These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Identifying Events that Impact Self-Efficacy in Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one's own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of…

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-01-01

2

CYP2D6 Genotype Dependent Oxycodone Metabolism in Postoperative Patients  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme on oxycodone's metabolism and clinical efficacy is currently being discussed. However, there are only spare data from postoperative settings. The hypothesis of this study is that genotype dependent CYP2D6 activity influences plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites and impacts analgesic consumption. Methods Patients received oxycodone 0.05 mg/kg before emerging from anesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for the subsequent 48 postoperative hours. Blood samples were drawn at 30, 90 and 180 minutes after the initial oxycodone dose. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its metabolites oxymorphone, noroxycodone and noroxymorphone were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. CYP2D6 genotyping was performed and 121 patients were allocated to the following genotype groups: PM (poor metabolizer: no functionally active CYP2D6 allele), HZ/IM (heterozygous subjects, intermediate metabolizers with decreased CYP2D6 activity), EM (extensive metabolizers, normal CYP2D6 activity) and UM (ultrarapid metabolizers, increased CYP2D6 activity). Primary endpoint was the genotype dependent metabolite ratio of plasma concentrations oxymorphone/oxycodone. Secondary endpoint was the genotype dependent analgesic consumption with calculation of equianalgesic doses compared to the standard non-CYP dependent opioid piritramide. Results Metabolism differed between CYP2D6 genotypes. Mean (95%-CI) oxymophone/oxycodone ratios were 0.10 (0.02/0.19), 0.13 (0.11/0.16), 0.18 (0.16/0.20) and 0.28 (0.07/0.49) in PM, HZ/IM, EM and UM, respectively (p?=?0.005). Oxycodone consumption up to the 12th hour was highest in PM (p?=?0.005), resulting in lowest equianalgesic doses of piritramide versus oxycodone for PM (1.6 (1.4/1.8); EM and UM 2.2 (2.1/2.3); p<0.001). Pain scores did not differ between genotypes. Conclusions In this postoperative setting, the number of functionally active CYP2D6 alleles had an impact on oxycodone metabolism. The genotype also impacted analgesic consumption, thereby causing variation of equianalgesic doses piritramide : oxycodone. Different analgesic needs by genotypes were met by PCA technology in this postoperative cohort. PMID:23555934

Stamer, Ulrike M.; Zhang, Lan; Book, Malte; Lehmann, Lutz E.; Stuber, Frank; Musshoff, Frank

2013-01-01

3

Molecular mechanisms underlying genotype-dependent responses to dietary restriction.  

PubMed

Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and attenuates age-related phenotypes in many organisms; however, the effect of DR on longevity of individuals in genetically heterogeneous populations is not well characterized. Here, we describe a large-scale effort to define molecular mechanisms that underlie genotype-specific responses to DR. The effect of DR on lifespan was determined for 166 single gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resulting changes in mean lifespan ranged from a reduction of 79% to an increase of 103%. Vacuolar pH homeostasis, superoxide dismutase activity, and mitochondrial proteostasis were found to be strong determinants of the response to DR. Proteomic analysis of cells deficient in prohibitins revealed induction of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR), which has not previously been described in yeast. Mitochondrial proteotoxic stress in prohibitin mutants was suppressed by DR via reduced cytoplasmic mRNA translation. A similar relationship between prohibitins, the mtUPR, and longevity was also observed in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations define conserved molecular processes that underlie genotype-dependent effects of DR that may be important modulators of DR in higher organisms. PMID:23837470

Schleit, Jennifer; Johnson, Simon C; Bennett, Christopher F; Simko, Marissa; Trongtham, Natalie; Castanza, Anthony; Hsieh, Edward J; Moller, Richard M; Wasko, Brian M; Delaney, Joe R; Sutphin, George L; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Tocchi, Autumn; Xian, Bo; Chen, Weiyang; Yu, Tao; Goswami, Sarani; Higgins, Sean; Holmberg, Mollie; Jeong, Ki-Soo; Kim, Jin R; Klum, Shannon; Liao, Eric; Lin, Michael S; Lo, Winston; Miller, Hillary; Olsen, Brady; Peng, Zhao J; Pollard, Tom; Pradeep, Prarthana; Pruett, Dillon; Rai, Dilreet; Ros, Vanessa; Singh, Minnie; Spector, Benjamin L; Vander Wende, Helen; An, Elroy H; Fletcher, Marissa; Jelic, Monika; Rabinovitch, Peter S; MacCoss, Michael J; Han, Jing-Dong J; Kennedy, Brian K; Kaeberlein, Matt

2013-12-01

4

Molecular mechanisms underlying genotype-dependent responses to dietary restriction  

PubMed Central

Summary Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and attenuates age-related phenotypes in many organisms; however, the effect of DR on longevity of individuals in genetically heterogeneous populations is not well characterized. Here we describe a large-scale effort to define molecular mechanisms that underlie genotype-specific responses to DR. The effect of DR on lifespan was determined for 166 single-gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resulting changes in mean lifespan ranged from a reduction of 79% to an increase of 103%. Vacuolar pH homeostasis, superoxide dismutase activity, and mitochondrial proteostasis were found to be strong determinants of the response to DR. Proteomic analysis of cells deficient in prohibitins revealed induction of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR) which has not previously been described in yeast. Mitochondrial proteotoxic stress in prohibitin mutants was suppressed by DR via reduced cytoplasmic mRNA translation. A similar relationship between prohibitins, the mtUPR, and longevity was also observed in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations define conserved molecular processes that underlie genotype-dependent effects of DR that may be important modulators of DR in higher organisms. PMID:23837470

Schleit, Jennifer; Johnson, Simon C.; Bennett, Christopher F.; Simko, Marissa; Trongtham, Natalie; Castanza, Anthony; Hsieh, Edward J.; Moller, Richard M.; Wasko, Brian M.; Delaney, Joe R.; Sutphin, George L.; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J.; Tocchi, Autumn; Xian, Bo; Chen, Weiyang; Yu, Tao; Goswami, Sarani; Higgins, Sean; Holmberg, Mollie; Jeong, Ki-Soo; Kim, Jin R.; Klum, Shannon; Liao, Eric; Lin, Michael S.; Lo, Winston; Miller, Hillary; Olsen, Brady; Peng, Zhao J.; Pollard, Tom; Pradeep, Prarthana; Pruett, Dillon; Rai, Dilreet; Ros, Vanessa; Singh, Minnie; Spector, Benjamin L.; Wende, Helen Vander; An, Elroy H.; Fletcher, Marissa; Jelic, Monika; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; MacCoss, Michael J.; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Kaeberlein, Matt

2013-01-01

5

Does Art Therapy Work? Identifying the Active Ingredients of Art Therapy Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art therapy research is beginning to identify more precisely the active ingredients that produce change in treatment and to test commonly held assumptions about efficacy. This editorial discusses the progression from clinical observation to single-case research and randomized controlled trials in building an evidence-based model of art therapy.

Lynn Kapitan

2012-01-01

6

Learning to identify CNS drug action and efficacy using multistudy fMRI data.  

PubMed

The therapeutic effects of centrally acting pharmaceuticals can manifest gradually and unreliably in patients, making the drug discovery process slow and expensive. Biological markers providing early evidence for clinical efficacy could help prioritize development of the more promising drug candidates. A potential source of such markers is functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a noninvasive imaging technique that can complement molecular imaging. fMRI has been used to characterize how drugs cause changes in brain activity. However, variation in study protocols and analysis techniques has made it difficult to identify consistent associations between subtle modulations of brain activity and clinical efficacy. We present and validate a general protocol for functional imaging-based assessment of drug activity in the central nervous system. The protocol uses machine learning methods and data from multiple published studies to identify reliable associations between drug-related activity modulations and drug efficacy, which can then be used to assess new data. A proof-of-concept version of this approach was developed and is shown here for analgesics (pain medication), and validated with eight separate studies of analgesic compounds. Our results show that the systematic integration of multistudy data permits the generalized inferences required for drug discovery. Multistudy integrative strategies of this type could help optimize the drug discovery and validation pipeline. PMID:25673761

Duff, Eugene P; Vennart, William; Wise, Richard G; Howard, Matthew A; Harris, Richard E; Lee, Michael; Wartolowska, Karolina; Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Wilson, Frederick J; Whitlock, Mark; Tracey, Irene; Woolrich, Mark W; Smith, Stephen M

2015-02-11

7

Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this study and were invited to complete two instruments, physics learning profile and physics learning self-efficacy (PLSE). The main results indicated that, first, the two instruments developed in this study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Second, three fundamental physics learning profiles, the reproductive, transitional, and constructive profiles, were characterized based on the cluster analysis. It is also evident that the three learning profiles demonstrated different levels of self-efficacy for the five PLSE dimensions. The students with a reproductive profile tended to possess the lowest PLSE across the five dimensions. The students with a transitional profile may possess higher confidence in higher-order cognitive skills and laboratory activities than those with a reproductive profile. However, only those with a constructive profile, highlighting a comprehensive understanding of physics knowledge/concepts as well as de-emphasizing physics learning as preparing for tests and calculating and practising tutorial problems, possessed stronger PLSE in applying what they learned to real-world contexts as well as in scientifically communicating with others.

Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2014-09-01

8

High school health teachers' perceived self-efficacy in identifying students at risk for suicide.  

PubMed

A national random sample of 228 high school health teachers completed a 45-item survey to examine their perceived self-efficacy regarding adolescent suicide. Most respondents were female, White, and held master's degrees. Most believed it was their role to recognize students at risk for suicide, believed that if they did recognize students at risk it would reduce the chances that the student would commit suicide, and believed that one of the most important things they could do would be to prevent a suicidal student from committing suicide. However, only 9% believed they could recognize a student at risk for suicide. High efficacy expectations scores were associated with working at a school that offered an inservice program on adolescent suicide, included teaching about suicide prevention in the curriculum, and had a crisis intervention team. This study suggests that teacher health education programs should spend more time on developing the skills necessary to identify students at risk. In addition, a comprehensive school suicide prevention program is strongly encouraged for all high schools. PMID:10363224

King, K A; Price, J H; Telljohann, S K; Wahl, J

1999-05-01

9

Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

2012-01-01

10

Randomised controlled trial of efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder to identify early symptoms of relapse and obtain treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the efficacy of teaching patients with bipolar disorder (manic›depressive psychosis) to identify early symptoms of relapse and seek prompt treatment from health services. Design Single blind randomised controlled trial with matching on four baseline variables using a minimisation algorithm. Setting Mental health services in four NHS trusts (one teaching, three non›teaching). Subjects 69 patients with bipolar disorder

Alison Perry; Nicholas Tarrier; Richard Morriss; Eilis McCarthy; Kate Limb

11

The tricks of the trait: neural implementation of personality varies with genotype-dependent serotonin levels.  

PubMed

Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have been associated with extreme BIS responsiveness. In recent years, neuroimaging studies have implicated the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as an important neural substrate of the BIS. However, the neurogenetic basis of the regulation of this behaviorally and clinically essential system remains unclear. Investigating the effects of two functional genetic polymorphisms (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, G-703T, and serotonin transporter, serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region) in 89 human participants, we find significantly different patterns of associations between BIS scores and amygdala-hippocampus connectivity during loss anticipation for genotype groups regarding both polymorphisms. Specifically, the correlation between amygdala-hippocampus connectivity and Gray's trait anxiety scores is positive in individuals homozygous for the TPH2 G-allele, while carriers of at least one T-allele show a negative association. Likewise, individuals homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR L(A) variant display a positive association while carriers of the S/L(G) allele show a trend towards a negative association. Thus, we show converging evidence of different neural implementation of the BIS depending on genotype-dependent levels of serotonin. We provide evidence suggesting that genotype-dependent serotonin levels and thus putative changes in the efficiency of serotonergic neurotransmission might not only alter brain activation levels directly, but also more fundamentally impact the neural implementation of personality traits. We outline the direct clinical implications arising from this finding and discuss the complex interplay of neural responses, genes and personality traits in this context. PMID:23684859

Hahn, Tim; Heinzel, Sebastian; Notebaert, Karolien; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jakob, Peter M; Windmann, Sabine; Fallgatter, Andreas J

2013-11-01

12

Global RNA sequencing reveals that genotype-dependent allele-specific expression contributes to differential expression in rice F1 hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive studies on heterosis in plants using transcriptome analysis have identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in F1 hybrids. However, it is not clear why yield in heterozygotes is superior to that of the homozygous parents or how DEGs are produced. Global allele-specific expression analysis in hybrid rice has the potential to answer these questions. Results We report a genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology of 3,637–3,824 genes from three rice F1 hybrids. Of the expressed genes, 3.7% exhibited an unexpected type of monoallelic expression and 23.8% showed preferential allelic expression that was genotype-dependent in reciprocal crosses. Those genes exhibiting allele-specific expression comprised 42.4% of the genes differentially expressed between F1 hybrids and their parents. Allele-specific expression accounted for 79.8% of the genes displaying more than a 10-fold expression level difference between an F1 and its parents, and almost all (97.3%) of the genes expressed in F1, but non-expressed in one parent. Significant allelic complementary effects were detected in the F1 hybrids of rice. Conclusions Analysis of the allelic expression profiles of genes at the critical stage for highest biomass production from the leaves of three different rice F1 hybrids identified genotype-dependent allele-specific expression genes. A cis-regulatory mechanism was identified that contributes to allele-specific expression, leading to differential gene expression and allelic complementary effects in F1 hybrids. PMID:24358981

2013-01-01

13

Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

14

The Efficacy of Wire and Glue Hair Snares in Identifying Mesocarnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Track plates and cameras are proven methods for detecting and identifying fishers (Martes pennanti) and other mesocarnivores. But these methods are inadequate to achieve demographic and population-monitoring objectives that require identifying sex and individuals. Although noninvasive collection of biological material for genetic analysis (i.e., hair-snaring methods) may help achieve these objectives, they have yet to be evaluated. We incorporated wire-

WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; FREDRICK V. SCHLEXER; KRISTINE L. PILGRIM; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

15

Genotype-dependent whole plant regeneration from protoplasts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts are useful for subcellular studies, in vitro selection, somatic hybridization and transformation. Whole plant regeneration from protoplasts is a prerequisite to producing altered crop plants using these methods. Whole plant regeneration was achieved from leaf- and suspension culture-derived protoplasts of T. pratense. Regeneration was most dependent upon identifying genotypes with genetic capacity to regenerate. Additional factors that were used

J. R. Myers; J. W. Grosser; N. L. Taylor; G. B. Collins

1989-01-01

16

Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity  

PubMed Central

Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt. PMID:19732460

Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

2009-01-01

17

Partial support for ZNF804A genotype-dependent alterations in prefrontal connectivity.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in ZNF804A as a common risk-variant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Whereas the molecular function of ZNF804A is yet unclear, recent imaging genetics studies have started to characterize the neural systems architecture linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. Carring rs1344706 risk-alleles was associated with a decrease in functional connectivity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs) as well as an increase in connectivity between the DLPFC and the hippocampal formation (HF) in the context of a working memory task. The present study aimed at replicating these findings in an independent sample of 94 healthy subjects. Subjects were genotyped for rs1344706 and performed a working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate no support for a decrease of functional coupling between the bilateral DLPFCs at higher ZNF804A risk status. However, the current data show the previously described alteration in functional coupling between the right DLPFC and the HFs, albeit with weaker effects. Decoupled by default, the functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and anterior HFs increased with the number of rs1344706 risk alleles. The present data support fronto-hippocampal dysconnectivity as intermediate phenotype linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. We discuss the issues in replicating the interhemispheric DLPFC coupling in light of the effect sizes rs1344706 genotype has on brain function, concluding that further independent replication studies are fundamentally needed to ascertain the role of rs1344706 in the functional integration of neural systems. PMID:22042765

Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Krug, Axel; Knake, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

2013-02-01

18

Genotype-dependent response to carbon availability in growing tomato1 Short running title: Responses to carbon availability in tomato fruit3  

E-print Network

for6 fresh weight and sugar content under two fruit loads (FL). Lowering fruit load increased fruit1 Genotype-dependent response to carbon availability in growing tomato1 fruit2 Short running title: Responses to carbon availability in tomato fruit3 4 Marion PRUDENT 1,2, *, Nadia BERTIN 1 , Michel GENARD 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Testing Efficacy of Teaching Food Safety and Identifying Variables that Affect Learning in a Low-Literacy Population.  

PubMed

Nurses at a meeting of the Asociación de Hemato Oncología Pediátrica de Centroamérica y El Caribe recognized food safety as one of the main issues affecting patient care. The objective was to increase awareness of food safety issues among caregivers for pediatric cancer patients in Guatemala and El Salvador. A low-literacy booklet about food safety, "Alimentación del niño con cáncer (Feeding the child with cancer)," was developed for caregivers. Tests were developed to assess information acquisition and retention. An educator's guide was developed for consistency of education along with a demographics questionnaire. The efficacy of the booklet was tested with 162 caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed leukemia. Information retention was tested 1 and 3 months after the initial education. The booklet was found to be efficient for food safety education. There was no significant difference between post-educational knowledge in either country at 1 month or in Guatemala at 3 months. Pre-educational knowledge was not associated with any demographic variable except for self-reported ability to read in El Salvador. There was no significant association between learning ability and demographic variables in either country. Caregivers from El Salvador had a better ability to learn than caregivers from Guatemala. Education using the booklet greatly improved food safety knowledge, which remained high 1 and 3 months later. Education with the booklet was efficacious for teaching a low-literacy population about food safety. However, it is unknown which part of the education contributed to the significant improvement in knowledge. PMID:24781933

Mosby, Terezie Tolar; Romero, Angélica Lissette Hernández; Linares, Ana Lucía Molina; Challinor, Julia M; Day, Sara W; Caniza, Miguela

2014-05-01

20

The Association of Il28b Genotype with the Histological Features of Chronic Hepatitis C Is HCV Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

The interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphism is associated with treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 patients. Its association with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C and disease severity needs further clarifications. To assess the correlation between IL28B genotype, HCV genotype and liver biopsy findings in untreated patients. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment liver biopsies from 335 HCV Caucasian patients (59% males, age 50 years) enrolled in the MIST study were staged for fibrosis and inflammation according to the METAVIR and the Ishak scoring systems; steatosis was dichotomized as <5% or ?5%. IL28B was typed by Taqman Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. HCV genotype was 1 in 151 (45%), 2 in 99 (30%), 3 in 50 (15%) and 4 in 35 (10%) patients. IL28B genotype was CC in 117 (34%), CT in 166 (49%) and TT in 52 (15%). At univariate analysis, the IL28B CC genotype was associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 86% vs. 63%, p = 0.005), severe lobular inflammation in HCV-2 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 44% vs. 23%, p = 0.03), and less fatty infiltration in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 72% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). Despite the lack of any association between IL28B and fibrosis stage, in HCV-3 patients IL28B CC correlated with METAVIR F3–F4 (CC vs. CT/TT: 74% vs. 26%, p = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, the genotype CC remained associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1, only (Odds Ratio (OR): 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.24 (1.23–8.51)). IL28B genotype is associated with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in a HCV genotype dependent manner, with CC genotype being independently associated with severe portal inflammation. PMID:24776764

D’Ambrosio, Roberta; Aghemo, Alessio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Galmozzi, Enrico; De Nicola, Stella; Cheroni, Cristina; Clark, Paul J.; Ronchi, Guido; Lampertico, Pietro; Colombo, Massimo

2014-01-01

21

Neural Correlates of Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease Identified by Performance–Correlation Analysis  

PubMed Central

LSVT® LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) is efficacious in the treatment of speech disorders in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), particularly hypophonia. Functional imaging in patients with IPD has shown abnormalities in several speech regions and changes in these areas immediately following treatment. This study serves to extend the analysis by correlating changes of regional neural activity with the main behavioral change following treatment, namely, increased vocal intensity. Ten IPD participants with hypophonia were studied before and after LSVT LOUD. Cerebral blood flow during rest and reading conditions were measured by H215O-positron emission tomography. Z-score images were generated by contrasting reading with rest conditions for pre- and post-LSVT LOUD sessions. Neuronal activity during reading in the pre- versus post-LSVT LOUD contrast was correlated with corresponding change in vocal intensity to generate correlation images. Behaviorally, vocal intensity for speech tasks increased significantly after LSVT LOUD. The contrast and correlation analyses indicate a treatment-dependent shift to the right hemisphere with modification in the speech motor regions as well as in prefrontal and temporal areas. We interpret the modification of activity in these regions to be a top–down effect of LSVT LOUD. The absence of an effect of LSVT LOUD on the basal ganglion supports this argument. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of LSVT LOUD in IPD hypophonia results from a shift in cortical activity to the right hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the short-term changes in the speech motor and multimodal integration areas can occur in a top–down manner. PMID:19639554

Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Robin, Donald A.; Vogel, Deanie; Ramig, Lorraine O.

2009-01-01

22

Targeting the endothelial progenitor cell surface proteome to identify novel mechanisms that mediate angiogenic efficacy in a rodent model of vascular disease  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, and clinical trials suggest autologous EPC-based therapy may be effective in treatment of vascular diseases. Albeit promising, variability in the efficacy of EPCs associated with underlying disease states has hindered the realization of EPC-based therapy. Here we first identify and characterize EPC dysfunction in a rodent model of vascular disease (SS/Mcwi rat) that exhibits impaired angiogenesis. To identify molecular candidates that mediate the angiogenic potential of these cells, we performed a broad analysis of cell surface protein expression using chemical labeling combined with mass spectrometry. Analysis revealed EPCs derived from SS/Mcwi rats express significantly more type 2 low-affinity immunoglobulin Fc-gamma (FCGR2) and natural killer 2B4 (CD244) receptors compared with controls. Genome-wide sequencing (RNA-seq) and qt-PCR confirmed isoforms of CD244 and FCGR2a transcripts were increased in SS/Mcwi EPCs. EPCs with elevated expression of FCGR2a and CD244 receptors are predicted to increase the probability of SS/Mcwi EPCs being targeted for death, providing a mechanistic explanation for their reduced angiogenic efficacy in vivo. Pathway analysis supported this contention, as “key” molecules annotated to cell death paths were differentially expressed in the SS/Mcwi EPCs. We speculate that screening and neutralization of cell surface proteins that “tag” and impair EPC function may provide an alternative approach to utilizing incompetent EPCs in greater numbers, as circulating EPCs are depleted in patients with vascular disease. Overall, novel methods to identify putative targets for repair of EPCs using discovery-based technologies will likely provide a major advance in the field of regenerative medicine. PMID:24022221

Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Stodola, Timothy J.; Hoffmann, Brian R.; Prisco, Anthony R.; Liu, Pengyuan Y.; Didier, Daniela N.; Karcher, Jamie R.; Liang, Mingyu; Jacob, Howard J.

2013-01-01

23

Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

2013-01-01

24

A comparison of the efficacy of an appearance-focused skin cancer intervention within indoor tanner subgroups identified by latent profile analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of intentional exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important area of skin cancer prevention. Hillhouse\\u000a et al. (Cancer 113:3257–3266, 2008) have developed an appearance-focused intervention with evidence of efficacy in lowering indoor tanning UV exposure in young\\u000a women. In the current study, a subgroup approach was used to determine moderators of intervention efficacy. Undergraduate\\u000a females in two

Jerod Stapleton; Rob Turrisi; Joel Hillhouse; June K. Robinson; Beau Abar

2010-01-01

25

Preparing an E-learning-based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy study: Identifying suitable outcome measures to detect within-subject changes of speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers.  

PubMed

We explored the suitability of perceptual and acoustic outcome measures to prepare E-learning based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy tests regarding speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers. Eight speakers with stroke (n=3), Parkinson's disease (n=4) and traumatic brain injury (n=1) participated in a 4 weeks EST trial. A repeated measures design was employed. Perceptual measures were (a) scale ratings for "ease of intelligibility" and "pleasantness" in continuous speech and (b) orthographic transcription scores of semantically unpredictable sentences. Acoustic measures were (c) "intensity during closure" (?IDC) in the occlusion phase of voiceless plosives, (d) changes in the vowel space of /a/, /e/ and /o/ and (e) the F0 variability in semantically unpredictable sentences. The only consistent finding concerned an increased (instead of the expected decreased) ?IDC after EST, possibly caused by increased speech intensity without articulatory adjustments. The importance of suitable perceptual and acoustic measures for efficacy research is discussed. PMID:25025268

Beijer, L J; Rietveld, A C M; Ruiter, M B; Geurts, A C H

2014-12-01

26

Efficacy of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase, identified as a potent Th1 stimulatory protein, for its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were characterized through immunoproteomic approach which led to the identification of trypanothione reductase (TPR) (a cytosolic enzyme explored as a drug target), as one of the potent Th1 stimulatory protein. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Leishmania donovani TPR (rLdTPR) was assessed in PBMCs of cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and further evaluated its prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani challenges in hamsters. Substantial proliferative responses to rLdTPR, as compared to soluble L. donovani antigen, were observed in Leishmania-infected cured patients as well as in hamsters. Moreover, rLdTPR reasonably stimulated PBMCs of cured Leishmania patients to produce IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? but not IL-4 or IL-10. On the other hand, the protein downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani antigen-induced IL-4 production in PBMCs of Leishmania patients. In case of cured hamsters, rLdTPR generates mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccination with rLdTPR along with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was able to provide considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~60%) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-?. Since rLdTPR protein is an important target, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up to optimize its prophylactic efficacy. PMID:24370734

Khare, Prashant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

2014-03-01

27

Isoniazid Mediates the CYP2B6*6 Genotype-Dependent Interaction between Efavirenz and Antituberculosis Drug Therapy through Mechanism-Based Inactivation of CYP2A6  

PubMed Central

Efavirenz is commonly used to treat patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis. Previous clinical studies have observed paradoxically elevated efavirenz plasma concentrations in patients with the CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype (but not the CYP2B6*1/*1 genotype) during coadministration with the commonly used four-drug antituberculosis therapy. This study sought to elucidate the mechanism underlying this genotype-dependent drug-drug interaction. In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether one or more of the antituberculosis drugs (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, or ethambutol) potently inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by CYP2B6 or efavirenz 7-hydroxylation by CYP2A6, the main mechanisms of efavirenz clearance. Time- and concentration-dependent kinetics of inhibition by the antituberculosis drugs were determined using genotyped human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP2A6, CYP2B6.1, and CYP2B6.6 enzymes. Although none of the antituberculosis drugs evaluated at up to 10 times clinical plasma concentrations were found to inhibit efavirenz 8-hydroxylation by HLMs, both rifampin (apparent inhibition constant [Ki] = 368 ?M) and pyrazinamide (Ki = 637 ?M) showed relatively weak inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation. Importantly, isoniazid demonstrated potent time-dependent inhibition of efavirenz 7-hydroxylation in both HLMs (inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal inactivation [KI] = 30 ?M; maximal rate constant of inactivation [kinact] = 0.023 min?1) and recombinant CYP2A6 (KI = 15 ?M; kinact = 0.024 min?1) and also formed a metabolite intermediate complex consistent with mechanism-based inhibition. Selective inhibition of the CYP2B6.6 allozyme could not be demonstrated for any of the antituberculosis drugs using either recombinant enzymes or CYP2B6*6 genotype HLMs. In conclusion, the results of this study identify isoniazid as the most likely perpetrator of this clinically important drug-drug interaction through mechanism-based inactivation of CYP2A6. PMID:24820076

Almutairi, Fawziah E.; Greenblatt, David J.; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Sheng, Hongyan; Klein, Kathrin; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Bourgea, Joanne; Patten, Christopher J.; Kwara, Awewura

2014-01-01

28

Neural networks and fuzzy clustering methods for assessing the efficacy of microarray based intrinsic gene signatures in breast cancer classification and the character and relations of identified subtypes.  

PubMed

In the classification of breast cancer subtypes using microarray data, hierarchical clustering is commonly used. Although this form of clustering shows basic cluster patterns, more needs to be done to investigate the accuracy of clusters as well as to extract meaningful cluster characteristics and their relations to increase our confidence in their use in a clinical setting. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the efficacy of three reported gene subsets in distinguishing breast cancer subtypes was performed using four advanced computational intelligence methods-Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Emergent Self-Organizing Maps (ESOM), Fuzzy Clustering by Local Approximation of Memberships (FLAME), and Fuzzy C-means (FCM)-each differing in the way they view data in terms of distance measures and fuzzy or crisp clustering. The gene subsets consisted of 71, 93, and 71 genes reported in the literature from three comprehensive experimental studies for distinguishing Luminal (A and B), Basal, Normal breast-like, and HER2 subtypes. Given the costly procedures involved in clinical studies, the proposed 93-gene set can be used for preliminary classification of breast cancer. Then, as a decision aid, SOM can be used to map the gene signature of a new patient to locate them with respect to all subtypes to get a comprehensive view of the classification. These can be followed by a deeper investigation in the light of the observations made in this study regarding overlapping subtypes. Results from the study could be used as the base for further refining the gene signatures from later experiments and from new experiments designed to separate overlapping clusters as well as to maximally separate all clusters. PMID:25502389

Samarasinghe, Sandhya; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun

2015-01-01

29

An assessment of the efficacy of searching in biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE in identifying studies for a systematic review on ward closures as an infection control intervention to control outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews. Methods We analyzed the results from a systematic review conducted by the authors and others on ward closure as an infection control practice. Ovid MEDLINE including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, and IndMED were systematically searched for articles of any study type discussing ward closure, as were bibliographies of selected articles and recent infection control conference abstracts. Search results were tracked, recorded, and analyzed using a relative recall method. The sensitivity of searching in each database was calculated. Results Two thousand ninety-five unique citations were identified and screened for inclusion in the systematic review: 2,060 from database searching and 35 from hand searching and other sources. Ninety-seven citations were included in the final review. MEDLINE and Embase searches each retrieved 80 of the 97 articles included, only 4 articles from each database were unique. The CINAHL search retrieved 35 included articles, and 4 were unique. The IndMED and LILACS searches did not retrieve any included articles, although 75 of the included articles were indexed in LILACS. The true value of using regional databases, particularly LILACS, may lie with the ability to search in the language spoken in the region. Eight articles were found only through hand searching. Conclusions Identifying studies for a systematic review where the research is observational is complex. The value each individual study contributes to the review cannot be accurately measured. Consequently, we could not determine the value of results found from searching beyond MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL with accuracy. However, hand searching for serendipitous retrieval remains an important aspect due to indexing and keyword challenges inherent in this literature. PMID:25387523

2014-01-01

30

GENOTYPE DEPENDENT INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION OF SORGHUM BICOLOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

31

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

32

A multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus imipenem/cilastatin in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections [Study ID Numbers: 3074A1-301-WW; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00081744  

PubMed Central

Background Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remain challenging to treat because of their polymicrobial etiology including multi-drug resistant bacteria. The efficacy and safety of tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic, was compared with imipenem/cilastatin (IMI/CIS) in patients with cIAI. Methods A prospective, double-blind, multinational trial was conducted in which patients with cIAI randomly received intravenous (IV) tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg every 12 hours [q12h]) or IV IMI/CIS (500/500 mg q6h or adjusted for renal dysfunction) for 5 to14 days. Clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (14–35 days after therapy) for microbiologically evaluable (ME) and microbiological modified intent-to-treat (m-mITT) populations were the co-primary efficacy endpoint populations. Results A total of 825 patients received ? 1 dose of study drug. The primary diagnoses for the ME group were complicated appendicitis (59%), and intestinal (8.8%) and gastric/duodenal perforations (4.6%). For the ME group, clinical cure rates at TOC were 80.6% (199/247) for tigecycline versus 82.4% (210/255) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -8.4, 5.1 for non-inferiority tigecycline versus IMI/CIS). Corresponding clinical cure rates within the m-mITT population were 73.5% (227/309) for tigecycline versus 78.2% (244/312) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -11.0, 2.5). Nausea (31.0% tigecycline, 24.8% IMI/CIS [P = 0.052]), vomiting (25.7% tigecycline, 19.4% IMI/CIS [P = 0.037]), and diarrhea (21.3% tigecycline, 18.9% IMI/CIS [P = 0.435]) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that tigecycline is as efficacious as imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of patients with cIAI. PMID:16236177

Oliva, María E; Rekha, Arcot; Yellin, Albert; Pasternak, Jacyr; Campos, Maria; Rose, Gilbert M; Babinchak, Timothy; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Loh, Evan

2005-01-01

33

Self-Efficacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a comprehensive summary of the topic written by one of its pioneers. The site provides a definition of self-efficacy, characteristics of efficacious people, and a description of how self-efficacy can be developed or undermined. The author describes self-efficacy in social, family and school settings and in various stages of life. There is also a short bibliography.

Bandura, Albert; University, Stanford

34

Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes - rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, Identified as Th1 Stimulatory Proteins, for Their Immunogenicity and Immunoprophylactic Efficacies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani - Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters’ along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ?90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (?65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

35

Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…

Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

2012-01-01

36

Identifying Erosion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

Cosi

2009-01-01

37

Self-efficacy and achievement behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article self-efficacy research is reviewed in domains relevant to education. Research addressing cognitive skills, social skills, motor skills, and career choices has shown that self-efficacy is an important construct that helps to explain students' learning and performance of achievement-related behaviors. Research also has identified variables that are associated with educational contexts and that signal to students how well

Dale H. Schunk

1989-01-01

38

Research Self-Efficacy, Publication Output, and Early Career Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper has two aims: to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs in terms of research on publication output; and, to identify the relationship of self-efficacy beliefs about research to the publishing outputs of neophyte lecturers. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was utilised to obtain responses from…

Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell

2010-01-01

39

Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

Moore-Hayes, Coleen

2011-01-01

40

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

41

The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

1988-01-01

42

Measuring Teaching Assistants' Efficacy using the Rasch Model.  

PubMed

Teaching assistants (TAs) play an influential role in primary and secondary schools. But there is an absence in literature about the TA's efficacy, and to date no instrument is available for measuring TA's efficacy. The present study aims to develop and validate a scale (Teaching Assistant Efficacy Scale, TAES) for measuring TA's efficacy on identified capabilities. A total of 531 teaching assistants from Hong Kong schools participated in the survey. The multidimensional Rasch model was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that a 5-dimension structure of TA's efficacy was supported. The final 30-item version of TAES assesses TA's efficacy on learning support, teaching support, behaviour management, cooperation, and administrative support. The Rasch reliabilities for all five dimensions were around 0.90. The 6-category response structure worked well for the scale. Further research was recommended to validate and test the robustness of the TAES both in Hong Kong and elsewhere. PMID:25562336

Yan, Zi; Lum, Chun Wai; Lui, Rick Tze Leung; Chu, Steven Sing Wa; Lui, Ming

2015-01-01

43

Tracing the Development of Preservice Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs in Teaching Mathematics during Fieldwork  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on efficacy beliefs with respect to teaching mathematics; it aims at testing and validating an existing scale for measuring efficacy beliefs in the domain of mathematics, examining the development of preservice teachers' efficacy beliefs in mathematics during fieldwork, and identifying factors that contribute to the development…

Charalambous, Charalambos Y.; Philippou, George N.; Kyriakides, Leonidas

2008-01-01

44

The relationship between personal factors and task specific teacher efficacy judgments: Implications for student reading gains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature has conceptualized teacher efficacy as context and task specific. Little is known, however, as to variables that predict such task specific teacher efficacy judgments, and there have been no investigations into the potential relationship between such efficacy judgments and student academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to identify personal and organizational perceptual variables, as well as

Matthew P Sokol

2004-01-01

45

A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that creating a model to impact the retention rates of women in physics should include attending to self-efficacy and designing activities in the classroom that create self-efficacy opportunities.

Sawtelle, Vashti

46

Teacher efficacy: A construct validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

1984-01-01

47

Personal Teaching Efficacy, General Teaching Efficacy and Content Efficacy: A Comparison of First and Fifth Year Agriculture Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare first and fifth year agriculture teachers' on general teaching efficacy, personal teaching efficacy, and content efficacy. Teacher efficacy has been defined as a two dimensional construct composed of personal teaching and general teaching efficacy. Personal teaching efficacy involves a teachers' evaluation of their own capability to bring about student learning. General teaching

Scott Burris; Katy McLaughlin

2008-01-01

48

The confounded self-efficacy construct: conceptual analysis and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper, we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires - i.e., ratings of whether participants 'can do' the target behaviour - reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a 'can do' operationalisation) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that - consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument - controlling for motivation by adding the phrase 'if you wanted to' to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692

Williams, David M; Rhodes, Ryan E

2014-08-12

49

"Yes, we can!": Perceptions of collective efficacy sources in volleyball.  

PubMed

Collective efficacy can be defined as a group's shared confidence that they will successfully achieve their goal. We examined which behaviours and events are perceived as sources of collective efficacy beliefs in a volleyball context. In study 1, volleyball coaches from the highest volleyball leagues (n = 33) in Belgium indicated the most important sources of collective efficacy. This list was then adapted based on the literature and on feedback given by an expert focus group, resulting in a 40-item questionnaire. In Study 2, coaches and players from all levels of volleyball in Belgium (n = 2365) rated each of these sources on their predictive value for collective efficacy. A principal component analysis revealed that the 40 sources could be divided into eight internally consistent factors. Positive supportive communication (e.g., enthusiasm after making a point) was identified as the factor most predictive for positive collective efficacy beliefs. The factor referring to the negative emotional reactions of players (e.g., discouraging body language) was the most predictive for negative collective efficacy beliefs. These findings offer a starting point for the design of continuous measurements of collective efficacy through observation. PMID:22364359

Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Exadaktylos, Vasileios; Vande Broek, Gert; De Cuyper, Bert; Berckmans, Daniel; Ceux, Tanja; De Backer, Maarten; Boen, Filip

2012-01-01

50

Hypnotic efficacy of temazepam  

PubMed Central

1 Temazepam was evaluated in a strictly defined insomniac patient population under sleep laboratory conditions. Two protocols were used: a short-term (26-night) and a long-term (54-night) protocol evaluated the efficacy of the drug administered at night at 15 mg (short-term study) and 30 mg (long-term study), respectively. 2 Temazepam seemed to be both safe and effective at doses of 15 and 30 mg with up to 5 weeks of ingestion. 3 Suppression of slow wave sleep was observed at the high dose, but no suppression of REM sleep, found in studies with other benzodiazepines, was noted. 4 No evidence was found for development of tolerance or rebound effects. PMID:41543

Mitler, M. M.; Carskadon, Mary A.; Phillips, R. L.; Sterling, W. R.; Zarcone, V. P.; Spiegel, R.; Guilleminault, C.; Dement, W. C.

1979-01-01

51

Teacher Efficacy Beliefs:Understanding the Relationship Between Efficacy and Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools  

E-print Network

efficacy, The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Theperspective Teachers Sense of Efficacy Scale assessesteachers’ sense of efficacy and student success, but only in reading. Later, specific expectancy scales

Harris, Margaret

2010-01-01

52

Career decision-making self-efficacy and institutional integration of underprepared college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation applied, as the theoretical base, a model of student persistence and departure (Tinto, 1987) to explore the nature of the relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and integration. Career decision-making self-efficacy identifies students' perceived confidence (self-efficacy) in their ability to plan and execute vocationally relevant tasks in the educational environment. The sample comprised 418 underprepared students. Data were analyzed

Shari L. Peterson

1993-01-01

53

Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

2009-01-01

54

Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

2012-01-01

55

The Effects of Obesity on Fall Efficacy in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

Jeon, Byoung-Jin

2013-01-01

56

An Examination of Co-Teaching: Perspectives and Efficacy Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-teaching has been developed as an instructional approach to support students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' and students' perspectives of co-teaching and the efficacy of this teaching approach. Forty-five co-teachers and 58 students with disabilities (N = 103), all of whom…

Hang, Qi; Rabren, Karen

2009-01-01

57

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.  

PubMed

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2013-09-01

58

List of HIPAA Identifiers  

Cancer.gov

List of HIPAA Identifiers ER-0001-F1 VER. 1.0.0 Effective Date: 9/14/2011 Page 1 of 1 The following is a list of the HIPAA Identifiers referenced in the federal regulations: Names; All geographical subdivisions smaller than a state, including

59

Identifying and Classifying Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we identify and classify rocks? In this lesson, we are going to learn about different ways that we classify and identify rocks! There are three types of rocks. Sedimentary Metamorphic Igneous As we are learning about the three types of rocks, print out this chart and use it to write down what you learn about each type of ...

Owen, Elisabeth

2010-11-03

60

Molecular Response to Cetuximab and Efficacy of Preoperative Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer  

E-print Network

cancer and to identify molecular profiles and biomarkers that might improve patient selectionMolecular Response to Cetuximab and Efficacy of Preoperative Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiation in Rectal Cancer Annelies Debucquoy, Karin Haustermans, Anneleen Daemen, Selda Aydin, Louis Libbrecht

61

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

62

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

63

Identifying Conserved Discriminative Motifs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of regulatory motifs underlying gene expression is a challenging problem, particularly in eukaryotes. An\\u000a algorithm to identify statistically significant discriminative motifs that distinguish between gene expression clusters is\\u000a presented. The predictive power of the identified motifs is assessed with a supervised Naïve Bayes classifier. An information-theoretic\\u000a feature selection criterion helps find the most informative motifs. Results on benchmark

Jyotsna Kasturi; Raj Acharya; Ross Hardison

2008-01-01

64

The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

2011-01-01

65

Identifying client-by-treatment interactions in couple therapy  

E-print Network

of the treatment. Treatment-matching research, as an alternative to a "one size fits all" approach to delivering clinical interventions, offers the potential for not only increasing efficacy but also providing a conceptual framework for clinicians to base... over the course of treatment, Nearly all treatments identify one or more target characteristics, and the goal of the therapy approach may be to increase a desired characteristic or decrease an undesired characteristic. After identifying the target...

Castellani, Angela Marie

2002-01-01

66

Metal alloy identifier  

DOEpatents

To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

1987-01-01

67

Identifying Plane Figures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here you can practice identifying triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons. Spring training is here so work on you baseball skills while studying your math! Baseball Angle Review and Baseball Triangle Practice will help your game in and out of the classroom. Make Benchmark a breeze with the Quadrilateral Sorter. ...

West, Mrs.

2013-03-07

68

Identifying Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

2004-01-01

69

Repeated Transradial Catheterization: Feasibility, Efficacy, and Safety  

PubMed Central

Transradial access is an alternative to the transfemoral approach in coronary interventions. It results in less access-site bleeding, shorter hospital stays, lower costs, and less pain for the patient. However, some authors have suggested that the transradial approach might lead to radial artery occlusion, which precludes repeated same-artery catheterizations. Using data from our center, we evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of repeated transradial catheterization. We reviewed the 3,006 transradial catheterizations performed at our center from 2006 through 2009. Patients who had undergone at least one repeated transradial catheterization were identified, their cases monitored through 2012, and their baseline characteristics and other factors, including procedural sequelae, were analyzed. Seventy-nine patients underwent repeated right radial artery catheterizations, for a total of 92 repeated procedures. Repeated access to the right radial artery was not achieved in 4 attempts (failure rate, 4.3%), because of poor pulses or the operator's inability to advance the wire. No major sequelae were noted. The average times between the 1st to 2nd, 2nd to 3rd, and 3rd to 4th catheterizations were 406, 595, and 401 days, respectively. Our procedural success rate of 95.7% in performing repeated transradial catheterizations with no major sequelae provides support for the efficacy and safety of such procedures. PMID:25593518

Constantinides, Savvas S.; Talias, Michael A.; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S.; Christou, Christos P.

2014-01-01

70

Repeated transradial catheterization: feasibility, efficacy, and safety.  

PubMed

Transradial access is an alternative to the transfemoral approach in coronary interventions. It results in less access-site bleeding, shorter hospital stays, lower costs, and less pain for the patient. However, some authors have suggested that the transradial approach might lead to radial artery occlusion, which precludes repeated same-artery catheterizations. Using data from our center, we evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of repeated transradial catheterization. We reviewed the 3,006 transradial catheterizations performed at our center from 2006 through 2009. Patients who had undergone at least one repeated transradial catheterization were identified, their cases monitored through 2012, and their baseline characteristics and other factors, including procedural sequelae, were analyzed. Seventy-nine patients underwent repeated right radial artery catheterizations, for a total of 92 repeated procedures. Repeated access to the right radial artery was not achieved in 4 attempts (failure rate, 4.3%), because of poor pulses or the operator's inability to advance the wire. No major sequelae were noted. The average times between the 1st to 2nd, 2nd to 3rd, and 3rd to 4th catheterizations were 406, 595, and 401 days, respectively. Our procedural success rate of 95.7% in performing repeated transradial catheterizations with no major sequelae provides support for the efficacy and safety of such procedures. PMID:25593518

Charalambous, Marinos A; Constantinides, Savvas S; Talias, Michael A; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Christou, Christos P

2014-12-01

71

Understanding Reduced Rotavirus Vaccine Efficacy in Low Socio-Economic Settings  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rotavirus vaccine efficacy ranges from >90% in high socio-economic settings (SES) to 50% in low SES. With the imminent introduction of rotavirus vaccine in low SES countries, understanding reasons for reduced efficacy in these settings could identify strategies to improve vaccine performance. Methods We developed a mathematical model to predict rotavirus vaccine efficacy in high, middle and low SES based on data specific for each setting on incidence, protection conferred by natural infection and immune response to vaccination. We then examined factors affecting efficacy. Results Vaccination was predicted to prevent 93%, 86% and 51% of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in high, middle and low SES, respectively. Also predicted was that vaccines are most effective against severe disease and efficacy declines with age in low but not high SES. Reduced immunogenicity of vaccination and reduced protection conferred by natural infection are the main factors that compromise efficacy in low SES. Discussion The continued risk of severe disease in non-primary natural infections in low SES is a key factor underpinning reduced efficacy of rotavirus vaccines. Predicted efficacy was remarkably consistent with observed clinical trial results from different SES, validating the model. The phenomenon of reduced vaccine efficacy can be predicted by intrinsic immunological and epidemiological factors of low SES populations. Modifying aspects of the vaccine (e.g. improving immunogenicity in low SES) and vaccination program (e.g. additional doses) may bring improvements. PMID:22879893

Lopman, Benjamin A.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gladstone, Beryl; Patel, Manish; Glasser, John; Gambhir, Manoj; Atchison, Christina; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Edmunds, W. John; Kang, Gagandeep; Parashar, Umesh D.

2012-01-01

72

Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

Brooks, Gordon P.

73

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system

Hayoun Lee; Michael W. Deem

2002-01-01

74

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

75

The Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy. Effect sizes for psychodynamic therapy are as large as those reported for other therapies that have been actively promoted as "empirically supported" and "evidence based." In addition, patients who receive psychodynamic therapy maintain therapeutic gains and appear to continue to…

Shedler, Jonathan

2010-01-01

76

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

77

Identifying Distant AGNs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/H? versus [NII]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]?3869, and [OII]??3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

2014-07-01

78

Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

2007-01-01

79

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

80

Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Management and Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline is presented, along with results from a factor analysis of intercorrelations of items from the scale and items from two other teacher efficacy scales. Data sources included 119 preservice teacher education students and 42 student teachers. Results are presented indicating that classroom management\\/discipline efficacy is distinct from other types

Edmund T. Emmer; Julia Hickman

1991-01-01

81

Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to

Megan Tschannen-Moran; Anita Woolfolk Hoy

2001-01-01

82

Gender-Differences in Self-Efficacy ICT Related to Various ICT-User Profiles in Finland and Norway. How Do Self-Efficacy, Gender and ICT-User Profiles Relate to Findings from PISA 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to…

Tomte, Cathrine; Hatlevik, Ove E.

2011-01-01

83

A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

2011-01-01

84

Radiographic techniques and efficacy in evaluating esophageal dysphagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiographic examination of the esophagus to determine structural and\\/or functional causes of dysphagia is best performed\\u000a with multiple techniques. These include full-column studies to produce distended films with or without the use of a solid\\u000a bolus, mucosal relief films to identify mucosal defects such as esophagitis or the presence of varices, double-contrast films,\\u000a and motion recording (fluoroscopy). The efficacy

David J. Ott; Bowman Gray

1990-01-01

85

List identifies threatened ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-09-01

86

Development and Validation of In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Context of Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery.…

Shaukat, Sadia

2011-01-01

87

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

88

Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

2014-01-01

89

Perceived Risk and Self-Efficacy as Motivators: Understanding Individuals' Long-Term Use of Health Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers to what extent perceived risk and self-efficacy interact with each other to determine individuals' motivation to seek health information. Identifies 4 groups of individuals according to their perceived risk and self-efficacy; responsive, proactive, avoidance, and indifference. Attempts to resolve some of the outstanding issues with…

Rimal, Rajiv N.

2001-01-01

90

Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

2002-03-01

91

Disinfection efficacy of organic chloramines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disinfection efficacies of model organic chloramines were investigated. Twenty amino acids and two nucleic acid bases were chlorinated separately with sodium hypochlorite at a Cl:N molar ratio of 0.4:1, and were then used to treat an E. coli suspension for 60min. DPD\\/FAS titration was carried out to obtain the concentration of the chlorinated nitrogenous organic compounds as a function

Martina M. Donnermair; Ernest R. Blatchley III

2003-01-01

92

Teachers' instructional efficacy and teachers' efficacy toward integration of information technologies in the classroom.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' instructional efficacy and their efficacy toward integration of technologies in the classroom. A sample of 309 French Canadian elementary school teachers volunteered and were administered a French Canadian version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale and Teachers' efficacy scale toward integration of technologies in the classroom. Analysis yielded, as expected, a positive and significant partial correlation between the two types of self-efficacy beliefs (.27 and .36). PMID:15362419

Dussault, Marc; Deaudelin, Colette; Brodeur, Monique

2004-06-01

93

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Teaching: The Importance of Interpersonal-Relations Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perceived self-efficacy and burnout among teachers. Self-efficacy has been defined operationally based on a three-dimensional conceptualization: task, relations and organization. Efficacy variables were three classroom efficacy factors: instruction (task), discipline control (task), and consideration (relations), and two organizational efficacy factors: inclusion (task) and influence (relations). Burnout was measured as both a three-dimensional measure comprised

Isaac A. Friedman

2003-01-01

94

Teenage goals and self-efficacy beliefs as precursors of adult career and family outcomes.  

PubMed

The present study identified and examined patterns of goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs in mid- and late adolescence as predictors of work and family outcomes in adulthood. A pattern approach was applied to appropriately identify relationships among work- and family-related goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs. Using a sample of 995 individuals, five distinct patterns of work-family goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs emerged. Individuals who assigned comparable importance to work and family goals and expressed corresponding self-efficacy beliefs in adolescence were more likely to achieve career and family outcomes in adulthood than individuals who expressed a strong preference for one domain over the other. The results supported the idea that work and family can be coordinated for mutual benefit. Furthermore, findings from the pattern approach provided an integrative view of work-family motivation and goal achievement complementing findings from traditional methods such as regression analysis. PMID:25242815

Lee, Bora; Vondracek, Fred W

2014-10-01

95

Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

2013-01-01

96

Identifying Young, Nearby Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

2001-01-01

97

Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

1995-12-01

98

Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.  

PubMed

In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

2013-03-01

99

The Role of Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, Attitudes and Previous Math Achievement in Students' Math Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1997), self-efficacy has an important role in students' achievement. The present study was designed in order to investigate the role of personal variables on students' math achievement. To achieve this goal, four variables, i.e., math self-efficacy, mathematics anxiety, math attitudes and prior math achievement were identified on the basis of theoretical principles and research

Mas' oud Kabiri; Ali Reza Kiamanesh

100

Sublingual Immunotherapy in Allergic Rhinitis: Efficacy, Safety, Adherence and Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a globally increasing health problem affecting the quality of life. Specific immunotherapy is an available causal treatment changing the basic allergic mechanisms of the disease. Over one hundred years, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) was developed and proved its efficacy but many adverse effects were recorded including anaphylaxis. In 1986, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced as an alternative solution to solve this problem. Our study aims to discuss SLIT from the points of efficacy, safety, adherence and guidelines developed. A literature search was conducted in Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane Library in January 2013 using the keywords "allergic rhinitis, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, safety, compliance, adherence, guidelines." All types of publications were included. We augmented our study by searching the reference lists of identified reviews. SLIT has been established in many guidelines as an evidence-based effective treatment in AR with safer profile than SCIT. The meta-analyses confirmed its efficacy and showed a significant reduction in both symptoms and medication scores. The most common recorded adverse effects were minor local effects in the mouth, gastrointestinal reactions with few cases of anaphylaxis and no fatality. Adherence is more favorable for SLIT mainly because it is safe, noninvasive and easily taken at home. We support the call to conduct large multi-centric studies to gain more statistical power and overcome the problem of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analyses. PMID:25436040

Elghanam, Karim Mohamed

2014-01-01

101

Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis: efficacy, safety, adherence and guidelines.  

PubMed

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a globally increasing health problem affecting the quality of life. Specific immunotherapy is an available causal treatment changing the basic allergic mechanisms of the disease. Over one hundred years, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) was developed and proved its efficacy but many adverse effects were recorded including anaphylaxis. In 1986, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced as an alternative solution to solve this problem. Our study aims to discuss SLIT from the points of efficacy, safety, adherence and guidelines developed. A literature search was conducted in Medline/PubMed and the Cochrane Library in January 2013 using the keywords "allergic rhinitis, sublingual immunotherapy, efficacy, safety, compliance, adherence, guidelines." All types of publications were included. We augmented our study by searching the reference lists of identified reviews. SLIT has been established in many guidelines as an evidence-based effective treatment in AR with safer profile than SCIT. The meta-analyses confirmed its efficacy and showed a significant reduction in both symptoms and medication scores. The most common recorded adverse effects were minor local effects in the mouth, gastrointestinal reactions with few cases of anaphylaxis and no fatality. Adherence is more favorable for SLIT mainly because it is safe, noninvasive and easily taken at home. We support the call to conduct large multi-centric studies to gain more statistical power and overcome the problem of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analyses. PMID:25436040

Aboshady, Omar Ali; Elghanam, Karim Mohamed

2014-12-01

102

Efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in adults predicts efficacy in children  

PubMed Central

Objective: Due to the challenges inherent in performing clinical trials in children, a systematic review of published clinical trials was performed to determine whether the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in adults can be used to predict the efficacy of AEDs in the pediatric population. Methods: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library searches (1970–January 2010) were conducted for clinical trials of partial-onset seizures (POS) and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (PGTCS) in adults and in children <2 and 2–18 years. Independent epidemiologists used standardized search and study evaluation criteria to select eligible trials. Forest plots were used to investigate the relative strength of placebo-subtracted effect measures. Results: Among 30 adjunctive therapy POS trials in adults and children (2–18 years) that met evaluation criteria, effect measures were consistent between adults and children for gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate. Placebo-subtracted median percent seizure reduction between baseline and treatment periods (ranging from 7.0% to 58.6% in adults and from 10.5% to 31.2% in children) was significant for 40/46 and 6/6 of the treatment groups studied. The ?50% responder rate (ranging from 2.0% to 43.0% in adults and from 3.0% to 26.0% in children) was significant for 37/43 and 5/8 treatment groups. In children <2 years, an insufficient number of trials were eligible for analysis. Conclusions: This systematic review supports the extrapolation of efficacy results in adults to predict a similar adjunctive treatment response in 2- to 18-year-old children with POS. PMID:22955136

Carman, Wendy J.; Thyagarajan, Veena; Daniels, Tony; Morris, Dexter L.; D'Cruz, O'Neill

2012-01-01

103

Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

2012-05-24

104

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

105

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one’s ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and

Mustafa Erol

2007-01-01

106

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and

Serap Çaliskan; Gamze S. Selçuk; Mustafa Erol

2007-01-01

107

Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies  

PubMed Central

Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

108

Self-Efficacy as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review  

PubMed Central

Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

2012-01-01

109

Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The goal of this research was to develop and evaluate measures of adolescent diabetes management self-efficacy and outcome expectations that reflect developmentally relevant, situation-specific challenges to current diabetes regimens. Self-efficacy for diabetes management, expected outcomes of adherence, adherence to the diabetes regimen, and glycemic control were assessed in 168 adolescents (ages 10-16 years) with type 1 diabetes. Factor analyses indicated a single scale for self-efficacy and two distinct factors representing positive and negative outcome expectations. Reliability and predictive validity of the new scales were supported. In regression analyses, self-efficacy and the interaction of self-efficacy with expectations of positive outcomes were significantly associated with diabetes self-management adherence and glycemic control in older adolescents. The effect of self-efficacy was greatest when adolescents had stronger beliefs in the beneficial outcomes of adherence. These brief measures can be used to identify youths at risk of poor diabetes self-management. Interventions targeting self-efficacy may lead to improved diabetes self-management. PMID:16682872

Iannotti, Ronald J; Schneider, Stefan; Nansel, Tonja R; Haynie, Denise L; Plotnick, Leslie P; Clark, Loretta M; Sobel, Douglas O; Simons-Morton, Bruce

2006-04-01

110

Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

2014-01-01

111

Are we legitimate yet? : A closer look at the casual relationship mechanisms among principal leadership, teacher self-efficacy and collective efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Failure to identify any significant relationships between principal leadership and student achievement has proved concerns about the assumed value and legitimacy of principal leadership. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the current literature by empirically testing the relationships between the principal leadership and the teacher self-efficacy, a construct which has a proven impact on student

Türker Kurt; Ibrahim Duyar; Temel Çalik

2012-01-01

112

An Exploration of the Relationship Among Teacher Efficacy, Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Goal Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relationships among individual teacher efficacy, collective teacher efficacy, and goal consensus\\/vision.\\u000a Participants included 113 teachers of a high school located in the southwestern USA. During a teacher inservice meeting, teachers\\u000a completed three surveys that measured the variables under study. Correlational and regression analyses were performed to examine\\u000a the relationships among individual teacher efficacy, collective teacher efficacy,

Terri Barber Kurz; Stephanie L. Knight

2004-01-01

113

Factors Influencing the Self-Efficacy Beliefs of First-Year Engineering Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A survey incorporating qualitative measures of student self-efficacy beliefs was administered to 1,387 first-year engineering students enrolled in ENGR 106, Engineering Problem-Solving and Computer Tools, at Purdue University. The survey was designed to identify factors related to students' self-efficacy beliefs, their beliefs about their capabilities to perform the tasks necessary to achieve a desired outcome. Open-ended questions prompted students to list factors affecting their confidence in their ability to succeed in the course. Students were then asked to rank these factors based on the degree to which their self-efficacy beliefs were influenced. Gender trends emerged in student responses to factors that affect confident in success. These trends are discussed in light of the categories identified by efficacy theorists as sources of self-efficacy beliefs. The results presented here provide a useful look at the first-year engineering experiences that influence students' efficacy beliefs, an important consideration in explaining student achievement, persistence, and interest.

Hutchison, Mica A.; Follman, Deborah K.; Sumpter, Melissa; Bodner, George M.

2006-05-24

114

The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820

Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

2014-01-01

115

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Update on the soybean aphid efficacy program Erin Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand Department of Entomology #12;Soybean aphid efficacy · Soybean aphid efficacy evaluation · Where to get more info, handouts #12;Soybean aphid efficacy program

Jurenka, Russell A.

116

Identifying \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The top web search result is crucial for user satisfaction with the web search experience. We argue that the importance of the relevance at the top position necessitates special handling of the top web search result for some queries. We propose an effective approach of leveraging millions of past user interactions with a web search engine to automatically detect \\

Eugene Agichtein; Zijian Zheng

2006-01-01

117

Identify fractions in multiple ways  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Practice identifying fractions 1. Compare fractions and find different fractions using the same denominators. 2. Identify fractions on a number line and see if you can do it. 3. Help find grampy and identify the fraction to find him. 4. Comparing fractions with pie charts ...

Marsh, Mrs.

2006-10-27

118

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

119

TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

120

Reading Education: Is Self-Efficacy Important?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether relations existed between sixth, seventh, and eighth grade learners' and their teachers' efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancies and whether student perceived efficacy beliefs were predictors of reading comprehension achievement as measured by a reading comprehension subtest score on a state…

Barkley, Jordan M.

2006-01-01

121

The Efficacy of Sensory Integration Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on the status of research which has been de- signed to determine the effectiveness of occupational and physical therapy using sensory integration (SI) procedures. Sensory integration efficacy is the extent to which sensory integra- tion procedures have proven to be beneficial. (A reference list of sensory integration efficacy studies is available from

Sharon A. Cermak; Anne Henderson

122

The built environment and collective efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collective efficacy, i.e., perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a “cause”, but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for or the etiology of

Deborah A. Cohen; Sanae Inagami; Brian Finch

2008-01-01

123

Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

2012-01-01

124

Teacher Efficacy: A Study of Construct Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the structure of a construct generally labeled teacher efficacy. A sample of 342 prospective and experienced teachers was administered an efficacy questionnaire adapted from the research of Gibson and Dembo (1984). Factor analytic procedures with varimax rotation were used to generate a two-factor solution that accounted for 32 % of the variance in scale scores. Contrary to

Thomas R. Guskey; Perry D. Passaro

1994-01-01

125

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

126

Self-Efficacy during Student Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated changes in teaching efficacy during student teaching using a modified version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale. The study occurred over three-quarters of one academic year, with the survey instrument administered to all student teachers at one small, private college during student teaching orientation. Students were placed in…

Fortman, Cheryl K.; Pontius, Richard

127

Anthelmintic efficacy against cyathostomins in horses in Southern England.  

PubMed

Cyathostomins are considered to be the most important group of helminths to affect equids due to their high prevalence, potential pathogenicity and ability to develop anthelmintic resistance. Their control relies almost exclusively on frequent anthelmintic use. Currently, fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX) are licensed for use in horses in the UK. With no new anthelmintics likely to be licensed in the near future, it is essential that investigations into the efficacy of current anthelmintics in different locations are performed to help inform control programmes. Here, efficacy of FBZ, PYR, IVM and MOX in horse populations in the South of England was investigated. Horses with a strongyle faecal egg count (FEC) of ?50 eggs per gram (EPG) were enrolled onto a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) study. Efficacy was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in FEC between the group mean at Day 0 and 14 days post-treatment. Efficacy was indicated when a group arithmetic faecal egg count reduction (FECR) of ?90% was recorded for FBZ and PYR, and ?95% for IVM and MOX. Between March and December 2012, 404 FECRT were performed on 12 yards examining 101, 110, 93 and 100 equids for FBZ, PYR, IVM, and MOX, respectively. FBZ resistance was identified on all yards (mean FECR range 0-65.8%). On 10 of 12 yards, PYR efficacy was >90% (91.0-99.4%) and on two yards, PYR resistance was suspected (86.8-87.2%). IVM (96.4-100%) and MOX (99.9-100%) were >95% efficacious on all yards. As the prevalence of FBZ resistance was 100%, the future use of this anthelmintic for the control of strongyles should be questioned. PYR should be used strategically to reduce reliance on the macrocyclic lactone class products. Over-dispersion of FEC between horses was observed (average k=0.21) with 80% of the strongyle eggs counted measured in 15% of horses tested, strongly supporting the application of targeted helminth control programmes in this host species. PMID:23830687

Lester, H E; Spanton, J; Stratford, C H; Bartley, D J; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Coumbe, K; Mair, T; Swan, B; Lemon, G; Cookson, R; Matthews, J B

2013-10-18

128

Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

2013-06-01

129

Stochastic control system parameter identifiability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

1975-01-01

130

Propafenone: noninvasive evaluation of efficacy.  

PubMed

Propafenone, a new antiarrhythmic drug, was administered to 60 patients with a history of refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation in 16 and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in 44. A noninvasive protocol was followed utilizing ambulatory monitoring and exercise testing for evaluation of drug effect. The protocol involved acute drug testing with 450 mg of propafenone followed by maintenance therapy with 150 to 300 mg t.i.d. for 4 days. The protocol was completed by 57 patients; in 3 patients side effects developed that necessitated discontinuation of the drug before evaluation. When evaluated by monitoring, 34 patients (60%) responded to the drug, with total elimination of runs of VT, a greater than 90% reduction in couplets and a greater than 50% decrease in the frequency of ventricular premature beats. Based on exercise testing, 36 patients (63%) were deemed responders. When both exercise and monitoring were considered, 30 of 57 patients (53%) responded to propafenone. The acute drug test predicted the response to maintenance therapy in 84% of patients. Propafenone did not change left ventricular function in patients with normal ejection fractions (greater than 50%). However, in those with an ejection fraction less than 50%, propafenone significantly reduced this value (34% vs 29%, p less than 0.01). Side effects occurred in 20 patients (33%) and included nausea, congestive heart failure, aggravation of arrhythmia and conduction abnormalities. Eleven patients have continued on propafenone for an average of 16 months with continued efficacy and freedom from side effects. PMID:6496369

Podrid, P J; Cytryn, R; Lown, B

1984-11-14

131

Anthelmintic efficacy on UK Thoroughbred stud farms.  

PubMed

Anthelmintic drugs have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. We undertook a comprehensive study to investigate efficacy of the four available broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs on 16 Thoroughbred stud farms using the faecal egg count reduction test. Efficacy against strongyles was determined by calculating the percentage of reduction in faecal egg count between the group mean at Day 0 and Days 14-17 post-treatment and the 95% lower confidence intervals estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping. Individual strongyle faecal egg count reduction tests (n=429) were performed in which 179, 131, 89 and 30 horses were administered ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, respectively. Moxidectin was efficacious in all tests (faecal egg count reduction range: 99.8-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.8-100%) and reduced efficacy of ivermectin (faecal egg count reduction range: 85.7-100%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 65-100%) was observed in one group of yearlings. Reduced pyrantel efficacy was observed in five groups of yearlings (faecal egg count reduction range: 0-73%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 0-59.5%), but pyrantel was found to be efficacious when administered to mares (faecal egg count reduction range: 98-99.4%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 91.8-99.3%). Low efficacy of fenbendazole was always observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 0.4-41%; 95% lower confidence intervals not calculable). Two further methods for estimating efficacy were applied and outputs obtained using all methodologies were in agreement. Efficacy against Parascaris equorum was assessed on four farms: fenbendazole had acceptable efficacy (faecal egg count reduction range: 97.5-99.9%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 96.3-99.1%), but reduced efficacy of ivermectin was observed (faecal egg count reduction range: 25.5-91.2%; 95% lower confidence intervals range: 6.7-82.4%). Strongyle faecal egg count were analysed at approximately 2 week intervals for up to 12 weeks after anthelmintic drug administration to determine the egg reappearance period for moxidectin, ivermectin and pyrantel. The egg reappearance period for all three anthelmintic drugs was shorter than previously observed. Overall, our results indicate that ivermectin and moxidectin administration provided acceptable efficacy at 14 days; however, egg reappearance period results suggest that these products are working less effectively than measured previously. As shortened egg reappearance period is believed to be an early indicator of resistance, this highlights the issue of impending multi-drug resistance in strongyles on stud farms. PMID:24746779

Relf, Valerie E; Lester, Hannah E; Morgan, Eric R; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Matthews, Jacqueline B

2014-07-01

132

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

Yilmaz, Idris

2013-01-01

133

Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use: Little or No Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention (SBI), efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e., in people not seeking help for their drug use). Substantial evidence now suggests that efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity), concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g., from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin). Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of SBI that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use. PMID:25228887

Saitz, Richard

2014-01-01

134

Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

2000-01-01

135

Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

de Vries, Peter

2013-01-01

136

The Teacher Self-Efficacy Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Effects on Principal Leadership Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School principal's practices are affected by many factors on a daily basis. Various factors affecting their practice are invisible to the eye and silent by the spoken word. However, the problem exists that there is a lack of research identifying the experiences of practicing principals regarding teacher self-efficacy. Furthermore, there is not…

Hockenberry, James E.

2010-01-01

137

The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

138

Collective efficacy and obesity: The potential influence of social factors on health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social determinants have been identified as a fundamental cause of health and disease in most industrialized countries. However, much less is known about which characteristics of communities may lead to disparities in health outcomes. Collective efficacy—the willingness of community members to look out for each other and intervene when trouble arises—is a social factor shown to be associated with outcomes

Deborah A. Cohen; Brian K. Finch; Aimee Bower; Narayan Sastry

2006-01-01

139

Sex Educators and Self-Efficacy: Toward a Taxonomy of Enactive Mastery Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enactive mastery experiences have been identified as the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs. Yet little is known about enactive mastery experiences, including how such experiences manifest in naturally occurring situations (as opposed to simulated situations). This study draws from semistructured interviews (N = 50) with sex…

Jensen, Robin E.

2012-01-01

140

Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

Melius, Joyce

2012-01-01

141

Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

Huang, Chiungjung

2013-01-01

142

Internal and External Dimensions of Computer Self-Efficacy: An Empirical Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have found computer self-efficacy (CSE) to be important to technology adoption. Past research has treated CSE as a unitary concept. This paper proposes that CSE has two dimensions-internal and external. The idea that CSE has internal and external dimensions is based on attribution theory, which identifies the human tendency to attribute events to causes that are either internal or

Jason Bennett Thatcher; J. Christopher Zimmer; Michael J. Gundlach; D. Harrison McKnight

2008-01-01

143

Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

2013-01-01

144

Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

2014-01-01

145

ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)  

EPA Science Inventory

This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

146

Developing Self-Efficacy through Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A coach's role is to develop and sustain the athlete's self-efficacy by ensuring performance success, communicating effectively, using role-modeling techniques, reducing anxiety-producing factors, and using positive reinforcement. (JN)

Feltz, Deborah L.; Weiss, Maureen R.

1982-01-01

147

Principal self-efficacy and work engagement: assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian\\u000a Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal\\u000a self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work engagement was measured\\u000a by a modified version of the Utrecht Work

Roger A. Federici; Einar M. Skaalvik

148

The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

Talioti, E; Hill, R; Gillam, D G

2014-01-01

149

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

150

Teachers’ self-efficacy, achievement goals, attitudes and intentions to implement the new Greek physical education curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The network of relations between Physical Education (PE) teachers’ self-efficacy, goal orientations, attitudes, intentions and behaviours concerning the implementation of a new PE curriculum was examined. Participants were 290 Greek junior high school PE teachers. Two years after the introduction of the new curriculum, participants responded to de-identified questionnaires with acceptable psychometric properties. Mastery-oriented and high self-efficacious teachers had positive

Georgios Gorozidis; Athanasios Papaioannou

2011-01-01

151

Efficacy and Safety of d,l-Sotalol in Patients With Ventricular Tachycardia and in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the antiarrhythmic efficacy and safety of d,l-sotalol in patients with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) and in survivors of cardiac arrest and to identify the factors that are associated with arrhythmia suppression and therefore might be helpful in predicting drug efficacy.Background. Despite increasing use of the class III antiarrhythmic

Wilhelm Haverkamp; Antonio Martinez-Rubio; Christiene Hief; Andreas Lammers; Stefan Mühlenkamp; Thomas Wichter; Günter Breithardt; Martin Borggrefe

1997-01-01

152

Maternal Self-Efficacy of Mothers of Children with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, Down Syndrome, and Autism in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the perception of maternal self-efficacy among 95 Kuwaiti mothers of children with Developmental\\u000a Disabilities (DD) to determine the differences in perception of maternal self-efficacy variables among the mothers based on\\u000a demographic variables: Child’s age, Gender, Type of disability, Leisure time, and Mother’s age. A survey was conducted using\\u000a Kandari’s (2005, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simmons College,

Humoud Al-Qashan

2010-01-01

153

The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

2013-12-01

154

Chemoreception: identifying friends and foes.  

PubMed

The vomeronasal organ detects chemical cues that trigger sexual, aggressive and defensive behaviors. An in situ hybridization analysis has identified the specificities of nearly a hundred VNO receptors and elucidated the logic by which they encode these cues. PMID:22192835

Koh, Tong-Wey; Carlson, John R

2011-12-20

155

Identifying Elements of a Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

ReadWorks

2012-03-23

156

Riboflavin transporter is finally identified.  

PubMed

Riboflavin or vitamin B(2) is one of the constituents of energy drinks. Although this compound is known to be absorbed in the intestine and that it circulates throughout the body and is excreted in urine, the transporter(s) responsible for the process was only recently identified. Yamamoto et al. identified this transporter through functional expression of rat orthologues of a putative bacterial riboflavin transporter. PMID:21810912

Moriyama, Yoshinori

2011-10-01

157

Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

158

Efficacy Methods to Evaluate Health Communication and Marketing Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy

W. Douglas Evans; Jennifer Uhrig; Kevin Davis; Lauren McCormack

2009-01-01

159

Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

2011-01-01

160

Efficacy of instability resistance training.  

PubMed

The use of the stability ball as a platform for upper-body resistance training has gained much attention in recent years. However, the efficacy of such training regimens remains largely unstudied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of platform (unstable vs. stable, stability ball vs. flat bench) on strength and work capacity during barbell chest-press exercise. We also sought to determine the effects of a barbell chest-press training program performed on a stability ball or flat bench on strength, work capacity, and abdominal power. Fourteen young women (20 - 23 yr) performed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) barbell chest-press and the YMCA bench press test (YBT) on a stability ball and flat bench, as well as two field tests measuring abdominal power. The women were then assigned to perform 3 weeks of barbell chest-press training on a stability ball (SB group) or flat bench (FB group); assignment was balanced based on 1RM strength. Barbell chest-press training included 3 sets of 3 - 5 repetitions at loads greater or equal to 85 % of 1RM. The 1RM barbell chest-press, YBT, front abdominal power test (FAPT), and side abdominal power test (SAPT) were used to evaluate changes in strength, work capacity, and abdominal power, respectively. The chest-press tests were completed on both platforms following the training program. Platform (stability ball vs. flat bench) had no influence on strength, but work capacity was initially 12 % lower on the stability ball compared to the flat bench. In response to training, both groups significantly increased strength and work capacity, and there were no group differences. The increase in 1RM strength was 15 % and 16 % on the stability ball and flat bench for the SB group, and 16 % and 19 % for the FB group, respectively. The increase in work capacity was 32 % and 13 % on the stability ball and flat bench for the SB group, and 27 % and 26 % for the FB group, respectively. Both groups significantly improved on the FAPT, and there were no group differences. Performance on the FAPT improved by 5 % for the SB group, and 22 % for the FB group. Performance on the SAPT did not change. Barbell chest-press training performed on either the stability ball or flat bench increased strength and work capacity, and these changes were transferable across platforms. Thus, the stability ball is an effective platform for barbell chest-press training in untrained women over a short duration. PMID:17497582

Cowley, P M; Swensen, T; Sforzo, G A

2007-10-01

161

GDF15 is a novel biomarker to evaluate efficacy of pyruvate therapy for mitochondrial diseases.  

PubMed

Pyruvate therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of mitochondrial diseases. To identify novel biomarkers for diagnosis and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy, we performed microarray analysis of 2SD cybrid cells harboring a MELAS-causing mutation and control cells treated with either lactate or pyruvate. We found that expression and secretion of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) were increased in 2SD cells treated with lactate and that serum GDF15 levels were significantly higher in patients with mitochondrial diseases than in those with other diseases, suggesting that GDF15 could be a useful marker for diagnosis and evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of pyruvate. PMID:25446397

Fujita, Yasunori; Ito, Masafumi; Kojima, Toshio; Yatsuga, Shuichi; Koga, Yasutoshi; Tanaka, Masashi

2015-01-01

162

Application of modified in vitro screening procedure for identifying herbals possessing sulfonylurea-like activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the application of a modified in vitro procedure for identifying herbs potentially possessing sulfonylurea-like activity. The procedure consists of the combination of an SUR1 receptor binding assay and an insulin secretion assay in cultures of HIT-T15 cells. This procedure could be used as an initial step in identifying new safe and efficacious agents for the management of

Y Rotshteyn; S. W Zito

2004-01-01

163

Perceptions of Barriers to Employment, Coping Efficacy, and Career Search Efficacy in People with Mental Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Barriers to Employment and Coping Efficacy Scale (BECES) and the Career Search Efficacy Scale (CSES) were designed to assist people in their work integration process. The BECES was specifically developed for people with mental illness. Although the CSES was not specifically designed for people with mental illness, its items appear relevant for…

Corbiere, Marc; Mercier, Celine; Lesage, Alain

2004-01-01

164

Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

Takahashi, Sola

2011-01-01

165

Identifying tier one key suppliers.  

PubMed

In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

Wicks, Steve

2013-01-01

166

Identifying Periods of Drowsy Driving Using EEG  

PubMed Central

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation’s highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

167

Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.  

PubMed

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

168

Protective efficacy of piperine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Piperine a trans-trans isomer of 1-piperoyl-piperidine was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activity to enhance the efficacy of rifampicin in a murine model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In-vitro immunomodulation of piperine was tested on mouse splenocytes for lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and macrophage activation. Protective efficacy of piperine was tested in a mice infection model of M. tuberculosis for the activation of Th-1 response and synergistic combination efficacy with rifampicin. Murine splenocytes exposed to piperine exhibited proliferation of T and B cell, increased Th-1 cytokines and enhanced macrophage activation. Piperine (1 mg/kg) in mice infected with M. tuberculosis activated the differentiation of T cells into Th-1 sub-population (CD4+ / CD8+ subsets). There was an increase in secretion of Th-1 cytokines (IFN-? and IL-2) by these cells. The qRT-PCR studies revealed corresponding increases in the mRNA transcripts of IFN-? and IL-2 in the infected lung tissues. Combination of piperine and rifampicin (1 mg/kg) exhibited better efficacy of and resulted in additional 1.4 to 0.8 log reduction in lung cfu as compared to rifampicin alone. The up-regulation of Th1 immunity by piperine can be synergistically combined with rifampicin to improve its therapeutic efficacy in immune-compromised TB patients. PMID:24880706

Sharma, Sandeep; Kalia, Nitin Pal; Suden, Pankaj; Chauhan, Prashant Singh; Kumar, Manoj; Ram, Anshu Beulah; Khajuria, Anamika; Bani, Sarang; Khan, Inshad Ali

2014-07-01

169

[Advances in recently identified coronaviruses].  

PubMed

Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which include viruses that cause the common cold and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in humans and other diseases in animals. There are considerable genetic diversities within coronaviruses due to their wide rang hosts and their special gene replication and transcription mechanisms. During this process, gene recombinations often occur, resulting in novel subtype or coronavirus emerge constantly. Of note are SARS-like-CoVs and novel HCoV-EMC identified in 2012. This minireview summarized major advances of recently identified coronaviruses, focusing on the genome structures and interspecies jumping mechanism of coronavirus. PMID:23547382

Geng, He-Yuan; Tan, Wen-Jie

2013-01-01

170

A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase  

PubMed Central

Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

2013-01-01

171

A yeast chemical genetic screen identifies inhibitors of human telomerase.  

PubMed

Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

2013-03-21

172

Morpho-histology and genotype dependence of in vitro morphogenesis in mature embryo cultures of wheat.  

PubMed

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion of foreign DNA into the genome of suitable target tissue/cells that are able to regenerate plants. The mature embryo (ME) is increasingly recognized as a valuable explant for developing regenerable cell lines in wheat biotechnology. We have previously developed a regeneration procedure based on fragmented ME in vitro culture. Before we can use this regeneration system as a model for molecular studies of the morphogenic pathway induced in vitro and investigate the functional links between regenerative capacity and transformation receptiveness, some questions need to be answered. Plant regeneration from cultured tissues is genetically controlled. Factors such as age/degree of differentiation and physiological conditions affect the response of explants to culture conditions. Plant regeneration in culture can be achieved through embryogenesis or organogenesis. In this paper, the suitability of ME tissues for tissue culture and the chronological series of morphological data observed at the macroscopic level are documented. Genetic variability at each step of the regeneration process was evaluated through a varietal comparison of several elite wheat cultivars. A detailed histological analysis of the chronological sequence of morphological events during ontogeny was conducted. Compared with cultures of immature zygotic embryos, we found that the embryogenic pathway occurs slightly earlier and is of a different origin in our model. Cytological, physiological, and some biochemical aspects of somatic embryo formation in wheat ME culture are discussed. PMID:24763701

Delporte, Fabienne; Pretova, Anna; du Jardin, Patrick; Watillon, Bernard

2014-11-01

173

Genotype-dependent in vitro response of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars to silver nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability in callus growth and somatic embryogenesis in response to silver nitrate (AgNO3) among genotypes of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) was investigated. Callus was cultured on MS medium containing 53.7?M naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 7.4?M 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP) and supplemented with AgNO3 at 0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5, or 100?M. Subsequently, somatic embryogenesis was induced by transferring

Jameel M Al-Khayri; Abdulaziz M Al-Bahrany

2004-01-01

174

Tissue Distribution, Gender- and Genotype-Dependent Expression of Autophagy-Related Genes in Avian Species  

PubMed Central

As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders) chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica). Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis). Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5%) between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender- dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R) or high (sensitive, S) stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species. PMID:25386921

Greene, Elizabeth; Lassiter, Kentu; Mason, James G.; Anthony, Nicholas; Dridi, Sami

2014-01-01

175

APOE genotype-dependent modulation of astrocyte chemokine CCL3 production.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, and is increasingly recognized to play a prominent role in the modulation of innate immune response, including cell-to-cell communication and migration. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation that appears to be an important component of the pathophysiology of the disease. Astrocytes are the majority cell type in brain, exerting significant influence over a range of central nervous system activities, including microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory responses. As the resident innate immune effector cells of the brain, microglia respond to soluble chemical signals released from tissue during injury and disease by mobilizing to lesion sites, clearing toxic molecules, and releasing chemical signals of their own. While microglial-mediated neuroinflammation in the AD brain remains an area of intense investigation, the mechanisms underlying reinforcement and regulation of these aberrant microglial responses by astrocytes are largely unstudied. Moreover, although inheritance of APOE ?4 represents the greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD, the mechanism by which apoE isoforms differentially influence AD pathophysiology is unknown. Here we show that APOE ?4 genotype specifically modulates astrocyte secretion of potent microglial chemotactic agents, including CCL3, thus providing evidence that APOE modulation of central nervous system (CNS) innate immune response is mediated through astrocytes. GLIA 2015;63:51-65. PMID:25092803

Cudaback, Eiron; Yang, Yue; Montine, Thomas J; Keene, C Dirk

2015-01-01

176

Age and genotype-dependence of bone material properties in the osteogenesis imperfecta murine model (oim)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical mineralization of long bones was studied in collagen ?2(I)-deficient mice (oim) used as a model for human osteogenesis imperfecta. Aspects of the age development of the mice were characterized by combining nanometer- to micrometer-scale structural analysis with microhardness measurements. Bone structure was determined from homozygous (oim\\/oim) and heterozygous (oim\\/+) mice and their normal (+\\/+) littermates as a function of

B Grabner; W. J Landis; P Roschger; S Rinnerthaler; H Peterlik; K Klaushofer; P Fratzl

2001-01-01

177

The genotype-dependent influence of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on fetal development  

PubMed Central

In many cases cancer is caused by gene deficiency that is being passed along from generation to generation. Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising applications in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, however, the potential relationship between cancer-prone individuals and response to CNT exposure as a prerequisite for development of personalized nanomedicine, is still poorly understood. Here we report that intravenous injections of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into p53 (a well-known cancer susceptible gene) heterozygous pregnant mice can induce p53- dependent responses in fetal development. Larger sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes moved across the blood-placenta barrier (BPB), restricted the development of fetuses, and induced brain deformity, whereas single-walled and smaller sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes showed no or less fetotoxicity. A molecular mechanism study found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes directly triggered p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Based on the molecular mechanism, we also incorporated N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a FDA approved antioxidant, to prevent CNTs induced nuclear DNA damage and reduce brain development abnormalities. Our findings suggest that CNTs might have genetic background-dependent toxic effect on the normal development of the embryo, and provide new insights into protection against nanoparticle-induced toxicity in potential clinical applications. PMID:24344357

Huang, Xinglu; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Xiaolian; Choi, Ki Young; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Guofeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2013-01-01

178

Self-efficacy and quality of life among people with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population does, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses. PMID:25010107

Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Christopher J; Birgenheir, Denis G; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

2014-08-01

179

Efficacy of primary care in a nursing center.  

PubMed

Nursing opportunities have expanded beyond the traditional bedside role. Nurses serve in a variety of roles such as administrators, teachers, or primary care givers in a variety of settings. The role of primary care giver is a more recent role; it involves relatively independent nursing practice with clients who have acute or chronic illnesses. Client groups may include the elderly in high rise buildings, mothers and children at schools, or homeless and low-income populations at homeless shelters. This care is often provided in a nursing center. Nursing centers are nurse-managed centers in which nurses are accountable and responsible for care of clients; they are the primary provider of care and the one most seen by clients. Case managers may be in a position to refer patients to nursing centers or to work directly with nurse practitioners in nursing centers. However, questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be addressed for healthcare providers, insurance companies, and patients to be confident in the efficacy of this delivery system. Is the primary care comprehensive? Is it of high quality? Is it cost effective? Is it satisfactory to clients? These and other questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be answered to effect political and other changes needed to fulfill the role of nursing centers envisioned by early leaders of the movement. This article addresses questions related to the efficacy of primary care provided in nursing centers by family nurse practitioners. After defining efficacy, the discussion focuses on the components identified and studied in one nursing center and includes information on opportunities for case managers to utilize nursing centers for referral and appropriate follow-up of their patients. PMID:10690109

Helvie, C O

1999-01-01

180

Identifying Plant Poisoning in Livestock  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poisonous plant intoxication is a common and often deadly problem that annually costs the livestock industry more than $340 million in the western United States alone. Despite the cost or frequency, definitively identifying or diagnosing poisoning by plants in livestock is challenging. The purpos...

181

Identifying Elements in the Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief provides a description of the use of spectroscopy to identify elements in the stars, including a scientific explanation of bright line and dark line spectra, from an historical perspective. A list of links to additional information and images of atomic spectra is also provided.

182

Identifying, Assisting the Disturbed Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are in an excellent position to identify seriously troubled young people. Major causes of adolescent problems are discussed, including drugs, parental failure, and biochemical disturbances. Educators can best intervene by becoming aware of support services within their own school and community. (TE)

Carlson, Patricia L.; Schaefer, William

1986-01-01

183

"Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

2013-01-01

184

Immunosignatures can predict vaccine efficacy  

PubMed Central

The development of new vaccines would be greatly facilitated by having effective methods to predict vaccine performance. Such methods could also be helpful in monitoring individual vaccine responses to existing vaccines. We have developed “immunosignaturing” as a simple, comprehensive, chip-based method to display the antibody diversity in an individual on peptide arrays. Here we examined whether this technology could be used to develop correlates for predicting vaccine effectiveness. By using a mouse influenza infection, we show that the immunosignaturing of a natural infection can be used to discriminate a protective from nonprotective vaccine. Further, we demonstrate that an immunosignature can determine which mice receiving the same vaccine will survive. Finally, we show that the peptides comprising the correlate signatures of protection can be used to identify possible epitopes in the influenza virus proteome that are correlates of protection. PMID:24167296

Legutki, Joseph Barten; Johnston, Stephen Albert

2013-01-01

185

The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light for Treating Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea Is Related to Severity and Age  

PubMed Central

Background Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disease. Therapeutic modalities should be chosen based on the identified sub-types and clinical features in each patient. Vascular lasers, including intense pulsed light (IPL), are reportedly safe and effective in treating erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Objective In this study, we assess the comparative efficacy of IPL related to several factors including clinical severity and the age of patients with ETR. Methods Patients with ETR were classified into two groups according to the National Rosacea Society Severity Guideline. Severity score and erythema index (EI) were measured using a clinical scorecard and mexameter. For additional evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, investigator and patient global assessments (IGA, PGA) were checked. Efficacy of IPL was analyzed according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA related to sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity. Results Analyses of the efficacy of IPL according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA based on sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity revealed significant differences with age and severity only. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of IPL treatment for patients with ETR. IPL may be more effective in patients with more severe ETR and in younger patients with ETR. PMID:25143679

Lim, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

2014-01-01

186

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

187

Lovastatin Potentiates the Antidepressant Efficacy of Fluoxetine in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Cholesterol may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression. Lowering cholesterol levels with statins reduces risks for cardiovascular events, and there is clinical evidence that statins exert neuroprotective properties not fully explained by their effects on serum cholesterol levels. Altered cholesterol levels can affect serotonergic neurotransmission, which might be involved in the clinical efficacy of standard antidepressants. Methods We examined interactions between a statin (lovastatin) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) using the forced swim test (FST) in rats, a behavioral assay that identifies treatments with antidepressant effects in humans. Specifically, we determined if the addition of lovastatin to the diet would increase the efficacy of a subeffective dose of fluoxetine. Results Rats maintained on a lovastatin-enriched diet for 30 days were more sensitive to the antidepressant-like effects of a low (subthreshold) dose of fluoxetine. The behavior of rats treated with this combination resembled that normally seen with higher doses of fluoxetine. No effects were observed in rats maintained on a lovastatin-enriched diet for 3 days. Conclusions Lovastatin can augment the antidepressant-like effects of a low dose of fluoxetine in rats, raising the possibility that statins could be used to facilitate the effects of antidepressants in humans. PMID:19026674

Renshaw, Perry F.; Parsegian, Aram; Yang, C. Kevin; Novero, Aileen; Yoon, Sujung J.; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Cohen, Bruce M.; Carlezon, William A.

2009-01-01

188

Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of high-dose interleukin 2. In vivo infusion of antibody to NK-1.1 attenuates toxicity without compromising efficacy against murine leukemia  

PubMed Central

In the current study we used the therapy of established murine leukemia to identify the lymphocyte subsets responsible for toxicity and for therapeutic efficacy of high-dose IL-2. Initial results confirmed that high-dose IL-2 induces marked proliferation of a variety of host cells, including NK cells, Lyt-2+ T cells, L3T4+ T cells, and B cells. Infusion of antibody to NK-1.1 depleted NK-1.1+ cells in vivo and greatly reduced the toxicity of IL-2, but did not decrease therapeutic efficacy. By marked contrast, depletion of host T cells, either Lyt-2+ or L3T4+, had no effect on toxicity but greatly reduced therapeutic efficacy. The requirement for host T cells for the curative effect of IL-2 gives credence to the possibility that substantial efficacy of high-dose IL-2 against established malignancy may require existent host antitumor immunity. Since the human tumors that have been shown to have the most substantial responses to IL-2 (i.e., malignant melanoma and renal cell carcinoma) are those long considered to be immunogenic in the autochthonous host, the current study predicts that for these, as well as other immunogenic human tumors, it should be possible to decrease the toxicity and thus increase the therapeutic index of IL-2 by selectively depleting NK cells in vivo. PMID:2783332

1989-01-01

189

Middle school science teachers' teaching self-efficacy and students' science self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project 2061, initiated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), developed recommendations for what is essential in education to produce scientifically literate citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that teachers teach effectively. There is an abundance of literature that focuses on the effects of a teacher's science teaching self-efficacy and a student's science self-efficacy. However, there is no literature on the relationship between the two self-efficacies. This study investigated if there is a differential change in students' science self-efficacy over an academic term after instruction from a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy. Quantitative analysis of STEBI scores for teachers showed that mean STEBI scores did not change over one academic term. A t test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean SMTSL scores for students' science self-efficacy over the course of one academic term for a) the entire sample, b) each science class, and c) each grade level. In addition, ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean gain factor of students rated as low, medium, and high on science self-efficacy as measured by the SMTSL, when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between the pre- and post-instructional rankings of SMTSL by grade level when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. This is the first study of its kind. Studies indicated that teaching strategies typically practiced by teachers with high science teaching were beneficial to physics self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005). Although it was unsuccessful at determining whether or not a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy has a differential affect on students' science self-efficacy, it is worth repeating on a more diverse sample of teacher and students over a longer period of time.

Pisa, Danielle

190

Recombinant allergen immunotherapy: clinical evidence of efficacy--a review.  

PubMed

Recombinant allergens for immunotherapy aim to overcome the problems of natural extracts as they can be produced in unlimited amounts with exact physiochemical and immunological properties. These can be modified to have more favourable characteristics including reduced IgE reactivity or enhanced immunogenicity. Different types of recombinant allergens have been evaluated in clinical phase II and III trials whilst others are currently under development. In this review, we identified double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of various recombinant allergen preparations. The majority of studies have up to now focused on cat, grass, birch, ragweed and bee venom allergens. Some studies have shown some of these preparations to be effective and well tolerated. However, there are still outstanding issues regarding optimum doses, minimising side effects and long-term effects. PMID:23740287

Makatsori, Melina; Pfaar, Oliver; Lleonart, Ramon; Calderon, Moises A

2013-08-01

191

Efficacy of Tower Medfly Eclosion Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 16-repetition experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of the “tower” system for eclosion of sterile medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). This system has now replaced the PARC system previously used in Florida S.I.T. programs. In addition to testing the efficacy of these eclosion systems, as compared to the PARC system, quality control was also monitored and evaluated. No significant

Mark Salvato; Tim Holler; John Worley; Joe Stewart

2004-01-01

192

Self-Efficacy and Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

2006-01-01

193

An Investigation of Teacher Stress and Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study, which comprises part of a larger Western Australian research project on the relationships among teacher stress, perceptions of the school organizational climate, and beliefs in teacher efficacy, involves interviews with six secondary school teachers. The study focuses upon four major variables which may impact upon teachers' ability to…

Hutchinson, William

194

The efficacy of relaxation training with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training

Neil C. Richter

1984-01-01

195

Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae microsclerotial granules  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil incorporation bioassays of dried microsclerotial (MS) preparations of three isolates of M. anisopliae isolates were conducted using third instar Tetanops myopaeformis (sugarbeet root maggot) in clay and/or clay loam field soils as a model system to demonstrate efficacy. At rates as low as 23 mg...

196

Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

2002-01-01

197

Planetarium instructional efficacy: A research synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to explore the instructional effectiveness of the planetarium in astronomy education using meta-analysis. A review of the literature revealed 46 studies related to planetarium efficacy. However, only 19 of the studies satisfied selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Selected studies were then subjected to coding procedures, which extracted information such as subject

Bruce D. Brazell

2009-01-01

198

Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis (IIDD) is an inflammation of the infantile skin covering the groin, lower stomach, upper thighs and buttocks. Infantile irritant diaper dermatitis may become difficult to treat, if the area becomes infected or the infant develops allergy to medications applied to the area. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety

SUKANTA CHATTERJEE; NILANJANA PRAMANICK; SANTA CHATTOPADHYAY; KINKOR MUNIAN

199

Multiple use of dialyzers: Safety and efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple use of dialyzers: Safety and efficacy. The practice of multiple use of dialyzers was examined over a 15-month period on all 104 patients in a chronic maintenance hemodialysis facility. A computerized medical information system permitted analysis of the incidence of events in over 10,000 successive hemodialyses. It also allowed analysis of the events in 27 patients dialyzed for a

Kotagal S Kant; Victor E Pollak; Margaret Cathey; Dan Goetz; Rebecca Berlin; David F Eydel; Judy Tessel; Roberta Hall

1981-01-01

200

Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

2009-01-01

201

Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

2009-01-01

202

Calculating the efficacy of heat sterilization processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isothermal semi-logarithmic survival curves of certain bacterial spores, C. botulinum and B. sporothermodurans among them, are non-linear. Hence, the methods to calculate the efficacy of processes to destroy them need to be revised. These spores’ survival curves could be described by a power law model, which is based on the assumption that the spores’ heat resistances have a Weibull

Maria G. Corradini; Mark D. Normand; Micha Peleg

2005-01-01

203

Efficacy and safety of systemic treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Dermatologists may choose from various conventional and biological systemic agents to treat patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We set out to analyse systematically the efficacy and tolerability of approved treatments for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy of systemic treatment approved for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Efficacy was assessed as the proportion of participants with 75% improvement in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index at primary efficacy measurement (week 8-16). Safety was summarized as rates of adverse events and withdrawals. Direct and indirect comparative efficacy was assessed by random effects meta-analysis of risk differences (RDs). In total, 48 eligible RCTs totalling 16 696 patients (11 178 randomized to biologics, 1888 to conventional treatments) were identified. In placebo-controlled trials, infliximab was the most efficacious [RD 76%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 73-79%]. Adalimumab (RD 61%, 95% CI 56-67%), and ustekinumab 45 mg (RD 63%, 95% CI 59-66%) and 90 mg (RD 67%, 95% CI 60-74%) each had similar efficacy. These biologics are more effective than etanercept and all conventional treatments. Head-to-head trials indicate the superiority of adalimumab and infliximab over methotrexate (MTX), the superiority of ustekinumab over etanercept, the nonsignificant superiority of ciclosporin over MTX, and the dose-dependent efficacy of etanercept and ustekinumab. Fumaric acid is as efficacious as MTX. Safety of treatments could not be pooled due to a lack of standardization in reporting across trials. In conclusion, the qualitative and quantitative evidence is much stronger for biological interventions than for conventional treatments. PMID:24131260

Schmitt, J; Rosumeck, S; Thomaschewski, G; Sporbeck, B; Haufe, E; Nast, A

2014-02-01

204

Observing, Describing and Identifying Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They will initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. This learning resource is part of the Atmosphere chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide, and is supported by the GLOBE Cloud protocol. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

205

Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

Yasar, Senay

206

Efficacy of Intrauterine Device in the Treatment of Intrauterine Adhesions  

PubMed Central

The primary purpose of this paper is to assess the efficacy of the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) as an adjunctive treatment modality, for intrauterine adhesions (IUAs). All eligible literatures were identified by electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Additional relevant articles were identified from citations in these publications. There were 28 studies included for a systematic review. Of these, 5 studies were eligible for meta-analysis and 23 for qualitative assessment only. Twenty-eight studies related to the use of IUDs as ancillary treatment following adhesiolysis were identified. Of these studies, 25 studies at least one of the following methods were carried out as ancillary treatment: Foley catheter, hyaluronic acid gel, hormonal therapy, or amnion graft in addition to the IUD. There was one study that used IUD therapy as a single ancillary treatment. In 2 studies, no adjunctive therapy was used after adhesiolysis. There was a wide range of reported menstrual and fertility outcomes which were associated with the use of IUD combined with other ancillary treatments. At present, the IUD is beneficial in patients with IUA, regardless of stage of adhesions. However, IUD needs to be combined with other ancillary treatments to obtain maximal outcomes, in particular in patients with moderate to severe IUA. PMID:25254212

Salma, Umme; Xue, Min; Md Sayed, Ali Sheikh; Xu, Dabao

2014-01-01

207

A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy  

E-print Network

The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

Lovell, Emily Marie

2011-01-01

208

Self-efficacy and depressive affect in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to extend Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, we investigated the hypothesis that increases in self-efficacy, based on mastery experiences, would lead to improvements in mood and problem solving among dysphoric subjects.

Jeffrey Schwartz; Jefferson M. Fish

1989-01-01

209

Identifying teaching in wild animals.  

PubMed

After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20628167

Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

2010-08-01

210

Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Support and Teaching Efficacy in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty's perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty' teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were…

Chang, Te-Sheng; McKeachie, Wilbert; Lin, Yi-Guang

2010-01-01

211

Examining Dimensions of Self-Efficacy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…

Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon

2013-01-01

212

The possibilities of potentiating the efficacy of probiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotics could represent an effective alternative to the use of synthetic substances in nutrition and medicine. The data concerning the efficacy of probiotics are often contradictory and it will be important to search for ways to improve their efficacy. In order to enhance the efficacy of probiotics, it is necessary to obtain additional knowledge on their mode of action. The

Alojz Bomba; Radom??ra Nemcová; Dagmar Mudro?ová; Peter Guba

2002-01-01

213

Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

2012-01-01

214

Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

215

Beginning teacher efficacy and the practicum in an EFL context  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over recent decades, there has been compelling evidence describing the powerful effects of teachers’ sense of efficacy on their instructional activities as well as student outcomes. The present study explored the change of efficacy of prospective teachers over the student teaching period and the factors that might contribute to the change. Data collected through the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale

Derin Atay

2007-01-01

216

A Shifting Paradigm: Preservice Teachers' Multicultural Attitudes and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective teaching in multicultural settings requires the awareness and ability to adapt to diverse needs and viewpoints. Teachers' multicultural efficacy may be gained from coursework or interactions within diverse communities. In this study the authors determined preservice teachers' multicultural efficacy using the Multicultural Efficacy Scale…

Nadelson, Louis S.; Boham, Mikaela D.; Conlon-Khan, Lori; Fuentealba, Molly J.; Hall, Cynthia J.; Hoetker, Gregory A.; Hooley, Diana S.; Jang, Bong Seok; Luckey, Kristina L.; Moneymaker, Kelley J.; Shapiro, Matthew A.; Zenkert, A. J.

2012-01-01

217

Teachers' sense of collective efficacy: an international view  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study explores the notion of collective teacher efficacy, a characteristic of schools that has emerged as a significant factor in school productivity. More specifically, this paper examines the construct validity and reliability of the Israeli Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and explores variables that may influence teachers' sense of collective efficacy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of teacher respondents

Chen Schechter; Megan Tschannen-Moran

2006-01-01

218

Teachers' and principals' sense of efficacy in elementary schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent research on school improvement and effectiveness attention is paid to teachers' sense of efficacy. This research is focused on (a) teachers and (b) instructional tasks. Another restriction is that teachers' sense of efficacy is studied apart from the context in which it affects teacher behavior. This study introduces the Teachers' and Principals' Sense of Efficacy scale in pupil

Jeroen G. M. Imants; Cornelis J. De Brabander

1996-01-01

219

Sense of Efficacy Among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the level of teachers’ sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers’ sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy scale. The sample consisted of 328

Rahmah Murshidi; Mohd Majid Konting; Habibah Elias; Foo Say Fooi

2006-01-01

220

Factors Affecting Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservice elementary teachers entering the specialized coursework designed to prepare them for science teaching responsibilities have a broad range of efficacy beliefs about their success as future science teachers. As they progress through science methods and practicum courses, and on to complete their student teaching, their efficacy beliefs may change. Knowing the variables that affect the development of positive efficacy

Pamela Cantrell; Suzanne Young; Alan Moore

2003-01-01

221

High efficacy and the preservice reading teacher: A comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of two field experiences, tutoring and observing, on preservice teachers’ reading self-efficacy and content knowledge. Participants completed an adapted, reading version of The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results showed that both groups reported growth in reading self-efficacy and content knowledge; however, there was only a marginally significant

Heather Rogers Haverback; Susan J. Parault

2011-01-01

222

Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Competence of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the relationship between school counselor self efficacy and perceived multicultural competence self efficacy in a sample of 157 school counselors. Results reveal School Counselor Self-Efficacy (SCSE) cultural acceptance subscale was a statistically significant predictor of all three multicultural competencies (MCC: Terminology,…

Owens, Delila; Bodenhorn, Nancy; Bryant, Rhonda M.

2010-01-01

223

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

224

Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n?=?420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (??=?0.36, p?efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID:24304903

2013-01-01

225

A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm’s prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. “Major fragments” (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic’s efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell–Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

2004-01-01

226

A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids.  

PubMed

Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm's prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. "Major fragments" (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic's efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

Slocombe, J Owen D

2004-04-01

227

Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

2013-01-01

228

Safety and Efficacy of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Unclear-Onset Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Standard selection criteria for thrombolysis typically exclude patients with acute ischemic stroke with unclear onset. Multimodal MRI screening may be able to identify those with a favorable benefit-risk ratio for thrombolysis. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MRI-based thrombolysis in unclear-onset stroke (UnCLOS). Methods: We reviewed the thrombolysis database registries from 3 medical centers in Korea.

A-Hyun Cho; Sung-Il Sohn; Moon-Ku Han; Deok Hee Lee; Jong S. Kim; Choong Gon Choi; Chul-Ho Sohn; Sun U. Kwon; Dae Chul Suh; Sang Joon Kim; Hee-Joon Bae; Dong-Wha Kang

2008-01-01

229

IL10-Inducing Adjuvants Enhance Sublingual Immunotherapy Efficacy in a Murine Asthma Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: IL-10-inducing adjuvants could enhance the efficacy of allergy vaccines in establishing allergen-specific tolerance.The aim of this study wasto identify such adjuvants using in vitro cultures of human and murine cells and to evaluate them in a therapeutic murine model of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Methods: Adjuvants stimulating IL-10 gene expression by human or murine immune cells were tested sublingually in

Laurence Van Overtvelt; Vincent Lombardi; Alain Razafindratsita; Nathalie Saint-Lu; Stéphane Horiot; Hélène Moussu; Laurent Mascarell; Philippe Moingeon

2008-01-01

230

Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations With Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout. Participants were 244 elementary and middle school teachers. The analysis supported the conceptualization of teacher self-efficacy

Einar M. Skaalvik; Sidsel Skaalvik

2007-01-01

231

Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations with Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout.…

Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

2007-01-01

232

Efficacy of behavioral interventions for dementia caregivers.  

PubMed

Behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, particularly agitation, appear to be a major contributing factor to the emotional distress exhibited by family caregivers. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to reduce caregiver emotional distress, but few studies have examined the efficacy of these interventions with caregivers exposed to high levels of dementia-related behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of a caregiver skill building intervention in reducing emotional distress to agitated behaviors of care recipients. This study analyzed data from a subgroup of caregivers who participated in a larger randomized clinical trial (N = 295). Data from 143 caregivers of family members with baseline agitated behaviors indicate that the skill building intervention was more effective than an information and support oriented comparison condition in reducing emotional distress over an 18-month period. These findings indicate that dementia caregivers exposed to agitated behaviors can benefit from psychosocial interventions, particularly those aimed at building behavioral management skills. PMID:17596639

Farran, Carol J; Gilley, David W; McCann, Judith J; Bienias, Julia L; Lindeman, David A; Evans, Denis A

2007-12-01

233

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

234

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy.  

PubMed

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-03-01

235

Self-efficacy and academic achievement in Australian high school students: the mediating effects of academic aspirations and delinquency.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that self-efficacy, aspirational, and other psychosocial influences account for considerable variance in academic achievement through a range of mediational pathways, although no research to date has tested the mediational relationships identified. The present research investigated the structural relations among self-efficacy, academic aspirations, and delinquency, on the academic achievement of 935 students aged 11-18 years from ten schools in two Australian cities. The Children's Self-Efficacy Scale, Adapted Self-Report Delinquency Scale (Revised), and Children's Academic Aspirations Scale were administered to participants prior to academic achievement being assessed using mid-year school grades. Structural equation modeling was employed to test three alternative models for the relationships from academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy on academic achievement. A partial mediation model showed the best overall fit to the data. Academic and self-regulatory efficacy had an indirect negative effect through delinquency and a direct positive effect on academic achievement. Academic and social self-efficacy had positive and negative relationships, respectively, with academic aspiration and academic achievement; however, the relationship between academic aspiration and academic achievement was not significant in the final model. PMID:19027942

Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert; Unsworth, Kerrie; Hattie, John; Gordon, Lisa; Bower, Julie

2009-08-01

236

Efficacy of treatment for unexplained infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,

DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf

1998-01-01

237

Efficacy of silver-coated medical devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver coating of medical devices is believed to prevent device-associated infection. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies, as well as clinical observations on silver—nylon, silver-intramedullary pins, silver oxide Foley catheters and silver-coated vascular prostheses have been performed during the past 30 years. Nevertheless, randomized clinical studies showing efficacy of such coated medical devices in high-risk patient populations are rare, have dealt

J. M. Schierholz; L. J. Lucas; A. Rump; G. Pulverer

1998-01-01

238

Handwashing: efficacy versus acceptance. A brief essay.  

PubMed

The efficacy of handwashing for preventing transmission of infections in the hospital is well accepted. Nevertheless, compliance by health care workers is estimated at approximately 40%. Based on observations of effective behavioural changes in other areas of public health, the authors suggest that hospital epidemiologists consider testing the use of both social pressures and marketing techniques to influence current handwashing practices in hospitals. PMID:1679450

Wenzel, R P; Pfaller, M A

1991-06-01

239

Self-Efficacy and Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated self-efficacy to use research methods skills in samples of sport students. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was a quantitative study that investigated the extent to which self-esteem influenced changes in self-effica cy following the receipt of grades for an assignment from a research methods module. Ninety-seven Level 2 students completed a self-esteem scale and a

Tracey J. Devonport

2004-01-01

240

A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

2008-01-01

241

Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have become the mainstay in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Within the last decade, controlled trials have shown that numerous other drugs relieve such pain. We identified all placebo-controlled trials and calculated numbers needed to treat (NNT) to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief in order to compare the efficacy with the current

Søren H. Sindrup; Troels S. Jensen

1999-01-01

242

Social Indicators, Dysfunctional Career Cognitions, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Work Role Participation of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…

Hodge, Sharon

243

Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

244

A study of the efficacy of various home filtration substrates in the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine whether common water filtration and purification systems bought by consumers and used in the home would remove cyanotoxins from water. Commonly used universal filter housings and filter sizes were utilized to identify filter media that may be effective in the removal of microcystin-LR in deionized water. Results suggest that the efficacy of home filtration

Marek B. Pawlowicz; James E. Evans; David R. Johnson; Robert G. Brooks

245

Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

246

Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

2012-01-01

247

Examining the Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Teacher Self-Efficacy Among Elementary Teachers in Southeast Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

An Australian study (Penrose, Perry & Ball, 2007) identified Emotional Intelligence levels in teachers as a predictor of teacher self-efficacy, with significant impact on student achievement outcomes. Sutton and Wheatley (2003) asserted the role of emotion in influencing teacher work and, therefore, student outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate a correlation between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and teacher

Denise Bryan

2011-01-01

248

A Systematic Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Heterogeneity of Disease Management Programs in Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWe sought to systematically combine the evidence on efficacy of disease management programs (DMPs) in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF), to identify and explain heterogeneity of results from prior studies of DMPs, and to assess potential publication bias from these studies.

Alexander Göhler; James L. Januzzi; Stewart S. Worrell; Karl Josef Osterziel; G. Scott Gazelle; Rainer Dietz; Uwe Siebert

2006-01-01

249

Efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain and sciatica: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to assess the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for low-back pain. Data was obtained using computer-aided search of published randomized clinical trials and assessment of the methods of the studies. Twelve randomized clinical trials evaluating epidural steroid injections were identified. Data was extracted based on scores for quality of the methods, using 4 categories

Bart W. Koes; Rob J. P. M. Scholten; Jan M. A. Mens; Lex M. Bouter

1995-01-01

250

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment  

E-print Network

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response mechanism (HSR), main component of which are heat-shock proteins (HSP). Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby, hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy of the anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalise the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a proof of concept mathematical analysis of HSR we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. thermotolerance.

Miko?aj Rybi?ski; Zuzanna Szyma?ska; S?awomir Lasota; Anna Gambin

2012-09-18

251

Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. PMID:25436106

Anderson, Sarah L

2014-12-01

252

Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. PMID:25436106

2014-01-01

253

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment  

PubMed Central

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia, have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response (HSR) mechanism, the main component of which are heat-shock proteins. Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia-treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy for anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalize the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a mathematical analysis of HSR, we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. PMID:23985732

Rybi?ski, Miko?aj; Szyma?ska, Zuzanna; Lasota, S?awomir; Gambin, Anna

2013-01-01

254

Can tests identify creative people?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is always a popular pursuit by academic administrators to assess the creativity or innovative qualities of scientists in order to evaluate their research capabilities. Of course, traditionally such evaluations have been fraught with subjectivity (i.e., innovative scientists are commonly thought to be weird, under 40 years old, independent, risk-taking, etc.), and thus such evaluations have not been highly valued. In recent years, through testing, the American Chemical Society (ACS) has attempted to give respectability to the art of predicting the creativity of a scientist. ACS, which draws its members from both industrial and academic laboratories, held a symposium on the subject of evaluating the creativity of scientists. The proceedings were published by ACS as ‘Innovation and U.S. Research: Problems and Recommendations’ (W. N. Smith and C.F. Larson, eds., 1980). In the proceedings, as reported in the July 1982 Chemtec (all quotes here are from the Chemtec article), A. Nisson was able to identify only the following two-part characteristic of an innovative person: (1) a low threshold to ‘a state of discomfort with some aspect of the order of things, the status quo,’ and (2) ‘an extraordinarily high level of mental stamina enabling him or her to persist until the state of discomfort is removed.’

Bell, Peter M.

255

Identifying and Bounding Ethnic Neighborhoods  

PubMed Central

This study presents three novel approaches to the question of how best to identify ethnic neighborhoods (or more generally, neighborhoods defined any aspect of their population composition) and to define their boundaries. It takes advantage of unusual data on the residential locations of all residents of Newark, NJ, in 1880 to avoid having to accept arbitrary administrative units (like census tracts) as the building blocks of neighborhoods. For theoretical reasons the street segment is chosen as the basic unit of analysis. All three methods use information on the ethnic composition of buildings or street segments and the ethnicity of their neighbors. One approach is a variation of k-functions calculated for each adult resident, which are then subjected to a cluster analysis to detect discrete patterns. The second is an application of an energy minimization algorithm commonly used to enhance digital images. The third is a Bayesian approach previously used to study county-level disability data. Results of all three methods depend on decisions about technical procedures and criteria that are made by the investigator. Resulting maps are roughly similar, but there is no one best solution. We conclude that researchers should continue to seek alternative methods, and that the preferred method depends on how one’s conceptualization of neighborhoods matches the empirical approach. PMID:24039327

Logan, John R.; Spielman, Seth; Xu, Hongwei; Klein, Philip N.

2013-01-01

256

Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572

van Es, R.

2000-01-01

257

RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

2013-01-01

258

Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2009-01-01

259

DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes  

PubMed Central

In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

2008-01-01

260

Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls. This study investigated the response of three medically significant microorganisms grown in the RWV to antibiotics that could be used on spaceflight missions. Our findings suggest potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during spaceflight and indicate that future studies on the antibiotic response require additional basic research using the RWV and/or true spaceflight. However, while this analogue has reinforced these potential alterations, the results suggest the best approach for applied forward work is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight, including human and rodent studies. The complex nature of the analysis for many antibiotics and organism suggests the best approach to determine in vivo responses during pharmaceutical treatment is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight.

Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

2014-01-01

261

Inhibiting drug efflux transporters improves efficacy of ALS therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Objective Research identified promising therapeutics in cell models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but there is limited progress translating effective treatments to animal models and patients, and ALS remains a disease with no effective treatment. One explanation stems from an acquired pharmacoresistance driven by the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP), which we have shown are selectively upregulated at the blood-brain and spinal cord barrier (BBB/BSCB) in ALS mice and patients. Pharmacoresistance is well appreciated in other brain diseases, but overlooked in ALS despite many failures in clinical trials. Methods Here, we prove that a P-gp/BCRP-driven pharmacoresistance limits the bioavailability of ALS therapeutics using riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug for ALS and a substrate of P-gp and BCRP. ALS mice (SOD1-G93A) were treated with riluzole and elacridar, to block P-gp and BCRP, and monitored for survival as well as behavioral and physiological parameters. Results We show that riluzole, which normally is not effective when given at onset of symptoms, is now effective in the ALS mice when administered in combination with the P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar. Chronic elacridar treatment increases riluzole Central nervous system (CNS) penetration, improves behavioral measures, including muscle function, slowing down disease progression, and significantly extending survival. Interpretation Our approach improves riluzole efficacy with treatment beginning at symptom onset. Riluzole will not provide a cure, but enhancing its efficacy postsymptoms by addressing pharmacoresistance demonstrates a proof-of-principle concept to consider when developing new ALS therapeutic strategies. We highlight a novel improved therapeutic approach for ALS and demonstrate that pharmacoresistance can no longer be ignored in ALS. PMID:25574474

Jablonski, Michael R; Markandaiah, Shashirekha S; Jacob, Dena; Meng, Ni J; Li, Ke; Gennaro, Victoria; Lepore, Angelo C; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera

2014-01-01

262

Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)

Esther R. Nijhuis; Bertha A. in ‘t Hout; Jantine J. Boomgaard; Joanne A. de Hullu; Elisabeth Pras; Harry Hollema; Jan G. Aalders; Hans W. Nijman; Pax H. B. Willemse; Marian J. E.. Mourits

2006-01-01

263

A study to evaluate the field efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate, with preliminary observations on the efficacy of doramectin, as anthelmintics in horses.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ivermectin, fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and doramectin was evaluated under field conditions at 2 sites in the Free State Province of South Africa. The study involved 25 horses at each site, divided into 5 groups of equal size. Ivermectin, fenbendazole and pyrantel pamoate were administered orally at doses of 0.2, 10 and 19 mg/kg respectively. Doramectin was administered by intramuscular injection at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Treatment efficacy was based on the mean faecal egg count reduction 14 days post treatment. At site A a faecal egg count reduction of 100% was found after treatment with ivermectin, fenbendazole and doramectin. A 96.1% reduction was found after treatment with pyrantel pamoate. At site B ivermectin and doramectin produced a 100% reduction in faecal egg counts, fenbendazole produced an 80.8% reduction and pyrantel pamoate a 94.1% reduction. Doramectin produced a 100% reduction in faecal egg counts at both sites, despite not being registered for use in horses. In addition, the results indicated reduced efficacy of fenbendazole at site B, which suggested benzimidazole resistance. Larval cultures showed that cyathostomes accounted for between 86 and 96% of pre-treatment parasite burdens at both sites. Other helminths identified in the faecal samples were Strongylus spp. and Trichostrongylus axei. PMID:11205161

Davies, J A; Schwalbach, L M

2000-09-01

264

Preclinical pharmacokinetics: an approach towards safer and efficacious drugs.  

PubMed

Lack of efficacy and toxicity are considered to be major reasons for drug failures and pharmacokinetics governs them to a large extent. Compound with favorable pharmacokinetics is more likely to be efficacious and safe. Therefore, the preclinical pharmacokinetic evaluation should be comprehensive enough to ensure that compounds do not fail in the clinic. Preclinical ADME screening facilitates early elimination of weak candidates and directs the entire focus of the drug development program towards fewer potential lead candidates. Hence, it is mandatory that the pre-clinical candidates are subjected to as many possible reality checks. Reliance on in-vitro tests should be minimized because they do not represent the real physiological environment but rather slow down the pace of a drug discovery program. Compounds can be straight away subjected to in-vivo high throughput screens such as cassette dosing, cassette analysis or rapid rat screen etc. Candidates with the desired in-vivo pharmacokinetic profile may be further profiled in-vitro, using assays such as metabolic stability, reaction phenotyping, CYP-450 inhibition and induction, plasma protein binding etc. in human microsomes, human recombinant CYP-450 enzymes and human plasma. This also provides an early indication of whether the compound which worked in animals would work in human as well. In-vitro metabolic stability profile is a qualitative as well as quantitative comparison of metabolism of a compound in human and animal models. It helps in identifying the right model for toxicity studies. Extensive metabolism is generally considered a liability as it limits the systemic exposure and shortens the half-life of a compound. Several strategies such as reduction of lipophilicity, modification and / or blocking of metabolically soft spots and use of enzyme inhibitors; have been developed to combat metabolism. In spite of several concerns, the fact that active metabolites of several marketed drugs have been developed as drugs with better efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics profile; cannot be denied. Therefore, instead of considering metabolic instability a liability it can be exploited as a tool for discovering better drugs. It is equally important to identify the metabolic pathways of the drug candidates by conducting in-vitro CYP450 reaction phenotyping assays. The identification of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the major metabolic pathways of a compound helps in predicting the probable drug-drug interactions in human. Compounds with more than one metabolic pathway have less likelihood of clinically significant drug interactions. In-vitro CYP450 inhibition and induction screens are used to evaluate the potential of compound towards drug - drug interactions and the most prone candidates may either be discarded or taken ahead with a caution. It is known that only unbound drug is pharmacologically active and therefore the assessment of bound fraction by the estimation of plasma protein binding of a compound is another important parameter to be explored in-vitro. In addition to the process of 'weeding out' weak candidates early in the drug discovery process, it is equally important to identify the probable causes of poor ADME exhibited by some compounds as this information is useful to medicinal chemists for improving upon backbones that exhibit un favorable pharmacokinetic profile. Toxicity study is the foundation of an INDA (Investigational new drug application) and therefore, the final selection of a compound can be performed only after proper toxicological evaluation in animal models. Toxicokinetics forms an integral part of toxicity study and is used to assess the exposure of candidates in toxicity models and correlate the drug levels in blood and various tissues with the toxicological findings. Although in-vivo screening of compounds in animal models and in-vitro assays in human recombinant CYP-450 enzymes help in drug candidate selection, both approaches have their own limitations. There is no certainty that the selected candidates will exhibit the desired

Singh, Sonu Sundd

2006-02-01

265

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

266

Preclinical efficacy spectrum and pharmacokinetics of ixabepilone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Ixabepilone, a semisynthetic analog of natural epothilone B, was developed for use in cancer treatment. This study extends\\u000a previous findings regarding the efficacy of ixabepilone and its low susceptibility to tumor resistance mechanisms and describes\\u000a the pharmacokinetics of this new antineoplastic agent.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The cytotoxicity of ixabepilone was assessed in vitro in breast, lung, and colon tumor cell lines and in

Francis Y. F. Lee; Richard Smykla; Kathy Johnston; Krista Menard; Kelly McGlinchey; Russell W. Peterson; Amy Wiebesiek; Gregory Vite; Craig R. Fairchild; Robert Kramer

2009-01-01

267

Verapamil and migraine prophylaxis: mechanisms and efficacy.  

PubMed

Calcium channel blockers have demonstrated efficacy in investigative use for prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. In particular, verapamil, with its low side-effect profile, appears to be a promising alternative to the currently available agents for prophylactic treatment of chronic recurring headaches. Although its exact mechanisms of action in this application are unknown, verapamil exerts a vasodilatory effect on cerebral arteries and interacts with serotonergic systems involved in migraine pathogenesis. A review of studies from the past decade indicates that verapamil may be as effective as traditional therapies as prophylaxis for the major types of chronic recurring headache. PMID:2039020

Markley, H G

1991-05-17

268

A Trisubstituted Benzimidazole Cell Division Inhibitor with Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73±0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68±Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP) twice daily (bid). The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy. PMID:24736743

Knudson, Susan E.; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Hélèn; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

2014-01-01

269

The Efficacy of Strontium and Potassium Toothpastes in Treating Dentine Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The aim of the present paper was to review the published literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of the efficacy of strontium and potassium toothpastes in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Methods. Following a review of 94 relevant papers both from searching electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, 13 studies were identified, and 7 papers (1 for strontium-based toothpastes and 6 for potassium-based toothpastes) were finally accepted for inclusion. The main outcome measures were the methodology and assessment used by Investigators in studies designed to evaluate DH. Results. The results of the present paper would indicate that the reported efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving DH is questionable. Conclusions. The results from the present paper would appear to support the conclusions of previous investigators that there is only minimal evidence for the efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving symptoms of DH. PMID:23653647

Karim, B. F. A.; Gillam, D. G.

2013-01-01

270

Testing tuberculosis drug efficacy in a zebrafish high-throughput translational medicine screen.  

PubMed

The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J; Wiweger, Malgorzata I; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H; Vreeken, Rob J; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P; Hankemeier, Thomas; Spaink, Herman P

2015-02-01

271

Immunological biomarkers identifying natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients at risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

Natalizumab-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy appears to be unleashed by complex interactions between viral and immunological host factors leading the latent form of JC virus to become pathogenic. Positive anti-JC virus antibody status, prior use of immunosuppressants, and increasing duration of natalizumab treatment have been proposed as risk factors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis patients, but while they may help to identify the most appropriate patients for natalizumab, their use have some limitations. Therefore, a large body of studies is ongoing to identify alternative, reliable immunological markers capable to improve the safety and efficacy of therapy, and to guide tailored clinical decisions. PMID:25468273

Serana, Federico; Chiarini, Marco; Sottini, Alessandra; Bertoli, Diego; Giustini, Viviana; Tessitore, Marion Vaglio; Caimi, Luigi; Capra, Ruggero; Imberti, Luisa

2014-12-15

272

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms. PMID:25050074

Miller, Larry E; Tennilä, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

273

Ask, understand, remember: a brief measure of patient communication self-efficacy within clinical encounters.  

PubMed

Patients' ability to effectively communicate with their health care providers is an essential aspect of proper self-care, especially for those with chronic conditions. We wanted to develop and validate a brief, reliable measure of patient communication self-efficacy within clinical encounters. Consecutively recruited patients (n = 330) with diagnosed hypertension from seven primary care clinics in Chicago, Illinois, Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Shreveport, Louisiana completed an in-person interview including chronic disease self-efficacy, hypertension knowledge, health literacy assessments, and items modified from the Communication and Attitudinal Self-Efficacy (CASE) - Cancer scale. Six items from the CASE were candidates for a new scale due to their focus on the patient-provider relationship. Using principal components analysis with varimax rotation, four items strongly loaded onto one factor (Eigenvalue = 2.33; proportion of variance explained = 58%) with a Cronbach's ? coefficient of 0.75. The measure, referred to as the Ask, Understand, Remember Assessment, (AURA) was moderately correlated with the total score from an existing chronic disease management self-efficacy scale (r = 0.31) and disease knowledge (beta coefficient = 0.2, 95% Confidence Interval 0.04 - 0.3, p = .03). Patients with low health literacy had lower scores on the AURA than those with marginal or adequate health literacy (p < .05). The AURA demonstrated high internal consistency and was correlated with both hypertension knowledge and a chronic disease self-efficacy scale. The AURA is brief, valid, has low reading demands, and is an appropriate tool for use among patients with chronic illness. It may also be useful in identifying and assisting patients who are at risk for errors or non-adherence with self-care behaviors. PMID:20845194

Clayman, Marla L; Pandit, Anjali U; Bergeron, Ashley R; Cameron, Kenzie A; Ross, Emily; Wolf, Michael S

2010-01-01

274

78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of patients who participate in clinical trials should be maximized for the benefit...potentially valid endpoints for clinical trials, understand the predictive value...of the combined data from 15 clinical trials and 3 pediatric trials from...

2013-06-04

275

Reducing the Need for Postsecondary Remediation Using Self-Efficacy to Identify Underprepared African-American and Hispanic Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Postsecondary remedial education is a major problem for Higher Education affecting retention rates, degree completion rates and cost of enrollment. Identification of students who are underprepared for managing the rigors of college and who would benefit from early intervention is necessary to reduce the need for postsecondary…

Orange, Carolyn; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

2013-01-01

276

Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

2014-01-01

277

Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and to determine its effectiveness in decontaminating gutta percha cones. Materials and Methods: A concentrated extract of Aloe vera was used to check for the antimicrobial efficacy using the agar well diffusion method. Presence of zones’ of diffusion was identified against three common GP contaminants namely, E.coli, E.faecalis and Staph. aureus. New GP Cones, freshly taken out of the packet were then decontaminated for 1minute using Aloe vera gel and then placed in thioglycolate broth to check for the presence of turbidity. Results: The zones of inhibition on the agar plate were measured as 24mm,21mm and 24mm respectively. The broth remained clear even after 48 hours of incubation. Conclusion: We conclude that Aloe vera is indeed effective as a GP decontaminant and it holds a promising future as a medium for storage of GP cones. PMID:22876011

Athiban, Prakash P; Borthakur, Bikash Jyoti; Ganesan, S; Swathika, B

2012-01-01

278

Career Self-Efficacy: Exemplary Recent Research and Emerging Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses what the author views as exemplary work illustrating important directions in research on the applications of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to career theory, assessment, and counseling. The author begins with research on measuring career self-efficacy, following which research testing the postulated behavioral consequences of career self-efficacy expectations is discussed. Notable studies of the learning experiences postulated to lead

Nancy E. Betz

2007-01-01

279

Teacher and Collective Efficacy Beliefs as Predictors of Professional Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors sought to determine whether teacher and collective efficacy beliefs predict commitment to the teaching profession. The participants were 26,257 teachers and 6,711 principals who responded to the public school teacher and principal questionnaires of the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey (U.S. Department of Education, 2005). The authors developed 2 teacher efficacy scales, a collective teacher efficacy scale, and

Herbert Ware; Anastasia Kitsantas

2007-01-01

280

Efficacy of cleaning products for C difficile  

PubMed Central

Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for the efficacy of products used for environmental or hand cleaning on the rates of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles pertinent to the efficacy of cleaning products against C difficile or studies with outcomes related to rates of CDAD. Evidence was level II. MAIN MESSAGE Minimizing the incidence of CDAD in geriatric rehabilitation units is essential to achieving the goals of increasing patient function and independence for discharge into the community. Attention to environmental control of C difficile and its spores by health care workers and patient visitors is an important secondary prevention strategy. CONCLUSION Chlorine-releasing agents are more effective than detergents for killing spores produced by C difficile. No level I evidence is available to determine if the use of chlorine-releasing agents has an effect on rates of CDAD. Hand-washing is currently the recommended strategy for reducing transmission of C difficile. Alcohol gels do not inactivate C difficile spores; however, increased use of alcohol hand gel has not been associated with higher rates of CDAD. PMID:20463269

MacLeod-Glover, Nora; Sadowski, Cheryl

2010-01-01

281

Dosing and efficacy in specific immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to treat allergic rhinoconjuctivitis and asthma worldwide. The clinical efficacy of the most common routes, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy, is documented for respiratory allergy by double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trials (DB PC RCT). However, dose-effect relationships are not available for all extracts. The 1998 WHO Consensus Report on Allergen Immunotherapy found SCIT ineffective at low doses, with high doses more likely to result in an unacceptably high level of systemic reactions. Recent large well-designed DB PC RCTs using SLIT grass pollen tablets have undergone phase II-III studies in adults with allergic rhinitis, yielding proper dose-response studies. These were analysed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Immunotherapy Interest Group task force on dose effect. In general, low doses (5-7 ?g of allergen Phl p 5 per day) are ineffective. Daily doses of 15-25 ?g of the major allergen protein are required for significant clinical improvement measured by symptom scores. A higher dose (33-40 ?g of Phl p 5 per day) was not more effective than 15-25 ?g. Optimization of the allergen/adjuvant ratio may allow for lower allergen doses, increase the safety/efficacy profile and allow for shorter updosing. However, our analysis of the available studies concluded that every product requires its own dose-response relationship study. PMID:21668851

Demoly, P; Calderon, M A

2011-07-01

282

Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus.  

PubMed

Ranavirus can cause disease in reptiles and amphibians. Because survival time outside of a host remains uncertain, equipment must be disinfected to prevent transmission of ranaviruses. However, disinfectant efficacy against amphibian ranaviruses has not been investigated for chlorhexidine (Nolvasan), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or potassium compounds. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of Nolvasan (0.25, 0.75 and 2.0%), bleach (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%), and Virkon S (1.0%) at inactivating Ranavirus at 1 and 5 min contact durations. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) (2.0 and 5.0 ppm) was also tested with a 60 min contact time. Nolvasan at 0.75 and 2.0% and bleach at 3.0 and 5.0% concentration were effective for both contact durations. Virkon S was effective for both durations, but KMnO4 was not effective at either concentration. Concentrations of Nolvasan, bleach and Virkon S that are at least 0.75, 3.0 and 1.0%, respectively, are effective at inactivating Ranavirus after 1 min exposure time. PMID:19476278

Bryan, Laura K; Baldwin, Charles A; Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L

2009-04-01

283

Targeting the Wnt pathway in zebrafish as a screening method to identify novel therapeutic compounds.  

PubMed

Activating mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway account for the initiation of greater than 90% of all colorectal cancers and this pathway has been implicated in numerous other diseases. Therefore, identifying small molecule inhibitors of this pathway is of critical importance towards identifying clinically relevant drugs. Numerous screens have been employed to identify therapeutic reagents, but none have made it to advanced clinical trials, suggesting that traditional screening methods are ineffective at identifying clinically relevant targets. Here, we describe a novel in vivo screen to identify small molecule inhibitors of the Wnt pathway. Specifically, treatment of zebrafish embryos with LiCl inhibits GSK3 kinase function, resulting in hyperactivation of the signaling pathway and an eyeless phenotype at 1 day post fertilization. Using the small molecule XAV939, a known inhibitor of Wnt signaling, we rescued the LiCl induced eyeless phenotype, confirming efficacy of the screen. We next tested our assay with 400 known small molecule kinase inhibitors, none of which should inhibit Wnt signaling below the level of GSK3 based on their known targets. Accordingly, none of these small molecules rescued the eyeless phenotype, which demonstrates the stringency of the assay. However, several of these small molecule kinase inhibitors did generate a non-Wnt phenotype in accordance with the kinase they targeted. Therefore, combining the efficacy, sensitivity, and stringency of this preliminary screen, this model will provide an alternative to the traditional in vitro screen, generating potentially clinical relevant drugs in a rapid and cost-effective way. PMID:24414478

Robertson, Joshua K; Danzmann, Kestral; Charles, Sherise; Blake, Katherine; Olivares, Annia; Bamikole, Solape; Olson, Meghan; Van Raay, Terence J

2014-02-01

284

The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p <.001. An analysis of covariance using the pretest as the covariate yielded an F value of 6.41 which was statistically significant at p <.001. These quantitative results were supported by interviews and by written comments on questionnaires that determined ratings for the extent of impact on self-efficacy from site based experiences. Results of this study indicate that the experiences of the site based program has a significant positive impact on the preservice teachers' self-efficacy. The implication for teacher educators is that this specific affective dimension can be significantly enhanced. The site based program can provide the four factors Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

Wingfield, Mary E.

285

An objective approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei strain selection as challenge material for medical countermeasures efficacy testing.  

PubMed

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA "Animal Rule" 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel. PMID:23057010

Van Zandt, Kristopher E; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S; Warren, Richard L; Gelhaus, H Carl

2012-01-01

286

An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults  

PubMed Central

We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations. PMID:23888284

PONNIAH, Kathryn; MAGIATI, Iliana; HOLLON, Steven D.

2013-01-01

287

An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults.  

PubMed

We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations. PMID:23888284

Ponniah, Kathryn; Magiati, Iliana; Hollon, Steven D

2013-04-01

288

Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).  

PubMed

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

2010-02-01

289

29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor...REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying information. (a) Filers . Each filer...

2010-07-01

290

NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

291

10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine if ...

292

Disinfection efficacy against parvoviruses compared with reference viruses.  

PubMed

Some virus species can resist harsh environmental conditions, surviving on surfaces for long periods with the possibility of being transmitted to susceptible hosts. Studies are limited on the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses dried onto surfaces, in particular, with the identification of new pathogenic non-enveloped viruses that are expected to have high resistance to disinfection, such as parvoviruses. In this study a range of commonly used biocides, including heat, was tested against porcine parvovirus (PPV), minute virus of mice (a parvovirus), poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5, and vaccinia virus dried onto surfaces. PPV was the most resistant species identified, since many biocides generally considered as effective against non-enveloped viruses and used for high level disinfection demonstrated limited activity. Ethanol had poor activity against all non-enveloped viruses. Effectiveness against these viruses may be important in preventing nosocomial transmission of emerging pathogenic species such as bocavirus and other parvoviruses. This work confirms the need to validate disinfection products against viruses dried onto surfaces and demonstrates that PPV is a particularly resistant surrogate. PMID:19646784

Eterpi, M; McDonnell, G; Thomas, V

2009-09-01

293

Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.  

PubMed

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1 ? 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ? 50% inhibition at a 1 ? 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

2014-02-01

294

Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

2012-01-01

295

Imaging efficacy of a targeted imaging agent for fluorescence endoscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer death. A significant unmet clinical need exists in the area of screening for earlier and more accurate diagnosis and treatment. We have identified a fluorescence imaging agent targeted to an early stage molecular marker for colorectal cancer. The agent is administered intravenously and imaged in a far red imaging channel as an adjunct to white light endoscopy. There is experimental evidence of preclinical proof of mechanism for the agent. In order to assess potential clinical efficacy, imaging was performed with a prototype fluorescence endoscope system designed to produce clinically relevant images. A clinical laparoscope system was modified for fluorescence imaging. The system was optimised for sensitivity. Images were recorded at settings matching those expected with a clinical endoscope implementation (at video frame rate operation). The animal model was comprised of a HCT-15 xenograft tumour expressing the target at concentration levels expected in early stage colorectal cancer. Tumours were grown subcutaneously. The imaging agent was administered intravenously at a dose of 50nmol/kg body weight. The animals were killed 2 hours post administration and prepared for imaging. A 3-4mm diameter, 1.6mm thick slice of viable tumour was placed over the opened colon and imaged with the laparoscope system. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was applied to imaging results. An area under the curve of 0.98 and a sensitivity of 87% [73, 96] and specificity of 100% [93, 100] were obtained.

Healey, A. J.; Bendiksen, R.; Attramadal, T.; Bjerke, R.; Waagene, S.; Hvoslef, A. M.; Johannesen, E.

2008-02-01

296

Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy  

PubMed Central

Screening of herbal remedies for Cl? channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl? channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1?50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl? conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ?50% inhibition at a 1?5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl? inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl? channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

2014-01-01

297

Structural Identifiability of Viscoelastic Mechanical Systems  

PubMed Central

We solve the local and global structural identifiability problems for viscoelastic mechanical models represented by networks of springs and dashpots. We propose a very simple characterization of both local and global structural identifiability based on identifiability tables, with the purpose of providing a guideline for constructing arbitrarily complex, identifiable spring-dashpot networks. We illustrate how to use our results in a number of examples and point to some applications in cardiovascular modeling. PMID:24523860

2014-01-01

298

The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

2011-01-01

299

Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

2009-01-01

300

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2010-10-01

301

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2012-10-01

302

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2014-10-01

303

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2011-10-01

304

47 CFR 2.926 - FCC identifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FCC identifier. 2.926 Section 2.926...for Equipment Authorizations § 2.926 FCC identifier. (a) A grant of equipment...by the Commission will list the validated FCC Identifier consisting of the grantee...

2013-10-01

305

Efficacy of partner notification for HIV infection.  

PubMed

Since 1985, partner notification has been part of Swedish policy to prevent the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Potentially infected partners of a newly diagnosed seropositive patient are notified either by the index patient or by the physician and referred for counselling. The efficacy of this strategy was assessed over 18 months in 1989-90. 365 HIV-seropositive index patients (91% of the 403 patients diagnosed in Sweden during the study period) reported 564 sexual or needle-sharing contacts. 390 contacts were located and counselled and HIV test results are known for 350 of them. In 53 of the 350 cases, previously unknown seropositivity was diagnosed. Partner notification for HIV should be viewed as a strategy to offer counselling and testing to a high-prevalence group of people. In a country where general HIV prevalence is low, the strategy is cost-effective for location and counselling of unknowingly seropositive individuals. PMID:1682542

Giesecke, J; Ramstedt, K; Granath, F; Ripa, T; Rådö, G; Westrell, M

1991-11-01

306

Promotion of PDT efficacy by bile acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We had previously described the use of relatively hydrophobic bile acids, notably UDCA (ursodeoxycholate) for the promotion of the apoptotic response to photodynamic therapy. Further study revealed that this effect occurred only when the target for photodamage was the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The efficacy of lysosomal photodamage, leading to a cleavage of the protein Bid, was not influenced by UDCA. Moreover, the apoptotic cell death resulting from treatment of cells with the non-peptidic Bcl-2 inhibitor HA 14-1 was also promoted by UDCA. These results are consistent with the proposal that the pro-apoptotic effects of UDCA are directed against Bcl-2, promoting inactivation by HA 14-1 or photodamage.

Castelli, Michelle; Reiners, John, Jr.; Kessel, David

2003-06-01

307

Efficacy of a screening radioallergosorbent test.  

PubMed

Controversy over the routine use of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for initial inhalant allergy diagnosis largely concerns expense to the patient. Presented is a method for utilizing the RAST, with all its inherent advantages, at a competitive cost to both negatively and positively responding patients. The initial use of a "screening" RAST that utilizes approximately one third the number of tests in the usual full RAST battery is recommended. When all responses on the screening RAST battery are negative, further RAST testing proves generally unnecessary. For positive responders, the screening RAST often eliminates the need of additional pollen and/or mold allergen testing, a further cost-containment feature. The presented study illustrates the efficacy of this technique. A background section is provided to familiarize the reader with the common modalities available for testing and treating IgE-mediated inhalant allergies. PMID:6816199

King, W P

1982-12-01

308

Changes in teacher efficacy during the early years of teaching: A comparison of four measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the most powerful influences on the development of teacher efficacy are mastery experiences during student teaching and the induction year. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy suggests that efficacy may be most malleable early in learning, thus the first years of teaching could be critical to the long-term development of teacher efficacy. Yet few longitudinal studies exist that track efficacy

Anita Woolfolk Hoy; Rhonda Burke Spero

2005-01-01

309

Efficacy of the Conventional Deformation Analysis Methods for GPS Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To monitor plate tectonics, the movement of engineering structures, landslides etc., geodetic control networks as, e.g., conventional vertical, horizontal or 3D networks as well as GPS networks, may be established. It is necessary to control the stability of these networks periodically. The main aim of geodetic deformation measurements is to identify any point displacements in the control networks, and consequently to detect any deformation of the object. It is important to know whether the points detected by Conventional Deformation Analysis (CDA) are really displaced or not, and also if there are any more displaced points in the network. It is impossible to answer these questions unless the actual positions of the displaced points before the analysis are known. There are two reasons for the unsuccessful results of the Conventional Deformation Analysis (CDA) method: 1. the spreading effect of Least Squares Estimation (LSE), 2. the failure of F-test. When a displacement occurs at a point, both the observations that belong to the displaced point and to those undisplaced points closest to it are affected. The LSE spreads these effects to various degrees over all the coordinates. As a result, the actual displacements are not exactly reflected in the coordinates of that point. Consequently, CDA methods may wrongly identify a point as being displaced. Also the F-test is known not to be successful in some cases. To eliminate the smearing effect of the LSE and the indifference of the F-test, in order to obtain more specific results a new strategy has been developed based on division into subnetworks. The observations of the GPS network were simulated and then CDA and new strategy were applied to the simulated networks. The efficacy of CDA method was measured using the Mean Success Rate (MSR). According to the obtained results, the MSRs of the new strategy are higher than the CDA.

Erdogan, Bahattin; Hekimoglu, Serif

2013-04-01

310

Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. Results In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. Conclusions The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25628734

Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin

2015-01-01

311

Computational investigation of the relative efficacies of nail-and  

E-print Network

-fixation efficacy (as measured by the extents of lateral (found to be minor), flexural and torsional displacements-fixation efficacies, health condition of the femur and the activity level of the patient. More specifically, the more in the number of proximal femoral fractures, most of which affect the elderly. Based on complexity and location

Grujicic, Mica

312

College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

Woodrow, Lindy

2011-01-01

313

Antimalarial drug discovery: efficacy models for compound screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased efforts in antimalarial drug discovery are urgently needed. The goal must be to develop safe and affordable new drugs to counter the spread of malaria parasites that are resistant to existing agents. Drug efficacy, pharmacology and toxicity are important parameters in the selection of compounds for development, yet little attempt has been made to review and standardize antimalarial drug-efficacy

Philip J. Rosenthal; Simon L. Croft; Reto Brun; Solomon Nwaka; David A. Fidock

2004-01-01

314

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

315

Self-Efficacy, Stress, and Academic Success in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27…

Zajacova, Anna; Lynch, Scott M.; Espenshade, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

316

Cost-Efficacy in Wetland Restoration Projects in Coastal Louisiana  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Cost-Efficacy in Wetland Restoration Projects in Coastal Louisiana Joy Merino & Christiane, such as wetland loss, influence CWPPRA project selection for funding. We found that the program was selecting cost- effective projects overall. Cost efficacy varied significantly by restoration project type, with barrier

317

Efficacy of In-Home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been much discussion of the efficacy of mental health interventions for children as well as the transportation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) to field settings. A logical initial step in this line of research is to examine whether the efficacy of ESTs can be demonstrated in community settings such as in the…

Ware, Lisa M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Masse, Joshua; Stevens, Sarah

2008-01-01

318

Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

Fineburg, Amy Cheek

2010-01-01

319

The Sources that Influence Student Teachers' Sense of Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation study is to examine the variables that impact student teachers' perceptions of their teaching efficacy during their reading and writing lessons. Extending Bandura's four sources of efficacy beliefs--performance or mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal or social persuasion, and physiological and/or…

Oh, Sunjin

2010-01-01

320

Developing an ELT Context-Specific Teacher Efficacy Instrument  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher efficacy is a topic of significance in mainstream education and various instruments have been developed to measure this construct. The available instruments however, are general both in terms of their subject matter and context. To compensate for this generality, the present study aims to develop a new teacher efficacy instrument whose…

Akbari, Ramin; Tavassoli, Kobra

2014-01-01

321

Teacher Stress: The Mediating Role of Collective Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the study were to (a) examine the factor structure of measures of teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and job satisfaction, and (b) explore the mediating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 951 teachers from elementary and secondary schools in…

Klassen, Robert M.

2010-01-01

322

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

Busch, Tor

1995-01-01

323

Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy among Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of…

Mouton, Alexandre; Hansenne, Michel; Delcour, Romy; Cloes, Marc

2013-01-01

324

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Professional School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationships between burnout and self-efficacy among school counselors. Also, the level of their burnout and self-efficacy was examined in terms of the social support, task perception and the number of students. A sample of 194 school counselors filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The School Counselors…

Gunduz, Bulent

2012-01-01

325

Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

2006-01-01

326

A Reanalysis of Engineering Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…

Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

2012-01-01

327

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith,  

E-print Network

Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination Derek J. Smith, ¢¡ Stephanie Forrest-665-3493. Running head: Annual influenza vaccination. Classification: Medical Science Keywords: influenza, vaccination, original antigenic sin, vaccine efficacy, repeated vaccination. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Conclusions have

Forrest, Stephanie

328

The Accuracy of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Outdoor Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the present era of outcome assessment and accountability, self-efficacy is a popular outcome measure in outdoor and adventure education. Self-efficacy beliefs are context specific perceptions an individual possesses about a likelihood of success in future tasks and are related to well-being confidence, and persistence. However, recent research…

Schumann, Scott

2013-01-01

329

Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and

Albert Bandura

1977-01-01

330

Development of the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectations Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study developed an 18-item scale measuring individuals' social expectations in relationships related to their efficacy expectations (Subscale 1) and outcome expectations (Subscale 2) based on Bandura's self-efficacy theory. Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, using an undergraduate sample ("N"…

Wright, Stephen L.; Wright, Dorothy A.; Jenkins-Guarnieri, Michael A.

2013-01-01

331

Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many instruments have been developed to measure organizational constructs such as citizenship, climate, and organization-based esteem, to date no scale has been designed specifically to measure efficacy at the organizational level. Tools to measure organizational efficacy in a business context have been recommended for over two decades.…

Bohn, James G.

2010-01-01

332

A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

2012-01-01

333

Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...

334

Development of Self-Efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…

Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun

2011-01-01

335

Turkish Early Childhood Educators' Sense of Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The current study explores the level of Turkish prospective and current early childhood teachers' sense of teacher efficacy. Method: One hundred and six prospective, 243 early childhood teachers and a total of 389 participants were involved in the study. Participants responded to the Turkish version of Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale…

Kotaman, Huseyin

2010-01-01

336

Teacher Efficacy Among Pre-Service Teachers in MPPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research measures the beginning teacher efficacy of pre-service teachers. KPLI and KDPM trainees were given the 22 - item Teacher Efficacy Scale by Gibson and Dembo (1984) during the orientation week. This is considered important as Mortin & Welsh (1991) state that, \\

Narendra Kumar

337

Extending the Concept and Assessment of Teacher Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an effort to develop an instrument to assess teacher efficacy for enhancing student social relations (TES). In addition, the psychometric properties of the teacher efficacy scale produced by Gibson and Dembo were examined after translation to Hebrew and administration to 218 Israeli teachers. Results indicated that the TES subscale is independent of the two original subscales and

Yisrael Rich; Smadar Lev; Sharon Fischer

1996-01-01

338

Teachers Sense of Collective Efficacy: An International View  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study explores the notion of collective teacher efficacy, a characteristic of schools that has emerged as a significant factor in school productivity. More specifically, this paper examines the construct validity and reliability of the Israeli Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and explores variables that may influence teachers' sense…

Schechter, Chen; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

2006-01-01

339

High Efficacy and the Preservice Reading Teacher: A Comparative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of two field experiences, tutoring and observing, on preservice teachers' reading self-efficacy and content knowledge. Participants completed an adapted, reading version of The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results showed that both groups reported growth in reading…

Haverback, Heather Rogers; Parault, Susan J.

2011-01-01

340

Personal Teaching Efficacy and Its Sources: Student teachers’ perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ confidence in their ability to perform the actions that lead to student learning is one of the few individual characteristics that predicts teacher practice and student outcomes. Teachers and especially student teachers need strong efficacy beliefs in order to continue teaching during in?service education. The current study explores the factors that precede student teachers’ beliefs of teaching efficacy and

Maria Poulou

2007-01-01

341

Beginning Teacher Efficacy and the Practicum in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over recent decades, there has been compelling evidence describing the powerful effects of teachers' sense of efficacy on their instructional activities as well as student outcomes. The present study explored the change of efficacy of prospective teachers over the student teaching period and the factors that might contribute to the change. Data…

Atay, Derin

2007-01-01

342

Assessment of the efficacy of disinfectants on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Literature on testing the efficacy of disinfectants covers a century. Most predominant and standardized are the so called suspension tests that allow for the quantitative estimation of the microbicidal activity (log reduction factors) of disinfectants on test organisms suspended in solutions of these products.Since the outcome of suspension tests might be a poor predictor for the efficacy of a

B. van Klingeren; W. Koller; S. F. Bloomfield; R. Böhm; A. Cremieux; J. Holah; G. Reybrouck; H.-J. Rödger

1998-01-01

343

Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

2013-01-01

344

Disruptive Student Behavior, Perceived Self-Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a model in which perceived self-efficacy in classroom management explained the influence of student disruptive behavior on teacher burnout. Dutch secondary teachers completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Self-Efficacy Scale for Classroom Management and Discipline, and Order and Organization subscale of the Classroom Environment…

Brouwers, Andre; Tomic, Welko

345

Mental Health Promotion in Schools by Strengthening Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review two school intervention projects aiming to promote students' self-efficacy in Germany. Self-efficacy, defined as people's "beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments", is a core prevention criterion of mental health. It is…

Jerusalem, Matthias; Hessling, Johannes Klein

2009-01-01

346

Development of the Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual Change Learning Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess college students' efficacy beliefs for conceptual change and to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Participants were 692 students. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized single factor structure of Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual…

Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Tuckman, Bruce W.; Krissek, Lawrence A.

2012-01-01

347

Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Turkish Undergraduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…

Isik, Erkan

2010-01-01

348

Perfectionism and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…

Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.

2007-01-01

349

Image-Based Chemical Screening Identifies Drug Efflux Inhibitors In Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer cells with active drug-efflux capability are multidrug resistant and pose a significant obstacle for the efficacy of chemotherapy. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that high drug-efflux cancer cells (HDECCs) may be selectively enriched with stem-like cancer cells, which are believed to be the cause for tumor initiation and recurrence. There is a great need for therapeutic reagents that are capable of eliminating HDECCs. We developed an image-based high-content screening (HCS) system to specifically identify and analyze the HDECC population in lung cancer cells. Using the system, we screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds which identified twelve potent HDECC inhibitors. It is shown that these inhibitors are able to overcome MDR and sensitize HDECCs to chemotherapeutic drugs, or directly reduce the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells possibly by affecting stem-like cancer cells. The HCS system we established provides a new approach for identifying therapeutic reagents overcoming MDR. The compounds identified by the screening may potentially be used as potential adjuvant to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:20841476

Xia, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jian; Li, Fuhai; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xiaobo; Dai, Yue; Wong, Stephen T C

2010-01-01

350

Teachers' self-efficacy and organizational citizenship behaviors.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' instructional efficacy and their organizational citizenship behavior. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 1,100 French Canadian high school teachers. A response rate of 44.36% was obtained (279 women and 208 men whose mean age was 40.4 yr.) Teachers' instructional efficacy was assessed with a French Canadian version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale and organizational citizenship behavior was assessed with a questionnaire constructed for the study. Analysis yielded positive and significant correlations (rs ranging from .19 and .34, p<.01) between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and organizational citizenship behaviors such as altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. General teaching efficacy was only related to sportsmanship (r=.15, p <.01). So the predictions were partially supported by the results. PMID:16796098

Dussault, Marc

2006-04-01

351

The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

Briley, Jason S.

2012-01-01

352

Examination of Relationships between Instructional Leadership of School Principals and Self-Efficacy of Teachers and Collective Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between school principals' instructional leadership behaviors and self-efficacy of teachers and collective teacher efficacy. In this regard, a model based on hypotheses was designed to determine the relationships among variables. The study sample consisted of 328 classroom and branch…

Calik, Temel; Sezgin, Ferudun; Kavgaci, Hasan; Cagatay Kilinc, Ali

2012-01-01

353

Assessing the impact of vicarious experiences on preservice elementary science teacher efficacy and preservice elementary teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of vicarious experiences (preservice teacher field experiences) on perceived preservice science teacher efficacy and perceived preservice teacher efficacy. The participants for the study were 46 preservice elementary education students who were enrolled in CIED 3430 (Early Lab and Clinical Experience in Elementary Education II) at

Ronald Robert Wagler

2007-01-01

354

Teacher Self-efficacy, Collective Teacher Efficacy, Automatic Thoughts, States of Mind, and Stress in Elementary School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between teacher self-efficacy, collective teacher efficacy, automatic thoughts, Balanced States of Mind (BSOM) model, and levels of stress in regular education elementary school teachers. A sample of 66 teachers from rural and urban south central Pennsylvania school districts completed the following questionnaires: Teacher Beliefs Scale (TBS), Collective Teacher Beliefs Scale (CTBS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire -

Robert W. Shambaugh

2008-01-01

355

The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses  

PubMed Central

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

2012-01-01

356

Safety and efficacy of physical restraints for the elderly. Review of the evidence.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To critically review evidence on the safety and efficacy of physical restraints for the elderly and to provide family physicians with guidelines for rational use of restraints. DATA SOURCES: Articles cited on MEDLINE (from 1989 to November 1994) and Cinahl (from 1982 to 1994) under the MeSH heading "physical restraints." STUDY SELECTION: Articles that specifically dealt with the safety and efficacy of restraints and current patterns of use, including prevalence, risk factors, and indications, were selected. Eight original research articles were identified and critically appraised. DATA EXTRACTION: Data extracted concerned the negative sequelae of restraints and the association between restraint use and fall and injury rates. General data about current patterns of restraint use were related to safety and efficacy findings. DATA SYNTHESIS: No randomized, controlled trials of physical restraint use were found in the literature. A variety of study design, including retrospective chart review, prospective cohort studies, and case reports, found little evidence that restraints prevent injury. Some evidence suggested that restraints might increase risk of falls and injury. Restraint-reduction programs have not been shown to increase fall or injury rates. Numerous case reports document injuries or deaths resulting from restraint use or misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Although current evidence does not support the belief that restraints prevent falls and injuries and questions their safety, further prospective and controlled studies are needed to clarify these issues. Information from review and research articles was synthesized in this paper to produce guidelines for the safe and rational use of restraints. PMID:8969858

Frank, C.; Hodgetts, G.; Puxty, J.

1996-01-01

357

Comparison on the Efficacy of Disinfectants Used in Automated Endoscope Reprocessors: PHMB-DBAC versus Orthophthalaldehyde  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Since endoscopes are reusable apparatus classified as semicritical item, thorough reprocessing to achieve high-level disinfection is of utmost importance to prevent spread of infection. To improve disinfection efficacy and safety, disinfectants and endoscope reprocessors are continuously evolving. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the combination of polyhexamethylenebiguanide hydrochloride-alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (PHMB-DBAC) and orthophthalaldehyde (OPA) used respectively in ultrasonographic cleaning incorporated automated endoscope reprocessors: COOLENDO (APEX Korea) or OER-A (Olympus Optical). Methods A total of 86 flexible upper endoscopes were randomly reprocessed with either COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC or OER-A/OPA. Culture samplings were done at two sites (endoscope tip and working channel) which were later incubated on blood agar plate. Bacterial colonies were counted and identified. Results The culture-positive rate at the endoscope tip and working channel was 0% and 2.33% for COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC and 4.65% and 0% for OER-A/OPA. Staphylococcus hominis was cultured from one endoscope reprocessed with COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC and Pseudomonas putida was isolated from two endoscopes reprocessed with OER-A/OPA. Conclusions The reprocessing efficacy of COOLENDO/PHMB-DBAC was non-inferior to that of OER-A/OPA (p=0.032; confidence interval, -0.042 to 0.042). During the study period, significant side effect of PHMB-DBAC was not observed. PMID:22741121

Kim, Sun Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Seo, Min Ho; Yim, Sun Young; Oh, Ha Young; Kim, Hye Sook; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Chun, Hoon Jai; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

2011-01-01

358

Investigating the efficacy of terrorist network visualizations  

E-print Network

Military intelligence analysts are increasingly tasked to sift through enormous volumes of data to identify the proverbial intelligence "needle in a haystack." One specific domain exemplifying this new intelligence paradigm ...

Berardi, Christopher W. (Christopher Walter)

2013-01-01

359

21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising... Labeling Claims for Drugs in Drug Efficacy Study § 201.200 Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising....

2010-04-01

360

21 CFR 201.200 - Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising... Labeling Claims for Drugs in Drug Efficacy Study § 201.200 Disclosure of drug efficacy study evaluations in labeling and advertising....

2011-04-01

361

Teacher Sense of Efficacy for Literacy Instruction and Student Reading Achievement in Grades Three through Eight  

E-print Network

& Gibson, 1986), a global measure of teacher efficacy was used for data collection. Bandura (2001) highlighted the need for a context specific measure when measuring efficacy, "Scales of perceived self-efficacy must be tailored to the particular domains...

Poggio, Jennifer Marie

2012-05-31

362

Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components  

DOEpatents

A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01

363

Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo contains various protocol identifier examples, which can be used to produce valid protocolDirTable INDEX encodings, as defined by the Remote Network Monitoring MIB (Management Information Base) Version 2 (RFC2021) and the RMON Protocol Identifier Reference (RFC2895). This document contains protocol identifier macros for well-known protocols. A conformant implementation of the RMON-2 MIB (RFC2021) can be accomplished without the

R. Iddon; C. Bucci

1997-01-01

364

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-01-01

365

The Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the literature on the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, OROS-methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER, and dexmethylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To analyze the effects of different doses of methylphenidate, it’s various formulations, and methylphenidate on efficacy and safety in this population. Data sources Literature retrieval was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE (Up to May 2010) using the terms methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. Study selection and data extraction Double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials, as well as crossover and open-label trials found using the search criteria listed above were included for review. Case reports were not included in this review. Data synthesis Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric condition that is commonly seen in children and adolescents, that persists into adulthood for about 50% of patients. Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are often prescribed to treat the symptoms associated with ADHD. The literature validating the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD is substantial. However, the literature specifically addressing the safety and efficacy of these medications in the adult population is less extensive and prescribing is often anecdotal based on child and adolescent data. Understanding the literature regarding methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate and its effects in adults can enhance evidence-based medicine (EBM) and improve treatment outcomes Conclusion Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are safe and effective medications to treat the symptoms of ADHD in adults. Based on the literature, increased doses are associated with better treatment response with moderate safety concerns. The different dosage forms available enable individualization of treatment. PMID:23861628

Sopko, Michael A.; Caberwal, Harjeet; Chavez, Benjamin

2010-01-01

366

Risk Recognition, Attachment Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and State Dissociation Predict Revictimization  

PubMed Central

Background Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to predict revictimization. Methods Participants were N?=?85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, state dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety predicted group membership. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, state dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. Conclusions This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and state dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher state dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization. PMID:25238153

Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

2014-01-01

367

Application of Perez Daylight Efficacy Model for Kolkata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of daylight on any plane of a building and the passive heat gain due to the corresponding incident solar radiation is correlated by daylight luminous efficacy. The present study was carried out to evaluate daylight efficacy on exterior horizontal plane for Kolkata using Perez Model an established analytical model and Indian measured solar radiation database. The analytical model was selected according to the sky conditions throughout the year. The estimated efficacy models were used to predict horizontal global and diffuse illuminances. The predicted global and diffuse illuminance was validated with the measured illuminance values using standard statistical tools. The estimated Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and Mean Bias Deviation (MBD) between experimental and simulated values of illuminance are +7 % and ±4.5 % respectively. An analytical model of luminous efficacy for Kolkata was also developed from the measured values. From the study, it has been found that diffuse luminous efficacy varies from 114-138 lm/W whereas global luminous efficacy varies from 98-112 lm/W in a year. It is also observed that sky clearness index and diffuse irradiance ratio have significant effect on the variations of luminous efficacy in different seasons.

Raul, Debashis; Pal, Sujoy; Roy, Biswanath

2014-09-01

368

Assessment of anti-inflammatory tumor treatment efficacy by longitudinal monitoring employing sonographic micro morphology in a preclinical mouse model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  With the development of increasingly sophisticated three-dimensional volumetric imaging methods, tumor volume can serve as\\u000a a robust and reproducible measurement of drug efficacy. Since the use of molecularly targeted agents in the clinic will almost\\u000a certainly involve combinations with other therapeutic modalities, the use of volumetric determination can help to identify\\u000a a dosing schedule of sequential combinations of cytostatic drugs

Sanjay Tiwari; Jan H Egberts; Olena Korniienko; Linda Köhler; Anna Trauzold; Claus C Glüer; Holger Kalthoff

2011-01-01

369

Efficacy in sheep and pharmacokinetics in cattle that led to the selection of eprinomectin as a topical endectocide for cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eprinomectin (MK-397 or 4?-epi-acetylamino-4?-deoxy-avermectin B1) is a novel avermectin selected for development as a topical endectocide for all cattle, including lactating cows. The initial efficacy assessments were made in sheep to identify subclasses of the avermectin\\/milbemycins that possessed inherent activity against a spectrum of nematode parasites. This included examination of several hundred analogs each given orally to a single sheep

W. L. Shoop; P. Demontigny; D. W. Fink; J. B. Williams; J. R. Egerton; H. Mrozik; M. H. Fisher; B. J. Skelly; M. J. Turner

1996-01-01

370

Alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care: Absence of evidence for efficacy in people with dependence or very heavy drinking  

PubMed Central

Issues Although screening and brief intervention (BI) in the primary-care setting reduces unhealthy alcohol use, its efficacy among patients with dependence has not been established. This systematic review sought to determine whether evidence exists for BI efficacy among patients with alcohol dependence identified by screening in primary-care settings. Approach We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from eight systematic reviews and electronic-database searches published through September 2009. These RCTs compared outcomes among adults with unhealthy alcohol use identified by screening who received BI in a primary-care setting with those who received no intervention. Key Findings Sixteen RCTs including 6839 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 excluded some or all persons with very heavy alcohol use or dependence; one in which 35% of 175 patients had dependence found no difference in an alcohol severity score between groups; and one in which 58% of 24 female patients had dependence showed no efficacy. Conclusion and Implications Alcohol screening and BI has efficacy in primary care for patients with unhealthy alcohol use but, there is no evidence for efficacy among those with very heavy use or dependence. Since alcohol screening identifies both dependent and non-dependent unhealthy use, the absence of evidence for the efficacy of BI among primary-care patients with screening-identified alcohol dependence raises questions regarding the efficiency of screening and BI, particularly in settings where dependence is common. The finding also highlights the need to develop new approaches to help such patients, particularly if screening and BI are to be disseminated widely. PMID:20973848

SAITZ, RICHARD

2010-01-01

371

Prucalopride: safety, efficacy and potential applications.  

PubMed

Chronic constipation is a very common functional gastrointestinal disorder which can be associated with significant impairments in quality of life for some people with the condition. Its management has, traditionally, been based on dietary and lifestyle changes and the use of a variety of laxative agents. The evidence base for the efficacy of the latter is, in many cases, slim. Not surprisingly, many patients remain dissatisfied with laxatives thus leading to the development of more pharmacological approaches. Among these approaches is the use of prokinetic agents; while prior molecules have been troubled by lack of selectivity and cardiac side effects, the new agent, prucalopride, appears to be highly selective for the serotonin 5-HT4 receptor and is, therefore, a potent stimulator of gut motility. In three large pivotal randomized controlled trials, prucalopride has been effective in relieving the cardinal symptoms of chronic constipation; these effects have been sustained in open-label follow up for as long as 18 months. The safety profile has been encouraging and, especially so, the absence of arrhythmogenic potential. Studies in men, in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and in other motor disorders are eagerly awaited. PMID:22282705

Quigley, Eamonn M M

2012-01-01

372

Impact of smoking on estrogenic efficacy.  

PubMed

Abstract Depending on the type, duration and intensity of cigarette smoking, the efficacy of endogenous and exogenous estrogen can be reduced or completely cancelled. Not only does smoking diminish the beneficial effects of estrogen on hot flushes and urogenital symptoms and its positive effects on lipid metabolism, but smoking also can reduce estrogen's ability to prevent osteoporosis and perhaps also cardiovascular diseases. This is mainly caused by dose-dependent elevated hepatic clearance, partially in conjunction with lower estrogen levels, and has been demonstrated so far only with oral estrogen applications. Compensation for the failure of therapeutic action should not be made by increasing the dose in smokers since this might result in the production of potentially mutagenic estrogen metabolites associated with a higher risk of breast cancer. Since the favorable effects of estrogens seem to be not lost in smokers when estrogens are applied transdermally, this route should be preferred in smokers. The most important conclusion from the data presented is that the effects of smoking are very complex and dependent on a multiplicity of factors, so that different types of clinically relevant negative effects must be expected. Women who continue to smoke despite all warnings should be informed that smoking, in addition to all its other negative effects, can also jeopardize the success of hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25072165

Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

2015-02-01

373

Short-term efficacy of nasal immunotherapy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nasal immunotherapy in the management of allergic rhinitis. Sixteen patients (10 Female; 6 Male) aged 15-60 years (mean age--31.9) were selected on the bases of clinical history, skin prick tests and RAST positivity. Allergen extract is a "macronized" powder form (Allerkin), it was supplied by Laboratorio Farmaceutico Lofarma (Milano Italy) and administered for 12 months to 8 patients with perennial rhinitis (Dermatophagoides extract) and for 6 months to 8 patients with seasonal rhinitis (grass or Parietaria pollens extract). This treatment was carried out by self administration in two phases: the first one (3 months) consisted of administration of increasing doses; the second phase (maintenance period) was carried out 3 months in seasonal rhinitis and 9 months in perennial rhinitis. All the patients were evaluated before and after immunotherapy and scores from 0 to 3 were attributed according to the symptoms presented and need of drugs for symptomatic relief. Scores before and after immunotherapy were compared using the Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test and a significant decrease was observed for every symptom in seasonal and perennial rhinitis (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this trial shows that nasal immunotherapy in powder form can be a valuable short-term option in patients with allergic rhinitis. PMID:9503098

Palma-Carlos, A G; Santos, A S; Pregal, A

1998-01-01

374

Antipsychotic agents: efficacy and safety in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Antipsychotics have provided a great improvement in the management of people with schizophrenia. The first generation antipsychotics could establish the possibility of managing many psychotic subjects in an outpatient setting. With the advent of the second (SGA) and third generation antipsychotics (TGA), other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar depression, bipolar mania, autism, and major depressive disorder have now been approved for the use of these drugs for their treatment. Also, the administration of more specific assessment tools has allowed for better delineation of the repercussions of these drugs on symptoms and the quality of life of patients who use antipsychotic agents. In general, the SGA share similar mechanisms of action to achieve these results: dopamine-2 receptor antagonism plus serotonin-2A receptor antagonism. The TGA (eg, aripiprazole) have partial agonist activity at the dopamine-2 receptor site, and are also called dopaminergic stabilizers. The pharmacological profile of SGA and TGA may provide better efficacy against negative symptoms, and are less likely to produce extrapyramidal symptoms; however, the SGA and TGA are associated with many other adverse events. The clinician has to balance the risks and benefits of these medications when choosing an antipsychotic for an individual patient. PMID:23236256

de Araújo, Arão Nogueira; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Juruena, Mario F

2012-01-01

375

Mathematics self-efficacy: stereotype threat versus resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s academic self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of achievement (Wigfield and Eccles, Contemporary Educational\\u000a Psychology 25(1): 68–81, 2000). The present research examined mathematics self-efficacy and the relationship of racial context\\u000a from the perspective of two competing bodies of research. Stereotype threat theory would predict that, under conditions where\\u000a negative stereotypes are salient, self-efficacy would decrease. So, Black\\/African American

Amy Schweinle; Grace A. Mims

2009-01-01

376

Teacher Efficacy In the Context of Teaching Low Achieving Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focused on the efficacy of Singapore teachers who teach low achieving adolescent students. Three dimensions of\\u000a self-reported teacher efficacy—instructional strategies, classroom management, and student engagement—were examined in relation\\u000a to teacher attributes and the teacher–student relationship. Data were obtained from the Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale Tschannen-Moran\\u000a and Woolfolk Hoy (Teaching and Teacher Education 17:783–805, 2001) and the Teacher–Student Relationship Scale

Lay See Yeo; Rebecca P. Ang; Wan Har Chong; Vivien S. Huan; Choon Lang Quek

2008-01-01

377

Development of a Short-Form Measure of Science and Technology Self-efficacy Using Rasch Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite an increased focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in U.S. schools, today's students often struggle to maintain adequate performance in these fields compared with students in other countries (Cheek in Thinking constructively about science, technology, and society education. State University of New York, Albany, 1992; Enyedy and Goldberg 2004; Mandinach and Lewis 2006). In addition, despite considerable pressure to promote the placement of students into STEM career fields, U.S. placement is relatively low (Sadler et al. in Sci Educ 96(3):411-427, 2012; Subotnik et al. in Identifying and developing talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM): an agenda for research, policy and practice. International handbook, part XII, pp 1313-1326, 2009). One explanation for the decline of STEM career placement in the U.S. rests with low student affect concerning STEM concepts and related content, especially in terms of self-efficacy. Researchers define self-efficacy as the internal belief that a student can succeed in learning, and that understanding student success lies in students' externalized actions or behaviors (Bandura in Psychol Rev 84(2):191-215, 1977). Evidence suggests that high self-efficacy in STEM can result in student selection of STEM in later educational endeavors, culminating in STEM career selection (Zeldin et al. in J Res Sci Teach 45(9):1036-1058, 2007). However, other factors such as proficiency play a role as well. The lack of appropriate measures of self-efficacy can greatly affect STEM career selection due to inadequate targeting of this affective trait and loss of opportunity for early intervention by educators. Lack of early intervention decreases selection of STEM courses and careers (Valla and Williams in J Women Minor Sci Eng 18(1), 2012; Lent et al. in J Couns Psychol 38(4), 1991). Therefore, this study developed a short-form measure of self-efficacy to help identify students in need of intervention.

Lamb, Richard L.; Vallett, David; Annetta, Leonard

2014-10-01

378

Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-01-01

379

Identifying meteor showers from video observations  

E-print Network

Identifying meteor showers from video observations Bachelor thesis 1160 Physics Pavol Matlovic and encouragement throughout this work. #12;Abstract Author: Pavol Matlovic Title: Identifying meteor showers from recent collection of data from video meteor observations, this work delivers information about numerous

Veres, Peter

380

Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer  

E-print Network

Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer Jie Chen1 , Hongxing He1 , Huidong Jin1 of identifying and describing risk groups for colorectal cancer (CRC) from population based administrative health are applied to the colorectal cancer patients' profiles in contrast to background pa- tients' profiles

Jin, Huidong "Warren"

381

Identifying Ideological Perspectives in Text and Video  

E-print Network

Identifying Ideological Perspectives in Text and Video Wei-Hao Lin CMU-LTI-08-008 October, 2008. Copyright c 2008 Wei-Hao Lin #12;Keywords: Ideological Discourse, Statistical Machine Learning, Broadcast- ent ideological viewpoints on an issue and identify biased news stories, blog posts, and television

Eskenazi, Maxine

382

A High-Throughput Fluorimetric Assay for 2-Hydroxyglutarate Identifies Zaprinast as a Glutaminase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Recently identified IDH mutations lead to the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), an onco-metabolite aberrantly elevated in selected cancers. We developed a facile and inexpensive fluorimetric microplate assay for quantitation of 2HG and performed an unbiased small molecule screen in live cells to identify compounds capable of perturbing 2HG production. Zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, was identified as an efficacious modulator of 2HG production and confirmed to lower 2HG levels in vivo. The mechanism of action was not due to cGMP stabilization, but rather, profiling of metabolites upstream of mutant IDH1 pointed to targeted inhibition of the enzyme glutaminase (GLS). Zaprinast treatment reversed histone hypermethylation and soft agar growth of IDH1 mutant cells, and treatment of glutamine-addicted pancreatic cancer cells reduced growth and sensitized cells to oxidative damage. Thus, Zaprinast is efficacious against glutamine metabolism and further establishes the therapeutic linkages between GLS and 2HG-mediated oncogenesis. PMID:24740997

Elhammali, Adnan; Ippolito, Joseph E.; Collins, Lynne; Crowley, Jan; Marasa, Jayne; Piwnica-Worms, David

2014-01-01

383

Virtual school teacher's science efficacy beliefs: The effects of community of practice on science-teaching efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine how much K-12 science teachers working in a virtual school experience a community of practice and how that experience affects personal science-teaching efficacy and science-teaching outcome expectancy. The study was rooted in theoretical frameworks from Lave and Wenger's (1991) community of practice and Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy beliefs. The researcher used three surveys to examine schoolteachers' experiences of a community of practice and science-teaching efficacy beliefs. The instrument combined Mangieri's (2008) virtual teacher demographic survey, Riggs and Enochs (1990) Science-teaching efficacy Beliefs Instrument-A (STEBI-A), and Cadiz, Sawyer, and Griffith's (2009) Experienced Community of Practice (eCoP) instrument. The results showed a significant linear statistical relationship between the science teachers' experiences of community of practice and personal science-teaching efficacy. In addition, the study found that there was also a significant linear statistical relationship between teachers' community of practice experiences and science-teaching outcome expectancy. The results from this study were in line with numerous studies that have found teachers who are involved in a community of practice report higher science-teaching efficacy beliefs (Akerson, Cullen, & Hanson, 2009; Fazio, 2009; Lakshmanan, Heath, Perlmutter, & Elder, 2011; Liu, Lee, & Lin, 2010; Sinclair, Naizer, & Ledbetter, 2010). The researcher concluded that school leaders, policymakers, and researchers should increase professional learning opportunities that are grounded in social constructivist theoretical frameworks in order to increase teachers' science efficacy.

Uzoff, Phuong Pham

384

Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

2013-01-01

385

Combination of active components enhances the efficacy of Prunella in prevention and treatment of lung cancer.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Prunella extracts in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer has been attributed to different components. In this study, an "active components combination model" hypothesis was proposed to explain the anti-tumor activity of Prunella. The efficacy of Prunella extracts from different regions was compared in vitro and in vivo, and the TNF-? activity in serum of tumor-bearing mice was also evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the extracts and identify 26 common peaks. Prunella samples from different regions were classified by the cluster analysis method; both P. vulgaris L. from Bozhou and P. asiatica Nakai from Nanjing, which had the highest activities, were further divided into different classes. Six peaks from the HPLC analysis were very similar, and were identified as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin, quercetin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The total ratio of these compounds in Prunella from Bozhou and Nanjing were 1.0:14.7:3.9:1.0:4.4:1.4 and 1.0:14.8:4.0:0.8:5.6:1.8, respectively. Total triterpenes and total phenols in Prunella were separated by macroporous resin purification for activity studies. The results showed that total triterpenes and total phenols had anti-lung cancer activity and their combination significantly enhanced the activity. In addition, the combination also significantly increased the TNF-? content compared to total triterpenes or total phenols. The results indicated that the efficacy of Prunella against lung cancer was attributable to multiple components acting at an optimal ratio. PMID:21060297

Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Jiang, Jun; Zhu, Mao-Mao; Chen, Yan; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Shi, Feng

2010-11-01

386

A Galleria mellonella infection model reveals double and triple antibiotic combination therapies with enhanced efficacy versus a multidrug-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the inhibitory effect of antibiotic combinations in vitro with efficacy in Galleria mellonella larvae in vivo to identify efficacious combinations that target Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa NCTC 13437, a multidrug-resistant strain resistant to ?-lactams and aminoglycosides, was used. Susceptibility to cefotaxime, piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, levofloxacin and colistin alone, or in dual or triple combinations, was measured in vitro via a 24 h time-kill assay. In vitro results were then compared with the efficacy of the same dual or triple antibiotic combinations versus G. mellonella larvae infected with P. aeruginosa. G. mellonella haemolymph burden of P. aeruginosa was determined over 96 h post-infection and treatment with the most potent combination therapies. Many dual and triple combinations of antibiotics displayed synergistic inhibition of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa in vitro. There was little correlation between combinations that were synergistic in vitro and those that showed enhanced efficacy in vivo versus infected G. mellonella larvae. The most potent dual and triple combinations in vivo were cefotaxime plus piperacillin, and meropenem plus piperacillin and amikacin, respectively. Fewer combinations were found to offer enhanced therapeutic benefit in vivo compared with in vitro. The therapeutic benefit arising from treatment with antibiotic combinations in vivo correlated with reduced larval burden of P. aeruginosa. This study has identified antibiotic combinations that merit further investigation for their clinical potential and has demonstrated the utility of using G. mellonella to screen for novel antibiotic treatments that demonstrate efficacy in vivo. PMID:24928215

Krezdorn, Jessica; Adams, Sophie; Coote, Peter J

2014-07-01

387

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL  

E-print Network

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL Nicholas Garber Biological control of aflatoxin producing fungi must function within a complex crop production system that includes management schemes directed at diverse pests. One biological control of aflatoxin producers

Cotty, Peter J.

388

Efficacy of particle repositioning maneuver in BPPV: a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA single blinded prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) to determine the efficacy of particle repositioning maneuver (PRM).

Sridhar Simhadri; Naresh Panda; Meena Raghunathan

2003-01-01

389

Microneedle delivery for improved efficacy of antiretroviral and antibiotic drugs  

E-print Network

Two classes of drugs, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, could benefit greatly from delivery through microneedles. Microneedles (MN) offer an increase in efficacy for these drugs by providing delivery to the lymphatic system ...

Stauber, Zachary Jason

2012-01-01

390

Comparative evaluation of biofilm disinfectant efficacy tests.  

PubMed

Regulatory agencies are receiving registration applications for unprecedented, antibiofilm label claims for disinfectants. Reliable, practical, and relevant laboratory biofilm test methods are required to support such claims. This investigation describes the influence of fluid dynamics on the relevancy of a laboratory test. Several disinfectant formulations were tested using three different biofilm testing systems run side-by-side: the CDC biofilm reactor system that created turbulent flow (Reynolds number between 800 and 1850), the drip flow biofilm reactor system that created slow laminar flow (Reynolds number between 12 and 20), and the static biofilm system that involved no fluid flow. Each comparative experiment also included a dried surface carrier test and a dried biofilm test. All five disinfectant tests used glass coupons and followed the same steps for treatment, neutralization, viable cell counting, and calculating the log reduction (LR). Three different disinfectants, chlorine, a quaternary ammonium compound, and a phenolic, were each applied at two concentrations. Experiments were conducted separately with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and every experiment was independently repeated. The results showed that biofilm grown in the CDC reactor produced the smallest LR, the static biofilm produced the largest LR, and biofilm grown in the drip flow reactor produced an intermediate LR. The differences were large enough to be of practical importance. The dried surface test often produced a significantly higher LR than the tests against hydrated or dried biofilm. The dried biofilm test produced LR values similar to those for the corresponding hydrated biofilm test. These results show that the efficacy of a disinfectant must be measured by using a laboratory method where biofilm is grown under fluid flow conditions similar to the environment where the disinfectant will be applied. PMID:17524505

Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli; Goeres, Darla M; Hamilton, Martin A

2007-08-01

391

Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy.  

PubMed

Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm(2)), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

Allam, Reynald C; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

2014-06-01

392

Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm2), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

Allam, Reynald C.; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

2014-01-01

393

Is acupuncture efficacious therapy in Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

This review aims to assess the evidences from recent clinical studies regarding the efficacy of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease. Relevant literatures were searched from 13 databases under the condition "published between 2000 and 2012" with language restrictions. Eleven studies were indentified including 6 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 4 uncontrolled open label studies, and 1 crossover trial. The number of trials, and their total sample size were not enough to prove the favorable effects of acupuncture. Five studies failed to report proper diagnostic criteria for enrollment. Two of the 6 RCTs did not include the randomization methods and whether the assessors were blinded. Drop-outs were unreported or insufficiently reported in 2 trials. Three RCTs compared the effects of acupuncture with placebo acupuncture. Two of these trials failed to show superiority of acupuncture. One RCT showed beneficial effects of constitutional acupuncture, but not needle acupuncture. Three RCTs that assessed the effects of acupuncture adjunctive to conventional drugs reported beneficial effects of acupuncture. The placebo response to acupuncture was not excluded, because there was no control acupuncture group in these studies. Two uncontrolled studies showed significant positive effects of acupuncture, while other two uncontrolled trials failed. There were no recognized validated acupuncture treatment protocols and a lack of consensus on the location of acupoints. Safety and tolerability were reported only in 5 studies. No study evaluated the long-lasting effect of acupuncture following cessation of the treatment. To date, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating Parkinson's disease is not convincing. There are needs for further studies with improved methodological quality. PMID:24798223

Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Beom S

2014-06-15

394

[Efficacy of crystalloid cardioplegia against immature myocardium].  

PubMed

Previous reports have not suggested a critical answer for the question, if the efficacy of crystalloid cardioplegic (St' Thomas Hospital) solution against immature myocardium was the same as that against mature myocardium, or not. The author in this study, therefore, investigated 72 isolated puppy (2-4 weeks old) hearts dividing them at random into three groups according to the different doses to be administered, namely, Group A: single-dose of 10 ml/kg of cardioplegia; Group B: multiple-dose of cardioplegia with the initial dose of 10 ml/kg followed by 5 ml/kg every 20 minutes; and Group C: no use of cardioplegia. They were subjected to 120 minutes of ischemic arrest at 15 degrees C and subsequent 30 minutes of reperfusion. Ultrastructural changes of the myocardium were studied systematically and, in particular, semiquantification was carried out on mitochondria. Gravimetric and high energy phosphate (HEP) content of myocardium, and recovery of left ventricular end-systolic pressure volume ratio (Emax), spontaneous defibrillation ratio were also studied. Electron microscopic study showed that ischemic myocardial change with global ischemia was severer and more frequent in Group C as compared to Groups A and B, which coincided with less HEP content in Group C. Intracellular rarefaction following global ischemia was less frequent in Group A than in Group B or C, which corresponded to the result of gravimetric myocardial water content study. Spontaneous defibrillation in Group C was evidently prolonged, although there was no significant difference in the left ventricular function among the groups. The author should recommend single-dose administration of cardioplegia with topical cooling against immature myocardium, because this cardioplegia was effective in either single- or multiple-dose, and intracellular myocardial edema was lesser in the case of single-dose than in multiple-dose. PMID:2809286

Aeba, R

1989-06-01

395

A novel tick antigen shows high vaccine efficacy against the dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.  

PubMed

Ticks are acaridae ectoparasites that, while taking a blood meal, can transmit viruses, bacteria, protozoa and filarial nematodes, which cause a variety of human and animal illnesses. The use of chemical pesticides constitutes the primary measure for control of these ectoparasites. However, the intensive use of these chemicals has drawbacks such as the contamination of food, environmental pollution and development of resistance by ectoparasites. Vaccination is considered a promising alternative for controlling infestations by ectoparasites. Although emerging tick proteins have been identified recently, and have been proposed as potential targets for generating protective molecules, only a limited number of them have been evaluated in vaccine trials. More than 80 proteins are found in eukaryotic ribosomes. The protein P0 is essential for the assembly of the 60S ribosomal subunit. We have identified an immunogenic region of the ribosomal protein P0 from Rhipicephalus sp. ticks that is not very conserved compared to host P0. The efficacy of a 20 amino acid synthetic peptide from this sequence was assayed as a vaccine antigen against Rhipicephalus sanguineus infestations in an immunization and challenge experiment on rabbits. A remarkable diminution in the viability of newly molted nymphs from larvae fed on vaccinated rabbits was observed. The number of adults and the number of eggs hatching were significantly reduced, with an overall efficacy of 90%. Our results demonstrated that immunization with an immunogenic peptide of tick protein P0 greatly reduced survival of ticks, suggesting that it has promise as an effective tick control agent. PMID:22245603

Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina; Fernández, Erlinda; Encinosa, Pedro E; Bello, Yamil; Méndez-Pérez, Lídice; Ruiz, Lázaro Cepero; Pérez, Danny; González, Mayte; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Méndez, Luis; Estrada, Mario Pablo

2012-02-27

396

Self-Efficacy, Stress, and Academic Success in College  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27 college-related tasks. Both scales have high reliability, and they are moderately negatively

Anna Zajacova; Scott M. Lynch; Thomas J. Espenshade

2005-01-01

397

Efficacy of closantel against Fasciola hepatica in Korean native goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closantel (Flukiver™), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg\\/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in

C. G. Lee; S. H. Cho; J. T. Kim; C. Y. Lee

1996-01-01

398

Effect of Workplace Laughter Groups on Personal Efficacy Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study measured the impact of a purposeful aerobic laughter intervention on employees’ sense of self-efficacy in the workplace.\\u000a Participants were 33 employees of a behavioral health center. They met for 15-minute sessions on 15 consecutive workdays and\\u000a engaged in a guided program of non-humor dependent laughter. The primary outcome measure was the Capabilities Awareness Profile,\\u000a a self-report self-efficacy questionnaire.

Heidi Beckman; Nathan Regier; Judy Young

2007-01-01

399

Efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of systemic fungal infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of systemic fungal infections was evaluated in an open non-comparative trial. A total of 48 patients with proven or suspected fungal infections were enrolled in 40 of whom efficacy was evaluable.Candida albicans accounted for 90 % of the infections.Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Histoplasma capsulatum andAspergillus fumigatus caused the infection in one case each.

D. Milatovic; A. Voss

1992-01-01

400

Self?efficacy and statistics performance among Sport Studies students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored predictive paths between performance accomplishments, self?efficacy, and performance among Sport Studies students taking a Level 1 statistics module. Fifty?eight Level 1 Sport Studies undergraduate degree students completed a 44?item self?efficacy measure and an assessment of perceived academic success at the start of the module. Self?assessed worksheets taken in weeks 4 and 5 were used as a

Ross Hall

2004-01-01

401

Pre-Service Reading Teacher Efficacy and Tutoring: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ personal self-efficacy about their ability to motivate students and encourage learning has been shown to affect\\u000a the classroom they create and student achievement. Therefore, research has been conducted on ways to increase teacher efficacy\\u000a for in-service and pre-service teachers. One area of research that has been explored is the impact of field experiences on\\u000a pre-service teachers. This review explores

Heather R. Haverback; Susan J. Parault

2008-01-01

402

Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality traits were operationalized using Tellegen’s Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Tellegen, 1982, 2000; Tellegen &

Lisa M. Larson; Fred H. Borgen

2006-01-01

403

Efficacy of citalopram in anorexia nervosa: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) still lacks a defined treatment. Since fluoxetine proved effective in weight-restored anorexics, this pilot study evaluates the efficacy of another SSRI, citalopram, in restricting-type AN. Experimental procedures: Fifty-two female anorectic outpatients were randomized in the citalopram (n=26) and waiting list (n=26) as a control group. Efficacy was assessed using Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Eating Disorder Inventory-Symptom Checklist,

Secondo Fassino; Paolo Leombruni; Giovanni Abbate Daga; Annalisa Brustolin; Giuseppe Migliaretti; Franco Cavallo; Giovanni G Rovera

2002-01-01

404

The Effect of Assigned Achievement Goals, Self-Monitoring, Interest in the Subject Matter, and Goal Orientations on Students’ Computer Skill Achievement, Use of Learning Strategies, and Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of two self-regulated learning strategies, assigning achievement goals to students (process or outcome) and self-monitoring of learning, on students’ computer skill achievement and self-efficacy beliefs. Moreover, the study sought to identify the effect of students’ initial goal orientations and interest in learning on their achievement, self-efficacy, and use of learning

2004-01-01

405

The Effect of Assigned Achievement Goals, Self-Monitoring, Interest in the Subject Matter, and Goal Orientations on Students’ Computer Skill Achievement, Use of Learning Strategies, and Computer Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of two self-regulated learning strategies, assigning achievement goals to students (process or outcome) and self-monitoring of learning, on students’ computer skill achievement and self-efficacy beliefs. Moreover, the study sought to identify the effect of students’ initial goal orientations and interest in learning on their achievement, self-efficacy, and use of learning

2003-01-01

406

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Management: Preliminary Validation of a Disease-Specific Measure  

PubMed Central

IBDs require self-management skills that may be influenced by self-efficacy (SE). Self Efficacy represents an individual’s perception of his or her ability to organize and execute the behaviors necessary to manage disease. The goal of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of IBD-specific SE that can be used in clinical and research contexts. 122 adults with a verified IBD diagnosis participated in the study. Data were pooled from two sources: patients from an outpatient university gastroenterology clinic (n = 42) and a sample of online respondents (n = 80). All participants (N = 122) completed the IBD-Self-Efficacy Scale (IBD-SES) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Additionally, online participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; while the clinic sample completed the Perceived Health Competence Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and Short Form Version 2 Health Survey. The IBD-SES was initially constructed to identify 4 distinct theoretical domains of self-efficacy: a) managing stress and emotions, b) managing medical care, c) managing symptoms and disease, and d) maintaining remission. The 29-item IBD-SES has high internal consistency (r = 0.96), high test-retest reliability (r = 0.90), and demonstrates strong construct and concurrent validity with established measures. The IBD-SES is a critical first step towards addressing an important psychological construct that could influence treatment outcomes in IBD. PMID:20848516

Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L.; Taft, Tiffany H.

2010-01-01

407

Long-acting risperidone injection: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the first long-acting atypical antipsychotic  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone. Methods Studies published between January 2000 and October 2006 evaluating the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone were reviewed, as identified from literature searches using Medline and EMBASE. Abstracts and posters on long-acting risperidone presented at key psychiatry congresses and available in the public domain during this time period were also reviewed. Results The unique pharmacokinetic profile of long-acting risperidone is derived from the encapsulation of risperidone in a glycolide/lactide matrix in the form of microspheres such that after a single intramuscular injection, significant plasma levels of the drug are achieved after week 3. Steady state, after repeated administration at 2-week intervals, is achieved after 3 injection cycles. Short- and long-term studies have demonstrated that long-acting risperidone (25, 37.5, or 50 mg) is both efficacious and well tolerated in a wide variety of patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses. Most patients can be switched from other oral and long-acting antipsychotic agents without compromising efficacy and safety. Long-acting risperidone may also reduce overall healthcare costs by decreasing rates of relapse and hospitalization. Conclusion The assured delivery of an atypical antipsychotic medication with long-acting risperidone has important implications for patient compliance, maintenance of stability, consistency of treatment, and improving patient outcomes including the achievement of remission. PMID:19300536

Chue, Pierre

2007-01-01

408

Evaluation of the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of an eyelid warming device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is widespread and has significant impact on patients’ quality of life. Eyelid hygiene is the mainstay of treatment but is unstandardized and requires commitment from the patient and encouragement from the ophthalmologist. Blephasteam® is an eyelid warming device designed to be an easy-to-use and standardized treatment for MGD. In the present study, 73 patients were treated for 21 days with twice daily Blephasteam® sessions. The primary efficacy variable, a symptomatology visual analog scale score, declined from 63.07±21.23 (mean ± standard deviation) on day 0 to 41.90±25.49 on day 21. There were also improvements in a number of secondary efficacy variables including subjective ocular symptoms and clinical signs and symptoms of MGD and dry eye, though tear film breakup time and tear osmolarity were not improved. Global efficacy was assessed as satisfactory or very satisfactory in 83.8% of cases. Patient-reported subjective ocular symptoms declined during the study, and a majority of patients rated the efficacy of Blephasteam® as satisfactory or very satisfactory. Most patients found the device comfortable and were able to continue with normal activities (reading, watching TV, using a computer) during the Blephasteam® session. No safety or tolerability issues were identified. PMID:25336900

Benitez del Castillo, José Manuel; Kaercher, Thomas; Mansour, Khaled; Wylegala, Edward; Dua, Harminder

2014-01-01

409

Good gene hunting: commercializing safety and efficacy of home genetic test kits.  

PubMed

The rapid advancement of genetic identification as a means of diagnosing or identifying the existence of a genetic trait for preventative and reproductive concerns should compel legal experts to determine whether there is sufficient safety and efficacy in genetic tests. Genetic testing has been used by physicians for a number of years to enhance their allopathic practice. Specifically, genetic tests are now being considered as aids in understanding the development and proliferation of certain diseases in society as a whole, and in specific ethnic and familial groups. The purposes of this paper are to: (1) articulate what genetic testing offers, by way of definition and scope; (2) identify statutory and regulatory limitations on the development, distribution, and use of genetic tests; and (3) consider whether the potential availability of home genetic tests should be made accessible to the American public. This paper will further provide a proposed regulation to encourage the development and distribution of home genetic tests. PMID:11933969

Stevenson, M

1999-01-01

410

The Effect of Self-Efficacy on Visual Discrimination Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Can subjective belief about one's own perceptual competence change one's perception? To address this question, we investigated the influence of self-efficacy on sensory discrimination in two low-level visual tasks: contrast and orientation discrimination. We utilised a pre-post manipulation approach whereby two experimental groups (high and low self-efficacy) and a control group made objective perceptual judgments on the contrast or the orientation of the visual stimuli. High and low self-efficacy were induced by the provision of fake social-comparative performance feedback and fictional research findings. Subsequently, the post-manipulation phase was performed to assess changes in visual discrimination thresholds as a function of the self-efficacy manipulations. The results showed that the high self-efficacy group demonstrated greater improvement in visual discrimination sensitivity compared to both the low self-efficacy and control groups. These findings suggest that subjective beliefs about one's own perceptual competence can affect low-level visual processing. PMID:25295529

Zacharopoulos, George; Binetti, Nicola; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

2014-01-01

411

Identifying depression in students with mental retardation  

E-print Network

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

Stough, Laura

2003-01-01

412

Identifying depression in students with mental retardation  

E-print Network

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

Stough, Laura

1999-01-01

413

Identifying Requirements for a Nursing System  

PubMed Central

Identifying requirements for automation is the first step toward designing any information system. This paper delineates a methodology that nurses can utilize to define the content of information to be accepted, processed and printed by the computer for nursing.

Rieder, Karen A.; Houser, Mary L.

1983-01-01

414

Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution  

E-print Network

This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

Reeder, Christopher Campbell

2014-01-01

415

Newly identified YSO candidates towards LDN 1188  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of young stellar object (YSO) candidates towards the LDN 1188 molecular cloud. The YSO candidates were selected from the WISE all-sky catalogue, based on a statistical method. We found 601 candidates in the region, and classified them as Class I, Flat, and Class II YSOs. Groups were identified and described with the Minimal Spanning Tree (MST) method. Previously identified molecular cores show evidence of ongoing star formation at different stages throughout the cloud complex.

Marton , G.; Verebélyi, E.; Kiss, Cs.; Smidla, J.

2013-11-01

416

Identifying Risks at a Superfund Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students understand the types of risks found at Superfund sites and how these risks are identified and assessed. They learn how sites are discovered and where to report potential hazardous waste sites. The students also discuss the activities undertaken by the government or other parties at hazardous waste sites to identify sources of contamination, determine the type and extent of contamination, and evaluate the risks posed to human health and the environment.

417

Remote Network Monitoring MIB Protocol Identifier Reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo defines a notation describing protocol layers in a protocol encapsulation, specifically for use in encoding INDEX values for the protocolDirTable, found in the RMON-2 MIB (Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base) (RFC2021). The definitions for the standard protocol directory base layer identifiers are also included. The first version of the RMON Protocol Identifiers Document (RFC2074) has been split

R. Iddon

418

Self-Efficacy and Memory Aging: The Impact of a Memory Intervention Based on Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multifactorial training program was developed for older adults, to improve self-efficacy and memory performance. Elements designed to raise self-efficacy were integrated into class discussions, homework readings, and practice exercises, including an emphasis on memory potential at any age, self-set goals, and opportunities for mastery. Strategy training focused on association, organization, attention, imagery, and PQRST. Significant improvements for the training

Robin L. West; Dana K. Bagwell; Alissa Dark-Freudeman

2008-01-01

419

Persistence at an Urban Community College: The Implications of Self-Efficacy and Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how self-efficacy and motivation affected student persistence at an urban community college. Self-efficacy was studied at two dimensions: self-regulated learning efficacy and self-efficacy for academic achievement. Motivation was also investigated at two levels: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Results show that…

Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Edlin, Margot; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita

2014-01-01

420

Educational Persistence: Self-Efficacy and Topics in a College Orientation Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether a college orientation course for online programs leads to increased self-efficacy and, if so, which course topics are related to changes in students' self-efficacy. The culminating research question explores whether self-efficacy is related to enrollment persistence. Students' self-efficacy scores improved significantly…

Brewer, Susan A.; Yucedag-Ozcan, Arfe

2013-01-01

421

Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

2013-01-01

422

Writing Self-Efficacy in Young Children: Issues for the Early Grades Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The intent of this study was to examine young children's perceptions of writing self-efficacy (Grades K-1). Most research studies find a significant relationship between self-efficacy and achievement in older students (Grades 4-16). Research has also shown that children are affected by personal perceived self-efficacy. Therefore, self-efficacy can…

Kim, Jin-Ah; Lorsbach, Anthony W.

2005-01-01

423

Who Cares about Others?: Empathic Self-Efficacy as an Antecedent to Prosocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies tested associations among self-efficacy and prosocial behavior. In Study 1 we measured academic self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and self-reported prosocial behavior. The study showed that academic but not emotional self-efficacy was positively correlated with prosocial behavior. Study 1 included only self-oriented emotions, and…

Eklund, Jakob; Loeb, Carina; Hansen, Eric M.; Andersson-Wallin, Ann-Charlotte

2012-01-01

424

Student and Teacher Self-Efficacy and the Connection to Reading and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy or the belief in one's ability (Bandura, 1977) on the part of both teachers and students is thought to be directly related to teacher and student success. Few studies have compared teacher efficacy, student efficacy, and student ability at once. This study examined the relationship between teacher self-efficacy, student…

Corkett, Julie; Hatt, Blaine; Benevides, Tina

2011-01-01

425

Efficacy Beliefs, Background Variables, and Differentiated Instruction of Israeli Prospective Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined efficacy beliefs and choices of differentiated instructional strategies needed for effective teaching in inclusive classrooms. Israeli preservice teachers completed teacher efficacy scale and instructional strategy scales. Overall, personal teaching efficacy related to choice of instruction, but teaching efficacy did not. Participants…

Wertheim, Cheruta; Leyser, Yona

2002-01-01

426

Changes in Teacher Efficacy during the Early Years of Teaching: A Comparison of Four Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the most powerful influences on the development of teacher efficacy are mastery experiences during student teaching and the induction year. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy suggests that efficacy may be most malleable early in learning, thus the first years of teaching could be critical to the long-term development of teacher efficacy.…

Hoy, A.W.; Spero, R.B.

2005-01-01

427

Teachers’ perceived efficacy among English as a foreign language teachers in middle schools in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers’ sense of efficacy has been shown to influence teachers’ actions and student outcomes. This study explored self-efficacy beliefs among English as a Foreign Language teachers in selected schools in Venezuela. Data were collected through a survey administered to 100 teachers. The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) was used to assess efficacy for management, engagement,

Carmen Teresa Chacón

2005-01-01

428

Assessing the impact of vicarious experiences on preservice elementary science teacher efficacy and preservice elementary teacher efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of vicarious experiences (preservice teacher field experiences) on perceived preservice science teacher efficacy and perceived preservice teacher efficacy. The participants for the study were 46 preservice elementary education students who were enrolled in CIED 3430 (Early Lab and Clinical Experience in Elementary Education II) at a large Midwestern state university and 20 classroom inservice teachers. A pretest was administered early in the spring 2007 semester, before the preservice teachers did their field experience and consisted of demographic questions and the STEBI-B. A posttest was administered at the end of the spring 2007 semester, after the preservice teachers had completed their field experiences, and consisted of demographic questions, a rating of the teachers they observed during their educational field experience, the STEBI-B and the TES. The field experience classroom inservice teachers provided personal, professional, and classroom data in the middle of the spring 2007 semester. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Findings and conclusions. Factors of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and preservice teacher program placement were found to be significant predictors of preservice teachers' efficacy scores. Even though, in some cases, these factors negatively impacted preservice teacher efficacy, preservice teachers should be placed in these environments when support is most available. The Teacher Efficacy Scale (Gibson & Dembo, 1984) is invalid. Even the construct of a general teacher efficacy is questionable.

Wagler, Ronald Robert

429

Enhanced efficacy without further cleft closure: re-evaluating twist as a source of agonist efficacy in AMPA receptors  

PubMed Central

AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are tetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that couple the energy of glutamate binding to the opening of a transmembrane channel. Crystallographic and electrophysiological analysis of AMPARs has suggested a coupling between (i) cleft closure in the bilobate ligand binding domain (LBD), (ii) the resulting separation of transmembrane helix attachment points across subunit dimers, and (iii) agonist efficacy. In general, more efficacious agonists induce greater degrees of cleft closure and transmembrane separation than partial agonists. Several apparent violations of the cleft-closure/efficacy paradigm have emerged, although in all cases, intra-dimer separation remains as the driving force for channel opening. Here, we examine the structural basis of partial agonism in GluA4 AMPARs. We find that the L651V substitution enhances the relative efficacy of kainate without increasing either LBD cleft closure or transmembrane separation. Instead, the conformational change relative to the WT:kainate complex involves a twisting motion with the opposite efficacy contribution from that expected based on previous analyses. As a result, channel opening may involve transmembrane rearrangements with a significant rotational component. Furthermore, a two-dimensional analysis of agonist-induced GluA2 LBD motions suggests that efficacy is not a linearly varying function of lobe 2 displacement vectors, but is rather determined by specific conformational requirements of the transmembrane domains. PMID:20107073

Birdsey-Benson, Amanda; Gill, Avinash; Henderson, Leslie P.; Madden, Dean R.

2010-01-01

430

A hidden efficacy of seemingly unproductive production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to the fairly established notion in the learning sciences that un-scaffolded, ill-structured problem-solving processes rarely lead to meaningful learning, this study reports a hidden efficacy of such processes in a synchronous, computer-supported, collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. A contrasting-case, double-transfer design investigated the effect of problem type (well- vs. ill-structured problems in Newtonian Kinematics) on collaborative processes and outcomes as well as the transfer of problem-solving skills to the individual. N = 104 triads of 11th-grade science students were randomly assigned to solve either well- or ill-structured problems. Thereafter, all participants individually solved well-structured problems followed by ill-structured problems. Findings suggested that compared to well-structured problem-solving groups, ill-structured problem-solving groups struggled with defining the problem and spent much of their sustained interactional effort around problem critiquing and solution evaluation within a discussion that was highly complex, chaotic, and divergent. As such, they found it difficult to converge on the causes of the problem, set appropriate criteria for a solution, and develop a solution, which, in turn, decreased their group performance. Thus, on many counts, production in ill-structured problem-solving groups seemed unproductive when compared to production in well-structured problem-solving groups. Notwithstanding, the contrasting-case, double-transfer design of this study provided participants in the ill-structured condition with an opportunity to spontaneously contrast the ill-structured problems that they had solved in groups with the well-structured problems they solved on an individual basis afterwards. This contrast helped them separate the relevant from the irrelevant components of ill-structured problems, thereby facilitating a spontaneous transfer of problem-solving skills, which, in the absence of the contrast, might have remained unrealized. Therefore, despite the seemingly unproductive production in ill-structured problem-solving groups, participants from these groups outperformed their counterparts in the well-structured condition on not only the well-structured problems' post-test but also the ill-structured one thereafter. Findings and their implications for CSCL research and practice are discussed. Leveraging on the laws of self-organization and complexity, specific implications for scaffolding learning processes and the development of adaptive expertise are drawn.

Kapur, Manu

431

Genotype-dependent Burst of Transposable Element Expression in Crowns of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during Cold Acclimation  

PubMed Central

The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs) represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of four hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throughout the experiment in three of the genotypes. In winter Norstar, the most cold-hardy of the four genotypes, a subset of the TEs showed a burst of expression after vernalization saturation was achieved. About 47% of the TEs were expressed, and both Class I (retrotransposons) and Class II (DNA transposons) types were well represented. Gypsy and Copia were the most represented among the retrotransposons while CACTA and Mariner were the most represented DNA transposons. The data suggests that the Vrn-A1 region plays a role in the stage-specific induction of TE expression in this genotype. PMID:22474410

Laudencia-Chingcuanco, Debbie; Fowler, D. Brian

2012-01-01

432

Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

Haley, Gwendolen E. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)] [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Raber, Jacob, E-mail: raberj@ohsu.edu [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

2012-11-01

433

A murine lung cancer co-clinical trial identifies genetic modifiers of therapeutic response.  

PubMed

Targeted therapies have demonstrated efficacy against specific subsets of molecularly defined cancers. Although most patients with lung cancer are stratified according to a single oncogenic driver, cancers harbouring identical activating genetic mutations show large variations in their responses to the same targeted therapy. The biology underlying this heterogeneity is not well understood, and the impact of co-existing genetic mutations, especially the loss of tumour suppressors, has not been fully explored. Here we use genetically engineered mouse models to conduct a 'co-clinical' trial that mirrors an ongoing human clinical trial in patients with KRAS-mutant lung cancers. This trial aims to determine if the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) increases the efficacy of docetaxel, a standard of care chemotherapy. Our studies demonstrate that concomitant loss of either p53 (also known as Tp53) or Lkb1 (also known as Stk11), two clinically relevant tumour suppressors, markedly impaired the response of Kras-mutant cancers to docetaxel monotherapy. We observed that the addition of selumetinib provided substantial benefit for mice with lung cancer caused by Kras and Kras and p53 mutations, but mice with Kras and Lkb1 mutations had primary resistance to this combination therapy. Pharmacodynamic studies, including positron-emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT), identified biological markers in mice and patients that provide a rationale for the differential efficacy of these therapies in the different genotypes. These co-clinical results identify predictive genetic biomarkers that should be validated by interrogating samples from patients enrolled on the concurrent clinical trial. These studies also highlight the rationale for synchronous co-clinical trials, not only to anticipate the results of ongoing human clinical trials, but also to generate clinically relevant hypotheses that can inform the analysis and design of human studies. PMID:22425996

Chen, Zhao; Cheng, Katherine; Walton, Zandra; Wang, Yuchuan; Ebi, Hiromichi; Shimamura, Takeshi; Liu, Yan; Tupper, Tanya; Ouyang, Jing; Li, Jie; Gao, Peng; Woo, Michele S; Xu, Chunxiao; Yanagita, Masahiko; Altabef, Abigail; Wang, Shumei; Lee, Charles; Nakada, Yuji; Peña, Christopher G; Sun, Yanping; Franchetti, Yoko; Yao, Catherine; Saur, Amy; Cameron, Michael D; Nishino, Mizuki; Hayes, D Neil; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Roberts, Patrick J; Lee, Carrie B; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Butaney, Mohit; Chirieac, Lucian R; Costa, Daniel B; Jackman, David; Sharpless, Norman E; Castrillon, Diego H; Demetri, George D; Jänne, Pasi A; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Cantley, Lewis C; Kung, Andrew L; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Wong, Kwok-Kin

2012-03-29

434

The Factorial Validity of Scores on the Teacher Interpersonal Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the factorial validity of scores on the Teacher Interpersonal Self-Efficacy Scale across two samples of 416 teachers each. Following self-efficacy theory, which posits that self-efficacy beliefs are linked to specific activities, it was hypothesized that the three Teacher Interpersonal Self-Efficacy subscales comprised three different activities linked to teacher self-efficacy beliefs. Confirmatory factor analysis results from the

André Brouwers; Welko Tomic

2001-01-01

435

Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Initial Validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Academic and Social Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSESS) was developed to assess the self-efficacy judgments of students and to predict academic achievement and sociometric status. Self-reported judgments of academic self-efficacy best predicted academic achievement, whereas self-reported social self-efficacy best predicted sociometric status. Teacher- and parent-reported self-efficacy ratings were minimal predictors of achievement and sociometric status. A multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis failed to

Frank M. Gresham; Sally Evans; Stephen N. Elliott

1988-01-01

436

Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis.

Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

2012-09-01

437

Computational methods to identify new antibacterial targets.  

PubMed

The development of resistance to all current antibiotics in the clinic means there is an urgent unmet need for novel antibacterial agents with new modes of action. One of the best ways of finding these is to identify new essential bacterial enzymes to target. The advent of a number of in silico tools has aided classical methods of discovering new antibacterial targets, and these programs are the subject of this review. Many of these tools apply a cheminformatic approach, utilizing the structural information of either ligand or protein, chemogenomic databases, and docking algorithms to identify putative antibacterial targets. Considering the wealth of potential drug targets identified from genomic research, these approaches are perfectly placed to mine this rich resource and complement drug discovery programs. PMID:24974974

McPhillie, Martin J; Cain, Ricky M; Narramore, Sarah; Fishwick, Colin W G; Simmons, Katie J

2015-01-01

438

A probabilistic approach to identify putative drug targets in biochemical networks  

PubMed Central

Network-based drug design holds great promise in clinical research as a way to overcome the limitations of traditional approaches in the development of drugs with high efficacy and low toxicity. This novel strategy aims to study how a biochemical network as a whole, rather than its individual components, responds to specific perturbations in different physiological conditions. Proteins exerting little control over normal cells and larger control over altered cells may be considered as good candidates for drug targets. The application of network-based drug design would greatly benefit from using an explicit computational model describing the dynamics of the system under investigation. However, creating a fully characterized kinetic model is not an easy task, even for relatively small networks, as it is still significantly hampered by the lack of data about kinetic mechanisms and parameters values. Here, we propose a Monte Carlo approach to identify the differences between flux control profiles of a metabolic network in different physiological states, when information about the kinetics of the system is partially or totally missing. Based on experimentally accessible information on metabolic phenotypes, we develop a novel method to determine probabilistic differences in the flux control coefficients between the two observable phenotypes. Knowledge of how differences in flux control are distributed among the different enzymatic steps is exploited to identify points of fragility in one of the phenotypes. Using a prototypical cancerous phenotype as an example, we demonstrate how our approach can assist researchers in developing compounds with high efficacy and low toxicity. PMID:21123256

Murabito, Ettore; Smallbone, Kieran; Swinton, Jonathan; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Steuer, Ralf

2011-01-01

439

On identifiability of flexible structure parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report investigates the identifiability of modal parameters of flexible structures. Expressions are derived for Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the modal parameters, that is, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes or slopes. The optimal initial state, which maximizes the trace of the Fisher information matrix in the absence of persistent input, is obtained. The concepts discussed are applied to a finite-element model of the 122 meter hoop/column antenna. The numerical results show that the identifiability of the structural frequencies is excellent, followed by that of the damping ratios and the mode-slopes.

Joshi, S. M.; Goglia, G. L.

1983-01-01

440

The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this study may provide a gender-based increase in self-efficacy and future research should focus on exploring this possibility.

Maddrey, Elizabeth

441

Dynamics of Teacher Self-Efficacy: Middle School Reading and Language Arts Teacher Responses on a Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy is created early in a career and not easily influenced over time yet states and school districts loose tremendous amounts of money annually educating and training teachers who elect to leave the profession as a result of low self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived levels of self-efficacy of middle school Language Arts and reading

Kimberly Ann Schwartz

2010-01-01

442

Testing the Mediating Role of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Relationship between Sources of Efficacy Information and Students Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to test the mediating role of teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the relationship between sources of efficacy information and students achievement. For achieving this aim, this study suggests two alternative models, tested by Structural equation modeling (SEM) technique. In the first model, sources of efficacy

Mohamadi, Fatemeh Shaterian; Asadzadeh, Hassan

2012-01-01

443

The Efficacy and Tolerability of Rufinamide in Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Rufinamide (RUF) is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED) and its efficacy has been proven in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). However, there is a lack of data regarding the efficacy in pediatric intractable epilepsies other than LGS. The purpose of the study was to explore the efficacy and tolerability of RUF in pediatric patients with intractable epilepsies as well as LGS. Methods: This retrospective observation study was conducted in Samsung medical center from August 2010 to September 2011. Thirty seven patients (27 males, 10 females, aged between 1.8 and 18.4 years), with refractory epilepsies or LGS were treated with RUF as an adjunctive drug. Efficacy was represented by the response rate and retention rate over the study period. Tolerability was measured as the number of patients who showed adverse effects. Results: The overall response rate was 21.6% during the 12 months of the study period with 5.4% of seizure-free patients. The retention rate was 54% and ineffectiveness was the most common reason for discontinuation of RUF. The most common adverse effects were insomnia and somnolence. Conclusions: RUF may be considered to be an efficacious and safe AED for pediatric patients with intractable epilepsies as well as LGS. PMID:24649460

Kim, Jae Yeon; Lee, Cha Gon; Yu, Hee Joon; Nam, Sook Hyun; Lee, Jeehun; Lee, Munhyang

2012-01-01

444

A Reanalysis of Engineering Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted from this study. (1) No significant differences in overall mean engineering self-efficacy scores were found by gender. However, this study found differences between men's and women's mean coping self-efficacy (CSE) and engineering career outcome expectations (ECOE) subscale scores. Freshmen men had significantly higher ECOE compared to upperclassmen women. (2) Overall, fifthyear men had significantly lower mean ESE scores compared to all other groups. (3) When the fifth-year group was removed from the data set, all first-year students had significantly lower subscale scores compared to all other years. In addition, men in their first-year of engineering had significantly lower subscale scores compared to other groups of men. (4) No significant differences in overall ESE scores were found among first to fifth-year women. Also, no significant differences in self-efficacy subscale scores were found among first to fifth-year women.

Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

2012-12-01

445

Vascular Priming Enhances Chemotherapeutic Efficacy against Head and Neck Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The need to improve chemotherapeutic efficacy against head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) is well recognized. In this study, we investigated the potential of targeting the established tumor vasculature in combination with chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Methods Experimental studies were carried out in multiple human HNSCC xenograft models to examine the activity of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) in combination with chemotherapy. Multimodality imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, bioluminescence) in conjunction with drug delivery assessment (fluorescence microscopy), histopathology and microarray analysis was performed to characterize tumor response to therapy. Long-term treatment outcome was assessed using clinically-relevant end points of efficacy. Results Pretreatment of tumors with VDA prior to administration of chemotherapy increased intratumoral drug delivery and treatment efficacy. Enhancement of therapeutic efficacy was dependent on the dose and duration of VDA treatment but was independent of the chemotherapeutic agent evaluated. Combination treatment resulted in increased tumor cell kill and improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival in both ectopic and orthotopic HNSCC models. Conclusion Our results show that preconditioning of the tumor microenvironment with an antivascular agent primes the tumor vasculature and results in enhancement of chemotherapeutic delivery and efficacy in vivo. Further investigation into the activity of antivascular agents in combination with chemotherapy against HNSCC is warranted. PMID:23890930

Folaron, Margaret; Kalmuk, James; Lockwood, Jaimee; Frangou, Costakis; Vokes, Jordan; Turowski, Steven G.; Merzianu, Mihai; Rigual, Nestor R.; Sullivan-Nasca, Maureen; Kuriakose, Moni A.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Singh, Anurag K.; Seshadri, Mukund

2013-01-01

446

Statistical considerations in biosimilar clinical efficacy trials with asymmetrical margins.  

PubMed

Development of biosimilars to innovative therapeutic biologics promises reduction of healthcare cost and therefore will provide patients worldwide greater access to effective treatments. Because of the differences in raw materials or manufacturing processes, 'equivalence' of bioavailability between a biosimilar and the reference biologic is generally regarded as insufficient, and thus, clinical trials providing efficacy and safety data are often required by regulatory agencies. The traditional non-inferiority trial design may not be accepted for establishing biosimilarity in order to avoid superior efficacy with additional safety (e.g., immunogenicity) risks. On the other hand, the bioequivalence trial design, which is used in the generic paradigm for the evaluation of bioavailability of generic chemical drugs, is not appropriate for evaluating clinical efficacy because the equivalence margins are generally too wide and not justified on statistical or clinical grounds. Motivated by the World Health Organization guideline and the newly released Food and Drug Administration draft guideline on biosimilars, we propose a biosimilarity trial design for evaluating clinical efficacy. The design uses a non-inferiority margin and an asymmetrical non-superiority margin for statistical inference. The independent choice of both margins provides the scientific foundation for drawing clinical efficacy conclusions while maintaining the logical consistency of the inference. The design also has a higher statistical power than a naïve equivalence trial design. PMID:22991275

Li, Yulan; Liu, Qing; Wood, Patricia; Johri, Anandhi

2013-02-10

447

A prospective Korean multicenter study for infectious complications in patients undergoing prostate surgery: risk factors and efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.  

PubMed

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications. PMID:25246747

Hwang, Eu Chang; Jung, Seung Il; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Lee, Gilho; Bae, Jae Hyun; Na, Yong Gil; Min, Seung Ki; Son, Hwancheol; Lee, Sun Ju; Chung, Jae Min; Chung, Hong; Cho, In Rae; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Chang, In Ho

2014-09-01

448

A Prospective Korean Multicenter Study for Infectious Complications in Patients Undergoing Prostate Surgery: Risk Factors and Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications. Graphical Abstract PMID:25246747

2014-01-01

449

Identifying and reducing constraints to potato productivity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in Maine has remained relatively constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Research is needed to identify and reduce the constraints to potato productivity. We evaluated Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive ...

450

Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive cropping systems under both irrigated and rainfed management to identify and q...

451

Anil Seth: identifying the root of consciousness  

E-print Network

Anil Seth: identifying the root of consciousness The co-director of the Sackler Centre for Consciousness Science hopes to unravel the mystery of where 'we' exist through studying the brain Alok Jha Centre for Consciousness Science. Photograph: Andy Hall for the Observer Consciousness is the last

Seth, Anil K.

452

Identifying Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional materials are provided for a workshop to enable participants to assist in identifying patients at risk with protein-calorie malnutrition and in corrrecting this nutritional deficiency. Representative topics are nutrients; protein, mineral, and vitamin sources, functions, and deficiency symptoms; malnutrition; nutritional deficiency…

Walker, Susan S.; Barker, Ellen M.

453

Identifying Dilemmas for Early Childhood Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines situation-based learning as used within the Bachelor of Teaching (Early Childhood) program at the University of Western Sydney, Australia, and the processes of reflection and evaluation that accompany it, and discusses how issues identified by educators are incorporated as subjects into packages for students' study and…

Dockett, Sue; Tegel, Kim

454

Identify the Problem: Reduce Waste By  

E-print Network

Adoption of Alternatives Engage Stakeholders A Green Chemistry Approach to Plastic Bag Alternatives.20-0.60 $1.30-1.50 Table 4: Retail and Wholesale Price Some Alternatives to Banning Plastic Bags: Paper BagsIdentify the Problem: Reduce Waste By Banning Plastic Bag Use Define Goal: Is the ban the most

Iglesia, Enrique

455

Statistical methods for identifying hybrids and groups  

E-print Network

Statistical methods for identifying hybrids and groups ERIC C. ANDERSON INTRODUCTION Recently, statistical geneticists have developed a number of model-based methods that use genetic data to infer of these methods which are known by the software that implements them: structure (Pritchard et al 2000), New

456

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns  

E-print Network

Identifying common dynamic features in stock returns Jorge Caiado and Nuno Crato CEMAPRE, Instituto This paper proposes volatility and spectral based methods for cluster analysis of stock returns. Using and the periodogram of the squared returns, we compute a distance matrix for the stock returns. Clusters are formed

Crato, Nuno

457

Activity: Identifying a solid using density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Effective measurement techniques include the concept of measurement uncertainty. Students may make erroneous conclusions analyzing data using measurements that do not include the uncertainty of the measurement. In this lab, students determine a density range for a metal and identify the material based on this range.

Greg Schmidt, Henry S.

458

Identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy  

PubMed Central

The development of high-throughput genomic technologies has impacted many areas of genetic research. While many applications of these technologies focus on the discovery of genes involved in disease from population samples, applications of genomic technologies to an individual’s genome or personal genomics have recently gained much interest. One such application is the identification of relatives from genetic data. In this application, genetic information from a set of individuals is collected in a database, and each pair of individuals is compared in order to identify genetic relatives. An inherent issue that arises in the identification of relatives is privacy. In this article, we propose a method for identifying genetic relatives without compromising privacy by taking advantage of novel cryptographic techniques customized for secure and private comparison of genetic information. We demonstrate the utility of these techniques by allowing a pair of individuals to discover whether or not they are related without compromising their genetic information or revealing it to a third party. The idea is that individuals only share enough special-purpose cryptographically protected information with each other to identify whether or not they are relatives, but not enough to expose any information about their genomes. We show in HapMap and 1000 Genomes data that our method can recover first- and second-order genetic relationships and, through simulations, show that our method can identify relationships as distant as third cousins while preserving privacy. PMID:24614977

He, Dan; Furlotte, Nicholas A.; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Joo, Jong Wha J.; Wadia, Akshay; Ostrovsky, Rafail; Sahai, Amit; Eskin, Eleazar

2014-01-01

459

Identifying and Exploiting Ultrametricity Fionn Murtagh  

E-print Network

Identifying and Exploiting Ultrametricity Fionn Murtagh Department of Computer Science Royal or locally present in data. We show how the ultrametricity can be assessed in text or document collections of data clouds are important. Quite a few models of data form and structure are used in data analysis. One

Murtagh, Fionn

460

Identifiable Cells in the Crustacean Stomatogastric Ganglion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neural circuits rely on slight physiological differences between the component cells for proper function. When any circuit is analyzed, it is important to characterize the features that distinguish one cell type from another. This review describes the methods used to identify the neurons of the crustacean stomatogastric ganglion.

Amber E Hudson (Georgia Institute of Technology)

2010-10-01

461

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain Age Anna Nagurney and Acquisitions, Network Integration, and Synergies #12;Part I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide of catastrophic events that have drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks

Nagurney, Anna

462

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain World Pre and Acquisitions, Network Integration, and Synergies #12;Module I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide of catastrophic events that have drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks

Nagurney, Anna

463

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies  

E-print Network

Fragile Networks: Identifying Vulnerabilities and Synergies in an Uncertain Age Tutorial Anna Integration, and Synergies #12;Part I #12;Why Study Fragile Networks? Networks provide the foundations drawn attention to network vulnerability and fragility. Since many networks that underlie our societies

Nagurney, Anna

464

Identifying and Prioritizing Critical Hardwood Resources1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A logical framework is required to provide a focus for the implementation of a variety of landowner incentive tech- niques in accordance with existing goals to protect and enhance hardwood resources. A system is presented for identifying and prioritizing critical hardwood resources for site specific conser- vation purposes. Flexibility is built into this system so that various sources of information

Sam C. Doak; Sharon Johnson

465

Combining classifiers to identify online databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of identifying the domain of on- line databases. More precisely, given a set F of Web forms automatically gathered by a focused crawler and an online database domain D, our goal is to select from F only the forms that are entry points to databases in D. Having a set of Web forms that serve as

Luciano Barbosa; Juliana Freire

2007-01-01

466

3740SPACE REPURPOSING PROCEDURE Client identifies  

E-print Network

Page 1 3740SPACE REPURPOSING PROCEDURE Client identifies space repurposing requirement Client completes space request form Submit space request form to Space Management Office Space Management Office acknowledge reciept Is space form completed accurately Space Management Office conduct space analysis Does

467

Identifiability and Equivalence of GLLIRM Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The generalized logit-linear item response model (GLLIRM) is a linearly constrained nominal categories model (NCM) that computes the scale and intercept parameters for categories as a weighted sum of basic parameters. This paper addresses the problems of the identifiability of the basic parameters and the equivalence between different GLLIRM…

Revuelta, Javier

2009-01-01

468

Identifying differentially regulated subnetworks from phosphoproteomic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Various high throughput methods are available for detecting regulations at the level of transcription, translation or posttranslation (e.g. phosphorylation). Integrating these data with protein networks should make it possible to identify subnetworks that are significantly regulated. Furthermore, such integration can support identification of regulated entities from often noisy high throughput data. In particular, processing mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic data in

Martin Klammer; Klaus Godl; Andreas Tebbe; Christoph Schaab

2010-01-01

469

Supermarket costumers routes-and-times identifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

To optimize any process it is important to examine it, identify problems, analyze them, and, finally, propose solutions. A specific situation where optimization can be useful is the daily activity of grocery shopping in a supermarket. This document describes the process of designing and developing an electronic system that helps to visualize the shopping process in a supermarket. The system

Jose Manuel Escobar Gomez; Andres Felipe Jaramillo Alvarez; Jan Bacca Rodriguez

2012-01-01

470

Identifying elephant flows through periodically sampled packets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying elephant flows is very important in developing effective and efficient traffic engineering schemes. In addition, obtaining the statistics of these flows is also very useful for network operation and management. On the other hand, with the rapid growth of link speed in recent years, packet sampling has become a very attractive and scalable means to measure flow statistics; however,

Tatsuya Mori; Masato Uchida; Ryoichi Kawahara; Jianping Pan; Shigeki Goto

2004-01-01

471

Identify, Organize, and Retrieve Items Using Zotero  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Librarians build collections. To do this they use tools that help them identify, organize, and retrieve items for the collection. Zotero (zoh-TAIR-oh) is such a tool that helps the user build a library of useful books, articles, web sites, blogs, etc., discovered while surfing online. A visit to Zotero's homepage, www.zotero.org, shows a number of…

Clark, Brian; Stierman, John

2009-01-01

472

How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation  

MedlinePLUS

How to Identify a Bed Bug Infestation Dini M. Miller, Ph.D., Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech Introduction You cannot just “get” bed bugs. They ... early before the population becomes difficult to control. Bed Bug Identification It is very important to know ...

473

Identifying redundancy in source code using fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype implementation of a mechanism that uses fingerprints to identify exact repetitions of text in large program source trees has been built and successfully applied to a legacy source of over 300 megabytes. This prototype system has provided useful information as well as establishing the scalability of the technology. The approach will form the basis of a suite of

J. Howard Johnson

1993-01-01

474

Identifying marker typing incompatibilities in linkage analysis  

SciTech Connect

A common problem encountered in linkage analyses is that execution of the computer program is halted because of genotypes in the data that are inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance. Such inconsistencies may arise because of pedigree errors or errors in typing. In some cases, the source of the inconsistencies is easily identified by examining the pedigree. In others, the error is not obvious, and substantial time and effort are required to identify the responsible genotypes. We have developed two methods for automatically identifying those individuals whose genotypes are most likely the cause of the inconsistencies. First, we calculate the posterior probability of genotyping error for each member of the pedigree, given the marker data on all pedigree members and allowing anyone in the pedigree to have an error. Second, we identify those individuals whose genotypes could be solely responsible for the inconsistency in the pedigree. We illustrate these methods with two examples: one a pedigree error, the second a genotyping error. These methods have been implemented as a module of the pedigree analysis program package MENDEL. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Stringham, H.M.; Boehnke, M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

1996-10-01

475

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining  

E-print Network

Identifying Relevant Databases for Multidatabase Mining Huan Liu, Hongjun Lu, Jun Yao Department,luhj,yaojung@iscs.nus.edu.sg Abstract. Various tools and systems for knowledge discovery and data mining are developed and available is where we should start mining. In this paper, breaking away from the conventional data mining assumption

Liu, Huan

476

Identifying and Examining Adolescents' Moral Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined adolescents' moral values in a fable writing class in 6th grade, 10th grade, and first year of college. Core values identified in the written fables related significantly to grade level but not gender. As adolescents mature, their values shift. Writing fables is well suited for studying and teaching moral values in character-education…

Bohning, Gerry; Hodgson, Amy; Foote, Tom; McGee, Connie; Young, Brenda

1998-01-01

477

Key themes identified DEFINITIONS matter: challenge  

E-print Network

Outcomes Key themes identified · DEFINITIONS matter: challenge stereotypes of rural and remote care the dynamic nature of local contexts; indigenous communities are integral · CONNECTIONS matter: we need at Caring for the North (CFN) presented in three dynamic themed sessions: · Gender & Care · Rural Health

Bolch, Tobias

478

Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

2012-01-01

479

Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the d