 16681) in mice was protective against viruses of other genotypes but not against virus of the Sylvatic genotype, whose emergence and potential risk after introduction into the human population have previously been demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of a lack of protection elicited by the prototype vaccine may at least be contributed by the absence of a flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive, highly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1B7-5-like epitope in DENV-2 of the Sylvatic genotype. The DENV DNA vaccine directs the synthesis and assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) and induces immune responses similar to those elicited by live-attenuated vaccines, and its flexibility permits the fast deployment of vaccine to combat emerging viruses, such as Sylvatic genotype viruses. The enhanced VLP secretion obtained by replacement of ectodomain I-II (EDI-II) of the Cosmopolitan genotype vaccine construct (VD2-Cosmopolitan) with the Asian 1 EDI-II elicited significantly higher total IgG and Nt antibody titers and suggests a novel approach to enhance the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. A DENV vaccine capable of eliciting protective immunity against viruses of existing and emerging genotypes should be the focus of future DENV vaccine development. PMID:25008922

Galula, Jedhan U.; Shen, Wen-Fan; Chuang, Shih-Te

2014-01-01

28

Metastatic bone tumors: Analysis of factors affecting prognosis and efficacy of CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT in identifying primary lesions  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the prognostic factors in patients with metastatic bone tumors and evaluated the efficacy of different modalities in identifying the primary lesions. A total of 145 patients with bone metastases who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic were included in this study. The most frequent site of bone metastases was the spine. The primary tumor type was differently distributed between patients with a known primary tumor at the first visit and those with an unknown primary lesion. The number of breast cancer cases was statistically significantly lower in the primary-unknown group. However, the number of myeloma cases was significantly higher in the primary-unknown group. Survival was significantly lower in the skeletal-related events (SREs) compared to that in the non-SREs group. Furthermore, survival was significantly worse in patients with a performance status (PS) of ?2 compared to those with a PS of ?1 and neurological complications occurred statistically more often in the group with worse PS (?2). Survival rates were significantly lower in the non-spinal compared to those in the spinal metastatic group. Since the majority of breast cancer patients presented with metastasis in the spine, a breast cancer origin was a positive prognostic factor in patients with spinal metastases. Although there were no significant differences between computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting primary lesions, CT may be the first choice due to its feasibility. In conclusion, lung cancer, SREs and worse PS were adverse prognostic factors for patients with bone metastasis. In addition, CT scans may be more useful for determining the primary lesion of a bone metastasis compared to 18F-FDG PET-CT in a timelier manner. PMID:25054061

SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; SASAKI, HIROMI; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; ABEMATSU, MASAHIKO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

2014-01-01

29

Metastatic bone tumors: Analysis of factors affecting prognosis and efficacy of CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT in identifying primary lesions.  

PubMed

We analyzed the prognostic factors in patients with metastatic bone tumors and evaluated the efficacy of different modalities in identifying the primary lesions. A total of 145 patients with bone metastases who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic were included in this study. The most frequent site of bone metastases was the spine. The primary tumor type was differently distributed between patients with a known primary tumor at the first visit and those with an unknown primary lesion. The number of breast cancer cases was statistically significantly lower in the primary-unknown group. However, the number of myeloma cases was significantly higher in the primary-unknown group. Survival was significantly lower in the skeletal-related events (SREs) compared to that in the non-SREs group. Furthermore, survival was significantly worse in patients with a performance status (PS) of ?2 compared to those with a PS of ?1 and neurological complications occurred statistically more often in the group with worse PS (?2). Survival rates were significantly lower in the non-spinal compared to those in the spinal metastatic group. Since the majority of breast cancer patients presented with metastasis in the spine, a breast cancer origin was a positive prognostic factor in patients with spinal metastases. Although there were no significant differences between computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting primary lesions, CT may be the first choice due to its feasibility. In conclusion, lung cancer, SREs and worse PS were adverse prognostic factors for patients with bone metastasis. In addition, CT scans may be more useful for determining the primary lesion of a bone metastasis compared to (18)F-FDG PET-CT in a timelier manner. PMID:25054061

Shimada, Hirofumi; Setoguchi, Takao; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Hiromi; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Ichiro; Abematsu, Masahiko; Nagano, Satoshi; Komiya, Setsuro

2014-09-01

30

Fungi in Thailand: A Case Study of the Efficacy of an ITS Barcode for Automatically Identifying Species within the Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon Genera  

PubMed Central

Thailand, a part of the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot, has many endemic animals and plants. Some of its fungal species are difficult to recognize and separate, complicating assessments of biodiversity. We assessed species diversity within the fungal genera Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, which produce biologically active and potentially therapeutic compounds, by applying classical taxonomic methods to 552 teleomorphs collected from across Thailand. Using probability of correct identification (PCI), we also assessed the efficacy of automated species identification with a fungal barcode marker, ITS, in the model system of Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon. The 552 teleomorphs yielded 137 ITS sequences; in addition, we examined 128 GenBank ITS sequences, to assess biases in evaluating a DNA barcode with GenBank data. The use of multiple sequence alignment in a barcode database like BOLD raises some concerns about non-protein barcode markers like ITS, so we also compared species identification using different alignment methods. Our results suggest the following. (1) Multiple sequence alignment of ITS sequences is competitive with pairwise alignment when identifying species, so BOLD should be able to preserve its present bioinformatics workflow for species identification for ITS, and possibly therefore with at least some other non-protein barcode markers. (2) Automated species identification is insensitive to a specific choice of evolutionary distance, contributing to resolution of a current debate in DNA barcoding. (3) Statistical methods are available to address, at least partially, the possibility of expert misidentification of species. Phylogenetic trees discovered a cryptic species and strongly supported monophyletic clades for many Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon species, suggesting that ITS can contribute usefully to a barcode for these fungi. The PCIs here, derived solely from ITS, suggest that a fungal barcode will require secondary markers in Annulohypoxylon and Hypoxylon, however. The URL http://tinyurl.com/spouge-barcode contains computer programs and other supplementary material relevant to this article. PMID:23390499

Suwannasai, Nuttika; Martín, María P.; Phosri, Cherdchai; Sihanonth, Prakitsin; Whalley, Anthony J. S.; Spouge, John L.

2013-01-01

31

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and

Michael Patterson; Allison Poussard; Katherine Taylor; Alexey Seregin; Jeanon Smith; Bi-Hung Peng; Aida Walker; Jenna Linde; Jennifer Smith; Milagros Salazar; Slobodan Paessler

2011-01-01

32

Efficacy of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase, identified as a potent Th1 stimulatory protein, for its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were characterized through immunoproteomic approach which led to the identification of trypanothione reductase (TPR) (a cytosolic enzyme explored as a drug target), as one of the potent Th1 stimulatory protein. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Leishmania donovani TPR (rLdTPR) was assessed in PBMCs of cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and further evaluated its prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani challenges in hamsters. Substantial proliferative responses to rLdTPR, as compared to soluble L. donovani antigen, were observed in Leishmania-infected cured patients as well as in hamsters. Moreover, rLdTPR reasonably stimulated PBMCs of cured Leishmania patients to produce IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? but not IL-4 or IL-10. On the other hand, the protein downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani antigen-induced IL-4 production in PBMCs of Leishmania patients. In case of cured hamsters, rLdTPR generates mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccination with rLdTPR along with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was able to provide considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~60%) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-?. Since rLdTPR protein is an important target, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up to optimize its prophylactic efficacy. PMID:24370734

Khare, Prashant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

2014-03-01

33

Isoniazid mediates the CYP2B6*6 genotype-dependent interaction between efavirenz and antituberculosis drug therapy through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6.  

PubMed

Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 ?M) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 ?M) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 ?M; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min(-1)) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 ?M; kinact = 0.024 min(-1)) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6. PMID:24820076

Court, Michael H; Almutairi, Fawziah E; Greenblatt, David J; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Sheng, Hongyan; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M; Bourgea, Joanne; Patten, Christopher J; Kwara, Awewura

2014-07-01

34

Isoniazid Mediates the CYP2B6*6 Genotype-Dependent Interaction between Efavirenz and Antituberculosis Drug Therapy through Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2A6  

PubMed Central

Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 ?M) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 ?M) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 ?M; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min?1) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 ?M; kinact = 0.024 min?1) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6. PMID:24820076

Almutairi, Fawziah E.; Greenblatt, David J.; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Sheng, Hongyan; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Bourgea, Joanne; Patten, Christopher J.; Kwara, Awewura

2014-01-01

35

Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites  

PubMed Central

Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

2004-01-01

36

KAG-308, a newly-identified EP4-selective agonist shows efficacy for treating ulcerative colitis and can bring about lower risk of colorectal carcinogenesis by oral administration.  

PubMed

Agonists for EP4 receptor, a prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype, appear to be a promising therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC) due to their anti-inflammatory and epithelial regeneration activities. However, the clinical development of orally-available EP4 agonists for mild to moderate UC has not yet been reported. Furthermore, the possibility of an increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) through direct proliferative effects on epithelial cells via EP4 signaling has not been ruled out. Recently, we identified KAG-308 as an orally-available EP4-selective agonist. Here, we investigated the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of KAG-308. Then, we compared KAG-308 and sulfasalazine (SASP) for their abilities to prevent colitis and promote mucosal healing in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Finally, the effect of KAG-308 treatment on CAC was evaluated in an azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced CAC mouse model. KAG-308 selectively activated EP4 and potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-? production in peripheral whole blood and T cells. Oral administration of KAG-308, which showed relatively high bioavailability, suppressed the onset of DSS-induced colitis and promoted histological mucosal healing, while SASP did not. KAG-308 also prevented colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting colitis development and consequently decreasing mortality in a CAC model, whereas SASP had marginal effects. In contrast, MF-482, an EP4 antagonist, increased mortality. These results indicated that orally-administered KAG-308 suppressed colitis development and promoted mucosal healing. Moreover, it exhibited preventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis, and thus may be a new therapeutic strategy for the management of UC that confers a reduced risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:25704618

Watanabe, Yusuke; Murata, Takahiko; Amakawa, Masahiro; Miyake, Yoshihide; Handa, Tango; Konishi, Katsuhiko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Tanaka, Takuji; Takeuchi, Koji

2015-05-01

37

An assessment of the efficacy of searching in biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE in identifying studies for a systematic review on ward closures as an infection control intervention to control outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews. Methods We analyzed the results from a systematic review conducted by the authors and others on ward closure as an infection control practice. Ovid MEDLINE including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, and IndMED were systematically searched for articles of any study type discussing ward closure, as were bibliographies of selected articles and recent infection control conference abstracts. Search results were tracked, recorded, and analyzed using a relative recall method. The sensitivity of searching in each database was calculated. Results Two thousand ninety-five unique citations were identified and screened for inclusion in the systematic review: 2,060 from database searching and 35 from hand searching and other sources. Ninety-seven citations were included in the final review. MEDLINE and Embase searches each retrieved 80 of the 97 articles included, only 4 articles from each database were unique. The CINAHL search retrieved 35 included articles, and 4 were unique. The IndMED and LILACS searches did not retrieve any included articles, although 75 of the included articles were indexed in LILACS. The true value of using regional databases, particularly LILACS, may lie with the ability to search in the language spoken in the region. Eight articles were found only through hand searching. Conclusions Identifying studies for a systematic review where the research is observational is complex. The value each individual study contributes to the review cannot be accurately measured. Consequently, we could not determine the value of results found from searching beyond MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL with accuracy. However, hand searching for serendipitous retrieval remains an important aspect due to indexing and keyword challenges inherent in this literature. PMID:25387523

2014-01-01

38

Genome-wide transcription profiles reveal genotype-dependent responses of biological pathways and gene-families in Daphnia exposed to single and mixed stressors.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

De Coninck, Dieter I M; Asselman, Jana; Glaholt, Stephen; Janssen, Colin R; Colbourne, John K; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

2014-03-18

39

Genome-Wide Transcription Profiles Reveal Genotype-Dependent Responses of Biological Pathways and Gene-Families in Daphnia Exposed to Single and Mixed Stressors  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

2015-01-01

40

MUD and Self Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

Lee, Kwan Min

2000-01-01

41

ASSESSMENT: Coaching Efficacy As Indicators Of Coach Education Program Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to identify the level of coaching efficacy among a group of high school coaches so as to gain an insight for planning future coach preparation programs. In this study, the Coaching Efficacy Scale was used to assess the efficacy of high school coaches in four dimensions: Motivating Athletes, Strategy Use, Coaching Techniques, and Character

Lena Fung

2003-01-01

42

Characterization of glycolytic enzymes--rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, identified as Th1 stimulatory proteins, for their immunogenicity and immunoprophylactic efficacies against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani--Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters' along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ? 90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (? 65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

43

Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes - rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, Identified as Th1 Stimulatory Proteins, for Their Immunogenicity and Immunoprophylactic Efficacies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani - Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters’ along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ?90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (?65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

44

Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…

Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

2012-01-01

45

Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article self-efficacy research is reviewed in domains relevant to education. Research addressing cognitive skills, social skills, motor skills, and career choices has shown that self-efficacy is an important construct that helps to explain students' learning and performance of achievement-related behaviors. Research also has identified variables that are associated with educational contexts and that signal to students how well

Dale H. Schunk

1989-01-01

46

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

COSI

2009-01-01

47

Negotiator confidence: The impact of self-efficacy on tactics and outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of four studies, we examined whether and how negotiators’ task-related self-efficacy affects their performance. In the first two studies, we identified two theoretically meaningful self-efficacy constructs—distributive self-efficacy (DSE) and integrative self-efficacy (ISE)—and provided evidence of construct validity. In the third study, task-congruent self-efficacy was positively associated with negotiators’ self-reports of tactical decision-making. In the fourth study, we

Brandon A. Sullivan; Kathleen M. O’Connor; Ethan R. Burris

2006-01-01

48

Efficacy of fractal analysis in identifying glaucomatous damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a novel fractal-based technique to analyze pseudo 2D representation of 1D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement data vector set for early detection of glaucoma. In our proposed technique, we first convert the 1D RNFL data vector sets into pseudo 2D images and then exploit 2D fractal analysis (FA) technique to obtain the representative features. These 2D fractal-based features are further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the final classification between normal and glaucomatous eyes is obtained using Fischer's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An independent dataset is used for training and testing the classifier. The technique is used on randomly selected GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) eye data from 227 study participants (116 patients with glaucoma and 111 patients with healthy eyes). We compute sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) for statistical performance comparison with other known techniques. Our classification performance shows that fractal-based technique is superior to the standard machine classifier Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI).

Kim, P. Y.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Gunvant, P.; Tóth, M.; Holló, G.; Essock, E. A.

2010-02-01

49

The Role of the Elementary Teacher in Fostering Civic Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a three-year multimethod study of civic engagement within "Dewey Elementary," this article identifies the contextual supports of civic efficacy. In particular, it works to map the role of the teacher in supporting the civic action and efficacy of six fifth-grade girls who requested changes to the school's existing lunch…

Serriere, Stephanie C.

2014-01-01

50

Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

Moore-Hayes, Coleen

2011-01-01

51

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

52

The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

1988-01-01

53

Measuring Teaching Assistants' Efficacy using the Rasch Model.  

PubMed

Teaching assistants (TAs) play an influential role in primary and secondary schools. But there is an absence in literature about the TA's efficacy, and to date no instrument is available for measuring TA's efficacy. The present study aims to develop and validate a scale (Teaching Assistant Efficacy Scale, TAES) for measuring TA's efficacy on identified capabilities. A total of 531 teaching assistants from Hong Kong schools participated in the survey. The multidimensional Rasch model was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that a 5-dimension structure of TA's efficacy was supported. The final 30-item version of TAES assesses TA's efficacy on learning support, teaching support, behaviour management, cooperation, and administrative support. The Rasch reliabilities for all five dimensions were around 0.90. The 6-category response structure worked well for the scale. Further research was recommended to validate and test the robustness of the TAES both in Hong Kong and elsewhere. PMID:25562336

Yan, Zi; Lum, Chun Wai; Lui, Rick Tze Leung; Chu, Steven Sing Wa; Lui, Ming

2015-01-01

54

Attack efficacy in volleyball: elite male teams.  

PubMed

The goal was to identify performance indicators predicting attack efficacy in volleyball's game phase denominated Complex II, i.e., the counter-attack. 28 games from the 2007 Men's World Cup were analyzed. Attack efficacy was predicted by three primary variables: Attack tempo, Attack type, and Number of blockers. Power attack and Attack tempo 1 increased the probability of an Attack point. The supremacy of Attack tempo 3 and the high frequency of Two blockers and Three blockers reflected the difficulty of efficient attack during Complex II. Despite unfavourable conditions, attackers managed to execute Power attacks in the majority of the situations, and score a high frequency of Attack points. PMID:22185054

Castro, José; Souza, Adriano; Mesquita, Isabel

2011-10-01

55

Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…

Bhatia, Punum

2012-01-01

56

A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that creating a model to impact the retention rates of women in physics should include attending to self-efficacy and designing activities in the classroom that create self-efficacy opportunities.

Sawtelle, Vashti

57

Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

2013-01-01

58

Efficacy of OTC analgesics.  

PubMed

For many 'over-the-counter' (OTC) analgesics, there is little information available about their relative efficacy. We have examined information available in a series of Cochrane reviews of single doses of analgesic drugs in acute pain and migraine for its relevance for analgesic products commonly available without prescription, at doses generally equivalent to two tablets. Pain following third molar extraction was used as a homogeneous acute pain model; with the outcome of at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 h. For many OTC drugs, there was no information available. For some OTC drugs, there was at least some information available either for the marketed product itself, or from studies that used the same doses of drug or drugs. For acute pain, data from third molar extraction studies showed that several OTC products were highly efficacious, principally non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) and combination products based on ibuprofen; aspirin and paracetamol-based products were less efficacious. Fixed-dose combinations, especially those with ibuprofen, provided high levels of analgesia. For migraine headache, the outcome used was pain initially moderate or severe becoming no worse than mild pain (no pain, mild pain) at 2 h. Single-dose ibuprofen 400 mg was better than aspirin and paracetamol. PMID:23163544

Moore, R A; Derry, C

2013-01-01

59

Efficacy of iodine urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid burdens  

SciTech Connect

Urinalysis is one of the monitoring techniques recommended for identifying potential thyroid uptake by most of the organizations involved with radiation protection. However, little exists in the literature outlining the methodology to be used or the efficacy of this monitoring technique. The research upon which this dissertation was based was designed to assess the efficacy of urinalysis. A review of the applicable kinetic models was done to determine their appropriateness. Computer modeling and graphics were used to assess the variances between the two most appropriate models. A study was done using normal subjects to acquire data to be used to evaluate the overall efficacy of iodine urinalysis. The results of the study indicate that an integral sampling technique is the most accurate for back-calculating thyroid activities. A new set of parameters called adjusted man are proposed. The study concludes that iodine urinalysis can be efficaciously used to identify thyroid uptakes.

Broga, D.W.

1983-01-01

60

The confounded self-efficacy construct: conceptual analysis and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper, we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires - i.e., ratings of whether participants 'can do' the target behaviour - reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a 'can do' operationalisation) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that - consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument - controlling for motivation by adding the phrase 'if you wanted to' to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692

Williams, David M; Rhodes, Ryan E

2014-08-12

61

Efficacy of radioiodine urinalysis  

SciTech Connect

Little exists in the literature to support the efficacy of urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid uptake of radioiodine. A review was made of a variety of kinetic models. Computer analysis and graphics were used to assess the variables in the two models chosen for this study. The applicability of each model was tested by using data obtained from a group of euthyroid subjects. The results indicate that using an integral urine-sampling method and a three-component model yields minimum detectable thyroid uptakes which fall well below required reporting limits. Furthermore, the results show that integral urine samples obtained in the first few hours post exposure may be used to predict major thyroid uptakes in time for effective thyroid blocking.

Broga, D.W.; Berk, H.W.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.

1986-05-01

62

Hypnotic efficacy of temazepam  

PubMed Central

1 Temazepam was evaluated in a strictly defined insomniac patient population under sleep laboratory conditions. Two protocols were used: a short-term (26-night) and a long-term (54-night) protocol evaluated the efficacy of the drug administered at night at 15 mg (short-term study) and 30 mg (long-term study), respectively. 2 Temazepam seemed to be both safe and effective at doses of 15 and 30 mg with up to 5 weeks of ingestion. 3 Suppression of slow wave sleep was observed at the high dose, but no suppression of REM sleep, found in studies with other benzodiazepines, was noted. 4 No evidence was found for development of tolerance or rebound effects. PMID:41543

Mitler, M. M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Phillips, R. L.; Sterling, W. R.; Zarcone, V. P.; Spiegel, R.; Guilleminault, C.; Dement, W. C.

1979-01-01

63

Terrorism and Hazardous Material Trucking: Promoting Perceived Collective Efficacy for Terrorism Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism

Keith James

2008-01-01

64

Behavior Problems of Children With Autism, Parental Self-Efficacy, and Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy has been identified in the general parenting literature as an important variable affecting parent outcomes. In the present study, 26 mothers and 20 fathers of children with autism reported on their self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression. Teachers rated the behavior problems of the children. Regression analyses showed that self-efficacy mediated the effect of child behavior problems on mothers' anxiety and

Richard P. Hastings; Tony Brown

2002-01-01

65

Infliximab: efficacy in psoriasis.  

PubMed

Moderate to severe psoriasis often needs to be addressed with standard disease modifying therapies such as methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin or ultraviolet radiation, which have their potential benefits and limitations. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is elevated in psoriatic plaques compared to non lesional skin as well as in the plasma of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Infliximab, a TNF-? blocker, has been recommended for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults who have failed to respond to these therapies or who cannot tolerate them. Its specific action on the bound and membrane forms of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? has made it the molecule of choice for obtaining quicker and longer remission in recalcitrant cases. However, the widespread use of infliximab in the Indian subcontinent is limited by its cost. This article reviews the international guidelines for use of infliximab, its dosage patterns, and efficacy in chronic plaque psoriasis, nail psoriasis, erythrodermic psoriasis, and pustular psoriasis as well as Indian experience. PMID:23974692

Arsiwala, Shehnaz

2013-07-01

66

Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

2011-01-01

67

The relationship between efficacy and methodology in studies investigating EMDR treatment of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controlled treatment outcome studies that examined the efficacy of EMDR in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder have yielded a range of results, with the efficacy of EMDR varying across studies. The current study sought to determine if differences in outcome were related to methodological differences. The research was reviewed to identify meth- odological strengths, weaknesses, and empirical findings.

Louise Maxfield; Lee Hyer

2002-01-01

68

Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: Efficacy and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy NA, Nicole Irwin MC, Hoff C. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: efficacy and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1721-5. Objectives: To describe the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in the management of spasticity in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify risk factors for complications. Design: Consecutive case series of 25 implanted ITB

Nancy A. Murphy; Melanie C. Nicole Irwin; Charles Hoff

2002-01-01

69

Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

2009-01-01

70

School Nurses' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy in Providing Diabetes Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure school nurses' perceived self-efficacy in providing diabetes care and education to children and to identify factors that correlate with higher self-efficacy levels in the performance of these tasks. The results of this study revealed that the surveyed school nurses perceived a moderate level of…

Fisher, Kelly L.

2006-01-01

71

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

72

An Examination of Co-Teaching: Perspectives and Efficacy Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-teaching has been developed as an instructional approach to support students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' and students' perspectives of co-teaching and the efficacy of this teaching approach. Forty-five co-teachers and 58 students with disabilities (N = 103), all of whom…

Hang, Qi; Rabren, Karen

2009-01-01

73

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

74

Terrorism and hazardous material trucking: promoting perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention.  

PubMed

Hazardous-material trucking has recently been identified as an area of high potential risk for terrorism. Some recent theory and case study papers have argued for the importance of collective efficacy to disaster-response, terrorism prevention, and other rare-but-risky events. Therefore, a study based on the collective efficacy literature was done to test an intervention for increasing perceived collective efficacy for terrorism prevention among Canadian hazardous-material truck drivers. Results supported the impact of the intervention in increasing perceived efficacy for terrorism prevention. Implications for theory, research, and application are discussed. PMID:18211166

James, Keith

2008-01-01

75

Genetic interactions affecting human gene expression identified by variance association mapping  

PubMed Central

Non-additive interaction between genetic variants, or epistasis, is a possible explanation for the gap between heritability of complex traits and the variation explained by identified genetic loci. Interactions give rise to genotype dependent variance, and therefore the identification of variance quantitative trait loci can be an intermediate step to discover both epistasis and gene by environment effects (GxE). Using RNA-sequence data from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the TwinsUK cohort, we identify a candidate set of 508 variance associated SNPs. Exploiting the twin design we show that GxE plays a role in ?70% of these associations. Further investigation of these loci reveals 57 epistatic interactions that replicated in a smaller dataset, explaining on average 4.3% of phenotypic variance. In 24 cases, more variance is explained by the interaction than their additive contributions. Using molecular phenotypes in this way may provide a route to uncovering genetic interactions underlying more complex traits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01381.001 PMID:24771767

Brown, Andrew Anand; Buil, Alfonso; Viñuela, Ana; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Richards, J Brent; Small, Kerrin S; Spector, Timothy D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Durbin, Richard

2014-01-01

76

The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

2011-01-01

77

Gang Identifiers and Terminology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

Cantrell, Mary Lynn

1992-01-01

78

List of HIPAA Identifiers  

Cancer.gov

List of HIPAA Identifiers ER-0001-F1 VER. 1.0.0 Effective Date: 9/14/2011 Page 1 of 1 The following is a list of the HIPAA Identifiers referenced in the federal regulations: Names; All geographical subdivisions smaller than a state, including

79

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Elisabeth Owen

2010-11-03

80

Transcultural self-efficacy perceptions of baccalaureate nursing students.  

PubMed

Addressing the health care needs of a 21st-century nation that is experiencing increased diversity and disparity will require new models of educating future providers. The cultural competence and confidence model was the guiding framework in a study evaluating the influence of cultural educational offerings on the transcultural self-efficacy (TSE) perceptions in baccalaureate nursing students. The Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool was used to measure perceived TSE in a pretest (N = 260), posttest (N = 236) study over an academic year. Significant changes were demonstrated in overall self-efficacy and on the cognitive, practical, and affective subscales. A classification and regression tree analysis identified social orientation as the demographic variable most predictive of the TSE level. This study supports previous research where positive changes were found in students' TSE based on the inclusion of cultural interventions in the nursing curriculum. PMID:24841469

Halter, Margaret; Grund, Faye; Fridline, Mark; See, Sharon; Young, Lisa; Reece, Carol

2015-05-01

81

Improved efficacy in onychomycosis therapy.  

PubMed

The success rate of onychomycosis treatment is limited by several factors, including the access of the therapeutic agent to the fungal mass, the presence of conidia, and the susceptibility of the different infectious agents to the antifungals. Different strategies used to improve efficacy of the currently available antifungal treatments, their rationale, and the published evidence of their beneficial effects are reviewed. An improved efficacy was demonstrated for some of these strategies, such as combined oral and topical antifungal therapies, whereas most of them lack clear and direct evidence of an increase in therapeutic success. PMID:24079584

Gupta, Aditya K; Paquet, Maryse

2013-01-01

82

On Identifying the Sound Sources in a Turbulent Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A space-time filtering approach is used to divide an unbounded turbulent flow into its radiating and non-radiating components. The result is then used to clarify a number of issues including the possibility of identifying the sources of the sound in such flows. It is also used to investigate the efficacy of some of the more recent computational approaches.

Goldstein, M. E.

2008-01-01

83

Repeated Transradial Catheterization: Feasibility, Efficacy, and Safety  

PubMed Central

Transradial access is an alternative to the transfemoral approach in coronary interventions. It results in less access-site bleeding, shorter hospital stays, lower costs, and less pain for the patient. However, some authors have suggested that the transradial approach might lead to radial artery occlusion, which precludes repeated same-artery catheterizations. Using data from our center, we evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of repeated transradial catheterization. We reviewed the 3,006 transradial catheterizations performed at our center from 2006 through 2009. Patients who had undergone at least one repeated transradial catheterization were identified, their cases monitored through 2012, and their baseline characteristics and other factors, including procedural sequelae, were analyzed. Seventy-nine patients underwent repeated right radial artery catheterizations, for a total of 92 repeated procedures. Repeated access to the right radial artery was not achieved in 4 attempts (failure rate, 4.3%), because of poor pulses or the operator's inability to advance the wire. No major sequelae were noted. The average times between the 1st to 2nd, 2nd to 3rd, and 3rd to 4th catheterizations were 406, 595, and 401 days, respectively. Our procedural success rate of 95.7% in performing repeated transradial catheterizations with no major sequelae provides support for the efficacy and safety of such procedures. PMID:25593518

Constantinides, Savvas S.; Talias, Michael A.; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S.; Christou, Christos P.

2014-01-01

84

A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

85

Identifying Savings Opportunities  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING SAVINGS OPPORTUNITIES Sri Chari, Project Manager, Energy Audit and Analysis, Synergic Resources Corporation, Brookfield, WI ABSTRACT In this paper, guidelines for identifying energy savings opportunities in industrial plants... was converted into electric induction from gas showed a net productivity increase of20%. CONCLUSION In summary, many opportunIties exist for increased efficiency, reduced consumption, and improved productivity from process analysis methods. In order...

Chari, S.

86

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

87

Evaluating treatment efficacy by triangulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project 'Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows' was evaluated by triangulating results collected from different points of view. These included changes after one year in (1) measurement scores of standardized instruments, (2) assessment of adjustment to role of widow by the outsider and (3) evaluation by the widow herself. When subjects were categorized by their assignment to

Margarita Kay; Jill Guernsey de Zapien; Carmen Altamirano Wilson; Marianne Yoder

1993-01-01

88

Efficacy Beliefs of Special Educators: The Relationships among Collective Efficacy, Teacher Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the relationship between reported levels of teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and job satisfaction in special educators, teachers in one school district completed three surveys measuring these constructs. The results indicated that teacher self-efficacy had a direct effect on job satisfaction. It was further found…

Viel-Ruma, Kim; Houchins, David; Jolivette, Kristine; Benson, Gwen

2010-01-01

89

Confirmatory Analysis of Computer Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extended previous exploratory work on computer self-efficacy and tested a four-factor self-efficacy model. Results for 414 college students demonstrate support for the hypothesized model. Survey questions appeared relevant in most situations. (SLD)

Torkzadeh, Gholamreza; Koufteros, Xenophon; Pflughoeft, Kurt

2003-01-01

90

Metal alloy identifier  

DOEpatents

To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

1987-01-01

91

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

92

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

93

Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

2007-01-01

94

Personal Teaching Efficacy: Developmental Relationships in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Personal Teaching Efficacy Scale (Ashton, Olejnik, Crocker, & McAuliffe, 1982), the authors explored the comparative efficacy of six groups of educators with various levels of teaching experience. The efficacy scores were higher for more experienced educators in some instances, whereas in other simulated classroom situations, the preservice students scored higher. We discuss the meanings of the different patterns.

Carolyn R. Benz; Larry Bradley; M. Kay Alderman; Mary Ann Flowers

1992-01-01

95

Identifying Market Segments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A systematic exploratory technique used primarily in the commercial sector to successfully identify market segments can be applied by an educational institution to a group of inquirers to learn more about its image and distinguish between distinct market subgroups that merit differentiated communication and program development strategies. (MSE)

Wakstein, Julie

1987-01-01

96

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

Mrs. West

2013-03-07

97

Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three instruments were completed by 345 undergraduates: Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES), Self-Esteem Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale. The construct validity of the KTSES was supported, and some relationship was found between career task self-efficacy and self-esteem/career decision-making self-efficacy. (SK)

Lucas, Jennifer L.; And Others

1997-01-01

98

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

99

Gender-Differences in Self-Efficacy ICT Related to Various ICT-User Profiles in Finland and Norway. How Do Self-Efficacy, Gender and ICT-User Profiles Relate to Findings from PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to…

Tomte, Cathrine; Hatlevik, Ove E.

2011-01-01

100

Evaluation of Hypertension as a Marker of Bevacizumab Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Predictive factors for efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor pathway-targeted therapies have not been identified\\u000a or confirmed. Hypertension has been observed as a side effect to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. The goal\\u000a of our study was to retrospectively assess if hypertension induced during treatment with bevacizumab was associated with clinical\\u000a outcome in metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab.

Rebekah Ryanne Wu; Peter A. Lindenberg; Rebecca Slack; Anne-Michelle Noone; John L. Marshall; Aiwu R. He

2009-01-01

101

Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE. PMID:23330857

Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

2014-01-01

102

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

2002-03-01

103

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

104

Perceived Risk and Self-Efficacy as Motivators: Understanding Individuals' Long-Term Use of Health Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers to what extent perceived risk and self-efficacy interact with each other to determine individuals' motivation to seek health information. Identifies 4 groups of individuals according to their perceived risk and self-efficacy; responsive, proactive, avoidance, and indifference. Attempts to resolve some of the outstanding issues with…

Rimal, Rajiv N.

2001-01-01

105

Development and Validation of In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Context of Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery.…

Shaukat, Sadia

2011-01-01

106

Mental efficacy, social support resources and aging well of veteran athletes and older adults in Greece: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors have been identified as important contributors to aging well. However, few studies examined how mental efficacy and social support contribute to aging well of veteran athletes versus older adults. This study examined the impact of mental efficacy and social support on aging well of Greek veteran track and field athletes versus non-athletes. Older adults (N=259) and veteran athletes

Yvonne Harahousou; Odysseus Trikkos; Nickos Kabitsis

2012-01-01

107

Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

2014-01-01

108

Automatic material identifier  

SciTech Connect

Radiation survey instruments could be used to verify the presence of radioactive material inside a container, but identification of the material would not be possible. One could imagine a very complex detector-analyzer system to analyze the radiation being emitted from a container, but it would be very large and difficult to use. At Los Alamos, a portable instrument with some limitations has been developed to identify plutonium and uranium inside a container. The instrument consists of a thin NaI crystal and an electronics package which is based on a microcomputer. The instrument uses the energy spectrum of the emitted radiation to identify the nuclear material present. The function of this instrument is to provide the user a tool for qualitative verification of nuclear materials in a container. The instrument can distinguish plutonium-239 and uranium-235 from other radioactive materials. A count rate indicator provides some measure of the quantity of material. 1 reference, 2 figures.

Erkkila, B.H.

1984-01-01

109

Hunting Icebergs: Identifying Icebergs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial guides learners through the decision-making process in locating data that will enable the identification of tabular icebergs, including: selecting the appropriate satellite orbit, and identifying the optimal solar and infrared wavelength values to discriminate between water and ice in remotely-sensed images. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

2012-08-03

110

Teenage goals and self-efficacy beliefs as precursors of adult career and family outcomes.  

PubMed

The present study identified and examined patterns of goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs in mid- and late adolescence as predictors of work and family outcomes in adulthood. A pattern approach was applied to appropriately identify relationships among work- and family-related goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs. Using a sample of 995 individuals, five distinct patterns of work-family goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs emerged. Individuals who assigned comparable importance to work and family goals and expressed corresponding self-efficacy beliefs in adolescence were more likely to achieve career and family outcomes in adulthood than individuals who expressed a strong preference for one domain over the other. The results supported the idea that work and family can be coordinated for mutual benefit. Furthermore, findings from the pattern approach provided an integrative view of work-family motivation and goal achievement complementing findings from traditional methods such as regression analysis. PMID:25242815

Lee, Bora; Vondracek, Fred W

2014-10-01

111

Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

2013-01-01

112

The impact of baseline faecal egg counts on the efficacy of single-dose albendazole against Trichuris trichiura.  

PubMed

There is considerable variation in the efficacy of single-dose albendazole (400mg) against Trichuris trichiura across human trials. Factors contributing to this variation have not yet been identified. We assessed the impact of mean baseline faecal egg counts (FEC) on the efficacy of single-dose albendazole against T. trichiura in five previously conducted trials. Our results suggest that efficacy measured by reduction in mean FECs decreased significantly (p<0.0001) when mean baseline FECs increased, highlighting that this parameter should be considered as an important confounding factor for drug efficacy. PMID:22189084

Levecke, B; Mekonnen, Z; Albonico, M; Vercruysse, J

2012-02-01

113

Efficacy of Methotrexate in Ulcerative Colitis: Failure or Promise  

PubMed Central

Background Low-dose methotrexate is a widely used and efficacious therapy in chronic inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Prospective randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of parenteral methotrexate in Crohn’s disease (CD). We performed a systematic review of the efficacy of methotrexate in ulcerative colitis (UC) and discuss the results in the context of the known pharmacokinetics and adverse events of methotrexate therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. All publications describing patients with UC treated with methotrexate were included. Results We identified 12 studies or retrospective case series and 5 meeting abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial using methotrexate at a dose of 12.5 mg orally with no significant clinical benefit. However, the majority of uncontrolled retrospective analyses suggest a clinical response to methotrexate therapy in a range of 30%–80% when the drug is applied by parenteral route in doses between 20–25 mg. Conclusions The only randomized controlled trial of methotrexate in UC employed oral dosing and doses lower than those shown to be effective in CD and did not demonstrate efficacy, whereas uncontrolled, retrospective studies using doses and routes of administration similar to those employed in CD suggest benefit. Well-designed, prospective, placebo-controlled trials of methotrexate in UC are needed. PMID:20186931

Herfarth, Hans H.; Osterman, Mark T.; Isaacs, Kim L.; Lewis, James D.; Sands, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

114

Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: Efficacy, Safety, Adherence and Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a globally increasing health problem affecting the quality of life. Specific immunotherapy is an available causal treatment changing the basic allergic mechanisms of the disease. Over one hundred years, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) was developed and proved its efficacy but many adverse effects were recorded including anaphylaxis. In 1986, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced as an alternative solution to solve this problem. Our study aims to discuss SLIT from the points of efficacy, safety, adherence and guidelines developed. A literature search was conducted in Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane Library in January 2013 using the keywords "allergic rhinitis, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, safety, compliance, adherence, guidelines." All types of publications were included. We augmented our study by searching the reference lists of identified reviews. SLIT has been established in many guidelines as an evidence-based effective treatment in AR with safer profile than SCIT. The meta-analyses confirmed its efficacy and showed a significant reduction in both symptoms and medication scores. The most common recorded adverse effects were minor local effects in the mouth, gastrointestinal reactions with few cases of anaphylaxis and no fatality. Adherence is more favorable for SLIT mainly because it is safe, noninvasive and easily taken at home. We support the call to conduct large multi-centric studies to gain more statistical power and overcome the problem of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analyses. PMID:25436040

Elghanam, Karim Mohamed

2014-01-01

115

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS. PMID:22955136

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

116

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

117

Identifying a Theft Suspect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity (MEA) challenges students to develop a model for predicting the characteristics of a person who has committed a crime. Students work with real data on shoe length, height, and gender to develop the model. Students write a report to the crime victim that identifies a suspect and justifies their decision. The activity sets the stage for students to learn about regression models, and reinforces their understanding of central tendency and variability. It is suggested that this activity be used prior to a formal introduction to linear relationships.

This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an activity developed by Roxy Peck at California Polytechnic State University that is based on an original idea by Tom Short, John Carroll University, and Iddo Gal, University of Haifa, Israel.

118

Identifying Equivalent Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site helps students understand how to identify equivalent fractions by explaining what equivalent fractions are and how to compare two fractions to see if they are equivalent. There is also a list of fractions equivalent to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 2/5 so students can begin to see the pattern that emerges. Finally, the site presents an interactive game in which students can practice by naming the equivalent fraction to a given fraction.

J.C. Banfill

2007-12-12

119

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian Institution website features the publication "Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates", a fully illustrated identification guide for harmful dinoflagellate taxa. The website reviews general information on dinoflagellate morphology and other criteria used in species identification. Each taxon is presented with a species overview, and a taxonomic description of cell and thecal plate morphology, reproduction, life cycle, ecology, toxicity, species comparison, habitat and locality, and etymology. This is supplemented with a number of high-resolution light and scanning electron photomicrographs and line drawings. Taxonomic treatment of harmful dinoflagellate taxa includes nomenclatural types, type locality, and common synonyms. An extensive glossary of terms and relevant literature citations are also provided.

Maria A. Faust

120

Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence: perceptions of district personnel of implementation and impact on collective teacher efficacy  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to identify those elements of the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence that central office leaders, principals, and teachers perceive as having an impact on collective teacher efficacy. The study...

LeRoy, Kathryn A.

2005-11-01

121

AIMing towards improved antitumor efficacy.  

PubMed

Using the structure-activity relationship emerging from previous Letter, and guided by pharmacokinetic properties, new AIMs have been prepared with both improved efficacy against human glioblastoma cells and cell permeability as determined by fluorescent confocal microscopy. We present our first unambiguous evidence for telomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide anisotropy by NMR resulting from direct interaction with AIMs, which is consistent with both our G4 melting studies by CD, and our working hypothesis. Finally, we show that AIMs induce apoptosis in SNB-19 cells. PMID:25782743

Weaver, Matthew J; Kearns, Alison K; Stump, Sascha; Li, Chun; Gajewski, Mariusz P; Rider, Kevin C; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip R; Beall, Howard D; Natale, Nicholas R

2015-04-15

122

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

123

Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.  

PubMed

The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

2008-04-01

124

Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

125

Self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in patients with heart failure: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Despite exercise is recommended as an adjunct to medication therapy in patients with heart failure (HF), non-adherence to exercise is a major problem. While improving self-efficacy is an effective way to increase physical activity, the evidence concerning the relationship between strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise among HF has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of interventions to change the self-efficacy on exercise in patients with HF. METHODS A systematic database search was conducted for articles reporting exercise self-efficacy interventions. Databases such as PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched with restrictions to the years 2000-June 2014. A search of relevant databases identified 10 studies. Published randomized controlled intervention studies focusing strategies to change self-ef?cacy to exercise adherence in HF were eligible for inclusion. In addition, studies that have applied self-efficacy-based interventions to improve exercise are discussed. RESULTS Limited published data exist evaluating the self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in HF. Dominant strategies to improve patients’ self-efficacy were performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal. CONCLUSION Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of an exercise intervention is beneficial. Moreover, exercise interventions aimed at integrating the four strategies of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate exercise and recover HF symptoms. Findings of this study suggest that a positive relationship exists between self-efficacy and initiating and maintaining exercise in HF, especially in the short-term period.

Rajati, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Feizi, Awat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasandokht, Tolu; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

2014-01-01

126

Identifying Young, Nearby Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

2001-01-01

127

Identifying spiders through DNA barcodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With almost 40 000 species, the spiders provide important model systems for studies of sociality, mating systems, and sexual dimorphism. However, work on this group is regularly constrained by difficulties in species identi- fication. DNA-based identification systems represent a promising approach to resolve this taxonomic impediment, but their efficacy has only been tested in a few groups. In this study,

Rowan D. H. Barrett; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

128

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

129

Efficacy of Postexposure Therapy against Glanders in Mice.  

PubMed

Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, is a CDC Tier 1 Select Agent for which there is no preventive vaccine and antibiotic therapy is difficult. In this study, we show that a combination of vaccination using killed cellular vaccine and therapy using moxifloxacin, azithromycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim can protect BALB/c mice from lethal infection even when given 5 days after infectious challenge. Vaccination only, or antibiotic therapy only, was not efficacious. Although antibiotics evaluated experimentally can protect when given before or 1 day after challenge, this time course is not realistic in the cases of natural infection or biological attack, when the patient seeks treatment after symptoms develop or after a biological attack has been confirmed and the agent has been identified. Antibiotics can be efficacious after a prolonged interval between exposure and treatment, but only if the animals were previously vaccinated. PMID:25645854

Waag, David M

2015-04-01

130

Parent caregiver self-efficacy and child reactions to pediatric cancer treatment procedures.  

PubMed

This study examined how parents' sense of self-efficacy specific to caregiving for their child during cancer treatment procedures affected children's distress and cooperation during procedures. Potential correlates of caregiver self-efficacy (ie, demographics, child clinical characteristics, parent dispositional attributes, and social support) were also examined. Participants were 119 children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and their parents. Parents' self-efficacy about 6 procedure-specific caregiver tasks was measured. Parents, children, nurses, and observers rated child distress and parents, nurses and observers rated child cooperation during procedures. Higher parent self-efficacy about keeping children calm during procedures predicted lower child distress and higher child cooperation during procedures. Parent dispositional attributes (eg, enduring positive mood, empathy) and social support predicted self-efficacy. Parent caregiver self-efficacy influences child distress and cooperation during procedures and is associated with certain parent attributes. Findings suggest the utility of identifying parents who would benefit from targeted interventions to increase self-efficacy about caregiving during treatment procedures. PMID:24378818

Peterson, Amy M; Harper, Felicity W K; Albrecht, Terrance L; Taub, Jeffrey W; Orom, Heather; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A

2014-01-01

131

Translating intentions into nutrition behaviors via planning requires self-efficacy: evidence from Thailand and Germany.  

PubMed

A first step towards the improvement of daily dietary behaviors is forming an intention to change one's nutrition. However, an intention by itself is not sufficient for successful action. Rather, to translate intentions into behavior, careful planning is recommended. Thus, planning constitutes a mediator between the intention and the behavior. However, if a person lacks self-efficacy, this mediation might fail. Previous research in Costa Rica and South Korea has identified perceived self-efficacy as a moderator of the intention-planning-behavior relationship. To examine further the moderator role of self-efficacy, two additional studies were designed in Thailand and Germany. Study 1 surveyed 1718 Thai university students in terms of a low-fat diet; Study 2 surveyed 1140 German internet users in terms of their fruit and vegetable consumption at two measurement points in time, 6 months apart. Intentions served as predictor, planning as mediator, self-efficacy as moderator, and behaviors as outcomes. First, intentions were translated into nutrition behaviors by planning. Second, self-efficacy moderated this mediation in both studies: The strength of the mediated effect increased along with levels of self-efficacy, even when accounting for baseline behaviors. For planning to mediate the intention-behavior relation, people must not harbor self-doubts. If they lack self-efficacy, intentions are not well translated into nutrition behavior through planning. PMID:22044011

Schwarzer, Ralf; Richert, Jana; Kreausukon, Pimchanok; Remme, Lena; Wiedemann, Amelie U; Reuter, Tabea

2010-08-01

132

Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

2014-01-01

133

Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies  

PubMed Central

Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

134

Examining the influence of other-efficacy and self-efficacy on personal performance.  

PubMed

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M(age) = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts. PMID:21808081

Dunlop, William L; Beatty, Daniel J; Beauchamp, Mark R

2011-08-01

135

Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

2011-01-01

136

Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

2009-01-01

137

Evaluating the efficacy of tryptophan fluorescence and absorbance as a selection tool for identifying protein crystals  

PubMed Central

The environment of individual tryptophans in known protein structures and the effectiveness of four commercial robotic UV microscopes to illuminate tryptophan-containing protein crystals by either tryptophan fluorescence (epi-illumination) or absorbance (transmission) are evaluated. In agreement with other studies, tryptophan residues are found on average to be largely buried in protein structures (with ?84% of their surface area buried) and to be surrounded by partially polar microenvironments (with ?43% of their surface area covered by polar residues), which suggests an inherent degree of fluorescence signal quenching. In bacterial genomes, up to one-third (?18.5% on average) of open reading frames are deficient in tryptophan. In the laboratory, because of the attenuation of UV light by the media commonly used in sitting-drop and hanging-drop crystallization trials, it was often necessary to simplify the light path by manually removing or inverting the supporting media. Prolonged exposure (minutes) to UV light precipitates some protein samples. The absorbance spectra of many commercially available media in crystallization trials are presented. The advantages of using tryptophan absorbance over fluorescence for characterizing crystals are discussed. PMID:20208182

Gill, Harindarpal S.

2010-01-01

138

Disinfection efficacy of organic chloramines.  

PubMed

The disinfection efficacies of model organic chloramines were investigated. Twenty amino acids and two nucleic acid bases were chlorinated separately with sodium hypochlorite at a Cl:N molar ratio of 0.4:1, and were then used to treat an E. coli suspension for 60 min. DPD/FAS titration was carried out to obtain the concentration of the chlorinated nitrogenous organic compounds as a function of time. In addition, membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) was used to quantify inorganic chloramines (mono-, di-, and trichloramine). The results of these experiments showed that the organic chloramines examined in this research had little or no effect on the viability of E. coli. MIMS analyses demonstrated that there was no quantifiable formation of inorganic chloramines when the organic nitrogen compounds were chlorinated. PMID:12600384

Donnermair, Martina M; Blatchley, Ernest R

2003-04-01

139

Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.  

PubMed

Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious. PMID:25000697

de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

2014-06-01

140

The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820

Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

2014-01-01

141

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Update on the soybean aphid efficacy program Erin Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand Department of Entomology #12;Soybean aphid efficacy · Soybean aphid efficacy evaluation · Where to get more info, handouts #12;Soybean aphid efficacy program

Jurenka, Russell A.

142

Variable Efficacy of Repeated Annual Influenza Vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the

Derek J. Smith; Stephanie Forrest; David H. Ackley; Alan S. Perelson

1999-01-01

143

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

144

Life satisfaction and self-efficacy in patients affected by a first stroke living in Kuwait: a two-phase study.  

PubMed

Life satisfaction and self-efficacy are important aspects of stroke rehabilitation. Previous research focuses on Western stroke survivors, neglecting the stroke experience in the Middle East. This research was conducted in Kuwait and entailed both quantitative and qualitative phases to obtain a more comprehensive, clinically relevant understanding of self-efficacy and life satisfaction during stroke rehabilitation in this culture. The aims were to: 1) investigate the relationships between self-efficacy and life satisfaction in female patients affected by stroke (Phase 1); and 2) explore health professionals' views regarding the importance of self-efficacy and possible strategies for enhancing self-efficacy during rehabilitation, through semi-structured interviews (Phase 2). Significant correlations were found between patients' general self-efficacy, and psychosocial adaptation self-efficacy following stroke. Self-efficacy (both general and psychosocial adaptation) showed significant correlations with life satisfaction post-stroke. Health professionals (more than half of whom were physiotherapists) recognised the importance of self-efficacy within stroke rehabilitation and identified five main ways to increase self-efficacy during stroke rehabilitation. These were to: 1) motivate and encourage patients; 2) provide more education about stroke and rehabilitation; 3) identify change; 4) offer a high-quality environment and therapy; and 5) set goals. In conclusion, psychosocial self-efficacy was identified as having a stronger relationship to life satisfaction compared with general self-efficacy within this sample of Kuwaiti female patients. Health professionals suggested various strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and thereby life satisfaction post-stroke during the rehabilitation process in Kuwait. Despite the collectivist culture of Kuwait, the findings indicate that the patient's own confidence and sense of responsibility for progress may be relevant to rehabilitation. PMID:23289959

Omu, Onutobor; Reynolds, Frances

2013-08-01

145

The efficacy of resilience training programs: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Resilience has been defined as the ability of individuals to manage and adapt to stress and life challenges. Training programs that develop and/or enhance resilience may have efficacy in improving health, well-being, and quality of life. Because patients with chronic conditions must reliably self-manage their health, strategies to bolster resilience in this population may be of particular value. The objectives of this systematic review are to synthesize the evidence of resilience training program efficacy in improving outcomes related to quality of life, self-efficacy and activation, and resilience and coping ability in: 1) diverse adult populations; and 2) patients with chronic conditions. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of any program designed to enhance resilience in adults that measure any outcome against any comparator. We will search multiple electronic databases, trial registries, bibliographies, and will contact authors and experts to identify studies. We will use systematic review software to independently and in duplicate screen reports and extract data. We will extract characteristics of the study populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and quality/risk of bias. Primary, patient reported outcomes will be categorized into domains of quality of life, self-efficacy, and resilience. Secondary outcomes will be considered based on findings of the review. We will attempt meta-analysis by pooling standardized mean differences and minimally important differences (MIDs), when possible. Planned trial subgroup analyses are: 1) studies of patients with chronic conditions; 2) studies with placebo controls; 3) studies with similar intervention characteristics; and 4) studies with common lengths of follow-up. Discussion This study is intended to accumulate the evidence for resilience training programs in improving quality of life, resilience, and self-efficacy for care management, particularly among adult patients with chronic conditions. Its findings will be valuable to policy-makers, funding agencies, clinicians, and patients seeking innovative and effective ways to achieve patient-centered care. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007185. PMID:24602236

2014-01-01

146

The efficacy of anthelmintics against Thysaniezia giardi in South Africa.  

PubMed

Two field cases of apparent inefficacy of albendazole against cestodes in lambs were investigated. In both farms Thysaniezia giardi was identified and 2 critical controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of 5 anthelmintics against T. giardi. Albendazole dosed at 3,8 mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg live mass, mebendazole at 15 mg/kg were totally ineffective against T. giardi. Treatment with resorantel at 65 mg/kg or niclosamide at 50 mg/kg however, caused expulsion of the strobilae within 16--24 hours after treatment and at autopsy, lambs were free of scoleces of T. giardi. PMID:7310792

Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Davies, P V; Récio, M

1981-09-01

147

Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

2013-06-01

148

Peering into the crystal ball: influenza pandemics and vaccine efficacy.  

PubMed

The looming threat of a new influenza virus pandemic has fueled ambitious efforts to devise more predictive parameters for assessing the risks associated with emergent virus strains. At the same time, a comprehensive understanding of critical factors that can accurately predict the outcome of vaccination is sorely needed in order to improve the effectiveness of influenza virus vaccines. Will new studies aimed at identifying adaptations required for virus transmissibility and systems-level analyses of influenza virus vaccine responses provide an improved framework for predictive models of viral adaptation and vaccine efficacy? PMID:24725400

Miller, Matthew S; Palese, Peter

2014-04-10

149

Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race  

PubMed Central

Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use. PMID:23730395

Moraska, Albert

2013-01-01

150

Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

Kerr, Patricia Reda

151

Identify fractions in multiple ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice identifying fractions 1. Compare fractions and find different fractions using the same denominators. 2. Identify fractions on a number line and see if you can do it. 3. Help find grampy and identify the fraction to find him. 4. Comparing fractions with pie charts ...

Mrs. Marsh

2006-10-27

152

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

Yilmaz, Idris

2013-01-01

153

A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

Skoretz, Yvonne M.

2011-01-01

154

"A Compliment Is All I Need"--Teachers Telling Principals How to Promote Their Staff's Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to compare the perceptions of teachers representing opposite ends of the self-efficacy spectrum regarding the effects of the principal's behavior on their professional self-efficacy. In the first quantitative stage, a statistical procedure was conducted to identify the two groups of teachers: a group of 16…

Kass, Efrat

2013-01-01

155

Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use: Little or No Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention (SBI), efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e., in people not seeking help for their drug use). Substantial evidence now suggests that efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity), concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g., from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin). Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of SBI that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use. PMID:25228887

Saitz, Richard

2014-01-01

156

Measuring university students' self-efficacy to use drinking self-control strategies.  

PubMed

Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high internal consistency reliabilities and moderate inter-item correlations. Testing the association of self-efficacy with drinking location, sex, and frequency of recent binge drinking, we found that respondents reported higher self-efficacy to use these strategies when drinking in their own dorm/apartment than when drinking in bars and at parties; women reported higher mean self-efficacy than men; and drinkers who engaged in 3-or-more binges in the previous 2 weeks reported lower self-efficacy than those who reported either 0 or 1-or-2 binges in the same time period. This questionnaire could be used to identify self-efficacy deficits among clients with drinking problems and as an outcome measure to assess the degree to which interventions influence reported confidence to use specific drinking-reduction strategies in high-risk drinking situations. PMID:21443310

Bonar, Erin E; Rosenberg, Harold; Hoffmann, Erica; Kraus, Shane W; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Pavlick, Michelle; Bannon, Erin E

2011-03-01

157

Affective Teaching for Data Driven Learning: How Can Strengths-Based Training Support Urban Teacher Efficacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine urban teachers' identified strengths in varied cognitive, affective, and psychological capacities, and their impact on self-efficacy and teacher practices. Clifton and Anderson in the Gallup Organization's Strengths Quest (2004) presented compelling evidence suggesting a mind-set of "what's right with me"…

Marcos, Teri

2008-01-01

158

Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

2011-01-01

159

Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

2008-01-01

160

Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

de Vries, Peter

2013-01-01

161

Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

2000-01-01

162

A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teaching Mathematics with Concrete Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics is often prescribed as an efficacious teaching strategy. To examine the empirical evidence regarding the use of manipulatives during mathematics instruction, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. This search identified 55 studies that compared instruction with manipulatives to a control…

Carbonneau, Kira J.; Marley, Scott C.; Selig, James P.

2013-01-01

163

Internal and External Dimensions of Computer Self-Efficacy: An Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have found computer self-efficacy (CSE) to be important to technology adoption. Past research has treated CSE as a unitary concept. This paper proposes that CSE has two dimensions-internal and external. The idea that CSE has internal and external dimensions is based on attribution theory, which identifies the human tendency to attribute events to causes that are either internal or

Jason Bennett Thatcher; J. Christopher Zimmer; Michael J. Gundlach; D. Harrison McKnight

2008-01-01

164

Confidence: A Better Predictor of Academic Achievement than Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Anxiety?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a study that assessed confidence together with scales measuring self-belief--i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety--among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics (N = 1940) and English (N = 1786). Our…

Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun; Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.

2012-01-01

165

Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

Huang, Chiungjung

2013-01-01

166

Testing the Efficacy of a New Procedure for Reducing Faking on Personality Tests Within Selection Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new procedure for reducing faking on personality tests within selection contexts. This computer-based procedure attempts to identify and warn potential fakers early on during the testing process and then give them a chance for recourse. Two field studies were conducted to test the efficacy of the proposed procedure. Study 1 participants were 157 applicants competing for

Jinyan Fan; Dingguo Gao; Sarah A. Carroll; Felix J. Lopez; T. Siva Tian; Hui Meng

2012-01-01

167

Assessing the Efficacy of a Self-Help Support Group Program for Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social systems of support are considered crucial in providing a buffer against the negative consequences of aging. Given the significance, in particular, of natural helping networks for bolstering the personal lives of older persons, this paper reports on a study which assesses the efficacy and identifies the most likely beneficiaries of a formal self-help delivery model charged with reconstructing an

Lenard W. Kaye

1996-01-01

168

Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

2008-01-01

169

Impact of Peer Coaching on Self-Efficacy and Instructional Skills in TEFL Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to test whether student teachers trained using a peer coaching training program after teaching practicum sessions in teaching of English as a foreign language would demonstrate greater improvement on measures of a number of identified instructional skills and self-efficacy than those just receiving traditional supervisor…

Goker, Suleyman Davut

2006-01-01

170

Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

Melius, Joyce

2012-01-01

171

The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

172

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

173

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

174

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

175

Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

2014-01-01

176

Self-Efficacy and Hispanic College Students: Validation of the College Self-Efficacy Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy theory was proposed as an important determinant in Hispanic college student adjustment. Self-efficacy refers to the strength of a person's belief that they are able to produce a given behavior, and operationally. college self-efficacy was defined as a student's degree of confidence that they could successfully complete a given college-related task (e.g., taking notes, asking a question in class,

V. Scott Solberg; Karen OBrien; Pete Villareal; Richard Kennel; Betsy Davis

1993-01-01

177

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social-cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (pmtintan- tion). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave

178

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

179

Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

Julian Barling; Mike Abel

1983-01-01

180

The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

2014-01-01

181

Identification of candidate predictive and surrogate molecular markers for dasatinib in prostate cancer: rationale for patient selection and efficacy monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dasatinib is a potent, multi-targeted kinase inhibitor that was recently approved for treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia resistant to imatinib. To aid the clinical development of dasatinib in prostate cancer, we utilized preclinical models to identify potential molecular markers for patient stratification and efficacy monitoring. RESULTS: Using gene expression profiling, we first identified 174 genes whose expression was highly

Xi-De Wang; Karen Reeves; Feng R Luo; Li-An Xu; Francis Lee; Edwin Clark; Fei Huang

2007-01-01

182

Self-efficacy instruments for patients with chronic diseases suffer from methodological limitations - a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Measurement of self-efficacy requires carefully developed and validated instruments. It is currently unclear whether available self-efficacy instruments for chronic diseases fulfill these requirements. Our aim was to systematically identify all existing self-efficacy scales for five major chronic diseases and to assess their development and validation process. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and EMBASE) to identify studies describing the development and/or validation process of self-efficacy instruments for the five chronic diseases diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, arthritis, and heart failure. Two members of the review team independently selected articles meeting inclusion criteria. The self-efficacy instruments were evaluated in terms of their development (aim of instrument, a priori considerations, identification of items, selection of items, development of domains, answer options) and validation (test-retest reliability, internal consistency reliability, validity, responsiveness) process. Results Of 584 potentially eligible papers we included 25 (13 for diabetes, 5 for asthma, 4 for arthritis, 3 for COPD, 0 for heart failure) which covered 26 different self-efficacy instrument versions. For 8 instruments (30.8%), the authors described the aim before the scales were developed whereas for the other instruments the aim was unclear. In one study (3.8%) a priori considerations were specified. In none of the studies a systematic literature search was carried out to identify items. The item selection process was often not clearly described (38.5%). Test-retest reliability was assessed for 9 instruments (34.6%), validity using a correlational approach for 18 (69.2%), and responsiveness to change for 3 (11.5%) instruments. Conclusion The development and validation process of the majority of the self-efficacy instruments had major limitations. The aim of the instruments was often not specified and for most instruments, not all measurement properties that are important to support the specific aim of the instrument (for example responsiveness for evaluative instruments) were assessed. Researchers who develop and validate self-efficacy instruments should adhere more closely to important methodological concepts for development and validation of patient-reported outcomes and report their methods more transparently. We propose a systematic five step approach for the development and validation of self-efficacy instruments. PMID:19781095

Frei, Anja; Svarin, Anna; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Puhan, Milo A

2009-01-01

183

1. Identify the search topic. 2. Identify appropriate  

E-print Network

relevant search results for the topic, either print out or e-mail the citations or full-text articles1. Identify the search topic. 2. Identify appropriate information sources. 3. Select an appropriate research database. 4. Derive search words for each main concept of topic. 5. Consider variations in word

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

184

Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

185

Identifying New and Emerging Occupations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines some of the methods available to educational planners for identifying new and emerging occupations. These include futures projections, trend analysis, employer surveys, and expert testimony. (SK)

Russell, Jill Frymier

1982-01-01

186

MODERATOR EFFECTS OF SELF-EFFICACY ON OCCUPATIONAL STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses self-efficacy as a moderator in the occupational stress process. Specifically, it analyses the comple- mentarity between two self-efficacy measures: generalised and professional. The initial hypothesis was that specific self- efficacy will moderate more stress-strain relationships than generalised self-efficacy. Based on data collected from 140 wor- kers that use new technologies in their jobs, we found that self-efficacy

Rosa Grau; Marisa Salanova; José María Peiró

187

Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars  

E-print Network

Identifying Common Sweet Corn Caterpillars Education Center and Info Line practical solutions, and European corn borer caterpillars can all infest the ears of sweet corn. The most reliable way to identify them is to examine the heads of the caterpillars. Corn earworm caterpillars have a uniform light yellow

New Hampshire, University of

188

Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges of humanitarian logisticians with respect to different types of disasters, phases of disaster relief and the type of humanitarian organization. A conceptual model is constructed that serves as a basis to identify these challenges. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a country as a case, namely Ghana.

Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen Spens

2009-01-01

189

CCPPolicyBriefing Identifying Fuel  

E-print Network

CCPPolicyBriefing June 2007 Identifying Fuel Poverty Using Objective and Subjective Measures W: www.ccp.uea.ac.uk T: +44 (0)1603 593715 A: UEA, Norwich, NR4 7TJ Identifying Fuel Poverty Using Objective and Subjective Measures BACKGROUND · The government defines fuel poverty as occurring when a household needs

Feigon, Brooke

190

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

191

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

192

Protective efficacy of piperine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Piperine a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activity to enhance the efficacy of rifampicin in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In-vitro immunomodulation of piperine was tested on mouse splenocytes for lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and macrophage activation. Protective efficacy of piperine was tested in a mice infection model of M. tuberculosis for the activation of Th-1 response and synergistic combination efficacy with rifampicin. Murine splenocytes exposed to piperine exhibited proliferation of T and B cell, increased Th-1 cytokines and enhanced macrophage activation. Piperine (1 mg/kg) in mice infected with M. tuberculosis activated the differentiation of T cells into Th-1 sub-population (CD4+ / CD8+ subsets). There was an increase in secretion of Th-1 cytokines (IFN-? and IL-2) by these cells. The qRT-PCR studies revealed corresponding increases in the mRNA transcripts of IFN-? and IL-2 in the infected lung tissues. Combination of piperine and rifampicin (1 mg/kg) exhibited better efficacy of and resulted in additional 1.4 to 0.8 log reduction in lung cfu as compared to rifampicin alone. The up-regulation of Th1 immunity by piperine can be synergistically combined with rifampicin to improve its therapeutic efficacy in immune-compromised TB patients. PMID:24880706

Sharma, Sandeep; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Suden, Pankaj; Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Ram, Anshu Beulah; Khajuria, Anamika; Bani, Sarang; Khan, Inshad Ali

2014-07-01

193

The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

2013-12-01

194

Self-efficacy and quality of life among people with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population does, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses. PMID:25010107

Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Christopher J; Birgenheir, Denis G; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

2014-08-01

195

Revisiting property crime and economic conditions: An exploratory study to identify predictive indicators beyond unemployment rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have questioned the use of the unemployment rate as an explanatory factor in econometric studies which address the relationship between the economy and crime. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study which sought to test the efficacy of the unemployment rate for predicting reported property crime rates and to identify other economic indicators which may also

Douglas L. Yearwood; Gerry Koinis

2011-01-01

196

Revisting Property Crime and Economic Conditions: An Exploratory Study to Identify Predictive Indicators beyond Unemployment Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous researchers have questioned the use of the unemployment rate as an explanatory factor in econometric studies which address the relationship between the economy and crime. This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study which sought to test the efficacy of the unemployment rate for predicting reported property crime rates and to identify other economic indicators which may also

Douglas L. Yearwood; Gerry Koinis

2009-01-01

197

Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

198

Identifying Elements of a Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

ReadWorks

2012-03-23

199

Chemoreception: identifying friends and foes.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ detects chemical cues that trigger sexual, aggressive and defensive behaviors. An in situ hybridization analysis has identified the specificities of nearly a hundred VNO receptors and elucidated the logic by which they encode these cues. PMID:22192835

Koh, Tong-Wey; Carlson, John R

2011-12-20

200

Eigenbehaviors: Identifying Structure in Routine  

E-print Network

Longitudinal behavioral data generally contains a significant amount of structure. In this work, we identify the structure inherent in daily behavior with models that can accurately analyze, predict, and cluster multimodal ...

Pentland, Alex Paul

201

Simple, nondestructive test identifies metals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rapid, nondestructive test for identifying metals measures the characteristic potential difference produced by galvanic reaction between a reference electrode and the test metal. A drop of water is used as an electrolyte.

Dodds, D. J.

1966-01-01

202

Identify Measuring ORNL Facility Service  

E-print Network

Identify Measuring Equipment · ORNL Facility Service Center (FSC), Asset Management · Non Data Manager*. SPRUCE Implementation of ORNL Measuring Equipment Calibration Guidelines Out-FSC, SPRUCE equipment tracking Calibration Decisions SPRUCE - User Calibration Calibration Organization SPRUCE

203

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

204

Identifying the Classical Music Composition  

E-print Network

Identifying the Classical Music Composition of an Unknown Performance with Wavelet DispersionR input a output 1 b Xdist frdb s(n) cA1 cD1 cA2 cD2 A1 D1 A2 D2 low-pass hi-pass low-pass hi-pass down the specific problem of identifying the classical music composition from an unknown performance

Reisslein, Martin

205

Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. It contains information about identifying animal tracks, including those of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain lions. Also, there is a helpful guide to preserving animal tracks by making track casts, including the procedure and materials needed. A recommended reading list is also presented to give visitors a starting point for more information.

206

Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring.

Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

2015-01-01

207

Statistical approach to measure the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment on horse farms.  

PubMed

Resistance to anthelmintics in gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock is a serious problem and appropriate methods are required to identify and quantify resistance. However, quantification and assessment of resistance depend on an accurate measure of treatment efficacy, and current methodologies fail to properly address the issue. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard for measuring anthelmintic efficacy on farms, but these types of data are fraught with high variability that greatly impacts the accuracy of inference on efficacy. This paper develops a statistical model to measure, assess, and evaluate the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatment on horse farms as determined by FECRT. Novel robust bootstrap methods are developed to analyse the data and are compared to other suggested methods in the literature in terms of Type I error and power. The results demonstrate that the bootstrap methods have an optimal Type I error rate and high power to detect differences between the presumed and true efficacy without the need to know the true distribution of pre-treatment egg counts. Finally, data from multiple farms are studied and statistical models developed that take into account between-farm variability. Our analysis establishes that if inter-farm variability is not taken into account, misleading conclusions about resistance can be made. PMID:17714603

Vidyashankar, A N; Kaplan, R M; Chan, S

2007-12-01

208

The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light for Treating Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea Is Related to Severity and Age  

PubMed Central

Background Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disease. Therapeutic modalities should be chosen based on the identified sub-types and clinical features in each patient. Vascular lasers, including intense pulsed light (IPL), are reportedly safe and effective in treating erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Objective In this study, we assess the comparative efficacy of IPL related to several factors including clinical severity and the age of patients with ETR. Methods Patients with ETR were classified into two groups according to the National Rosacea Society Severity Guideline. Severity score and erythema index (EI) were measured using a clinical scorecard and mexameter. For additional evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, investigator and patient global assessments (IGA, PGA) were checked. Efficacy of IPL was analyzed according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA related to sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity. Results Analyses of the efficacy of IPL according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA based on sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity revealed significant differences with age and severity only. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of IPL treatment for patients with ETR. IPL may be more effective in patients with more severe ETR and in younger patients with ETR. PMID:25143679

Lim, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

2014-01-01

209

Efficacy of Eight Months of Nightly Zolpidem: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To evaluate the long-term (8 months) efficacy of zolpidem in adults with chronic primary insomnia using polysomnography. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: Sleep disorders and research center. Participants: Healthy participants (n = 91), ages 23-70, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia. Interventions: Nightly zolpidem, 10 mg (5 mg for patients > 60 yrs) or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 8 months. Measurements and Results: Polysomnographic sleep parameters and morning subject assessments of sleep on 2 nights in months 1 and 8. Relative to placebo, zolpidem significantly increased overall total sleep time and sleep efficiency, reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset when assessed at months 1 and 8. Overall, subjective evaluations of efficacy were not shown among treatment groups. Conclusions: In adults with primary insomnia, nightly zolpidem administration remained efficacious across 8 months of nightly use. Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006525; Trial Name: Safety and Efficacy of Chronic Hypnotic Use; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01006525. Citation: Randall S; Roehrs TA; Roth T. Efficacy of eight months of nightly zolpidem: a prospective placebo-controlled study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1551-1557. PMID:23115404

Randall, Surilla; Roehrs, Timothy A.; Roth, Thomas

2012-01-01

210

Genotype-dependent sex differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in primary cultures of embryonic mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate genetic factors that interfere with hormone-mediated sex differentiation of dopaminergic neurons, we raised sex-specific primary cultures from embryonic day 13 diencephalon (D) or mesencephalon (M) of three different strains of mice, NMRI, CBA\\/J, and BALBc\\/J. Part of the cultures were maintained for 6 or 13 days in vitro (DIV) in medium containing 17?-estradiol or testosterone. The

Rosana Sibug; Eva Küppers; Cordian Beyer; Stephen C. Maxson; Christof Pilgrim; Ingrid Reisert

1996-01-01

211

Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4])

Miyako Kusano; Atsushi Fukushima; Masanori Arita; Pär Jonsson; Thomas Moritz; Makoto Kobayashi; Naomi Hayashi; Takayuki Tohge; Kazuki Saito

2007-01-01

212

Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male C57BL\\/6J, BALB\\/c, and DBA\\/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL\\/6J mice\\u000a had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB\\/c mice had low levels\\u000a of memory trace retention and DBA\\/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent

A. P. Bel’nik; R. U. Ostrovskaya; I. I. Poletaeva

2009-01-01

213

NOS3 Genotype-Dependent Correlation Between Blood Pressure and Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation plays an important role in reduction of blood pressure and is mediated through release of nitric oxide (NO), which is generated by constitutively expressed endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3). Exercise also augments NO release and has been recommended for primary prevention and improvement of hypertension, but individual responses are highly variable. We therefore postulated that genetic polymorphisms of

Tomomi Kimura; Tetsuji Yokoyama; Yasuhiro Matsumura; Nobuo Yoshiike; Chigusa Date; Masaaki Muramatsu; Heizo Tanaka

2010-01-01

214

Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy.  

PubMed

Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

Milgrom, P; Söderling, E M; Nelson, S; Chi, D L; Nakai, Y

2012-09-01

215

Clinical Evidence for Polyol Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

Milgrom, P.; Söderling, E.M.; Nelson, S.; Chi, D.L.; Nakai, Y.

2012-01-01

216

Role of depressive symptoms and self-efficacy of medication adherence in Korean patients after successful percutaneous coronary intervention.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study sought to identify the prevalence of medication adherence and to explore the role of depression and self-efficacy on medication adherence among patients with coronary artery diseases. Participants were recruited among outpatients who successfully underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent at academic medical centres in Cheonan, South Korea. Medication adherence was evaluated by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale using a validated Korean version. Prevalence of non-adherent to medication was 60.3%. With non-depressed and high self-efficacy as reference and after adjusting for age and gender, the models showed that those with depression and low self-efficacy are more likely to be non-adherent to medication. Therefore, future studies should focus on the development of interventions designed to reduce depression and increase self-efficacy for improving patient adherence to cardiovascular medications following PCI. PMID:24118689

Son, Youn-Jung; Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Jin-Hee

2014-12-01

217

A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase  

PubMed Central

Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

2013-01-01

218

Efficacy of TMS targets for depression is related to intrinsic functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is used clinically for the treatment of depression. However the antidepressant mechanism remains unknown and its therapeutic efficacy remains limited. Recent data suggests that some left DLPFC targets are more effective than others, however the reasons for this heterogeneity and how to capitalize on this information remain unclear. METHODS Intrinsic (resting state) fMRI data from 98 normal subjects were used to compute functional connectivity with various left DLPFC TMS targets employed in the literature. Differences in functional connectivity related to differences in previously reported clinical efficacy were identified. This information was translated into a connectivity-based targeting strategy to identify optimized left DLPFC TMS coordinates. Results in normal subjects were tested for reproducibility in an independent cohort of 13 patients with depression. RESULTS Differences in functional connectivity were related to previously reported differences in clinical efficacy across a distributed set of cortical and limbic regions. DLPFC TMS sites with better clinical efficacy were more negatively correlated (anticorrelated) with the subgenual cingulate. Optimum connectivity-based stimulation coordinates were identified in BA46. Results were reproducible in patients with depression. CONCLUSIONS Reported antidepressant efficacy of different left DLPFC TMS sites is related to the anticorrelation of each site with the subgenual cingulate, potentially lending insight into the antidepressant mechanism of TMS and suggesting a role for intrinsically anticorrelated networks in depression. These results can be translated into a connectivity-based targeting strategy for focal brain stimulation that might be used to optimize clinical response. PMID:22658708

Fox, Michael D.; Buckner, Randy L.; White, Matthew P.; Greicius, Michael D.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

2014-01-01

219

Self-Efficacy and Weight Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the literature on the use of the self-efficacy model for weight control raised several areas of concern, including differences between losing weight and maintaining weight loss, ethical questions, and misguided interpretations of the model's effectiveness. The need for comprehensive, well-planned research is stressed. (CB)

Desmond, Sharon M.; Price, James H.

1988-01-01

220

MANGA STUDY COMPARATIVE EFFICACY AND ACCEPTABILITY  

E-print Network

Evidence-based Practice Centre and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) summarized Health, 2004).. Current clinical practice guidelines on the treatment of depressive disorder recommend the available evidence on the comparative efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of 12 second

Romeo, Alessandro

221

Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

2002-01-01

222

Evaluating Ritual Efficacy: Evidence from the Supernatural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in…

Legare, Cristine H.; Souza, Andre L.

2012-01-01

223

Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

2009-01-01

224

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis (IIDD) is an inflammation of the infantile skin covering the groin, lower stomach, upper thighs and buttocks. Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis may become difficult to treat, if the area becomes infected or the infant develops allergy to medications applied to the area. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety

SUKANTA CHATTERJEE; NILANJANA PRAMANICK; SANTA CHATTOPADHYAY; KINKOR MUNIAN

225

CAREGIVER SUPPORT GROUPS: EFFICACY ISSUES FOR EDUCATORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing number of older persons with chronic illnesses are being cared for by family members in the community with the assistance of respite, adult day care, and home care services. The growth in the number of persons providing care has led to the development of interventions, particularly psychoeducational support groups, to support family caregivers. The literature on the efficacy

Deborah J. Monahan

1994-01-01

226

Efficacy Development in New Teacher Study Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores the experiences and learning of five new teachers with less than three years in the classroom as they engaged in a study group. This research highlights the ways that participation in a study group enhanced teacher efficacy and supported their retention. The research reveals that power and authority over…

Simon, Flora Ann

2011-01-01

227

Perceptions of Teacher Efficacy in Changing Times  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were twofold: determine how teacher perceptions change over time in their ability to create a desired effect on student learning and examine the differences between principal and teacher perceptions of teacher efficacy. Principals and teachers at 150 public schools, broken down as 50 from elementary schools with a grade…

Parker, Jack Lee, Jr.

2012-01-01

228

Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

2000-01-01

229

Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

2012-01-01

230

Self-Efficacy, an Oriental Twist  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It also points to an important metamorphosis that is taking place…

Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin

2005-01-01

231

Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [?2.36, ?0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L.; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

2014-01-01

232

Efficacy of auricular therapy for pain management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [-2.36, -0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W S; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

2014-01-01

233

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Tinnitus: Evidence and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus is defined as auditory perception without external sound. There is currently no cure for tinnitus. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus treatment that addresses the affected individual's reaction to tinnitus. It aims not to eliminate auditory perception as sound but to reduce or correct one's negative response to tinnitus. CBT identifies negative automatic thought and then evaluates its validity with the patient. It also aims to change negative automatic thought to more positive and realistic thought. In this way, tinnitus sufferers can function well despite the presence of tinnitus. Many studies have supported the efficacy of CBT for treating tinnitus. A meta-analysis of CBT for tinnitus also concluded that CBT is effective in treating tinnitus. Thus, CBT is considered a good option for treating tinnitus. We herein discuss the use of CBT for tinnitus with a literature review. PMID:24653916

Jun, Hyung Jin

2013-01-01

234

Recombinant allergen immunotherapy: clinical evidence of efficacy--a review.  

PubMed

Recombinant allergens for immunotherapy aim to overcome the problems of natural extracts as they can be produced in unlimited amounts with exact physiochemical and immunological properties. These can be modified to have more favourable characteristics including reduced IgE reactivity or enhanced immunogenicity. Different types of recombinant allergens have been evaluated in clinical phase II and III trials whilst others are currently under development. In this review, we identified double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of various recombinant allergen preparations. The majority of studies have up to now focused on cat, grass, birch, ragweed and bee venom allergens. Some studies have shown some of these preparations to be effective and well tolerated. However, there are still outstanding issues regarding optimum doses, minimising side effects and long-term effects. PMID:23740287

Makatsori, Melina; Pfaar, Oliver; Lleonart, Ramon; Calderon, Moises A

2013-08-01

235

Influence of application volume on herbicide efficacy.  

PubMed

Herbicide doses used by farmers are often lower than registration doses. One of the reasons put forward is that field assays for registration are performed at relatively high application volumes (typically 300 L ha(-1)), whereas farmers use lower volumes (down to 75 L ha(-1) or even lower). The resulting concentration of the active ingredient(s) and the formulants is supposed to enhance efficacy. To test this hypothesis in the case of specific graminicides, we compared the efficacy of clodinafop-propargyl and fenoxaprop-ethyl on Avena sativa at two application volumes. Fenoxaprop-ethyl was more efficacious when applied in 75 L ha(-1) as compared to 300 L ha(-1); ED95 were 20.0 and 26.0 g ha(-1), respectively. By contrast, clodinafop-propargyl exhibited the same efficacy under both conditions. Studies of dynamic surface tension showed differences in behaviour between spray dilutions of the two herbicides, especially at concentrations corresponding to ED95s. After 100 ms, surface tension decrease was lower than 2 mN m(-1) for clodinafop-propargyl at both application volumes. By contrast, surface tension decrease was 7 mN m(-1) for fenoxaprop-ethyl at 300 L ha(-1), and 18.5 mN m(-1) at 75 L ha(-1). In the case of fenoxaprop-ethyl sprayed at doses used in the practice, the retention of active ingredient by Avena sativa was lower at high application volume. This study shows that in some cases, concentration of the spray dilution may increase efficacy, formulation being probably involved. PMID:15149130

Gauvrit, C; Lamrani-Lucotte, T; Gaudry, C

2003-01-01

236

Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

Yasar, Senay

237

Comparison of multiple estimates of efficacy for influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccine trials typically report vaccine efficacy for infection-confirmed symptomatic illness. Data on indirect vaccine efficacy for susceptibility, the degree of vaccine protection to susceptibles, or indirect vaccine efficacy for illness given infection, are sparse. Using inactivated influenza vaccine randomized trial data, we calculated indirect vaccine efficacy for susceptibility of 20% [95% CI 9-30] and indirect vaccine efficacy for illness among infected persons 12% [95% CI 2-22], values inferior to a direct vaccine efficacy for infection-confirmed symptomatic illness of 55% [95% CI -21 to 84] and an indirect effect of 61% [95% CI 8-83]. Such data reveal variance in protective efficacy of the vaccine for multi-dimensional direct and indirect efficacy measures. PMID:22098676

Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L; Fonseca, Kevin; Webby, Richard; Walter, Stephen D

2011-12-01

238

A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy  

E-print Network

The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

Lovell, Emily Marie

2011-01-01

239

Identifying Elements in the Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides a description of the use of spectroscopy to identify elements in the stars, including a scientific explanation of bright line and dark line spectra, from an historical perspective. A list of links to additional information and images of atomic spectra is also provided.

240

Identifying and to Troubled Students  

E-print Network

Stated Mental Health History Percentage of client seen during 2006-2007 AY Taking Psychiatric Medication;Goals To become aware of the prevalence of mental illness at UCSD To become better at identifying community #12;Most major mental illnesses appear for the first time during the high school and college years

Gleeson, Joseph G.

241

"Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

2013-01-01

242

Eigenbehaviors: identifying structure in routine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we identify the structure inherent in daily human behavior with models that can accurately analyze, predict and cluster multimodal data from individu- als and groups. We represent this structure by the principal components of the complete behavioral dataset, a set of characteristic vectors we have termed eigenbehaviors. In our model, an individual's behavior over a specific day

Nathan Eagle; Alex Sandy Pentland

2009-01-01

243

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

244

Compact Histograms for Hierarchical Identifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed monitoring applications often involve streams of unique identifiers (UIDs) such as IP addresses or RFID tag IDs. An important class of query for such applications involves parti- tioning the UIDs into groups using a large lookup table; the query then performs aggregation over the groups. We propose using histograms to reduce bandwidth utilization in such settings, using a histogram

Frederick Reiss; Minos N. Garofalakis; Joseph M. Hellerstein

2006-01-01

245

Identifiability in interval censorship models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identifiability of the distribution of an event time is established in two models of interval censorship appropriate in survival studies. In the first model, a fixed number of inspections are made at random times in the follow up period, and in the second, this follow up period is fixed but the number of inspections made is random.

Zhiming Wang; J. C. Gardiner; R. V. Ramamoorthi

1994-01-01

246

3. Uniform Resource Identifiers 3-1 Uniform Resource Identifiers  

E-print Network

, July 1998. · Tim Berners-Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] · Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url-primer.html] · T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. · T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

Brass, Stefan

247

Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

2014-01-01

248

Efficacy of intrauterine device in the treatment of intrauterine adhesions.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

2014-01-01

249

Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

2012-01-01

250

University Faculty Members' Perceptions of Their Teaching Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate faculty members' perceptions of teaching efficacy and their relation to faculty members' backgrounds. A questionnaire measuring six dimensions of teaching efficacy was distributed to faculty members at 17 universities in Taiwan, yielding 513 complete sets of responses. Faculty members felt efficacious,…

Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Huei-Hsuan; Song, Mei-Mei

2011-01-01

251

Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relations among reinforcer magnitude, preference, and efficacy

NICOLE M. TROSCLAIR-LASSERRE; DOROTHEA C. LERMAN; NATHAN A. CALL; L AURA R. ADDISON; Tiffany Kodak

2008-01-01

252

Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

253

The Development of Parenting Efficacy among New Mothers and Fathers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predictors of prenatal and postnatal parenting efficacy were examined in a sample of 115 primiparous mothers and 73 fathers in an effort to examine the association between preexisting parental characteristics and prenatal efficacy and the association between prenatal characteristics and postnatal efficacy when aspects of the current parenting…

Leerkes, Esther M.; Burney, Regan V.

2007-01-01

254

Anchoring biases and the perseverance of self-efficacy beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the effects of anchoring biases on judgments of self-efficacy, and the perseverance of initial efficacy judgments as subjects received firsthand performance feedback. Prior to attempting a novel task, subjects judged the level of performance they could achieve in relation to an anchor value representing a low, intermediate, or high outcome. Anchoring strongly affected initial self-efficacy judgments. Subjects

Daniel Cervone; Barton W. Palmer

1990-01-01

255

Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n?=?420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (??=?0.36, p?efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID:24304903

2013-01-01

256

Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler versus MDI.  

PubMed

We compared the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler, a novel propellant-free inhaler, versus chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-metered dose inhaler (MDI) and ipratropium Respimat inhaler in patients with COPD. This was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week, parallel-group, active-controlled study. Patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to ipratropium bromide/albuterol (20/100mcg) Respimat inhaler, ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI [36mcg/206mcg (Combivent Inhalation Aerosol MDI)], or ipratropium bromide (20mcg) Respimat inhaler. Each medication was administered four times daily. Serial spirometry was performed over 6h (0.15min, then hourly) on 4 test days. The primary efficacy variable was forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) change from test day baseline at 12 weeks. A total of 1209 of 1480 randomized, treated patients completed the study; the majority were male (65%) with a mean age of 64 yrs and a mean screening pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (percent predicted) of 41%. Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler had comparable efficacy to ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI for FEV(1) area under the curve at 0-6h (AUC(0-6)), superior efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(0-4) and comparable efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(4-6). All active treatments were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ipratropium bromide/albuterol 20/100mcg inhaler administered four times daily for 12 weeks had equivalent bronchodilator efficacy and comparable safety to ipratropium bromide/albuterol 36mcg/206mcg MDI, and significantly improved lung function compared with the mono-component ipratropium bromide 20 mcg Respimat inhaler. [Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT00400153]. PMID:20172704

Zuwallack, R; De Salvo, M C; Kaelin, T; Bateman, E D; Park, C S; Abrahams, R; Fakih, F; Sachs, P; Pudi, K; Zhao, Y; Wood, C C

2010-08-01

257

Molecular Cell Interaction Profiling Identifies  

E-print Network

Molecular Cell Article Interaction Profiling Identifies the Human Nuclear Exosome Targeting Complex@mb.au.dk (T.H.J.) DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2011.06.028 SUMMARY The RNA exosome is a conserved degradation of the yeast nuclear exosome is the RNA helicase Mtr4p, acting in the context of the Trf4p/Air2p/ Mtr4p

Bedwell, David M.

258

The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors,

Justin C. Brown; Tania B. Huedo-Medina; Linda S. Pescatello; Stacey M. Ryan; Shannon M. Pescatello; Emily Moker; Jessica M. LaCroix; Rebecca A. Ferrer; Blair T. Johnson

2012-01-01

259

IL10-Inducing Adjuvants Enhance Sublingual Immunotherapy Efficacy in a Murine Asthma Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: IL-10-inducing adjuvants could enhance the efficacy of allergy vaccines in establishing allergen-specific tolerance.The aim of this study wasto identify such adjuvants using in vitro cultures of human and murine cells and to evaluate them in a therapeutic murine model of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods: Adjuvants stimulating IL-10 gene expression by human or murine immune cells were tested sublingually in

Laurence Van Overtvelt; Vincent Lombardi; Alain Razafindratsita; Nathalie Saint-Lu; Stéphane Horiot; Hélène Moussu; Laurent Mascarell; Philippe Moingeon

2008-01-01

260

The efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tubeless\\u000a versus standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Relevant randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials studies were\\u000a identified from electronic database (Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline and EMBASE et al.). The retrieval time ended in August 2010.\\u000a The quality of the included trials was assessed

Haichao Yuan; Shuo Zheng; Liangren Liu; Ping Han; Jia Wang; Qiang Wei

261

Efficacy and usability of assistive technology for patients with cognitive deficits: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy of portable electronic aids such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), pagers or mobile phones for patients with cognitive deficits by means of a systematic review. The usability of these aids is also briefly discussed.Data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, EMBASE and MEDLINE were searched up to February 2009. The references of identified and relevant articles were

Elsbeth de Joode; Caroline van Heugten; Frans Verhey; Martin van Boxtel

2010-01-01

262

Biofouling of fish-cage netting: efficacy and problems of in situ cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid biofouling of fish-cage netting in Tasmania, Australia, necessitates the frequent changing of nets for on-shore cleaning. To reduce the cost associated with this capital- and labour-intensive process, a prototype underwater net cleaner was designed and constructed for the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon industry. This study describes trials aimed to determine the efficacy of this prototype, and to identify areas

Stephen L. Hodson; Thomas E. Lewis; Christopher M. Burkea

1997-01-01

263

Practical Anticipation of Human Efficacious Doses and Pharmacokinetics Using In Vitro and Preclinical In Vivo Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate predictions of human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK\\/PD) profiles are critical in early drug development,\\u000a as safe, efficacious, and “developable” dosing regimens of promising compounds have to be identified. While advantages of\\u000a successful integration of preclinical PK\\/PD data in the “anticipation” of human doses (AHD) have been recognized, pharmaceutical\\u000a scientists have faced difficulties with practical implementation, especially for PK\\/PD profile

Tycho Heimbach; Suresh B. Lakshminarayana; Wenyu Hu; Handan He

2009-01-01

264

Efficacy of Systemic Treatments for Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To compare the efficacy of psoriasis treatments through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Methods: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) were identified and assessed for quality. PASI responses were modeled using a mixed-treatment comparison, which enabled the estimation of the relative effectiveness of several treatments. Sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Twenty-two trials were

Nick Bansback; Sonia Sizto; Huiying Sun; Steven Feldman; Mary Kaye Willian; Aslam Anis

2009-01-01

265

Identifying Near Earth Object Families  

E-print Network

The study of asteroid families has provided tremendous insight into the forces that sculpted the main belt and continue to drive the collisional and dynamical evolution of asteroids. The identification of asteroid families within the NEO population could provide a similar boon to studies of their formation and interiors. In this study we examine the purported identification of NEO families by Drummond (2000) and conclude that it is unlikely that they are anything more than random fluctuations in the distribution of NEO osculating orbital elements. We arrive at this conclusion after examining the expected formation rate of NEO families, the identification of NEO groups in synthetic populations that contain no genetically related NEOs, the orbital evolution of the largest association identified by Drummond (2000), and the decoherence of synthetic NEO families intended to reproduce the observed members of the same association. These studies allowed us to identify a new criterion that can be used to select real NEO families for further study in future analyses, based on the ratio of the number of pairs and the size of strings to the number of objects in an identified association.

Hai Fu; Robert Jedicke; Daniel D. Durda; Ronald Fevig; James V. Scotti

2005-05-12

266

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy.  

PubMed

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-03-01

267

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

268

EFFICACY OF VERNONIA CINEREA FOR SMOKING CESSATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of Vernonia cinerea Less. (Compositae) (VC) with placebo. A 24 week, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was conducted at outpatient smoking cessation clinic at Thanyarak Institute, Pathumthani, Thailand. A 3-gram of crushed dried whole plant of VC was prepared in infusion tea bag. Sixty-four subjects were equally randomized

Supakit Wongwiwatthananukit; Preeda Benjanakaskul; Thanapat Songsak; Somporn Suwanamajo; Viroj Verachai

2009-01-01

269

DNA vaccines: safety and efficacy issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  DNA technology has been harnessed to produce a variety of plasmid-based vaccines designed to prevent viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. The rapid adoption and implementation of this novel vaccine strategy carries with it important safety and efficacy concerns. This review will focus on whether DNA vaccines (1) are likely to induce systemic or organ-specific autoimmune disease, (2) have the potential

Dennis M. Klinman; Mitsuhiro Takeno; Motohide Ichino; Mili Gu; Galina Yamshchikov; Gil Mor; Jacqueline Conover

1997-01-01

270

Electrical dosage and efficacy in electroconvulsive therapy.  

PubMed

The traditional view is that the elicitation of a series of generalized cerebral seizures is the essential requirement for efficacious electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This theory is the basis of many recent recommendations that the minimum electrical dose required to elicit generalized seizures should be used. Evidence challenging this theory is reviewed, which suggests a role for supra-threshold electrical stimulation in ECT. Hypotheses to explain these findings are examined, and recommendations are made. PMID:1884335

Enns, M

1991-06-01

271

Efficacy of treatment for unexplained infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,

DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf

1998-01-01

272

Quaternary ammonium biocides: efficacy in application.  

PubMed

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

Gerba, Charles P

2015-01-01

273

Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. PMID:25436106

2014-01-01

274

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment  

E-print Network

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response mechanism (HSR), main component of which are heat-shock proteins (HSP). Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby, hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy of the anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalise the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a proof of concept mathematical analysis of HSR we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. thermotolerance.

Miko?aj Rybi?ski; Zuzanna Szyma?ska; S?awomir Lasota; Anna Gambin

2013-03-06

275

Identifying classes of veterans with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

As researchers examine the efficacy of interventions that simultaneously target more than 1 symptom, it is important to identify ways to help guide research and program development. This study used electronic medical record data to examine the covariation of multiple risk factors regularly assessed among primary care patients. It also examined the health care utilization of those patients identifying where the health care system came in contact with them to help identify the ideal locations these interventions may be most often used. We obtained data for six risk factors, as well as the number of primary care, mental health, and emergency department visits, from Veteran patients with a primary care visit. There were three main groups of primary care patients, identified using latent class analysis and regression. Although the smallest group, the "High Treatment Need" group, had an increased probability of screening positive for all four risk factors, the post-traumatic stress disorder screen was a significant discriminator of this group from the others. Results show that this group had the greatest number of encounters in all health care locations suggesting significant opportunities for intervention. However, future research is needed to examine the current interventions offered and potential avenues where risk factors may be addressed simultaneously. PMID:25269130

Funderburk, Jennifer S; Kenneson, Aileen; Maisto, Stephen A

2014-10-01

276

Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have become the mainstay in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Within the last decade, controlled trials have shown that numerous other drugs relieve such pain. We identified all placebo-controlled trials and calculated numbers needed to treat (NNT) to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief in order to compare the efficacy with the current

Søren H. Sindrup; Troels S. Jensen

1999-01-01

277

Lost Confidence and Potential: A Mixed Methods Study of Underachieving College Students' Sources of Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sources of self-efficacy of college students enrolled in a learning frameworks course, whom we identified as underachievers. Through weekly journal entries, the group of underachievers (n = 13) cited the factors that made them feel confident or not confident. Students' responses to open-ended prompts were coded…

Fong, Carlton J.; Krause, Jaimie M.

2014-01-01

278

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology Integration Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations (ITOE) of pre-service physical education teachers, (2) examine the relationships among TPACK, TISE and ITOE, and lastly (3) examine the differences…

Semiz, Kivanc; Ince, Mustafa Levent

2012-01-01

279

Social Indicators, Dysfunctional Career Cognitions, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Work Role Participation of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…

Hodge, Sharon

280

Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

281

A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

2008-01-01

282

Technology Implementation: Teacher Age, Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Professional Development as Related to Classroom Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the combination of factors that pertain to the implementation of new technologies in the classroom. Specifically, the study was an analysis of the age of the teacher, years of teaching experience, quality of professional development, and teacher self-efficacy as defined by Bandura (1997) to…

Tweed, Stephanie

2013-01-01

283

Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

284

Observing, Describing and Identifying Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They will initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. This learning resource is part of the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Cloud protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

285

Multidimensional self-efficacy and affect in wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22-.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40-.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive thoughts. Athletes with strong resiliency and thought control efficacy also reported more PA and less NA. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the four efficacies predicted 10 and 22% of the variance in PA and NA, respectively. PMID:18955745

Martin, Jeffrey J

2008-10-01

286

Condom use self-efficacy and HIV risk practices among men who use the internet to find male partners for unprotected sex.  

PubMed

This research examines the levels of condom use self-efficacy in a population of men who have sex with men who are at great risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. It focuses on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and risk involvement, and examines the factors associated with greater/lower levels of condom use self-efficacy. The data come from a national sample of men, randomly chosen, who used any of 16 websites specifically to identify other men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected between January 2008 and May 2009 from 332 men, via telephone interviews. Multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a conceptual model based on syndemics theory. Overall levels of condom use self-efficacy were fairly high, and self-efficacy was related inversely to involvement in HIV risk practices. Six factors were found to be indicative of levels of condom use self-efficacy: the number of drug problems experienced, sexual role identity as a "bottom," not caring about the HIV serostatus of potential sex partners, experiencing childhood maltreatment, having confidence in HIV-related information provided in other men's online profiles, and level of HIV knowledge. Condom use self-efficacy plays an integral role in HIV risk practices among high-risk men who have sex with men. This is true despite the fact that, overall, condom use self-efficacy levels were fairly high in this population. PMID:23832954

Klein, Hugh

2014-05-01

287

Efficacy of ribavirin against malignant glioma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Ribavirin (1-?-D-ribofuranosy-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) has been widely administered as an antiviral agent against RNA and DNA viruses. Ribavirin, in combination with interferon, has predominantly been applied in the treatment of the hepatitis C virus infection and its potential antitumor efficacy has recently become a point of interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ribavirin on the growth of malignant glioma cells, to identify novel predictive genes in malignant glioma cells (by analyzing gene expression profiles) and to assess the influence of ribavirin on the cell cycle of malignant glioma cells. The present study evaluated the antitumor efficacy of ribavirin against various malignant glioma cell lines (A-172, AM-38, T98G, U-87MG, U-138MG, U-251MG and YH-13). After culturing the cells in ribavirin-containing culture medium (final concentration, 0–1,000 ?M) for 72 h, the viable proliferated cells were harvested and counted. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of ribavirin, with regard to the growth of the malignant glioma cell lines, was determined from the concentration of ribavirin required for 50% growth inhibition in comparison to the untreated control cells. Furthermore, the current study identified the genes in which the gene expression levels correlated with the ribavirin sensitivity of the malignant glioma cells lines, using a high-density oligonucleotide array. Finally, cell cycle analysis was performed on the U-87MG cell line. It was identified that ribavirin inhibited the growth of all of the malignant glioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, although the ribavirin sensitivity varied between each cell line. Of the extracted genes, PDGFRA demonstrated the strongest positive correlation between gene expression level and ribavirin sensitivity. Cell cycle analysis of the U-87MG cell line demonstrated that ribavirin treatment induces G0/G1 arrest and thus may be an effective agent for inhibiting malignant glioma cell growth. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that ribavirin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:25364409

OGINO, AKIYOSHI; SANO, EMIKO; OCHIAI, YUSHI; YAMAMURO, SHUN; TASHIRO, SHINYA; YACHI, KAZUNARI; OHTA, TAKASHI; FUKUSHIMA, TAKAO; OKAMOTO, YUTAKA; TSUMOTO, KOUHEI; UEDA, TAKUYA; YOSHINO, ATSUO; KATAYAMA, YOICHI

2014-01-01

288

Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5-25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8-31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management. PMID:24993798

Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

2014-01-01

289

Physical activity determinants in adults. Perceived benefits, barriers, and self efficacy.  

PubMed

The determinants of physical activity in adults were explored in this study. Explanatory variables included perceived benefits of and perceived barriers to physical activity, and perceived self efficacy for physical activity. Inactive participants were asked to identify barriers to activity, and active participants cited cues prompting them to adopt a physically active lifestyle. Data were collected from 137 adults obtained from work sites, an evening college program, and church groups. Overall, participants were physically active. Self efficacy was the only variable to predict physical activity. Race (i.e., being White) and body mass index (i.e., being overweight) explained perceived barriers to activity. The primary reason for inactivity was lack of time, and the most frequently cited cues to activity were dissatisfaction with one's weight or appearance. Few nursing studies have attempted to increase participants' levels of self efficacy. However, the occupational health nurse is in a unique position to increase workers' perceived self efficacy for activity and, in turn, their activity levels. PMID:12465206

Stutts, Wanda C

2002-11-01

290

Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5–25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8–31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management. PMID:24993798

Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

2014-01-01

291

Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls. This study investigated the response of three medically significant microorganisms grown in the RWV to antibiotics that could be used on spaceflight missions. Our findings suggest potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during spaceflight and indicate that future studies on the antibiotic response require additional basic research using the RWV and/or true spaceflight. However, while this analogue has reinforced these potential alterations, the results suggest the best approach for applied forward work is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight, including human and rodent studies. The complex nature of the analysis for many antibiotics and organism suggests the best approach to determine in vivo responses during pharmaceutical treatment is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight.

Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

292

Efficacy of Different Doses of Lidocaine in the Prevention of Pain Due to Propofol Injection: A Randomized, Open-Label Trial in 120 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The incidence of pain due to propofol injection is high, but the most efficacious method of preventing this pain has not been identified.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of lidocaine, at different doses and schedules, on propofol injection pain.Methods: In this open-label study, conducted at the Department of Anaesthesiology, Erciyes University Gevher Nesibe Hospital

Halit Madenoglu; Karamehmet Yildiz; Kudret Dogru; Adem Boyaci

2003-01-01

293

BsmI vitamin D receptor genotypes influence the efficacy of antiresorptive treatments in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. A 1-year multicenter, randomized and controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms could be considered one of the factors influencing the efficacy of the anti-osteoporotic treatments. In this multicenter, prospective, randomized and controlled trial we evaluated whether BsmI vitamin D receptor (VDR) genotypes influence the efficacy of antiresorptive treatment regimes (administered alone or in combination) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Using restriction endonuclease, we identified the BsmI

Stefano Palomba; Francesco Orio Jr; Tiziana Russo; Angela Falbo; Achille Tolino; Francesco Manguso; Vincenzo Nunziata; Pasquale Mastrantonio; Gaetano Lombardi; Fulvio Zullo

2005-01-01

294

Demographics and Efficacy of Head and Neck Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study was designed to (1) describe the demographics and (2) determine the efficacy of a head and neck cancer screening program in order to optimize future programs. Methods After IRB approval, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to review a single institution’s 14-year experience (1996–2009) conducting a free annual head and neck cancer screening clinic. Available demographic and clinical data, as well as clinical outcomes were analyzed for all participants (n=761). The primary outcome was the presence of a finding suspicious for head and neck cancer on screening evaluation. Results Five percent of participants had findings suspicious for head and neck cancer on screening evaluation, and malignant or pre-malignant lesions were confirmed in one percent of participants. Lack of insurance (p=.05), tobacco use (p<.001), male gender (p=.03), separated marital status (p=.03), and younger age (p=.04) were the significant demographic predictors of a lesion suspicious for malignancy. Patients complaining of a neck mass (p<.001) or oral pain (p<.001) were significantly more likely to have findings suspicious of malignancy. A high percentage (40%) was diagnosed with benign otolaryngologic pathologies on screening evaluation. Conclusions A minority of patients presenting to a head and neck cancer screening clinic will have a suspicious lesion identified. Given these findings, in order to achieve maximal potential benefit, future head and neck cancer screening clinics should target patients with identifiable risk factors and take full advantage of opportunities for education and prevention. PMID:20723771

Shuman, Andrew G.; Entezami, Payam; Chernin, Anna S.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Taylor, Jeremy M. G.; Hogikyan, Norman D.

2013-01-01

295

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

296

Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

297

Efficacy testing for hair care products.  

PubMed

For the efficacy testing of hair care products, a number of methods are available. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy are most suitable for surface evaluation; the swelling properties in the course of a treatment are determined using a fiber-swelling analyzer, and the luster may be reliably determined by means of a multiangle goniophotometer. Further, surface tension is a suitable method to evaluate the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of a hair section, and is sensitive enough to indicate the individual hormone cycle. PMID:10393526

Höcker, H

1999-01-01

298

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

299

Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2009-01-01

300

Can tests identify creative people?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is always a popular pursuit by academic administrators to assess the creativity or innovative qualities of scientists in order to evaluate their research capabilities. Of course, traditionally such evaluations have been fraught with subjectivity (i.e., innovative scientists are commonly thought to be weird, under 40 years old, independent, risk-taking, etc.), and thus such evaluations have not been highly valued. In recent years, through testing, the American Chemical Society (ACS) has attempted to give respectability to the art of predicting the creativity of a scientist. ACS, which draws its members from both industrial and academic laboratories, held a symposium on the subject of evaluating the creativity of scientists. The proceedings were published by ACS as ‘Innovation and U.S. Research: Problems and Recommendations’ (W. N. Smith and C.F. Larson, eds., 1980). In the proceedings, as reported in the July 1982 Chemtec (all quotes here are from the Chemtec article), A. Nisson was able to identify only the following two-part characteristic of an innovative person: (1) a low threshold to ‘a state of discomfort with some aspect of the order of things, the status quo,’ and (2) ‘an extraordinarily high level of mental stamina enabling him or her to persist until the state of discomfort is removed.’

Bell, Peter M.

301

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

302

Testing tuberculosis drug efficacy in a zebrafish high-throughput translational medicine screen.  

PubMed

The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J; Wiweger, Malgorzata I; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H; Vreeken, Rob J; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P; Hankemeier, Thomas; Spaink, Herman P

2015-02-01

303

A Trisubstituted Benzimidazole Cell Division Inhibitor with Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73±0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68±Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP) twice daily (bid). The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy. PMID:24736743

Knudson, Susan E.; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Hélèn; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

2014-01-01

304

Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

2014-01-01

305

Positive Impacts of Modeling Instruction on Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel [1] to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2010-10-01

306

Identifying vaginitis in general practice.  

PubMed

Clinicians conducted a study of 154 women who presented themselves at a health center of the University of Wales College of Medicine with symptoms of vaginitis. A nurse examined the vagina with a speculum to note the appearance of the cervix, the color and amount of discharge, and the presence of odor and inquired about soreness during the examination. The nurse took 3 endocervical swabs and 2 high vaginal swabs. Upon microscopic examination, any vaginal discharge with epithelial cells stippled with small coccobacilli indicated a possible Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Laboratory personnel identified G. vaginalis either alone or in combination with other organisms in 53% of the women. Those with G. vaginalis alone or in combination with anaerobes reported more symptoms than those women who had negative cultures. In addition, women with G. vaginalis alone and those G. vaginalis in combination with other organisms had more discharge, described as yellow and runny, than those with negative cultures. 77% of the women infected with G. vaginalis had a high cheese or fishy odor. 75% of the women with G. vaginalis came to the health center between 2-4 weeks or even longer after they 1st noticed symptoms. On the other hand, women who were infected with C. albicans presented to the health center within a week of the start of the symptoms. Clinicians had previously treated erroneously many of the women with G. vaginalis with an antifungal agent. These women should be treated with metronidazole or, if a yeast infection is also present, with an antifungal agent and metronidazole. All women who present themselves to a nurse or physician with vaginal symptoms should have a history taken, an examination, and vaginal discharge samples taken and evaluated in the laboratory. PMID:3498151

Smail, J

307

Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

1990-01-01

308

Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

1990-10-01

309

Efficacy of cleaning products for C difficile  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for the efficacy of products used for environmental or hand cleaning on the rates of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles pertinent to the efficacy of cleaning products against C difficile or studies with outcomes related to rates of CDAD. Evidence was level II. MAIN MESSAGE Minimizing the incidence of CDAD in geriatric rehabilitation units is essential to achieving the goals of increasing patient function and independence for discharge into the community. Attention to environmental control of C difficile and its spores by health care workers and patient visitors is an important secondary prevention strategy. CONCLUSION Chlorine-releasing agents are more effective than detergents for killing spores produced by C difficile. No level I evidence is available to determine if the use of chlorine-releasing agents has an effect on rates of CDAD. Hand-washing is currently the recommended strategy for reducing transmission of C difficile. Alcohol gels do not inactivate C difficile spores; however, increased use of alcohol hand gel has not been associated with higher rates of CDAD. PMID:20463269

MacLeod-Glover, Nora; Sadowski, Cheryl

2010-01-01

310

The present efficacy of multiple sclerosis therapeutics  

PubMed Central

A challenge for the clinician treating patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is to determine the most effective treatment while weighing the benefits and risks. Results of the phase 2 and phase 3 studies on natalizumab were received with great interest, in part due to the “improved” risk reduction for relapse rate, disease progression, and MRI metrics observed in comparison to results in trials of beta-interferon and glatiramer acetate. However, comparison across trials is invalid, in large part due to differences in the study populations. The increased efficacy observed in more recent trials has also been attributed to a fundamental change in subjects with MS enrolled in recent trials compared with the prior decade. In this article, we debate the relative efficacy of natalizumab vs the older injectable therapies. GLOSSARY ARR = absolute risk reduction; CIS = clinically isolated syndrome; DMT = disease-modulating therapy; EDSS = Expanded Disability Status Scale; FDA = Food and Drug Administration; GA = glatiramer acetate; IFN = interferon; MS = multiple sclerosis; NNT = number needed to treat; PML = progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy; RRMS = relapsing-remitting MS; RRR = relative risk reduction. PMID:19770475

Klawiter, Eric C.; Cross, Anne H.; Naismith, Robert T.

2009-01-01

311

Limits of detection of chemopreventive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to establish estimates of the smallest effects due to chemopreventive intervention detectable by karyometry in skin biopsies. Methods Estimates of the smallest change of statistical significance and of the power of the test were derived for a number of key features descriptive of the distribution of nuclear chromatin. Results from triplicate biopsies from the same case were used to provide estimates of the within-case, biopsy-to-biopsy variance. Results Generally, a change in feature value due to chemopreventive intervention can be statistically secured when it amounts to 5 to 10%. In clinical trials where matched baseline and end of study biopsies from the same cases are available, paired comparison analysis of variance can detect a 2% change on samples of 25 cases. Establishing efficacy in individual cases requires a change in feature values on the order of 10 to 15%. Conclusions Karyometry provides a sensitive, quantitative method for the assessment of efficacy of chemoprevention. The effects of within-case, biopsy-to-biopsy variance need to be considered only in the evaluation of individual cases, and are on the order of 5% in skin biopsies. PMID:18583468

Bartels, P.H.; Yozwiak, M.; Bartels, H.G.; Liu, Y.; Hess, L.M.; Alberts, D.S.

2008-01-01

312

Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with post-traumatic stress symptoms was meta-analytically examined from the perspective of incremental efficacy. Overall post-treatment effect size for EMDR was medium and significant (d=.56). Results indicate efficacy of EMDR when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the non-established trauma treatment or the no-treatment control groups,

Roos Rodenburg; Anja Benjamin; Carlijn de Roos; Ann Marie Meijer; Geert Jan Stams

2009-01-01

313

Faculty perceptions of teaching support and teaching efficacy in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty’s perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy\\u000a in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty’ teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires\\u000a measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were distributed to 1,700 university\\u000a faculty members, yielding 505 complete sets of responses.

Te-Sheng Chang; Wilbert McKeachie; Yi-Guang Lin

2010-01-01

314

Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the utility and validity of A. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and G. A. Marlatt's (1978) theoretical model of relapse in a study of 78 cigarette smokers (aged 16–70 yrs) from 2 cessation programs. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up assessments of smoking behavior, self-efficacy, and mood states (Profile of Mood States) were obtained. Efficacy state was found to be significantly enhanced as

Mark M. Condiotte; Edward Lichtenstein

1981-01-01

315

College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type scale to measure self-efficacy and anxiety in writing.

Lindy Woodrow

316

Evaluating Self-Efficacy for HIV Disease Management Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy is an important determinant of health behavior, but little is known about how to measure self-efficacy for HIV disease management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new HIV Self-Efficacy (HIV-SE) questionnaire. The HIV-SE was developed with 34 items in six specific conceptual domains and 3 additional items assessing general management. The HIV-SE

Martha Shively; Tom L. Smith; Jill Bormann; Allen L. Gifford

2002-01-01

317

ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF INTRACANAL MEDICAMENTS ON BACTERIAL BIOFILM: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to discuss critically the antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments on bacterial biofilm. Longitudinal studies were evaluated by a systematic review of English-language articles retrieved from electronic biomedical journal databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and handsearching records, using different matches of keywords for root canal biofilm, between 1966 and August 1st, 2007. The selected articles were identified from titles, abstracts and full-text articles by two independent reviewers, considering the tabulated inclusion and exclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The search retrieved 91 related articles, of which 8.8% referred to in vivo studies demonstrating the lack of efficacy of endodontic therapy on bacterial biofilm. Intracanal medicaments were found to have a limited action against bacterial biofilm. PMID:19148398

Estrela, Carlos; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow; Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo

2009-01-01

318

The safety and efficacy of statin therapy in the pediatric population.  

PubMed

New guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics now recommend the consideration of statin therapy as a first-line pharmacological measure in children as young as 8 years old with marked hypercholesterolemia. Thus, it is important to review both the safety and efficacy of initiating statin therapy prior to adulthood. Statins interfere with cholesterol synthesis, thereby lowering serum cholesterol levels. However, there are special considerations that need to be made when initiating medications such as statins in the pediatric population. Cholesterol is crucial for various biologic processes including neurological development. Cholesterol also serves as a biochemical precursor to many hormones including those critical in sexual development. This article examines the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of statin use in the pediatric population and identifies areas for future research. PMID:24736575

Robbins, Debra A

2011-01-01

319

Efficacy of EMDR in children: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with post-traumatic stress symptoms was meta-analytically examined from the perspective of incremental efficacy. Overall post-treatment effect size for EMDR was medium and significant (d=.56). Results indicate efficacy of EMDR when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the non-established trauma treatment or the no-treatment control groups, and the incremental efficacy when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the established (CBT) trauma treatment. The discussion focuses on the future replication of EMDR findings and further research on post-traumatic stress in children. PMID:19616353

Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; de Roos, Carlijn; Meijer, Ann Marie; Stams, Geert Jan

2009-11-01

320

Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time.  

PubMed

Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated with enhanced sense of employee capacity for creative work. Contrary to what was expected, employees who experienced increased requirements for creativity in their jobs actually reported a decreased sense of efficaciousness for creative work. Results show that increases in creative self-efficacy corresponded with increases in creative performance as well. PMID:20954756

Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M

2011-03-01

321

Endocytosis in identified rat corticotrophs.  

PubMed

1. We used the patch-clamp technique, in conjunction with membrane capacitance measurement, fluorescence measurement of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), and flash photolysis of caged Ca(2+) to study exo- and endocytosis in identified rat corticotrophs. 2. Exocytosis stimulated by depolarization pulses was typically followed by a 'slow' endocytosis that retrieved the membrane with a time constant of approximately 6 s. The efficiency (the endocytosis/exocytosis amplitude ratio) of 'slow' endocytosis was approximately 1.2 at [Ca(2+)](i) < 3 microM and increased to approximately 1.6 at [Ca(2+)](i) > 3 microM. 3. Whole-cell dialysis through a patch pipette did not affect the kinetics and the efficiency of 'slow' endocytosis, but the amplitude of exocytosis was reduced. 4. 'Slow' endocytosis did not require sustained [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and its kinetics was only weakly [Ca(2+)](i) dependent. Our results suggest that 'slow' endocytosis involves a Ca(2+) sensor with a high Ca(2+) affinity (approximately 500 nM). 5. At high [Ca(2+)](i) (> 10 microM), the 'slow' endocytosis was frequently preceded by a 'fast' endocytosis that comprised multiple steps of rapid decrease in membrane capacitance. 6. Neither calmodulin nor calcineurin appeared to be the Ca(2+) sensor for endocytosis because the two forms of endocytosis were not affected by the calmodulin inhibitor calmidazolium (500 microM) or the calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporin A (1 microM) and calcineurin autoinhibitory peptide (1 mg ml(-1)). Ba(2+), a poor activator of calmodulin, could support both forms of endocytosis but slowed the kinetics of 'slow' endocytosis approximately 2-fold. 7. Non-hydrolysable analogues of GTP (GDP-beta-S) and ATP (ATP-gamma-S) also failed to inhibit either form of endocytosis, indicating that neither GTP nor ATP was essential for endocytosis. 8. We suggest that the high Ca(2+) affinity of 'slow' endocytosis may be important for maintaining continuous cycles of exocytosis-endocytosis during sustained adrenocorticotropin secretion in corticotrophs. PMID:11389200

Lee, A K; Tse, A

2001-06-01

322

Cultural self-efficacy of baccalaureate nursing students in a Greek University  

PubMed Central

Background: Culturally specific care requires that nursing students know, understand, and identify cultural factors related to client care, and conduct their nursing practice accordingly. The aim of this study was to identify the cultural self-efficacy of baccalaureate nursing students in a Greek University. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool was used as a framework, to examine transcultural practices of Greek nursing students. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of students at a Greek Nursing Faculty, and 136 questionnaires returned (Response Rate: 87%). Results: Neither group, i.e., freshmen and senior (4th) year students of a Greek Nursing Faculty, expressed confidence in their ability to care for culturally-diverse patients. Mean scores for the three subscales were higher for senior students (cognitive m = 7.17, practical m = 6.76, affective m = 7.77) than for freshmen students (cognitive m = 6.96, practical m = 6.60, affective m = 7.43) making year of studies a characteristic that was found to be statistically important. A medium level of self-efficacy was found for the two subscales; cognitive (72%, n = 39; 78%, n = 62), practical (52%, n = 26; 48.8%, n = 4), and for the affective subscale the level of self-efficacy was found high (78%, n = 39; 82.6%, n = 71) in freshmen year and senior students. Conclusions: Results suggest that freshmen students exhibited a lack of confidence asking patients from different cultural backgrounds, questions about their own cultural heritage and beliefs while senior students appreciated cultural sensitivity and awareness and therefore confirmed the value of skilled nursing care. PMID:24554941

Sarafis, Pavlos A; Malliarou, Maria M

2013-01-01

323

The effects of group composition of self-efficacy and collective efficacy on computer-supported collaborative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has suggested that group composition plays an important role in collaborative learning, the role of motivation in group composition has rarely been taken into account. This study investigates the effects of group composition of self-efficacy (e.g. low, high, and mixed self-efficacy) on group motivation (i.e. collective efficacy), collaborative learning behavior, and performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment.

Shu-Ling Wang; Sunny S. J. Lin

2007-01-01

324

Reducing the Need for Postsecondary Remediation Using Self-Efficacy to Identify Underprepared African-American and Hispanic Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Postsecondary remedial education is a major problem for Higher Education affecting retention rates, degree completion rates and cost of enrollment. Identification of students who are underprepared for managing the rigors of college and who would benefit from early intervention is necessary to reduce the need for postsecondary…

Orange, Carolyn; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

2013-01-01

325

78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...example, the primary endpoint for chronic hepatitis C trials has been based on detection of hepatitis C virus at week 24 of follow up. Evidence...endpoint in clinical trials and allows for hepatitis C virus treatment options to be...

2013-06-04

326

78 FR 60290 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Reopening of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nancy B. Sager, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration...20993, 301-796-3603, FAX: 301-431-6351, Nancy.sager@fda.hhs.gov; Stephen Ripley, Center for Biologics...

2013-10-01

327

Evaluation of the revised MicroScan dried overnight gram-positive identification panel to identify Enterococcus species.  

PubMed

The revised MicroScan Dried Overnight Gram-Positive Identification panel was evaluated for its efficacy at identifying Enterococcus species in comparison with conventional biochemical tests. Supplemental testing of ampicillin-susceptible Enterococcus faecium for motility and the ability to acidify methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside helped recognize E. gallinarum and increased the accuracy of the panel for identifying Enterococcus species to 98.5%. PMID:10523594

Iwen, P C; Rupp, M E; Schreckenberger, P C; Hinrichs, S H

1999-11-01

328

An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults.  

PubMed

We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations. PMID:23888284

Ponniah, Kathryn; Magiati, Iliana; Hollon, Steven D

2013-04-01

329

An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

2013-01-01

330

Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users  

PubMed Central

This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

2009-01-01

331

Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy  

PubMed Central

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl? channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl? channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1?50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl? conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ?50% inhibition at a 1?5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl? inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl? channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

2014-01-01

332

Safety and efficacy of LigaSure usage in pancreaticoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Over recent years, use of the LigaSure™ vessel sealing device has increased in major abdominal surgery to include pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). LigaSure™ use during PD has expanded to include all steps of the procedure, including the division of the uncinate margin. This introduces the potential for thermal major vascular injury or margin positivity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LigaSure™ usage in PD in comparison to established dissection techniques. Methods One hundred and forty-eight patients who underwent PD from 2007 to 2012 at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital were identified from a retrospective database. Two groups were recognized: those in which the LigaSure™ device was used (N = 114), and in those it was not (N = 34). Peri-operative outcomes were compared. Results Vascular intra-operative complications directly caused by thermal injury from LigaSure™ use occurred in 1.8% of patients. Overall vascular intra-operative complications, uncinate margin positivity, blood loss, length of stay, and complication severity were not significantly different between groups. The mean operative time was 77 min less (P < 0.010) in the LigaSure™ group. Savings per case where the LigaSure™ was used amounted to $1776.73. Conclusion LigaSure™ usage during PD is safe and effective. It is associated with decreased operative times, which may decrease operative costs in PD. PMID:23782268

Eng, Oliver S; Goswami, Julie; Moore, Dirk; Chen, Chunxia; Brumbaugh, Jennifer; Gannon, Christopher J; August, David A; Carpizo, Darren R

2013-01-01

333

The Efficacy of the Cycles Approach: A Multiple Baseline Design  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach as an intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine intervention effects. Three children (ages 4;3 to 5;3) with moderate-severe to severe SSDs participated in two cycles of therapy. Three phonological patterns were targeted for each child. Generalization probes were administered during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance of learned skills. Two of the three participants exhibited statistically and clinically significant gains by the end of the intervention phase and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The third participant exhibited significant gains at follow-up. Phonologically known target patterns showed greater generalization than unknown target patterns across all phases. Individual differences in performance were examined at the participant level and the target pattern level. Learner Outcomes The reader will be able to: (1) enumerate the three major components of the cycles approach, (2) describe factors that should be considered when selecting treatment targets, and (3) identify variables that may affect a child’s outcome following cycles treatment PMID:24438911

Rudolph, Johanna M.; Wendt, Oliver

2014-01-01

334

Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

2008-02-01

335

Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

2012-01-01

336

Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.  

PubMed

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1 ? 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ? 50% inhibition at a 1 ? 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

2014-02-01

337

[Efficacy of cytoflavin in spondylogenic radiculomyeloischemia].  

PubMed

The efficacy of cytoflavin in the treatment of 60 patients (39 women, 21 men, age 32-64 year) with spondylogenic cervical and lumbosacral radiculomyeloischemia due to degenerative dystrophic spinal lesions was studied in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled study according to GCP rules. During 10 days 40 patients received intravenous cytoflavin dropper injections once daily; 20 patients (control group) received 5% glucose solution as a placebo. Considerable improvement was observed in 70% patients with radiculomyeloischemia of cervical localization and in 65%--with radiculomyeloischemia of lumbosacral segments. In the control group, positive dynamics of neurologic symptoms was 25-30% lower. Cytoflavin significantly reduced cognitive disturbances, improved reparative processes both in the central and peripheral neurons, and may be recommended in ischemic neuronal spinal lesions. PMID:15272628

Skoromets, A A; Nikitina, V V; Bykovitski?, D M; Pospelova, M L; Sichkar', O G; Skoromets, A P; Skoromets, T A; Solonski?, A V; Timofeeva, A A

2004-01-01

338

Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

2013-01-01

339

[Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].  

PubMed

Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk associated with cosmetic substances that are "reprotoxic" and/or affect endocrine function, as a result of which various filters are currently being reassessed for such risk. The greater alleged safety of mineral filters, based on the absence of introduction of risk of photosensitisation (as a result of which they are preferred for use in young children), no longer seems so clear since the introduction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the form of nanoparticles. Afssaps drew up a risk assessment report concerning cutaneous penetration, genotoxicity and oncogenesis for TiO(2) and ZnO in nanoparticle form; further studies are needed before any general conclusions may be drawn. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is also carrying out an evaluation of the use of TiO(2) and of ZnO as UV filters. Finally, current data do not suggest that SPPs exert any harmful effects by inhibiting the beneficial effects of the sun, in particular, vitamin D synthesis. PMID:22482479

Beani, J-C

2012-04-01

340

The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

2011-01-01

341

Safety and Efficacy of Modern Insulin Analogues  

PubMed Central

Background A1chieve® was a noninterventional study evaluating the clinical safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30, insulin detemir, and insulin aspart. Methods Korean type 2 diabetes patients who have not been treated with the study insulin or have started it within 4 weeks before enrollment were eligible for the study. The patient selection and the choice of regimen were at the discretion of the physician. The safety and efficacy information was collected from the subjects at baseline, week 12, and week 24. The number of serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) was the primary endpoint. The changes of clinical diabetic markers at week 12 and/or at week 24 compared to baseline were the secondary endpoints. Results Out of 4,058 exposed patients, 3,003 completed the study. During the study period, three SADRs were reported in three patients (0.1%). No major hypoglycemic episodes were observed and the rate of minor hypoglycemic episodes marginally decreased during 24 weeks (from 2.77 to 2.42 events per patient-year). The overall quality of life score improved (from 66.7±15.9 to 72.5±13.5) while the mean body weight was slightly increased (0.6±3.0 kg). The 24-week reductions in glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose were 1.6%±2.2%, 2.5±4.7 mmol/L, and 4.0±6.4 mmol/L, respectively. Conclusion The studied regimens showed improvements in glycemic control with low incidence of SADRs, including no incidence of major hypoglycemic episodes in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:23807921

Yoo, Hye Jin; Park, Keun Yong; Park, Kang Seo; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Min, Kyung Wan; Park, Jeong Hyun; Chang, Sang Ah; Cha, Bong Soo; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Yong Seong; Oh, Tae Keun; Chon, Suk; Nam-Goong, Il Seong; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye-Soon; Choi, Young Sik; Ahn, You Hern; Lee, Sora

2013-01-01

342

Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Ulm, J.E. [TN Dept. of Health, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

343

The Relationship between Cultural Competence and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the nature of the relationship between cultural competence and teacher efficacy. According to 30 years of NAEP data, stagnant achievement among minority students persists; among factors related to student achievement, teacher efficacy represents the school-related variable that is most closely correlated and…

JohnBull, Ranjini Mahinda

2012-01-01

344

Influence of dietary composition on coccidiosis vaccination efficacy in broilers  

E-print Network

INFLUENCE OF DIETARY COMPOSITION ON COCCIDIOSIS VACCINATION EFFICACY IN BROILERS A Dissertation by JASON THOMAS LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2006 Major Subject: Poultry Science INFLUENCE OF DIETARY COMPOSITION ON COCCIDIOSIS VACCINATION EFFICACY IN BROILERS A Dissertation by JASON THOMAS LEE...

Lee, Jason Thomas

2007-04-25

345

Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...

346

Business Student Computer Self-Efficacy: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes computer self-efficacy for two independent samples of students enrolled in an introduction to information systems course in 1996 and 2006. We administered two validated and frequently employed measures of general computer self-efficacy to each group of students and collected demographic and computer-use data. Our findings…

Karsten, Rex; Schmidt, Dennis

2008-01-01

347

Teacher Efficacy of High School Mathematics Co-Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school mathematics inclusion classes help provide all students the access to rigorous curriculum. This study provides information about the teacher efficacy of high school mathematics co-teachers. It considers the influence of the amount of collaborative planning time on the efficacy of co-teachers. A quantitative research design was used,…

Rimpola, Raquel C.

2011-01-01

348

Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy among Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of…

Mouton, Alexandre; Hansenne, Michel; Delcour, Romy; Cloes, Marc

2013-01-01

349

Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

2008-01-01

350

Perceived Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Nigerian Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess differences between Nigerian junior and senior preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 221 preservice teachers enrolled in junior and senior secondary science teacher education programs in Nigeria using Science Teaching Efficacy Belief…

Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

2010-01-01

351

Teacher Efficacy Issues in the Practice of Novice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary study provides a snap shot of the novice teachers' perceptions of their self-efficacy and how it relates to their pedagogy at the beginning of their ongoing professional development training. Oral and written expressions about their pedagogy provide substantive insight to their thoughts and actions regarding teacher efficacy. The…

Onafowora, Laura L.

2005-01-01

352

Creative Self-Efficacy Development and Creative Performance over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated…

Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M.

2011-01-01

353

A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

2012-01-01

354

Assessment of the efficacy of disinfectants on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Literature on testing the efficacy of disinfectants covers a century. Most predominant and standardized are the so called suspension tests that allow for the quantitative estimation of the microbicidal activity (log reduction factors) of disinfectants on test organisms suspended in solutions of these products.Since the outcome of suspension tests might be a poor predictor for the efficacy of a

B. van Klingeren; W. Koller; S. F. Bloomfield; R. Böhm; A. Cremieux; J. Holah; G. Reybrouck; H.-J. Rödger

1998-01-01

355

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Professional School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationships between burnout and self-efficacy among school counselors. Also, the level of their burnout and self-efficacy was examined in terms of the social support, task perception and the number of students. A sample of 194 school counselors filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The School Counselors…

Gunduz, Bulent

2012-01-01

356

Self-Efficacy, Stress, and Academic Success in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27…

Zajacova, Anna; Lynch, Scott M.; Espenshade, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

357

A National Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs in Deaf Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' sense of efficacy, or the belief that teachers have of their capacity to make an impact on students' performance, is an unexplored construct in deaf education research. This study included data from 296 respondents to examine the relationship of teacher and school characteristics with teachers' sense of efficacy in 80 different deaf…

Garberoglio, Carrie Lou; Gobble, Mark E.; Cawthon, Stephanie W.

2012-01-01

358

Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

2006-01-01

359

Profiles of the Sources of Science Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students' (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in…

Chen, Jason A.; Usher, Ellen L.

2013-01-01

360

Exact power and sample size for vaccine efficacy studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vaccine efficacy studies the goal is to show that the vaccine reduces the incidence of the disease compared to placebo. In this report we describe two procedures for calculating sample size and powei based on exact distributions In small studies where the disease incidence and the anticipated vaccine efficacy are both high, an unconditional exact procedure is desirable because

Ivan S. F. Chan; Norman R. Bohidar

1998-01-01

361

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL  

E-print Network

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL Nicholas Garber herbicides and AF36 have not previously been investigated. AF36 product efficacy in the field is dependant spores was quantified after exposure to the common herbicides: Buctril® 4EC, Bueno® 6, Caparol® 4L, Direx

Cotty, Peter J.

362

Early Career Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Balanced Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Bandura (1986; 1997), perceptions of efficacy are based on four sources: enactive attainment; vicarious experience; physiological and emotional states; and verbal persuasion. The factors affecting Early Career Teachers' self-efficacy for reading instruction are closely related to these four sources. It is not difficult to imagine an…

Hastings, Petra

2012-01-01

363

The Relationship between Lesson Study and Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses a gap in the literature by developing a theory that bridges lesson study and self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy has been linked to student achievement, the theory is important as an explanatory mechanism linking lesson study to student achievement. The theory was developed using grounded theory based on primary source data…

Sibbald, Tim

2009-01-01

364

Neighborhood Processes, Self-Efficacy, and Adolescent Mental Health  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…

Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank

2012-01-01

365

Efficacy of In-Home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been much discussion of the efficacy of mental health interventions for children as well as the transportation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) to field settings. A logical initial step in this line of research is to examine whether the efficacy of ESTs can be demonstrated in community settings such as in the…

Ware, Lisa M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Masse, Joshua; Stevens, Sarah

2008-01-01

366

Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and

Albert Bandura

1977-01-01

367

Assessing Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RESE) scale was developed to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing negative (NEG) and in expressing positive (POS) affect (G. V. Caprara & M. Gerbino, 2001). In this study of young adults, the factorial structure of the RESE scale was found to be similar in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia: In…

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Giunta, Laura Di; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tramontano, Carlo

2008-01-01

368

High Efficacy and the Preservice Reading Teacher: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of two field experiences, tutoring and observing, on preservice teachers' reading self-efficacy and content knowledge. Participants completed an adapted, reading version of The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results showed that both groups reported growth in reading…

Haverback, Heather Rogers; Parault, Susan J.

2011-01-01

369

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

370

Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

Smother, Anthony William

2012-01-01

371

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Performing Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 154 cabin attendants to examine the role of self-efficacy in the performance of emotion work. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that self-efficacy would have a moderating influence on the relationship between emotional job demands (i.e., feeling rules and emotionally charged interactions with passengers)…

Heuven, Ellen; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Huisman, Noortje

2006-01-01

372

College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

Woodrow, Lindy

2011-01-01

373

Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

2012-01-01

374

Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

Fineburg, Amy Cheek

2010-01-01

375

Mental Health Promotion in Schools by Strengthening Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review two school intervention projects aiming to promote students' self-efficacy in Germany. Self-efficacy, defined as people's "beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments", is a core prevention criterion of mental health. It is…

Jerusalem, Matthias; Hessling, Johannes Klein

2009-01-01

376

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression  

E-print Network

Efficacious Data Cube Exploration by Semantic Summarization and Compression Laks V.S. Lakshmanan developed a systematic approach to achieve efficacious data cube construction and exploration by semantic summarization and compression. Our ap- proach is pivoted on a notion of quotient cube that groups together

Pei, Jian

377

Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Turkish Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…

Isik, Erkan

2010-01-01

378

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

379

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith,  

E-print Network

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith, ¢¡ Stephanie Forrest-665-3493. Running head: Annual influenza vaccination. Classification: Medical Science Keywords: influenza, vaccination, original antigenic sin, vaccine efficacy, repeated vaccination. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Conclusions have

Forrest, Stephanie

380

Career Self-Efficacy: Exemplary Recent Research and Emerging Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses what the author views as exemplary work illustrating important directions in research on the applications of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to career theory, assessment, and counseling. The author begins with research on measuring career self-efficacy, following which research testing the postulated behavioral consequences…

Betz, Nancy E.

2007-01-01

381

An Empirical Exploration of Factors Related to Adolescents' Political Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Political scientists have found that one of the strongest predictors of political participation is political efficacy, the belief that individuals' actions can influence political processes. Prior research indicates that political efficacy increases through various experiences, such as discussions of public issues, but it does not explain why or…

Levy, Brett L. M.

2013-01-01

382

Perceptions of Self-Efficacy among STEM Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies examine the relationship between self-efficacy and positive outcomes for postsecondary students. Collectively they echo that self-efficacy is an essential component to positive outcomes. Relatively few studies focused on students with disabilities majoring in STEM fields. Twenty postsecondary students with disabilities…

Jenson, Ronda J.; Petri, Alexis N.; Day, Arden D.; Truman, Kevin Z.; Duffy, Kate

2011-01-01

383

Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

2013-01-01

384

Teacher Stress: The Mediating Role of Collective Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the study were to (a) examine the factor structure of measures of teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and job satisfaction, and (b) explore the mediating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 951 teachers from elementary and secondary schools in…

Klassen, Robert M.

2010-01-01

385

Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…

Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.

2012-01-01

386

Career Development, Collective Efficacy, and Individual Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that perceived collective efficacy would mediate the effects of self-efficacy on individual task performance. Design/methodology/approach: An assessment center design with 147 participants in 49 three-person groups was used. Findings: It is found that for individuals working on an…

Kellett, Janet B.; Humphrey, Ronald H.; Sleeth, Randall G.

2009-01-01

387

Ubiquitination profiling identifies sensitivity factors for IAP antagonist treatment.  

PubMed

Evasion of cell death is one crucial capability acquired by tumour cells to ward-off anti-tumour therapies and represents a fundamental challenge to sustaining clinical efficacy for currently available agents. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins use their ubiquitin E3 ligase activity to promote cancer cell survival by mediating proliferative signalling and blocking cell death in response to diverse stimuli. Using immunoaffinity enrichment and MS, ubiquitination sites on thousands of proteins were profiled upon initiation of cell death by IAP antagonists in IAP antagonist-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cell lines. Our analyses identified hundreds of proteins with elevated levels of ubiquitin-remnant [K-GG (Lys-Gly-Gly)] peptides upon activation of cell death by the IAP antagonist BV6. The majority of these were observed in BV6-sensitive, but not-resistant, cells. Among these were known pro-apoptotic regulators, including CYC (cytochrome c), RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1) and a selection of proteins known to reside in the mitochondria or regulate NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) signalling. Analysis of early time-points revealed that IAP antagonist treatment stimulated rapid ubiquitination of NF-?B signalling proteins, including TRAF2 [TNF (tumour necrosis factor) receptor-associated factor 2], HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized iron-regulatory protein 2 ubiquitin ligase-1), NEMO (NF-?B essential modifier), as well as c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) auto-ubiquitination. Knockdown of several NF-?B pathway members reduced BV6-induced cell death and TNF production in sensitive cell lines. Importantly, RIP1 was found to be constitutively ubiquitinated in sensitive breast-cancer cell lines at higher basal level than in resistant cell lines. Together, these data show the diverse and temporally defined roles of protein ubiquitination following IAP-antagonist treatment and provide critical insights into predictive diagnostics that may enhance clinical efficacy. PMID:25423073

Varfolomeev, Eugene; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Yu, Kebing; Bustos, Daisy; Goncharov, Tatiana; Belmont, Lisa D; Masselot, Alexandre; Bakalarski, Corey E; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Vucic, Domagoj

2015-02-15

388

Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. Results In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. Conclusions The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25628734

Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin

2015-01-01

389

Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).  

PubMed

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

2010-02-01

390

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

391

Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. In this regard, a model based on hypotheses was designed to determine the relationships among variables. The study sample consisted of 328 classroom and branch…

Calik, Temel; Sezgin, Ferudun; Kavgaci, Hasan; Cagatay Kilinc, Ali

2012-01-01

392

The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

Briley, Jason S.

2012-01-01

393

Updated ILAE evidence review of antiepileptic drug efficacy and effectiveness as initial monotherapy for epileptic seizures and syndromes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this report was to update the 2006 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) report and identify the level of evidence for long-term efficacy or effectiveness for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as initial monotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed or untreated epilepsy. All applicable articles from July 2005 until March 2012 were identified, evaluated, and combined with the previous analysis (Glauser et al., 2006) to provide a comprehensive update. The prior analysis methodology was utilized with three modifications: (1) the detectable noninferiority boundary approach was dropped and both failed superiority studies and prespecified noninferiority studies were analyzed using a noninferiority approach, (2) the definition of an adequate comparator was clarified and now includes an absolute minimum point estimate for efficacy/effectiveness, and (3) the relationship table between clinical trial ratings, level of evidence, and conclusions no longer includes a recommendation column to reinforce that this review of efficacy/evidence for specific seizure types does not imply treatment recommendations. This evidence review contains one clarification: The commission has determined that class I superiority studies can be designed to detect up to a 20% absolute (rather than relative) difference in the point estimate of efficacy/effectiveness between study treatment and comparator using an intent-to-treat analysis. Since July, 2005, three class I randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 11 class III RCTs have been published. The combined analysis (1940-2012) now includes a total of 64 RCTs (7 with class I evidence, 2 with class II evidence) and 11 meta-analyses. New efficacy/effectiveness findings include the following: levetiracetam and zonisamide have level A evidence in adults with partial onset seizures and both ethosuximide and valproic acid have level A evidence in children with childhood absence epilepsy. There are no major changes in the level of evidence for any other subgroup. Levetiracetam and zonisamide join carbamazepine and phenytoin with level A efficacy/effectiveness evidence as initial monotherapy for adults with partial onset seizures. Although ethosuximide and valproic acid now have level A efficacy/effectiveness evidence as initial monotherapy for children with absence seizures, there continues to be an alarming lack of well designed, properly conducted epilepsy RCTs for patients with generalized seizures/epilepsies and in children in general. These findings reinforce the need for multicenter, multinational efforts to design, conduct, and analyze future clinically relevant adequately designed RCTs. When selecting a patient's AED, all relevant variables and not just efficacy and effectiveness should be considered. PMID:23350722

Glauser, Tracy; Ben-Menachem, Elinor; Bourgeois, Blaise; Cnaan, Avital; Guerreiro, Carlos; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Mattson, Richard; French, Jacqueline A; Perucca, Emilio; Tomson, Torbjorn

2013-03-01

394

Efficacy of TCH/TEC neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to observe the efficacy of neoadjuvant trastuzumab combined with docetaxel and carboplatin (TCH), and docetaxel, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (TEC) chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2)-overexpressing breast cancer. The total cohort of 64 cases of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer patients was divided into two groups according to their treatment preferences: The TCH group, consisting of 39 patients, and the TEC group, consisting of 25 patients. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy was continued for six cycles prior to comparison of the treatment efficacy. The TCG and TEC groups exhibited an overall response rate of 94.9 and 72.0% (37/39 and 18/25 cases; P<0.05), respectively, and a pathological complete response (pCR; defined as the presence of no invasive or in situ residual tumors in the breast) rate of 69.2 and 32.0% (27/39 and 8/25 cases; P<0.05), respectively. Furthermore, no significant differences were identified between the two groups of patients in terms of adverse reactions, such as cardiac dysfunction, bone marrow suppression and liver function impairment. In the present study, the treatment of HER-2-overexpressing breast cancer patients with TCH neoadjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated more favorable efficacy and a higher pCR rate when compared with the TEC-treated group. PMID:25789069

CHEN, WEICAI; HE, JINSONG; SONG, SHUFEN; WANG, MIN; WU, HUISHENG; WANG, XIANMING

2015-01-01

395

[Efficacy and safety of bisoprololal in hypertensive patients with cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Efficacy and safety of bisoprolol in hypertensive patients with cardiovascular disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A comparative study on the efficacy and safety of bisoprolol and sustained release metoprolol succinate in patients with arterial hypertension (AH), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was conducted. High antihypertensive efficacy and good tolerability of bisoprolol and metoprolol succinate sustained release was shown in hypertensive patients with CVD and COPD. Bisoprolol versus metoprolol succinate sustained release was more effective in reducing the number of PVCs in hypertensive patients with CVD and COPD. After 12 weeks of therapy of bisoprolol there was a trend to reduce the number of patients with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy by 16.6 % (from 83.3% at baseline vs 66.7% after 12 weeks of treatment, p < 0.1). Despite the fact that the identified changes in respiratory function (ERF) in both groups did not reach certainty bisoprolol versus metoprolol succinate sustained-release was a lesser extent influenced the performance of ERF and more - to reduce dyspnea to the evaluation scales Borg and mMRC (delta% = -7.1 in fixed vs delta% = -3.8 in control groups and delta% = -5.6 vs delta% = 0 respectively) in patients with AH, CVD and COPD. PMID:24881311

Statsenko, M E; Derevianchenko, M V; Chernikov, M V; Lopushkova, Iu E

2014-01-01

396

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711

Prazeres, Angélica M; Nascimento, Antônio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

397

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

2012-01-01

398

Adherence to Hemodialysis Dietary Sodium Recommendations: Influence of Patient Characteristics, Self-Efficacy and Perceived Barriers  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify characteristics of hemodialysis patients most likely to experience difficulty adhering to sodium restrictions associated with their dietary regimen. Design Secondary analysis using baseline data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial examining the effects of a technology-supported behavioral intervention on dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients. Setting 13 dialysis centers in southwestern Pennsylvania. Subjects 122 participants (61% women, 48% African American) aged 61 ± 14 years receiving maintenance, intermittent hemodialysis for end stage renal disease. Main outcome measure Normalized dietary sodium intake, adjusted interdialytic weight gain, perceived problems and self-efficacy for restricting dietary sodium. Results Younger participants were more likely to report problems managing their hemodialysis diet and low self-efficacy for restricting sodium intake. Consistent with these findings, younger participants had a higher median sodium intake and higher average adjusted interdialytic weight gain. Females reported more problems managing their diet. Race, time on dialysis and perceived income adequacy did not appear to influence outcome measures. Conclusion Our findings suggest patients who are younger and female encounter more difficulty adhering to the hemodialysis regimen. Hence, there may be a need to individualize counseling and interventions for these individuals. Further investigation is needed to understand the independent effects of age and gender on adherence to hemodialysis dietary recommendations and perceived self-efficacy. PMID:24462498

Clark-Cutaia, Maya N.; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A.; Burke, Lora E.; Sevick, Mary Ann

2014-01-01

399

Investigating the efficacy of terrorist network visualizations  

E-print Network

Military intelligence analysts are increasingly tasked to sift through enormous volumes of data to identify the proverbial intelligence "needle in a haystack." One specific domain exemplifying this new intelligence paradigm ...

Berardi, Christopher W. (Christopher Walter)

2013-01-01

400

Efficacy of isoniazid prophylactic therapy in prevention of tuberculosis in children: a meta–analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Children are highly susceptible to tuberculosis; thus, there is need for safe and effective preventive interventions. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of isoniazid in prevention of tuberculosis morbidity and mortality in children aged 15 years or younger by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating efficacy of isoniazid prophylaxis in prevention of tuberculosis in children. Methods A systematic search of the literature was done to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating isoniazid prophylaxis efficacy among children. Each study was evaluated for relevance and validity for inclusion in the analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on study quality, HIV status, tuberculosis endemicity, type of prophylaxis and age of participants. Results Eight studies comprising 10,320 participants were included in this analysis. Upon combining data from all eight studies, isoniazid prophylaxis was found to be efficacious in preventing development of tuberculosis, with a pooled RR of 0.65 (95% CI 0.47, 0.89) p?=?0.004 , with confidence intervals adjusted for heterogeneity. Among the sub-group analyses conducted, only age of the participants yielded dramatic differences in the summary estimate of efficacy, suggesting that age might be an effect modifier of the efficacy of isoniazid among children, with no effect realised in children initiating isoniazid at four months of age or earlier and an effect being present in older children. Excluding studies in which isoniazid was initiated at four months of age or earlier yielded an even stronger effect (RR?=?0.41 (95% CI 0.31, 0.55) p <0.001). Data on the effect of isoniazid on all-cause mortality, excluding studies in which isoniazid was initiated in infants, yielded an imprecise estimate of mortality benefit (RR?=?0.58 (95% CI 0.31, 1.09) p?=?0.092). Conclusion Isoniazid prophylaxis reduces the risk of developing tuberculosis by 59% among children aged 15 years or younger excluding children initiated during early infancy for primary prophylaxis (RR?=?0.41, 95% CI 0.31, 0.55 p?

2014-01-01

401

A Proposal for Integrated Efficacy-to-Effectiveness (E2E) Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

We propose an “efficacy-to-effectiveness” (E2E) clinical trial design, in which an effectiveness trial would commence seamlessly upon completion of the efficacy trial. Efficacy trials use inclusion/exclusion criteria to ...

Selker, H P

402

Pyrimidine-based tricyclic molecules as potent and orally efficacious inhibitors of wee1 kinase.  

PubMed

Aided by molecular modeling, compounds with a pyrimidine-based tricyclic scaffold were designed and confirmed to inhibit Wee1 kinase. Structure-activity studies identified key pharmacophores at the aminoaryl and halo-benzene regions responsible for binding affinity with sub-nM K i values. The potent inhibitors demonstrated sub-?M activities in both functional and mechanism-based cellular assays and also possessed desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. The lead molecule, 31, showed oral efficacy in potentiating the antiproliferative activity of irinotecan, a cytotoxic agent, in a NCI-H1299 mouse xenograft model. PMID:25589931

Tong, Yunsong; Torrent, Maricel; Florjancic, Alan S; Bromberg, Kenneth D; Buchanan, Fritz G; Ferguson, Debra C; Johnson, Eric F; Lasko, Loren M; Maag, David; Merta, Philip J; Olson, Amanda M; Osterling, Donald J; Soni, Nirupama; Shoemaker, Alexander R; Penning, Thomas D

2015-01-01

403

Immunogenicity and efficacy of oral vaccines in developing countries: lessons from a live cholera vaccine  

PubMed Central

Oral vaccines, whether living or non-living, viral or bacterial, elicit diminished immune responses or have lower efficacy in developing countries than in developed countries. Here I describe studies with a live oral cholera vaccine that include older children no longer deriving immune support from breast milk or maternal antibodies and that identify some of the factors accounting for the lower immunogenicity, as well as suggesting counter-measures that may enhance the effectiveness of oral immunization in developing countries. The fundamental breakthrough is likely to require reversing effects of the 'environmental enteropathy' that is often present in children living in fecally contaminated, impoverished environments. PMID:20920375

2010-01-01

404

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

405

The influence of classroom experiences on community college students self-efficacy, attitude, and future intentions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and technology are an integral part of everyday life. Therefore it is necessary that the general population have some understanding and appreciation for science. Participating in activities that are science-related is one way a person could enhance their understanding and appreciation for science. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the attitude and self-efficacy beliefs a person holds regarding an object or activity will influence behavioral intentions (Ajzen, 1991). Therefore, if science educators can have a positive influence on their students' attitude and sense of efficacy toward science, perhaps the result will be a populace who willingly participates in science-related activities, ultimately gaining a better understanding and appreciation for science. The present study examined the relationships between the classroom environment students experienced during a ten week period of introductory chemistry and their attitudes toward chemistry (and general science), chemistry self-efficacy, and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities in the future. The participants of this study (N = 189) were Midwestern community college students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course. The efficacy scale of the Chemistry Attitude and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ) developed by Dalgety, Coll, and Jones (2003) was used to measure student chemistry self-efficacy. The attitude scale used in this study consisted of the attitude toward chemistry items of CAEQ and five additional items pertaining to general science attitude. The classroom environment scale was defined by two measures: (1) instructional pedagogies and (2) teacher immediacy behaviors. The items within the instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy measures were based on previous research that focused on identifying teaching techniques and teacher attributes that were conducive to promoting an engaging, supportive classroom environment that would promote better attitude toward science and stronger science self-efficacy beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude items revealed that students did not differentiate between general science attitude and chemistry attitude. Therefore, all twenty-six attitude items were combined into one attitude measure. Additionally, factor analysis revealed that the items designed to measure the separate dimensions of instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy behavior both loaded highly on the same factor, resulting in the combing of these two sets of items into one measure of classroom environment. Structural equations modeling (SEM) analyses of the relationships between student perceptions of the classroom environment and their attitude, efficacy and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities revealed that a positive classroom environment was associated with positive changes in both attitude toward chemistry/science and chemistry self-efficacy, as hypothesized. These analyses also supported the hypothesis that a positive change in chemistry self-efficacy beliefs mediated student intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities. However, the findings did not support the hypothesis that positive changes in attitude toward chemistry/science would mediate participation in chemistry-related activities.

Dawkins, Linda Mulderig

406

NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

407

[Treatment of adjustment disorder with anxiety: efficacy and tolerance of etifoxine in a double-blind controlled study].  

PubMed

Adjustment disorder with anxiety is defined as a clinically significant anxiety that occurs within 3 months after the onset of an identifiable psychological stressor. Recent studies indicate that this disorder is not uncommon and must be quickly identified and treated. However, few therapeutic trials have been done in relation with this disorder. According to the criteria set by DSM IV, 170 patients with a primary diagnosis of adjustment disorder with anxiety have been enrolled in a double blind multicenter controlled trial. Patients were treated for 4 weeks with etifoxine (150-200 mg/d), or buspirone (15-20 mg/d). Also both etifoxine and buspirone show clinical efficacy and safety, the two treatments are not equivalent. The global improvement score and the efficacy index are significantly improved in the etifoxine group. These results show the interest of using etifoxine in the treatment of adjustment disorder with anxiety and should be confirmed by further studies. PMID:9949940

Servant, D; Graziani, P L; Moyse, D; Parquet, P J

1998-01-01

408

Structural Identifiability of Viscoelastic Mechanical Systems  

PubMed Central

We solve the local and global structural identifiability problems for viscoelastic mechanical models represented by networks of springs and dashpots. We propose a very simple characterization of both local and global structural identifiability based on identifiability tables, with the purpose of providing a guideline for constructing arbitrarily complex, identifiable spring-dashpot networks. We illustrate how to use our results in a number of examples and point to some applications in cardiovascular modeling. PMID:24523860

2014-01-01

409

Short communication: Efficacy of copper sulfate hoof baths against digital dermatitis-Where is the evidence?  

PubMed

Digital dermatitis is a major problem in modern dairy production because of decreased animal welfare and financial losses. Individual cow treatments are often seen as too time consuming by farmers, and walk-through hoof baths have therefore been used extensively to control digital dermatitis. For decades, copper sulfate hoof baths have been used to treat and prevent digital dermatitis. Copper sulfate has been referred to as the industry gold standard when it comes to hoof-bath chemicals. In several scientific studies testing the efficacy of other hoof-care products, copper sulfate has been used as a positive control, thereby indicating that copper sulfate has a known positive effect. However, this may not be the case. A dilemma may exist between (1) copper sulfate generally being perceived as being effective against digital dermatitis and (2) a possible lack of well-documented scientific evidence of this effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existing scientific literature to determine whether the efficacy of copper sulfate used in hoof baths against digital dermatitis has in fact been demonstrated scientifically. A systematic literature search identified 7 peer-reviewed journal articles describing the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths as treatment or prevention of bovine digital dermatitis. Only 2 of the 7 studies compared copper sulfate to a negative control; most studies were relatively small, and often no clear positive effect of copper sulfate was demonstrated. In conclusion, the frequent claim that copper sulfate is widely reported to be effective is supported by little scientific evidence. Well-designed clinical trials evaluating the effect of copper sulfate against digital dermatitis compared with a negative control are needed. Until such studies have been made, the efficacy of copper sulfate in hoof baths against digital dermatitis remains largely unproven. PMID:25622864

Thomsen, Peter T

2015-04-01

410

Risk Recognition, Attachment Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and State Dissociation Predict Revictimization  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to predict revictimization. Methods Participants were N?=?85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, state dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety predicted group membership. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, state dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. Conclusions This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and state dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher state dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization. PMID:25238153

Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

2014-01-01

411

Application of Perez Daylight Efficacy Model for Kolkata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of daylight on any plane of a building and the passive heat gain due to the corresponding incident solar radiation is correlated by daylight luminous efficacy. The present study was carried out to evaluate daylight efficacy on exterior horizontal plane for Kolkata using Perez Model an established analytical model and Indian measured solar radiation database. The analytical model was selected according to the sky conditions throughout the year. The estimated efficacy models were used to predict horizontal global and diffuse illuminances. The predicted global and diffuse illuminance was validated with the measured illuminance values using standard statistical tools. The estimated Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and Mean Bias Deviation (MBD) between experimental and simulated values of illuminance are +7 % and ±4.5 % respectively. An analytical model of luminous efficacy for Kolkata was also developed from the measured values. From the study, it has been found that diffuse luminous efficacy varies from 114-138 lm/W whereas global luminous efficacy varies from 98-112 lm/W in a year. It is also observed that sky clearness index and diffuse irradiance ratio have significant effect on the variations of luminous efficacy in different seasons.

Raul, Debashis; Pal, Sujoy; Roy, Biswanath

2014-09-01

412

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

413

Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance  

DOEpatents

A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

1997-10-07

414

Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance  

DOEpatents

A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

Ecker, Joseph R. (Erial, NJ); Staskawicz, Brian J. (Castro Valley, CA); Bent, Andrew F. (Piedmont, CA); Innes, Roger W. (Bloomington, IN)

1997-10-07

415

Efficacy of cromoglycate in persistently wheezing infants.  

PubMed Central

A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of (sodium) cromoglycate in the treatment of persistent wheezing in 31 children between 4 and 12 months of age. The subjects were randomised to receive either 40 mg of cromoglycate (n = 16) or physiological saline as placebo (n = 15) three times a day by wet nebulisation in a double blind fashion for a period of six weeks. The patients were evaluated with daily symptom scores and respiratory function testing measuring maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (VmaxFRC) before initiating treatment and upon completion. At baseline, mean (SD) symptom scores between the two groups were comparable (cromoglycate 99.5 (29.8), placebo 104.5 (29.7)) as were VmaxFRC expressed as per cent of predicted normals (cromoglycate 48 (28), placebo 46 (20)). Upon completion of the treatment protocol, no significant difference could be found between the two groups for either symptom score (cromoglycate 67.6 (40.2), placebo 58.6 (41.4)), or VmaxFRC (cromoglycate 52 (24), placebo 60 (32)). It is concluded, therefore, that 40 mg of cromoglycate three times a day administered via facemask and wet nebulisation was no more effective than placebo in the treatment of our sample of persistently wheezing infants under 1 year of age. PMID:7979527

Furfaro, S; Spier, S; Drblik, S P; Turgeon, J P; Robert, M

1994-01-01

416

Fasciolicides: efficacy, actions, resistance and its management.  

PubMed

The modes of action of fasciolicides are described. Closantel and other salicylanilides interfere with energy metabolism by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation in the fluke. Other fasciolicides are believed to have a metabolic action-halogenated phenols (via uncoupling) and clorsulon (via inhibition of glycolysis)-but direct evidence is lacking. Benzimidazoles (in particular, triclabendazole) bind to fluke tubulin and disrupt microtubule-based processes. Diamphenethide inhibits protein synthesis in the fluke. Other potential drug actions may contribute to overall drug efficacy. In particular, a number of fasciolicides-salicylanilides, phenols, diamphenethide-induce a rapid paralysis of the fluke, so their action may have a neuromuscular basis, although the actions remain ill-defined. Resistance to salicylanilides and triclabendazole has been detected in the field, although drug resistance does not appear to be a major problem yet. Strategies to minimize the development of resistance include the use of synergistic drug combinations, together with the design of integrated management programmes and the search for alternatives to drugs, in particular, vaccines. PMID:10489266

Fairweather, I; Boray, J C

1999-09-01

417

Antipsychotic agents: efficacy and safety in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics have provided a great improvement in the management of people with schizophrenia. The first generation antipsychotics could establish the possibility of managing many psychotic subjects in an outpatient setting. With the advent of the second (SGA) and third generation antipsychotics (TGA), other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar depression, bipolar mania, autism, and major depressive disorder have now been approved for the use of these drugs for their treatment. Also, the administration of more specific assessment tools has allowed for better delineation of the repercussions of these drugs on symptoms and the quality of life of patients who use antipsychotic agents. In general, the SGA share similar mechanisms of action to achieve these results: dopamine-2 receptor antagonism plus serotonin-2A receptor antagonism. The TGA (eg, aripiprazole) have partial agonist activity at the dopamine-2 receptor site, and are also called dopaminergic stabilizers. The pharmacological profile of SGA and TGA may provide better efficacy against negative symptoms, and are less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms; however, the SGA and TGA are associated with many other adverse events. The clinician has to balance the risks and benefits of these medications when choosing an antipsychotic for an individual patient. PMID:23236256

de Araújo, Arão Nogueira; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Juruena, Mario F

2012-01-01

418

Prucalopride: safety, efficacy and potential applications  

PubMed Central

Chronic constipation is a very common functional gastrointestinal disorder which can be associated with significant impairments in quality of life for some people with the condition. Its management has, traditionally, been based on dietary and lifestyle changes and the use of a variety of laxative agents. The evidence base for the efficacy of the latter is, in many cases, slim. Not surprisingly, many patients remain dissatisfied with laxatives thus leading to the development of more pharmacological approaches. Among these approaches is the use of prokinetic agents; while prior molecules have been troubled by lack of selectivity and cardiac side effects, the new agent, prucalopride, appears to be highly selective for the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor and is, therefore, a potent stimulator of gut motility. In three large pivotal randomized controlled trials, prucalopride has been effective in relieving the cardinal symptoms of chronic constipation; these effects have been sustained in open-label follow up for as long as 18 months. The safety profile has been encouraging and, especially so, the absence of arrhythmogenic potential. Studies in men, in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and in other motor disorders are eagerly awaited. PMID:22282705

2012-01-01

419

Efficacy of antioxidants in human hair.  

PubMed

Hair is exposed every day to a range of harmful effects such as sunlight, pollution, cosmetic treatments, grooming practices and cleansing. The UV components of sunlight damage human hair, causing fibre degradation. UV-B attacks the melanin pigments and the protein fractions (keratin) of hair and UV-A produces free radical/reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the interaction of endogenous photosensitizers. Hair was dyed and the efficacy of two antioxidant formulations was demonstrated after UV exposure by evaluating, surface morphology, protein and amino acid degradation, lipidic peroxidation, colour and shine changes and strength/relaxation properties. UV treatment resulted in an increase in protein and lipid degradation, changes in colour and shine and in adverse consequences for the mechanical properties. Natural antioxidants obtained from artichoke and rice applied to pretreated hair improved mechanical properties and preserved colour and shine of fibres, coating them and protecting them against UV. Furthermore, the lipidic peroxidation of the protein degradation caused by UV was reduced for some treated fibres, suggesting an improvement in fibre integrity. This was more marked in the case of the fibres treated using the artichoke extract, whereas the rice extract was better preserving shine and colour of hair fibres. PMID:23123594

Fernández, Estibalitz; Martínez-Teipel, Blanca; Armengol, Ricard; Barba, Clara; Coderch, Luisa

2012-12-01

420

Optimizing efficacy of amphotericin B through nanomodification  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections and leishmaniasis are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The macrolide polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal and leishmanicidal drug. A conventional intravenous dosage form of AmB, AmB- deoxycholate (Fungizone or D-AmB), is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal and parasitic (leishmaniasis) infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects mainly nephrotoxicity. Efforts to lower the toxicity are based on synthesis of AmB analogues such as AmB esters or preparation of AmB-lipid associations in the forms of liposomal AmB (L-AmB or AmBisome), AmB lipid complex (Abelcet or ABLC), AmB colloidal dispersion (Amphocil or ABCD), and intralipid AmB. These newer formulations are substantially more expensive, but allow patients to receive higher doses for longer periods of time with decreased renal toxicity than conventional AmB. Modifications of liposomal surface in order to avoid RES uptake, thus increased targetability has been attempted. Emulsomes and other nanoparticles are special carrier systems for intracellular localization in macrophage rich organs like liver and spleen. Injectable nanocarriers have important potential applications as in site-specific drug delivery. PMID:17722276

Vyas, Suresh P; Gupta, Swati

2006-01-01

421

Confirming the efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in CIDP through minimum clinically important differences: shifting from statistical significance to clinical relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe ICE trial demonstrated the efficacy of immune globulin intravenous (IGIV-C) over placebo in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). However, improving the interpretability of the results by analysing the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) had not been considered.ObjectivesTo identify MCID thresholds of various outcome measures using different methods and to test treatment differences (IGIV-C vs placebo) using these thresholds.MethodsOne anchor-based

I. S. J. Merkies; S. I. van Nes; K. Hanna; R. A. C. Hughes; C. Deng

2010-01-01

422

The role of self-regulation strategies and self-efficacy perceptions in successful weight loss maintenance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the self-regulatory strategies which people use to lose, maintain, or manage their weight, and to assess their self-efficacy perceptions to implement these strategies. Thirty-three (N = 33) undergraduate college students were divided into three groups based on their past weight loss experience and confirmed by their current Body Mass Index: (a) overweight

Anastasia Kitsantas

2000-01-01

423

Efficacy in sheep and pharmacokinetics in cattle that led to the selection of eprinomectin as a topical endectocide for cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eprinomectin (MK-397 or 4?-epi-acetylamino-4?-deoxy-avermectin B1) is a novel avermectin selected for development as a topical endectocide for all cattle, including lactating cows. The initial efficacy assessments were made in sheep to identify subclasses of the avermectin\\/milbemycins that possessed inherent activity against a spectrum of nematode parasites. This included examination of several hundred analogs each given orally to a single sheep

W. L. Shoop; P. Demontigny; D. W. Fink; J. B. Williams; J. R. Egerton; H. Mrozik; M. H. Fisher; B. J. Skelly; M. J. Turner

1996-01-01

424

The efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in depression: a meta-analysis of studies against tricyclic antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of five selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against non-selective and noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors (mainly tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs) is presented. Fifty five double- blind studies were identified after excluding those multiply reported or with methodological problems likely to bias the outcome in favour of SSRIs. Standardised effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated based on

I. M. Anderson; B. M. Tomenson

1994-01-01

425

Alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care: Absence of evidence for efficacy in people with dependence or very heavy drinking  

PubMed Central

Issues Although screening and brief intervention (BI) in the primary-care setting reduces unhealthy alcohol use, its efficacy among patients with dependence has not been established. This systematic review sought to determine whether evidence exists for BI efficacy among patients with alcohol dependence identified by screening in primary-care settings. Approach We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from eight systematic reviews and electronic-database searches published through September 2009. These RCTs compared outcomes among adults with unhealthy alcohol use identified by screening who received BI in a primary-care setting with those who received no intervention. Key Findings Sixteen RCTs including 6839 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 excluded some or all persons with very heavy alcohol use or dependence; one in which 35% of 175 patients had dependence found no difference in an alcohol severity score between groups; and one in which 58% of 24 female patients had dependence showed no efficacy. Conclusion and Implications Alcohol screening and BI has efficacy in primary care for patients with unhealthy alcohol use but, there is no evidence for efficacy among those with very heavy use or dependence. Since alcohol screening identifies both dependent and non-dependent unhealthy use, the absence of evidence for the efficacy of BI among primary-care patients with screening-identified alcohol dependence raises questions regarding the efficiency of screening and BI, particularly in settings where dependence is common. The finding also highlights the need to develop new approaches to help such patients, particularly if screening and BI are to be disseminated widely. PMID:20973848

SAITZ, RICHARD

2010-01-01

426

Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of intervention.

Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard

2014-10-01

427

PCDH19-related female-limited epilepsy: further details regarding early clinical features and therapeutic efficacy.  

PubMed

Abnormalities in the protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) gene cause early-onset epilepsy exclusively in females. We aimed to explore the genetic and clinical characteristics of PCDH19-related epilepsy by focusing on its early features and treatment efficacy. PCDH19 was analyzed in 159 Japanese female patients with early-onset epilepsy via direct sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified 17 patients with PCDH19 abnormalities: point mutations were observed in 14 patients and whole PCDH19 deletions were detected in 3 patients. One affected sister of a proband with a mild phenotype was also analyzed. The frequency of PCDH19 deletion among all probands identified in Japan was 12.5% (3/24, including 7 probands reported previously by us). Clinical features included early onset (mean age at onset, 8.6 months), recurrent clusters of brief seizures (17/18), fever sensitivity (18/18), tonic seizures (13/18, probably including focal tonic seizures), tonic-clonic seizures (8/18), focal seizures often with subsequent generalization (17/18), intellectual disabilities (15/18), and autistic traits (13/18). Three patients exhibited delay in motor milestones before seizure onset. In 16 patients, seizures appeared in clusters from the onset of the disease. Among 6 patients for whom detailed information at onset was available, 2 onset patterns were identified: a biphasic course of short seizure clusters (each within days) in 2 patients and a prolonged course of clusters (from weeks to a month) in 4 patients. In both cases, initial seizures started during fever and transiently disappeared with the decline of fever; however, afebrile clusters recurred. In the former patients, motor development was delayed before onset, and seizures appeared in strong clusters from the onset of the disease. In the latter patients, initial development was normal and initial seizures were mild, but were followed by strong clusters lasting several weeks, even without fever. Treatment using phenytoin, potassium bromide, and clobazam showed high efficacy. Although focal seizures were the main feature in PCDH19-epilepsy, the efficacy of carbamazepine was poor. This study highlighted the significance of PCDH19 deletion, a unique pattern of initial seizure clusters, and the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs. Our data will facilitate early diagnosis and development of a treatment strategy for better clinical management of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy. PMID:23712037

Higurashi, Norimichi; Nakamura, Mai; Sugai, Misaki; Ohfu, Masaharu; Sakauchi, Masako; Sugawara, Yuji; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Kato, Mitsuhiro; Usui, Daisuke; Mogami, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Yumi; Ito, Tomoshiro; Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Nukui, Megumi; Inoue, Takeshi; Okazaki, Shin; Kirino, Tomoko; Tomonoh, Yuko; Inoue, Takahito; Takano, Kyoko; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Hirose, Shinichi

2013-09-01

428

Efficacy and Safety of Propiverine in Children with Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimuscarinic therapy remains one of the most common forms of therapy for overactive bladder (OAB) in children. However, few clinical studies on the outcomes of antimuscarinics in children with OAB have been published. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of propiverine, which is frequently prescribed for the treatment of pediatric OAB. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed children with OAB treated with propiverine within the past 5 years. The response rates were compared between the non-urge incontinence (non-UI) and urge incontinence (UI groups). The cumulative response rate by treatment duration was also compared between the two groups. Results Among a total of 68 children, 50 children (73.5%) experienced UI. The overall response rate was 86.8%. Functional bladder capacity after treatment was 150 ml, which represented an increase compared with the value (140 ml) before treatment. The voiding frequency per day decreased from 14.0 to 8.5 times. The overall response rate (88.0%) in the non-UI group was not significantly different from that seen in the UI group (83.3%; p>0.05). In non-UI children, the cumulative response rates were 36.0%, 54.0%, 68.0%, 74.0%, 76.0%, and 78.0% at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks, respectively. The cumulative response rates in the UI children were 11.1%, 33.3%, 44.4%, 50.0%, 50.0%, and 55.6%, respectively during the same respective time periods. Adverse effects were identified in only two (2.9%) patients, and neither case was severe. Conclusions Propiverine is effective and well tolerated as a treatment for children suffering from OAB with or without UI. PMID:22536472

Kim, Woo Jung; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Jae Seung; Park, Kwan Hyun

2012-01-01

429

A Comparison of the Influences of Different Training Approaches on Trainees' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy to Achieve Training Outcomes among Bankers in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the influences of the classroom training and the structured on-the-job training (S-OJT) approaches on trainees' self-efficacy to achieve the training outcomes among bankers in Taiwan. Based on the conditions for training effectiveness identified in the literature, the study examined whether trainees with…

Huang, WenRou

2010-01-01

430

Low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the safety and efficacy of low- molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of ve- nous thromboembolism (VTE) in preg- nancy, a systematic review of studies to the end of 2003 was undertaken. Data on VTE recurrence and side effects were extracted and cumulative incidences of VTE and adverse effects calculated. Of 81 reports identified, 64 reporting 2777

Ian A. Greer; Catherine Nelson-Piercy

2005-01-01

431

Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Perceived Stress, and an Integrated Model of Student Persistence: A Structural Model of Finances, Attitudes, Behavior, and Career Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the extraordinarily diverse adult student population present in college today, a new structural equation model adapted from Cabrera et al. (1993) integrated model of student retention was identified with the addition of three variables: career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), perceived stress and financial difficulty. The study examined the persistence of students (N = 937) 24 years of age

Martin E. Sandler

2000-01-01

432

An Investigation of the Relationship between Self-Efficacy Beliefs about Technology Integration and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among Preservice Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigated the relationship between measures of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice teachers about technology integration. Within a single-group, pretest-posttest design, a correlational analysis identified several knowledge domains in the TPACK model that the…

Abbitt, Jason T.

2011-01-01

433

Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

2013-01-01

434

Number of Different Purging Behaviors Used Among Women With Eating Disorders: Psychological, Behavioral, Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine differences between a number of different purging behaviors used and outcome measures among eating disorder patients. Among 211 females who received inpatient or partial hospitalization eating disorder treatment, analyses of covariance and cross-tabulations identified associations among a number of different purging behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use) used and psychological, behavioral, self-efficacy

Diann M. Ackard; Catherine L. Cronemeyer; Lisa M. Franzen; Sara A. Richter; Jane Norstrom

2011-01-01

435

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Risk Factors for Falls, Fear of Falling, and Falls Efficacy in a Cohort of Middle-Aged African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to cross-sectionally and longitudinally identify risk factors for falls, fear of falling, and falls efficacy in late-middle-aged African Americans. Design and Methods: We performed in-home assessments on a probability sample of 998 African Americans and conducted two annual follow-up interviews. Multiple…

Anderson, Elena M.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.; Miller, J. Phillip; Wilson, Margaret-Mary G.; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.

2006-01-01

436

The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase 3 comparison study with hypertonic (4.5%) saline  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT) developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage over the traditional methods of measuring airway hyperresponsiveness using methacholine as they demonstrate higher specificity to identify asthma and thus the need for treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The safety and the efficacy of

John D Brannan; Sandra D Anderson; Clare P Perry; Ruth Freed-Martens; Anna R Lassig; Brett Charlton

2005-01-01

437

The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Among Latino/a High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making…

Gushue, George V.

2006-01-01

438

ForPeerReview Persuasive communication and advertising efficacy for  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview Persuasive communication and advertising efficacy for public health policy Research Article Keywords: Persuasive communication, Pragmatics, Social advertising, Health communication and preventive advertising. http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/commresearch Communication Researchhalshs-00410054

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

439

Microneedle delivery for improved efficacy of antiretroviral and antibiotic drugs  

E-print Network

Two classes of drugs, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, could benefit greatly from delivery through microneedles. Microneedles (MN) offer an increase in efficacy for these drugs by providing delivery to the lymphatic system ...

Stauber, Zachary Jason

2012-01-01

440

Perceived social support, self-efficacy, and adjustment to abortion.  

PubMed

Prior to their having a 1st trimester abortion, women's perceptions of social support from their partner, family, and friends and self-efficacy for coping were assessed. Depression, mood, physical complaints, and anticipation of negative consequences were measured after the 30-min recovery period. As predicted, perceived social support enhanced adjustment indirectly through its effects on self-efficacy. Women who perceived high support from their family, friends, and partners had higher self-efficacy for coping. Higher self-efficacy, in turn, predicted better adjustment on the psychological measures but not on the physical complaint measure. No direct path between social support and adjustment was observed. In addition, women who told close others of their abortion but perceived them as less than completely supportive had poorer postabortion psychological adjustment than either women who did not tell or women who told and perceived complete support. PMID:2231279

Major, B; Cozzarelli, C; Sciacchitano, A M; Cooper, M L; Testa, M; Mueller, P M

1990-09-01

441

Predicting Positive Self-Efficacy in Group Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 288 hospital employees engaged in problem-solving groups found that previous group problem-solving experience, educational level, work expertise, and problem-solving confidence were the best predictors of self-efficacy. (SK)

Wolf, Kay N.

1997-01-01

442

Variables Affecting the Efficacy of a Token Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated in a longitudinal study were the variables affecting the efficacy of a token economy used with 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded males (16-24 years old) exhibiting disruptive behaviors. (Author/CL)

Westphal, Carl R.

1975-01-01

443

Efficacy of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis for travelers.  

PubMed

Nine of 26 French tourists developed malaria after a 2-week stay under field conditions in a highly endemic place in Burkina Faso. A study of their preventive antimalarial measures identified a strong association of malaria attack with absence or inadequacy of chemoprophylaxis but not with mechanic measures. PMID:19192134

Sicard, Sébastien; Simon, Fabrice; Soula, George; Gazin, Pierre

2009-01-01

444

Efficacy and safety of AZD3199 vs formoterol in COPD: a randomized, double-blind study  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the efficacy and safety of AZD3199, a novel inhaled ultra-LABA, with the main aim of establishing a dose that would maintain 24-hour bronchodilation in patients with COPD. Methods Patients (n?=?329) were randomized to AZD3199 (200, 400 or 800 ?g o.d.), formoterol (9 ?g b.i.d.) or placebo via Turbuhaler® in a parallel group study. The primary objective of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy of three doses of AZD3199 inhaled once daily with 9 ?g formoterol twice daily and placebo, over a 4-week treatment period in adults with moderate-to-severe COPD. After 4 weeks, peak (0–4 h) and trough (24–26 h) forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) were assessed as the primary efficacy outcome variables. Results All AZD3199 doses significantly increased mean peak and trough FEV1 versus placebo (106–171 ml and 97–110 ml increases, respectively), but with no clear dose–response; the level of bronchodilation was comparable to or greater than that achieved with formoterol. Forced vital capacity (FVC) at peak bronchodilation also significantly increased with AZD3199 versus placebo (153–204 ml). COPD symptom scores and reliever use were reduced with AZD3199, while FEV1 reversibility was unaltered. Adverse events were mild-to-moderate, with no safety concerns identified. Drug exposure was dose-proportional, but lower than predicted from healthy volunteers. Conclusions All three doses of AZD3199 produced 24-hour bronchodilation, but with no clear dose–response, suggesting that doses of 200 ?g or less may be sufficient to maintain bronchodilation over 24 hours in patients with COPD. No safety concerns were identified. Further studies are required to determine the once-daily AZD3199 dose for COPD. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00929708 PMID:23731768

2013-01-01

445

Efficacy of glucocorticoids in rodents of severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of corticosteroid in the management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains contentious and is still being debated despite many pre-clinical studies demonstrating benefits. The limitations of clinical research on corticosteroid in SAP are disparities with regard to benefit, a lack of adequate safety data and insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroid in experimental SAP and take a closer look at the relation between the animal studies and prospective trials. Methods: Studies investigating corticosteroid use in rodent animal models of SAP were identified by searching multiple three electronic databases through October 2013, and by reviewing references lists of obtained articles. Data on mortality, changes of ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas were extracted. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled efficacy. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: We identified 15 published papers which met our inclusion criteria. Corticosteroid prolonged survival by a factor of 0.35 (95% CI 0.21-0.59). Prophylactic use of corticosteroid showed efficacy with regards to ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas, whereas therapeutic use did not. Efficacy was higher in large dose and dexamethasone groups. Study characteristics, namely type of steroids, rout of delivery, genders and strains of animal, accounted for a significant proportion of between-study heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was observed. Conclusions: On the whole, corticosteroids have showed beneficial effects in rodent animal models of SAP. Prophylactic use of corticosteroid has failed to validate usefulness in prophylaxis of postendoscopic retrogradcholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Further appropriate and informative animal experiments should be performed before conducting clinical trials investigating therapeutic use in SAP. PMID:25120741

Yu, Min; Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

2014-01-01

446

Planetarium instructional efficacy: A research synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the current study was to explore the instructional effectiveness of the planetarium in astronomy education using meta-analysis. A review of the literature revealed 46 studies related to planetarium efficacy. However, only 19 of the studies satisfied selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Selected studies were then subjected to coding procedures, which extracted information such as subject characteristics, experimental design, and outcome measures. From these data, 24 effect sizes were calculated in the area of student achievement and five effect sizes were determined in the area of student attitudes using reported statistical information. Mean effect sizes were calculated for both the achievement and the attitude distributions. Additionally, each effect size distribution was subjected to homogeneity analysis. The attitude distribution was found to be homogeneous with a mean effect size of -0.09, which was not significant, p = .2535. The achievement distribution was found to be heterogeneous with a statistically significant mean effect size of +0.28, p < .05. Since the achievement distribution was heterogeneous, the analog to the ANOVA procedure was employed to explore variability in this distribution in terms of the coded variables. The analog to the ANOVA procedure revealed that the variability introduced by the coded variables did not fully explain the variability in the achievement distribution beyond subject-level sampling error under a fixed effects model. Therefore, a random effects model analysis was performed which resulted in a mean effect size of +0.18, which was not significant, p = .2363. However, a large random effect variance component was determined indicating that the differences between studies were systematic and yet to be revealed. The findings of this meta-analysis showed that the planetarium has been an effective instructional tool in astronomy education in terms of student achievement. However, the meta-analysis revealed that the planetarium has not been a very effective tool for improving student attitudes towards astronomy.

Brazell, Bruce D.

447

Is acupuncture efficacious therapy in Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

This review aims to assess the evidences from recent clinical studies regarding the efficacy of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease. Relevant literatures were searched from 13 databases under the condition "published between 2000 and 2012" with language restrictions. Eleven studies were indentified including 6 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 4 uncontrolled open label studies, and 1 crossover trial. The number of trials, and their total sample size were not enough to prove the favorable effects of acupuncture. Five studies failed to report proper diagnostic criteria for enrollment. Two of the 6 RCTs did not include the randomization methods and whether the assessors were blinded. Drop-outs were unreported or insufficiently reported in 2 trials. Three RCTs compared the effects of acupuncture with placebo acupuncture. Two of these trials failed to show superiority of acupuncture. One RCT showed beneficial effects of constitutional acupuncture, but not needle acupuncture. Three RCTs that assessed the effects of acupuncture adjunctive to conventional drugs reported beneficial effects of acupuncture. The placebo response to acupuncture was not excluded, because there was no control acupuncture group in these studies. Two uncontrolled studies showed significant positive effects of acupuncture, while other two uncontrolled trials failed. There were no recognized validated acupuncture treatment protocols and a lack of consensus on the location of acupoints. Safety and tolerability were reported only in 5 studies. No study evaluated the long-lasting effect of acupuncture following cessation of the treatment. To date, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating Parkinson's disease is not convincing. There are needs for further studies with improved methodological quality. PMID:24798223

Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Beom S

2014-06-15

448

Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.  

PubMed

The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants. PMID:15923059

Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

2005-10-01

449

Effect of Workplace Laughter Groups on Personal Efficacy Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured the impact of a purposeful aerobic laughter intervention on employees’ sense of self-efficacy in the workplace.\\u000a Participants were 33 employees of a behavioral health center. They met for 15-minute sessions on 15 consecutive workdays and\\u000a engaged in a guided program of non-humor dependent laughter. The primary outcome measure was the Capabilities Awareness Profile,\\u000a a self-report self-efficacy questionnaire.

Heidi Beckman; Nathan Regier; Judy Young

2007-01-01

450

Building self-efficacy in tennis players: A coach's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the degree to which high school and age group tennis coaches use 13 strategies for influencing self-efficacy and their evaluation of the effectiveness of those strategies. Self-efficacy rating differences between categories of coaches (e.g., male versus female, successful versus less successful, more versus less experienced, physical education\\/coaching courses versus no courses)

Robert Weinberg; Allen Jackson

1990-01-01

451

Efficacy of dichlorvos in the control of murine acariasis  

E-print Network

EFFICACY OF DICHLORVOS IN THE CONTROL OF MURINE ACARIASIS A Thesis by Clara Jane Fraser Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971... Major Subject: Veterinary Parasitology EFFICACY OF DICHLORVOS IN THE CONTROL OF MURINE ACARIASIS A Thesis by Clara Jane Fraser Approved as to style and content by: (Chai Committee (Hea of Department) (Member) ( r) ( ber) (Member) (Member...

Fraser, Clara Jane

1971-01-01

452

Peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio at study enrollment predicts efficacy of the RTS,S malaria vaccine: analysis of pooled phase II clinical trial data  

PubMed Central

Background RTS,S is the most advanced candidate malaria vaccine but it is only partially protective and the causes of inter-individual variation in efficacy are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether peripheral blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratios (ML ratio), previously shown to correlate with clinical malaria risk, could account for differences in RTS,S efficacy among phase II trial participants in Africa. Methods Of 11 geographical sites where RTS,S has been evaluated, pre-vaccination ML ratios were only available for trial participants in Kilifi, Kenya (N?=?421) and Lambarene, Gabon (N?=?189). Using time to first clinical malaria episode as the primary endpoint we evaluated the effect of accounting for ML ratio on RTS,S vaccine efficacy against clinical malaria by Cox regression modeling. Results The unadjusted efficacy of RTS,S in this combined dataset was 47% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26% to 62%, P <0.001). However, RTS,S efficacy decreased with increasing ML ratio, ranging from 67% (95% CI 64% to 70%) at an ML ratio of 0.1 to 5% (95% CI -3% to 13%) at an ML ratio of 0.6. The statistical interaction between RTS,S vaccination and ML ratio was still evident after adjustment for covariates associated with clinical malaria risk in this dataset. Conclusion The results suggest that stratification of study participants by ML ratio, easily measured from full differential blood counts before vaccination, might help identify children who are highly protected and those that are refractory to protection with the RTS,S vaccine. Identifying causes of low vaccine efficacy among individuals with high ML ratio could inform strategies to improve overall RTS,S vaccine efficacy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.Gov numbers NCT00380393 and NCT00436007 PMID:23962071

2013-01-01

453

Predicting of perceived self efficacy in the amount of macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome - 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Metabolic syndrome is a collection of metabolic disorders, which can increase the mortality rates from 20% to 80%. One of strategies to control the disease is the attention to the dietary habits. Compliance with proper diet is one of the major challenges in the management of this syndrome. Due to this fact, that the patient is responsible for the adjustment of the daily diet, it is important to identify the factors affecting the adoption of nutritional self-care. Besides, self-efficacy is considered as an important pre-requisite for this behavior because it acts as an independent part of the basic skills. This study was carried out with the purpose of determining the predictive role of perceived self-efficacy on macronutrients intake in women with metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study with correlational nature in 2012, there were 329 patients with the metabolic syndrome. The patients were covered by Isfahan oil industry medical centers and selected by a systematic method. In order to gather information on perceived self-efficacy, the questionnaires constructed by the researchers were used and the validity and reliability had been confirmed by the calculation of content validity indexand content validity ratio values and the indices of internal consistency and stability of the tool. The 24-h dietary recall questionnaire was also used for 3 days in order to investigate the nutritional behavior. The obtained data from the dietary recall questionnaire were analyzed by the N4 nutritional software. In this study, AMOS software version 16 was used for the structural model fitting by using the generalized least squares method besides the SPSS statistical software version 16. Results: These averages obtained from the results: 2512.37 kcal energy intake, 70.95 g protein, 420 g carbohydrates and 61.61 g of fat per day. The mean of perceived self-efficacy score was 47.89. The Pearson correlation coefficient was indicated a significant inverse relationship between the perceived self-efficacy and intake of macronutrients in the metabolic syndrome. The most direct effect of the coefficient of perceived self-efficacy was observed on fat and carbohydrate intake (P < 0.05 and ? = ?0.592) and (P < 0.05 and ? = ?0.395). Conclusions: The amount of energy, carbohydrate, fat and protein were more than the recommended dietary allowances levels and the amount of self-efficacy was moderate. The present study showed that perceived self-efficacy provided a useful framework to understand and predict adherence to dietary self-care behaviors in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24741661

Mohebi, Siamak; Azadbakht, Leila; Feizi, Avat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hozori, Mohammad

2014-01-01

454

Efficacy Beliefs of Beginning Hispanic Teachers and the Organizational Health of Schools in a South Texas School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative study examined the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and school organizational health. Teachers' sense of efficacy was measured using three dimensions of teacher efficacy: efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, and efficacy in classroom management. Organizational health was…

Saenz, Gisela S.

2013-01-01

455

Identifying potential programs and platforms to deliver multiple micronutrient interventions.  

PubMed

This article reviews the potential of four broad types of platforms, health, agriculture, market-based, and social protection programs, to deliver multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions (supplementation, fortification, and dietary modification). We assessed the platforms' potential based on seven performance criteria related to programs within these platforms: 1) targeting, 2) efficacy of interventions, 3) quality of implementation, 4) utilization, 5) impact, 6) coverage, and 7) sustainability. We highlight one type of program per platform to illustrate strengths and weaknesses for delivering MMN interventions, identify critical knowledge gaps, and highlight what is needed to increase effectiveness for delivering MMN interventions. We found that all four platforms have the potential to effectively deliver MMN interventions if the following key program elements are addressed: 1) strong behavior change communication strategies to increase demand and proper utilization of services/products; 2) supply side interventions to ensure consistent availability of high quality interventions, products, and well-trained staff; 3) rigorous evaluations of effectiveness, quality of delivery, and impact pathways to generate best practices for replication and scale-up; and 4) timely dissemination of evaluation results to ensure use by program implementers and policy makers. The diversification of delivery platforms, which simultaneously addresses multiple determinants of MMN deficiencies and expands coverage, is needed to accelerate progress in reducing MMN deficiencies. PMID:22131548

Olney, Deanna K; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

2012-01-01

456

The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Visual Discrimination Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Can subjective belief about one's own perceptual competence change one's perception? To address this question, we investigated the influence of self-efficacy on sensory discrimination in two low-level visual tasks: contrast and orientation discrimination. We utilised a pre-post manipulation approach whereby two experimental groups (high and low self-efficacy) and a control group made objective perceptual judgments on the contrast or the orientation of the visual stimuli. High and low self-efficacy were induced by the provision of fake social-comparative performance feedback and fictional research findings. Subsequently, the post-manipulation phase was performed to assess changes in visual discrimination thresholds as a function of the self-efficacy manipulations. The results showed that the high self-efficacy group demonstrated greater improvement in visual discrimination sensitivity compared to both the low self-efficacy and control groups. These findings suggest that subjective beliefs about one's own perceptual competence can affect low-level visual processing. PMID:25295529

Zacharopoulos, George; Binetti, Nicola; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

2014-01-01

457

Field evaluation of measles vaccine efficacy in Mozambique.  

PubMed

Monitoring measles vaccine efficacy is an important form of quality control in immunization programs. Retrospective cohort studies of vaccine efficacy were conducted in Mozambique with the aim of adopting this method for regular use. The authors studied 1,215 and 790 children aged 12-35 months in the cities of Nampula and Beira, respectively. In Nampula (1985), vaccine efficacy was estimated to be 40%, and in Beira (1986), it was estimated to be 59%. To investigate the possibility of falsely low results due to poor specificity of maternal reporting of measles cases, a seroepidemiologic study of 600 children aged 12-47 months was conducted in Nampula in 1986. The specificity and sensitivity of a maternal history of measles in an unvaccinated child were estimated as 83% and 56%, respectively. These results were used to obtain an adjusted vaccine efficacy estimate of 66%, almost double the estimate of 37% obtained using data on history of vaccination and illness alone. The large bias introduced into the vaccine efficacy estimation by low specificity of disease diagnosis is a serious limitation to the use of retrospective cohort methods to assess efficacy. PMID:2404409

Cutts, F T; Smith, P G; Colombo, S; Mann, G; Ascherio, A; Soares, A C

1990-02-01

458

Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome  

PubMed Central

We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole intestinal transit time, stool microbiome, and metabolite composition were collected and/or documented in eight children with IBS at baseline and during one week of an LFSD intervention. Pain frequency (P < 0.05), pain severity (P < 0.05), and pain-related interference with activities (P < 0.05) decreased in the subjects while on the LFSD. Responders vs. non-responders: four children (50%) were identified as responders (>50% decrease in abdominal pain frequency while on the LFSD). There were no differences between responders and non-responders with respect to hydrogen production, methane production, stooling characteristics, or gut transit time. Responders were characterized by increased pre-LFSD abundance of bacterial taxa belonging to the genera Sporobacter (P < 0.05) and Subdoligranulum (P < 0.02) and decreased abundance of taxa belonging to Bacteroides (P < 0.05) relative to non-responders. In parallel, stool metabolites differed between responders and non-responders and were associated with differences in microbiome composition. These pilot study results suggest that an LFSD may be effective in decreasing GI symptoms in children with IBS. Microbial factors such as gut microbiome composition and stool metabolites while on the diet may relate to LFSD efficacy. PMID:24637601

Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hollister, Emily B; Oezguen, Numan; Tsai, Cynthia M; McMeans, Ann R; Luna, Ruth A; Savidge, Tor C; Versalovic, James; Shulman, Robert J

2014-01-01

459

A novel tick antigen shows high vaccine efficacy against the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  

PubMed

Ticks are acaridae ectoparasites that, while taking a blood meal, can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa and filarial nematodes, which cause a variety of human and animal illnesses. The use of chemical pesticides constitutes the primary measure for control of these ectoparasites. However, the intensive use of these chemicals has drawbacks such as the contamination of food, environmental pollution and development of resistance by ectoparasites. Vaccination is considered a promising alternative for controlling infestations by ectoparasites. Although emerging tick proteins have been identified recently, and have been proposed as potential targets for generating protective molecules, only a limited number of them have been evaluated in vaccine trials. More than 80 proteins are found in eukaryotic ribosomes. The protein P0 is essential for the assembly of the 60S ribosomal subunit. We have identified an immunogenic region of the ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus sp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to host P0. The efficacy of a 20 amino acid synthetic peptide from this sequence was assayed as a vaccine antigen against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment on rabbits. A remarkable diminution in the viability of newly molted nymphs from larvae fed on vaccinated rabbits was observed. The number of adults and the number of eggs hatching were significantly reduced, with an overall efficacy of 90%. Our results demonstrated that immunization with an immunogenic peptide of tick protein P0 greatly reduced survival of ticks, suggesting that it has promise as an effective tick control agent. PMID:22245603

Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Fernández, Erlinda; Encinosa, Pedro E; Bello, Yamil; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Ruiz, Lázaro Cepero; Pérez, Danny; González, Mayte; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Méndez, Luis; Estrada, Mario Pablo

2012-02-27

460

Self-reported efficacy of cannabis and other complementary medicine modalities by Parkinson's disease patients in colorado.  

PubMed

Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M

2015-01-01

461

Comparative efficacy of extracts from Lycium barbarum bark and fruit on estrogen receptor positive human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Chemo-endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) breast cancer exhibits acquired tumor resistance. Herbal medicines provide integrative support for breast cancer patients. Present study compared the efficacy of aqueous extracts from Lycium barbarum bark (LBB) and Lycium barbarum fruit (LBF) on ER(+) MCF-7 cells. Cellular growth and 17ß-estradiol (E2) metabolism quantified the efficacy. MCF-7 cells maintained in serum depleted medium+ E2 exhibited increased anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. LBB exhibited greater potency than LBF (95% reduction in IC50). LBB produced a 6.8-fold increase, 40% decrease, and a 3.7-fold increase in 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16?-hydroxyestrone (16?-OHE1), and estriol (E3) formation. The corresponding values for LBF were 3.9, 33, and 10.5. LBB produced a16.3-fold and a twofold increase in 2-OHE1:16?-OHE1 and E3:16?-OHE1 ratios, whereas LBF produced a sixfold and a 2.9-fold increase. The efficacy of LBB is due to increased 2-OHE1 formation, whereas that of LBF is due to accelerated conversion of 16?-OHE1 to E3. Specific growth inhibitory profiles of LBB and LBF may be due to their distinct chemical composition and their complementary actions on E2 metabolism. This study validates a mechanistic approach to identify efficacious herbal extracts for clinical ER(+) breast cancer. PMID:24377707

Telang, Nitin; Li, Gou; Sepkovic, Daniel; Bradlow, H Leon; Wong, George Y C

2014-01-01

462

The Efficacy of HIV/STI Behavioral Interventions for African American Females in the United States: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated the efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions for African American females in the United States, and we identified factors associated with intervention efficacy. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive literature review covering studies published from January 1988 to June 2007, which yielded 37 relevant studies. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and meta-regression. Results. Overall, behavioral interventions had a significant impact on reductions in HIV-risk sex behaviors (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.54, 0.75; n = 11 239; Cochrane Q32 = 84.73; P < .001) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs; OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67, 0.98; n = 8760; Cochrane Q16 = 22.77; P = .12). Greater intervention efficacy was observed in studies that specifically targeted African American females used gender- or culture-specific materials, used female deliverers, addressed empowerment issues, provided skills training in condom use and negotiation of safer sex, and used role-playing to teach negotiation skills. Conclusions. Behavioral interventions are efficacious at preventing HIV and STIs among African American females. More research is needed to examine the potential contribution of prevention strategies that attend to community-level and structural-level factors affecting HIV infection and transmission in this population. PMID:19762676

Marshall, Khiya J.; Aupont, Latrina W.; Jacobs, Elizabeth D.; Mizuno, Yuko; Kay, Linda S.; Jones, Patricia; McCree, Donna Hubbard; O'Leary, Ann

2009-01-01

463

Self-Reported Efficacy of Cannabis and Other Complementary Medicine Modalities by Parkinson's Disease Patients in Colorado  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is frequently used by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We sought to provide information on CAM use and efficacy in PD patients in the Denver metro area with particular attention to cannabis use given its recent change in legal status. Methods. Self-administered surveys on CAM use and efficacy were completed by PD patients identified in clinics and support groups across the Denver metro area between 2012 and 2013. Results. 207 patients (age 69 ± 11; 60% male) completed the survey. Responses to individual CAM therapy items showed that 85% of respondents used at least one form of CAM. The most frequently reported CAMs were vitamins (66%), prayer (59%), massage (45%), and relaxation (32%). Self-reported improvement related to the use of CAM was highest for massage, art therapy, music therapy, and cannabis. While only 4.3% of our survey responders reported use of cannabis, it ranked among the most effective CAM therapies. Conclusions. Overall, our cross-sectional study was notable for a high rate of CAM utilization amongst PD patients and high rates of self-reported efficacy across most CAM modalities. Cannabis was rarely used in our population but users reported high efficacy, mainly for nonmotor symptoms. PMID:25821504

Finseth, Taylor Andrew; Hedeman, Jessica Louise; Brown, Robert Preston; Johnson, Kristina I.; Binder, Matthew Sean; Kluger, Benzi M.

2015-01-01

464

Evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of an eyelid warming device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is widespread and has significant impact on patients’ quality of life. Eyelid hygiene is the mainstay of treatment but is unstandardized and requires commitment from the patient and encouragement from the ophthalmologist. Blephasteam® is an eyelid warming device designed to be an easy-to-use and standardized treatment for MGD. In the present study, 73 patients were treated for 21 days with twice daily Blephasteam® sessions. The primary efficacy variable, a symptomatology visual analog scale score, declined from 63.07±21.23 (mean ± standard deviation) on day 0 to 41.90±25.49 on day 21. There were also improvements in a number of secondary efficacy variables including subjective ocular symptoms and clinical signs and symptoms of MGD and dry eye, though tear film breakup time and tear osmolarity were not improved. Global efficacy was assessed as satisfactory or very satisfactory in 83.8% of cases. Patient-reported subjective ocular symptoms declined during the study, and a majority of patients rated the efficacy of Blephasteam® as satisfactory or very satisfactory. Most patients found the device comfortable and were able to continue with normal activities (reading, watching TV, using a computer) during the Blephasteam® session. No safety or tolerability issues were identified. PMID:25336900

Benitez del Castillo, José Manuel; Kaercher, Thomas; Mansour, Khaled; Wylegala, Edward; Dua, Harminder

2014-01-01

465

Long-acting risperidone injection: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the first long-acting atypical antipsychotic  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone. Methods Studies published between January 2000 and October 2006 evaluating the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone were reviewed, as identified from literature searches using Medline and EMBASE. Abstracts and posters on long-acting risperidone presented at key psychiatry congresses and available in the public domain during this time period were also reviewed. Results The unique pharmacokinetic profile of long-acting risperidone is derived from the encapsulation of risperidone in a glycolide/lactide matrix in the form of microspheres such that after a single intramuscular injection, significant plasma levels of the drug are achieved after week 3. Steady state, after repeated administration at 2-week intervals, is achieved after 3 injection cycles. Short- and long-term studies have demonstrated that long-acting risperidone (25, 37.5, or 50 mg) is both efficacious and well tolerated in a wide variety of patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses. Most patients can be switched from other oral and long-acting antipsychotic agents without compromising efficacy and safety. Long-acting risperidone may also reduce overall healthcare costs by decreasing rates of relapse and hospitalization. Conclusion The assured delivery of an atypical antipsychotic medication with long-acting risperidone has important implications for patient compliance, maintenance of stability, consistency of treatment, and improving patient outcomes including the achievement of remission. PMID:19300536

Chue, Pierre

2007-01-01

466

Evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of an eyelid warming device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction.  

PubMed

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is widespread and has significant impact on patients' quality of life. Eyelid hygiene is the mainstay of treatment but is unstandardized and requires commitment from the patient and encouragement from the ophthalmologist. Blephasteam(®) is an eyelid warming device designed to be an easy-to-use and standardized treatment for MGD. In the present study, 73 patients were treated for 21 days with twice daily Blephasteam(®) sessions. The primary efficacy variable, a symptomatology visual analog scale score, declined from 63.07±21.23 (mean ± standard deviation) on day 0 to 41.90±25.49 on day 21. There were also improvements in a number of secondary efficacy variables including subjective ocular symptoms and clinical signs and symptoms of MGD and dry eye, though tear film breakup time and tear osmolarity were not improved. Global efficacy was assessed as satisfactory or very satisfactory in 83.8% of cases. Patient-reported subjective ocular symptoms declined during the study, and a majority of patients rated the efficacy of Blephasteam(®) as satisfactory or very satisfactory. Most patients found the device comfortable and were able to continue with normal activities (reading, watching TV, using a computer) during the Blephasteam(®) session. No safety or tolerability issues were identified. PMID:25336900

Benitez Del Castillo, José Manuel; Kaercher, Thomas; Mansour, Khaled; Wylegala, Edward; Dua, Harminder

2014-01-01