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1

Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Background Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718.

2013-01-01

2

Identifying events that impact self-efficacy in physics learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one’s own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of self-efficacy have required participants to recollect past events. This reliance on participant memory makes it difficult to understand what impact particular events may have on developing self-efficacy in the moment. We use video recordings of three undergraduate Modeling Instruction students solving a physics problem to characterize SEOs in a moment-by-moment analysis. We then validate these characterizations of the development of self-efficacy by reviewing the problem-solving session with the participants and find evidence that the SEOs identified are taken up and impact self-efficacy. This characterization and validation of SEOs in the moment represents a first step towards establishing a methodology for analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-12-01

3

Does Smoking Abstinence Self-Efficacy Vary Across Situations? Identifying Context-Specificity Within the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to self-efficacy and relapse theories, abstinence self-efficacy (ASE) ratings should be context-specific; they should vary across situations. This variability may be important, as it could signal high-risk for relapse situations. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify situational variability in a novel ASE assessment (Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire, or RSEQ). Results supported a hierarchical structure, where

Chad J. Gwaltney; Saul Shiffman; Gregory J. Norman; Jean A. Paty; Jon D. Kassel; Maryann Gnys; Mary Hickcox; Andrew Waters; Mark Balabanis

2001-01-01

4

The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal.  

PubMed

Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as "migration load." The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

2013-11-01

5

CYP2D6 Genotype Dependent Oxycodone Metabolism in Postoperative Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme on oxycodone's metabolism and clinical efficacy is currently being discussed. However, there are only spare data from postoperative settings. The hypothesis of this study is that genotype dependent CYP2D6 activity influences plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites and impacts analgesic consumption. Methods Patients received oxycodone 0.05 mg/kg before emerging from anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for the subsequent 48 postoperative hours. Blood samples were drawn at 30, 90 and 180 minutes after the initial oxycodone dose. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites oxymorphone, noroxycodone and noroxymorphone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed and 121 patients were allocated to the following genotype groups: PM (poor metabolizer: no functionally active CYP2D6 allele), HZ/IM (heterozygous subjects, intermediate metabolizers with decreased CYP2D6 activity), EM (extensive metabolizers, normal CYP2D6 activity) and UM (ultrarapid metabolizers, increased CYP2D6 activity). Primary endpoint was the genotype dependent metabolite ratio of plasma concentrations oxymorphone/oxycodone. Secondary endpoint was the genotype dependent analgesic consumption with calculation of equianalgesic doses compared to the standard non-CYP dependent opioid piritramide. Results Metabolism differed between CYP2D6 genotypes. Mean (95%-CI) oxymophone/oxycodone ratios were 0.10 (0.02/0.19), 0.13 (0.11/0.16), 0.18 (0.16/0.20) and 0.28 (0.07/0.49) in PM, HZ/IM, EM and UM, respectively (p?=?0.005). Oxycodone consumption up to the 12th hour was highest in PM (p?=?0.005), resulting in lowest equianalgesic doses of piritramide versus oxycodone for PM (1.6 (1.4/1.8); EM and UM 2.2 (2.1/2.3); p<0.001). Pain scores did not differ between genotypes. Conclusions In this postoperative setting, the number of functionally active CYP2D6 alleles had an impact on oxycodone metabolism. The genotype also impacted analgesic consumption, thereby causing variation of equianalgesic doses piritramide : oxycodone. Different analgesic needs by genotypes were met by PCA technology in this postoperative cohort.

Stamer, Ulrike M.; Zhang, Lan; Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz E.; Stuber, Frank; Musshoff, Frank

2013-01-01

6

Molecular mechanisms underlying genotype-dependent responses to dietary restriction.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and attenuates age-related phenotypes in many organisms; however, the effect of DR on longevity of individuals in genetically heterogeneous populations is not well characterized. Here, we describe a large-scale effort to define molecular mechanisms that underlie genotype-specific responses to DR. The effect of DR on lifespan was determined for 166 single gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resulting changes in mean lifespan ranged from a reduction of 79% to an increase of 103%. Vacuolar pH homeostasis, superoxide dismutase activity, and mitochondrial proteostasis were found to be strong determinants of the response to DR. Proteomic analysis of cells deficient in prohibitins revealed induction of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR), which has not previously been described in yeast. Mitochondrial proteotoxic stress in prohibitin mutants was suppressed by DR via reduced cytoplasmic mRNA translation. A similar relationship between prohibitins, the mtUPR, and longevity was also observed in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations define conserved molecular processes that underlie genotype-dependent effects of DR that may be important modulators of DR in higher organisms. PMID:23837470

Schleit, Jennifer; Johnson, Simon C; Bennett, Christopher F; Simko, Marissa; Trongtham, Natalie; Castanza, Anthony; Hsieh, Edward J; Moller, Richard M; Wasko, Brian M; Delaney, Joe R; Sutphin, George L; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Tocchi, Autumn; Xian, Bo; Chen, Weiyang; Yu, Tao; Goswami, Sarani; Higgins, Sean; Holmberg, Mollie; Jeong, Ki-Soo; Kim, Jin R; Klum, Shannon; Liao, Eric; Lin, Michael S; Lo, Winston; Miller, Hillary; Olsen, Brady; Peng, Zhao J; Pollard, Tom; Pradeep, Prarthana; Pruett, Dillon; Rai, Dilreet; Ros, Vanessa; Singh, Minnie; Spector, Benjamin L; Vander Wende, Helen; An, Elroy H; Fletcher, Marissa; Jelic, Monika; Rabinovitch, Peter S; MacCoss, Michael J; Han, Jing-Dong J; Kennedy, Brian K; Kaeberlein, Matt

2013-12-01

7

Identifying Efficacious Treatment Components of Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents: A Preliminary Examination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents (PCT-A) is a developmentally sensitive and efficacious treatment for adolescents with panic disorder. The present study is a preliminary examination of the relative efficacy of individual treatment components in PCT-A in a sample of treatment completers; the study identified when rapid improvements in panic…

Micco, Jamie A.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2007-01-01

8

Does Art Therapy Work? Identifying the Active Ingredients of Art Therapy Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy research is beginning to identify more precisely the active ingredients that produce change in treatment and to test commonly held assumptions about efficacy. This editorial discusses the progression from clinical observation to single-case research and randomized controlled trials in building an evidence-based model of art therapy.

Lynn Kapitan

2012-01-01

9

Maximizing the Efficacy of SAGE Analysis Identifies Novel Transcripts in Arabidopsis1[w  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to analyze the transcriptome of the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis was assessed. We describe an iterative tag-to-gene matching process that exploits the availability of the whole genome sequence of Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of 98% of the annotated Arabidopsis genes could theoretically be evaluated through SAGE and using an iterative matching process 79% could be identified by a tag found at a unique site in the genome. A total of 145,170 reliable experimental tags from two Arabidopsis leaf tissue SAGE libraries were analyzed, of which 29,632 were distinct. The majority (93%) of the 12,988 experimental tags observed greater than once could be matched within the Arabidopsis genome. However, only 78% were matched to a single locus within the genome, reflecting the complexities associated with working in a highly duplicated genome. In addition to a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in Arabidopsis leaf tissue, we describe evidence of transcription from pseudo-genes as well as evidence of alternative mRNA processing and anti-sense transcription. This collection of experimental SAGE tags could be exploited to assist in the on-going annotation of the Arabidopsis genome.

Robinson, Stephen J.; Cram, Dustin J.; Lewis, Christopher T.; Parkin, Isobel A.P.

2004-01-01

10

Utilization of genomic signatures to identify high-efficacy candidate drugs for chemorefractory endometrial cancers.  

PubMed

Endometrial cancer, one of the most common gynecologic malignancies, is increasing in Japan, nearly doubling over the last decade. High-grade disease patients are often resistant to conventional chemotherapy with platinum agents; therefore, discovery of efficacious new drugs in this setting is required to benefit chemorefractory cases. The 50% growth-inhibitory (GI50) concentration of 27 clinically relevant drugs was measured in the NCI60 panel of cell lines. Gene expression data were analyzed using Bayesian binary regression, to first generate a response signature for each drug and then to calculate individual susceptibility scores using in vivo endometrial cancer data (GSE2109; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo) and in vitro data (GSE25458), as well as to identify candidate drugs for chemorefractory cases. Using these candidates, cell proliferation, apoptosis and caspase assays were performed in vitro. The tumor growth-inhibitory effect of the candidate was also assessed in vivo using nude mice. Through microarray analysis, fludarabine and temsirolimus showed higher susceptibility scores in high-grade cases compared to cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Fludarabine significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the cisplatin-resistant endometrial cancer cell line, HEC1A, relative to HEC50B (p < 0.001). Fludarabine treatment also enhanced caspase-3/7 activity in HEC1A relative to HEC50B cells (p < 0.001), and inhibited the growth of HEC1A xenograft tumors relative to cisplatin (p < 0.05). These results support that identification and use of genomic signatures can lead to identification of new therapeutic candidates that may prove beneficial to chemoresistant cases. Fludarabine may be useful in targeting high-grade, chemorefractory endometrial cancer. PMID:23595697

Kharma, Budiman; Baba, Tsukasa; Mandai, Masaki; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murphy, Susan K; Kang, Hyun Sook; Yamanoi, Koji; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Konishi, Ikuo

2013-11-01

11

University Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy in Identifying Suicidal Warning Signs and Helping Suicidal Friends Find Campus Intervention Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 18 to 24 years of age and the second leading cause of death on college campuses. A sample of students (N = 1,019) from three midwestern universities were surveyed regarding their perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicide warning signs and campus suicide intervention resources.…

King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Strader, Jennifer L.

2008-01-01

12

The tricks of the trait: neural implementation of personality varies with genotype-dependent serotonin levels.  

PubMed

Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have been associated with extreme BIS responsiveness. In recent years, neuroimaging studies have implicated the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as an important neural substrate of the BIS. However, the neurogenetic basis of the regulation of this behaviorally and clinically essential system remains unclear. Investigating the effects of two functional genetic polymorphisms (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, G-703T, and serotonin transporter, serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region) in 89 human participants, we find significantly different patterns of associations between BIS scores and amygdala-hippocampus connectivity during loss anticipation for genotype groups regarding both polymorphisms. Specifically, the correlation between amygdala-hippocampus connectivity and Gray's trait anxiety scores is positive in individuals homozygous for the TPH2 G-allele, while carriers of at least one T-allele show a negative association. Likewise, individuals homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR L(A) variant display a positive association while carriers of the S/L(G) allele show a trend towards a negative association. Thus, we show converging evidence of different neural implementation of the BIS depending on genotype-dependent levels of serotonin. We provide evidence suggesting that genotype-dependent serotonin levels and thus putative changes in the efficiency of serotonergic neurotransmission might not only alter brain activation levels directly, but also more fundamentally impact the neural implementation of personality traits. We outline the direct clinical implications arising from this finding and discuss the complex interplay of neural responses, genes and personality traits in this context. PMID:23684859

Hahn, Tim; Heinzel, Sebastian; Notebaert, Karolien; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jakob, Peter M; Windmann, Sabine; Fallgatter, Andreas J

2013-11-01

13

Differentiated expression of microRNAs may regulate genotype-dependent traits in cotton.  

PubMed

miRNA is an exogenous non-coding RNA with 21-24nt in length, which plays a crucial role in almost all biological processes. In plants, miRNAs regulate organ development, phase change, signal transduction and response to different biotic and abiotic stresses at the post-transcriptional levels. Although there are many studies on plant miRNAs, no studies have been focused on the genotype dependence. Genotype-dependent traits may be controlled by the differential expression of certain miRNAs. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression profile patterns of 11 selected miRNAs in 5 different organs in 5 different cotton cultivars and their implication on plant development. Our results demonstrate that miRNAs have different expression patterns in different plant organs in different genotypes, which implicate their different traits, including early flowering. miR172 is a miRNA controlling floral development and phase change; our results show that miR172 has a higher expression level in the flower bud than in any other organ, our results also show that Baimian cultivars have a higher expression of miR172 than TM-1. This suggests that Baimian cultivars have an earlier transition from vegetable growth to reproductive growth, which is confirmed by our development data on floral branch development. Our result also shows that several miRNAs, including miR159 and miR162, were highly expressed in Baimian cultivars. The results obtained in this study would provide new insight for improving cotton using miRNA-based biotechnology. PMID:24971502

Sun, Runrun; Wang, Qinglian; Ma, Jun; He, Qiuling; Zhang, Baohong

2014-09-01

14

Explorative study to identify novel candidate genes related to oxaliplatin efficacy and toxicity using a DNA repair array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:To identify new polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in DNA repair pathways that are associated with efficacy and toxicity in patients receiving oxaliplatin and capecitabine for advanced colorectal cancer (ACC).Methods:We studied progression-free survival (PFS) in 91 ACC patients, of whom germ-line DNA was isolated and genotyped using an Asper Biotech array. Overall survival (OS) and toxicity were studied as secondary

D. M. Kweekel; N. F. Antonini; J W R Nortier; C. J. A. Punt; H. Gelderblom; H. J. Guchelaar

2009-01-01

15

Nutri-pharmacogenomics of warfarin anticoagulation therapy: VKORC1 genotype-dependent influence of dietary vitamin K intake.  

PubMed

Warfarin is the most widely prescribed oral anticoagulant, but large interindividual variations exist in the dose required to achieve comparable therapeutic effects. Several clinical and genetic variables have been identified that influence warfarin dosing. However, interactions between genotype and nutrition remain uncertain in terms of dietary vitamin K intake. To investigate genotype-nutrient interactions in warfarin anticoagulation therapy, 202 consecutive outpatients (M/F = 142/60, mean age, 69 years) undergoing treatment with warfarin were enrolled. Prevalent single nucleotide polymorphisms in VKORC1 and CYP2C9 were genotyped, and dietary vitamin K intake during the week preceding the blood sampling was quantitatively estimated by a dietitian-assisted questionnaire. Patients were classified according to low, medium, or high vitamin K intake. The mean daily warfarin dose in subjects with a VKORC1-1639 A/A genotype was significantly smaller than that with a -1639A/G genotype (2.74 vs. 3.91 mg/day, respectively, p < 0.0001). Dose requirements did not differ between subjects with a CYP2C9 *1/*3 genotype versus a CYP2C9 *1/*1 genotype. In subjects with a variant VKORC1-1639 G allele, the mean daily warfarin dose was significantly attenuated by low vitamin K intake compared with medium and high intake after adjustment for covariates (3.4 vs. 5.0 vs. 4.0 mg/day, respectively, p = 0.028). No such genotype effects were observed in homozygous patients for the VKORC1-1639 A allele. The results of the present study suggest that the capacity of dietary vitamin K intake to influence warfarin dose requirements during anticoagulation therapy is VKORC1 genotype-dependent, at least in part. PMID:23928870

Saito, Ryuhei; Takeda, Kenji; Yamamoto, Kayo; Nakagawa, Akihiko; Aoki, Hirofumi; Fujibayashi, Kosuke; Wakasa, Minoru; Motoyama, Atsushi; Iwadare, Mizuho; Ishida, Ryoko; Fujioka, Nakaba; Tsuchiya, Taketsugu; Akao, Hironobu; Kawai, Yasuyuki; Kitayama, Michihiko; Kajinami, Kouji

2014-07-01

16

Global RNA sequencing reveals that genotype-dependent allele-specific expression contributes to differential expression in rice F1 hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive studies on heterosis in plants using transcriptome analysis have identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in F1 hybrids. However, it is not clear why yield in heterozygotes is superior to that of the homozygous parents or how DEGs are produced. Global allele-specific expression analysis in hybrid rice has the potential to answer these questions. Results We report a genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology of 3,637–3,824 genes from three rice F1 hybrids. Of the expressed genes, 3.7% exhibited an unexpected type of monoallelic expression and 23.8% showed preferential allelic expression that was genotype-dependent in reciprocal crosses. Those genes exhibiting allele-specific expression comprised 42.4% of the genes differentially expressed between F1 hybrids and their parents. Allele-specific expression accounted for 79.8% of the genes displaying more than a 10-fold expression level difference between an F1 and its parents, and almost all (97.3%) of the genes expressed in F1, but non-expressed in one parent. Significant allelic complementary effects were detected in the F1 hybrids of rice. Conclusions Analysis of the allelic expression profiles of genes at the critical stage for highest biomass production from the leaves of three different rice F1 hybrids identified genotype-dependent allele-specific expression genes. A cis-regulatory mechanism was identified that contributes to allele-specific expression, leading to differential gene expression and allelic complementary effects in F1 hybrids.

2013-01-01

17

The Efficacy of Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Identifying Hearing Loss in Children with Developmental Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a project in Utah to investigate the feasibility of using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) as a tool for screening for hearing loss in children with developmental disabilities (DD). Study participants included 336 students (ages 5 to 7) with no identified DD and 765 students (ages 3 to 7) with one or more DD.…

White, Karl R.; And Others

18

Apolipoprotein C-I is an APOE genotype-dependent suppressor of glial activation  

PubMed Central

Background Inheritance of the human ?4 allele of the apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) significantly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in addition to adversely influencing clinical outcomes of other neurologic diseases. While apoE isoforms differentially interact with amyloid ? (A?), a pleiotropic neurotoxin key to AD etiology, more recent work has focused on immune regulation in AD pathogenesis and on the mechanisms of innate immunomodulatory effects associated with inheritance of different APOE alleles. APOE genotype modulates expression of proximal genes including APOC1, which encodes a small apolipoprotein that is associated with A? plaques. Here we tested the hypothesis that APOE-genotype dependent innate immunomodulation may be mediated in part by apoC-I. Methods ApoC-I concentration in cerebrospinal fluid from control subjects of differing APOE genotypes was quantified by ELISA. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to analyze apoC-I mRNA and protein expression, respectively, in liver, serum, cerebral cortex, and cultured primary astrocytes derived from mice with targeted replacement of murine APOE for human APOE ?3 or ?4. ApoC-I direct modulation of innate immune activity was investigated in cultured murine primary microglia and astrocytes, as well as human differentiated macrophages, using specific toll-like receptor agonists LPS and PIC as well as A?. Results ApoC-I levels varied with APOE genotype in humans and in APOE targeted replacement mice, with ?4 carriers showing significantly less apoC-I in both species. ApoC-I potently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from primary murine microglia and astrocytes, and human macrophages, stimulated with LPS, PIC, or A?. Conclusions ApoC-I is immunosuppressive. Our results illuminate a novel potential mechanism for APOE genotype risk for AD; one in which patients with an ?4 allele have decreased expression of apoC-I resulting in increased innate immune activity.

2012-01-01

19

Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bovine digital dermatitis treponemes identifies macrolides for in vivo efficacy testing.  

PubMed

Digital dermatitis (DD) is a major infectious lameness of dairy cattle and sheep considered to be caused by treponemes. The aim of this study was to identify antibiotics effective against DD treponemes that might be useful in the treatment of ruminant DD in the future or to identify antibiotics useful in isolation studies. Here, a microdilution method was used to identify in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of treponemes cultured from DD lesions to eight relevant antibiotics. DD treponemes exhibited highest susceptibility to amoxicillin, azithromycin and gamithromycin. Unfortunately, amoxicillin whilst having potential for DD treatment in other animals (e.g. sheep) would require milk withhold periods in dairy cattle. DD treponemes were not particularly susceptible to two cephalosporins: cefalexin and ceftiofur, which do not require milk withhold. The bacteria demonstrated low susceptibility to trimethoprim and especially colistin suggesting these antimicrobials may be particularly useful in isolation of DD treponemes. The most promising high susceptibility results for macrolides indicate a rationale to consider veterinary licensed macrolides as DD treatments. Furthermore, given the DD treponeme antibiotic susceptibility similarities to established treatments for human treponematoses, identification of treponemacidal, long acting ?-lactam analogues not requiring milk withhold may allow for development of a successful treatment for dairy cattle DD. PMID:22749760

Evans, N J; Brown, J M; Hartley, C; Smith, R F; Carter, S D

2012-12-01

20

Identifying the relationship between feedback provided in computer-assisted instructional modules, science self-efficacy, and academic achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedback has been identified as a key variable in developing academic self-efficacy. The types of feedback can vary from a traditional, objectivist approach that focuses on minimizing learner errors to a more constructivist approach, focusing on facilitating understanding. The influx of computer-based courses, whether online or through a series of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) modules require that the current research of effective feedback techniques in the classroom be extended to computer environments in order to impact their instructional design. In this study, exposure to different types of feedback during a chemistry CAI module was studied in relation to science self-efficacy (SSE) and performance on an objective-driven assessment (ODA) of the chemistry concepts covered in the unit. The quantitative analysis consisted of two separate ANCOVAs on the dependent variables, using pretest as the covariate and group as the fixed factor. No significant differences were found for either variable between the three groups on adjusted posttest means for the ODA and SSE measures (.95F(2, 106) = 1.311, p = 0.274 and .95F(2, 106) = 1.080, p = 0.344, respectively). However, a mixed methods approach yielded valuable qualitative insights into why only one overall quantitative effect was observed. These findings are discussed in relation to the need to further refine the instruments and methods used in order to more fully explore the possibility that type of feedback might play a role in developing SSE, and consequently, improve academic performance in science. Future research building on this study may reveal significance that could impact instructional design practices for developing online and computer-based instruction.

Mazingo, Diann Etsuko

21

Components of the gene network associated with genotype-dependent response of wheat to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.  

PubMed

The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) facilitates fungal spread within wheat tissue and the development of Fusarium head blight disease. The ability of wheat spikelets to resist DON-induced bleaching is genotype-dependent. In wheat cultivar (cv.) CM82036 DON resistance is associated with a quantitative trait locus, Fhb1, located on the short arm of chromosome 3B. Gene expression profiling (microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses) of DON-treated spikelets of progeny derived from a cross between cv. CM82036 and the DON-susceptible cv. Remus discriminated ten toxin-responsive transcripts associated with the inheritance of DON resistance and Fhb1. These genes do not exclusively map to Fhb1. Based on the putative function of the ten Fhb1-associated transcripts, we discuss how cascades involving classical metabolite biotransformation and sequestration processes, alleviation of oxidative stress and promotion of cell survival might contribute to the host response and defence against DON. PMID:18592282

Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Ansari, Khairul I; Hu, Xuejun; Khan, Mojibur R; Trognitz, Friederike; Trognitz, Bodo; Leonard, Gerald; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

2008-11-01

22

A Genotype Dependent Intermediate ECG Phenotype in Patients with Persistent Lone Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is heterogeneous at the clinical and molecular levels. Association studies have reported that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KCNE1 and SCN5A may predispose to AF. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific AF-associated genotypes confer variation on the appearance of AF assessed by analysis of fibrillatory rate of the atria. Methods and Results Twenty-six non-related patients (21 male, mean age 55 ± 12 years) with persistent lone AF (median AF duration 5 weeks) not taking class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs were studied. Fibrillatory rate was obtained by spatiotemporal QRST cancellation and time-frequency analysis of the index surface ECG. Genotypes at the AF-associated loci in KCNE1 (S38G) and SCN5A (H558R) were determined by direct DNA sequencing. The atrial fibrillatory rate was 418±50 fibrillations per minute (fpm, range 336–521) in the study cohort. Carriers of the 38GG KCNE1 genotype (n=13) had significantly lower fibrillatory rates (392±36 vs 443±49 fpm, p=.006) compared to those with GS or SS genotype (n=13). Six patients (23 %) with fibrillatory rates > 450 fpm, all had either the GS or SS genotype (chi2 p=.008). In contrast, both the heterozygeous and homozygeous SCN5A H558R polymorphism had no effect on fibrillatory rate. There were no significant associations between fibrillatory rate and clinical (age, gender, AF duration, drug treatment) or echocardiographic (left atrial diameter, LVEF) variables. In multivariate analysis, KCNE1 (S38G) was the only independent predictor of fibrillatory rate (R=.528, B=45.091, p=.006). Conclusions Atrial fibrillatory rate obtained from the surface ECG is at least in part determined by KCNE1 (S38G) genotype, suggesting this variant exerts functional effects on atrial electrophysiology. This intermediate ECG phenotype may be useful for elaborating genetic influences on AF mechanisms and identifying subsets of patients for variability in AF susceptibility or response to therapies.

Husser, Daniela; Stridh, Martin; Sornmo, Leif; Roden, Dan M.; Darbar, Dawood; Bollmann, Andreas

2008-01-01

23

Ascorbic acid synthesis and metabolism in maize are subject to complex and genotype-dependent feedback regulation during endosperm development.  

PubMed

L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is an antioxidant and electron donor whose metabolism in plants is under strict feedback control. The factors that influence L-ascorbic acid accumulation in staple crops are only partially understood. One way to gain insight into the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism is to investigate the endogenous pathways in various genetic backgrounds and characterize their interactions with transgenes encoding relevant enzymes. In an initial step, we investigated the developmental profile of L-ascorbic acid accumulation in the endosperm of three diverse maize genotypes and a transgenic line expressing rice dehydroascorbate reductase, which enhances L-ascorbic acid recycling. We determined the transcript levels of all the key genes in the L-ascorbic acid metabolic pathways as well as the specific levels of ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbate. L-ascorbic acid levels were high 20 days after pollination and declined thereafter. We found significant genotype-dependent variations in the transcript levels of some genes, with particular complexity in the ascorbic acid recycling pathway. Our data will help to elucidate the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of L-ascorbic acid metabolism in plants, particularly the impact of genetic background on the strict regulation of ascorbic acid metabolism in endosperm cells. PMID:23744785

Sanahuja, Georgina; Farré, Gemma; Bassie, Ludovic; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2013-10-01

24

The Association of Il28b Genotype with the Histological Features of Chronic Hepatitis C Is HCV Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

The interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphism is associated with treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 patients. Its association with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C and disease severity needs further clarifications. To assess the correlation between IL28B genotype, HCV genotype and liver biopsy findings in untreated patients. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment liver biopsies from 335 HCV Caucasian patients (59% males, age 50 years) enrolled in the MIST study were staged for fibrosis and inflammation according to the METAVIR and the Ishak scoring systems; steatosis was dichotomized as <5% or ?5%. IL28B was typed by Taqman Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. HCV genotype was 1 in 151 (45%), 2 in 99 (30%), 3 in 50 (15%) and 4 in 35 (10%) patients. IL28B genotype was CC in 117 (34%), CT in 166 (49%) and TT in 52 (15%). At univariate analysis, the IL28B CC genotype was associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 86% vs. 63%, p = 0.005), severe lobular inflammation in HCV-2 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 44% vs. 23%, p = 0.03), and less fatty infiltration in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 72% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). Despite the lack of any association between IL28B and fibrosis stage, in HCV-3 patients IL28B CC correlated with METAVIR F3–F4 (CC vs. CT/TT: 74% vs. 26%, p = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, the genotype CC remained associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1, only (Odds Ratio (OR): 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.24 (1.23–8.51)). IL28B genotype is associated with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in a HCV genotype dependent manner, with CC genotype being independently associated with severe portal inflammation.

D'Ambrosio, Roberta; Aghemo, Alessio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Galmozzi, Enrico; De Nicola, Stella; Cheroni, Cristina; Clark, Paul J.; Ronchi, Guido; Lampertico, Pietro; Colombo, Massimo

2014-01-01

25

Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals.  

PubMed

Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

2011-11-21

26

The efficacy of oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted analysis in identifying precancerous and cancerous lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer of the oral cavity is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with the highest mortality rate among all malignancies. There is a paucity of reliable diagnostic methods to detect early malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of brush biopsy in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Methods Oral brush and scalpel biopsies were performed on 85 consecutive patients presenting with an oral lesion deemed to be minimally suspicious by clinical examination and the results were compared. Results Of 79 patients with adequate brush biopsy samples with matching scalpel biopsies, 27 revealed histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma, 26 of which were independently identified with the oral brush biopsy (sensitivity: 96.3% - 95% CI, 87%-100%). 52 oral lesions did not reveal any histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma and of these, brush biopsy reported 47 as "negative" and 5 as "atypical"(specificity of "positive" brush biopsy result is 100%- 95% CI, 93%-100%; specificity for "atypical" brush biopsy result is 90.4%- 95% CI, 82%-97%. The positive predictive value of an abnormal oral brush biopsy was 84% and the negative predictive value was 98%. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the oral brush biopsy is an accurate test in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions, even if minimally suspicious.

2011-01-01

27

Genome-wide association study: a useful tool to identify common genetic variants associated with drug toxicity and efficacy in cancer pharmacogenomics.  

PubMed

In recent years, the utilization of genome-wide association study (GWAS) has proved to be a beneficial method to identify novel common genetic variations not only for disease susceptibility but also for drug efficacy and drug-induced toxicity, creating a field of pharmacogenomics studies. In addition, the findings from GWAS also generate new biologic hypotheses that could improve the understanding of pathophysiology for disease or the mechanism of drug-induced toxicity. This review highlights the implications of GWAS that have been published to date and discusses the successes as well as challenges of using GWAS in cancer pharmacogenomics. The aim of pharmacogenomics is to realize the vision of personalized medicine; it is hoped that through GWAS, novel common genetic variations could be identified to predict clinical outcome and/or toxicity in cancer therapies that subsequently could be implemented to improve the quality of lives of patients with cancer. Nevertheless, given the complexity of cancer therapies, underpowered studies, and large heterogeneity of study designs, collaborative efforts are needed to validate these findings and overcome the limitations of GWA studies before clinical implementation. SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "PROGRESS IN PHARMACODYNAMIC ENDPOINTS": Clin Cancer Res; 20(10); 2541-52. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24831277

Low, Siew-Kee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki

2014-05-15

28

Comparison of the efficacy of an existing versus a locally developed metabolic fingerprint database to identify non-point sources of faecal contamination in a coastal lake.  

PubMed

A comparison of the efficacy of an existing large metabolic fingerprint database of enterococci and Escherichia coli with a locally developed database was undertaken to identify the sources of faecal contamination in a coastal lake, in southeast Qld., Australia. The local database comprised of 776 enterococci and 780 E. coli isolates from six host groups. In all, 189 enterococci and 245 E. coli biochemical phenotypes (BPTs) were found, of which 118 and 137 BPTs were unique (UQ) to host groups. The existing database comprised of 295 enterococci UQ-BPTs and 273 E. coli UQ-BPTs from 10 host groups. The representativeness and the stability of the existing database were assessed by comparing with isolates that were external to the database. In all, 197 enterococci BPTs and 179 E. coli BPTs were found in water samples. The existing database was able to identify 62.4% of enterococci BPTs and 64.8% of E. coli BPTs as human and animal sources. The results indicated that a representative database developed from a catchment can be used to predict the sources of faecal contamination in another catchment with similar landuse features within the same geographical area. However, the representativeness and the stability of the database should be evaluated prior to its application in such investigation. PMID:16762388

Ahmed, W; Tucker, J; Harper, J; Neller, R; Katouli, M

2006-07-01

29

Metastatic bone tumors: Analysis of factors affecting prognosis and efficacy of CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT in identifying primary lesions  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the prognostic factors in patients with metastatic bone tumors and evaluated the efficacy of different modalities in identifying the primary lesions. A total of 145 patients with bone metastases who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic were included in this study. The most frequent site of bone metastases was the spine. The primary tumor type was differently distributed between patients with a known primary tumor at the first visit and those with an unknown primary lesion. The number of breast cancer cases was statistically significantly lower in the primary-unknown group. However, the number of myeloma cases was significantly higher in the primary-unknown group. Survival was significantly lower in the skeletal-related events (SREs) compared to that in the non-SREs group. Furthermore, survival was significantly worse in patients with a performance status (PS) of ?2 compared to those with a PS of ?1 and neurological complications occurred statistically more often in the group with worse PS (?2). Survival rates were significantly lower in the non-spinal compared to those in the spinal metastatic group. Since the majority of breast cancer patients presented with metastasis in the spine, a breast cancer origin was a positive prognostic factor in patients with spinal metastases. Although there were no significant differences between computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting primary lesions, CT may be the first choice due to its feasibility. In conclusion, lung cancer, SREs and worse PS were adverse prognostic factors for patients with bone metastasis. In addition, CT scans may be more useful for determining the primary lesion of a bone metastasis compared to 18F-FDG PET-CT in a timelier manner.

SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; SASAKI, HIROMI; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; ABEMATSU, MASAHIKO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

2014-01-01

30

NMDA receptors modulate long-term habituation to spatial novelty: dose- and genotype-dependent differential effects of posttrial MK-801 and CPP in rats.  

PubMed

To investigate the role N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play in behavioral plasticity, adult male rats of the Naples high-(NHE) and low-excitability (NLE) lines, and of a random-bred Sprague-Dawley strain (NRB) received, the noncompetitive (MK-801:0.01 or 2.5 mg/kg) or the competitive (CPP: 0.01 or 5 mg/kg) NMDA receptor antagonists, or vehicle IP soon after a 10-min test in a Làt-maze. Retention was tested 1 week later. Habituation of activity and defecation score was monitored by the between-test decrement (LTH) in the frequency of corner-crossings (HA) and rearings (VA), with prevailing cognitive and noncognitive meaning, respectively, and of fecal boli. (i) In the NLE-rats, low and high doses of MK-801 facilitate LTH of HA, and a high dose of CPP facilitates LTH of HA. (ii) In the NRB-rats, MK-801 facilitates LTH of HA at a low dose and inhibits LTH of VA at a high dose, whereas CPP inhibits LTH of HA at a high dose only. In contrast, (iii) in the NHE-rats, high doses of MK-801 impair LTH of HA, and low doses of CPP facilitate LTH of HA. In conclusion, the dose- and genotype-dependent differential effects of allosteric and isosteric receptor blockade support the hypothesized modulatory role of NMDA receptors in behavioral plasticity; and the dissociation between retention of cognitive and noncognitive behavioral components suggests that NMDA receptors are involved in their parallel processing. PMID:8415951

Pellicano, M P; Siciliano, F; Sadile, A G

1993-09-01

31

Role in virulence and protective efficacy in pigs of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium secreted components identified by signature-tagged mutagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a zoonotic enteric pathogen of worldwide importance and pigs are a significant reservoir of human infection. Signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis (STM) was used to identify genes required by S. Typhimurium to colonize porcine intestines. A library of 1045 signature-tagged mutants of S. Typhimurium ST4\\/74 NalR was screened following oral inoculation of pigs in duplicate.

Sonya C. Carnell; Alison Bowen; Eirwen Morgan; Duncan J. Maskell; Timothy S. Wallis; Mark P. Stevens

2007-01-01

32

Genotype-Dependent Efficacy of a Dual PI3K\\/mTOR Inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235, and an mTOR Inhibitor, RAD001, in Endometrial Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)\\/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K\\/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235—a dual PI3K\\/mTOR inhibitor—and RAD001—an mTOR inhibitor—in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one or more alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and K-Ras. We also combined these compounds with a MAPK pathway inhibitor

Keiko Shoji; Katsutoshi Oda; Tomoko Kashiyama; Yuji Ikeda; Shunsuke Nakagawa; Kenbun Sone; Yuichiro Miyamoto; Haruko Hiraike; Michihiro Tanikawa; Aki Miyasaka; Takahiro Koso; Yoko Matsumoto; Osamu Wada-Hiraike; Kei Kawana; Hiroyuki Kuramoto; Frank McCormick; Hiroyuki Aburatani; Tetsu Yano; Shiro Kozuma; Yuji Taketani

2012-01-01

33

Genotype-Dependent Efficacy of a Dual PI3K/mTOR Inhibitor, NVP-BEZ235, and an mTOR Inhibitor, RAD001, in Endometrial Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235—a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor—and RAD001—an mTOR inhibitor—in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one or more alterations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and K-Ras. We also combined these compounds with a MAPK pathway inhibitor (PD98059 or UO126) in cell lines with K-Ras alterations (mutations or amplification). PTEN mutant cell lines without K-Ras alterations (n?=?9) were more sensitive to both RAD001 and NVP-BEZ235 than were cell lines with K-Ras alterations (n?=?4). Dose-dependent growth suppression was more drastically induced by NVP-BEZ235 than by RAD001 in the sensitive cell lines. G1 arrest was induced by NVP-BEZ235 in a dose-dependent manner. We observed in vivo antitumor activity of both RAD001 and NVP-BEZ235 in nude mice. The presence of a MEK inhibitor, PD98059 or UO126, sensitized the K-Ras mutant cells to NVP-BEZ235. Robust growth suppression by NVP-BEZ235 suggests that a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor is a promising therapeutic for endometrial carcinomas. Our data suggest that mutational statuses of PTEN and K-Ras might be useful predictors of sensitivity to NVP-BEZ235 in certain endometrial carcinomas.

Shoji, Keiko; Oda, Katsutoshi; Kashiyama, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Sone, Kenbun; Miyamoto, Yuichiro; Hiraike, Haruko; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Miyasaka, Aki; Koso, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Yoko; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kawana, Kei; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; McCormick, Frank; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro; Taketani, Yuji

2012-01-01

34

Genome-wide transcription profiles reveal genotype-dependent responses of biological pathways and gene-families in Daphnia exposed to single and mixed stressors  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium sensitive and a cadmium tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and poly-unsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multi-stressor effects on natural populations.

De Coninck, Dieter I.M.; Asselman, Jana; Glaholt, Stephen; Janssen, Colin R.; Colbourne, John K.; Shaw, Joseph R.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A.C.

2014-01-01

35

A genome-wide survey and functional brain imaging study identify CTNNBL1 as a memory-related gene.  

PubMed

Unbiased genome-wide screens combined with imaging data on brain function may identify novel molecular pathways related to human cognition. Here we performed a dense genome-wide screen to identify episodic memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain-expressed beta-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) was significantly (P=7 × 10(-8)) associated with verbal memory performance in a cognitively healthy cohort from Switzerland (n=1073) and was replicated in a second cohort from Serbia (n=524; P=0.003). Gene expression studies showed CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in beta-catenin-like protein 1 mRNA levels in the human cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 322 subjects detected CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activations. Converging evidence from independent experiments and different methodological approaches suggests a role for CTNNBL1 in human memory. PMID:22105620

Papassotiropoulos, A; Stefanova, E; Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Ackermann, S; Spalek, K; Rasch, B; Heck, A; Aerni, A; Hanser, E; Demougin, P; Huynh, K-D; Luechinger, R; Klarhöfer, M; Novakovic, I; Kostic, V; Boesiger, P; Scheffler, K; de Quervain, D J-F

2013-02-01

36

A genome-wide survey and functional brain imaging study identify CTNNBL1 as a memory-related gene  

PubMed Central

Unbiased genome-wide screens combined with imaging data on brain function may identify novel molecular pathways related to human cognition. Here we performed a dense genome-wide screen to identify episodic memory-related gene variants. A genomic locus encoding the brain-expressed beta-catenin-like protein 1 (CTNNBL1) was significantly (P=7 × 10?8) associated with verbal memory performance in a cognitively healthy cohort from Switzerland (n=1073) and was replicated in a second cohort from Serbia (n=524; P=0.003). Gene expression studies showed CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in beta-catenin-like protein 1 mRNA levels in the human cortex. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in 322 subjects detected CTNNBL1 genotype-dependent differences in memory-related brain activations. Converging evidence from independent experiments and different methodological approaches suggests a role for CTNNBL1 in human memory.

Papassotiropoulos, A; Stefanova, E; Vogler, C; Gschwind, L; Ackermann, S; Spalek, K; Rasch, B; Heck, A; Aerni, A; Hanser, E; Demougin, P; Huynh, K-D; Luechinger, R; Klarhofer, M; Novakovic, I; Kostic, V; Boesiger, P; Scheffler, K; de Quervain, D J-F

2013-01-01

37

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

38

A multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus imipenem/cilastatin in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections [Study ID Numbers: 3074A1-301-WW; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00081744  

PubMed Central

Background Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remain challenging to treat because of their polymicrobial etiology including multi-drug resistant bacteria. The efficacy and safety of tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic, was compared with imipenem/cilastatin (IMI/CIS) in patients with cIAI. Methods A prospective, double-blind, multinational trial was conducted in which patients with cIAI randomly received intravenous (IV) tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg every 12 hours [q12h]) or IV IMI/CIS (500/500 mg q6h or adjusted for renal dysfunction) for 5 to14 days. Clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (14–35 days after therapy) for microbiologically evaluable (ME) and microbiological modified intent-to-treat (m-mITT) populations were the co-primary efficacy endpoint populations. Results A total of 825 patients received ? 1 dose of study drug. The primary diagnoses for the ME group were complicated appendicitis (59%), and intestinal (8.8%) and gastric/duodenal perforations (4.6%). For the ME group, clinical cure rates at TOC were 80.6% (199/247) for tigecycline versus 82.4% (210/255) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -8.4, 5.1 for non-inferiority tigecycline versus IMI/CIS). Corresponding clinical cure rates within the m-mITT population were 73.5% (227/309) for tigecycline versus 78.2% (244/312) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -11.0, 2.5). Nausea (31.0% tigecycline, 24.8% IMI/CIS [P = 0.052]), vomiting (25.7% tigecycline, 19.4% IMI/CIS [P = 0.037]), and diarrhea (21.3% tigecycline, 18.9% IMI/CIS [P = 0.435]) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that tigecycline is as efficacious as imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of patients with cIAI.

Oliva, Maria E; Rekha, Arcot; Yellin, Albert; Pasternak, Jacyr; Campos, Maria; Rose, Gilbert M; Babinchak, Timothy; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Loh, Evan

2005-01-01

39

Identify Symmetry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

Neubert, Mrs.

2011-03-03

40

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

41

Self-Efficacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. There is also a short bibliography.

Bandura, Albert; University, Stanford

42

An Ethic of Caring: The Fuel for High Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I discuss ways of increasing teacher efficacy identified as a key belief system in the enhancement of teacher effectiveness. Teacher efficacy is defined and its impact on teacher effectiveness explored. The need to increase teacher efficacy to enhance the design, implementation and outcomes of instruction is discussed with special…

Collier, Marta D.

2005-01-01

43

Efficacy of fractal analysis in identifying glaucomatous damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a novel fractal-based technique to analyze pseudo 2D representation of 1D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement data vector set for early detection of glaucoma. In our proposed technique, we first convert the 1D RNFL data vector sets into pseudo 2D images and then exploit 2D fractal analysis (FA) technique to obtain the representative features. These 2D fractal-based features are further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the final classification between normal and glaucomatous eyes is obtained using Fischer's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An independent dataset is used for training and testing the classifier. The technique is used on randomly selected GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) eye data from 227 study participants (116 patients with glaucoma and 111 patients with healthy eyes). We compute sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) for statistical performance comparison with other known techniques. Our classification performance shows that fractal-based technique is superior to the standard machine classifier Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI).

Kim, P. Y.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Gunvant, P.; Tóth, M.; Holló, G.; Essock, E. A.

2010-03-01

44

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the ``efficacy'' of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ~110%, which increases to ~145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

45

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

46

Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents.

Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

2013-01-01

47

The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

1988-01-01

48

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

49

Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

Moore-Hayes, Coleen

2011-01-01

50

Circadian rhythm of homocysteine is hCLOCK genotype dependent.  

PubMed

Homocysteine (Hcy) is known to be a prognostic marker for neurological, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and several other pathophysiological conditions. A sudden surge in Hcy can increase cardiovascular events. Hemodynamic modulations are known to be associated with individual's chronotype. Therefore, precise monitoring of Hcy is crucial for evaluating its impact on risk. The aim of the present study was to investigate the rhythmicity of Hcy under controlled dietary conditions and whether this rhythmicity is under the genetic control of circadian rhythm. Five subjects were selected from 200 Malayalam speaking healthy ethnic individuals who were screened for functionally critical variants of MTHFR and hCLOCK genes. MTHFR is the rate-limiting enzyme in the methionine cycle and critical for regulating Hcy levels while hCLOCK is a critical gene responsible in regulating the day and night cycles. Rhythmicity in Hcy levels were observed in all the subjects with a consensus on a morning nadir and an evening peak. Gender specific stratification of Hcy levels were observed among similar genotypes of MTHFR and hCLOCK genes. Variations from the conventional rhythmicity of Hcy were observed among similar genotypes of MTHFR and dissimilar hCLOCK genotypes. A reduced plasma Hcy in hCLOCK rs1801260 CC genotype individuals were observed in contrast to CT genotype individuals. The study tends to suggest that Hcy and body time are genetically interdependent and throws light on some of the previously unexplained reasons for variability in Hcy levels. A population specific variation of MTHFR and hCLOCK genes also highlights ethnicity specific risk management. PMID:24510388

Paul, Basil; Saradalekshmi, K R; Alex, Ann Mary; Banerjee, Moinak

2014-06-01

51

Efficacy of climate forcings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

2005-09-01

52

Clozapine: Efficacy and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clozapine (Clozaril) represents the first major advance in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia since the introduction of antipsychotics into clinical practice in the 1950s. Studies consistently support its efficacy for reducing positive symptoms in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant patients, for preventing positive symptom exacerbations as a maintenance treatment, and for reducing symptoms of hostility and violence. There is

Robert W. Buchanan

1995-01-01

53

Teacher efficacy: A construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

1984-01-01

54

Sources of Self-efficacy in a Science Methods Course for Primary Teacher Education Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-efficacy has been shown to be an issue of concern for primary teacher education students - many of them have low self-efficacy and this can negatively affect their future teaching of science. Previous research has identified four factors that may contribute towards self-efficacy: enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological/affective states. It could also be argued that there are additional sources of self-efficacy that apply to primary teacher education students, namely cognitive content mastery, cognitive pedagogical mastery and simulated modelling. The main purpose of the present paper was to investigate the relative importance of the various sources of self-efficacy in a primary science methods course. Data on changes in self-efficacy and sources of self-efficacy were collected throughout the course using formal and informal surveys. It was found that the main source of self-efficacy was cognitive pedagogical mastery.

Palmer, D. H.

2006-12-01

55

Identifying mutual engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutual engagement occurs when people creatively spark together and enter a state of group flow. We present a characterisation of mutually engaging interaction, discuss design features which contribute to mutually engaging interactions, and identify a set of measures for identifying mutual engagement in collaboration. A collaborative music editor's interface features are systematically manipulated in an empirical study of their effect

Nick Bryan-Kinns; Fraser Hamilton

2009-01-01

56

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

57

Identifying Conditional Conservatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides guidance for empiricists interested in measuring conditional conservatism and in interpreting associations of those measures with variables of interest. I begin by discussing the nature and importance of conditional conservatism and surveying the literature identifying conditional conservatism. I then describe and comment on the various limitations of asymmetric timeliness identified in the literature. Despite these limitations, I

Stephen G. Ryan

2006-01-01

58

Caregivers' Appraisals of Efficacy in Coping With Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the types, prevalence, and stability of appraisals of coping efficacy made by 87 family caregivers of persons with dementia. With the use of content analysis, 12 efficacy appraisals were identified that reflected caregivers' perceptions of progress in problem-solving, regulating emotional distress, protecting self-esteem, managing social interactions, and self-development. Most appraisal types showed variability across 2 time points,

Monique A. M. Gignac; Benjamin H. Gottlieb

1996-01-01

59

Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Breast cancer is attributed to genetic alterations, the majority of which are yet to be characterized. Oncogenic alterations that give rise to breast tumors need to be identified to develop targeted treatment options and consequently, improve clinical out...

Y. Shrestha

2009-01-01

60

Identifying broadcast content  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

In a broadcast system (210) each broadcast content item is identified by a broadcast Content Reference Identifier (CRID). In a storage device (220) with a storage (240) each broadcast content item is identified by a local CRID. A processor (230) stores a CRID list that includes for CRIDs an associated validity interval including a starting date and an ending date during which interval the CRID is unique for the content item. When the processor receives (400) a broadcast CRID, it determines (410) an initial validity interval for the broadcast CRID. The initial validity interval includes a starting date and an ending date during which interval the broadcast CRID is unique for the broadcast content item. It then determines (420) whether the initial validity interval overlaps with a validity interval stored in the CRID list for an identical CRID. If there is no overlap it adds (430) the broadcast CRID to the CRID list.

2012-07-17

61

Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

Fernandez, Griffin W.

2009-01-01

62

Learning to Identify Referents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children (ages 5-8) were presented with a communication task under four different experimental conditions, to find contexts which would encourage their use of the indefinite article. Even older children failed to identify their referents consistently, although nearly all subjects used indefinite expressions intermittently when mentioning new…

Warden, David

1981-01-01

63

Identifying Heavy Higgs Bosons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two techniques for identifying heavy Higgs bosons produced at SSC energies are discussed. In the first, the Higgs boson decays into ZZ, with one Z decaying into an e-pair or mu -pair and the other into a neutrino pair. In the second, the production of the...

R. N. Cahn

1986-01-01

64

Identifying and Managing Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

Abraham, Janice M.

1999-01-01

65

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

West, Mrs.

2013-03-07

66

Identifying Exceptional Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical techniques for identifying exceptional school progress are outlined and illustrated. Regression analyses using two sets of test scores are suggested as a preliminary indicator. These techniques would be useful to school administrators. School progress is best measured by criterion referenced tests rather than norm referenced tests.…

Kippel, Gary

1981-01-01

67

Genetic interactions affecting human gene expression identified by variance association mapping  

PubMed Central

Non-additive interaction between genetic variants, or epistasis, is a possible explanation for the gap between heritability of complex traits and the variation explained by identified genetic loci. Interactions give rise to genotype dependent variance, and therefore the identification of variance quantitative trait loci can be an intermediate step to discover both epistasis and gene by environment effects (GxE). Using RNA-sequence data from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the TwinsUK cohort, we identify a candidate set of 508 variance associated SNPs. Exploiting the twin design we show that GxE plays a role in ?70% of these associations. Further investigation of these loci reveals 57 epistatic interactions that replicated in a smaller dataset, explaining on average 4.3% of phenotypic variance. In 24 cases, more variance is explained by the interaction than their additive contributions. Using molecular phenotypes in this way may provide a route to uncovering genetic interactions underlying more complex traits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01381.001

Brown, Andrew Anand; Buil, Alfonso; Vinuela, Ana; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Richards, J Brent; Small, Kerrin S; Spector, Timothy D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Durbin, Richard

2014-01-01

68

Hunting Icebergs: Identifying Icebergs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial guides learners through the decision-making process in locating data that will enable the identification of tabular icebergs, including: selecting the appropriate satellite orbit, and identifying the optimal solar and infrared wavelength values to discriminate between water and ice in remotely-sensed images. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

69

Evidence of clinical efficacy of homeopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish, using a systematic review and meta-analysis, whether there is any evidence from randomised controlled clinical\\u000a trials of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment in patients with any disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Data sources: Published and unpublished reports of controlled clinical trials available up to June 1998, identified by searching bibliographic\\u000a databases (Medline, Embase, Biosis, PsychInfo, Cinahl, British Library Stock Alert Service,

M. Cucherat; M. C. Haugh; M. Gooch; J.-P. Boissel

2000-01-01

70

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

71

Identifying Equivalent Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site helps students understand how to identify equivalent fractions by explaining what equivalent fractions are and how to compare two fractions to see if they are equivalent. There is also a list of fractions equivalent to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 2/5 so students can begin to see the pattern that emerges. Finally, the site presents an interactive game in which students can practice by naming the equivalent fraction to a given fraction.

Banfill, J. C.

2007-12-12

72

Identifying a Theft Suspect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This model-eliciting activity (MEA) challenges students to develop a model for predicting the characteristics of a person who has committed a crime. Students work with real data on shoe length, height, and gender to develop the model. Students write a report to the crime victim that identifies a suspect and justifies their decision. The activity sets the stage for students to learn about regression models, and reinforces their understanding of central tendency and variability. It is suggested that this activity be used prior to a formal introduction to linear relationships.

This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an activity developed by Roxy Peck at California Polytechnic State University that is based on an original idea by Tom Short, John Carroll University, and Iddo Gal, University of Haifa, Israel.

73

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

74

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

75

Social and Cultural Meanings of Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

This article describes the influences of social context on women’s health behavior through illustration of the powerful influences of social capital (the benefits and challenges that accrue from participation in social networks and groups) on experiences and perceptions of self-efficacy. The authors conducted inductive interviews with Latino and Filipino academics and social service providers and with U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas and Filipinas to explore direct and indirect influences of social context on health behaviors such as mammography screening. Iterative thematic analysis identified themes (meanings of efficacy, spheres of efficacy, constraints on efficacy, sources of social capital, and differential access to and quality of social capital) that link the domain of social capital with the behavioral construct perceived self-efficacy. The authors conclude that social capital addresses aspects of social context absent in the current self-efficacy construct and that these aspects have important implications for scholars’ and practitioners’ understandings of health behavior and intervention development.

Burke, Nancy J.; Bird, Joyce A.; Clark, Melissa A.; Rakowski, William; Guerra, Claudia; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

76

Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…

Warwick, Jon

2012-01-01

77

Cultivating Principals' Self-Efficacy: Supports that Matter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to identify important antecedents of principals' self-efficacy (PSE) beliefs among 558 principals in Virginia. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the school context variables of school level, school setting, and the proportion of low-income students had no significant relationship to PSE. Multiple regression revealed that, by…

Tschannen-Moran, Megan; Gareis, Christopher R.

2007-01-01

78

A Study of Cardiac Monitor Safety and Efficacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of cardiac monitors and to identify those parameters which should be included in a standard. The primary focus of the study was on ECG monitors with their associated QRS detectors, hea...

A. A. Schoenberg

1977-01-01

79

Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

80

A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…

Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others

81

Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

2011-01-01

82

Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has 6 broad, 27 basic, and 6 engagement styles measures of career self-efficacy.

Fred H. Borgen; Nancy E. Betz

2008-01-01

83

A review of the efficacy of human Q fever vaccine registered in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Q fever remains an impor- tant occupational zoonosis in rural Australia. Although Q fever vaccine is recommended in high- risk occupational groups, its availability has been limited in recent years. Method: A literature review of the efficacy of the human Q fever vaccine regis- tered in Australia was conducted. Results: Seven relevant vaccine efficacy studies were identified but no

Clayton K. Chiu; David N. Durrheim

2007-01-01

84

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

85

A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Parent Self-efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale (PSMTSS) were investigated with a sample of 763 mothers whose children were starting primary school in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, Efficacy and Worry, accounting for 56.6% of the total variance in parent…

Giallo, Rebecca; Kienhuis, Mandy; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan

2008-01-01

86

Factor Structure, Stability, and Predictive Validity of College Students' Relationship Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the underlying structure, stability, and predictive validity of college students' scores on a measure of relationship maintenance self-efficacy beliefs. Three identified efficacy-related factors were found to be stable; related in expected directions with gender, commitment status, and adult attachment orientations; and…

Lopez, Frederick G.; Morua, Wendy; Rice, Kenneth G.

2007-01-01

87

A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

2011-01-01

88

The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

2011-01-01

89

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

90

Identifying \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past decade has seen a remarkable evolution of sea-floor-based ice-draft profiling capabilities. Efforts have progressed from an original Beaufort Sea deployment of a single upward-looking acoustic echo sounder to the almost routine present-day positionings of special-purpose profiler units which operate in conjunction with adjacent current profiling and ice drift measurement instruments. These units allow detailed specification of draft statistics

D. B. Fissel; J. R. Marko; H. Melling

2002-01-01

91

Self-efficacy and AIDS prevention for pregnant teens.  

PubMed

AIDS education, the only immediate solution to containment of AIDS, encourages active risk reduction among high-risk populations. Self-efficacy is a construct that can measure the likelihood preventive behaviors will be performed, and thus could be applied to identify specific areas where AIDS education should be augmented. In this study, pregnant, mostly black, teens (N = 58) attending an alternative school in a large, midwestern city completed a self-efficacy scale to identify self-perceived areas of vulnerability to participating in preventive behaviors and avoiding high-risk behaviors concerning AIDS. The AIDS Self-efficacy Scale identified four areas of greatest vulnerability: using condoms, discussing previous homosexual activity, discussing previous bisexual activity, and telling a partner about an experience with a bisexual. The last three situations result from an inability to discuss a partner's past sexual history, indicating a need to be very specific in these areas. School health interventions should recognize and deal with issues sexually active teens have identified as most difficult, particularly specific aspects of sexual histories, and provide these adolescents with prevention skills necessary to reduce high-risk behaviors. PMID:2299814

Lawrance, L; Levy, S R; Rubinson, L

1990-01-01

92

Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

2012-05-24

93

Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

Albert Bandura

1984-01-01

94

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

95

Enhancing Self-Efficacy and Learning Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the effect of a communication designed to enhance the self-efficacy beliefs of introductory psychology students. Neutral e-mail messages of messages designed to enhance self-efficacy were sent to 76 college students. Results show that self-efficacy beliefs were related to examination scores and were significantly affected by the…

Jackson, Jay W.

2002-01-01

96

STAT3-mediated autophagy dependence identifies subtypes of breast cancer where autophagy inhibition can be efficacious.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a protein and organelle degradation pathway that is involved in diverse diseases, including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy is a cell survival mechanism in tumor cells and that its inhibition, especially in combination with other therapy, could be beneficial but it remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same way when autophagy is inhibited. We inhibited autophagy in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and found that some of them are dependent on autophagy for survival even in nutrient rich conditions without any additional stress, whereas others need autophagy only when stressed. Survival under unstressed conditions is due to cell type-specific autophagy regulation of STAT3 activity and this phenotype is enriched in triple-negative cell lines. This autophagy-dependency affects response to therapy because autophagy inhibition reduced tumor growth in vivo in autophagy-dependent but not in autophagy-independent breast tumors, whereas combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors and other agent was preferentially synergistic in autophagy-dependent cells. These results imply that autophagy-dependence represents a tumor cell-specific characteristic where autophagy inhibition will be more effective. Moreover, our results suggest that autophagy inhibition might be a potential therapeutic strategy for triple-negative breast cancers, which currently lack an effective targeted treatment. PMID:24590058

Maycotte, Paola; Gearheart, Christy M; Barnard, Rebecca; Aryal, Suraj; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Fosmire, Susan P; Hansen, Ryan J; Morgan, Michael J; Porter, Christopher C; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew

2014-05-01

97

[Evaluation of the postnatal treatment efficacy in congenital toxoplasmosis identified by the newborn screening programme].  

PubMed

The effectiveness of neonatal screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM or IgA and IgM specific antibodies followed by an intensive anti-parasitic therapy for a prevention of clinical and immunological reactivations of congenital infection was studied. Thirty-five congenitally infected infants were included into clinical and serological follow-up. The children were mostly asymptomatic at birth or they expressed some non-specific reversible clinical abnormalities in neonatal period. Clinically overt toxoplasmosis occurred in 10 patients, including one infant with a severe form; 2 children had co-existing CMV infections. During the follow-up period, no clinical relapses were reported. Asymptomatic immunological rebounds of IgG or of IgG and IgA specific antibodies were observed in 16 patients. Anti-parasitic treatment initiated soon after birth seems to be promising in a prevention of early clinical sequelae of congenital T. gondii infection. PMID:16897960

Paul, M; Jaworska, A; Twardosz-Pawlik, H; Szczapa, J; Stefaniak, J

2001-01-01

98

An investigation of the patterns of self-efficacy, outcome expectation, outcome value, and performance across trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy, Bandura's concept of a central cognitive mediating belief, has been widely researched and found to play an important role in the initiation, persistence, and achievement of a variety of behaviors. Self-efficacy can be viewed as one aspect of expectancy-value theory, but little research has been conducted to identify the relationship between measures of self-efficacy and outcome expectation across performance

Thomas L. Sexton; Bruce W. Tuckman; Kevin Crehan

1992-01-01

99

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

100

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

101

Relationship between Counseling Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy among School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between school counselors' counseling self-efficacy and multicultural counseling self-efficacy. In addition, this study measured school counselors' levels of general school counseling self-efficacy, multicultural counseling self-efficacy, and the relationship between school counselor…

Crook, Tylon

2010-01-01

102

Identifying clusters in Bayesian disease mapping.  

PubMed

Disease mapping is the field of spatial epidemiology interested in estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across [Formula: see text] areal units. One aim is to identify units exhibiting elevated disease risks, so that public health interventions can be made. Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatially smooth conditional autoregressive prior are used for this purpose, but they cannot identify the spatial extent of high-risk clusters. Therefore, we propose a two-stage solution to this problem, with the first stage being a spatially adjusted hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm. This algorithm is applied to data prior to the study period, and produces [Formula: see text] potential cluster structures for the disease data. The second stage fits a separate Poisson log-linear model to the study data for each cluster structure, which allows for step-changes in risk where two clusters meet. The most appropriate cluster structure is chosen by model comparison techniques, specifically by minimizing the Deviance Information Criterion. The efficacy of the methodology is established by a simulation study, and is illustrated by a study of respiratory disease risk in Glasgow, Scotland. PMID:24622038

Anderson, Craig; Lee, Duncan; Dean, Nema

2014-07-01

103

Mexican American caregivers’ coping efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Coping styles utilized by family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia have been implicated in the mental health of those\\u000a caregivers and in the course of schizophrenia. We tested the relation between caregivers’ coping efficacy, defined as the\\u000a caregiver’s perceptions of how successful they were in modifying their relative’s behavior, and caregiver’s psychological\\u000a distress as well as criticisms and positivity toward

Jorge I. Ramírez García; Brenda Hernández; Marina Dorian

2009-01-01

104

The efficacy and value of emergency medicine: a supportive literature review  

PubMed Central

Study objectives The goal of this study was to identify publications in the medical literature that support the efficacy or value of Emergency Medicine (EM) as a medical specialty and of clinical care delivered by trained emergency physicians. In this study we use the term "value" to refer both to the "efficacy of clinical care" in terms of achieving desired patient outcomes, as well as "efficiency" in terms of effective and/or cost-effective utilization of healthcare resources in delivering emergency care. A comprehensive listing of publications describing the efficacy or value of EM has not been previously published. It is anticipated that the accumulated reference list generated by this study will serve to help promote awareness of the value of EM as a medical specialty, and acceptance and development of the specialty of EM in countries where EM is new or not yet fully established. Methods The January 1995 to October 2010 issues of selected journals, including the EM journals with the highest article impact factors, were reviewed to identify articles of studies or commentaries that evaluated efficacy, effectiveness, and/or value related to EM as a specialty or to clinical care delivered by EM practitioners. Articles were included if they found a positive or beneficial effect of EM or of EM physician-provided medical care. Additional articles that had been published prior to 1995 or in other non-EM journals already known to the authors were also included. Results A total of 282 articles were identified, and each was categorized into one of the following topics: efficacy of EM for critical care and procedures (31 articles), efficacy of EM for efficiency or cost of care (30 articles), efficacy of EM for public health or preventive medicine (34 articles), efficacy of EM for radiology (11 articles), efficacy of EM for trauma or airway management (27 articles), efficacy of EM for using ultrasound (56 articles), efficacy of EM faculty (34 articles), efficacy of EM residencies (24 articles), and overviews and editorials of EM efficacy and value (35 articles). Conclusion There is extensive medical literature that supports the efficacy and value for both EM as a medical specialty and for emergency patient care delivered by trained EM physicians.

2011-01-01

105

Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE.

Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

2014-01-01

106

Extracting Meaning from Abbreviated Identifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Informative identifiers are made up of full (natural language) words and (meaningful) abbreviations. Readers of programs typically have little trouble understanding the purpose of identifiers composed of full words. In addition, those familiar with the code can (most often) determine the meaning of abbreviations used in identifiers. However, when faced with unfamiliar code, abbreviations often carry little useful information. Furthermore,

Dawn Lawrie; Henry Feild; David Binkley

2007-01-01

107

Transformative and restorative processes: revisiting the question of efficacy of indigenous healing.  

PubMed

Studies of the efficacy of 'traditional' Indigenous healing often fail to consider the epistemologies that underlay specific healing traditions, especially intrinsic notions of efficacy. In this article, I critically engage the concept of efficacy by identifying two somewhat different approaches to the issue of outcome. In 'transformative' healing processes, healing is conceptualized as a journey in which the outcome goal is a transformed individual. Efficacy, then, is about incremental changes toward this goal. In 'restorative' healing processes, the goal is termination of the sickness and the restoration of health; efficacy is conceptualized as a return to a presickness state. These healing processes are illustrated with examples from the Q'eqchi Maya of Belize and Aboriginal peoples of Canada. PMID:23557005

Waldram, James B

2013-01-01

108

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS.

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

109

Mental efficacy, social support resources and aging well of veteran athletes and older adults in Greece: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors have been identified as important contributors to aging well. However, few studies examined how mental efficacy and social support contribute to aging well of veteran athletes versus older adults. This study examined the impact of mental efficacy and social support on aging well of Greek veteran track and field athletes versus non-athletes. Older adults (N=259) and veteran athletes

Yvonne Harahousou; Odysseus Trikkos; Nickos Kabitsis

2012-01-01

110

Does Tight Heart Rate Control Improve Beta-Blocker Efficacy? An Updated Analysis of the Noncardiac Surgical Randomized Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent meta-analyses assessing the efficacy of perioperative -blockade trials have failed to show a reduction in postoperative morbidity and mortality. Tight control of heart rate (HR) has been suggested to improve these outcomes. Meta- analyses have not considered the influence of tight HR control on the efficacy of perioperative -blockade. METHODS: Using previously published search strategies, we identified all

W. Scott Beattie; Duminda N. Wijeysundera; Keyvan Karkouti; Stuart McCluskey; Gordon Tait

2008-01-01

111

Efficacy of bithionol as an oral treatment for amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the efficacy of bithionol as an oral treatment for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar affected by amoebic gill disease (AGD). The current commercial management strategy of AGD is a costly 3 h freshwater bath. It is labour intensive and the number of baths needed appears to be increasing; hence, there is an effort to identify alternative treatments. Efficacy was

Renee L. Florent; Joy A. Becker; Mark D. Powell

2007-01-01

112

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

113

Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Australian High School Students: The Mediating Effects of Academic Aspirations and Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that self-efficacy, aspirational, and other psychosocial influences account for considerable variance in academic achievement through a range of mediational pathways, although no research to date has tested the mediational relationships identified. The present research investigated the structural relations among self-efficacy,…

Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert; Unsworth, Kerrie; Hattie, John; Gordon, Lisa; Bower, Julie

2009-01-01

114

The influence of self-efficacy and past behaviour on the physical activity intentions of young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to identify the influence of self-efficacy and past behaviour on young people's physical activity intentions using an augmented version of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesized that self-efficacy would exhibit discriminant validity with perceived behavioural control and explain unique variance in young people's intentions to participate in physical activity. We also expected

MARTIN S. HAGGER; NIKOS CHATZISARANTIS; STUART J. H. BIDDLE

2001-01-01

115

Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

2014-01-01

116

Stochastic control system parameter identifiability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

1975-01-01

117

Efficacy of Methotrexate in Ulcerative Colitis: Failure or Promise  

PubMed Central

Background Low-dose methotrexate is a widely used and efficacious therapy in chronic inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Prospective randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of parenteral methotrexate in Crohn’s disease (CD). We performed a systematic review of the efficacy of methotrexate in ulcerative colitis (UC) and discuss the results in the context of the known pharmacokinetics and adverse events of methotrexate therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. All publications describing patients with UC treated with methotrexate were included. Results We identified 12 studies or retrospective case series and 5 meeting abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial using methotrexate at a dose of 12.5 mg orally with no significant clinical benefit. However, the majority of uncontrolled retrospective analyses suggest a clinical response to methotrexate therapy in a range of 30%–80% when the drug is applied by parenteral route in doses between 20–25 mg. Conclusions The only randomized controlled trial of methotrexate in UC employed oral dosing and doses lower than those shown to be effective in CD and did not demonstrate efficacy, whereas uncontrolled, retrospective studies using doses and routes of administration similar to those employed in CD suggest benefit. Well-designed, prospective, placebo-controlled trials of methotrexate in UC are needed.

Herfarth, Hans H.; Osterman, Mark T.; Isaacs, Kim L.; Lewis, James D.; Sands, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

118

Predictors of Self-Efficacy for HIV Prevention Among Hispanic Women in South Florida  

PubMed Central

Self-efficacy is a critical element for HIV prevention, however little is known about the predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women. In this cross-sectional study we assessed if age, living with a partner, employment status, HIV knowledge, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence (IPV) predicted self-efficacy for HIV prevention in 548 Hispanic women in South Florida who participated in a randomized controlled trial (SEPA). The majority of Hispanic women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, with less HIV knowledge, and a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions.

Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

2012-01-01

119

Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss.

Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

2013-01-01

120

Promoting and Measuring Family Caregiver Self-Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a 5-item scale that assesses family caregivers' self-efficacy in communicating with physicians about ill family members (Perceived Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions–PECPI) in the context of an evaluation study of an online training in health care communication skills for caregivers. A national sample of 197 self-identified family caregivers participated in an online webinar and completed

Crystal Dea Moore; Kevin M. Cook

2011-01-01

121

Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges of humanitarian logisticians with respect to different types of disasters, phases of disaster relief and the type of humanitarian organization. A conceptual model is constructed that serves as a basis to identify these challenges. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a country as a case, namely Ghana.

Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen Spens

2009-01-01

122

Identify: a Prolog program to help identify fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program in Turbo Prolog assists the user to identify fossils consistently and expeditiously. The database includes information on variable character-states for each species, and the user is encouraged to input the variability of the form to be identified. Annotated sketches are associated with each taxon in the database. Although this working prototype is for a paleontological application, the same program can be used with other databases in a wide spectrum of disciplines in the natural sciences.

Riedel, Wm. R.

123

Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.  

PubMed

The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

2008-04-01

124

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

125

Identifying and treating patients with suboptimal responses.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated neurologic disease in which acute inflammatory events early in the disease course contribute to subsequent neurologic disability. The early relapsing inflammatory phase is followed by a progressive degenerative phase in which the frequency of acute inflammatory attacks diminishes but progressive loss of neurologic function continues. Current immune therapies are most effective in suppressing the acute inflammatory events that characterize the earlier stages of disease. Optimal suppression of these inflammatory events is likely to have the best potential for delaying or preventing loss of axons and decline in neurologic function. In view of these considerations, and because MS is a heterogeneous disease and response to disease-modifying agents (DMA) varies across individuals, it is important to identify suboptimal responders as early as possible to allow therapeutic modification while the opportunity to avert future loss of function remains. At present, no criteria for identifying suboptimal responders have been validated. In January 2004, a group of neurologists from 16 MS centers in the United States met to develop a consensus on criteria for defining suboptimal response for use in compelling clinical situations and to prompt clinical studies to validate the efficacy of these criteria. Consensus criteria included relapse rates of either 1/year or unchanged from pretreatment rates, incomplete recovery from multiple attacks, evolution of polyregional neurologic involvement, recurrent brainstem or spinal cord lesions, and cumulative loss of neurologic function sufficient to disrupt daily activities. The panel then considered the use of mitoxantrone for patients with worsening MS and a suboptimal response to DMA therapy. PMID:15623669

Cohen, B A; Khan, O; Jeffery, D R; Bashir, K; Rizvi, S A; Fox, E J; Agius, M; Bashir, R; Collins, T E; Herndon, R; Kinkel, P; Mikol, D D; Picone, M A; Rivera, V; Tornatore, C; Zwibel, H

2004-12-28

126

Identifying Quality-Requirement Conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without a well-defined set of quality-attribute requirements, software projects are vulnerable to failure. The authors have developed QARCC, a knowledge-based tool that helps users, developers, and customers analyze requirements and identify conflicts among them

Barry W. Boehm; In Hoh

1996-01-01

127

Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

Carnes, G. D.

1973-01-01

128

Resistance Training: Identifying Best Practices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Resistance training increases muscle strength. Muscle strength gains are influenced by program design. This review attempted to identify design choices that would be best practices. A best practice is a design option that produces significantly better res...

A. C. Barnard J. R. Vickers L. K. Hervig

2010-01-01

129

Identifying Elements of a Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

Readworks

2012-03-23

130

Identifying Less Accurately Measured Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Some students are less accurately measured,by typical reading tests than other students. By asking teachers to identify students whose performance,on state reading tests would likely underestimate their reading skills, this study sought to learn about characteristics of less accurately measured,students while also evaluating how well teachers can make such judgments. Twenty students identified by eight teachers participated in structured

Ross Moen; Kristi Liu; Martha Thurlow; Adam Lekwa; Sarah Scullin; Kristin Hausmann

131

Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

132

Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

2006-01-01

133

Questioning the level of efficacy of the measles vaccine in use in Zimbabwe.  

PubMed

A prospective study was carried out between 1987 and 1989 in the City of Gweru (Zimbabwe) to assess the efficacy of the measles vaccine. The vaccine efficacy assessment was carried out on an epidemiological basis by relating measles transmission in the vaccinated and unvaccinated children aged 10 to 23 months. Measles cases were identified on the basis of a standard case definition and data on occurrence of measles cases was collected through an active surveillance system. Efficacies of 73 pc, 82 pc and 77 pc were calculated for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989 respectively. Over the three year period mean efficacy was found to be 77 pc (95 pc confidence interval 75 to 79 pc). The vaccine efficacies found in this study were lower than 85 pc which is the officially accepted efficacy of the measles vaccine that is in use in Zimbabwe. The low vaccine efficacy found in this study is attributed to the fact that the measles vaccine is applied (at nine months of age) when probably 10 to 20 pc of children still have prenatally acquired maternal antibodies. It is suggested that further studies be carried out in Zimbabwe to enable the country to define the way forward. PMID:7585910

Marufu, T; Siziya, S; Manyame, B; Xaba, E; Silape-Marufu, Z; Zimbizi, P; Ruwodo, C; Mason, E; Matchaba-Hove, R B; Mudyarabikwa, O

1995-08-01

134

Parent Caregiver Self-Efficacy and Child Reactions to Pediatric Cancer Treatment Procedures  

PubMed Central

This study examined how parents’ sense of self-efficacy specific to caregiving for their child during cancer treatment procedures affected children’s distress and cooperation during procedures. Potential correlates of caregiver self-efficacy (ie, demographics, child clinical characteristics, parent dispositional attributes, and social support) were also examined. Participants were 119 children undergoing cancer treatment procedures and their parents. Parents’ self-efficacy about 6 procedure-specific caregiver tasks was measured. Parents, children, nurses, and observers rated child distress and parents, nurses and observers rated child cooperation during procedures. Higher parent self-efficacy about keeping children calm during procedures predicted lower child distress and higher child cooperation during procedures. Parent dispositional attributes (eg, enduring positive mood, empathy) and social support predicted self-efficacy. Parent caregiver self-efficacy influences child distress and cooperation during procedures and is associated with certain parent attributes. Findings suggest the utility of identifying parents who would benefit from targeted interventions to increase self-efficacy about caregiving during treatment procedures.

Peterson, Amy M.; Harper, Felicity W. K.; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Orom, Heather; Phipps, Sean; Penner, Louis A.

2014-01-01

135

Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.  

PubMed

Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

2010-04-01

136

Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies  

PubMed Central

Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs.

Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

137

Identifying tier one key suppliers.  

PubMed

In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

Wicks, Steve

2013-01-01

138

teachers' changes in personal teaching efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal teaching efficacy is associated with a teacher's effectiveness in the classroom. To enhance this efficacy in a computer-simulated training program, both personal traits and guided practices need to be considered concurrently. In this study, it was hypothesised that the interactive effects from the coupling of personal traits with guided practices would be a reliable predictor of the degree of

Yu-Chu Yeh

139

Supporting Teacher Efficacy: Implications for School Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy has been defined as an important construct in instructional effectiveness. With this knowledge, we must further analyze how efficacy is developed and maintained throughout a teaching career to maximize learning outcomes for students. A literature review revealed little research related to the constructs that are important in the…

Vesely, Jeanette

2009-01-01

140

Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that

James Trussell; Charlotte Ellertson

1999-01-01

141

Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

2012-01-01

142

Factors Influencing the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of First-Year Engineering Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A survey incorporating qualitative measures of student self-efficacy beliefs was administered to 1,387 first-year engineering students enrolled in ENGR 106, Engineering Problem-Solving and Computer Tools, at Purdue University. The survey was designed to identify factors related to students' self-efficacy beliefs, their beliefs about their capabilities to perform the tasks necessary to achieve a desired outcome. Open-ended questions prompted students to list factors affecting their confidence in their ability to succeed in the course. Students were then asked to rank these factors based on the degree to which their self-efficacy beliefs were influenced. Gender trends emerged in student responses to factors that affect confident in success. These trends are discussed in light of the categories identified by efficacy theorists as sources of self-efficacy beliefs. The results presented here provide a useful look at the first-year engineering experiences that influence students' efficacy beliefs, an important consideration in explaining student achievement, persistence, and interest.

Hutchison, Mica A.; Follman, Deborah K.; Sumpter, Melissa; Bodner, George M.

2006-05-24

143

The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats.

Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

2014-01-01

144

Identifying Elements in the Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides a description of the use of spectroscopy to identify elements in the stars, including a scientific explanation of bright line and dark line spectra, from an historical perspective. A list of links to additional information and images of atomic spectra is also provided.

145

Identifying relapsing fever Borrelia, Senegal.  

PubMed

We describe a nested polymerase chain reaction for the identification of Borrelia species from serum of patients with unidentified fevers. This technique, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene, was used to test blood samples from 7,750 patients, 33 of whom were diagnosed with spirochete infections. Borrelia crocidurae was the only species identified. PMID:15757570

Brahim, Hamoud; Perrier-Gros-Claude, Jean David; Postic, Danielle; Baranton, Guy; Jambou, Ronan

2005-03-01

146

Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

2012-01-01

147

Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

2010-01-01

148

Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.  

PubMed

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

149

Identifying Periods of Drowsy Driving Using EEG  

PubMed Central

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation’s highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods.

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

150

Omalizumab: efficacy in allergic disease.  

PubMed

Asthma and allergic rhinitis are common conditions that have a substantial impact on patient quality of life, severely disrupting physical, emotional and social functioning. These diseases share many pathophysiological characteristics and recent research has provided evidence that a strong causal relationship exists between allergy and both asthma and allergic rhinitis. As a root cause of allergic diseases of the airways, immunoglobulin E (IgE) represents an appropriate target for the development of new therapies. Omalizumab (Xolair) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal anti-IgE antibody that has demonstrated efficacy in allergic asthma and other IgE-related allergic illnesses. In three pivotal, placebo-controlled trials in patients with moderate-to-severe allergic asthma, omalizumab provided effective disease control, significantly reducing exacerbations while improving quality of life. Additionally, omalizumab reduced the need for unscheduled outpatient visits, emergency room visits and hospitalizations. Omalizumab was particularly useful as add-on treatment for patients with poorly controlled severe asthma. Similar benefits were reported in patients with seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab significantly improved disease symptoms and reduced the use of rescue antihistamines. In patients with concomitant asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis, omaliuzumab significantly prevented asthma exacerbations and improved quality of life compared with placebo. Taken together, these results suggest that omalizumab represents an important clinical advance in the management of allergic disease. PMID:15507883

Spector, S

2004-06-01

151

Anthelmintic efficacy against cyathostomins in horses in Southern England.  

PubMed

Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are licensed for use in horses in the UK. With no new anthelmintics likely to be licensed in the near future, it is essential that investigations into the efficacy of current anthelmintics in different locations are performed to help inform control programmes. Here, efficacy of FBZ, PYR, IVM and MOX in horse populations in the South of England was investigated. Horses with a strongyle faecal egg count (FEC) of ?50 eggs per gram (EPG) were enrolled onto a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) study. Efficacy was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in FEC between the group mean at Day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. Efficacy was indicated when a group arithmetic faecal egg count reduction (FECR) of ?90% was recorded for FBZ and PYR, and ?95% for IVM and MOX. Between March and December 2012, 404 FECRT were performed on 12 yards examining 101, 110, 93 and 100 equids for FBZ, PYR, IVM, and MOX, respectively. FBZ resistance was identified on all yards (mean FECR range 0-65.8%). On 10 of 12 yards, PYR efficacy was >90% (91.0-99.4%) and on two yards, PYR resistance was suspected (86.8-87.2%). IVM (96.4-100%) and MOX (99.9-100%) were >95% efficacious on all yards. As the prevalence of FBZ resistance was 100%, the future use of this anthelmintic for the control of strongyles should be questioned. PYR should be used strategically to reduce reliance on the macrocyclic lactone class products. Over-dispersion of FEC between horses was observed (average k=0.21) with 80% of the strongyle eggs counted measured in 15% of horses tested, strongly supporting the application of targeted helminth control programmes in this host species. PMID:23830687

Lester, H E; Spanton, J; Stratford, C H; Bartley, D J; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Coumbe, K; Mair, T; Swan, B; Lemon, G; Cookson, R; Matthews, J B

2013-10-18

152

An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…

Tuncer, Murat

2013-01-01

153

Efficacy of moxidectin oral gel against Onchocerca cervicalis microfilariae.  

PubMed

During a series of dose-titration experiments designed to evaluate the efficacy of moxidectin oral gel against equine gastrointestinal parasites, infection with Onchocerca cervicalis was diagnosed in 25 of 82 ponies prior to treatment. Microfilariae were identified in full-thickness skin biopsies taken from the ventral midline. Treatment with moxidectin in single doses of 300, 400, or 500 micrograms/kg of body weight was 100% effective in eliminating microfilariae from 20 skin biopsies taken 14 days posttreatment, whereas 5 microfilaria-positive ponies in 2 control groups remained positive following placebo treatment. No adverse reaction was seen in any pony following treatment with moxidectin or the vehicle control. PMID:7876966

Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Klei, T R

1995-02-01

154

DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological\\u000a characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study,\\u000a a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species\\u000a from European seas based on

M. Kochzius; M. Nölte; H. Weber; N. Silkenbeumer; S. Hjörleifsdottir; G. O. Hreggvidsson; V. Marteinsson; K. Kappel; S. Planes; F. Tinti; A. Magoulas; E. Garcia Vazquez; C. Turan; C. Hervet; D. Campo Falgueras; A. Antoniou; M. Landi; D. Blohm

2008-01-01

155

Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

Grayson, Kristin

156

The efficacy of triptans in childhood and adolescence migraine.  

PubMed

Studies on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents are rare and difficult to design. In particular, the high placebo response in some trials makes it difficult to prove efficacy of a verum drug. All available placebo-controlled trials on the acute migraine treatment in children and adolescents with a triptan were analyzed with respect to different end points (rate of pain free and pain relief at 2 hours; rate of adverse events). We identified 6 crossover and 11 parallel group trials. Although the trials were heterogenous with respect to the triptans and the dosage, pooled data were calculated. The pooled responder rate of triptans for 2 hours pain free was 36.0 % in crossover trials (significant difference to placebo with 17.7 %) and 32.5 % in parallel group trials (significant difference to placebo with 26.3 %). Triptans also showed a significantly higher pain relief rate at 2 hours than placebo both in crossover and parallel group trials. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher after triptans than after placebo. However, triptans were well tolerated in all trials. At least 1 trial with significant efficacy was found for sumatriptan (10-20 mg nasal spray), zolmitriptan (2.5-5 mg tablet), rizatriptan (5-10 mg tablet), and almotriptan (12.5-25 mg tablet). Placebo rates for efficacy were considerably lower in crossover trials than in parallel group trials. This analysis suggests that parallel group trials on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents with a triptan show a very low therapeutic gain because of a high placebo rate. The verum response rates, however, are very similar to those seen in adulthood trials. However, there is sufficient evidence that at least some triptans are efficacious even in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23709234

Evers, Stefan

2013-07-01

157

Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race  

PubMed Central

Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use.

Moraska, Albert

2013-01-01

158

Anthelmintic efficacy on UK Thoroughbred stud farms.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic drugs have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40years. We undertook a comprehensive study to investigate efficacy of the four available broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs on 16 Thoroughbred stud farms using the faecal egg count reduction test. Efficacy against strongyles was determined by calculating the percentage of reduction in faecal egg count between the group mean at Day 0 and Days 14-17 post-treatment and the 95% lower confidence intervals estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping. Individual strongyle faecal egg count reduction tests (n=429) were performed in which 179, 131, 89 and 30 horses were administered ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, respectively. Moxidectin was efficacious in all tests (faecal egg count reduction range: 99.8-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.8-100%) and reduced efficacy of ivermectin (faecal egg count reduction range: 85.7-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 65-100%) was observed in one group of yearlings. Reduced pyrantel efficacy was observed in five groups of yearlings (faecal egg count reduction range: 0-73%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 0-59.5%), but pyrantel was found to be efficacious when administered to mares (faecal egg count reduction range: 98-99.4%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 91.8-99.3%). Low efficacy of fenbendazole was always observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 0.4-41%; 95% lower confidence intervals not calculable). Two further methods for estimating efficacy were applied and outputs obtained using all methodologies were in agreement. Efficacy against Parascaris equorum was assessed on four farms: fenbendazole had acceptable efficacy (faecal egg count reduction range: 97.5-99.9%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.3-99.1%), but reduced efficacy of ivermectin was observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 25.5-91.2%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 6.7-82.4%). Strongyle faecal egg count were analysed at approximately 2week intervals for up to 12weeks after anthelmintic drug administration to determine the egg reappearance period for moxidectin, ivermectin and pyrantel. The egg reappearance period for all three anthelmintic drugs was shorter than previously observed. Overall, our results indicate that ivermectin and moxidectin administration provided acceptable efficacy at 14days; however, egg reappearance period results suggest that these products are working less effectively than measured previously. As shortened egg reappearance period is believed to be an early indicator of resistance, this highlights the issue of impending multi-drug resistance in strongyles on stud farms. PMID:24746779

Relf, Valerie E; Lester, Hannah E; Morgan, Eric R; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

2014-07-01

159

Efficiency and efficacy of incandescent lamps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planck's radiation formula is used to estimate the dimensionless efficiency of incandescent lamps as a function of filament temperature, with typical values of 2%-13%. Similarly, using the known spectral luminous efficiency of the eye, the efficacy of incandescent light bulbs is estimated as a function of temperature, showing values of 8-24 L W-1 for bulbs of 10-1000 W. The efficiency and efficacy results compare favorably with published data and enable estimation of the filament temperature for any lamp of known efficacy.

Agrawal, D. C.; Leff, Harvey S.; Menon, V. J.

1996-05-01

160

Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

Kerr, Patricia Reda

161

Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

162

Observing, Describing and Identifying Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They will initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. This learning resource is part of the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Cloud protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

163

A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase  

PubMed Central

Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers.

Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

2013-01-01

164

Selecting SNPs to Identify Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims An individual’s genotypes at a group of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used to predict that individual’s ethnicity, or ancestry. In medical studies, knowledge of a subject’s ancestry can minimize possible confounding, and in forensic applications, such knowledge can help direct investigations. Our goal is to select a small subset of SNPs, from the millions already identified in the human genome, that can predict ancestry with a minimal error rate. Methods The general form for this variable selection procedure is to estimate the expected error rates for sets of SNPs using a training dataset and consider those sets with the lowest error rates given their size. The quality of the estimate for the error rate determines the quality of the resulting SNPs. As the apparent error rate performs poorly when either the number of SNPs or the number of populations is large, we propose a new estimate, the Improved Bayesian Estimate. Conclusions We demonstrate that selection procedures based on this estimate produce small sets of SNPs that can accurately predict ancestry. We also provide a list of the 100 optimal SNPs for identifying ancestry. R functions are available at http://bioinformatics.med.yale.edu/group/josh/index.html.

Sampson, Joshua; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kidd, Judith R; Zhao, Hongyu

2011-01-01

165

Efficacy of ibandronate: a long term confirmation  

PubMed Central

Data deriving from randomized clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analyses, including treatment regimens unlicensed for use in clinical practice, clearly support that 150 mg once-monthly oral and 3 mg quarterly i.v. doses of ibandronate are associated with efficacy, safety and tolerability; notably both these marketed regimens, which largely correspond to ACE ?10.8 mg, may in addition provide a significant efficacy on non-vertebral and clinical fracture (Fx) efficacy. The MOBILE and the DIVA LTE studies confirmed a sustained efficacy of monthly oral and quarterly i.v. regimens respectively, over 5 years. Furthermore, improved adherence rates with monthly ibandronate, deriving from studies evaluating large prescription databases, promise to enhance fracture protection and decrease the social and economic burden of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

Di Munno, Ombretta; Delle Sedie, Andrea

2010-01-01

166

Electrical and Chemical Modulation of Synaptic Efficacy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To investigate how electric currents associated with Synaptic activity and chemical factors released by the pre- and postsynapic cells affect the efficacy of synaptic transmission, in order to understand the plasticity of synaptic functions at single neur...

M. Poo

1997-01-01

167

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

168

Efficacy of Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Beginning in May 1978, 203 children entered a randomized influenza vaccine subvirion trial comparing 6 different vaccine groups to placebo for reactogenicity, immunigenicity and clinical efficacy. Of the 203, 176 completed the required 2-dose schedule and...

B. Portnoy W. Orenstein

1979-01-01

169

The efficacy and self-efficacy of treatment: ethnomedical aspirations, biomedical inhibitions, and health outcomes.  

PubMed

This article argues for a shift from an evaluation of the efficacy of "traditional medicine" to an analysis of the influence of notions of efficacy on health seeking and health outcomes. Studies on the therapeutic value of traditional medicine tend to focus on countering or engaging with biomedical models to explain the process and efficacy of healing. Less examined is how efficacy is evaluated by traditional healers and patients themselves. Ethnographic research focused on health seeking and language use in Tonga reveals a diversity of claims of efficacy that relate to the social and epistemological positions of healers, health workers, and patients. Using the celebrated case of a man who was cured by a healer after the hospital could do no more for him facilitates greater epistemological dialogue and poses a challenge to the current efficacy consensuses in medical anthropology and Tonga. PMID:23784977

Poltorak, Mike

2013-06-01

170

Genotype-dependent effects of GABAergic agents on sedative properties of ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lines of mice, selectively bred for differential sensitivity to the soporific effects of ethanol (ETOH), were administered GABAergic drugs in an effort to evaluate a role for GABA in ETOH sensitivity. ETOH sensitive Long-Sleep mice (LS) showed potentiated ETOH sedation when administered bicuculline, muscimol and aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA). ETOH-insensitive SS mice exhibited reduced ETOH sedation in the presence of

Bruce C. Dudek; Tamara J. Phillips

1989-01-01

171

Acute environmental hypoxia induces LC3 lipidation in a genotype-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-induced muscle wasting is a phenomenon often described with prolonged stays at high altitude, which has been attributed to altered protein metabolism. We hypothesized that acute normobaric hypoxia would induce a negative net protein balance by repressing anabolic and activating proteolytic signaling pathways at rest and postexercise and that those changes could be partially genetically determined. Eleven monozygotic twins participated in an experimental trial in normoxia and hypoxia (10.7% O2). Muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after a 20-min moderate cycling exercise. In hypoxia at rest, autophagic flux was increased, as indicated by an increased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 type II/I (LC3-II/I) ratio (+25%) and LC3-II expression (+60%) and decreased p62/SQSTM1 expression (-25%; P<0.05), whereas exercise reversed those changes to a level similar to that with normoxia except for p62/SQSTM1, which was further decreased (P<0.05). Hypoxia also increased Bnip3 (+34%) and MAFbx (+18%) mRNA levels as well as REDD1 expression (+439%) and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (+22%; P<0.05). Among the molecular responses to hypoxia and/or exercise, high monozygotic similarity was found for REDD1, LC3-II, and LC3-II/I (P<0.05). Our results indicate that environmental hypoxia modulates protein metabolism at rest and after moderate exercise by primarily increasing markers of protein breakdown and, more specifically, markers of the autophagy-lysosomal system, with a modest genetic contribution. PMID:24200883

Masschelein, Evi; Van Thienen, Ruud; D'Hulst, Gommaar; Hespel, Peter; Thomis, Martine; Deldicque, Louise

2014-02-01

172

Response to photoxidative stress induced by cold in japonica rice is genotype dependent.  

PubMed

Two japonica rice genotypes, INIA Tacuarí and L2825CA, were analyzed for tolerance to low temperature during early vegetative growth. Effect on photosynthesis, energy dissipation, pigment content, xanthophyll-cycle pool conversion, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined to better understand potential mechanisms for cold tolerance. Photoinhibition was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence and oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Both genotypes were demonstrated to be cold tolerant which was consistent with their reduced levels of photoinhibition and oxidative damage compared with a cold-sensitive genotype during chilling stress. The strategy for cold tolerance differed between the two genotypes, and involved different mechanisms for disposal of excess energy. The presence of high lutein concentrations and the existence of active non-harmful energy dissipation processes through the xanthophyll cycle appeared to be responsible for chilling tolerance in INIA Tacuarí. On the other hand, increased cold tolerance of L2825CA relative to INIA Tacuarí was related to the higher constitutive superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6). PMID:21421424

Bonnecarrère, Victoria; Borsani, Omar; Díaz, Pedro; Capdevielle, Fabián; Blanco, Pedro; Monza, Jorge

2011-05-01

173

[Neonatal injections of pharmacological agents and their remote genotype-dependent effects in mice and rats].  

PubMed

Experimental data were reviewed which demonstrated that the neonatal injection effects of certain biologically active drugs (ACTH(4-10) fragment and its analogue Semax, piracetam, caffeine, levetiracetam, busperone, etc.) could be detected in adult animals as changes in physiological and behavioral reactions and in several morphological traits as well. Audiogenic seizures proneness, anxiety-fear and exploration behavior as well as pain sensitivity were analyzed. The remote effects discovered were either similar in direction to those applied to an adult organism, or opposite to it. Pharmacological treatments of such type presumably interfere the CNS development during early postnatal ontogeny and change the normal pattern ofbrain development. These modulatory influences could be due to changes in neurotransmitter system development and are presumably capable to induce CNS morphological deviations (numbers of neurons, adult neurogenesis). PMID:23401956

Poletaeva, I I; Perepelkina, O V; Boiarshinova, O S; Lil'p, I G; Markina, N V; Timoshenko, T V; Revishchin, A V

2012-01-01

174

Dopamine Transporter Genotype Dependent Effects of Apomorphine on Cold Pain Tolerance in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the dopamine agonist apomorphine on experimental pain models in healthy subjects and to explore the possible association between these effects and a common polymorphism within the dopamine transporter gene. Healthy volunteers (n?=?105) participated in this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Heat pain threshold and intensity, cold pain threshold, and the response to tonic cold pain (latency, intensity, and tolerance) were evaluated before and for up to 120 min after the administration of 1.5 mg apomorphine/placebo. A polymorphism (3?-UTR 40-bp VNTR) within the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) was investigated. Apomorphine had an effect only on tolerance to cold pain, which consisted of an initial decrease and a subsequent increase in tolerance. An association was found between the enhancing effect of apomorphine on pain tolerance (120 min after its administration) and the DAT-1 polymorphism. Subjects with two copies of the 10-allele demonstrated significantly greater tolerance prolongation than the 9-allele homozygote carriers and the heterozygote carriers (p?=?0.007 and p?=?0.003 in comparison to the placebo, respectively). In conclusion, apomorphine administration produced a decrease followed by a genetically associated increase in cold pain tolerance.

Treister, Roi; Pud, Dorit; Ebstein, Richard P.; Eisenberg, Elon

2013-01-01

175

The genotype-dependent influence of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on fetal development.  

PubMed

In many cases cancer is caused by gene deficiency that is being passed along from generation to generation. Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising applications in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, however, the potential relationship between cancer-prone individuals and response to CNT exposure as a prerequisite for development of personalized nanomedicine, is still poorly understood. Here we report that intravenous injections of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into p53 (a well-known cancer-susceptible gene) heterozygous pregnant mice can induce p53- dependent responses in fetal development. Larger sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes moved across the blood-placenta barrier (BPB), restricted the development of fetuses, and induced brain deformity, whereas single-walled and smaller sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes showed no or less fetotoxicity. A molecular mechanism study found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes directly triggered p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Based on the molecular mechanism, we also incorporated N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an FDA approved antioxidant, to prevent CNTs induced nuclear DNA damage and reduce brain development abnormalities. Our findings suggest that CNTs might have genetic background-dependent toxic effect on the normal development of the embryo, and provide new insights into protection against nanoparticle-induced toxicity in potential clinical applications. PMID:24344357

Huang, Xinglu; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Xiaolian; Choi, Ki-Young; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Guofeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2014-01-01

176

Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4]) plants regarding the alteration of metabolite accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In the GC-TOF/MS analysis, we acquired quantitative information regarding over 170 metabolites, which has been analyzed by a novel score (ZMC, z-score of metabolite correlation) describing a characteristic metabolite in terms of correlation. Although the 2 mutants revealed no apparent morphological abnormalities, the overall correlation values in mto1 were much lower than those of the wild-type and tt4 plants, indicating the loss of overall network stability due to the uncontrolled accumulation of methionine. In the tt4 mutant, a new correlation between malate and sinapate was observed although the levels of malate, sinapate, and sinapoylmalate remain unchanged, suggesting an adaptive reconfiguration of the network. Gene-expression correlations presumably responsible for these metabolic networks were determined using the metabolite correlations as clues. Conclusion Two Arabidopsis mutants, mto1 and tt4, exhibited the following changes in entire metabolome networks: the overall loss of metabolic stability (mto1) or the generation of a metabolic network of a backup pathway for the lost physiological functions (tt4). The expansion of metabolite correlation to gene-expression correlation provides detailed insights into the systemic understanding of the plant cellular process regarding metabolome and transcriptome.

Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Arita, Masanori; Jonsson, Par; Moritz, Thomas; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Tohge, Takayuki; Saito, Kazuki

2007-01-01

177

Unbiased characterization of genotype-dependent metabolic regulations by metabolomic approach in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Metabolites are not only the catalytic products of enzymatic reactions but also the active regulators or the ultimate phenotype of metabolic homeostasis in highly complex cellular processes. The modes of regulation at the metabolome level can be revealed by metabolic networks. We investigated the metabolic network between wild-type and 2 mutant (methionine-over accumulation 1 [mto1] and transparent testa4 [tt4])

Miyako Kusano; Atsushi Fukushima; Masanori Arita; Pär Jonsson; Thomas Moritz; Makoto Kobayashi; Naomi Hayashi; Takayuki Tohge; Kazuki Saito

2007-01-01

178

Osteoradionecrosis in Head-and-Neck Cancer Has a Distinct Genotype-Dependent Cause  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We performed a case-control study to establish whether the development of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) was related to a variant allele substituting T for C at -509 of the transforming growth factor-{beta}1 gene (TGF-{beta}1). Patients and Methods: A total of 140 patients, 39 with and 101 without ORN, who underwent radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, were studied. None of the patients had clinical evidence of recurrence at this time. DNA extracted from blood was genotyped for the -509 C-T variant allele of the TGF-{beta}1 gene. Results: There were no significant differences in patient, cancer treatment, or tumor characteristics between the two groups. Of the 39 patients who developed ORN, 9 were homozygous for the common CC allele, 19 were heterozygous, and 11 were homozygous for the rare TT genotype. Of the 101 patients without ORN, the distribution was 56 (CC), 33 (CT), and 12 (TT). The difference in distribution was significant, giving an increased risk of ORN of 5.7 (95% CI, 1.7-19.2) for homozygote TT patients (p = 0.001) and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.3-10.0) for heterozygotes (p = 0.004) when compared with patients with the CC genotype. Postradiotherapy dentoalveolar surgery preceding the development of ORN was associated with the CC genotype (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our findings support the postulate that the development of ORN is related to the presence of the T variant allele at -509 within the TGF-{beta}1 gene.

Lyons, Andrew J., E-mail: Andrew.Lyons@gstt.nhs.uk [Head and Neck Unit, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M. [University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Risk, Janet M. [Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Slevin, Nick J.; Chan, Clara [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Division of Health and Social Care Research, King's College, London (United Kingdom); Rinck, Gabrielle; Howell, Dawn [Laboratory 21, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shaw, Richard J. [Liverpool CR-UK Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15

179

Relationships between nitrite reductase activity and genotype-dependent callus growth in rice cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrite ion content and activity of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were examined in scutellum-derived calluses\\u000a of rice varieties using a modified R2 medium (medium A) and a medium derived from the modified R2 medium (medium B). In medium\\u000a A, marked differences were observed in callus growth between the varieties. The calluses of the poor-growth varieties accumulated\\u000a significantly more

T. Ogawa; H. Fukuoka; H. Yano; Y. Ohkawa

1999-01-01

180

Genotype-dependent response to energy-restricted diets in obese subjects: towards personalized nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is a complex disease, which in many cases appears as a polygenic condition affected by environmental factors (mainly unbalanced dietary patterns and physical inactivity). In this context, the weight loss response to dietary interventions varies widely and predictive factors of successful slimming including those concerned with the individual's genetic make-up are poorly understood. Indeed, a number of genes involved

J. Alfredo Martínez; José Luis Santos; Jesus Moreno-Aliaga; Amelia Marti; Miguel A. Martínez-González

181

Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and Viniimk 8931, which are commercially important for Turkey. Seeds germinated on Murashige and Skoog

Ibrahim Ilker Ozyigit; Nermin Gozukirmizi; Belma Derman Semiz

182

Genotype-dependent in vitro response of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars to silver nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in callus growth and somatic embryogenesis in response to silver nitrate (AgNO3) among genotypes of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) was investigated. Callus was cultured on MS medium containing 53.7?M naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 7.4?M 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP) and supplemented with AgNO3 at 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, or 100?M. Subsequently, somatic embryogenesis was induced by transferring

Jameel M Al-Khayri; Abdulaziz M Al-Bahrany

2004-01-01

183

Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

Julian Barling; Mike Abel

1983-01-01

184

Application of modified in vitro screening procedure for identifying herbals possessing sulfonylurea-like activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the application of a modified in vitro procedure for identifying herbs potentially possessing sulfonylurea-like activity. The procedure consists of the combination of an SUR1 receptor binding assay and an insulin secretion assay in cultures of HIT-T15 cells. This procedure could be used as an initial step in identifying new safe and efficacious agents for the management of

Y Rotshteyn; S. W Zito

2004-01-01

185

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social-cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (pmtintan- tion). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave

186

Social–Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social–cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (postintention). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave 1.

Ralf Schwarzer; Britta Renner

2000-01-01

187

Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved.

Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

2014-01-01

188

Self-efficacy as a Predictor of Weight Change and Behavior Change in the PREMIER Trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Design Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Setting Four academic medical centers. Participants PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Main Outcome Measures Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Analysis Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Results Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (? = ?.21, P < .01; ? = ?.19, P < .01, respectively) and 18 months (? = ?.19, P < .01; ? = ?.35, P <.01). Change in percent calories from fat partially mediated the DSE/weight change relationship at 6 months. Change in fitness partially mediated the ESE/weight change relationship at 18 months. Conclusions and Implications Changes in DSE/ESE were not associated with behavior change as hypothesized. Additional research is needed to identify mediators between self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss.

Wingo, Brooks C.; Desmond, Renee A.; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J.; Ard, Jamy D.

2014-01-01

189

Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults  

PubMed Central

Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age = 72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean = 8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean = 94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling.

Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

2014-01-01

190

Measuring university students' self-efficacy to use drinking self-control strategies.  

PubMed

Using a Web-based, self-administered questionnaire, we assessed 498 university-student drinkers' self-efficacy to use 31 different behavioral strategies to reduce excessive drinking in each of three different locations (bar, party, own dorm/apartment). Averaging all 31 items within each drinking situation to create a single scale score revealed high internal consistency reliabilities and moderate inter-item correlations. Testing the association of self-efficacy with drinking location, sex, and frequency of recent binge drinking, we found that respondents reported higher self-efficacy to use these strategies when drinking in their own dorm/apartment than when drinking in bars and at parties; women reported higher mean self-efficacy than men; and drinkers who engaged in 3-or-more binges in the previous 2 weeks reported lower self-efficacy than those who reported either 0 or 1-or-2 binges in the same time period. This questionnaire could be used to identify self-efficacy deficits among clients with drinking problems and as an outcome measure to assess the degree to which interventions influence reported confidence to use specific drinking-reduction strategies in high-risk drinking situations. PMID:21443310

Bonar, Erin E; Rosenberg, Harold; Hoffmann, Erica; Kraus, Shane W; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Pavlick, Michelle; Bannon, Erin E

2011-03-01

191

Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

2014-01-01

192

Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK). Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU) was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.). A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002). Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011). Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI) (p=0.003 and p=0.044). Conclusion Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of ergocalciferol than 50,000 IU for 8 weeks. Further studies, including prospective, randomized trials, are needed to determine an optimal treatment protocol to account for the numerous variables.

Kebede, Amal; Ephrussi, Corey; Lamanna, Meredith; Scheirer, Jorge; Alweis, Richard; Wasser, Thomas

2012-01-01

193

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

2007-02-02

194

Identifying Contienents, Oceans, and Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Core Curriculum Social Studies Standard #6: Students use map skills to analyze the influence of physical features of th building of communities in the United States. Objective #1: Examine Maps and Globes Indicator #1: Identify Oceans and Continents of the World. Using the following activities and instructions you will be able to learn about the 5 oceans and the 7 continents. You will also be able to find them on a map get better understanding of the four directions. As we discussed last time in class the five oceans of the world are: Artic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean (discovered in 2000) Click on the link below and print out the worksheet. This will help you locate the oceans and recognize their placement. Complete the worksheet to the best of our ...

Ms.bingham

2007-11-06

195

Impact of Peer Coaching on Self-Efficacy and Instructional Skills in TEFL Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to test whether student teachers trained using a peer coaching training program after teaching practicum sessions in teaching of English as a foreign language would demonstrate greater improvement on measures of a number of identified instructional skills and self-efficacy than those just receiving traditional supervisor…

Goker, Suleyman Davut

2006-01-01

196

Efficacy of changing testosterone gel preparations (Androgel or Testim) among suboptimally responsive hypogonadal men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of changing testosterone gel preparations among suboptimally responsive hypogonadal men. The records of all hypogonadal men on gel (Testim or Androgel) testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) were reviewed to identify men who underwent a brand substitution in gel TRT due to initial suboptimal response. Total and free serum testosterone levels and the presence

E D Grober; M Khera; S D Soni; M G Espinoza; L I Lipshultz; ED Grober

2008-01-01

197

Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

de Vries, Peter

2013-01-01

198

Percutaneous Echocardiographically Guided Pericardiocentesis in Pediatric Patients: Evaluation of Safety and Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of echocardiographically (echo) guided pericardiocentesis in pediatric patients. Echo-guided pericardiocenteses performed in pediatric patients (age ?16 years) at the Mayo Clinic between 1980 and 1997 were identified. Presentation, cause and characteristics of the effusion, details of the pericardiocentesis procedure, and outcome were determined by comprehensive chart review supplemented

Teresa S. M. Tsang; Eyad K. El-Najdawi; James B. Seward; Donald J. Hagler; William K. Freeman; Patrick W. O’Leary

1998-01-01

199

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

200

Raman Spectroscopic Evaluation of Efficacy of Current Paraffin Wax Section Dewaxing Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a spectroscopic study to identify biochemical changes in cervical tissue with the onset of carcinogenesis, residual paraffin wax contributions were observed on almost all dewaxed formalin-fixed paraffin-processed (FFPP) tissue sections examined. Subsequently, the present study was formulated to evaluate the efficacy of current dewaxing agents using Raman spectroscopy. Three cervical FFPP sections were subjected to each of the protocols.

Eoghan Ó Faoláin; Mary B. Hunter; Joe M. Byrne; Peter Kelehan; Helen A. Lambkin; Hugh J. Byrne; Fiona M. Lyng

2005-01-01

201

Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

2008-01-01

202

The Efficacy of Hourly Prophylactic Steroids in Diffuse Lamellar Keratitis Epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the inciting agent, clinical features, and the efficacy of hourly steroids in the prophylaxis in a diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) epidemic. Methods: One hundred and five eyes of 58 patients that had DLK after LASIK were included in the study. To identify the cause of the epidemic, some interventions were made: irrigation solution was changed from BSS

C. Banu Cosar; A. Bozkurt Sener; Nursen Sen; Efekan Coskunseven

2004-01-01

203

Discovery of CX-6258. A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious pan-Pim Kinases Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Structure–activity relationship analysis in a series of 3-(5-((2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)methyl)furan-2-yl)amides identified compound 13, a pan-Pim kinases inhibitor with excellent biochemical potency and kinase selectivity. Compound 13 exhibited in vitro synergy with chemotherapeutics and robust in vivo efficacy in two Pim kinases driven tumor models.

2011-01-01

204

Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

2008-01-01

205

Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

2000-01-01

206

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

207

Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roll Back Malaria aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and costeffective control strategies. However, the evidence-base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified

Jürg Utzinger; Yesim Tozan; Burton H. Singer

2001-01-01

208

Determination of Antibiotic Efficacy Against Bacillus Anthracis in a Mouse Aerosol Challenge Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anthrax-spore aerosol infection mouse model was developed as a first test of in vivo efficacy of antibiotics identified as active against Bacillus anthracis. Whole-body, LD50 aerosol challenge doses in a range of 1.9 x10(3) to 3.4 x 10(4) with spores o...

B. E. Ivins H. S. Heine J. Bassett J. M. Hartings L. Miller

2007-01-01

209

Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

2011-01-01

210

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of rucinol serum in patients with melasma: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Melasma is a hyperpigmentation disorder predominantly affecting sun- exposed areas in women, which is often refractory to treatment. Most commer- cially available treatments incorporate inhibitors of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin production within the melanocyte. In general, however, the efficacy of these therapies is somewhat limited. Recent studies have identified other enzymes that play an important role in

A. Khemis; A. Kaiafa; C. Queille-Roussel; L. Duteil; J. P. Ortonne

2007-01-01

211

Teachers' Self-Regulation: Using Cartoons to Reflect Teachers' Classroom Management Skills, Self-Efficacy and Students' Academic Delay of Gratification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the most frequently listed characteristics of teachers with a high degree of self-efficacy identified by certified teachers enrolled in a classroom management course. Findings: a) high self-efficacy is an important belief that teacher most posses and b) teachers can promote delay of gratification among their students.…

Bembenutty, Hefer

2009-01-01

212

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

Yilmaz, Idris

2013-01-01

213

Olanzapine orally disintegrating tablet: a review of efficacy and compliance.  

PubMed

Medication nonadherence, especially in psychiatric disorders, has been associated with treatment failure and other negative outcomes. Orally disintegrating formulations have been developed as an alternative to improve medication adherence. This report reviews the properties, efficacy, and safety profile of olanzapine as an orally disintegrating tablet, and explores their association with medication compliance compared with standard oral formulation. Medical literature, published on orally disintegrating formulation of olanzapine identified using Pubmed and EMBASE, was used. Additional references were identified from the reference lists of published articles. Bibliographical information, including contributory unpublished data, was also requested from the company developing the drug. Studies evaluating the biostability, biodisposability, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of orally disintegrating olanzapine as treatment of patients with psychiatric disorders were reviewed. Measurement tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale, and Nursing Assessment of Medication Acceptance (NAMA). Orally disintegrating olanzapine, an effective atypical antipsychotic with an acceptable safety profile, can facilitate the burden of treatment on patients and caregivers due to its ease of administration. This is especially important in diseases such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, which can be chronic and require long-term treatment. PMID:18801113

San, Luis; Casillas, Marta; Ciudad, Antonio; Gilaberte, Inmaculada

2008-01-01

214

The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size.

Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

2014-01-01

215

Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapies to Aid Smoking Cessation in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Adolescent smoking remains a public health problem. Despite concerns regarding adolescent nicotine dependence, few well-designed smoking cessation studies have been conducted with teen smokers. This is particularly true regarding pharmacological treatments for nicotine dependence. Currently, pharmacological aids are not recommended for treating adolescent nicotine dependence, as efficacy has not been shown in this population. This review includes studies that have examined the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking abstinence and/or reduction in cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers who want to quit smoking, lab-based adolescent studies that have examined the effectiveness of these medications in reducing cravings and/or withdrawal symptoms, and/or studies that have assessed the tolerability of medications for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers. This review provides information on the pharmacologic action of each medication, the efficacy of each medication for adolescent smoking cessation, the tolerability of each medication based on reported adverse events, and compliance with the medication protocols. Thirteen relevant articles were identified and included in the review. Nicotine patch, nicotine gum, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion, and varenicline have been studied in adolescent smokers. The adverse events reported in the studies on pharmacology for adolescent smoking suggest that the side effect profiles for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are similar to those reported in adult studies. There is some evidence of efficacy of nicotine patch and bupropion at end of treatment (efficacy of varenicline has not been assessed), but none of the medications included in this review were efficacious in promoting long-term smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. It is noted that many of the study protocols did not follow the recommended dose or length of pharmacotherapy for adults, rendering it difficult to determine the true efficacy of medication for adolescent smoking cessation. Future efficacy studies are warranted before recommending pharmacotherapy for adolescent smoking cessation.

Bailey, Steffani R.; Crew, Erin E.; Riske, Emily C.; Ammerman, Seth; Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

2012-01-01

216

Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

217

Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2009-01-01

218

Perceived control moderated the self-efficacy-enhancing effects of a chronic illness self-management intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Identifying moderators of the effects of self-efficacy-enhancing interventions could improve their efficiency. We examined the effects of a home-based variant of the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program on self-efficacy, and explored the moderating effects of perceived control over self-management (PCSM).Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, patients (N= 415) aged>40 years with various chronic conditions plus basic activity impairment and\\/or significant

Anthony Jerant; Monique Moore; Kate Lorig; Peter Franks

2008-01-01

219

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

220

Covariates of Self-Efficacy: Caregiver Characteristics Related to Mental Health Services Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, professionals are recognizing the need to involve parents and other caregivers in the mental health treatment of children. However, parents and caregivers may not feel efficacious when participating in mental health care. Self-efficacy is a mechanism of human agency that describes people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise…

Reich, S.; Bickman, L.; Heflinger, C. A.

2004-01-01

221

Science knowledge and efficacy beliefs among preservice elementary teachers: A follow-up study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slightly over two years ago aspects of knowledge and efficacy beliefs among preservice elementary teachers regarding science education were examined. Those results indicated a low level of science knowledge and a marked lack of confidence toward teaching science among prospective teachers. In the interim suggestions from that study have resulted in an increase in the number of required science courses that have been implemented in the teacher education program. The current, follow-up, study, found no increase in science content knowledge but did identify positive changes in efficacy beliefs. The results are discussed relative to Locus of Control theory.

Wenner, George

1995-12-01

222

Immunosignatures can predict vaccine efficacy  

PubMed Central

The development of new vaccines would be greatly facilitated by having effective methods to predict vaccine performance. Such methods could also be helpful in monitoring individual vaccine responses to existing vaccines. We have developed “immunosignaturing” as a simple, comprehensive, chip-based method to display the antibody diversity in an individual on peptide arrays. Here we examined whether this technology could be used to develop correlates for predicting vaccine effectiveness. By using a mouse influenza infection, we show that the immunosignaturing of a natural infection can be used to discriminate a protective from nonprotective vaccine. Further, we demonstrate that an immunosignature can determine which mice receiving the same vaccine will survive. Finally, we show that the peptides comprising the correlate signatures of protection can be used to identify possible epitopes in the influenza virus proteome that are correlates of protection.

Legutki, Joseph Barten; Johnston, Stephen Albert

2013-01-01

223

Immunosignatures can predict vaccine efficacy.  

PubMed

The development of new vaccines would be greatly facilitated by having effective methods to predict vaccine performance. Such methods could also be helpful in monitoring individual vaccine responses to existing vaccines. We have developed "immunosignaturing" as a simple, comprehensive, chip-based method to display the antibody diversity in an individual on peptide arrays. Here we examined whether this technology could be used to develop correlates for predicting vaccine effectiveness. By using a mouse influenza infection, we show that the immunosignaturing of a natural infection can be used to discriminate a protective from nonprotective vaccine. Further, we demonstrate that an immunosignature can determine which mice receiving the same vaccine will survive. Finally, we show that the peptides comprising the correlate signatures of protection can be used to identify possible epitopes in the influenza virus proteome that are correlates of protection. PMID:24167296

Legutki, Joseph Barten; Johnston, Stephen Albert

2013-11-12

224

Evaluating ritual efficacy: evidence from the supernatural.  

PubMed

Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in Brazil, a cultural context in which rituals called simpatias are used to treat a great variety of problems ranging from asthma to infidelity. Using content from existing simpatias, experimental simpatias were designed to manipulate the kinds of information that influences perceptions of efficacy. A fourth study (N=68) with identical stimuli was conducted with a US sample to assess the generalizability of the findings across two different cultural contexts. The results provide evidence that information reflecting intuitive causal principles (i.e., repetition of procedures, number of procedural steps) and transcendental influence (i.e., presence of religious icons) affects how people evaluate ritual efficacy. PMID:22520061

Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

2012-07-01

225

Safety and Efficacy of Neonatal Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Newborns have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. Nevertheless, certain vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), do demonstrate safety and some efficacy at birth, providing proof of principal that certain antigen-adjuvant combinations are able to elicit protective neonatal responses. Moreover, birth is a major point of healthcare contact globally meaning that effective neonatal vaccines achieve high population penetration. Given the potentially significant benefit of vaccinating at birth, availability of a broader range of more effective neonatal vaccines is an unmet medical need and a public health priority. This review focuses on safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination in humans as well as recent research employing novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of neonatal vaccination.

Demirjian, Alicia; Levy, Ofer

2009-01-01

226

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

227

Perceived Barriers, Coping Strategies, and Self-Regulatory Efficacy to Cope: An Examination of Sufficiently and Insufficiently Physically Active Middle-Aged and Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most middle-aged and older women are not sufficiently physically active. The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify perceived barriers to physical activity and the limitation of each barrier, (2) identify barrier coping strategies and the self-regulatory efficacy for performing each strategy, and (3) examine differences in overall barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy between sufficiently and insufficiently active women.

Danielle R. Brittain; Mary K. Dinger; Joshua J. Classen; Maria A. Camero Garcia; Lindsey D. Sage; Jennifer Han

2012-01-01

228

Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy.  

PubMed

Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

Milgrom, P; Söderling, E M; Nelson, S; Chi, D L; Nakai, Y

2012-09-01

229

Tentative fingerprint-efficacy study of Houttuynia cordata injection in quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.  

PubMed

To establish potent fingerprint for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine, Houttuynia cordata (Saururaceae) injection (HCI), the attempt on fingerprint-efficacy was developed in this study. HCI from ten different factories were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS) and classified by hierarchical clustering. The anti-inflammatory effect of HCI was characterized with the rat pleurisy model induced by carrageenin and the mice ear edema model by xylene. The results showed that anti-inflammatory effect of the injections from most of factories on the two models was significant. There was corresponding relationship between the fingerprint of HCI and efficacy to certain extent. The main common constitutes in injection from the factories that possess anti-inflammatory activity were analysed with GC-MS and identified using the NIST Mass Spectral Database. This common pattern of HCI based on the efficacy was helpful for the purpose of quality control. PMID:16651779

Lu, Hong-Mei; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wu, Xian-Jin; Qiu, Ping

2006-05-01

230

Psychometric properties of the Swedish childbirth self-efficacy inventory (Swe-CBSEI)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has reported that women who are admitted to delivery wards in early labour process before an active stage of labour has started run an increased risk of instrumental deliveries. Therefore, it is essential to focus on factors such as self-efficacy that can enhance a woman’s own ability to cope with the first stage of labour. However, there was no Swedish instrument measuring childbirth self-efficacy available. Thus, the aim of the study was to translate the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and to psychometrically test the Swedish version on first- time mothers within the Swedish culture. Methods The method included a forward-backward translation with face and content validity. The psychometric properties were evaluated using a Principal Component Analysis and by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and inter-item correlations. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used to describe and compare the scales. All data were collected from January 2011 to June 2012, from 406 pregnant women during the gestational week 35-42. Results The Swedish version of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory indicated good reliability and the Principal Component Analysis showed a three-component structure. The Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test indicated that the women could differentiate between the concepts outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectatancy and between the two labour stages, active stage and the second stage of labour. Conclusions The Swedish version of Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory is a reliable and valid instrument. The inventory can act as a tool to identify those women who need extra support and to evaluate the efforts of improving women’s self-efficacy during pregnancy.

2014-01-01

231

Understanding exercise self-efficacy and barriers to leisure-time physical activity among postnatal women.  

PubMed

Studies have demonstrated that postnatal women are at high risk for physical inactivity and generally show lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) compared to prepregnancy. The overall purpose of the current study was to investigate social cognitive correlates of LTPA among postnatal women during a 6-month period following childbirth. A total of 230 women (mean age = 30.9) provided descriptive data regarding barriers to LTPA and completed measures of LTPA and self-efficacy (exercise and barrier) for at least one of the study data collection periods. A total of 1,520 barriers were content analyzed. Both exercise and barrier self-efficacy were positively associated with subsequent LTPA. Exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 12 predicted LTPA from postnatal weeks 12 to 18 (? = .40, R (2) = .18) and exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 24 predicted LTPA during weeks 24-30 (? = .49, R (2) = .30). Barrier self-efficacy at week 18 predicted LTPA from weeks 18 to 24 (? = .33, R (2) = .13). The results of the study identify a number of barriers to LTPA at multiple time points closely following childbirth which may hinder initiation, resumption or maintenance of LTPA. The results also suggest that higher levels of exercise and barrier self-efficacy are prospectively associated with higher levels of LTPA in the early postnatal period. Future interventions should be designed to investigate causal effects of developing participants' exercise and barrier self-efficacy for promoting and maintaining LTPA during the postnatal period. PMID:20495858

Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

2011-07-01

232

Efficacy of biofeedback for migraine: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

In this article, we meta-analytically examined the efficacy of biofeedback (BFB) in treating migraine. A computerized literature search of the databases Medline, PsycInfo, Psyndex and the Cochrane library, enhanced by a hand search, identified 86 outcome studies. A total of 55 studies, including randomized controlled trials as well as pre-post trials, met our inclusion criteria and were integrated. A medium effect size (d =0.58, 95% CI=0.52, 0.64) resulted for all BFB interventions and proved stable over an average follow-up phase of 17 months. Also, BFB was more effective than control conditions. Frequency of migraine attacks and perceived self-efficacy demonstrated the strongest improvements. Blood-volume-pulse feedback yielded higher effect sizes than peripheral skin temperature feedback and electromyography feedback. Moderator analyses revealed BFB in combination with home training to be more effective than therapies without home training. The influence of the meta-analytical methods on the effect sizes was systematically explored and the results proved to be robust across different methods of effect size calculation. Furthermore, there was no substantial relation between the validity of the integrated studies and the direct treatment effects. Finally, an intention-to-treat analysis showed that the treatment effects remained stable, even when drop-outs were considered as nonresponders. PMID:17084028

Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Martin, Alexandra

2007-03-01

233

Motor determinants of fighting efficacy in Croatian youth karateka.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to identify basic and motor structures which determine the achievement of top results in karate among younger cadets. For this purpose, a set of 10 basic motor tests and a set of 5 situational motor karate tests were applied on a sample of 60 male and 51 female Croatian karateka aged 13 to 15. Different motor and specific motor structures according to gender were isolated by factor analysis. In male karateka, in the space of basic motor tests: Factor of explosive strength and/or force regulator, and Factor integrating muscle endurance, agility and speed of movement, and in female karateka: Factor integrating movement speed, leg explosiveness and agility and/or speed regulator, and Regulator of basic core strength and sprinting. In male karateka in the space of specific motor tests: Specific agility and Specific speed of kicks performance; and in female karateka: Factor integrating agility-mobility and speed of technique performance. Latent structure of fighting efficacy in karate differs according to gender. Thus, in male karateka, determination of efficacy is significantly contributed by two motor factors: specific speed of kicks performance as a specific factor and force regulator as a basic factor; and in female karateka: the first factor which integrates regulators of speed, force and agility, accompanied by the muscle tone regulator, as a basic factor, and the second factor which is responsible for specific agility and speed of technique performance as a specific factor. PMID:23914482

Kati?, Ratko; Juki?, Josefina; Cavala, Marijana; Vuci?, Danijel; Blazevi?, Stipe

2013-05-01

234

Middle school science teachers' teaching self-efficacy and students' science self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 2061, initiated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), developed recommendations for what is essential in education to produce scientifically literate citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that teachers teach effectively. There is an abundance of literature that focuses on the effects of a teacher's science teaching self-efficacy and a student's science self-efficacy. However, there is no literature on the relationship between the two self-efficacies. This study investigated if there is a differential change in students' science self-efficacy over an academic term after instruction from a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy. Quantitative analysis of STEBI scores for teachers showed that mean STEBI scores did not change over one academic term. A t test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean SMTSL scores for students' science self-efficacy over the course of one academic term for a) the entire sample, b) each science class, and c) each grade level. In addition, ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean gain factor of students rated as low, medium, and high on science self-efficacy as measured by the SMTSL, when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between the pre- and post-instructional rankings of SMTSL by grade level when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. This is the first study of its kind. Studies indicated that teaching strategies typically practiced by teachers with high science teaching were beneficial to physics self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005). Although it was unsuccessful at determining whether or not a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy has a differential affect on students' science self-efficacy, it is worth repeating on a more diverse sample of teacher and students over a longer period of time.

Pisa, Danielle

235

Self-efficacy and OSCE performance among second year medical students.  

PubMed

Competent performance requires not only requisite knowledge and skills but also beliefs of personal efficacy to use both effectively. This study examined the confidence of second-year medical students regarding their OSCE performance. Students completed an OSCE at the end of their second year of medical school; their performance was rated using checklists containing key items. Ten minutes prior to the OSCE, students completed a brief survey, which included 31 items sampling confidence in performing various clinical skills required in the OSCE. In addition, students assessed their preparedness and their anxiety, and reported the number of hours they studied in preparation for the OSCE. A total of 82 identifiable surveys (73 %) were used in this analysis. Students with high self-efficacy were more likely to score above the mean OSCE performance compared to low self-rated students (71% versus 51%), however self-efficacy was not significantly correlated to OSCE performance. A causal path model was constructed to predict OSCE performance. Performance in the clinical skills and biomedical science curricula both were related to perceived anxiety, which was related to self-efficacy. Preparedness was predicated on self-efficacy and itself predicted performance. Knowledge also had a strong direct link to performance. Performance is more than having the requisite abilities. Performance was found to be the product of complex relationships between skills and knowledge, mediated by perceptions of anxiety, self-confidence and preparedness. The model illustrates the importance of realistic self-appraisal for competent performance. PMID:11435761

Mavis, B

2001-01-01

236

Statistical approach to measure the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment on horse farms.  

PubMed

Resistance to anthelmintics in gastrointestinal nematodes of livestock is a serious problem and appropriate methods are required to identify and quantify resistance. However, quantification and assessment of resistance depend on an accurate measure of treatment efficacy, and current methodologies fail to properly address the issue. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard for measuring anthelmintic efficacy on farms, but these types of data are fraught with high variability that greatly impacts the accuracy of inference on efficacy. This paper develops a statistical model to measure, assess, and evaluate the efficacy of the anthelmintic treatment on horse farms as determined by FECRT. Novel robust bootstrap methods are developed to analyse the data and are compared to other suggested methods in the literature in terms of Type I error and power. The results demonstrate that the bootstrap methods have an optimal Type I error rate and high power to detect differences between the presumed and true efficacy without the need to know the true distribution of pre-treatment egg counts. Finally, data from multiple farms are studied and statistical models developed that take into account between-farm variability. Our analysis establishes that if inter-farm variability is not taken into account, misleading conclusions about resistance can be made. PMID:17714603

Vidyashankar, A N; Kaplan, R M; Chan, S

2007-12-01

237

Efficacy of Eight Months of Nightly Zolpidem: A Prospective Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To evaluate the long-term (8 months) efficacy of zolpidem in adults with chronic primary insomnia using polysomnography. Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: Sleep disorders and research center. Participants: Healthy participants (n = 91), ages 23-70, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for primary insomnia. Interventions: Nightly zolpidem, 10 mg (5 mg for patients > 60 yrs) or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 8 months. Measurements and Results: Polysomnographic sleep parameters and morning subject assessments of sleep on 2 nights in months 1 and 8. Relative to placebo, zolpidem significantly increased overall total sleep time and sleep efficiency, reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset when assessed at months 1 and 8. Overall, subjective evaluations of efficacy were not shown among treatment groups. Conclusions: In adults with primary insomnia, nightly zolpidem administration remained efficacious across 8 months of nightly use. Clinical Trial Information: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006525; Trial Name: Safety and Efficacy of Chronic Hypnotic Use; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01006525. Citation: Randall S; Roehrs TA; Roth T. Efficacy of eight months of nightly zolpidem: a prospective placebo-controlled study. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1551-1557.

Randall, Surilla; Roehrs, Timothy A.; Roth, Thomas

2012-01-01

238

Identifying and Aligning Expectations in a Mentoring Relationship  

PubMed Central

The mentoring relationship between a scholar and their primary mentor is a core feature of research training. Anecdotal evidence suggests this relationship is adversely affected when scholar and mentor expectations are not aligned. We examined three questions: (1) What is the value in assuring that the expectations of scholars and mentors are mutually identified and aligned? (2) What types of programmatic interventions facilitate this process? (3) What types of expectations are important to identify and align? We addressed these questions through a systematic literature review, focus group interviews of mentors and scholars, a survey of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) KL2 program directors, and review of formal programmatic mechanisms used by KL2 programs. We found broad support for the importance of identifying and aligning the expectations of scholars and mentors and evidence that mentoring contracts, agreements, and training programs facilitate this process. These tools focus on aligning expectations with respect to the scholar’s research, education, professional development and career advancement as well as support, communication, and personal conduct and interpersonal relations. Research is needed to assess test the efficacy of formal alignment activities.

Huskins, W. Charles; Silet, Karin; Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Begg, Melissa D.; Fowler, Vance G.; Hamilton, John; Fleming, Michael

2012-01-01

239

Urinary peptidomics identifies potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness with no available objective laboratory-based diagnostic test. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based peptidomics was applied to identify potential urinary diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. A training set of 42 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) was used to develop a peptide diagnostic pattern. Then, the diagnostic efficacy of this pattern was assessed in an independent blinded test set consisting of 24 MDD patients and 13 age- and gender-matched HC. A combination of five potential biomarkers was identified, yielding a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 84.6% in the test set. Moreover, the protein precursors of four of the five peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis: serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I, protein AMBP, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Taken together, the peptide pattern may be valuable for establishing an objective laboratory-based diagnostic test for MDD. PMID:24661976

Wang, Ying; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Hong-Bo; Lu, Jia; Zhong, Jiaju; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Ma, Qingwei; Li, Yan; Xie, Peng

2014-06-30

240

A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

2004-09-01

241

Efficacy of topical tacrolimus in atopic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Mainstay treatments for atopic dermatitis include cutaneous hydration, antihistamines and topical glucocorticoids. To avoid side effects associated with long term and higher potency topical corticosteroids, further topical immunosuppressive agents should be tried. Topical tacrolimus has been extensively studied and shows promise in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis. Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of

MM Rashid; AU Sikder; N Akhtar; LA Banu; MA Wahab; AZMM Islam; MSI Bhuiyan

242

Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

2002-01-01

243

Self-efficacy conception of anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In social cognitive theory, perceived self-efficacy to exercise control over potential threats plays a central role in anxiety arousal. Threat is a relational property reflecting the match between perceived coping capabilities and potentially hurtful aspects of the environment. People who believe they can exercise control over potential threats do not engage in apprehensive thinking and are not perturbed by them.

Albert Bandura

1988-01-01

244

Efficacy of abamectin against ectoparasites of cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four trials, using 48 European breed cattle, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of abamectin against the louse species Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus and Damalinia bovis and against the mange mites Sarcoptes scabiei var bovis and Psoroptes ovis. Animals were allocated by restricted randomisation based on parasite counts to treatment with abamectin at a dose of 200 micrograms\\/kg given subcutaneously

EM Heinze-Mutz; D Barth; LG Cramer; SJ Gross; M Visser

1993-01-01

245

Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications  

PubMed Central

Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications.

Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

2013-01-01

246

A primer on effectiveness and efficacy trials.  

PubMed

Although efficacy and effectiveness studies are both important when evaluating interventions, they serve distinct purposes and have different study designs. Unfortunately, the distinction between these two types of trials is often poorly understood. In this primer, we highlight several differences between these two types of trials including study design, patient populations, intervention design, data analysis, and result reporting. PMID:24384867

Singal, Amit G; Higgins, Peter D R; Waljee, Akbar K

2014-01-01

247

Virucidal Efficacy of Four New Disinfectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virucidal efficacy was evaluated for four recently available disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, potas- sium peroxymonosulfate, a quaternary ammonium compound, and citricidal (grapefruit extract). Sodium hypochlorite (3%) and tap water were used as positive and negative controls respec- tively. Feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus were exposed to the manufac- turers' recommended dilutions of the evaluated disinfectants. Both chlorine dioxide and

Nasser Z. Eleraky; Leon N. D. Potgieter; Melissa A. Kennedy

248

Early surgical abortion: Efficacy and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Because of concern over the higher rates of failed abortion, many clinicians defer surgical abortion until 7 menstrual weeks or later. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of early surgical abortions that are performed by numerous physicians in a community-based setting. Study Design: We prospectively gathered data on all eligible patients who had surgical abortions

Maureen E. Paul; Caroline M. Mitchell; Angela J. Rogers; Michelle C. Fox; Elyse G. Lackie

2002-01-01

249

Efficacy of hysterosalpingography in evaluating endometriosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endometriosis is a common disease in young women being evaluated for infertility. Although endometriosis may cause tubal abnormalities on hysterosal-pingography, efficacy of radiographic evaluation in this disease is not clear. We reviewed the radiographic and laparoscopic examinations in 50 women being studied for infertility. Laparoscopy was normal in 15 women and showed endometriosis in 35 patients. Endometriosis was staged at

W. K. Johnson; D. J. Ott; M. Y. M. Chen; J. A. Fayez; D. W. Gelfand

1994-01-01

250

A Primer on Effectiveness and Efficacy Trials  

PubMed Central

Although efficacy and effectiveness studies are both important when evaluating interventions, they serve distinct purposes and have different study designs. Unfortunately, the distinction between these two types of trials is often poorly understood. In this primer, we highlight several differences between these two types of trials including study design, patient populations, intervention design, data analysis, and result reporting.

Singal, Amit G; Higgins, Peter D R; Waljee, Akbar K

2014-01-01

251

Condom Use: A Self-Efficacy Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of heterosexually active college students gathered information about condom use, self-efficacy (SE), outcome expectancies, sexual attitudes, peer group influences, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and perceived vulnerability to AIDS. On the basis of A. Bandura's (1986) social–cognitive theory, a structural model with SE as the central mediator was formulated and evaluated with LISREL. This model explained 46% of

Edelgard Wulfert; Choi K. Wan

1993-01-01

252

Evaluating Ritual Efficacy: Evidence from the Supernatural  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in…

Legare, Cristine H.; Souza, Andre L.

2012-01-01

253

Self-Efficacy and Academic Listening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one's ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost…

Graham, Suzanne

2011-01-01

254

Reading, the Pupil, Efficacy, and the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efficacy and its effects upon student achievement need nourishment. For a student to believe that he/she can and therefore does achieve needs fostering continuously within each student in the curriculum. With the tremendous emphasis being placed on reading instruction and student achievement by legislators and governors of individual states,…

Ediger, Marlow

255

Examining External Validity in Efficacy and Secondary Articles of Home-Based Depression Care Management Interventions for Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Information on external validity enables public health practitioners to generalize conclusions about an intervention to future or different conditions and is critical to moving research into practice. Prior reviews examining external validity focused on efficacy publications only. Our objective was to determine the extent to which secondary articles could enhance information about external validity presented in efficacy studies. Methods We identified a group of interventions recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services for home-based depression care management for older adults. We searched online databases for secondary articles using a list of the study authors’ names and study acronyms. Five articles were ineligible (intervention was not effective or articles lacked data on external validity) and 14 articles were eligible and reviewed (6 efficacy and 8 secondary articles). We examined 15 elements of external validity based on 4 of the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework: reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results The 6 efficacy studies documented 1 or more elements of reach and implementation, and 5 studies included 1 or more elements of maintenance. Secondary articles included 4 to 9 elements on external validity and addressed 1 to 5 unique elements of external validity not reported in the efficacy publications. Conclusion Secondary articles enrich the amount of information about external validity and may be published years before or after the efficacy publication. Reviewing only primary publications of efficacy trials may provide a limited view of external validity, at least for publications describing home-based depression care management.

Anderson, Lynda A.

2012-01-01

256

Efficacy of extracts of immature mango on ovine gastrointestinal nematodes.  

PubMed

The principal health problem in small ruminants is helminthiasis and the rapid development of nematode resistance to anthelminthics has limited the success of control in several countries, stimulating the search for alternatives. In this study, extracts of immature fruits of the mango Mangifera indica L. var Ubá were evaluated for inhibition of larval development and fecal egg count reduction in sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. In the phytochemical analyses, tannins and flavonoids were the metabolites identified. Aqueous extracts of immature fruits at 100 mg ml(-1) showed 100 % inhibition of larval development. The LC(90) of the extract was 35.9 mg ml(-1) and the in vivo anthelminthic efficacy at 0.740 g kg(-1) (BW, orally) was 53 %. The identification of larvae showed that 99.8 % were Haemonchus spp. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that this fruit could assist ovine nematode control. PMID:22773010

Nery, Patrícia S; Nogueira, Flávia A; Oliveira, Neide J F; Martins, Ernane R; Duarte, Eduardo R

2012-12-01

257

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Tinnitus: Evidence and Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Tinnitus is defined as auditory perception without external sound. There is currently no cure for tinnitus. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a tinnitus treatment that addresses the affected individual's reaction to tinnitus. It aims not to eliminate auditory perception as sound but to reduce or correct one's negative response to tinnitus. CBT identifies negative automatic thought and then evaluates its validity with the patient. It also aims to change negative automatic thought to more positive and realistic thought. In this way, tinnitus sufferers can function well despite the presence of tinnitus. Many studies have supported the efficacy of CBT for treating tinnitus. A meta-analysis of CBT for tinnitus also concluded that CBT is effective in treating tinnitus. Thus, CBT is considered a good option for treating tinnitus. We herein discuss the use of CBT for tinnitus with a literature review.

Jun, Hyung Jin

2013-01-01

258

Efficacy and effectiveness of 20 child health interventions in China: Systematic review of Chinese literature  

PubMed Central

Aim The research production of the Chinese academics for the past few decades, which is being published in more than nine thousands of Chinese academic periodicals, has recently been digitalized and made available in the public domain. The aim of this study was to systematically identify and assess the evidence from Chinese literature sources on the efficacy and effectiveness of child health interventions in China. Methods The Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for the studies with primary data on efficacy or effectiveness of child health interventions in China between 1980 and 2011. The searches of PubMed and the ‘Lives Saved Tool (LiST)’ evidence base were also performed to identify the counterpart evidence in the English language. Results Of 32 interventions initially identified in the Chinese literature, 20 interventions sustained the primary information addressing efficacy or effectiveness. Among preventive interventions (14 interventions), most studies were dedicated to complementary feeding (7 studies), kangaroo mother care (7 studies) and syphilis detection and treatment (4 studies). Among treatment interventions (6 interventions), the most frequently studied were zinc for treatment of diarrhoea (11 studies) and newborn resuscitation (9 studies). The evidence on efficacy or effectiveness of the 32 interventions conducted in Chinese children in the Chinese literature was either of comparable quality, or more informative than the available reports on China in the English literature, which rarely contained studies on child health intervention effectiveness exclusively in Chinese population. The included studies reported positive results unanimously, implying a likely publication bias. Discussion The evidence on the efficacy and effectiveness of child health interventions in China is typically modest in quantity and quality, and implies a notable urban-rural discrepancy in applied health systems research to improve child health interventions and programmes. However, it is clear that considerable research interests and initiatives from both inside and outside the country have been concentrating on implementation, long-term operation, evaluation and further development of child health interventions, especially preventive interventions in China.

Zhang, Jian Shayne F.

2011-01-01

259

Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

Sullivan, Betsy Ann

260

Comparison of multiple estimates of efficacy for influenza vaccine.  

PubMed

Influenza vaccine trials typically report vaccine efficacy for infection-confirmed symptomatic illness. Data on indirect vaccine efficacy for susceptibility, the degree of vaccine protection to susceptibles, or indirect vaccine efficacy for illness given infection, are sparse. Using inactivated influenza vaccine randomized trial data, we calculated indirect vaccine efficacy for susceptibility of 20% [95% CI 9-30] and indirect vaccine efficacy for illness among infected persons 12% [95% CI 2-22], values inferior to a direct vaccine efficacy for infection-confirmed symptomatic illness of 55% [95% CI -21 to 84] and an indirect effect of 61% [95% CI 8-83]. Such data reveal variance in protective efficacy of the vaccine for multi-dimensional direct and indirect efficacy measures. PMID:22098676

Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L; Fonseca, Kevin; Webby, Richard; Walter, Stephen D

2011-12-01

261

Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

Yasar, Senay

262

The possibilities of potentiating the efficacy of probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics could represent an effective alternative to the use of synthetic substances in nutrition and medicine. The data concerning the efficacy of probiotics are often contradictory and it will be important to search for ways to improve their efficacy. In order to enhance the efficacy of probiotics, it is necessary to obtain additional knowledge on their mode of action. The

Alojz Bomba; Radom??ra Nemcová; Dagmar Mudro?ová; Peter Guba

2002-01-01

263

Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

264

College Instructors' Sense of Teaching and Collective Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to provide an exploratory investigation of college-level instructors' sense of teaching and collective efficacy. We investigated the relations of teacher- and collective-efficacy with a series of variables: experience, professional level, age, gender, academic domain (for teacher-efficacy only), and academic…

Fives, Helenrose; Looney, Lisa

2009-01-01

265

Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

2012-01-01

266

Teacher Efficacy: Maturing the Construct through Research in Alternative Paradigms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of teacher efficacy has been the subject of much research for approximately 25 years, yet this research has been dominated by correlational studies used to establish the power of teacher efficacy beliefs. This paper aims to readdress this imbalance by discussing new directions for teacher efficacy research focused within alternative…

Labone, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

267

Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Support and Teaching Efficacy in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty's perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty' teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were…

Chang, Te-Sheng; McKeachie, Wilbert; Lin, Yi-Guang

2010-01-01

268

Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings of two experimental tests of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. The first study investigated the hypothesis that systematic desensitization effects changes in avoidance behavior by creating and strengthening expectations of personal efficacy. Thorough extinction of anxiety arousal to visualized threats by desensitization treatment produced differential increases in self-efficacy. In accord with prediction, microanalysis of congruence

Albert Bandura; Nancy E. Adams

1977-01-01

269

Efficacy Expectations for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Primary Care: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators for Patients and Clinicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians (MDs), nurse practitioners (NPs), and physician assistants (PAs) in primary care (PC) specialties, as well as patients, participated in a series of peer-level focus groups to explore how colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is approached in PC. Twenty-seven focus groups were conducted, including 8 groups composed of MDs (n = 56), 7 with NP\\/PAs (n = 47), and 12 with

Thomas Hugh Feeley; James Cooper; Thomas Foels; Martin C. Mahoney

2009-01-01

270

Reducing the Need for Postsecondary Remediation Using Self-Efficacy to Identify Underprepared African-American and Hispanic Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Postsecondary remedial education is a major problem for Higher Education affecting retention rates, degree completion rates and cost of enrollment. Identification of students who are underprepared for managing the rigors of college and who would benefit from early intervention is necessary to reduce the need for postsecondary…

Orange, Carolyn; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

2013-01-01

271

78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sustained Virologic Response End Points for Regulatory Approval and Dose Selection of Hepatitis C Therapies.'' Gastroenterology, 2013 March 4 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016508513002886 3....

2013-06-04

272

Efficacy of abamectin against ectoparasites of cattle.  

PubMed

Four trials, using 48 European breed cattle, were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of abamectin against the louse species Linognathus vituli, Haematopinus eurysternus and Damalinia bovis and against the mange mites Sarcoptes scabiei var bovis and Psoroptes ovis. Animals were allocated by restricted randomisation based on parasite counts to treatment with abamectin at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg given subcutaneously or to an untreated control group. Ectoparasites were counted before treatment and at weekly intervals thereafter for eight weeks. L. vituli, H eurysternus and S scabiei var bovis were eliminated (P < 0.05) by day 7 after abamectin treatment. An efficacy of more than 99 per cent was recorded against P ovis mange mites. The biting louse D bovis was not controlled. Abamectin treatment increased the weight gain of cattle infested with ectoparasites. PMID:8517005

Heinze-Mutz, E M; Barth, D; Cramer, L G; Gross, S J; Visser, M

1993-05-01

273

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology.

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

274

Efficacies of Mixtures of Disinfectants and Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacies of mixtures of diluted commercial formulations of selected insecticides and disin- fectants were evaluated. Insecticides tested included representative pyrethroids (fenvalerate (Ectrin WDL and WD) and pern1ethrin (Ectiban EC)), organophosphates (dichlorvos (Vapona EC), tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon WP) and dichlorvos\\/tetrachlorvinphos (RaVap EC), and a carbamate (carbaryl (Sevin S)). Disinfec- tants tested included representatives of cresylic acid (Biolene), cresylic acid\\/phenol (BioGuard X-185), phenol

C. J. GEDEN; T. D. EDWARDS; J. J. ARENDS; R. C. AXTELL

275

Overnight efficacy of polyethylene glycol laxative  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Clinical studies in constipated adult patients have shown that a 17- or 34-g daily dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLax) is safe and effective for the treatment of constipation, with the best efficacy seen in wk 2 of treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine an optimal dose of PEG to provide satisfactory relief of constipation within

Jack A Di Palma; Julie R Smith; Mark vB Cleveland

2002-01-01

276

Efficacy of treatment for unexplained infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,

DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf

1998-01-01

277

Efficiency and efficacy of incandescent lamps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planck's radiation formula is used to estimate the dimensionless efficiency of incandescent lamps as a function of filament temperature, with typical values of 2%-13%. Similarly, using the known spectral luminous efficiency of the eye, the efficacy of incandescent light bulbs is estimated as a function of temperature, showing values of 8-24 L W-1 for bulbs of 10-1000 W. The efficiency

D. C. Agrawal; Harvey S. Leff; V. J. Menon

1996-01-01

278

Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: a self-efficacy intervention compared with a combined self-efficacy and planning intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of interventions targeting self-efficacy alone or combined with action plans were ex- amined in the context of fruit and vegetable consumption. E-mail messages were sent to a self-efficacy group, a combined self-efficacy and action planning group and a control group. At a 6-month follow-up, 200 adults reported their fruit and vegetable consumption, along with current levels of self-efficacy and

Aleksandra Luszczynska; Maciej Tryburcy; Ralf Schwarzer

2007-01-01

279

Parameter Identifiability for Partial Differential Equations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The direct method of parameter identifiability is shown to hold for linear parabolic partial differential equations. This is in contrast to other methods of parameter identifiability which, while they hold for finite dimensional lumped systems, fail to ex...

C. C. Travis L. W. White

1982-01-01

280

10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine if ...

281

Sexual harassment: identifying it in dentistry.  

PubMed

Sexual harassment can be a difficult problem to identify in the workplace. Scenarios are used to help define and identify harassment. Discussion also includes explanations of why sexual harassment is unethical and illegal. PMID:8040524

Weinstein, B D

1994-07-01

282

NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

283

Efficacy of anticholinergic drugs in asthma.  

PubMed

Although bronchial hyperresponsiveness to cholinergic agents is a main feature of asthma, the role of anticholinergic drugs in chronic asthma management has been largely underestimated. Several single-dose studies comparing acute bronchodilation induced by ipratropium bromide with salbutamol have shown that salbutamol was more effective than ipratropium in asthma treatment. Recently, tiotropium has been studied in asthma, when added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids in unselected moderate asthmatics or in patients with uncontrolled asthma, or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and history of asthma. Later, studies on patients with Arg/Arg ?(2)-receptor polymorphism demonstrated a similar efficacy of tiotropium in comparison with salmeterol when both were added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Further long-term studies are currently in progress, for the evaluation of the efficacy of tiotropium on clinical asthma control, and on the rate and severity of asthma exacerbations, as well as the potential modification of inflammatory mechanisms and varying efficacy in specific asthma phenotypes (such as smoking asthmatics). PMID:22788945

Novelli, Federica; Malagrinò, Laura; Dente, Federico L; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

2012-06-01

284

Efficacy of S-1 in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Introduction: S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine that consists of tegafur, 5-chloro-2, 4-dihydroxypyridine and potassium oxonate. It has been developed as a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil with the goal of improving therapeutic efficacy and tolerability. Areas covered: This review aims to provide an evidence-based update of clinical trials that have investigated the clinical efficacy, adverse-event profile, dosage and administration of S-1, given alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics and new target-oriented drugs, in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). Additionally, differences in the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of S-1 between Caucasians and Asians have been described. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of S-1 regarding metastatic CRC or postoperative CRC has been discussed. Available data have stimulated further research, including Phase III trials for the treatment of advanced CRC. Expert opinion: Treatment using S-1 combined with oxaliplatin (± bevacizumab) and irinotecan has achieved promising results in terms of feasibility, safety and effectiveness. Furthermore, S-1 is an acceptable treatment as adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. PMID:25032886

Miyamoto, Yuji; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Yoshida, Naoya; Baba, Hideo

2014-08-01

285

Efficacy of voglibose in type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is currently at epidemic proportions and the forecast is for a continued sharp increase in global prevalence. An even larger proportion of the population has prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]) underscoring the urgent need for preventive strategies. Even in the presence of adequate glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, postprandial hyperglycemia can occur and is known to have a stronger association with cardiovascular morbidity than fasting glucose. The ?-glucosidase inhibitor voglibose is widely used in Japan to improve postprandial hyperglycemia. Areas covered: This review examines the literature for the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of voglibose in patients with T2DM. Particular focus is on its efficacy in preventing T2DM in individuals with IGT and its efficacy as add-on therapy or in combination with other oral antidiabetic agents in patients with T2DM. Expert opinion: As the relationship between glucose levels and cardiovascular risk extends below the diabetic threshold, postprandial hyperglycemia is recognized as a key therapeutic target in the treatment of T2DM. Strategies to prevent the progression of IGT to overt T2DM have enormous potential to reduce the individual and societal burden of disease. Voglibose is the first oral antidiabetic agent to gain approval in Japan for this indication. PMID:24798092

Kaku, Kohei

2014-06-01

286

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment.  

PubMed

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia, have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response (HSR) mechanism, the main component of which are heat-shock proteins. Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia-treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy for anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalize the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a mathematical analysis of HSR, we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. PMID:23985732

Rybinski, Miko?aj; Szymanska, Zuzanna; Lasota, S?awomir; Gambin, Anna

2013-11-01

287

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment  

PubMed Central

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia, have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response (HSR) mechanism, the main component of which are heat-shock proteins. Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia-treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy for anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalize the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a mathematical analysis of HSR, we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy.

Rybinski, Mikolaj; Szymanska, Zuzanna; Lasota, Slawomir; Gambin, Anna

2013-01-01

288

Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed.

Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

2011-01-01

289

Water maze testing to identify compounds for cognitive enhancement.  

PubMed

The water maze task is widely used to evaluate spatial learning and memory in rodents. The basic paradigm requires an animal to swim in a pool until it finds a hidden escape platform. The animals learn to find the platform using extra-maze cues and, after several training trials, are able to swim directly to it from any starting location. Memory for the platform location is assessed by examining swimming behavior with the platform removed from the maze, while sensory, motor and motivational aspects of the task can be examined by making the platform visible to the animals. Described in this unit is the use of the water maze to identify rats with age-related spatial learning and memory impairments. The efficacy of potential pharmacological treatments for alleviating these deficits is then evaluated. This assay provides a means for studying the neurobiology of spatial learning and memory, and to identify potential pharmacotherapies for treating memory-impaired humans. While the use of aged rats is described in this unit, the protocol can also be employed for compound screening with other rodent models that have spatial learning and memory impairments, such as transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23258600

Rose, Gregory M; Rowe, Wayne B

2012-12-01

290

Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler versus MDI.  

PubMed

We compared the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler, a novel propellant-free inhaler, versus chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-metered dose inhaler (MDI) and ipratropium Respimat inhaler in patients with COPD. This was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week, parallel-group, active-controlled study. Patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to ipratropium bromide/albuterol (20/100mcg) Respimat inhaler, ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI [36mcg/206mcg (Combivent Inhalation Aerosol MDI)], or ipratropium bromide (20mcg) Respimat inhaler. Each medication was administered four times daily. Serial spirometry was performed over 6h (0.15min, then hourly) on 4 test days. The primary efficacy variable was forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) change from test day baseline at 12 weeks. A total of 1209 of 1480 randomized, treated patients completed the study; the majority were male (65%) with a mean age of 64 yrs and a mean screening pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (percent predicted) of 41%. Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler had comparable efficacy to ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI for FEV(1) area under the curve at 0-6h (AUC(0-6)), superior efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(0-4) and comparable efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(4-6). All active treatments were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ipratropium bromide/albuterol 20/100mcg inhaler administered four times daily for 12 weeks had equivalent bronchodilator efficacy and comparable safety to ipratropium bromide/albuterol 36mcg/206mcg MDI, and significantly improved lung function compared with the mono-component ipratropium bromide 20 mcg Respimat inhaler. [Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT00400153]. PMID:20172704

Zuwallack, R; De Salvo, M C; Kaelin, T; Bateman, E D; Park, C S; Abrahams, R; Fakih, F; Sachs, P; Pudi, K; Zhao, Y; Wood, C C

2010-08-01

291

Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance  

DOEpatents

A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

1997-10-07

292

Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance  

DOEpatents

A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

Ecker, Joseph R. (Erial, NJ); Staskawicz, Brian J. (Castro Valley, CA); Bent, Andrew F. (Piedmont, CA); Innes, Roger W. (Bloomington, IN)

1997-10-07

293

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

294

The efficacy and safety of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tubeless\\u000a versus standard percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Relevant randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials studies were\\u000a identified from electronic database (Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline and EMBASE et al.). The retrieval time ended in August 2010.\\u000a The quality of the included trials was assessed

Haichao Yuan; Shuo Zheng; Liangren Liu; Ping Han; Jia Wang; Qiang Wei

295

Self-efficacy and academic achievement in Australian high school students: the mediating effects of academic aspirations and delinquency.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that self-efficacy, aspirational, and other psychosocial influences account for considerable variance in academic achievement through a range of mediational pathways, although no research to date has tested the mediational relationships identified. The present research investigated the structural relations among self-efficacy, academic aspirations, and delinquency, on the academic achievement of 935 students aged 11-18 years from ten schools in two Australian cities. The Children's Self-Efficacy Scale, Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (Revised), and Children's Academic Aspirations Scale were administered to participants prior to academic achievement being assessed using mid-year school grades. Structural equation modeling was employed to test three alternative models for the relationships from academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy on academic achievement. A partial mediation model showed the best overall fit to the data. Academic and self-regulatory efficacy had an indirect negative effect through delinquency and a direct positive effect on academic achievement. Academic and social self-efficacy had positive and negative relationships, respectively, with academic aspiration and academic achievement; however, the relationship between academic aspiration and academic achievement was not significant in the final model. PMID:19027942

Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert; Unsworth, Kerrie; Hattie, John; Gordon, Lisa; Bower, Julie

2009-08-01

296

Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-05-01

297

Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls. This study investigated the response of three medically significant microorganisms grown in the RWV to antibiotics that could be used on spaceflight missions. Our findings suggest potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during spaceflight and indicate that future studies on the antibiotic response require additional basic research using the RWV and/or true spaceflight. However, while this analogue has reinforced these potential alterations, the results suggest the best approach for applied forward work is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight, including human and rodent studies. The complex nature of the analysis for many antibiotics and organism suggests the best approach to determine in vivo responses during pharmaceutical treatment is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight.

Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

298

A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

2008-01-01

299

Plant Growth Regulators as Potential Tools in Aquatic Plant Management: Efficacy and Persistence in Small-Scale Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioassay and small-scale test systems were used to determine the efficacy and persistence of plant growth regulators with potential for aquatic plant management. The goal of the project was to identify compounds that reduce plant height and thus weediness...

C. A. Lembi T. Chand-Goyal

1994-01-01

300

Efficacy of predictive modeling as a scientific criterion in dermal hazard identification for assignment of skin notations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skin notations (SNs) represent a hazard characterization tool for alerting workers of health hazards associated with dermal contact with chemicals. This study evaluated the efficacy of a predictive model utilized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to identify dermal hazards based on potential of systemic absorption compared to hazard assignments based on dermal lethal dose 50% or

Chen-Peng Chen; Heinz W. Ahlers; G. Scott Dotson; Yi-Chun Lin; Wei-Chen Chang; Andrew Maier; Bernard Gadagbui

2011-01-01

301

Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

2012-01-01

302

Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% triclosan handwash products in an acute clinical ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 1% triclosan as handwash antiseptics is well established. Few published studies have identified hand bacteria found in glove juice samples, and most studies have used nonclinical study subjects. We report a longitudinal comparative study to determine the effect of 4% CHG and 1% triclosan on the composition of the hand bacterial

Joan L. Faoagali; Narelle George; Jonathan Fong; Jenny Davy; Muriel Dowser

1999-01-01

303

University Students' Self-Efficacy and Their Attitudes Toward the Internet: The Role of Students' Perceptions of the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The attitudes and the self-efficacy that characterize learners relative to the Internet have been identified as important factors that affect learners' motivation, interests and performance in Internet-based learning environments. Meanwhile, learners' perceptions of the Internet may shape learners' attitudes and online behaviours. This study…

Peng, Hsinyi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien

2006-01-01

304

Targeting the Wnt pathway in zebrafish as a screening method to identify novel therapeutic compounds.  

PubMed

Activating mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway account for the initiation of greater than 90% of all colorectal cancers and this pathway has been implicated in numerous other diseases. Therefore, identifying small molecule inhibitors of this pathway is of critical importance towards identifying clinically relevant drugs. Numerous screens have been employed to identify therapeutic reagents, but none have made it to advanced clinical trials, suggesting that traditional screening methods are ineffective at identifying clinically relevant targets. Here, we describe a novel in vivo screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of the Wnt pathway. Specifically, treatment of zebrafish embryos with LiCl inhibits GSK3 kinase function, resulting in hyperactivation of the signaling pathway and an eyeless phenotype at 1 day post fertilization. Using the small molecule XAV939, a known inhibitor of Wnt signaling, we rescued the LiCl induced eyeless phenotype, confirming efficacy of the screen. We next tested our assay with 400 known small molecule kinase inhibitors, none of which should inhibit Wnt signaling below the level of GSK3 based on their known targets. Accordingly, none of these small molecules rescued the eyeless phenotype, which demonstrates the stringency of the assay. However, several of these small molecule kinase inhibitors did generate a non-Wnt phenotype in accordance with the kinase they targeted. Therefore, combining the efficacy, sensitivity, and stringency of this preliminary screen, this model will provide an alternative to the traditional in vitro screen, generating potentially clinical relevant drugs in a rapid and cost-effective way. PMID:24414478

Robertson, Joshua K; Danzmann, Kestral; Charles, Sherise; Blake, Katherine; Olivares, Annia; Bamikole, Solape; Olson, Meghan; Van Raay, Terence J

2014-02-01

305

Long-term efficacy of pregabalin in generalized anxiety disorder.  

PubMed

A multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin in preventing relapse of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) after response to short-term treatment. Outpatients (n=624) with GAD for > or =1 year received open-label pregabalin (450 mg/day) for 8 weeks and, if a clinical response was observed, were randomized to receive either pregabalin (450 mg/day; n=168) or placebo (n=170) for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was time to relapse. Among responders to open-label acute treatment with pregabalin, time to relapse of GAD was significantly longer for patients treated with pregabalin compared with placebo (P<0.0001). Fifty per cent of the placebo group had relapsed by day 23, and at study endpoint, 65% had relapsed. In the pregabalin group, only 42% had relapsed by study end. Total attrition during double-blind treatment was somewhat higher on pregabalin compared with placebo (21.4 vs. 15.3%); attrition owing to adverse events (AEs) was also somewhat higher on pregabalin (6.0 vs. 2.4%). AEs were relatively low in the double-blind phase; only three AEs occurred with an incidence of more than 5% on pregabalin and placebo, respectively: infection (14.9 vs. 11.2%), headache (10.1 vs. 11.2%), and somnolence (6.0 vs. 0%). No safety concerns were identified with long-term treatment. The study indicates that pregabalin is an effective treatment for the prevention of relapse in patients with GAD. PMID:18090504

Feltner, Douglas; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Kavoussi, Richard; Brock, Jerri; Baldinetti, Francesca; Pande, Atul C

2008-01-01

306

Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5–25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8–31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management.

Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

2014-01-01

307

Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.  

PubMed

To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955675

Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-Deok

2014-06-01

308

Different Residues in the GABAA Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Pocket Mediate Benzodiazepine Efficacy and BindingS?  

PubMed Central

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) exert their therapeutic actions by binding to the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and allosterically modulating GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA). A variety of ligands with divergent structures bind to the BZD site, and the structural mechanisms that couple their binding to potentiation of IGABA are not well understood. In this study, we measured the effects of individually mutating 22 residues throughout the BZD binding pocket on the abilities of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and flurazepam to potentiate IGABA. Wild-type and mutant ?1?2?2 GABAARs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. GABA EC50, BZD EC50, and BZD maximal potentiation were measured. These data, combined with previous radioligand binding data describing the mutations' effects on BZD apparent binding affinities (J Neurosci 28:3490–3499, 2008; J Med Chem 51:7243–7252, 2008), were used to distinguish residues within the BZD pocket that contribute to BZD efficacy and BZD binding. We identified six residues whose mutation altered BZD maximal potentiation of IGABA (BZD efficacy) without altering BZD binding apparent affinity, three residues whose mutation altered binding but had no effect on BZD efficacy, and four residues whose mutation affected both binding and efficacy. Moreover, depending on the BZD ligand, the effects of some mutations were different, indicating that the structural mechanisms underlying the ability of BZD ligands with divergent structures to potentiate IGABA are distinct.

Morlock, Elaine V.

2011-01-01

309

Research and Teaching: Engaging Students - An Examination of the Effects of Teaching Strategies on Self-Efficacy and Course Climate in a Nonmajors Physics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Given the success of self-efficacy theory for predicting student success in scientific study, and the demonstrated effect that teaching approaches have on student self-efficacy in majors courses, the purpose of this study is to ask if similar relationships between pedagogy and self-efficacy exist in introductory science courses for non-physical science majors. In particular, this study proposes to identify which, if any, teaching approaches affect student self-efficacy in physics, and to identify the sources of efficacy through which those pedagogies have their effect. An additional goal of the study is to probe the relationship among teaching approaches, course climate, and student confidence. A three-part student survey instrument was developed to gather information about the course, physics self-efficacy, and demographics. Demographic information included math background, ACT score, GPA, race/ethnicity, age, sex, and major. Question and answer, collaborative learning, conceptual problems, electronic applications, and inquiry labs were found to make significant, unique contributions to self-efficacy and/or classroom climate.

Fencl, Heidi S.; Scheel, Karen R.

2012-01-20

310

[Sickness absence may impair self-efficacy].  

PubMed

Self-efficacy (SE) questionnaire data from the DWECS study in 2000 and 2005, age, sex, and transfer of sickness absence compensation data from the DREAM register. Men: sickness absence for more than 12 weeks and one and three absence spells are associated with decline in SE; women: decline in SE is associated with sickness absence for more than 52 weeks and two sickness absence spells. For both sexes SE declines at age 40-50 years. SE declines with length of sickness and sickness absence spells. PMID:23721838

Sommer, Birgitte; Thomsen, Gert Frank; Labriola, Merete

2013-05-27

311

Preclinical efficacy spectrum and pharmacokinetics of ixabepilone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Ixabepilone, a semisynthetic analog of natural epothilone B, was developed for use in cancer treatment. This study extends\\u000a previous findings regarding the efficacy of ixabepilone and its low susceptibility to tumor resistance mechanisms and describes\\u000a the pharmacokinetics of this new antineoplastic agent.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The cytotoxicity of ixabepilone was assessed in vitro in breast, lung, and colon tumor cell lines and in

Francis Y. F. Lee; Richard Smykla; Kathy Johnston; Krista Menard; Kelly McGlinchey; Russell W. Peterson; Amy Wiebesiek; Gregory Vite; Craig R. Fairchild; Robert Kramer

2009-01-01

312

Memory self-efficacy in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The positive association between memory self-efficacy (MSE), defined as the beliefs about one's ability to use memory effectively, and memory performance is highly documented in the literature but has not yet been explored in schizophrenia. In the current study the relationship between MSE and objective memory measures was explored in thirty schizophrenia patients and twenty healthy controls. Compared to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients presented lower MSE, which was associated with depression. Among controls, but not patients, MSE was positively related to memory performance. This result suggests that normal relationship between MSE and memory functioning is disrupted in schizophrenia. PMID:24731618

Raffard, Stéphane; Bortolon, Catherine; Rolland, Camille; Capdevielle, Delphine; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gely-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Stephan, Yannick

2014-06-01

313

Functional efficacy of tendon repair processes.  

PubMed

Despite various attempts to repair and replace injured tendon, an understanding of the repair processes and a systematic approach to achieving functional efficacy remain elusive. In this review the epidemiology of tendon injury and repair is first examined. Using a traditional paradigm for repair assessment, the biology and biomechanics of normal tendon, natural healing, and repair are then explored. New treatment strategies such as functional tissue engineering are discussed, including a functional approach to treatment that involves the development of in vivo functional design parameters to judge the acceptability of a repair outcome. The paper concludes with future directions. PMID:15255772

Butler, David L; Juncosa, Natalia; Dressler, Matthew R

2004-01-01

314

Monitoring Antimalarial Drug Efficacy: Current Challenges  

PubMed Central

Access to effective antimalarial therapy has increased dramatically. As malaria-endemic countries begin to use artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to treat malaria, detecting the emergence and spread of resistance has become more complicated but also more urgent. Clinical efficacy studies may not be sensitive enough to detect the failure of a single component of combination therapy while standardized criteria for in vitro resistance and validated molecular markers are not yet available to many currently deployed drugs. This review discusses the challenges to various methods to monitor antimalarial drug resistance and proposes an integrated approach to the rapid detection and characterization of resistance to ACTs should it arise.

Laufer, Miriam K.

2009-01-01

315

Method for identifying bacteria in a sample  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention describes a method for identifying bacteria. In particular, this invention relates to a method for identifying and quantifying mycobacteria from a sputum sample taken from a subject using flow cytometry. Further described is the use of flow cytometry to identify and quantify Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum-derived samples. Once identified and quantified, the samples are spotted onto filter cards for use in verification of an existing method of diagnosis, calibration of an existing method of diagnosis and/or the establishment of an external quality control system for use in conjunction with these methods of diagnosis. In one embodiment the method is used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB).

2014-04-29

316

Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science) was undertaken (6/1/11). The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II) to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Further research is needed to establish the evidence for other treatment modalities and treatment for tinea pedis for people with diabetes. Future efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of treatment intervention.

2011-01-01

317

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes.

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

318

Efficacy of tailored-print interventions to promote physical activity: a systematic review of randomised trials  

PubMed Central

Objective Computer-tailored physical activity interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Recent reviews have comprehensively synthesised published research on computer-tailored interventions delivered via interactive technology (e.g. web-based programs) but there is a paucity of synthesis for interventions delivered via traditional print-based media in the physical activity domain (i.e. tailored-print interventions). The current study provides a systematic review of the tailored-print literature, to identify key factors relating to efficacy in tailored-print physical activity interventions. Method Computer-tailored print intervention studies published up until May 2010 were identified through a search of three databases: Medline, CINAHL, and Psycinfo; and by searching reference lists of relevant publications, hand searching journals and by reviewing publications lists of 11 key authors who have published in this field. Results The search identified 12 interventions with evaluations reported in 26 publications. Seven out of the 12 identified studies reported positive intervention effects on physical activity behaviour, ranging from one month to 24 months post-baseline and 3 months to 18 months post-intervention. The majority of studies reporting positive intervention effects were theory-based interventions with multiple intervention contacts. Conclusion There is preliminary evidence that tailored-print interventions are a promising approach to promoting physical activity in adult populations. Future research is needed to further identify key factors relating to efficacy and to determine if this approach is cost-effective and sustainable in the long-term.

2011-01-01

319

Beating the Placebo in HIV Prevention Efficacy Trials: The Role of the Minimal Efficacy Bound  

PubMed Central

Objective To produce an effect on the HIV epidemic, preventive interventions need to achieve a minimum level of efficacy in order to offset potential indirect effects such as an increase in risky behavior. The current generation of HIV prevention trials on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis and on vaginal microbicides were designed using different set points for minimum individual-level efficacy (MIE). Some trials were designed not only to show superiority over placebo but also to rule out lower efficacies. The MIE has a substantial impact on the size and cost of a trial. Ideally, the MIE should be chosen to reduce uncertainty in the estimation of population level effects. In this paper, we investigate the effect of MIE on estimates of population level impact in order to better inform trial design. Methods We used mathematical model simulations assuming various rates of efficacy obtained from trials and different MIEs to study the impact of wide-scale interventions on two public health indicators. Results Implementation factors were the main drivers of uncertainty in public health indicators for an intervention, although MIE also contributed. The level of uncertainty introduced by the MIE was substantially lower than that of the other factors. Conclusions Investigators in clinical trials have set the MIE solely on the basis of potential public health impact. However, the substantial increase in trial costs associated with a large MIE is unlikely to be justified. These additional funds would be better spent in evaluating more critical implementation factors that cannot be assessed in clinical trials.

DIMITROV, Dobromir T.; MASSE, Benoit R.; BOILY, Marie-Claude

2012-01-01

320

Identifying Contingency Requirements Using Obstacle Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of Obstacle Analysis to identify anomaly-handling requirements for a safety- critical, autonomous system. The software requirements for the system evolved during operations due to an on-going effort to increase the autonomous system's robustness. The resulting increase in autonomy also increased system complexity. This investigation used Obstacle Analysis to identify and to reason incrementally about new

Robyn R. Lutz; Stacy Nelson; Ann Patterson-hine; Chad R. Frost; Doron Tal

2005-01-01

321

Healthcare Identifiers legislation: a whiff of fourberie.  

PubMed

The Healthcare Identifiers Bill 2010 (Cth), which will establish "the national e-health Healthcare Identifiers Service to provide that patients, healthcare providers and provider organisations can be consistently identified", is in the process of being enacted by the Australian Federal Parliament. The legislation will enable the government to assign to each "healthcare recipient" a 26-digit electronic "Healthcare Identifier", which will be accessible, with or without the recipient's consent, to a broad range of health care service providers as well as other entities. The individual Healthcare Identifier file will initially contain such identifying information as, where applicable, the Medicare number and/or the Veterans' Affairs number; name; address; gender; date of birth; and "the date of birth accuracy indicator" presumably birth certificate. However, since each "service" provided by a health care provider to a health care recipient will be automatically recorded on each individual's Healthcare Identifier file, in time these electronic files should contain a full record of such services or contacts. Moreover, the Healthcare Identifiers are considered a "key" to, or a "foundation stone" for, the implementation of the shared electronic health records scheme, because they will enable linkage with and retrieval of each patient's clinical records throughout the health care service system. However, there has been virtually no discussion about the legal, ethical and social implications of this legislation. PMID:20552931

Mendelson, Danuta

2010-05-01

322

Identifying influential nodes in complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying influential nodes that lead to faster and wider spreading in complex networks is of theoretical and practical significance. The degree centrality method is very simple but of little relevance. Global metrics such as betweenness centrality and closeness centrality can better identify influential nodes, but are incapable to be applied in large-scale networks due to the computational complexity. In order

Duanbing Chen; Linyuan Lü; Ming-Sheng Shang; Yi-Cheng Zhang; Tao Zhou

323

Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

Zhang, Hong-yan

2011-01-01

324

Alternative Methodologies for Identifying Effective Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If an effective school is defined as a school that causes student improvement on a number of important educational outcomes, the problem of identifying effective schools becomes one of establishing legitimate predictions of student performance and comparing those predictions to actual student or school outcomes. In attempting to identify effective…

Webster, William J.; And Others

325

Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-01-01

326

Identifying sequentially untestable faults using illegal states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of identifying untestable faults in synchronous sequential circuits without assuming a global reset mechanism. First, we present an efficient algorithm to identify illegal states in the circuit. An important feature of this algorithm is its functional partitioning, which results in efficient processing of large circuits. The algorithm incrementally builds the set of illegal states which

David E. Long; Mahesh A. Iyer; Miron Abramovici

1995-01-01

327

IDENTIFYING CONTENT KNOWLEDGE FOR TEACHING STATISTICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify important aspects of statistical knowledge needed for teaching in the middle school grades. A systematic study of the current literature, including state and national standards, was conducted to identify these important aspects and to measure the degree of emphasis or importance suggested for the content. Results show that state and

M. Alejandra Sorto

328

Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection.

Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

1990-01-01

329

Efficacy of cleaning products for C difficile  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for the efficacy of products used for environmental or hand cleaning on the rates of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles pertinent to the efficacy of cleaning products against C difficile or studies with outcomes related to rates of CDAD. Evidence was level II. MAIN MESSAGE Minimizing the incidence of CDAD in geriatric rehabilitation units is essential to achieving the goals of increasing patient function and independence for discharge into the community. Attention to environmental control of C difficile and its spores by health care workers and patient visitors is an important secondary prevention strategy. CONCLUSION Chlorine-releasing agents are more effective than detergents for killing spores produced by C difficile. No level I evidence is available to determine if the use of chlorine-releasing agents has an effect on rates of CDAD. Hand-washing is currently the recommended strategy for reducing transmission of C difficile. Alcohol gels do not inactivate C difficile spores; however, increased use of alcohol hand gel has not been associated with higher rates of CDAD.

MacLeod-Glover, Nora; Sadowski, Cheryl

2010-01-01

330

Novel composite efficacy measure to demonstrate the rationale and efficacy of combination antiviral-anti-inflammatory treatment for recurrent herpes simplex labialis.  

PubMed

Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size--a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P<0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P<0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

Hull, Christopher M; Levin, Myron J; Tyring, Stephen K; Spruance, Spotswood L

2014-03-01

331

EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the tool for these use cases and more.

Starr, J.

2013-12-01

332

Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's capability to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. Often described as task-specific self-confidence, self-efficacy has been a key component in theories of motivation and learning in varied contexts. Furthermore, over the last 34 years, educational researchers from diverse fields of inquiry have used the notion of self-efficacy to predict and explain a wide range of human functioning, from athletic skill to academic achievement. This article is not a systematic review of the empirical research on self-efficacy; instead, its purpose is to describe the nature and structure of self-efficacy and provide a brief overview of several instructional implications for medical education. In doing so, this article is meant to encourage medical educators to consider and explicitly address their students' academic self-efficacy beliefs in an effort to provide more engaging and effective instruction. PMID:23316462

Artino, Anthony R

2012-05-01

333

Positive Impacts of Modeling Instruction on Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel [1] to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2010-10-01

334

Creating opportunities to influence self-efficacy through modeling instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an initial analysis connecting key elements of Modeling Instruction (MI) to self-efficacy experience opportunities. Previously, we demonstrated that MI has positive effects on self-efficacy when compared with traditional Lecture instruction [1]. We also found a particularly strong positive effect on the social persuasion source of self-efficacy for women in the MI class. Our current study seeks to understand through what mechanisms MI influences self-efficacy. We demonstrate this connection through an in-depth analysis of video chosen to exemplify Modeling techniques used in a problem-solving episode by three female participants enrolled in a MI introductory physics class. We provide a rich and descriptive analysis of the self-efficacy experiences opportunities within this context and discuss how these opportunities provide a potential explanation of how MI influences self-efficacy.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-02-01

335

Increased efficacy of omalizumab in atopic dermatitis patients with wild-type filaggrin status and higher serum levels of phosphatidylcholines.  

PubMed

Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting IgE, is an established therapy for severe allergic asthma and has shown efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Small-scale studies indicated some beneficial effect also in atopic dermatitis (AD). To evaluate the efficacy of omalizumab in AD and to identify markers associated with treatment response, we conducted a prospective 28-week open-label trial on 20 adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Our results confirm previous observations of a positive response in a subgroup of patients and suggest that responders are characterized by the absence of filaggrin mutations and altered lipid metabolite profiles with high levels of various glycerophospholipids. PMID:24111531

Hotze, M; Baurecht, H; Rodríguez, E; Chapman-Rothe, N; Ollert, M; Fölster-Holst, R; Adamski, J; Illig, T; Ring, J; Weidinger, S

2014-01-01

336

The Efficacy of Strontium and Potassium Toothpastes in Treating Dentine Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present paper was to review the published literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of the efficacy of strontium and potassium toothpastes in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Methods. Following a review of 94 relevant papers both from searching electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, 13 studies were identified, and 7 papers (1 for strontium-based toothpastes and 6 for potassium-based toothpastes) were finally accepted for inclusion. The main outcome measures were the methodology and assessment used by Investigators in studies designed to evaluate DH. Results. The results of the present paper would indicate that the reported efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving DH is questionable. Conclusions. The results from the present paper would appear to support the conclusions of previous investigators that there is only minimal evidence for the efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving symptoms of DH.

Karim, B. F. A.; Gillam, D. G.

2013-01-01

337

Self-efficacy Theory and Learning Environment Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to bring to the attention of educators interested in student perceptions of the learning environment\\u000a the concept of self-efficacy. Social learning theorists define perceived self-efficacy as a sense of confidence regarding\\u000a the performance of specific tasks. Our premise is that student self-efficacy beliefs regarding academic performance can have\\u000a important implications for improving learning environments

ANTHONY W. LORSBACH; JERRY L. JINKS

1999-01-01

338

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine.

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

339

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms.

Miller, Larry E; Tennila, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

340

What are the most effective techniques in changing obese individuals' physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Increasing self-efficacy is generally considered to be an important mediator of the effects of physical activity interventions. A previous review identified which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were associated with increases in self-efficacy and physical activity for healthy non-obese adults. The aim of the current review was to identify which BCTs increase the self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour of obese adults. A systematic search identified 61 comparisons with obese adults reporting changes in self-efficacy towards engaging in physical activity following interventions. Of those comparisons, 42 also reported changes in physical activity behaviour. All intervention descriptions were coded using Michie et al’s (2011) 40 item CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. Meta-analysis was conducted with moderator analyses to examine the association between whether or not each BCT was included in interventions, and size of changes in both self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour. Overall, a small effect of the interventions was found on self-efficacy (d?=?0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.29, p?efficacy; ‘action planning’, ‘time management’, ‘prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome’ and ‘plan social support/social change’. These latter two BCTs were also associated with positive changes in physical activity. An additional 19 BCTs were associated with positive changes in physical activity. The largest effects for physical activity were found where interventions contained ‘teach to use prompts/cues’, ‘prompt practice’ or ‘prompt rewards contingent on effort or progress towards behaviour’. Overall, a non-significant relationship was found between change in self-efficacy and change in physical activity (Spearman’s Rho?=??0.18 p?=?0.72). In summary, the majority of techniques increased physical activity behaviour, without having discernible effects on self-efficacy. Only two BCTs were associated with positive changes in both physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour. This is in contrast to the earlier review which found a strong relationship between changes in physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour. Mechanisms other than self-efficacy may be more important for increasing the physical activity of obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals.

2013-01-01

341

Discrimination of SM-identified individuals.  

PubMed

The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF). PMID:16803765

Wright, Susan

2006-01-01

342

Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and to determine its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones. Materials and Methods: A concentrated extract of Aloe vera was used to check for the antimicrobial efficacy using the agar well diffusion method. Presence of zones’ of diffusion was identified against three common GP contaminants namely, E.coli, E.faecalis and Staph. aureus. New GP Cones, freshly taken out of the packet were then decontaminated for 1minute using Aloe vera gel and then placed in thioglycolate broth to check for the presence of turbidity. Results: The zones of inhibition on the agar plate were measured as 24mm,21mm and 24mm respectively. The broth remained clear even after 48 hours of incubation. Conclusion: We conclude that Aloe vera is indeed effective as a GP decontaminant and it holds a promising future as a medium for storage of GP cones.

Athiban, Prakash P; Borthakur, Bikash Jyoti; Ganesan, S; Swathika, B

2012-01-01

343

International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma  

MedlinePLUS

... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 May 2014 International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma A higher level of ... molecule, FLI1, which is involved in blood vessel formation. Together, these findings suggested that CXCL4 could shrink ...

344

On identifiability in capture-recapture models.  

PubMed

We study the issue of identifiability of mixture models in the context of capture-recapture abundance estimation for closed populations. Such models are used to take account of individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities, but their validity was recently questioned by Link (2003, Biometrics 59, 1123-1130) on the basis of their nonidentifiability. We give a general criterion for identifiability of the mixing distribution, and apply it to establish identifiability within families of mixing distributions that are commonly used in this context, including finite and beta mixtures. Our analysis covers binomial and geometrically distributed outcomes. In an example we highlight the difference between the identifiability issue considered here and that in classical binomial mixture models. PMID:16984340

Holzmann, Hajo; Munk, Axel; Zucchini, Walter

2006-09-01

345

Disease Resistance Mechanism Identified in Plants  

NSF Publications Database

... plants is triggered by the interaction of proteins produced by both a resistance gene in the plant ... how a plant recognizes one pathogen, we should begin to understand how plants identify many ...

346

Partners in Research Identifying Common Interests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) undertook this project to develop a methodology for systematically matching research interests of private sector organizations with its own in order to identify potential research partners. The method...

1997-01-01

347

Identifying the Outcomes of Socialization: Two Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The outcomes of the process of organizational socialization have been inadequately defined and researched. This report contains a review of outcomes mentioned or measured by past researchers, followed by two studies intended to identify outcomes. The firs...

C. D. Fisher

1982-01-01

348

Systematic review of efficacy and safety of pemetrexed in non-small-cell-lung cancer.  

PubMed

Introduction Lung cancer accounts for 20 % of cancer deaths in Spain. The most frequent subtype (87 %) is non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pemetrexed is a recently marketed drug added to NSCLC therapeutic arsenal. It seems to have become one of the most used options for the treatment of this condition over the last 3 years. Aim of the review To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed in NSCLC, in the different therapy lines. Method A systematic search of published literature was conducted using the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and the Center for Reviews and Dissemination) and subsequently a search of referenced literature was performed. We included clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews. The evaluation of the quality of the articles was performed by pairs using specific assessment scales, Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) adapted for CASP Spain. Then we extracted data on efficacy and safety according to the treatment line assessed. Results We identified 277 references. Finally, nine clinical trials and a meta-analysis complied with inclusion criteria. In first-line induction, treatment with pemetrexed associated with a platinum was similar in terms of efficacy to other alternative chemotherapy regimens, except in patients with non-squamous histology, in whom survival was higher in the experimental group. In maintenance treatment, greater efficacy was seen with pemetrexed in patients with non-squamous histology. In second-line treatment, there were no significant differences in terms of efficacy and safety for pemetrexed treatment versus other chemotherapy options. The most frequent adverse reactions were: hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological. All were significantly less frequent with pemetrexed versus other alternative therapies, except for liver toxicity. Conclusions Due to the high degree of uncertainty as to its efficacy in certain subgroups of patients, including conflicting data; to its recent incorporation, and therefore lack of safety data in the medium and long term, and the high budgetary impact of its incorporation into health systems, it seems reasonable to optimize its use, identifying those patients who may benefit most. PMID:24590919

Pérez-Moreno, Maria Antonia; Galván-Banqueri, Mercedes; Flores-Moreno, Sandra; Villalba-Moreno, Angela; Cotrina-Luque, Jesús; Bautista-Paloma, Francisco Javier

2014-06-01

349

Genomic strategies to identify mammalian regulatory sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continuing accomplishments of the human genome project, high-throughput strategies to identify DNA sequences that are important in mammalian gene regulation are becoming increasingly feasible. In contrast to the historic, labour-intensive, wet-laboratory methods for identifying regulatory sequences, many modern approaches are heavily focused on the computational analysis of large genomic data sets. Data from inter-species genomic sequence comparisons and

Len A. Pennacchio; Edward M. Rubin

2001-01-01

350

Identifying Risks at a Superfund Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the types of risks found at Superfund sites and how these risks are identified and assessed. They learn how sites are discovered and where to report potential hazardous waste sites. The students also discuss the activities undertaken by the government or other parties at hazardous waste sites to identify sources of contamination, determine the type and extent of contamination, and evaluate the risks posed to human health and the environment.

351

Newly identified YSO candidates towards LDN 1188  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of young stellar object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat, and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

Marton , G.; Verebélyi, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Smidla, J.

2013-11-01

352

Math LD: Identifying Basic Number Processing Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blogpost Dr. Daniel B. Berch explains the difficulties in identifying math learning disabilities and how math learning disabilities may present themselves in young children. Dr. Berch identifies "transcoding" and "subitizing" as two ways in which math learning disabilities may first become clear to educators and researchers. A related resource,"How Teachers and Parents Can Help Elementary School Students with Math LD" by Dr. Berch, is cataloged separately.

Berch, Daniel B.

2012-05-15

353

IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT  

SciTech Connect

The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J., E-mail: rmarcus@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-20

354

Identifiability analysis in conceptual sewer modelling.  

PubMed

For a sufficient calibration of an environmental model not only parameter sensitivity but also parameter identifiability is an important issue. In identifiability analysis it is possible to analyse whether changes in one parameter can be compensated by appropriate changes of the other ones within a given uncertainty range. Parameter identifiability is conditional to the information content of the calibration data and consequently conditional to a certain measurement layout (i.e. types of measurements, number and location of measurement sites, temporal resolution of measurements etc.). Hence the influence of number and location of measurement sites on the number of identifiable parameters can be investigated. In the present study identifiability analysis is applied to a conceptual model of a combined sewer system aiming to predict the combined sewer overflow emissions. Different measurement layouts are tested and it can be shown that only 13 of the most sensitive catchment areas (represented by the model parameter 'effective impervious area') can be identified when overflow measurements of the 20 highest overflows and the runoff to the waste water treatment plant are used for calibration. The main advantage of this method is very low computational costs as the number of required model runs equals the total number of model parameters. Hence, this method is a valuable tool when analysing large models with a long runtime and many parameters. PMID:22864432

Kleidorfer, M; Leonhardt, G; Rauch, W

2012-01-01

355

An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA “Animal Rule” 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel.

Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

2012-01-01

356

Efficacies of mixtures of disinfectants and insecticides.  

PubMed

Efficacies of mixtures of diluted commercial formulations of selected insecticides and disinfectants were evaluated. Insecticides tested included representative pyrethroids (fenvalerate [Ectrin WDL and WD] and permethrin [Ectiban EC]), organophosphates (dichlorvos [Vapona EC], tetrachlorvinphos [Rabon WP] and dichlorvos/tetrachlorvinphos [RaVap EC], and a carbamate (carbaryl [Sevin S]). Disinfectants tested included representatives of cresylic acid (Biolene), cresylic acid/phenol (BioGuard X-185), phenol (1-Stroke Environ), quaternary ammonium (BioGuard S-3 and PFP-4), quaternary ammonium/formalin (DC & R), and formalin classes of disinfectants. Mixtures were tested for toxicity to two target insects (Musca domestica on plywood, Alphitobius diaperinus in litter) and two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). Of 56 mixtures evaluated, 24 showed reduced insecticidal toxicity and 35 showed reduced bactericidal activity compared with insecticides or disinfectants alone. PMID:3112756

Geden, C J; Edwards, T D; Arends, J J; Axtell, R C

1987-04-01

357

[Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].  

PubMed

Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk associated with cosmetic substances that are "reprotoxic" and/or affect endocrine function, as a result of which various filters are currently being reassessed for such risk. The greater alleged safety of mineral filters, based on the absence of introduction of risk of photosensitisation (as a result of which they are preferred for use in young children), no longer seems so clear since the introduction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the form of nanoparticles. Afssaps drew up a risk assessment report concerning cutaneous penetration, genotoxicity and oncogenesis for TiO(2) and ZnO in nanoparticle form; further studies are needed before any general conclusions may be drawn. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is also carrying out an evaluation of the use of TiO(2) and of ZnO as UV filters. Finally, current data do not suggest that SPPs exert any harmful effects by inhibiting the beneficial effects of the sun, in particular, vitamin D synthesis. PMID:22482479

Beani, J-C

2012-04-01

358

[Liposomal-amphotericin B efficacy and safety].  

PubMed

Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), a lipid-based amphotericin B formulation, has been used in Japan since June 2006 to treat fungal infection. In the 3 years since L-AMB was launched, few reports have been made on its status. To ensure its appropriate use, we restrospectively reviewed its efficacy and safety in treating fungal infections. 25 subjects with fungal infection treated with L-AMB from April 2007 until February 2008. Of those, 16 showed clinical improvement. Elevated serum creatinine occurred in 1 and decreased serum potassium in 6. We found a positive relationship between the serum potassium decrease and L-AMB dose. Logistic regression analysis of this relationship showed that serum potassium tended to fall on day 5 to 6 of L-AMB administration. While L-AMB appears highly effective in fungal infection, it requires serum potassium monitoring to ensure patient safety. PMID:20420165

Hamada, Yukihiro; Komatsu, Toshiaki; Seto, Yoshinori; Matsubara, Hajime; Kume, Hikaru; Sunakawa, Keisuke; Yago, Kazuo

2010-03-01

359

The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

2011-01-01

360

Therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in dementia.  

PubMed

This trial was performed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in the treatment of primary degenerative and vascular dementia. 152 male and female patients aged between 50 and 85 years from two psychogeriatric centers and two nursing homes were initially included in the trial and screened for eligibility. 142 patients completed the trial. Clinical diagnosis was established according to DSM-III-R criteria. Allocation of the patients to the primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) group or the multi-infarct dementia (MID) group was based on computed tomography scans, electroencephalographic findings and the Hachinski Ischemic Score. In a 12-week double-blind treatment either 30 mg vincamine or placebo was given twice daily. Confirmatory statistics included item 2 of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the total score of the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric (SCAG) scale, the subscale 'need for help' of the nurse's rating of geriatric patients (Beurteilungsskala für geriatrische Patienten; BGP) and the total score of the Short Cognitive Performance Test (Syndrom-Kurztest; SKT). In addition, data on tolerance and on therapy response were evaluated based on descriptive statistics. The therapeutic efficacy of vincamine was clearly demonstrated by confirmatory analysis as the drug was statistically significantly superior to placebo in all four target variables. The clinical relevance of the outcome was further underlined by the results of the responder analysis of the variables SCAG, BGP and SKT. Based on the results of this trial, it can be accepted that the therapeutic effect of vincamine is superior to placebo in patients with mild to moderate dementia of degenerative and vascular etiologies. PMID:8884757

Fischhof, P K; Möslinger-Gehmayr, R; Herrmann, W M; Friedmann, A; Russmann, D L

1996-01-01

361

Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

2008-03-01

362

Omalizumab for severe asthma: efficacy beyond the atopic patient?  

PubMed

Several years ago, omalizumab became commercially available for the treatment of severe asthma. It remains the only monoclonal antibody to be marketed for this purpose. Since then, many studies have been published endorsing its efficacy and effectiveness. Concomitantly, evidence of an overlap between atopic and non-atopic severe asthma has emerged. However, there also appears to be some disagreement regarding the value of omalizumab in the management of non-atopic disease, as some studies have failed to show any benefit in these patients. The recent literature has also sought to identify appropriate prognostic biomarkers for the use of omalizumab, other than immunoglobulin (IgE) levels. This article briefly summarizes the evolution of asthma treatment, the pathophysiology of the condition, and the method of action of omalizumab. The author describes the controlled and uncontrolled studies (also named "real-life studies") published in adult and pediatric populations in different countries and expresses his view on the current place of the drug in the management of severe allergic asthma. He offers a personal perspective on the recent evidence for the use of omalizumab in non-atopic patients, highlighting the implications for current clinical practice and the gaps in our knowledge. The author justifies his belief that omalizumab is not only an IgE-blocking drug and should be considered as a disease-modifying therapy because of its multiple effects on different biologic pathways. Finally, some areas for future research are indicated. PMID:24691707

Domingo, Christian

2014-04-01

363

Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy  

PubMed Central

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl? channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl? channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1?50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl? conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ?50% inhibition at a 1?5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl? inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl? channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries.

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

2014-01-01

364

Disinfection efficacy against parvoviruses compared with reference viruses.  

PubMed

Some virus species can resist harsh environmental conditions, surviving on surfaces for long periods with the possibility of being transmitted to susceptible hosts. Studies are limited on the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses dried onto surfaces, in particular, with the identification of new pathogenic non-enveloped viruses that are expected to have high resistance to disinfection, such as parvoviruses. In this study a range of commonly used biocides, including heat, was tested against porcine parvovirus (PPV), minute virus of mice (a parvovirus), poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5, and vaccinia virus dried onto surfaces. PPV was the most resistant species identified, since many biocides generally considered as effective against non-enveloped viruses and used for high level disinfection demonstrated limited activity. Ethanol had poor activity against all non-enveloped viruses. Effectiveness against these viruses may be important in preventing nosocomial transmission of emerging pathogenic species such as bocavirus and other parvoviruses. This work confirms the need to validate disinfection products against viruses dried onto surfaces and demonstrates that PPV is a particularly resistant surrogate. PMID:19646784

Eterpi, M; McDonnell, G; Thomas, V

2009-09-01

365

Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

2001-07-27

366

Evaluating the potential efficacy of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) removals.  

PubMed

The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (L(vul)), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

Barbour, Andrew B; Allen, Micheal S; Allen, Michael S; Frazer, Thomas K; Sherman, Krista D

2011-01-01

367

Drug efficacy by direct and adjusted indirect comparison to placebo: An illustration by Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis in HIV  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal was to illustrate a method for making indirect treatment comparisons in the absence of head-to-head trials, by portraying the derivation of published efficacies for prophylaxis regimens of HIV-related opportunistic infections. Results We identified published results of randomized controlled trials from the United States in which HIV-infected patients received rifabutin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, or placebo for prophylaxis against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). We extracted the number of subjects, follow-up time, primary MAC events, mean CD4 count, and proportion of subjects on mono or dual antiretroviral therapy (ART) from each study. We derived the efficacy of each drug using adjusted indirect comparisons and, when possible, by direct comparisons. Five articles satisfied our inclusion criteria. Using direct comparison, we estimated the efficacies of rifabutin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin compared to placebo to be 53% (95% CI, 48-61%), 66% (95% CI, 61-74%), and 66% (95% CI, 60-81%), respectively. Using adjusted indirect calculations, the efficacy of rifabutin compared to placebo ranged from 41% to 44%. The adjusted indirect efficacies of clarithromycin and azithromycin were estimated to be 73% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Accurate estimates of specific drug dosages as compared to placebo are important for policy and implementation research. This study illustrates a simple method of adjusting for differences in study populations by using indirect comparisons in the absence of head-to-head HIV clinical trials.

2011-01-01

368

An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults  

PubMed Central

We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations.

PONNIAH, Kathryn; MAGIATI, Iliana; HOLLON, Steven D.

2013-01-01

369

Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.  

PubMed

Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model. PMID:24416170

Apri, Mochamad; de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Simon; Molenaar, Jaap

2014-01-01

370

Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Ulm, J.E. [TN Dept. of Health, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

371

Career Development, Collective Efficacy, and Individual Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that perceived collective efficacy would mediate the effects of self-efficacy on individual task performance. Design/methodology/approach: An assessment center design with 147 participants in 49 three-person groups was used. Findings: It is found that for individuals working on an…

Kellett, Janet B.; Humphrey, Ronald H.; Sleeth, Randall G.

2009-01-01

372

The Coaching Efficacy Scale II--High School Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this validity study was to improve measurement of coaching efficacy, an important variable in models of coaching effectiveness. A revised version of the coaching efficacy scale (CES) was developed for head coaches of high school teams (CES II-HST). Data were collected from head coaches of 14 relevant high school sports (N = 799).…

Myers, Nicholas D.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Chase, Melissa A.; Reckase, Mark D.; Hancock, Gregory R.

2008-01-01

373

Development of the Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual Change Learning Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess college students' efficacy beliefs for conceptual change and to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Participants were 692 students. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized single factor structure of Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual…

Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Tuckman, Bruce W.; Krissek, Lawrence A.

2012-01-01

374

The Relationship between Lesson Study and Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses a gap in the literature by developing a theory that bridges lesson study and self-efficacy. Since self-efficacy has been linked to student achievement, the theory is important as an explanatory mechanism linking lesson study to student achievement. The theory was developed using grounded theory based on primary source data…

Sibbald, Tim

2009-01-01

375

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

376

Profiles of the Sources of Science Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students' (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in…

Chen, Jason A.; Usher, Ellen L.

2013-01-01

377

Clinical attrition due to biased preclinical assessments of potential efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unless it is carefully controlled, bias often distorts the results of clinical trials, usually exaggerating the magnitude of true efficacy. For that reason, procedures to limit bias have been mandated by the FDA when assessing efficacy in clinical trials. The present review shows that the effects of bias in preclinical studies are at least as large as in clinical trials,

Mark D. Lindner

2007-01-01

378

Business Student Computer Self-Efficacy: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes computer self-efficacy for two independent samples of students enrolled in an introduction to information systems course in 1996 and 2006. We administered two validated and frequently employed measures of general computer self-efficacy to each group of students and collected demographic and computer-use data. Our findings…

Karsten, Rex; Schmidt, Dennis

2008-01-01

379

Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mathematics Content Knowledge and Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between mathematics content knowledge and teacher efficacy during an elementary mathematics methods course. A positive moderate relationship between content knowledge and personal teaching efficacy was found, and this relationship was stable during the course. No relationship was found…

Newton, Kristie Jones; Leonard, Jacqueline; Evans, Brian R.; Eastburn, Julie A.

2012-01-01

380

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Performing Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 154 cabin attendants to examine the role of self-efficacy in the performance of emotion work. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that self-efficacy would have a moderating influence on the relationship between emotional job demands (i.e., feeling rules and emotionally charged interactions with passengers)…

Heuven, Ellen; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Huisman, Noortje

2006-01-01

381

Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

2013-01-01

382

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

383

Efficacy of ototopical ciprofloxacin in pediatric patients with otorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical ciprofloxacin in patients with recurrent otorrhea that was unresponsive to other antibiotics.METHODS: Pediatric patients with otorrhea and confirmed Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the ear fluid were enrolled. Topical ciprofloxacin, three drops three times daily for 14 days, was prescribed with aural care. Efficacy and safety were

SUSAN M. WINTERMEYER; MARY C. HART; MILAP C. NAHATA

1997-01-01

384

Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N"…

Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

2013-01-01

385

Efficacy of Self-Administered Treatments for Depression and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-administered treatments (SATs) are widely used by the general public and mental health professionals. Previous reviews of the efficacy of SATs have included under this category interventions for nonclinical problems, group interventions, and interventions involving significant amounts of therapist contact. The efficacy of SATs for clinical levels of depression and anxiety with minimal therapeutic contact was examined by meta-analyzing 24

Marisa Menchola; Hal S. Arkowitz; Brian L. Burke

2007-01-01

386

Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Turkish Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…

Isik, Erkan

2010-01-01

387

Self-Efficacy and Interest: Experimental Studies of Optimal Incompetence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To test the optimal incompetence hypothesis (high self-efficacy lowers task interest), 30 subjects rated interest, perceived difficulty, and confidence of success in different tasks. In study 2, 33 subjects completed a dart-game task in easy, moderate, and difficult conditions. In both, interest was a quadratic function of self-efficacy,…

Silvia, Paul J.

2003-01-01

388

Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

2012-01-01

389

A Factor Analysis of the Discipline Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Discipline Efficacy Scale (DES) was designed to measure personal and general teacher efficacy beliefs about student discipline. A confirmatory factor analysis of the proposed two-factor model was carried out using a sample of 206 junior- and senior-level preservice teacher education students. Goodness of fit measures did not suggest a good fit…

Giles, Rebecca McMahon; Kazelskis, Richard; Reeves-Kazelskis, Carolyn

390

College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

Woodrow, Lindy

2011-01-01

391

Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and

Albert Bandura

1977-01-01

392

Assessing Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RESE) scale was developed to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing negative (NEG) and in expressing positive (POS) affect (G. V. Caprara & M. Gerbino, 2001). In this study of young adults, the factorial structure of the RESE scale was found to be similar in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia: In…

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Giunta, Laura Di; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tramontano, Carlo

2008-01-01

393

Self-Efficacy, Self-Evaluation, and Social Loafing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of efficacy expectancy and valence of expected evaluation on social loafing (the tendency to put forth less effort when working collectively than when working individually) among 120 undergraduate students. Participants completed the Remote Associates Test. Efficacy expectancies were manipulated by varying…

Susman, Ellen B.; Sanna, Lawrence J.

394

Developing an ELT Context-Specific Teacher Efficacy Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy is a topic of significance in mainstream education and various instruments have been developed to measure this construct. The available instruments however, are general both in terms of their subject matter and context. To compensate for this generality, the present study aims to develop a new teacher efficacy instrument whose…

Akbari, Ramin; Tavassoli, Kobra

2014-01-01

395

Efficacy and Safety of Caspofungin in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy and safety data for the echinocandins in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are limited. We reviewed data from three clinical trials that enrolled SOT patients receiving caspofungin therapy for an invasive fungal infection (IFI). Caspofungin was administered at doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg\\/day. Efficacy was assessed in all patients at the end of caspofungin therapy (EOT). Adverse

J. Petrovic; A. Ngai; S. Bradshaw; A. Williams-Diaz; A. Taylor; C. Sable; S. Vuocolo; N. Kartsonis

2007-01-01

396

Retrospect and Prospect of Studies of Teacher Efficacy in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy is a powerful variable in educational and psychological studies. And it aroused much attention and interest from Chinese scholars in the past decade, which led to an accumulation of documents in this field. Following an introduction of efficacy studies in the west, the article reviews the brief history of those in China,…

He, Ning; Miao, Danmin

2006-01-01

397

Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

Fineburg, Amy Cheek

2010-01-01

398

Teacher Efficacy and Teacher Professional Learning: Implications for School Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines urban high-school teachers' professional-development experiences through the lenses of personal teaching efficacy and professional learning, highlighting interview responses of 20 teachers with highest and lowest scores. Degree of personal teaching efficacy influences how individual teachers experience professional development. Programs…

Scribner, Jay Paredes

1999-01-01

399

Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

2006-01-01

400

Topiramate: efficacy and tolerability in children according to epilepsy syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) as add-on therapy in children less than 12 years of age with refractory epilepsy, according to epilepsy syndromes, we conducted an open, prospective, pragmatic and multicenter study in France. Efficacy was assessed, especially according to epilepsy syndromes, as well as tolerability. We included 207 children (41 of whom were less than

Yann Mikaeloff; Anne de Saint-Martin; Josette Mancini; Sylviane Peudenier; Jean-Michel Pedespan; Louis Vallée; Jacques Motte; Marie Bourgeois; Alexis Arzimanoglou; Olivier Dulac; Catherine Chiron

2003-01-01

401

On the luminous efficacy of diffuse solar radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models for diffuse illuminance and irradiance and for the luminous efficacy of diffuse solar radiation are developed, specifically for clear skies, and also for all sky types.All luminous efficacy models reported in the present work have the distinctive feature of being obtained from empirical models developed for diffuse illuminance and irradiance, looking in this way, apparently for the first time,

Luis Robledo; Alfonso Soler

2001-01-01

402

Luminous efficacy of global solar radiation for clear skies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The luminous efficacy of global solar radiation for clear skies has been modeled using solar elevation as the only independent parameter. In the present work, two types of models are developed. On the one hand, polynomial models similar to those presented by other authors are produced, and on the other, a non-polynomial model for the luminous efficacy of global solar

Luis Robledo; Alfonso Soler

2000-01-01

403

Assessing Efficacy and Importance of Career Counseling Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses social cognitive career theory as conceptual framework for examining self-efficacy. Participants completed a version of the Career Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale to determine generalizability of original findings to practicing school counselors. Suggests that in-service training to help change counselors' attitudes towards the importance of…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Perrone, Philip A.; Chan, Fong; Thomas, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

404

Teaching Efficacy of Universiti Putra Malaysia Science Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of the study was to access teaching efficacy of Universiti Putra Malaysia Science student teachers. The specific objectives were to determine teaching efficacy of Science student teachers in terms of student engagement; instructional strategies; classroom management and teaching with computers in classroom; their satisfaction with…

Bakar, Abd. Rahim; Konting, Mohd. Majid; Jamian, Rashid; Lyndon, Novel

2008-01-01

405

Perceptions of Self-Efficacy among STEM Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies examine the relationship between self-efficacy and positive outcomes for postsecondary students. Collectively they echo that self-efficacy is an essential component to positive outcomes. Relatively few studies focused on students with disabilities majoring in STEM fields. Twenty postsecondary students with disabilities…

Jenson, Ronda J.; Petri, Alexis N.; Day, Arden D.; Truman, Kevin Z.; Duffy, Kate

2011-01-01

406

A Case Study of Elementary Beginning Mathematics Teachers' Efficacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research was to explore the developmental process of and possible changes in beginning elementary mathematics teachers' efficacy. Beginning teachers with and without mathematics and science backgrounds were also compared to explore differences in their efficacy development. A multiple-case study method with a process and…

Chang, Yu-Liang

2010-01-01

407

Teacher Efficacy of High School Mathematics Co-Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school mathematics inclusion classes help provide all students the access to rigorous curriculum. This study provides information about the teacher efficacy of high school mathematics co-teachers. It considers the influence of the amount of collaborative planning time on the efficacy of co-teachers. A quantitative research design was used,…

Rimpola, Raquel C.

2011-01-01

408

Efficacy of AIDS vaccine strategies in nonhuman primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since only a limited number of vaccines can be tested for efficacy in phase 3 studies in humans, a filter is needed allowing selection of the most promising ones. Although differences between HIV infection in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus infection in nonhuman primates (NHP) might limit the predictive value of these models, comparative efficacy studies in NHPs could facilitate

Klaus Überla

2005-01-01

409

Exploring First-Year Science Students' Chemistry Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First-year chemistry classes typically comprise of a mixture of majors and non-majors. Reports in the literature suggest that students have lower self-efficacy for subjects outside their intending major. Here we report on research that examines changes in chemistry students' chemistry self-efficacy throughout their first year of chemistry study at…

Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

2006-01-01

410

Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality…

Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

2006-01-01

411

Mental Health Promotion in Schools by Strengthening Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review two school intervention projects aiming to promote students' self-efficacy in Germany. Self-efficacy, defined as people's "beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments", is a core prevention criterion of mental health. It is…

Jerusalem, Matthias; Hessling, Johannes Klein

2009-01-01

412

Perfectionism and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…

Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

2007-01-01

413

A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

2012-01-01

414

Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters.

2008-01-01

415

Children's Self-Efficacy, Motivational Intentions, and Attributions in Physical Education and Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined how self-efficacy level influenced children's motivational intentions, future self-efficacy beliefs, and attributions in physical education or sports. Children participating in low or high self-efficacy groups were exposed to a failure scenario. Higher self-efficacy children chose to participate and had higher future self-efficacy. They…

Chase, Melissa A.

2001-01-01

416

A Phosphotyrosine Proteomic Screen Identifies Multiple Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Pathways Aberrantly Activated in Malignant Mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive cancer that is refractory to all current chemotherapeutic regimens. Therefore, uncovering new rational therapeutic targets is imperative in the field. Tyrosine kinase signaling pathways are aberrantly activated in many human cancers and are currently being targeted for chemotherapeutic intervention. Thus, we sought to identify tyrosine kinases hyperactivated in MM. An unbiased phosphotyrosine proteomic screen was employed to identify tyrosine kinases activated in human MM cell lines. From this screen, we have identified novel signaling molecules, such as JAK1, STAT1, cortactin (CTTN), FER, p130Cas (BCAR1), SRC, and FYN as tyrosine phosphorylated in human MM cell lines. Additionally, STAT1 and SRC family kinases (SFK) were confirmed to be active in primary MM specimens. We also confirmed that known signal transduction pathways previously implicated in MM, such as EGFR and MET signaling axes, are coactivated in the majority of human MM specimens and cell lines tested. EGFR, MET, and SFK appear to be coactivated in a significant proportion of MM cell lines, and dual inhibition of these kinases was demonstrated to be more efficacious for inhibiting MM cell viability and downstream effector signaling than inhibition of a single tyrosine kinase. Consequently, these data suggest that tyrosine kinase inhibitor monotherapy may not represent an efficacious strategy for the treatment of MM due to multiple tyrosine kinases potentially signaling redundantly to cellular pathways involved in tumor cell survival and proliferation.

Menges, Craig W.; Chen, Yibai; Mossman, Brooke T.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Yeung, Anthony T.; Testa, Joseph R.

2010-01-01

417

Identifying influential nodes in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying influential nodes that lead to faster and wider spreading in complex networks is of theoretical and practical significance. The degree centrality method is very simple but of little relevance. Global metrics such as betweenness centrality and closeness centrality can better identify influential nodes, but are incapable to be applied in large-scale networks due to the computational complexity. In order to design an effective ranking method, we proposed a semi-local centrality measure as a tradeoff between the low-relevant degree centrality and other time-consuming measures. We use the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance by using the spreading rate and the number of infected nodes. Simulations on four real networks show that our method can well identify influential nodes.

Chen, Duanbing; Lü, Linyuan; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

2012-02-01

418

Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning  

PubMed Central

The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

Page, David; Costa, Vitor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

2013-01-01

419

Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

2012-01-01

420

Measurement of Identified Particle Production at RHIC  

SciTech Connect

Identified particle measurements in 200 GeV Au+Au and d+Au collisions in STAR are presented. The importance of using identified particles to probe properties of medium formed at RHIC is emphasized. Magnitude of the nuclear modification factor is observed to depend on particle type (baryon vs meson) instead of particle mass at intermediate transverse momentum. This observation supports recombination/coalescence processes as dominant dynamics for particle production in this transverse momentum region. We argue that {phi} and heavy quark yields are sensitive to the medium properties at the early stage. The significant suppression of identified particle production observed at high transverse momentum in central Au+Au collisions indicates the formation of strongly-interacting medium at RHIC.

Tai An [Department of Physics, University of California at Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

2006-04-11

421

A New Method for Identifying SMCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methodologies for identifying steady magnetospheric convection events (SMCs) are either not robust enough to find active SMCs or require hand selection of events. This limits the investigations of SMCs to either case studies or limited statistical studies of weaker SMCs. If we want to find the reason that the magnetosphere enters into a global sawtooth oscillation instead of an active SMC, we need a more comprehensive list of SMCs. Thus, we intend to find a new method for identifying SMCs in current and archived data. We have tested and validated three possible new methods for identifying SMC events, using current lists of substorms and SMCs. There will be a discussion of the validation and testing techniques along with a comparison of the different methods.

Dejong, A. D.; Kissinger, J.; McWilliams, K. A.; McPherron, R. L.; Jahn, J.

2009-12-01

422

Further examination of the Self-efficacy Scale.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine further the factorial validity of the Self-efficacy Scale via component and subsequent correlational analyses. 651 undergraduates enrolled in an introductory psychology course voluntarily completed the Self-efficacy Scale and the Bem Sex-role Inventory. A principal component analysis with an orthogonal rotation produced a two-factor solution which was remarkably similar to the factor structures reported previously. The two factors (General Self-efficacy and Social Self-efficacy) accounted for about 34% of the total variance. Further, the correlation coefficients indicated that General Self-efficacy was more strongly related to masculine traits than to feminine traits, as defined by the Bem Sex-role Inventory. PMID:12785628

Choi, Namok

2003-04-01

423

Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses  

PubMed Central

Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58) and assistant nurses (n = 79) replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1) and work ability (model 2) for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p < 0.001), while for care aides, the safety climate, seniority and age contributed to work ability (R2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001). Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides), and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in practice and in further research. Proactive workplace interventions need to focus on potentially modifiable factors such as self-efficacy, safety climate, physical job demands and musculoskeletal wellbeing.

2012-01-01

424

Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species  

PubMed Central

A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP) analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM). This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes.

Spampinato, Claudia

2013-01-01

425

Neonatal Meningitis by Multidrug Resistant Elizabethkingia meningosepticum Identified by 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequencing.  

PubMed

Clinical and microbiological profile of 9 neonates with meningitis by Elizabethkingia meningosepticum identified by 16S ribosomal gene sequencing was studied. All the clinical isolates were resistant to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ? -lactam combinations, carbapenems and only one isolate was susceptible to ciprofloxacin. All the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Six of nine neonates died even after using vancomycin, based on susceptibility results. E. meningosepticum meningitis in neonates results in high mortality rate. Though the organism is susceptible to vancomycin in vitro, its efficacy in vivo is questionable and it is difficult to determine the most appropriate antibiotic for treating E. meningosepticum meningitis in neonates. PMID:24678326

Shailaja, V V; Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Alimelu, M; Sadanand, L N R

2014-01-01

426

The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

Briley, Jason S.

2012-01-01

427

Perfectionism, self-efficacy, and depression: preliminary analysis of the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised.  

PubMed

The Almost Perfect Scale-Revised is a self-report measure of perfectionism. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the scale's Japanese version and its relation to self-efficacy and depression. Japanese university students (N = 249) completed the Japanese version of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised along with the General Self-Efficacy Scale-12 and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Exploratory factor analysis indicated three factors: Discrepancy, High Standards, and Order. Estimates of internal consistency reliability for the three subscales were high. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised in another group of Japanese university students (N = 206) supported the 3-factor structure. Cluster analyses using the three subscales yielded four clusters. In addition to adaptive perfectionists, maladaptive perfectionists, and nonperfectionists, identified in previous studies, a normal perfectionists group was identified, with mean scores similar to those of the total sample and depression and self-efficacy scores close to those of nonperfectionists. Adaptive perfectionists, characterized by high scores on High Standards and Order and low scores on Discrepancy, also had higher scores on self-efficacy and lower scores on depression than maladaptive perfectionists and even nonperfectionists. The influence of Japanese culture is discussed. PMID:19708416

Nakano, Keiko

2009-06-01

428

Faecal bulking efficacy of Australasian breakfast cereals.  

PubMed

Faecal bulk may play an important role in preventing a range of disorders of the large bowel, but as yet there is little information available on the relative faecal bulking capacities of various foods. Breakfast cereals are often promoted as a good source of potential bulk for 'inner health' because they provide dietary fibre, but their relative abilities to provide faecal bulk per se have not been described. The faecal bulking efficacy of 28 representative Australasian breakfast cereals was therefore measured. A rat model developed for the purpose, and shown to give similar responses as humans to cereal fibres, was used to measure faecal bulking efficacy as increases in fully hydrated faecal weight/100 g diet, based on precise measurements of food intake, faecal dry matter output and faecal water-holding capacity (g water held without stress/g faecal dry matter). Compared to a baseline diet containing 50% sucrose, increments in hydrated faecal weight due to 50% breakfast cereal ranged from slightly negative (Cornflakes, -2 g/100 g diet) to about 80 g/100 g diet (San Bran). Most breakfast cereals increased hydrated faecal weight by between 10 and 20 g/100 g diet from a baseline of 21 +/- 1.5 g/100 g diet, but four products containing high levels of wheat bran had an exceptionally large impact on hydrated faecal weight (increment > 20 g/100 g diet), and the changes resulted more from relative changes in dry matter output than in faecal water retention/gram. However, as faecal water retention was about 2.5 g water/g faecal dry matter on average, increases in dry matter represented large increases in faecal water load. Faecal bulking indices (FBI) for most of the breakfast cereals were less than 20 (wheat bran = 100). The content of wheat bran equivalents for faecal bulk (WBE(fb)) in the breakfast cereals was calculated from FBI. Most breakfast cereals contributed, per serve, less than 10% of a theoretical daily reference value for faecal bulk (DRV(fb) = 63 WBE(fb)/day), which was based on data from human clinical trials and dietary fibre recommendations. Based on the WBE(fb) contribution/serving that would be required to meet the DRV(fb) from the number of servings of dietary fibre sources in the CSIRO 12345+ food and nutrition plan, the results suggest that although some high bran breakfast cereals may contribute substantially to, and many are reasonable sources of, faecal bulk, for most of them, one or two servings at breakfast cannot be relied on to effectively redress shortfalls in faecal bulk elsewhere in the diet. PMID:12230230

Monro, John A

2002-01-01

429

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

430

Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

2008-01-01

431

Identifying Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to assist in identifying patients at risk with protein-calorie malnutrition and in corrrecting this nutritional deficiency. Representative topics are nutrients; protein, mineral, and vitamin sources, functions, and deficiency symptoms; malnutrition; nutritional deficiency…

Walker, Susan S.; Barker, Ellen M.

432

Novel Mutation Identified in the PAH Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of a DNA-amplified fragment of a phenylketonuria (PKU) patient by sequencing reveals a novel mutation in the PAH gene. This mutation represents the deletion of a single base (guanine) localized at the intron 11\\/exon 12 junction. This newly described mutation may be a frameshift or a splicing mutation. The identified mutation expresses phenotypically as the severe form of

E. V. Charikova

1996-01-01

433

Identifying Effectiveness Criteria for Internet Payment Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Internet payment systems (IPS): third-party, card, secure Web server, electronic token, financial electronic data interchange (EDI), and micropayment based. Reports the results of a Delphi survey of experts identifying and classifying IPS effectiveness criteria and classifying types of IPS providers. Includes the survey invitation letter…

Shon, Tae-Hwan; Swatman, Paula M. C.

1998-01-01

434

Identifying priority issues in facilities management benchmarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the state of benchmarking in facilities management and finds that most academic and practice literature is mainly concerned with measurement techniques, and a formal approach of reducing performance gaps. Limitations are discussed, and the orientation of facilities management performance priorities is questioned. Argues that benchmarking is limited by the ability to identify the priorities, or performance indicators, that can

Gavin McDougall; John Hinks

2000-01-01

435

Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

Revuelta, Javier

2009-01-01

436

National Board Certification Identifies Strong Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advanced certification through the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) is an effective way to identify highly skilled teachers, according to a congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. Students taught by NBPTS-certified teachers make greater gains on achievement tests than students taught by…

Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2009

2009-01-01

437

Researchers identify biomarker for smoker's lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein — ASCL1 — is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET. The findings appear in the online issue of the journal Oncogene.

438

THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

439

Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

2012-01-01

440

Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

2009-01-01

441

Identifying elephant flows through periodically sampled packets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying elephant flows is very important in developing effective and efficient traffic engineering schemes. In addition, obtaining the statistics of these flows is also very useful for network operation and management. On the other hand, with the rapid growth of link speed in recent years, packet sampling has become a very attractive and scalable means to measure flow statistics; however,

Tatsuya Mori; Masato Uchida; Ryoichi Kawahara; Jianping Pan; Shigeki Goto

2004-01-01

442

Identifying Advanced Technologies for Education's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to determine how three advanced technologies might be applied to the needs of special education students helped inspire the development of a new method for identifying such applications. This new method, named the "Hybrid Approach," combines features of the two traditional methods: technology-push and demand-pull. Technology-push involves…

Moore, Gwendolyn B.; Yin, Robert K.

443

Labeled substrate conjugates for identifying enzyme inhibitors  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention provides labeled-substrate conjugates for assaying enzymes, particularly neuraminidases. Also provided are assays that are useful for identifying compounds that inhibit sialyltransferases or neuraminidases and may be useful in treating subjects with influenza. In particular, the present invention relates to methods of using such labeled substrate conjugates to screen for enzyme inhibitors, particularly in a high-throughput format.

2009-05-05

444

Identifiable Cells in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Ganglion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neural circuits rely on slight physiological differences between the component cells for proper function. When any circuit is analyzed, it is important to characterize the features that distinguish one cell type from another. This review describes the methods used to identify the neurons of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

Amber E Hudson (Georgia Institute of Technology); Santiago Archila (Emory University); Astrid A Prinz (Emory University)

2010-10-01

445

Device for Identifying a Circumferential Position.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A device is described which accurately and reproducibly identifies points on the circumference of a non-vertical pipe for use as reference marks for pipe inspections. The device comprises a light-permeable disk-shaped chamber having a plurality of pockets...

C. R. Mikesell

1982-01-01

446

Identifying features by slicing point clouds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new method for extracting the featur es of a 3D object directly from the point cloud of its surface scan. The objective is to identify several types of features, such as holes, pockets, bosses, and also similar and symmetric parts at the surface of the object. We need to do this with the least human interaction possible,

Ioannis Kyriazis; Ioannis Fudos

447

Identifying Fallacies of Reference in Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experience of teaching informal logic (sometimes called practical logic) at the introductory level over the last fifteen years has allowed the author the opportunity to identify some interesting problems. These problems have been encountered by students attempting to understand some of the ideas presented in the informal logic course and by…

Gough, Jim

2009-01-01

448

Identifying Student Learning Styles: Proceed with Caution!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study that attempts to validate the Edmonds Learning Style Identification Exercise (ELSIE), purported to be a quick and easy means to identify and analyze a postulated relationship between preference for sensory modality in learning style and the potential for success in second language learning. (SL)

Corbett, Stephen S.; Smith, William Flint

1984-01-01

449

Vocational Education Curriculist Competencies Identified in Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central conclusion of the study is that, in developing a competency-based graduate level program for preparing vocational education curriculists, priority should be given specifically to those roles, responsibilities, and competencies identified as most important by the groups surveyed. (Author/BP)

Bakamis, William A.; McPherson, Jack L.

1976-01-01

450

Ideas Identified and Distributed through Project IDEA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains ideas on a variety of subjects directed at the physical educator. The work was compiled by Project IDEA (Identify, Distribute, Exchange for Action). Topics include the following: (a) scheduling, (b) curriculum, (c) games, (d) specific courses, (e) life sports, (f) fitness, (g) adaptive Physical education, (h) course methods,…

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

451

Identifying Academic Language Needs through Diagnostic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The increasing linguistic diversity among both international and domestic students in English-medium universities creates new challenges for the institutions in addressing the students' needs in the area of academic literacy. In order to identify students with such needs, a major New Zealand university has implemented the Diagnostic English…

Read, John

2008-01-01

452

Identified particles in quark and gluon jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of about 1.4 million hadronic \\\\z decays, selected among the data recorded by the DELPHI detector at LEP during 1994, was used to measure for the first time the momentum spectra of \\\\kp, \\\\ko, \\\\p, \\\\l and their antiparticles in gluon and quark jets. As observed for inclusive charged particles, the production spectra of identified particles were found

P Abreu; W Adam; T Adye; I Ajinenko; G D Alekseev; R Alemany; P P Allport; S Almehed; Ugo Amaldi; S Amato; A Andreazza; M L Andrieux; P Antilogus; W D Apel; B Åsman; J E Augustin; A Augustinus; Paul Baillon; P Bambade; F Barão; M S Barbi; Guido Barbiellini; Dimitri Yuri Bardin; G Barker; A Baroncelli; O Bärring; J A Barrio; Walter Bartl; M J Bates; Marco Battaglia; M Baubillier; J Baudot; K H Becks; M Begalli; P Beillière; Yu A Belokopytov; Alberto C Benvenuti; M Berggren; D Bertini; D Bertrand; M Besançon; F Bianchi; M Bigi; S M Bilenky; P Billoir; M A Bizouard; D Bloch; M Blume; T Bolognese; M Bonesini; W Bonivento; P S L Booth; C Bosio; O Botner; E Boudinov; B Bouquet; C Bourdarios; T J V Bowcock; M Bozzo; P Branchini; K D Brand; T Brenke; R A Brenner; C Bricman; R C A Brown; P Brückman; J M Brunet; L Bugge; T Buran; T Burgsmüller; P Buschmann; S Cabrera; M Caccia; M Calvi; A J Camacho-Rozas; T Camporesi; V Canale; M Canepa; K Cankocak; F Cao; F Carena; L Carroll; Carlo Caso; M V Castillo-Gimenez; A Cattai; F R Cavallo; V Chabaud; P Charpentier; L Chaussard; P Checchia; G A Chelkov; M Chen; R Chierici; P V Chliapnikov; P Chochula; V Chorowicz; J Chudoba; V Cindro; P Collins; R Contri; E Cortina; G Cosme; F Cossutti; J H Cowell; H B Crawley; D J Crennell; G Crosetti; J Cuevas-Maestro; S Czellar; Erik Dahl-Jensen; J Dahm; B D'Almagne; M Dam; G Damgaard; P D Dauncey; Martyn Davenport; W Da Silva; C Defoix; A Deghorain; G Della Ricca; P A Delpierre; N Demaria; A De Angelis; Wim de Boer; S De Brabandere; C De Clercq; C de La Vaissière; B De Lotto; A De Min; L S De Paula; C De Saint-Jean; H Dijkstra; Lucia Di Ciaccio; A Di Diodato; F Djama; A Djannati; J Dolbeau; K Doroba; M Dracos; J Drees; K A Drees; M Dris; J D Durand; D M Edsall; R Ehret; G Eigen; T J C Ekelöf; Gösta Ekspong; M Elsing; J P Engel; B Erzen; M C Espirito-Santo; E Falk; D Fassouliotis; Michael Feindt; A Ferrer; S Fichet; A Filippas-Tassos; A Firestone; P A Fischer; H Föth; E Fokitis; F Fontanelli; F Formenti; B J Franek; P Frenkiel; D E C Fries; A G Frodesen; R Frühwirth; F Fulda-Quenzer; J A Fuster; A Galloni; D Gamba; M Gandelman; C García; J García; C Gaspar; U Gasparini; P Gavillet; E N Gazis; D Gelé; J P Gerber; L N Gerdyukov; R Gokieli; B Golob; Gian P Gopal; L Gorn; M Górski; Yu Guz; Valerio Gracco; E Graziani; C Green; A Grefrath; P Gris; G Grosdidier; K Grzelak; S A Gumenyuk; P Gunnarsson; M Günther; J Guy; F Hahn; S Hahn; Z Hajduk; A Hallgren; K Hamacher; F J Harris; V Hedberg; R P Henriques; J J Hernández; P Herquet; H Herr; T L Hessing; J M Heuser; E Higón; Hans Jürgen Hilke; T S Hill; S O Holmgren; P J Holt; D J Holthuizen; S Hoorelbeke; M A Houlden; Josef Hrubec; K Huet; K Hultqvist; J N Jackson; R Jacobsson; P Jalocha; R Janik; C Jarlskog; G Jarlskog; P Jarry; B Jean-Marie; E K Johansson; L B Jönsson; P E Jönsson; Christian Joram; P Juillot; M Kaiser; F Kapusta; K Karafasoulis; M Karlsson; E Karvelas; A Katargin; S Katsanevas; E C Katsoufis; R Keränen; Yu A Khokhlov; B A Khomenko; N N Khovanskii; B J King; N J Kjaer; O Klapp; H Klein; A Klovning; P M Kluit; B Köne; P Kokkinias; M Koratzinos; K Korcyl; V Kostyukhin; C Kourkoumelis; O Kuznetsov; Manfred Krammer; C Kreuter; I J Kronkvist; Z Krumshtein; W Krupinski; P Kubinec; W Kucewicz; K L Kurvinen; C Lacasta; I Laktineh; J Lamsa; L Lanceri; P Langefeld; V Lapin; J P Laugier; R Lauhakangas; Gerhard Leder; F Ledroit; V Lefébure; C K Legan; R Leitner; J Lemonne; Georg Lenzen; V Lepeltier; T Lesiak; J Libby; D Liko; R Lindner; A Lipniacka; I Lippi; B Lörstad; J G Loken; J M López; D Loukas; P Lutz; L Lyons; J N MacNaughton; G Maehlum; J R Mahon; T G M Malmgren; V Malychev; F Mandl; J Marco; R P Marco; B Maréchal; M Margoni; J C Marin; C Mariotti; A Markou; C Martínez-Rivero; F Martínez-Vidal; S Martí i García; J Masik; F Matorras; C Matteuzzi; Giorgio Matthiae; M Mazzucato; M L McCubbin; R McKay; R McNulty; J Medbo; M Merk; C Meroni; S Meyer; W T Meyer; M Michelotto; E Migliore; L Mirabito; Winfried A Mitaroff; U Mjörnmark; T Moa; R Møller; K Mönig; M R Monge; P Morettini; H Müller; K Münich; M Mulders; L M Mundim; W J Murray; B Muryn; Gerald Myatt; F Naraghi; Francesco Luigi Navarria; S Navas; K Nawrocki; P Negri; W Neumann; N Neumeister; R Nicolaidou; B S Nielsen; M Nieuwenhuizen; V Nikolaenko; P Niss; A Nomerotski; Ainsley Normand; M Novák; W Oberschulte-Beckmann; V F Obraztsov; A G Olshevskii; A Onofre; Risto Orava; K Österberg; A Ouraou; P Paganini; M Paganoni; P Pagès; R Pain; H Palka; T D Papadopoulou; K Papageorgiou; L Pape; C Parkes; F Parodi; A Passeri; M Pegoraro; L Peralta; Manfred Pernicka; A Perrotta; C Petridou; A Petrolini; M Petrovykh; H T Phillips; G Piana; F Pierre; M Pimenta; T Podobnik; O Podobrin; M E Pol; G Polok; P Poropat; V Pozdnyakov; P Privitera; N Pukhaeva; Antonio Pullia; D Radojicic; S Ragazzi; H Rahmani

1996-01-01

453

Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers  

DOEpatents

A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01