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Sample records for identifying genotype-dependent efficacy

  1. Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718. PMID:24350656

  2. Genotype-dependent lifespan effects in peptone deprived Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Stastna, Jana J.; Snoek, L. Basten; Kammenga, Jan E.; Harvey, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary restriction appears to act as a general non-genetic mechanism that can robustly prolong lifespan. There have however been reports in many systems of cases where restricted food intake either shortens, or does not affect, lifespan. Here we analyze lifespan and the effect of food restriction via deprived peptone levels on lifespan in wild isolates and introgression lines (ILs) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These analyses identify genetic variation in lifespan, in the effect of this variation in diet on lifespan and also in the likelihood of maternal, matricidal, hatching. Importantly, in the wild isolates and the ILs, we identify genotypes in which peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction reduces lifespan. We also identify, in recombinant inbred lines, a locus that affects maternal hatching, a phenotype closely linked to dietary restriction in C. elegans. These results indicate that peptone deprivation mediated dietary restriction affects lifespan in C. elegans in a genotype-dependent manner, reducing lifespan in some genotypes. This may operate by a mechanism similar to dietary restriction. PMID:26539794

  3. Identifying Events that Impact Self-Efficacy in Physics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one's own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of…

  4. Identifying Efficacious Treatment Components of Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents: A Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micco, Jamie A.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents (PCT-A) is a developmentally sensitive and efficacious treatment for adolescents with panic disorder. The present study is a preliminary examination of the relative efficacy of individual treatment components in PCT-A in a sample of treatment completers; the study identified when rapid improvements in panic…

  5. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this…

  6. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this

  7. User-Identified Gel Characteristics: A Qualitative Exploration of Perceived Product Efficacy of Topical Vaginal Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Vargas, Sara; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Katz, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that certain vaginal gel products—microbicides containing antiretroviral drugs—may reduce HIV infection risk among women. But for vaginal gels to avert HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), at-risk women must be willing to use them as directed. These products must therefore be “acceptable” to women and an important component of acceptability is users’ perception that the product will work to prevent infection. We sought to understand how women’s perceptions of vaginal gel properties may shape their understanding of product efficacy for HIV and STI prevention. Sixteen women completed two in-depth qualitative interviews (k = 32) to identify the range and types of sensory perceptions they experienced when using two vaginal gels. We identified emergent themes and linkages between users’ sensory perceptions and their beliefs about product efficacy. Users’ predictions about product efficacy for preventing infection corresponded to measurable physical properties, including gel volume, location in the vagina, coating behavior, sensation of the gel in the vagina, leakage, and gel changes during coital acts. Although the women described similar sensory experiences (e.g., gel leaked from the vagina), they interpreted these experiences to have varying implications for product efficacy (e.g., leakage was predicted to increase or decrease efficacy). To improve microbicide acceptability, gel developers should investigate and deliberately incorporate properties that influence users’ perceptions of efficacy. When a microbicide is approved for use, providers should educate users to anticipate and understand their sensory experiences; improving users’ experience can maximize adherence and product effectiveness. PMID:24452632

  8. User-identified gel characteristics: a qualitative exploration of perceived product efficacy of topical vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Kathleen M; Underhill, Kristen; van den Berg, Jacob J; Vargas, Sara; Rosen, Rochelle K; Katz, David F

    2014-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that certain vaginal gel products--microbicides containing antiretroviral drugs--may reduce HIV infection risk among women. But for vaginal gels to avert HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), at-risk women must be willing to use them as directed. These products must therefore be "acceptable" to women and an important component of acceptability is users' perception that the product will work to prevent infection. We sought to understand how women's perceptions of vaginal gel properties may shape their understanding of product efficacy for HIV and STI prevention. Sixteen women completed two in-depth qualitative interviews (k = 32) to identify the range and types of sensory perceptions they experienced when using two vaginal gels. We identified emergent themes and linkages between users' sensory perceptions and their beliefs about product efficacy. Users' predictions about product efficacy for preventing infection corresponded to measurable physical properties, including gel volume, location in the vagina, coating behavior, sensation of the gel in the vagina, leakage, and gel changes during coital acts. Although the women described similar sensory experiences (e.g., gel leaked from the vagina), they interpreted these experiences to have varying implications for product efficacy (e.g., leakage was predicted to increase or decrease efficacy). To improve microbicide acceptability, gel developers should investigate and deliberately incorporate properties that influence users' perceptions of efficacy. When a microbicide is approved for use, providers should educate users to anticipate and understand their sensory experiences; improving users' experience can maximize adherence and product effectiveness. PMID:24452632

  9. Differential Genotype Dependent Inhibition of CYP2C9 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Brundage, RichardC.; Oetting, William S.; Leppik, Ilo E.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYP2C9*3) on drug clearance have been well characterized but much less is known about whether these polymorphisms alter susceptibility to drug-drug interactions. Previous in-vitro work has demonstrated genotype-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 mediated flurbiprofen metabolism, suggesting the possibility of genotype-dependent inhibition interactions in-vivo. In the current study, flurbiprofen was used as a probe substrate and fluconazole as a prototypical inhibitor to investigate whether genotype dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 occurs in-vivo. From 189 healthy volunteers who were genotyped for CYP2C9 polymorphisms, eleven control subjects (CYP2C9*1/*1), nine heterozygous and two homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele participated in the pharmacokinetic drug interaction study. Subjects received a single 50 mg oral dose of flurbiprofen alone or after administration of either 200 or 400 mg fluconazole for seven days using an open, randomized, cross-over design. Flurbiprofen and fluconazole plasma concentrations along with flurbiprofen and 4’-hydroxyflurbiprofen urinary excretion were monitored. Flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance differed significantly among the three genotype groups (p<0.05) at baseline but not after pretreatment with 400mg fluconazole for seven days. Changes in flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance after fluconazole co-administration were gene-dose dependent, with virtually no change occurring in *3/*3 subjects. Analysis of fractional clearances suggested that fraction metabolized by CYP2C9, as influenced by genotype, determined the degree of drug interaction observed. In summary, the presence of CYP2C9*3 alleles (either one or two alleles) can alter the degree of drug interaction observed upon co-administration of inhibitors. PMID:18378563

  10. Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-08-01

    The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this study and were invited to complete two instruments, physics learning profile and physics learning self-efficacy (PLSE). The main results indicated that, first, the two instruments developed in this study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Second, three fundamental physics learning profiles, the reproductive, transitional, and constructive profiles, were characterized based on the cluster analysis. It is also evident that the three learning profiles demonstrated different levels of self-efficacy for the five PLSE dimensions. The students with a reproductive profile tended to possess the lowest PLSE across the five dimensions. The students with a transitional profile may possess higher confidence in higher-order cognitive skills and laboratory activities than those with a reproductive profile. However, only those with a constructive profile, highlighting a comprehensive understanding of physics knowledge/concepts as well as de-emphasizing physics learning as preparing for tests and calculating and practising tutorial problems, possessed stronger PLSE in applying what they learned to real-world contexts as well as in scientifically communicating with others.

  11. Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza Virus PB2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Colleen F.; Leeman, Joshua R.; Bennett, Hamilton B.; Nti-Addae, Kwame; Huang, Cassey; Germann, Ursula A.; Byrn, Randal A.; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Rijnbrand, Rene; Clark, Michael P.; Charifson, Paul S.; Jones, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Through antigenic drift and shifts, influenza virus infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and of death among elderly and at-risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective therapeutic agents for influenza. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited window for treatment initiation, and resistant variants have been noted in the population. In addition, an older class of antiviral drugs for influenza, the adamantanes, are no longer recommended for treatment due to widespread resistance. There remains a need for new influenza therapeutic agents with improved efficacy as well as an expanded window for the initiation of treatment. Azaindole compounds targeting the influenza A virus PB2 protein and demonstrating excellent in vitro and in vivo properties have been identified. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of these PB2 inhibitors, we utilized a mouse influenza A virus infection model. In addition to traditional endpoints, i.e., death, morbidity, and body weight loss, we measured lung function using whole-body plethysmography, and we used these data to develop a composite efficacy score that takes compound exposure into account. This model allowed the rapid identification and ranking of molecules relative to each other and to oseltamivir. The ability to identify compounds with enhanced preclinical properties provides an opportunity to develop more-effective treatments for influenza in patients. PMID:26169418

  12. Novel Ranking System for Identifying Efficacious Anti-Influenza Virus PB2 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alice W; McNeil, Colleen F; Leeman, Joshua R; Bennett, Hamilton B; Nti-Addae, Kwame; Huang, Cassey; Germann, Ursula A; Byrn, Randal A; Berlioz-Seux, Francoise; Rijnbrand, Rene; Clark, Michael P; Charifson, Paul S; Jones, Steven M

    2015-10-01

    Through antigenic drift and shifts, influenza virus infections continue to be an annual cause of morbidity in healthy populations and of death among elderly and at-risk patients. The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses such as H5N1 and H7N9 and the rapid spread of the swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus in 2009 demonstrate the continued need for effective therapeutic agents for influenza. While several neuraminidase inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of influenza virus infections, these have shown a limited window for treatment initiation, and resistant variants have been noted in the population. In addition, an older class of antiviral drugs for influenza, the adamantanes, are no longer recommended for treatment due to widespread resistance. There remains a need for new influenza therapeutic agents with improved efficacy as well as an expanded window for the initiation of treatment. Azaindole compounds targeting the influenza A virus PB2 protein and demonstrating excellent in vitro and in vivo properties have been identified. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of these PB2 inhibitors, we utilized a mouse influenza A virus infection model. In addition to traditional endpoints, i.e., death, morbidity, and body weight loss, we measured lung function using whole-body plethysmography, and we used these data to develop a composite efficacy score that takes compound exposure into account. This model allowed the rapid identification and ranking of molecules relative to each other and to oseltamivir. The ability to identify compounds with enhanced preclinical properties provides an opportunity to develop more-effective treatments for influenza in patients. PMID:26169418

  13. The tricks of the trait: neural implementation of personality varies with genotype-dependent serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Heinzel, Sebastian; Notebaert, Karolien; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jakob, Peter M; Windmann, Sabine; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2013-11-01

    Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have been associated with extreme BIS responsiveness. In recent years, neuroimaging studies have implicated the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as an important neural substrate of the BIS. However, the neurogenetic basis of the regulation of this behaviorally and clinically essential system remains unclear. Investigating the effects of two functional genetic polymorphisms (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, G-703T, and serotonin transporter, serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region) in 89 human participants, we find significantly different patterns of associations between BIS scores and amygdala-hippocampus connectivity during loss anticipation for genotype groups regarding both polymorphisms. Specifically, the correlation between amygdala-hippocampus connectivity and Gray's trait anxiety scores is positive in individuals homozygous for the TPH2 G-allele, while carriers of at least one T-allele show a negative association. Likewise, individuals homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR L(A) variant display a positive association while carriers of the S/L(G) allele show a trend towards a negative association. Thus, we show converging evidence of different neural implementation of the BIS depending on genotype-dependent levels of serotonin. We provide evidence suggesting that genotype-dependent serotonin levels and thus putative changes in the efficiency of serotonergic neurotransmission might not only alter brain activation levels directly, but also more fundamentally impact the neural implementation of personality traits. We outline the direct clinical implications arising from this finding and discuss the complex interplay of neural responses, genes and personality traits in this context. PMID:23684859

  14. High efficacy vasopermeability drug candidates identified by screening in an ex ovo chorioallantoic membrane model

    PubMed Central

    Pink, Desmond; Luhrs, Keith A.; Zhou, Longen; Schulte, Wendy; Chase, Jennifer; Frosch, Christian; Haberl, Udo; Nguyen, Van; Roy, Aparna I.; Lewis, John D.; Zijlstra, Andries; Parseghian, Missag H.

    2015-01-01

    The use of rodent models to evaluate efficacy during testing is accompanied by significant economic and regulatory hurdles which compound the costs of screening for promising drug candidates. Vasopermeation Enhancement Agents (VEAs) are a new class of biologics that are designed to increase the uptake of cancer therapeutics at the tumor site by modifying vascular permeability in the tumor to increase the therapeutic index of co-administered drugs. To evaluate the efficacy of a panel of VEA clinical candidates, we compared the rodent Miles assay to an equivalent assay in the ex ovo chicken embryo model. Both model systems identified the same candidate (PVL 10) as the most active promoter of vasopermeation in non-tumor tissues. An ex ovo chicken embryo system was utilized to test each candidate VEA in two human tumor models at a range of concentrations. Vasopermeation activity due to VEA was dependent on tumor type, with HEp3 tumors displaying higher levels of vasopermeation than MDA-MB-435. One candidate (PVL 10) proved optimal for HEp3 tumors and another (PVL 2) for MDA-MB-435. The use of the ex ovo chicken embryo model provides a rapid and less costly alternative to the use of rodent models for preclinical screening of drug candidates. PMID:26510887

  15. [Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change. PMID:18592707

  16. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  17. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and

  18. Apolipoprotein C-I is an APOE genotype-dependent suppressor of glial activation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inheritance of the human ϵ4 allele of the apolipoprotein (apo) E gene (APOE) significantly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in addition to adversely influencing clinical outcomes of other neurologic diseases. While apoE isoforms differentially interact with amyloid β (Aβ), a pleiotropic neurotoxin key to AD etiology, more recent work has focused on immune regulation in AD pathogenesis and on the mechanisms of innate immunomodulatory effects associated with inheritance of different APOE alleles. APOE genotype modulates expression of proximal genes including APOC1, which encodes a small apolipoprotein that is associated with Aβ plaques. Here we tested the hypothesis that APOE-genotype dependent innate immunomodulation may be mediated in part by apoC-I. Methods ApoC-I concentration in cerebrospinal fluid from control subjects of differing APOE genotypes was quantified by ELISA. Real-time PCR and ELISA were used to analyze apoC-I mRNA and protein expression, respectively, in liver, serum, cerebral cortex, and cultured primary astrocytes derived from mice with targeted replacement of murine APOE for human APOE ϵ3 or ϵ4. ApoC-I direct modulation of innate immune activity was investigated in cultured murine primary microglia and astrocytes, as well as human differentiated macrophages, using specific toll-like receptor agonists LPS and PIC as well as Aβ. Results ApoC-I levels varied with APOE genotype in humans and in APOE targeted replacement mice, with ϵ4 carriers showing significantly less apoC-I in both species. ApoC-I potently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion from primary murine microglia and astrocytes, and human macrophages, stimulated with LPS, PIC, or Aβ. Conclusions ApoC-I is immunosuppressive. Our results illuminate a novel potential mechanism for APOE genotype risk for AD; one in which patients with an ϵ4 allele have decreased expression of apoC-I resulting in increased innate immune activity. PMID:22883744

  19. Cortical bone resorption during exercise is interleukin-6 genotype-dependent.

    PubMed

    Dhamrait, Sukhbir S; James, Laurence; Brull, David J; Myerson, Saul; Hawe, Emma; Pennell, Dudley J; World, Michael; Humphries, Stephen E; Haddad, Fares; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the interleukin-6 (IL-6) -174 G>C promoter polymorphism and exercise-induced femoral cortical bone resorption. Skeletal response to exercise was assessed in 130 male Caucasian army recruits. Five cross-sectional magnetic resonance images of the right femur were obtained before and after a 10-week period of basic physical training, and changes in cross-sectional cortical area were calculated. Recruits were genotyped for the -174 G>C IL-6 promoter polymorphism. Genotype frequencies (GG 36%, GC 47%, CC 22.17%) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean percentage change in proximal femoral cross-sectional cortical area was strongly IL-6 genotype-dependent, with GG homozygotes losing 6.8 (3.82)% in cortical area, GC gaining+5.5 (4.88)% and CC gaining+17.3 (9.46)% (P=0.007 for linear trend). These changes persisted throughout the right femur and were significant in the femur as a whole (P=0.03). This study demonstrates an association between a functional polymorphism in the IL-6 gene and femoral cortical remodelling during strenuous physical exercise. Previous studies have suggested an important role for IL-6 in the regulation of bone mass in postmenopausal women, and in the invasion of bone by metastatic tumour deposits. These data extend these observations to the regulation of bone mass in healthy males, supporting a fundamental role for IL-6 in the regulation of bone mass and bone remodelling in humans. PMID:12627301

  20. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  1. Reporter gene imaging identifies intratumoral infection voids as a critical barrier to systemic oncolytic virus efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amber; Suksanpaisan, Lukkana; Naik, Shruthi; Nace, Rebecca; Federspiel, Mark; Peng, Kah Whye; Russell, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Systemically administered oncolytic viruses have the ability to cause tumor destruction through the expansion and coalescence of intratumoral infectious centers. Efficacy is therefore dependent upon both the density and intratumoral distribution of virus-infected cells achieved after initial virus infusion, and delivery methods are being developed to enhance these critical parameters. However, the three-dimensional (3D) mapping of intratumoral infectious centers is difficult using conventional immunohistochemical methodology, requiring painstaking 3D reconstruction of numerous sequential stained tumor sections, with no ability to study the temporal evolution of spreading infection in a single animal. We therefore developed a system using very high-resolution noninvasive in vivo micro single-photon emitted computed tomography/computed tomography (microSPECT/CT) imaging to determine the intratumoral distribution of thyroid radiotracers in tumors infected with an oncolytic virus encoding the thyroidal sodium–iodide symporter (NIS). This imaging system was used for longitudinal analysis of the density, distribution, and evolution of intratumoral infectious centers after systemic administration of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus in tumor-bearing mice and revealed heterogeneous delivery of virus particles both within and between tumors in animals receiving identical therapy. This study provides compelling validation of high resolution in vivo reporter gene mapping as a convenient method for serial monitoring of intratumoral virus spread that will be necessary to address critical barriers to systemic oncolytic virus efficacy such as intratumoral delivery.

  2. A kinome screen identifies checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) as a sensitizer for RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Chen, Zhengming; Malysa, Agnes; Li, Xin; Oliveira, Paula; Zhang, Yingtao; Bepler, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is among the most efficacious and widely used antimetabolite agents. Its molecular targets are ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) and elongating DNA. Acquired and de novo resistance as a result of RRM1 overexpression are major obstacles to therapeutic efficacy. We deployed a synthetic lethality screen to investigate if knockdown of 87 selected protein kinases by siRNA could overcome RRM1-dependent gemcitabine resistance in high and low RRM1-expressing model systems. The models included genetically RRM1-modified lung and breast cancer cell lines, cell lines with gemcitabine-induced RRM1 overexpression, and a series of naturally gemcitabine-resistant cell lines. Lead molecular targets were validated by determination of differential gemcitabine activity using cell lines with and without target knock down, and by assessing synergistic activity between gemcitabine and an inhibitor of the lead target. CHK1 was identified has the kinase with the most significant and robust interaction, and it was validated using AZD7762, a small-molecule ATP-competitive inhibitor of CHK1 activation. Synergism between CHK1 inhibition and RRM1-dependent gemcitabine efficacy was observed in cells with high RRM1 levels, while antagonism was observed in cells with low RRM1 levels. In addition, four cell lines with natural gemcitabine resistance demonstrated improved gemcitabine efficacy after CHK1 inhibition. In tumor specimens from 187 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, total CHK1 and RRM1 in situ protein levels were significantly (p = 0.003) and inversely correlated. We conclude that inhibition of CHK1 may have its greatest clinical utility in malignancies where gemcitabine resistance is a result of elevated RRM1 levels. We also conclude that CHK1 inhibition in tumors with low RRM1 levels may be detrimental to gemcitabine efficacy. PMID:23483975

  3. Efficacy of identifying stocked crappies in a Tennessee reservoir through oxytetracycline marking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) immersion was used to identify black-nosed crappies, a morphological variation of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, during fall 1997. The technique effectively marked 97% of the treated fish. Analysis of one otolith per fish by one reader successfully identified 98% of marked and unmarked fish in a blind test. Marks were formed before annulus formation and were not obscured by annulus-related autofluorescence, suggesting that OTC can be effectively used late in the year (October and November) in Tennessee.

  4. THE EFFICACY OF THREE OBJECTIVE SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFYING BEEF CUTS THAT CAN BE GUARANTEED TENDER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracies of three objective systems (BeefCam, Colorimeter, and Slice Shear Force) for identifying guaranteed tender beef. Three hundred eight carcasses (105 Top Choice, 101 Low Choice, and 102 Select from two commercial plants were tested. The thr...

  5. The Efficacy of a Head Start Educational Program for Parents Identified as Potential Child Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanberry, Anne M.

    This paper describes a study conducted to determine if parents' enrollment in a Head Start Resource Center for Parents and Children reduced the parents' potential for child abuse. Subjects were 17 mothers who were enrolled in the Resource Center, had a child from 2 to 4 years old, and were identified as potential child abusers. The Resource…

  6. The Efficacy of Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Identifying Hearing Loss in Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl R.; And Others

    This report describes a project in Utah to investigate the feasibility of using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) as a tool for screening for hearing loss in children with developmental disabilities (DD). Study participants included 336 students (ages 5 to 7) with no identified DD and 765 students (ages 3 to 7) with one or more DD.…

  7. Components of the gene network associated with genotype-dependent response of wheat to the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Walter, Stephanie; Brennan, Josephine M; Arunachalam, Chanemougasoundharam; Ansari, Khairul I; Hu, Xuejun; Khan, Mojibur R; Trognitz, Friederike; Trognitz, Bodo; Leonard, Gerald; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2008-11-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) facilitates fungal spread within wheat tissue and the development of Fusarium head blight disease. The ability of wheat spikelets to resist DON-induced bleaching is genotype-dependent. In wheat cultivar (cv.) CM82036 DON resistance is associated with a quantitative trait locus, Fhb1, located on the short arm of chromosome 3B. Gene expression profiling (microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses) of DON-treated spikelets of progeny derived from a cross between cv. CM82036 and the DON-susceptible cv. Remus discriminated ten toxin-responsive transcripts associated with the inheritance of DON resistance and Fhb1. These genes do not exclusively map to Fhb1. Based on the putative function of the ten Fhb1-associated transcripts, we discuss how cascades involving classical metabolite biotransformation and sequestration processes, alleviation of oxidative stress and promotion of cell survival might contribute to the host response and defence against DON. PMID:18592282

  8. Cross-protective efficacy from a immunogen firstly identified in Leishmania infantum against tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Martins, V T; Lage, D P; Duarte, M C; Costa, L E; Chvez-Fumagalli, M A; Roatt, B M; Menezes-Souza, D; Tavares, C A P; Coelho, E A F

    2016-02-01

    Experimental vaccine candidates have been evaluated to prevent leishmaniasis, but no commercial vaccine has been proved to be effective against more than one parasite species. LiHyT is a Leishmania-specific protein that was firstly identified as protective against Leishmania infantum. In this study, LiHyT was evaluated as a vaccine to against two Leishmania species causing tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL): Leishmania major and Leishmania braziliensis. BALB/c mice were immunized with rLiHyT plus saponin and lately challenged with promastigotes of the two parasite species. The immune response generated was evaluated before and 10weeks after infection, as well as the parasite burden at this time after infection. The vaccination induced a Th1 response, which was characterized by the production of IFN-?, IL-12 and GM-CSF, as well as by high levels of IgG2a antibodies, after invitro stimulation using both the protein and parasite extracts. After challenge, vaccinated mice showed significant reductions in their infected footpads, as well as in the parasite burden in the tissue and organs evaluated, when compared to the control groups. The anti-Leishmania Th1 response was maintained after infection, being the IFN-? production based mainly on CD4(+) T cells. We described one conserved Leishmania-specific protein that could compose a pan-Leishmania vaccine. PMID:26756314

  9. Satisfaction with pain treatment in older cancer patients: Identifying variants of discrimination, trust, communication, and self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tamara A.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Roker, Rosalyn; Krok, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    How satisfied a patient is with their medical treatment may influence compliance and adherence to medical regimens. While a number of studies have examined patient satisfaction among younger populations, few have determined the impact social factors have on satisfaction with pain treatment among older adults. This study aimed to determine the influence discrimination, trust, communication, and other health characteristics have on satisfaction with pain treatment among older adults receiving outpatient services from a comprehensive cancer center. Participants were surveyed on questions assessing pain symptomatology, and identified social (discrimination, trust, and communication), physical (comorbidities, pain interference), behavioral (self-efficacy), and demographic characteristics. Analyses were calculated to determine the total and indirect effects of trust, communication, and self-efficacy as mediators on the perceived discrimination-patient satisfaction with pain treatment relationship. Data showed a significant relationship of communication and discrimination on patient satisfaction. However, none of the mediating effects were significant. It must be recognized that patient satisfaction is contingent upon a myriad of social factors that are not exclusive, but rather coexisting determinants of health. Particularly among the elderly, perceived discrimination and incidences of poor communication may be significant influences on health and the lived day-to-day experiences of this adult population. PMID:24363611

  10. A Delphi Study: Identifying Strategies That Promote Student Self-Efficacy in the Middle Level Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieschnick, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategies that promote mathematical self-efficacy in the middle level mathematics classroom. The need for more self-efficacious students to pursue mathematics is prevalent in the United States due to the need of workers in the STEM fields. Finding strategies to promote mathematical self-efficacy will provide…

  11. Partial support for ZNF804A genotype-dependent alterations in prefrontal connectivity.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Krug, Axel; Knake, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in ZNF804A as a common risk-variant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Whereas the molecular function of ZNF804A is yet unclear, recent imaging genetics studies have started to characterize the neural systems architecture linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. Carring rs1344706 risk-alleles was associated with a decrease in functional connectivity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs) as well as an increase in connectivity between the DLPFC and the hippocampal formation (HF) in the context of a working memory task. The present study aimed at replicating these findings in an independent sample of 94 healthy subjects. Subjects were genotyped for rs1344706 and performed a working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate no support for a decrease of functional coupling between the bilateral DLPFCs at higher ZNF804A risk status. However, the current data show the previously described alteration in functional coupling between the right DLPFC and the HFs, albeit with weaker effects. Decoupled by default, the functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and anterior HFs increased with the number of rs1344706 risk alleles. The present data support fronto-hippocampal dysconnectivity as intermediate phenotype linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. We discuss the issues in replicating the interhemispheric DLPFC coupling in light of the effect sizes rs1344706 genotype has on brain function, concluding that further independent replication studies are fundamentally needed to ascertain the role of rs1344706 in the functional integration of neural systems. PMID:22042765

  12. Comparative analyses of genotype dependent expressed sequence tags and stress-responsive transcriptome of chickpea wilt illustrate predicted and unexpected genes and novel regulators of plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Nasheeman; Ghai, Deepali; Barman, Pranjan; Basu, Swaraj; Gangisetty, Nagaraju; Mandal, Mihir K; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2009-01-01

    Background The ultimate phenome of any organism is modulated by regulated transcription of many genes. Characterization of genetic makeup is thus crucial for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic diversity, evolution and response to intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Chickpea is the world's third most important food legume grown in over 40 countries representing all the continents. Despite its importance in plant evolution, role in human nutrition and stress adaptation, very little ESTs and differential transcriptome data is available, let alone genotype-specific gene signatures. Present study focuses on Fusarium wilt responsive gene expression in chickpea. Results We report 6272 gene sequences of immune-response pathway that would provide genotype-dependent spatial information on the presence and relative abundance of each gene. The sequence assembly led to the identification of a CaUnigene set of 2013 transcripts comprising of 973 contigs and 1040 singletons, two-third of which represent new chickpea genes hitherto undiscovered. We identified 209 gene families and 262 genotype-specific SNPs. Further, several novel transcription regulators were identified indicating their possible role in immune response. The transcriptomic analysis revealed 649 non-cannonical genes besides many unexpected candidates with known biochemical functions, which have never been associated with pathostress-responsive transcriptome. Conclusion Our study establishes a comprehensive catalogue of the immune-responsive root transcriptome with insight into their identity and function. The development, detailed analysis of CaEST datasets and global gene expression by microarray provide new insight into the commonality and diversity of organ-specific immune-responsive transcript signatures and their regulated expression shaping the species specificity at genotype level. This is the first report on differential transcriptome of an unsequenced genome during vascular wilt. PMID:19732460

  13. Identifying the relationship between feedback provided in computer-assisted instructional modules, science self-efficacy, and academic achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazingo, Diann Etsuko

    Feedback has been identified as a key variable in developing academic self-efficacy. The types of feedback can vary from a traditional, objectivist approach that focuses on minimizing learner errors to a more constructivist approach, focusing on facilitating understanding. The influx of computer-based courses, whether online or through a series of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) modules require that the current research of effective feedback techniques in the classroom be extended to computer environments in order to impact their instructional design. In this study, exposure to different types of feedback during a chemistry CAI module was studied in relation to science self-efficacy (SSE) and performance on an objective-driven assessment (ODA) of the chemistry concepts covered in the unit. The quantitative analysis consisted of two separate ANCOVAs on the dependent variables, using pretest as the covariate and group as the fixed factor. No significant differences were found for either variable between the three groups on adjusted posttest means for the ODA and SSE measures (.95F(2, 106) = 1.311, p = 0.274 and .95F(2, 106) = 1.080, p = 0.344, respectively). However, a mixed methods approach yielded valuable qualitative insights into why only one overall quantitative effect was observed. These findings are discussed in relation to the need to further refine the instruments and methods used in order to more fully explore the possibility that type of feedback might play a role in developing SSE, and consequently, improve academic performance in science. Future research building on this study may reveal significance that could impact instructional design practices for developing online and computer-based instruction.

  14. Identifying Trainees' Computer Self-Efficacy in Relation to Some Variables: The Case of Turkish EFL Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inal, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define the self-efficacy perception of Turkish ELT students and examine the relationship between their self-efficacy and such variables as grade level, computer ownership, first time computer use, and frequency of internet and computer use. The participants are 305 Turkish ELT trainees at Dokuz Eylul University,…

  15. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production. PMID:25771944

  16. 78 FR 60290 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Reopening of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Efficacy Data; Request for Comments,'' which appeared in the Federal Register of June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33421... Register of June 4, 2013 (78 FR 33421), FDA published a request for public comments from interested persons... Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, 1401 Rockville Pike, Suite 200N,...

  17. Perceived Organizational Climate and Internet Self-Efficacy: Identifying the Best Climate To Promote E-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dale; Skamp, Keith; Ellis, Allan

    This report describes a research project designed to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational culture and the current general level of Internet self-efficacy as well as with two sub-categories of expertise: use of course management shell software and Web authoring software. The perceived organizational dimension of "employee

  18. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

  19. Efficacy of identifying neural components in the face and emotion processing system in schizophrenia using a dynamic functional localizer.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Aiden E G F; Iaria, Giuseppe; Goghari, Vina M

    2016-02-28

    Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in face perception and emotion recognition. Despite consistent behavioural results, the neural mechanisms underlying these cognitive abilities have been difficult to isolate, in part due to differences in neuroimaging methods used between studies for identifying regions in the face processing system. Given this problem, we aimed to validate a recently developed fMRI-based dynamic functional localizer task for use in studies of psychiatric populations and specifically schizophrenia. Previously, this functional localizer successfully identified each of the core face processing regions (i.e. fusiform face area, occipital face area, superior temporal sulcus), and regions within an extended system (e.g. amygdala) in healthy individuals. In this study, we tested the functional localizer success rate in 27 schizophrenia patients and in 24 community controls. Overall, the core face processing regions were localized equally between both the schizophrenia and control group. Additionally, the amygdala, a candidate brain region from the extended system, was identified in nearly half the participants from both groups. These results indicate the effectiveness of a dynamic functional localizer at identifying regions of interest associated with face perception and emotion recognition in schizophrenia. The use of dynamic functional localizers may help standardize the investigation of the facial and emotion processing system in this and other clinical populations. PMID:26792586

  20. Tiling genomes of pathogenic viruses identifies potent antiviral shRNAs and reveals a role for secondary structure in shRNA efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xu; Lu, Zhi John; Gao, Geng; Xu, Qikai; Hu, Long; Fellmann, Christof; Qu, Hongjing; Lowe, Scott W.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Elledge, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    shRNAs can trigger effective silencing of gene expression in mammalian cells, thereby providing powerful tools for genetic studies, as well as potential therapeutic strategies. Specific shRNAs can interfere with the replication of pathogenic viruses and are currently being tested as antiviral therapies in clinical trials. However, this effort is hindered by our inability to systematically and accurately identify potent shRNAs for viral genomes. Here we apply a recently developed highly parallel sensor assay to identify potent shRNAs for HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and influenza. We observe known and previously unknown sequence features that dictate shRNAs efficiency. Validation using HIV and HCV cell culture models demonstrates very high potency of the top-scoring shRNAs. Comparing our data with the secondary structure of HIV shows that shRNA efficacy is strongly affected by the secondary structure at the target RNA site. Artificially introducing secondary structure to the target site markedly reduces shRNA silencing. In addition, we observe that HCV has distinct sequence features that bias HCV-targeting shRNAs toward lower efficacy. Our results facilitate further development of shRNA based antiviral therapies and improve our understanding and ability to predict efficient shRNAs. PMID:22219365

  1. Virus-Like Particle Secretion and Genotype-Dependent Immunogenicity of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Galula, Jedhan U.; Shen, Wen-Fan; Chuang, Shih-Te

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. We also found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. IMPORTANCE Five genotype-specific dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine candidates were evaluated for their immunogenicity, homologous and heterologous neutralizing (Nt) antibody titers, and cross-genotype protection in a murine model. The immunity elicited by our prototype vaccine candidate (Asian 1 genotype strain 16681) in mice was protective against viruses of other genotypes but not against virus of the Sylvatic genotype, whose emergence and potential risk after introduction into the human population have previously been demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of a lack of protection elicited by the prototype vaccine may at least be contributed by the absence of a flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive, highly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1B7-5-like epitope in DENV-2 of the Sylvatic genotype. The DENV DNA vaccine directs the synthesis and assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) and induces immune responses similar to those elicited by live-attenuated vaccines, and its flexibility permits the fast deployment of vaccine to combat emerging viruses, such as Sylvatic genotype viruses. The enhanced VLP secretion obtained by replacement of ectodomain I-II (EDI-II) of the Cosmopolitan genotype vaccine construct (VD2-Cosmopolitan) with the Asian 1 EDI-II elicited significantly higher total IgG and Nt antibody titers and suggests a novel approach to enhance the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. A DENV vaccine capable of eliciting protective immunity against viruses of existing and emerging genotypes should be the focus of future DENV vaccine development. PMID:25008922

  2. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of four novel identified membrane associated proteins of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yan; Deng, Limei; Zheng, Chengkun; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng; Li, Jinquan

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can also cause epidemics of life-threatening infections in humans. Surface proteins of pathogens play a critical role in the interaction with host system or environment, as they take part in processes like virulence, cytotoxicity, adhesion, signaling or transport, etc. Thus, surface proteins identified by the screening of immunoproteomic techniques are promising vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers. In this study, four membrane associated proteins (MAP) identified by immunoproteomic method were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins with his-tag. Screening for vaccine candidates were firstly performed by protection assay in vivo and immunization with Sbp markedly protected mice against systemic S. suis 2 infection. The immune responses and protective of Sbp were further evaluated. The results showed that Sbp could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect mice from lethal challenge with S. suis 2. The antiserum against Sbp could efficiently impede survival of bacterial in whole blood killing assay and conferred significant protection against S. suis 2 infection in passive immunization assays. The findings indicate that Sbp may serve as an important factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2 and would be a promising subunit vaccine candidate. PMID:25820064

  3. Genotype-Dependent Variability in Residual Cone Structure in Achromatopsia: Toward Developing Metrics for Assessing Cone Health

    PubMed Central

    Dubis, Adam M.; Cooper, Robert F.; Aboshiha, Jonathan; Langlo, Christopher S.; Sundaram, Venki; Liu, Benjamin; Collison, Frederick; Fishman, Gerald A.; Moore, Anthony T.; Webster, Andrew R.; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Gene therapy trials for inherited photoreceptor disorders are planned. Anatomical metrics to select the best candidates and outcomes are needed. Adaptive optics (AO) imaging enables visualization of photoreceptor structure, although analytical tools are lacking. Here we present criteria to assess residual photoreceptor integrity in achromatopsia (ACHM). Methods. Two AOSLOs, at the Medical College of Wisconsin and Moorfields Eye Hospital, were used to image the photoreceptor mosaic of 11 subjects with ACHM and 7 age-matched controls. Images were obtained, processed, and montaged using previously described methods. Cone density and reflectivity were quantified to assess residual cone photoreceptor structure. Results. All subjects with ACHM had reduced numbers of cone photoreceptors, albeit to a variable degree. In addition, the relative cone reflectivity varied greatly. Interestingly, subjects with GNAT2-associated ACHM had the greatest number of residual cones and the reflectivity of those cones was significantly greater than that of the cones in the subjects with CNGA3/CNGB3-associated ACHM. Conclusions. We present cone reflectivity as a metric that can be used to characterize cone structure in ACHM. This method may be applicable to subjects with other cone disorders. In ACHM, we hypothesize that cone numerosity (and/or density) combined with cone reflectivity could be used to gauge the therapeutic potential. As gene replacement would not be expected to add cones, reflectivity could be a more powerful AO-metric for monitoring the cellular response to treatment and could provide a more immediate indicator of efficacy than behavioral measures, which may take longer to change. PMID:25277229

  4. FKBP5 Genotype-Dependent DNA Methylation and mRNA Regulation After Psychosocial Stress in Remitted Depression and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Poidinger, Maximilian; Merz, Franziska; Pfister, Hildegard; Brückl, Tanja; Zimmermann, Petra; Uhr, Manfred; Holsboer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polymorphisms in the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) gene have been shown to influence glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity, stress response regulation, and depression risk in traumatized subjects, with most consistent findings reported for the functional variant rs1360780. In the present study, we investigated whether the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780 and lifetime history of major depression are associated with DNA methylation and FKBP5 gene expression after psychosocial stress. Methods: A total of 116 individuals with a positive (n = 61) and negative (n = 55) lifetime history of major depression participated in the Trier Social Stress Test. We assessed plasma cortisol concentrations, FKBP5 mRNA expression, and CpG methylation of FKBP5 intron 7 in peripheral blood cells. Results: Genotype-dependent plasma cortisol response to psychosocial stress exposure was observed in healthy controls, with the highest and longest-lasting cortisol increase in subjects with the TT genotype of the FKBP5 polymorphism rs1360780, and healthy controls carrying the T risk allele responded with a blunted FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress. No genotype effects could be found in remitted depression. Conclusions: The FKBP5 rs1360780 polymorphism is associated with plasma cortisol and FKBP5 mRNA expression after psychosocial stress in healthy controls but not in remitted depression. Preliminary results of the DNA methylation analysis suggest that epigenetic modifications could be involved. PMID:25522420

  5. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  6. Efficacy of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase, identified as a potent Th1 stimulatory protein, for its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Khare, Prashant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-03-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were characterized through immunoproteomic approach which led to the identification of trypanothione reductase (TPR) (a cytosolic enzyme explored as a drug target), as one of the potent Th1 stimulatory protein. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Leishmania donovani TPR (rLdTPR) was assessed in PBMCs of cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and further evaluated its prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani challenges in hamsters. Substantial proliferative responses to rLdTPR, as compared to soluble L. donovani antigen, were observed in Leishmania-infected cured patients as well as in hamsters. Moreover, rLdTPR reasonably stimulated PBMCs of cured Leishmania patients to produce IFNγ, IL-12, and TNF-α but not IL-4 or IL-10. On the other hand, the protein downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani antigen-induced IL-4 production in PBMCs of Leishmania patients. In case of cured hamsters, rLdTPR generates mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccination with rLdTPR along with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was able to provide considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~60%) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFNγ, IL-12, and TNF-α and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Since rLdTPR protein is an important target, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up to optimize its prophylactic efficacy. PMID:24370734

  7. Neural networks and Fuzzy clustering methods for assessing the efficacy of microarray based intrinsic gene signatures in breast cancer classification and the character and relations of identified subtypes.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Sandhya; Chaiboonchoe, Amphun

    2015-01-01

    In the classification of breast cancer subtypes using microarray data, hierarchical clustering is commonly used. Although this form of clustering shows basic cluster patterns, more needs to be done to investigate the accuracy of clusters as well as to extract meaningful cluster characteristics and their relations to increase our confidence in their use in a clinical setting. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the efficacy of three reported gene subsets in distinguishing breast cancer subtypes was performed using four advanced computational intelligence methods-Self-Organizing Maps (SOM), Emergent Self-Organizing Maps (ESOM), Fuzzy Clustering by Local Approximation of Memberships (FLAME), and Fuzzy C-means (FCM)-each differing in the way they view data in terms of distance measures and fuzzy or crisp clustering. The gene subsets consisted of 71, 93, and 71 genes reported in the literature from three comprehensive experimental studies for distinguishing Luminal (A and B), Basal, Normal breast-like, and HER2 subtypes. Given the costly procedures involved in clinical studies, the proposed 93-gene set can be used for preliminary classification of breast cancer. Then, as a decision aid, SOM can be used to map the gene signature of a new patient to locate them with respect to all subtypes to get a comprehensive view of the classification. These can be followed by a deeper investigation in the light of the observations made in this study regarding overlapping subtypes. Results from the study could be used as the base for further refining the gene signatures from later experiments and from new experiments designed to separate overlapping clusters as well as to maximally separate all clusters. PMID:25502389

  8. The Scale of Self-Efficacy Expectations of Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment: A Tool for Identifying Risk for Non-Adherence to Treatment for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; de Carvalho Leite, José Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of risk for non-adherence to treatment is a challenge for personalized care for people living with HIV. Standardized questionnaires of patients’ expectations of their capability to overcome obstacles for treatment adherence may be used as a pre-screening for risk identification. A scale of self-efficacy expectations of adherence to antiretroviral treatment (SEA-ART scale) was previously developed. This study assesses the scale validity in predicting non-adherence to ART in adults living with HIV. Methods and Findings A prospective cohort study applied a 21-item SEA-ART scale to 275 adults in ART treatment at an outpatient public service for HIV in Southern Brazil. ART medications taken were assessed at one-month follow-up; ART adherence was devised as an intake of 95% and more of the prescribed medication. A SEA-ART score was calculated by adding up the scores of all items. Multivariable logistic regression and the Area Under the Receiver-Operating-Characteristic Curve (AUROC) were applied to examine the ability of the SEA-ART score to predict non-adherence at follow-up. The SEA-ART score varied from 21 to 105; mean 93.9; median 103.0. Non-adherence was 30.3% (n = 81/267). The odds of non-adherence was 8% lower for each unit increase of the SEA-ART score; after adjustment for age, sex, formal education and time in treatment (OR = 0.92; 95%CI 0.90–0.95; LRT for linear trend, p = 0.002). The AUROC was 0.80 (95%CI 0.73–0.87; p<0.001). The SEA-ART optimal cut-off value was 101, providing a sensitivity of 76.5%, a specificity of 73.1%, a positive predictive value of 55.4% and a negative predictive value of 87.7%. There was no evidence of difference in sensitivity, and specificity among groups organized by age, gender, formal education and time in treatment. Conclusions The SEA-ART scale appears to have a good capacity to discriminate between adherents and non-adherents at one-month follow-up. Further studies should confirm these results in other populations. PMID:26895270

  9. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  10. Optimal Scan Time of 18F-FDG PET in Identifying Therapeutic Efficacy Secondary to Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Cancer: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Qian; Fu, Yi-Li; Hu, Bin; Chen, Shuo; Yang, Min-Fu; Li, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT)-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has become a major treatment approach for small tumors. Identifying this quantitative dynamic 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (18F-FDG) activity at the primary lesion can minimize misdiagnosis and allow an opportunity to reintervene. Here, we report 3 patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent the ablative therapy with split-dose 18F-FDG fused PET/CT scans for early identification of residual tumors and follow-up evaluation of treatment. Our results indicate that reliable post-RFA imaging follow-up is critical in fast and efficient assessment of complete tumor resection in patients experienced the ablation procedure. PMID:26091453

  11. Identifying new patient prospects: efficacy of usage segmentation. For some health care services, usage-based segmentation schemes can be wasteful and ineffective.

    PubMed

    Sarel, D; Marmorstein, H

    1996-01-01

    Even though there is intuitive appeal in identifying the user profile for a given service and then targeting similar nonusers, this approach can be very misleading when marketing health care services with low market penetration. If usage segmentation is employed without checking other indicators of latent demand and perceived barriers to use, significant misallocation of marketing resources is likely to occur. Confidentiality and embarrassment can be significant barriers to use by segments that are excellent patient prospects. In this study of mental and behavioral care, females and non-whites were found to be more concerned with confidentiality than were members of the user group. Lack of awareness can be a much bigger impediment to adoption than negative attitudes. Health care marketers need to design communications that not only increase awareness and familiarity for services with low market penetration, but also address other issues of concern to highly receptive segments. PMID:10157977

  12. KAG-308, a newly-identified EP4-selective agonist shows efficacy for treating ulcerative colitis and can bring about lower risk of colorectal carcinogenesis by oral administration.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Murata, Takahiko; Amakawa, Masahiro; Miyake, Yoshihide; Handa, Tango; Konishi, Katsuhiko; Matsumura, Yasushi; Tanaka, Takuji; Takeuchi, Koji

    2015-05-01

    Agonists for EP4 receptor, a prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype, appear to be a promising therapeutic strategy for ulcerative colitis (UC) due to their anti-inflammatory and epithelial regeneration activities. However, the clinical development of orally-available EP4 agonists for mild to moderate UC has not yet been reported. Furthermore, the possibility of an increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) through direct proliferative effects on epithelial cells via EP4 signaling has not been ruled out. Recently, we identified KAG-308 as an orally-available EP4-selective agonist. Here, we investigated the pharmacological and pharmacokinetic profiles of KAG-308. Then, we compared KAG-308 and sulfasalazine (SASP) for their abilities to prevent colitis and promote mucosal healing in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Finally, the effect of KAG-308 treatment on CAC was evaluated in an azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced CAC mouse model. KAG-308 selectively activated EP4 and potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α production in peripheral whole blood and T cells. Oral administration of KAG-308, which showed relatively high bioavailability, suppressed the onset of DSS-induced colitis and promoted histological mucosal healing, while SASP did not. KAG-308 also prevented colorectal carcinogenesis by inhibiting colitis development and consequently decreasing mortality in a CAC model, whereas SASP had marginal effects. In contrast, MF-482, an EP4 antagonist, increased mortality. These results indicated that orally-administered KAG-308 suppressed colitis development and promoted mucosal healing. Moreover, it exhibited preventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis, and thus may be a new therapeutic strategy for the management of UC that confers a reduced risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:25704618

  13. Teacher Efficacy: A Research Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahid, Julia; Thompson, David

    This study synthesized research on teacher efficacy. A 14-stage model was implemented to identify and analyze characteristics found in the synthesis population of 89 primary studies which addressed teacher efficacy. The 89 primary studies yielded 789 distinct and 973 total research hypotheses; 25 distinct and 973 total teacher efficacy constructs;…

  14. Genome-Wide Transcription Profiles Reveal Genotype-Dependent Responses of Biological Pathways and Gene-Families in Daphnia Exposed to Single and Mixed Stressors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

  15. Pooled-Peptide Epitope Mapping Strategies Are Efficient and Highly Sensitive: An Evaluation of Methods for Identifying Human T Cell Epitope Specificities in Large-Scale HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Gartland, Andrew; Manso, Bryce A.; Friedrich, David P.; Gabriel, Erin E.; Finak, Greg; Moodie, Zoe; Hertz, Tomer; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Frahm, Nicole; Gilbert, Peter B.; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2016-01-01

    The interferon gamma, enzyme-linked immunospot (IFN-γ ELISpot) assay is widely used to identify viral antigen-specific T cells is frequently employed to quantify T cell responses in HIV vaccine studies. It can be used to define T cell epitope specificities using panels of peptide antigens, but with sample and cost constraints there is a critical need to improve the efficiency of epitope mapping for large and variable pathogens. We evaluated two epitope mapping strategies, based on group testing, for their ability to identify vaccine-induced T-cells from participants in the Step HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial, and compared the findings to an approach of assaying each peptide individually. The group testing strategies reduced the number of assays required by >7-fold without significantly altering the accuracy of T-cell breadth estimates. Assays of small pools containing 7–30 peptides were highly sensitive and effective at detecting single positive peptides as well as summating responses to multiple peptides. Also, assays with a single 15-mer peptide, containing an identified epitope, did not always elicit a response providing validation that 15-mer peptides are not optimal antigens for detecting CD8+ T cells. Our findings further validate pooling-based epitope mapping strategies, which are critical for characterizing vaccine-induced T-cell responses and more broadly for informing iterative vaccine design. We also show ways to improve their application with computational peptide:MHC binding predictors that can accurately identify the optimal epitope within a 15-mer peptide and within a pool of 15-mer peptides. PMID:26863315

  16. [Efficacy studies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

    2014-07-01

    Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

  17. The Relative Importance of Specific Self-Efficacy Sources in Pretraining Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"

  18. The Relative Importance of Specific Self-Efficacy Sources in Pretraining Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…

  19. MUD and Self Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kwan Min

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…

  20. Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes - rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, Identified as Th1 Stimulatory Proteins, for Their Immunogenicity and Immunoprophylactic Efficacies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani - Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ?90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (?65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

  1. Identifying harms.

    PubMed

    Harrosh, Shlomit

    2012-11-01

    Moral disagreements often revolve around the issue of harm to others. Identifying harms, however, is a contested enterprise. This paper provides a conceptual toolbox for identifying harms, and so possible wrongdoing, by drawing several distinctions. First, I distinguish between four modes of human vulnerability, forming four ways in which one can be in a harmed state. Second, I argue for the intrinsic disvalue of harm and so distinguish the presence of harm from the fact that it is instrumental to or constitutive of a valued act, practice or way of life. Finally, I distinguish between harm and wrongdoing, arguing that while harm is a normative concept requiring justification, not all harmed states are automatically unjustified. The advantage of this view is that it refocuses the moral debate on the normative issues involved while establishing a common basis to which both sides can agree: the presence of harm to others. PMID:21434956

  2. The Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) Scale: Dimensionality and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mi-Hwa; Dimitrov, Dimiter M.; Das, Ajay; Gichuru, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The "Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices" (TEIP) scale is designed to measure teacher-self efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. The original study identified three scale factors: "efficacy in using inclusive instruction" ("EII"), "efficacy in collaboration" ("EC"), and "efficacy in…

  3. Efficacy of fractal analysis in identifying glaucomatous damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, P. Y.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Gunvant, P.; Tóth, M.; Holló, G.; Essock, E. A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel fractal-based technique to analyze pseudo 2D representation of 1D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement data vector set for early detection of glaucoma. In our proposed technique, we first convert the 1D RNFL data vector sets into pseudo 2D images and then exploit 2D fractal analysis (FA) technique to obtain the representative features. These 2D fractal-based features are further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the final classification between normal and glaucomatous eyes is obtained using Fischer's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An independent dataset is used for training and testing the classifier. The technique is used on randomly selected GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) eye data from 227 study participants (116 patients with glaucoma and 111 patients with healthy eyes). We compute sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) for statistical performance comparison with other known techniques. Our classification performance shows that fractal-based technique is superior to the standard machine classifier Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI).

  4. Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and…

  5. Writing Essays: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? The Relationship between Self-Efficacy in Reading and in Writing and Undergraduate Students' Performance in Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prat-Sala, Merce; Redford, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students' academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students' writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and

  6. Genotype dependent interspecific hybridization of Sorghum bicolor (Poaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  7. Estimating vaccine efficacy using animal efficacy data.

    PubMed

    Yellowlees, Ann; Perry, Richard H J

    2015-07-15

    Animal models are used to predict the effect of an intervention in humans. An example is the prediction of the efficacy of a vaccine when it is considered unethical or infeasible to challenge humans with the target disease to assess the effect of the vaccine on the disease in humans directly. In such cases, data from animal studies are used to develop models relating antibody level to protection probability in the animal, and then data from a study or studies in human subjects vaccinated with the proposed vaccine regimen are used in combination with the relevant animal models to predict protection in humans, and hence estimate vaccine efficacy. We explain the statistical techniques required to provide an estimate of vaccine efficacy and its precision. We present simulated examples showing that precise estimation of the relationship between antibody levels and protection in animals, at levels likely to be induced in humans by the vaccine regimen, is key to precise estimation of the vaccine efficacy. Because the confidence interval for the estimate of vaccine efficacy cannot be expressed in analytical form, but must be estimated from resampling, or bootstrapping, it is not possible to design studies with required power analytically. Therefore we propose that a simulation-based design of experiments approach using preliminary data is used to maximise the power of further studies and thus minimise the human and animal experimentation required. PMID:25818749

  8. Immigrant Teachers' Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine 27 immigrant teachers' understanding of teaching Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students. The participants were asked to respond to the 18-item survey of Teacher Efficacy of English Language Learners. The implications of the findings for the cultural differences in teacher efficacy are discussed. Appended…

  9. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  10. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects

  11. Technology Integration Preparedness and Its Influence on Teacher-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore-Hayes, Coleen

    2011-01-01

    Recent inquiry has identified the establishment of positive self-efficacy beliefs as an important component in the overall process of successfully preparing new teachers for the classroom. Similarly, in-service teachers who reported high levels of efficacy for teaching confirmed feeling confident in their ability to design and implement enriching…

  12. The Role of the Elementary Teacher in Fostering Civic Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serriere, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year multimethod study of civic engagement within "Dewey Elementary," this article identifies the contextual supports of civic efficacy. In particular, it works to map the role of the teacher in supporting the civic action and efficacy of six fifth-grade girls who requested changes to the school's existing lunch

  13. The Role of the Elementary Teacher in Fostering Civic Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serriere, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year multimethod study of civic engagement within "Dewey Elementary," this article identifies the contextual supports of civic efficacy. In particular, it works to map the role of the teacher in supporting the civic action and efficacy of six fifth-grade girls who requested changes to the school's existing lunch…

  14. Thinking about Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervone, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Questions about perceived self-efficacy are used to analyze cognitive processes through which people approach their efficacy for performance. The review indicates that: (a) self-efficacy perceptions generalize across idiosyncratic sets; (b) efficacy-standards discrepancies can create individual negative moods; and (c) distinctions can be made

  15. Use of biomarkers for assessing radiation injury and efficacy of countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K; Newman, Victoria L; Romaine, Patricia LP; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Pollard, Harvey B

    2016-01-01

    Several candidate drugs for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) have been identified that have low toxicity and significant radioprotective and radiomitigative efficacy. Inasmuch as exposing healthy human volunteers to injurious levels of radiation is unethical, development and approval of new radiation countermeasures for ARS are therefore presently based on animal studies and Phase I safety study in healthy volunteers. The Animal Efficacy Rule, which underlies the Food and Drug Administration approval pathway, requires a sound understanding of the mechanisms of injury, drug efficacy, and efficacy biomarkers. In this context, it is important to identify biomarkers for radiation injury and drug efficacy that can extrapolate animal efficacy results, and can be used to convert drug doses deduced from animal studies to those that can be efficacious when used in humans. Here, we summarize the progress of studies to identify candidate biomarkers for the extent of radiation injury and for evaluation of countermeasure efficacy. PMID:26568096

  16. Measuring Teaching Assistants' Efficacy using the Rasch Model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zi; Lum, Chun Wai; Lui, Rick Tze Leung; Chu, Steven Sing Wa; Lui, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Teaching assistants (TAs) play an influential role in primary and secondary schools. But there is an absence in literature about the TA's efficacy, and to date no instrument is available for measuring TA's efficacy. The present study aims to develop and validate a scale (Teaching Assistant Efficacy Scale, TAES) for measuring TA's efficacy on identified capabilities. A total of 531 teaching assistants from Hong Kong schools participated in the survey. The multidimensional Rasch model was used to analyse the data. The results revealed that a 5-dimension structure of TA's efficacy was supported. The final 30-item version of TAES assesses TA's efficacy on learning support, teaching support, behaviour management, cooperation, and administrative support. The Rasch reliabilities for all five dimensions were around 0.90. The 6-category response structure worked well for the scale. Further research was recommended to validate and test the robustness of the TAES both in Hong Kong and elsewhere. PMID:25562336

  17. [Self-efficacy among health learners/self-efficacy among health educators].

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Y

    1998-01-01

    The Social Cognitive Theory has helped health educators develop effective health education programs that target self-efficacy among participants in changing their health behavior. Bandura has identified four resources on which individuals determine their levels of self-efficacy: (1) performance accomplishment, (2) vicarious reinforcement, (3) verbal persuasion, and (4) emotional arousal. Examples of health education strategies that utilize each of the four resources to increase participants' self-efficacy are described. Health education professionals in Japan have attempted to use programs based on the Social Cognitive Theory for Japanese populations. It is criticized that health educators that use such programs are not well trained in effective use, and that those programs have not been utilized at their maximum potentials. Using the frame-work of the Social Cognitive Theory, the importance of incorporating ways to increase self-efficacy of health educators in providing health education services into education and training of health educators is discussed. PMID:10437454

  18. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy 110%, which increases to 145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of 0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy 58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy 78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

  19. Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Punum

    2012-01-01

    Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the…

  20. Mind over Matter: Contributing Factors to Self-Efficacy in Montessori Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Punum

    2012-01-01

    Interpreting Albert Bandura's term "self-efficacy" as the individual's belief in his own abilities to succeed in spite of the given circumstances, this study seeks to identify the influences which lead to self-efficacy in Montessori teachers. In order to evaluate perceptions of self-efficacy, 35 pre-service teachers in the

  1. The Self-Efficacy of Special Education Directors in the State of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Catana C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of special education directors serving in public schools in the state of Texas. Within the review of literature the following key components were identified: special education administration, self-efficacy--theoretical perspective and self-efficacy and outcomes-based research. A

  2. The Self-Efficacy of Special Education Directors in the State of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Catana C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy of special education directors serving in public schools in the state of Texas. Within the review of literature the following key components were identified: special education administration, self-efficacy--theoretical perspective and self-efficacy and outcomes-based research. A…

  3. Efficacy methods to evaluate health communication and marketing campaigns.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Uhrig, Jennifer; Davis, Kevin; McCormack, Lauren

    2009-06-01

    Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy research and the development of a research agenda. Much of the outcomes research in health communication and marketing, especially mass media, utilizes effectiveness designs conducted in real time, in the media markets or communities in which messages are delivered. Such evaluations may be impractical or impossible, however, imiting opportunities to advance the state of health communication and marketing research and the knowledge base on effective campaign strategies, messages, and channels. Efficacy and effectiveness studies use similar measures of behavior change. Efficacy studies, however, offer greater opportunities for experimental control, message exposure, and testing of health communication and marketing theory. By examining the literature and two in-depth case studies, we identify advantages and limitations to efficacy studies. We also identify considerations for when to adopt efficacy and effectiveness methods, alone or in combination. Finally, we outline a research agenda to investigate issues of internal and external validity, mode of message presentation, differences between marketing and message strategies, and behavioral outcomes. PMID:19466645

  4. A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti

    The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that creating a model to impact the retention rates of women in physics should include attending to self-efficacy and designing activities in the classroom that create self-efficacy opportunities.

  5. Breastfeeding Self-efficacy: A Critical Review of Available Instruments.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, Emily L; McGrath, Jacqueline M; Graber, Melanie; Cusson, Regina M; Young, Sera L

    2016-02-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates in the United States is a national priority. Yet, initiation and duration of breastfeeding remains below national targets. Breastfeeding self-efficacy has been shown to be a strong predictor of both breastfeeding initiation and duration and is therefore an important characteristic to be able to measure. However, there is currently a myriad of instruments for measuring breastfeeding self-efficacy, which makes selection of an appropriate instrument difficult. Thus, our aim was to identify, compare, and critically review available breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments. In a systematic review, 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments were identified. The instruments' purposes, theoretical framework, final scale development, and application in 5 most recent settings were analyzed. The 6 breastfeeding self-efficacy instruments apply a number of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in their development, with Bandura's social cognitive theory being most common. Content, construct, and predictive validity were strong for most scales. Some, but not all, have been successfully adapted to novel settings. In sum, there are several measurements of breastfeeding self-efficacy that can and should be employed to better understand reasons for suboptimal breastfeeding rates and the effects of interventions on breastfeeding self-efficacy. Instrument selection should be based on domains of primary interest, time available, peripartum timing, and assessment of previous adaptations. Failure to apply appropriate measures in research may garner results that are inconclusive, inaccurate, or nonrepresentative of true study effects. PMID:26319113

  6. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also

  7. Efficacy testing of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has the responsibility for regulating antimicrobial products, including sporicides, used to treat and decontaminate inanimate surfaces. In response to the anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) attacks of 2001 and the associated need for verifying the performance of chemicals for building decontamination, the EPA initiated research in late 2003 to evaluate and improve efficacy test methods for sporicides. The OPP Microbiology Laboratory located at the Environmental Science Center, Ft. Meade, MD is the lead laboratory. Through funding provided by EPA's Office of Research and Development (Safe Buildings Program), a collaborative research plan has been established to address several key issues. Research is currently being conducted on 2 fronts: (1) the evaluation of quantitative methodology for assessing the efficacy of sporicides, and (2) the development and comparative testing of selected modifications to improve the AOAC Sporicidal Activity Test (AOAC Method 966.04). Future studies will include the evaluation of candidate surrogates of B. anthracis using a quantitative method, and a multilaboratory validation study of a quantitative method-surrogate combination. The General Referee is serving as the Principal Investigator for all research described in this report, and has the overall responsibility for the technical conduct of the projects. In cases where the General Referee has oversight of projects that involve official collaborative studies and validation support from AOAC INTERNATIONAL, AOAC officials and the Committee Chair will determine the appropriate mechanism for formal study review. The 2003 General Referee report provides the background on the development and direction of the research projects. The preliminary data, general conclusions, next steps, and recommendations are provided in this report. PMID:15759761

  8. Teacher Efficacy Measurement and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    Research on the concept of teacher efficacy spans over 20 years, but much remains to be learned. Although precise definitions of the concept have always been problematic, in general, teacher efficacy is defined as teacher's belief or conviction that they can influence how well students learn (T. Guskey and P. Passaro, 1994). Efforts to clarify the…

  9. Engineering Professional Development: Elementary Teachers' Self-efficacy and Sources of Self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Donna Louise

    Currently, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is a popular buzz word in P-12 education as it represents a means to advance American competitiveness in the global economy. Proponents of the engineering component of STEM advocate additional benefits in teaching engineering, such as its capacity to engage students in collaboration, and to apply critical thinking, systems thinking, negotiation, and communication skills to solve real-life contextual problems. Establishing a strong foundation of engineering knowledge at a young age will provide students with internal motivation as it taps into their curiosity toward how things work, and it also prepares them for secondary science courses. Successful STEM education is often constrained by elementary teachers' low perception of self-efficacy to teach science and engineering. Elementary teachers with low self-efficacy in science are more likely to spend less instructional time teaching science, which suggests that teachers with little to no training in engineering might avoid teaching this topic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the effects of engineering professional development on elementary (K-6) teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and perceptions of self-efficacy to teach engineering, and (b) to identify and explain sources influencing self-efficacy. Professional development was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest. Results revealed that after the engineering professional development, teachers experienced statistically significant gains in content, PCK, and self-efficacy to teach engineering. Increases in self-efficacy were mainly attributed to mastery experiences and cultivation of a growth mindset by embracing the engineering design process.

  10. The Exploration of Elementary School Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy and Information Commitments: A Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Wang, Li-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' Internet self-efficacy and information commitments. More importantly, this study also attempted to identify possible factors that affect the teachers' Internet self-efficacy. The participants were 301 elementary school teachers. In this study, the Internet Self-efficacy Survey (ISS) and the Information

  11. The Exploration of Elementary School Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy and Information Commitments: A Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Wang, Li-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' Internet self-efficacy and information commitments. More importantly, this study also attempted to identify possible factors that affect the teachers' Internet self-efficacy. The participants were 301 elementary school teachers. In this study, the Internet Self-efficacy Survey (ISS) and the Information…

  12. The confounded self-efficacy construct: conceptual analysis and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Williams, David M; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2016-06-01

    Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper, we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires - i.e., ratings of whether participants 'can do' the target behaviour - reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a 'can do' operationalisation) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that - consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument - controlling for motivation by adding the phrase 'if you wanted to' to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692

  13. The Confounded Self-Efficacy Construct: Review, Conceptual Analysis, and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David; Rhodes, Ryan E.

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy is central to health behaviour theories due to its robust predictive capabilities. In this paper we present and review evidence for a self-efficacy-as-motivation argument in which standard self-efficacy questionnaires—i.e., ratings of whether participants “can do” the target behaviour—reflect motivation rather than perceived capability. The potential implication is that associations between self-efficacy ratings (particularly those that employ a “can do” operationalization) and health-related behaviours simply indicate that people are likely to do what they are motivated to do. There is some empirical evidence for the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument, with three studies demonstrating causal effects of outcome expectancy on subsequent self-efficacy ratings. Three additional studies show that—consistent with the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument—controlling for motivation by adding the phrase “if you wanted to” to the end of self-efficacy items decreases associations between self-efficacy ratings and motivation. Likewise, a qualitative study using a thought-listing procedure demonstrates that self-efficacy ratings have motivational antecedents. The available evidence suggests that the self-efficacy-as-motivation argument is viable, although more research is needed. Meanwhile, we recommend that researchers look beyond self-efficacy to identify the many and diverse sources of motivation for health-related behaviours. PMID:25117692

  14. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  15. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  16. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  17. Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brett R; Elliott, Amy J

    2003-06-01

    Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime refusal and frequent nighttime awakenings. Only one intervention for sleep terrors and sleepwalking has sufficient empirical support to be considered promising. Behavioral interventions targeting circadian rhythm disorders (e.g., delayed sleep phase), nightmares and rhythmic movement disorder (RMD) have not been researched sufficiently to be considered empirically supported. PMID:12781314

  18. On identified predictive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

  19. The effects of obesity on fall efficacy in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Byoung-Jin

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

  20. Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous

  1. Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2012-01-01

    This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…

  2. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  3. A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others

    Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…

  4. The German Teacher Trainers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batdi, Veli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the aim is to identify the interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs of German teacher trainers' in Turkey. It is a descriptive survey and the population of the study consists of German teacher trainers who have worked in the seven regions of Turkey during the 2012-2013 academic year. The sample comprises 52 German teacher trainers chosen…

  5. Perception of Teaching Efficacy by Primary and Secondary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedir, Gülay

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to identify how teaching efficacy is perceived by teachers working at state schools. Having a survey model design, this study hosts a total of 678 primary and secondary school teachers--401 females and 277 males--working in the province of Tokat during the academic year of 2013 and 2014. Research data has been collected through…

  6. Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John; Bruce, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We designed a professional development (PD) program to increase the teacher efficacy of mathematics teachers. We randomly assigned 106 Grade 6 teachers in 1 school district to treatment and control conditions in a delayed-treatment design. The PD explicitly addressed 4 sources of teacher-efficacy information identified in social-cognition theory…

  7. Factor Structure, Stability, and Predictive Validity of College Students' Relationship Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Morua, Wendy; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the underlying structure, stability, and predictive validity of college students' scores on a measure of relationship maintenance self-efficacy beliefs. Three identified efficacy-related factors were found to be stable; related in expected directions with gender, commitment status, and adult attachment orientations; and…

  8. School Nurses' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy in Providing Diabetes Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kelly L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure school nurses' perceived self-efficacy in providing diabetes care and education to children and to identify factors that correlate with higher self-efficacy levels in the performance of these tasks. The results of this study revealed that the surveyed school nurses perceived a moderate level of…

  9. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  10. Career Self-Efficacy of the Student Who Is Gifted/Learning Disabled: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, C. Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This case study illustrates the development of career self-efficacy in a male high school junior identified as both gifted and learning disabled. It suggests that early recognition of potential, opportunities and resources for talent development, and emotional supports from caring adults are critical, positive influences on career self-efficacy.…

  11. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Use of Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farrokhlagha; Izadi, Mehri; Ahmadian, Mansooreh Vahed

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between Iranian EFL juniors' self-efficacy beliefs and their employed vocabulary learning strategies. The participants were 50 juniors studying English Translation at University of Sistan & Baluchestan. The self-efficacy and vocabulary learning strategies questionnaires were administered to identify the…

  12. Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically

  13. Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

    2011-01-01

    Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

  14. Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

  15. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Kienhuis, Mandy; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parent Self-efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale (PSMTSS) were investigated with a sample of 763 mothers whose children were starting primary school in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, Efficacy and Worry, accounting for 56.6% of the total variance in parent…

  16. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

  17. Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty

  18. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  19. Encrypting personal identifiers.

    PubMed

    Meux, E

    1994-06-01

    STUDY SETTING. A statewide patient discharge database contained only one unique identifier: the social security number (SSN). A method was developed to transform (encrypt) the SSN so that it could be made publicly available, for purposes of linking discharge records, without revealing the SSN itself. The method of encrypting the SSN into a Record Linkage Number (RLN) is described. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. The same RLN will always result from the same SSN; it is highly improbable that the same RLN would be produced by two different SSNs; the SSN cannot be derived from the RLN, even given access to the encryption program; the encryption method cannot be determined through knowledge of a number of SSN/RLN combinations; and the method can be described, evaluated, and adapted for use by other researchers without compromising confidentiality of the RLNs resulting from the method. PMID:8005792

  20. Identifying potential academic leaders

    PubMed Central

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Design Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Setting Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants A total of 687 faculty members. Main outcome measures Variables related to respondents’ willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Results Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one’s current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Conclusion Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  1. Identifying Young, Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

  2. Efficacy and Accountability in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitzug, Ulrich C.

    This study examined the relationship among accountability, efficacy, and organizational effectiveness by integrating findings from 17 research and development reports on Management by Objectives (MBO), an intervention that incorporates elements and processes of both accountability (goal-setting, measuring and monitoring, feedback) and efficacy…

  3. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  4. Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

  5. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  6. Efficacy and safety of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kitts, D; Hu, C

    2000-12-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

  7. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H; Gilhuis, H Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G; Brands, Augustina M

    2015-01-01

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS) were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18), cognition (CDR System), fatigue (MFIS-5), depressive symptoms (BDI), disease impact (MSIS-29), and disability (EDSS). Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001), Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001), and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01), and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01). Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy. PMID:26064686

  8. The genetics of drug efficacy: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Matthew R; Johnson, Toby; Warren, Liling; Hughes, Arlene R; Chissoe, Stephanie L; Xu, Chun-Fang; Waterworth, Dawn M

    2016-04-01

    Lack of sufficient efficacy is the most common cause of attrition in late-phase drug development. It has long been envisioned that genetics could drive stratified drug development by identifying those patient subgroups that are most likely to respond. However, this vision has not been realized as only a small proportion of drugs have been found to have germline genetic predictors of efficacy with clinically meaningful effects, and so far all but one were found after drug approval. With the exception of oncology, systematic application of efficacy pharmacogenetics has not been integrated into drug discovery and development across the industry. Here, we argue for routine, early and cumulative screening for genetic predictors of efficacy, as an integrated component of clinical trial analysis. Such a strategy would identify clinically relevant predictors that may exist at the earliest possible opportunity, allow these predictors to be integrated into subsequent clinical development and provide mechanistic insights into drug disposition and patient-specific factors that influence response, therefore paving the way towards more personalized medicine. PMID:26972588

  9. Self-efficacy and health education.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, L; McLeroy, K R

    1986-10-01

    Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has been applied in many areas of health education including smoking cessation, pain control, eating problems, cardiac rehabilitation, and adherence to regimens. Consequently, self-efficacy has emerged as an important concept with which health educators should be familiar. Self-efficacy refers to one's belief in the ability to do a specific behavior. Self-efficacy is a principle connection between knowledge and action since the belief that one can do a behavior usually occurs before one actually attempts the behavior. Self-efficacy also affects the choice of behavior, settings in which behaviors are performed, and the amount of effort and persistence to be spent on performance of a specific task. This article will examine self-efficacy theory, describe sources of self-efficacy, and present applications of self-efficacy theory. PMID:3534459

  10. Efficacy of oral moxifloxacin for aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Han, C; Geng, N; Fan, A; Wang, Y; Yue, Y; Zhang, H; Xue, F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of oral moxifloxacin for aerobic vaginitis (AV). We also identified factors that are associated with therapeutic efficacy. This prospective study enrolled general gynecological outpatients at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital between September 2012 and May 2014. Women diagnosed with AV (n = 102) were recruited. All enrolled women were treated with oral moxifloxacin, 400 mg once daily for 6 days (one course). Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated based on microscopic criteria, and cure rates were calculated. Women who were microscopically improved (but not cured) received a second course of therapy. Women classified with microscopic failure were treated using other strategies. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that may be associated with a cure after one course of therapy. After one course of therapy, 65.7 % (67/102) of women were cured, 29.4 % (30/102) of women were improved (but not cured), 4.9 % (5/102) of women failed to respond to the therapy. After two courses of therapy, 85.3 % (87/102) of women were cured, 9.8 % (10/102) of women were improved, 4.9 % (5/102) of women failed to respond to the therapy, and clinical improvement was achieved in additional women. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, women with a baseline vaginal pH value of <5.0 had a 3.5-times higher chance of being cured, compared with those with a baseline vaginal pH value of ≥5.0 (OR, 3.503; 95 % CI, 1.278-9.601). Moxifloxacin is an effective therapeutic option for patients with AV. Most women with AV were cured with one course of moxifloxacin. For those with a higher vaginal pH value of ≥5.0 before treatment, two courses of therapy should be considered. PMID:26526787

  11. Changes in Biology Self-Efficacy during a First-Year University Course.

    PubMed

    Ainscough, Louise; Foulis, Eden; Colthorpe, Kay; Zimbardi, Kirsten; Robertson-Dean, Melanie; Chunduri, Prasad; Lluka, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    Academic self-efficacy encompasses judgments regarding one's ability to perform academic tasks and is correlated with achievement and persistence. This study describes changes in biology self-efficacy during a first-year course. Students (n = 614) were given the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale at the beginning and end of the semester. The instrument consisted of 21 questions ranking confidence in performing biology-related tasks on a scale from 1 (not at all confident) to 5 (totally confident). The results demonstrated that students increased in self-efficacy during the semester. High school biology and chemistry contributed to self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester; however, this relationship was lost by the end of the semester, when experience within the course became a significant contributing factor. A proportion of high- and low- achieving (24 and 40%, respectively) students had inaccurate self-efficacy judgments of their ability to perform well in the course. In addition, female students were significantly less confident than males overall, and high-achieving female students were more likely than males to underestimate their academic ability. These results suggest that the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale may be a valuable resource for tracking changes in self-efficacy in first-year students and for identifying students with poorly calibrated self-efficacy perceptions. PMID:27193290

  12. Transcriptomics and the mechanisms of antidepressant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Karen; Tansey, Katherine E; Powell, Timothy R; Coppola, Giovanni; Uher, Rudolf; Zvezdana Dernovšek, Mojca; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Souery, Daniel; Maier, Wolfgang; Henigsberg, Neven; Rietschel, Marcella; Placentino, Anna; Aitchison, Katherine J; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; Breen, Gerome; McGuffin, Peter; Dobson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which antidepressants have their effects are not clear and the reasons for variability in treatment outcomes are also unknown. However, there is evidence from candidate gene research that indicates gene expression changes may be involved in antidepressant action. In this study, we examined antidepressant-induced alterations in gene expression on a transcriptome-wide scale, exploring associations with treatment response. Blood samples were taken from a subset of depressed patients from the GENDEP study (n=136) before and after eight weeks of treatment with either escitalopram or nortriptyline. Transcriptomic data were obtained from these samples using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip microarrays. When analysing individual genes, we observed that changes in the expression of two genes (MMP28 and KXD1) were associated with better response to nortriptyline. Considering connectivity between genes, we identified modules of genes that were highly coexpressed. In the whole sample, changes in one of the ten identified coexpression modules showed significant correlation with treatment response (cor=0.27, p=0.0029). Using transcriptomic approaches, we have identified gene expression correlates of the therapeutic effects of antidepressants, highlighting possible molecular pathways involved in efficacious antidepressant treatment. PMID:26621261

  13. Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reivich, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

  14. Singapore High School Students' Creativity Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Ho, Valerie; Yong, Lim-Chyi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Singapore education adopted nurturing creativity and developing creativity efficacy among their students and children. This study investigated Singapore high school students' creativity efficacy based on the contemporary model of creativity (Amabile, 1983, 1996), self efficacy (Bandura, 1989, 1997) and inclusion education. Aims:…

  15. Generalization of Self-Efficacy in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RiCharde, Stephen; Wang, Alvin Y.

    To test the hypothesis that a bidirectional or hierarchical relationship exists between self-efficacy and mnemonic self-concept, an investigation was made of the relationship between a task-independent learning strategy and self-efficacy for a variety of cognitive skills. A total of 60 second graders were pretested for self-efficacy on four…

  16. Self-Efficacy and Cognitive Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    This paper reviews self-efficacy research with special emphasis on students in school. Bandura's emphasis on domain-specific assessment is useful for understanding student learning and fits well with current research on instructional processes. A self-efficacy model of student learning is presented, comprising entry characteristics, self-efficacy

  17. Optimizing efficacy of mucosal vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gebril, Ayman; Alsaadi, Manal; Acevedo, Reinaldo; Mullen, Alexander B; Ferro, Valerie A

    2012-09-01

    In general, there are only a few vaccines administered via mucosal routes, as the mucosal immune system presents numerous hurdles, including diversity in mucosal surface structure, complexity in immune cell interaction and limitations in experimental methodology. This therefore necessitates a range of strategies to be used for each target area. With reference to the three main routes of delivery and associated mucosal surfaces (oral/intestinal, nasal/respiratory and female genital tract), this review examines how coadministration of immune-stimulatory molecules, adjuvants, delivery systems and mucoadhesives are used to improve mucosal vaccine efficacy. Key considerations to the development of next-generation mucosal vaccines include improved efficacy and safety, technological advancements in medical devices to enable convenience and better administration, as well as reduced manufacturing costs. PMID:23151169

  18. The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurien, Sarah Anjali

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

  19. STAT3-Mediated Autophagy Dependence Identifies Subtypes of Breast Cancer where Autophagy Inhibition can be Efficacious

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Gearheart, Christy M.; Barnard, Rebecca; Aryal, Suraj; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M.; Fosmire, Susan P.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Morgan, Michael J.; Porter, Christopher C.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a protein and organelle degradation pathway that is involved in diverse diseases including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy is a cell survival mechanism in tumor cells and that its inhibition especially in combination with other therapy could be beneficial but it remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same way when autophagy is inhibited. We inhibited autophagy in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and found that some of them are dependent on autophagy for survival even in nutrient rich conditions without any additional stress while others need autophagy only when stressed. Survival under unstressed conditions is due to cell type specific autophagy regulation of STAT3 activity and this phenotype is enriched in triple negative cell lines. This autophagy-dependency affects response to therapy because autophagy inhibition reduced tumor growth in vivo in autophagy-dependent but not in autophagy-independent breast tumors while combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors and other agent was preferentially synergistic in autophagy-dependent cells. These results imply that autophagy-dependence represents a tumor cell specific characteristic where autophagy inhibition will be more effective. Moreover, our results suggest that autophagy inhibition might be a potential therapeutic strategy for triple negative breast cancers, which currently lack an effective targeted treatment. PMID:24590058

  20. Efficacy of the ADEC in Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder in Clinically Referred Toddlers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E.; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n=114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental

  1. Efficacy of the ADEC in Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder in Clinically Referred Toddlers in the US.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A

    2015-08-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36 months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n = 114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental delay or ASD. The ADEC (cutoff = 11) returned good sensitivity (.93-.94) but poorer specificity (.62-.64) for best estimate clinical diagnosis of ASD, and compared favorably with the ADOS-2. Internal consistency was acceptable, α = .80, and inter-rater reliability was high, ICC = .95. Results support the use of the ADEC as a clinical screen for ASD. PMID:25737020

  2. Efficacy of the ADEC in Identifying Autism Spectrum Disorder in Clinically Referred Toddlers in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedley, Darren; Nevill, Rose E.; Monroy-Moreno, Yessica; Fields, Natalie; Wilkins, Jonathan; Butter, Eric; Mulick, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC) is a brief, play-based screening tool for the assessment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children aged 12-36 months. We examined the psychometric properties of the ADEC in a clinical sample of toddlers (n = 114) referred to a US pediatric hospital for assessment due to concerns of developmental…

  3. Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

    2012-05-24

    To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

  4. The efficacy and value of emergency medicine: a supportive literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Study objectives The goal of this study was to identify publications in the medical literature that support the efficacy or value of Emergency Medicine (EM) as a medical specialty and of clinical care delivered by trained emergency physicians. In this study we use the term "value" to refer both to the "efficacy of clinical care" in terms of achieving desired patient outcomes, as well as "efficiency" in terms of effective and/or cost-effective utilization of healthcare resources in delivering emergency care. A comprehensive listing of publications describing the efficacy or value of EM has not been previously published. It is anticipated that the accumulated reference list generated by this study will serve to help promote awareness of the value of EM as a medical specialty, and acceptance and development of the specialty of EM in countries where EM is new or not yet fully established. Methods The January 1995 to October 2010 issues of selected journals, including the EM journals with the highest article impact factors, were reviewed to identify articles of studies or commentaries that evaluated efficacy, effectiveness, and/or value related to EM as a specialty or to clinical care delivered by EM practitioners. Articles were included if they found a positive or beneficial effect of EM or of EM physician-provided medical care. Additional articles that had been published prior to 1995 or in other non-EM journals already known to the authors were also included. Results A total of 282 articles were identified, and each was categorized into one of the following topics: efficacy of EM for critical care and procedures (31 articles), efficacy of EM for efficiency or cost of care (30 articles), efficacy of EM for public health or preventive medicine (34 articles), efficacy of EM for radiology (11 articles), efficacy of EM for trauma or airway management (27 articles), efficacy of EM for using ultrasound (56 articles), efficacy of EM faculty (34 articles), efficacy of EM residencies (24 articles), and overviews and editorials of EM efficacy and value (35 articles). Conclusion There is extensive medical literature that supports the efficacy and value for both EM as a medical specialty and for emergency patient care delivered by trained EM physicians. PMID:21781295

  5. Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Toh, May Fern

    2010-01-01

    The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

  6. APOE genotype-dependent modulation of astrocyte chemokine CCL3 production

    PubMed Central

    Cudaback, Eiron; Yang, Yue; Montine, Thomas J.; Keene, C. Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, and is increasingly recognized to play a prominent role in the modulation of innate immune response, including cell-to-cell communication and migration. Three common alleles Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation that appears to be an important component of the pathophysiology of the disease. Astrocytes are the majority cell type in brain, exerting significant influence over a range of central nervous system activities, including microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory responses. As the resident innate immune effector cells of the brain, microglia respond to soluble chemical signals released from tissue during injury and disease by mobilizing to lesion sites, clearing toxic molecules, and releasing chemical signals of their own. While microglial-mediated neuroinflammation in the AD brain remains an area of intense investigation, the mechanisms underlying reinforcement and regulation of these aberrant microglial responses by astrocytes are largely unstudied. Moreover, although inheritance of APOE ε4 represents the greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD, the mechanism by which apoE isoforms differentially influence AD pathophysiology is unknown. Here we show that APOE ε4 genotype specifically modulates astrocyte secretion of potent microglial chemotactic agents, including CCL3, thus providing evidence that APOE modulation of central nervous system (CNS) innate immune response is mediated through astrocytes. PMID:25092803

  7. Osteoradionecrosis in Head-and-Neck Cancer Has a Distinct Genotype-Dependent Cause

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, Andrew J.; West, Catharine M.; Risk, Janet M.; Slevin, Nick J.; Chan, Clara; Crichton, Siobhan; Rinck, Gabrielle; Howell, Dawn; Shaw, Richard J.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: We performed a case-control study to establish whether the development of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) was related to a variant allele substituting T for C at -509 of the transforming growth factor-{beta}1 gene (TGF-{beta}1). Patients and Methods: A total of 140 patients, 39 with and 101 without ORN, who underwent radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, were studied. None of the patients had clinical evidence of recurrence at this time. DNA extracted from blood was genotyped for the -509 C-T variant allele of the TGF-{beta}1 gene. Results: There were no significant differences in patient, cancer treatment, or tumor characteristics between the two groups. Of the 39 patients who developed ORN, 9 were homozygous for the common CC allele, 19 were heterozygous, and 11 were homozygous for the rare TT genotype. Of the 101 patients without ORN, the distribution was 56 (CC), 33 (CT), and 12 (TT). The difference in distribution was significant, giving an increased risk of ORN of 5.7 (95% CI, 1.7-19.2) for homozygote TT patients (p = 0.001) and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.3-10.0) for heterozygotes (p = 0.004) when compared with patients with the CC genotype. Postradiotherapy dentoalveolar surgery preceding the development of ORN was associated with the CC genotype (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our findings support the postulate that the development of ORN is related to the presence of the T variant allele at -509 within the TGF-{beta}1 gene.

  8. Tetranychus urticae-triggered responses promote genotype-dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus.

    PubMed

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes α-ocimene, α-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as α-ocimene and d-limonene. PMID:25771705

  9. Response to photoxidative stress induced by cold in japonica rice is genotype dependent.

    PubMed

    Bonnecarrère, Victoria; Borsani, Omar; Díaz, Pedro; Capdevielle, Fabián; Blanco, Pedro; Monza, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Two japonica rice genotypes, INIA Tacuarí and L2825CA, were analyzed for tolerance to low temperature during early vegetative growth. Effect on photosynthesis, energy dissipation, pigment content, xanthophyll-cycle pool conversion, hydrogen peroxide accumulation, oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities were determined to better understand potential mechanisms for cold tolerance. Photoinhibition was measured using chlorophyll fluorescence and oxidative damage by lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Both genotypes were demonstrated to be cold tolerant which was consistent with their reduced levels of photoinhibition and oxidative damage compared with a cold-sensitive genotype during chilling stress. The strategy for cold tolerance differed between the two genotypes, and involved different mechanisms for disposal of excess energy. The presence of high lutein concentrations and the existence of active non-harmful energy dissipation processes through the xanthophyll cycle appeared to be responsible for chilling tolerance in INIA Tacuarí. On the other hand, increased cold tolerance of L2825CA relative to INIA Tacuarí was related to the higher constitutive superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6). PMID:21421424

  10. Tissue distribution, gender- and genotype-dependent expression of autophagy-related genes in avian species.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, Alissa; Khaldi, Stephanie; Greene, Elizabeth; Lassiter, Kentu; Mason, James G; Anthony, Nicholas; Bottje, Walter; Dridi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders) chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica). Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis). Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5%) between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender-dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R) or high (sensitive, S) stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species. PMID:25386921

  11. Fluvastatin Suppresses Mast Cell and Basophil IgE Responses: Genotype-Dependent Effects.

    PubMed

    Kolawole, Elizabeth Motunrayo; McLeod, Jamie Josephine Avila; Ndaw, Victor; Abebayehu, Daniel; Barnstein, Brian O; Faber, Travis; Spence, Andrew J; Taruselli, Marcela; Paranjape, Anuya; Haque, Tamara T; Qayum, Amina A; Kazmi, Qasim A; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan S; Sturgill, Jamie L; Chalfant, Charles E; Straus, David B; Oskeritzian, Carole A; Ryan, John J

    2016-02-15

    Mast cell (MC)- and basophil-associated inflammatory diseases are a considerable burden to society. A significant portion of patients have symptoms despite standard-of-care therapy. Statins, used to lower serum cholesterol, have immune-modulating activities. We tested the in vitro and in vivo effects of statins on IgE-mediated MC and basophil activation. Fluvastatin showed the most significant inhibitory effects of the six statins tested, suppressing IgE-induced cytokine secretion among mouse MCs and basophils. The effects of fluvastatin were reversed by mevalonic acid or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphatase, and mimicked by geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition. Fluvastatin selectively suppressed key FcεRI signaling pathways, including Akt and ERK. Although MCs and basophils from the C57BL/6J mouse strain were responsive to fluvastatin, those from 129/SvImJ mice were completely resistant. Resistance correlated with fluvastatin-induced upregulation of the statin target HMG-CoA reductase. Human MC cultures from eight donors showed a wide range of fluvastatin responsiveness. These data demonstrate that fluvastatin is a potent suppressor of IgE-mediated MC activation, acting at least partly via blockade of geranyl lipid production downstream of HMG-CoA reductase. Importantly, consideration of statin use for treating MC-associated disease needs to incorporate genetic background effects, which can yield drug resistance. PMID:26773154

  12. Tissue Distribution, Gender- and Genotype-Dependent Expression of Autophagy-Related Genes in Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Elizabeth; Lassiter, Kentu; Mason, James G.; Anthony, Nicholas; Dridi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders) chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica). Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis). Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5%) between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender- dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R) or high (sensitive, S) stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species. PMID:25386921

  13. Genotype-dependent responses to levels of sibling competition over maternal resources in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hager, R; Cheverud, J M; Wolf, J B

    2012-01-01

    Research on phenotypic plasticity has often focused on how a given genotype responds to the changing physical environments such as temperature or diet. However, for many species the social environment has an equally important role because of competition for resources. During early development, the level of competition for limited (maternally provided) resources will often depend critically on the number of siblings. Therefore, competition among siblings should drive the evolution of genes that allow flexible responses to realized levels of competition and maternal resource availability. However, it is unknown whether genetically based differences between individuals exist in their response to the social environment that affect their future development. Using a quantitative trait locus approach in an experimental population of mice we demonstrate that effects of sibling number on body weight depend on individual genotype at seven loci, over and above the general negative litter size effect. Overall, these litter size-by-genotype interactions considerably modified the degree to which increasing litter size caused reduced weight. For example at one locus this effect leads to a 7% difference in body weight at week 7 between individuals experiencing the extremes of the normal range of litter sizes in our population (five to nine litter mates). The observed interaction between genotype and the competitive environment can produce differences in body weight that are similar in magnitude to the main effect of litter size on weight. Our results show that different genotypes respond to the social environment differentially and that interaction effects of genotype with litter size can be as important as genotype-independent effects of litter size. PMID:22126849

  14. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice. PMID:19089630

  15. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, K; Korostynski, M; Golda, S; Solecki, W; Przewlocki, R

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops in predisposed individuals following a terrifying event. Studies on isogenic animal populations might explain susceptibility to PTSD by revealing associations between the molecular and behavioural consequences of traumatic stress. Our study employed four inbred mouse strains to search for differences in post-stress response to a 1.5-mA electric foot shock. One day to 6 weeks after the foot shock anxiety, depression and addiction-like phenotypes were assessed. In addition, expression levels of selected stress-related genes were analysed in hippocampus and amygdala. C57BL/6J mice exhibited up-regulation in the expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Crhr1 genes in both brain regions. These alterations were associated with an increase of sensitized fear and depressive-like behaviour over time. Traumatic stress induced expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Fkbp5 genes and developed social withdrawal in DBA/2J mice. In 129P3/J strain, exposure to stress produced the up-regulation of Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia genes and enhanced sensitivity to the rewarding properties of morphine. Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear. Our results reveal a complex genetic background of phenotypic variation in response to stress and indicate the SWR/J strain as a valuable model of stress resistance. We found potential links between the alterations in expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia and Pdyn, and different aspects of susceptibility to stress. PMID:22974489

  16. Gender-Differences in Self-Efficacy ICT Related to Various ICT-User Profiles in Finland and Norway. How Do Self-Efficacy, Gender and ICT-User Profiles Relate to Findings from PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomte, Cathrine; Hatlevik, Ove E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we explored the relationship between self-efficacy, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) user profiles, and gender. Self-efficacy is an important theoretical and empirical concept to identify and describe how students perceive their own ability to solve a task. ICT user profiles were developed as an empirical framework to…

  17. Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

  18. Use of ICT Technologies and Factors Affecting Pre-Service ELT Teachers' Perceived ICT Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Derya; Özen, Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify both level and frequency of ICT technology use and factors affecting perceived self-efficacy levels of pre-service English Language Teaching (ELT) teachers' (n = 241) ICT self-efficacy. The data were collected through a survey (Çuhadar & Yücel, 2010) during the 2011-2012 academic year that includes items on the…

  19. Development and Validation of In-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs in the Context of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaukat, Sadia

    2011-01-01

    This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery.…

  20. Parent-Teacher Relationship, Instructor Self-Efficacy and Their Effects on Student Goal Attainment in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 35 years, researchers examining the factors that contribute to student achievement have identified teacher self-efficacy (a teacher's belief that they have the ability to influence student achievement) as one contributing characteristic. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has been applied to a wealth of research looking at the early…

  1. Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Australian High School Students: The Mediating Effects of Academic Aspirations and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert; Unsworth, Kerrie; Hattie, John; Gordon, Lisa; Bower, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that self-efficacy, aspirational, and other psychosocial influences account for considerable variance in academic achievement through a range of mediational pathways, although no research to date has tested the mediational relationships identified. The present research investigated the structural relations among self-efficacy,…

  2. Perceived Risk and Self-Efficacy as Motivators: Understanding Individuals' Long-Term Use of Health Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimal, Rajiv N.

    2001-01-01

    Considers to what extent perceived risk and self-efficacy interact with each other to determine individuals' motivation to seek health information. Identifies 4 groups of individuals according to their perceived risk and self-efficacy; responsive, proactive, avoidance, and indifference. Attempts to resolve some of the outstanding issues with…

  3. Teenage goals and self-efficacy beliefs as precursors of adult career and family outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study identified and examined patterns of goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs in mid- and late adolescence as predictors of work and family outcomes in adulthood. A pattern approach was applied to appropriately identify relationships among work- and family-related goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs. Using a sample of 995 individuals, five distinct patterns of work-family goal importance and self-efficacy beliefs emerged. Individuals who assigned comparable importance to work and family goals and expressed corresponding self-efficacy beliefs in adolescence were more likely to achieve career and family outcomes in adulthood than individuals who expressed a strong preference for one domain over the other. The results supported the idea that work and family can be coordinated for mutual benefit. Furthermore, findings from the pattern approach provided an integrative view of work-family motivation and goal achievement complementing findings from traditional methods such as regression analysis. PMID:25242815

  4. Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

    1995-12-01

    Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

  5. Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

  6. Predictors of Self-Efficacy for HIV Prevention Among Hispanic Women in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a critical element for HIV prevention, however little is known about the predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women. In this cross-sectional study we assessed if age, living with a partner, employment status, HIV knowledge, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence (IPV) predicted self-efficacy for HIV prevention in 548 Hispanic women in South Florida who participated in a randomized controlled trial (SEPA). The majority of Hispanic women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, with less HIV knowledge, and a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:22795758

  7. The Efficacy of Soccer Headgear

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yan-Ying; Broglio, Michael D.; Sell, Timothy C.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The potential for risks associated with chronic soccer heading has led some soccer leagues to mandate the use of soccer headgear. Although manufacturers have designed and promoted these headbands to decrease the forces associated with heading a soccer ball, their efficacy has not been tested. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of 3 brands of soccer headgear: Headers, Headblast, and Protector, as compared with a non-headband condition. Design and Setting: A force platform was mounted vertically with each headband attached with a length of hook-and-loop tape. A JUGS Soccer Machine projected balls at the platform and headband at 56.45 kph (35 mph). Measurements: We measured vertical ground reaction force for 50 trials of each condition and calculated peak force, time to peak force, and impulse. Results: We found a significant reduction in peak force of impact with all 3 headbands. The Protector headband also showed the greatest decrease in time to peak force and impulse, whereas the Headers headband showed a significant increase in impulse. Conclusions: All 3 headbands were effective at reducing the peak impact force. The Protector headband appeared the most effective at reducing time to peak force and impulse within the design of this study. The clinical effectiveness of these products remains to be seen. PMID:14608431

  8. "Tener Exito": Stories of Self-Efficacy from Undocumented Latinos in the Pursuit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the evolvement of self-efficacy and the lived experiences of five undocumented Latino/as during their first semester in a Texas college or university. The snowball sampling method was used to identify participants who were undocumented, immigrated as children and enrolled in K-12 public school, and self-identified

  9. Stochastic control system parameter identifiability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

  10. Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership. PMID:18567210

  11. Trait emotional intelligence and leadership self-efficacy: their relationship with collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, José J; Sánchez, José C

    2007-11-01

    In this article, a leadership model is presented, with which to investigate the relationship of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI), leadership self-efficacy and leader's task self-efficacy with collective task efficacy and group performance. The sample was made up of 217 undergraduate students, randomly assigned to work teams of 1 leader and 2 followers that were requested to perform a production task. An adapted version of the Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI; Schutte et al., 1998) was used to measure trait EI. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that task self-efficacy was a mediator between leadership self-efficacy and collective task efficacy; the latter, in turn, was the best predictor of group performance. No significant relationship was found between trait EI and collective task efficacy although, unexpectedly, trait EI was positively associated with leadership self-efficacy. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:17992961

  12. Efficacy of postexposure therapy against glanders in mice.

    PubMed

    Waag, David M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, is a CDC Tier 1 Select Agent for which there is no preventive vaccine and antibiotic therapy is difficult. In this study, we show that a combination of vaccination using killed cellular vaccine and therapy using moxifloxacin, azithromycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim can protect BALB/c mice from lethal infection even when given 5 days after infectious challenge. Vaccination only, or antibiotic therapy only, was not efficacious. Although antibiotics evaluated experimentally can protect when given before or 1 day after challenge, this time course is not realistic in the cases of natural infection or biological attack, when the patient seeks treatment after symptoms develop or after a biological attack has been confirmed and the agent has been identified. Antibiotics can be efficacious after a prolonged interval between exposure and treatment, but only if the animals were previously vaccinated. PMID:25645854

  13. The role of HMGCR alternative splicing in statin efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Marisa Wong; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Statins, or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) inhibitors, are widely prescribed to lower plasma cholesterol levels and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Despite the well documented efficacy of statins, there is large inter-individual variation in response. Using a panel of immortalized lymphocyte cell lines incubated with simvastatin, we recently found that the magnitude of expression of an alternatively spliced HMGCR transcript lacking exon 13 was inversely correlated with in vivo reductions of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triglycerides following statin treatment of the individuals from whom the cells were derived. This review will discuss the potential significance of alternative splicing as a mechanism contributing to variation in statin efficacy as well as the utility of immortalized lymphocyte cell lines for identifying pharmacogenetically relevant polymorphisms and molecular mechanisms. PMID:20005478

  14. Self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in patients with heart failure: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Feizi, Awat; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasandokht, Tolu; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite exercise is recommended as an adjunct to medication therapy in patients with heart failure (HF), non-adherence to exercise is a major problem. While improving self-efficacy is an effective way to increase physical activity, the evidence concerning the relationship between strategies to enhance self-efficacy and exercise among HF has not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effect of interventions to change the self-efficacy on exercise in patients with HF. METHODS A systematic database search was conducted for articles reporting exercise self-efficacy interventions. Databases such as PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Scopus, and PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched with restrictions to the years 2000-June 2014. A search of relevant databases identified 10 studies. Published randomized controlled intervention studies focusing strategies to change self-efficacy to exercise adherence in HF were eligible for inclusion. In addition, studies that have applied self-efficacy-based interventions to improve exercise are discussed. RESULTS Limited published data exist evaluating the self-efficacy strategies to improve exercise in HF. Dominant strategies to improve patients’ self-efficacy were performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal. CONCLUSION Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of an exercise intervention is beneficial. Moreover, exercise interventions aimed at integrating the four strategies of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate exercise and recover HF symptoms. Findings of this study suggest that a positive relationship exists between self-efficacy and initiating and maintaining exercise in HF, especially in the short-term period. PMID:25815022

  15. Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

    Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

  16. The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

    2013-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

  17. Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Student Work Teams: Relation to Self-Efficacy, Cohesion, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lent, Robert W.; Schmidt, Janet; Schmidt, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A measure of collective efficacy was developed and administered to undergraduates working in project teams in engineering courses. Findings in each of two samples revealed that the measure contained a single factor and was related to ratings of team cohesion and personal efficacy. Collective efficacy was also found to relate to indicators of team…

  18. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

  19. Teachers' Sense of Efficacy: Examining the Relationship of Teacher Efficacy and Student Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefaei, Nouf

    The purpose of this study was to investigate which teachers' characteristics have an impact on teachers' sense of efficacy. In addition, the relationship between mathematics and science fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and student achievement was examined. Two characteristics related to teachers were examined: teachers' years of teaching experience and teachers' highest degree. Participants included 62 mathematics and science teachers from three school districts in Northwest Arkansas. When comparing fifth grade mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs based on their highest degree, a significant difference in teachers' efficacy beliefs was found based on their degrees. Teachers with a Bachelor degree have higher total efficacy than teachers who hold Master's degrees. Moreover, an investigation to determine if there is a difference in mathematics and science teachers' efficacy beliefs in the three subscale of teachers' efficacy (for classroom management, for student engagement, and for instructional strategies) revealed a significant difference in teachers' efficacy for two of the three constructs. However, when examining teachers' sense of efficacy based on their teaching experience, no differences in teachers' efficacy were found. A correlation was conducted and the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between fifth grade teachers' sense of efficacy and students' achievement in the benchmark test in mathematics and science. The recommendations from this study should be used to inform other scholars and administrators of the importance of teachers' sense of efficacy in order to improve students' achievement gains.

  20. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  1. Examining Relationships among Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Efficacy and Their Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fifth-grade mathematics teachers' efficacy (MTE) on their students' mathematics self-efficacy (SMSE) and mathematical achievement (SMA) in classrooms. Two mathematics efficacy instruments were administered to 58 classes (i.e. 58 teachers and 1244 fifth-graders respectively) to gather data…

  2. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to

  3. Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

  4. Methods for identifying translational researchers.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary K; Johnson, Timothy; Welch, Eric W

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no generally accepted method for identifying the community of translational researchers when evaluating Clinical and Translational Science Centers. We use data from the multiyear evaluation of the University of Illinois at Chicago Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS) to investigate the complexities of reliably identifying translational researchers. We use three methods to identify translational researchers: (1) participating in CCTS services and programs; (2) self-identifying as a translational researcher; and (3) engaging in activities that are characteristic of translational science. We find little overlap of these differently defined research groups. We conclude with a discussion of how the findings suggest challenges for evaluating translational science programs and the need for better definition, communication, and demonstration of translational science for scientists and evaluators. PMID:24064431

  5. Treatment Outcomes and Efficacy in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces six articles which address treatment outcomes and efficacy in audiology and speech-language pathology in the schools. Stresses the importance of practitioners participating in studies of treatment outcomes and efficacy to demonstrate that their evaluations and treatments make a significant difference to individuals served. (DB)

  6. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  7. Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çalişkan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

  8. Self-Efficacy for Creative Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schack, Gina

    The Efficacy Scale for Creative Productivity (ESCreP) was developed to measure students' convictions that they could be creative producers. Self-efficacy, an individual's estimation of ability to perform a behavior, is based upon performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and emotional or physiological arousal. Three…

  9. Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Academic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The contribution made by the self-efficacy component of A. Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory to the study of self-regulation and motivation in academic settings was studied. Findings demonstrate that particularized measures of self-efficacy that correspond to critical tasks surpass global measures in outcome explanation and prediction. (SLD)

  10. Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    The theory of self-efficacy (beliefs concerning one's capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels), has developed since A. Bandura's work (1977) and continues to be applied to a variety of educational settings and grade levels. This paper addresses various issues pertaining to self-efficacy in settings involving academic…

  11. Self-Efficacy in Academic Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajares, Frank

    This paper explored the contributions made by self-efficacy theory to the study of self-regulation and motivation in academic settings. Findings on the relationship between self-efficacy and academic performance are first summarized. The conceptual difference between the definition and use of perceptions of competence in social cognitive theory…

  12. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

  13. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)≥3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

  14. Self-Efficacy as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

  15. Self-efficacy as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

  16. Online Students' Perceived Self-Efficacy: Does It Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cheng-Yuan; Witta, E. Lea

    Two types of self-efficacy were investigated in this study: self-efficacy for course content and self-efficacy for online learning technologies. Specifically, the study examined how these two types of self-efficacy change throughout a semester. Secondly, it examined whether students' self-efficacy is predicative of their satisfaction and course…

  17. Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

  18. Efficacy and Tolerability of Second-Generation Antidepressants in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gaynes, Bradley N.; Gartlehner, Gerald; Moore, Charity G.; Tiwari, Ruchi; Lohr, Kathleen N.

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of second-generation antidepressants in social anxiety disorder. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, PsychLit, and the International Pharmaceutical Abstracts from January 1980 through October 2006. Comparative evidence was summarized and indirect comparisons were made using network meta-analysis. Only three head-to-head trials were identified; comparative trials found only minimal differences in efficacy between escitalopram and paroxetine, and no statistically significant differences in efficacy between extended-release venlafaxine and paroxetine. Pooled evidence from 15 placebo-controlled trials suggests that escitalopram (relative benefit 1.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.5), paroxetine (relative benefit 1.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.3), sertraline (relative benefit 1.8; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.2), and venlafaxine (relative benefit 1.7; 95% CI 1.5 to 1.9) all produce significantly more responders than placebo; evidence favored fluvoxamine over placebo but was not significant (relative benefit 1.5; 95% CI 0.9 to 2.4). Network meta-analysis did not reveal differences in efficacy among drugs. Overall, fair evidence supports the efficacy of escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine in social anxiety disorder. The drugs do not differ in efficacy, although their adverse event profiles do. PMID:18408531

  19. Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.

    PubMed

    de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious. PMID:25000697

  20. The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention Interventions*

    PubMed Central

    Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820

  1. Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

  2. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  3. Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice.

    PubMed

    Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2002-03-01

    Traditionally, acupuncture is embedded in naturalistic theories that are compatible with Confucianism and Taoism. Such ideas as yin-yang, qi, dampness, and wind represent East Asian conceptual frameworks that emphasize the reliability of ordinary, human sensory awareness. Many physicians who practice acupuncture reject such prescientific notions. Numerous randomized, controlled trials and more than 25 systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the clinical efficacy of acupuncture. Evidence from these trials indicates that acupuncture is effective for emesis developing after surgery or chemotherapy in adults and for nausea associated with pregnancy. Good evidence exists that acupuncture is also effective for relieving dental pain. For such conditions as chronic pain, back pain, and headache, the data are equivocal or contradictory. Clinical research on acupuncture poses unique methodologic challenges. Properly performed acupuncture seems to be a safe procedure. Basic-science research provides evidence that begins to offer plausible mechanisms for the presumed physiologic effects of acupuncture. Multiple research approaches have shown that acupuncture activates endogenous opioid mechanisms. Recent data, obtained by using functional magnetic resonance imaging, suggest that acupuncture has regionally specific, quantifiable effects on relevant brain structures. Acupuncture may stimulate gene expression of neuropeptides. The training and provision of acupuncture care in the United States are rapidly expanding. PMID:11874310

  4. Evaluating treatment efficacy by triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kay, M; Guernsey de Zapien, J; Wilson, C A; Yoder, M

    1993-06-01

    The project 'Efficacy of Support Groups for Mexican American Widows' was evaluated by triangulating results collected from different points of view. These included changes after one year in (1) measurement scores of standardized instruments, (2) assessment of adjustment to role of widow by the outsider and (3) evaluation by the widow herself. When subjects were categorized by their assignment to experimental or control groups, the scores on standardized instruments including the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Center for Epidemiologic Study of Depression (CES-D), Anxiety State, Life Satisfaction and new scales measuring Somatic symptoms and Emotional symptoms had decreased from time 1 to time 5 for all widows. However, the widows participating in support groups showed significantly improved changes in these scores. The outsiders found the women who participated in the support groups to have a far better change to the role of widow than the control widows. The support group widows themselves described more positive changes in themselves than did control widows. PMID:8327918

  5. Tigecycline Is Highly Efficacious against Mycobacterium abscessus Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Beatriz E; Srivastava, Shashikant; Deshpande, Devyani; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; van Soolingen, Dick; Mouton, Johan W; van Ingen, Jakko; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-05-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus causes chronic pulmonary infections that are extremely difficult to cure. The currently recommended combination therapy is associated with high failure rates and relapse. Tigecycline has been explored in salvage regimens, with a response rate of 43% in those who received at least a month of therapy. We performed a dose-response study in a hollow-fiber system model of pulmonary M. abscessus infection in which we recapitulated tigecycline human pulmonary concentration-time profiles of 8 different doses for 21 days. We identified the maximal kill or efficacy in CFU per milliliter and the ratio of the 0- to 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to MIC (AUC/MIC) associated with 80% efficacy (EC80). The tigecycline efficacy was 5.38 ± 2.35 log10 CFU/ml, and the drug achieved the unprecedented feat of a bacterial level of 1.0 log10 CFU/ml below the pretreatment inoculum (1-log kill) of M. abscessus in the hollow-fiber system. The EC80 AUC/MIC ratio was 36.65, while that for a 1-log kill was 44.6. Monte Carlo experiments with 10,000 patients were used to identify the clinical dose best able to achieve the EC80 or 1-log kill. The standard dose of 100 mg/day had a cumulative fraction of response of 51% for the EC80 and 46% for 1-log kill. For both the EC80 target and 1-log kill, the optimal tigecycline clinical dose was identified as 200 mg/day. The susceptibility breakpoint was ≤0.5 mg/liter. Tigecycline is the most active single agent evaluated to date, and we propose that 200 mg/day be examined as the backbone of new combination therapy regimens to replace current treatment. PMID:26926649

  6. An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…

  7. An Analysis on the Effect of Computer Self-Efficacy over Scientific Research Self-Efficacy and Information Literacy Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuncer, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected

  8. Leadership, self-efficacy, and student achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Kristin

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.

  9. Review of efficacy and safety of laxatives use in geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Izzy, Manhal; Malieckal, Anju; Little, Erin; Anand, Sury

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of constipation in geriatrics. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, google scholar, and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation, which were conducted between January 1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords. Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included. Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials, case series, or case reports. RESULTS: Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search, only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics. The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna, lactulose, sorbital, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lubiprostone, linaclotide, and prucalopride. In those studies, senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as, a very good adverse effect profile. PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population. Furthermore, it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population. New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrants further investigation. CONCLUSION: Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation. PMID:27158549

  10. Efficacy of Antimicrobial Therapy for Mycoplasma genitalium Infections.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Lisa E; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Golden, Matthew R; Martin, David H

    2015-12-15

    Mycoplasma genitalium has been causally linked with nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, preterm birth, spontaneous abortion, and infertility in women, yet treatment has proven challenging. To inform treatment recommendations, we reviewed English-language studies describing antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance-associated mutations, and clinical efficacy of antibiotic therapy, identified via a systematic search of PubMed supplemented by expert referral. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from some contemporary isolates exhibited high-level susceptibility to most macrolides and quinolones, and moderate susceptibility to most tetracyclines, whereas other contemporary isolates had high MICs to the same antibiotics. Randomized trials demonstrated poor efficacy of doxycycline and better, but declining, efficacy of single-dose azithromycin therapy. Treatment failures after extended doses of azithromycin similarly increased, and circulating macrolide resistance was present in high levels in several areas. Moxifloxacin remains the most effective therapy, but treatment failures and quinolone resistance are emerging. Surveillance of M. genitalium prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns is urgently needed. PMID:26602619

  11. Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

  12. "Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

  13. Identifying Potential Dropouts. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaustad, Joan

    An overview of issues and problems in identifying and predicting dropouts is presented in this Digest. The topics discussed are as follows: factors associated with dropping out; defining and calculating dropouts; problems in prediction; the usefulness of current prediction models; and suggestions for improving prediction. The recommendation is

  14. The efficacy of anthelmintics against Thysaniezia giardi in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Davies, P V; Récio, M

    1981-09-01

    Two field cases of apparent inefficacy of albendazole against cestodes in lambs were investigated. In both farms Thysaniezia giardi was identified and 2 critical controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of 5 anthelmintics against T. giardi. Albendazole dosed at 3,8 mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg live mass, mebendazole at 15 mg/kg were totally ineffective against T. giardi. Treatment with resorantel at 65 mg/kg or niclosamide at 50 mg/kg however, caused expulsion of the strobilae within 16--24 hours after treatment and at autopsy, lambs were free of scoleces of T. giardi. PMID:7310792

  15. Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

  16. Geometrical scaling for identified particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praszalowicz, Michal

    2013-12-01

    We show that recently measured transverse momentum spectra of identified particles exhibit geometrical scaling (GS) in scaling variable τ=(( where m=√{m2+pT2}-m. We explore consequences of GS and show that both mid rapidity multiplicity and mean transverse momenta grow as powers of scattering energy. Furthermore, assuming Tsallis-like parametrization of the spectra we calculate the coefficients of this growth. We also show that Tsallis temperature is related to the average saturation scale.

  17. Identifying and managing problem drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

  18. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

  19. Identifying the Factors Underlying Discontinuation of Triptans

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca E.; Markowitz, Shira Y.; Baron, Eric P.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Kalidas, Kavita; Mathew, Paul G.; Halker, Rashmi; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with triptan discontinuation among migraine patients. Background It is unclear why many migraine patients who are prescribed triptans discontinue this treatment. This study investigated correlates of triptan discontinuation with a focus on potentially modifiable factors to improve compliance. Methods This multi-center cross-sectional survey (n=276) was performed at U.S. tertiary care headache clinics. Headache fellows who were members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium recruited episodic and chronic migraine patients who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥ 1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years). Univariate analyses were first completed to compare current triptan users to past users for: migraine characteristics, other migraine treatments, triptan education, triptan efficacy, triptan side effects, type of prescribing provider, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Then, a multivariable logistic regression model was selected from all possible combinations of predictor variables to determine the factors that best correlated with triptan discontinuation. Results Compared to those still using triptans (n=207), those who had discontinued use (n=69) had higher rates of medication overuse (30 vs. 18%, p=0.04), were more likely to have ever used opioids for migraine treatment (57 vs. 38%, p=0.006) as well as higher MIDAS (mean 63 vs. 37, p=0.001) and BDI scores (mean 10.4 vs. 7.4, p=0.009). Compared to discontinued users, current triptan users were more likely to have had their triptan prescribed by a specialist (neurologist, headache specialist, or pain specialist) (74 vs. 54%, p=0.002) and were more likely to report headache resolution (53 vs. 14%, p<0.001) or a reduction in pain intensity (71 vs. 28%, p<0.001) most of the time from their triptan. On a 1-5 scale (1=disagree, 5=agree), triptan users felt they had more: control over their migraine attacks (2.9 vs. 2.1), confidence in their prescribing provider (4.5 vs. 4.0), and were more educated about triptan use (4.2 vs. 3.7) compared to triptan discontinuers (p<0.001 for all comparisons). Although both current and prior users reported similar rates of side effects (48 vs. 43%, p=0.44), of those who discontinued use, the main reasons were for lack of effect (44%) and side effects (29%). Our multivariable modeling revealed that the strongest correlate of triptan discontinuation was lack of efficacy (OR=17, 95% CI [8.8, 33.0]). Other factors associated with discontinuation included MIDAS>24 (2.6, [1.5, 4.6]), BDI >4 (2.5, [1.4, 4.5]), and a history of ever using opioids for migraine therapy (2.2, [1.3, 3.8]). Having a triptan prescribed by a specialist and using at least one other abortive medication with the triptan were associated with a decreased likelihood of triptan discontinuation (0.41, [0.2-0.7] and 0.44 [0.3, 0.8], respectively). Conclusions As expected, discontinuation was most correlated with lack of efficacy, but other important factors associated with those who had discontinued use included greater migraine related disability, depression, and the use of opioids for migraine attacks. Compared to patients who had discontinued triptans, current triptan users felt more: educated about their triptan, control over their migraine attacks, and confidence in their prescribing provider. Current triptan users also had their triptan prescribed by a specialist more often and used other abortive medications with their triptan compared to patients who had discontinued triptans. Given the cross-sectional nature of this study, we cannot determine if these factors contributed to triptan discontinuation or reflect the impact of such discontinuation. Interventions that address modifiable risk factors for triptan discontinuation may decrease the likelihood of triptan discontinuation and thus improve overall migraine control. Since lack of efficacy was most strongly associated with triptan discontinuation, future research should determine why triptans are effective for some patients but not others. PMID:24001117

  20. Enhancing sunscreen efficacy in the 'real' world?

    PubMed

    Jungman, E; Maibach, H I

    2010-09-01

    Sunscreens, used in the prevention of sunburn and skin cancer, have been commercialized since the 1930s. Their utilization is expanding, particularly in response to photoaging and an increase of skin cancer. However, failures occur in sunscreen use because their efficacy depends on the adequacy of application and utilization. This overview documents issues in sunscreen use and also discusses 2007 FDA-proposed rules to offer possible options for enhanced efficacy and communications to the consumer. PMID:19821786

  1. Clinical and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Antimicrobial Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Hydrogels have been shown to have a significant role to play in wound healing. Hydrogels are used to assist in the management of dry, sloughy, or necrotic wounds. However, recent scientific evidence has shown that biofilms delay wound healing and increase a wound propensity to infection. It is therefore essential that hydrogels incorporating antimicrobials demonstrate efficacy on biofilms. Consequently, it is the aim of this article to review the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on wounds with specific reference to their efficacy on biofilms. Recent Advances: Technologies being developed for the management of wounds are rapidly expanding. In particularly next-generation hydrogels, incorporating copolymers, have been reported to enable the smart release of antimicrobials. This has led to the development of a more tailored patient-specific antimicrobial hydrogel therapy. Critical Issues: Evidence relating to the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on biofilms within both the in vitro and in vivo environments is lacking. Future Direction: Studies that investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial hydrogel wound dressings on both in vivo and in vitro biofilms are important. However, there is a significant need for better and more reproducible in vivo biofilm models. Until this is possible, data generated from appropriate and representative in vitro models will help to assist researchers and clinicians in evaluating antimicrobial and antibiofilm hydrogel technology for the extrapolation of efficacy data relevant to biofilms present in the in vivo environment. PMID:26155382

  2. Variable efficacy of repeated annual influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Smith, D J; Forrest, S; Ackley, D H; Perelson, A S

    1999-11-23

    Conclusions have differed in studies that have compared vaccine efficacy in groups receiving influenza vaccine for the first time to efficacy in groups vaccinated more than once. For example, the Hoskins study [Hoskins, T. W., Davis, J. R., Smith, A. J., Miller, C. L. & Allchin, A. (1979) Lancet i, 33-35] concluded that repeat vaccination was not protective in the long term, whereas the Keitel study [Keitel, W. A., Cate, T. R., Couch, R. B., Huggins, L. L. & Hess, K. R. (1997) Vaccine 15, 1114-1122] concluded that repeat vaccination provided continual protection. We propose an explanation, the antigenic distance hypothesis, and test it by analyzing seven influenza outbreaks that occurred during the Hoskins and Keitel studies. The hypothesis is that variation in repeat vaccine efficacy is due to differences in antigenic distances among vaccine strains and between the vaccine strains and the epidemic strain in each outbreak. To test the hypothesis, antigenic distances were calculated from historical hemagglutination inhibition assay tables, and a computer model of the immune response was used to predict the vaccine efficacy of individuals given different vaccinations. The model accurately predicted the observed vaccine efficacies in repeat vaccinees relative to the efficacy in first-time vaccinees (correlation 0.87). Thus, the antigenic distance hypothesis offers a parsimonious explanation of the differences between and within the Hoskins and Keitel studies. These results have implications for the selection of influenza vaccine strains, and also for vaccination strategies for other antigenically variable pathogens that might require repeated vaccination. PMID:10570188

  3. Requirements on efficacy of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Claeson, Per

    2014-12-01

    Based on the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation in the European Union, the herbal medicinal products have been grouped into the following sections: (i) Herbal medicinal products for which the efficacy is demonstrated by results of a "full" set of clinical trials that are in conformity with the relevant guidelines of the therapeutic area in question. This regulatory pathway to obtain a marketing authorisation for a new medicinal product (new chemical entity) is open to herbal medicinal products, but the examples are in reality few. (ii) Herbal medicinal products which have a "well-established medicinal use with a recognised efficacy and an acceptable level of safety" in the European Union. Results of new and product specific clinical trials are not required to obtain a marketing authorisation for products that fulfil these criteria, but a substantial clinical experience must be documented and sufficient scientific data on efficacy must be publicly available. (iii) "Traditional" herbal medicinal products, that do not fulfil the efficacy requirements for a marketing authorisation, but for which a medicinal use of at least 30 years including 15 years in the European Union can be documented. Traditional herbal medicinal products can only be registered with therapeutic indications that are considered safe for use without the supervision of a physician. After briefly reviewing the regulatory requirements on efficacy documentation of herbal medicinal products in the European Union, some concluding remarks on the past and future developments in the area are made. PMID:25043782

  4. Identifying a set that contains the best dynamic treatment regimes.

    PubMed

    Ertefaie, Ashkan; Wu, Tianshuang; Lynch, Kevin G; Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic treatment regime (DTR) is a treatment design that seeks to accommodate patient heterogeneity in response to treatment. DTRs can be operationalized by a sequence of decision rules that map patient information to treatment options at specific decision points. The sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) is a trial design that was developed specifically for the purpose of obtaining data that informs the construction of good (i.e. efficacious) decision rules. One of the scientific questions motivating a SMART concerns the comparison of multiple DTRs that are embedded in the design. Typical approaches for identifying the best DTRs involve all possible comparisons between DTRs that are embedded in a SMART, at the cost of greatly reduced power to the extent that the number of embedded DTRs (EDTRs) increase. Here, we propose a method that will enable investigators to use SMART study data more efficiently to identify the set that contains the most efficacious EDTRs. Our method ensures that the true best EDTRs are included in this set with at least a given probability. Simulation results are presented to evaluate the proposed method, and the Extending Treatment Effectiveness of Naltrexone SMART study data are analyzed to illustrate its application. PMID:26243172

  5. Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

  6. Lack of efficacy of ergocalciferol repletion

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Amal; Ephrussi, Corey; Lamanna, Meredith; Scheirer, Jorge; Alweis, Richard; Wasser, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D has become an area of intensive scrutiny, both in medical and lay literature. However, there are limited data to suggest proper repletion regimens for those patients who have hypovitaminosis D. Consequently, various methods are used in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of various treatment strategies for hypovitaminosis D in an ambulatory internal medicine practice. Methods A retrospective chart review between October 2005 and June 2010 of a suburban internal medicine practice was performed via query of the electronic medical record (Centricity, General Electric Healthcare, UK). Patients with a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration less than 32 mg/dl were identified and treated. Treatment success was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations greater than 32 mg/dl. Statistical analysis to assess changes in vitamin D level controlling for season, comorbidities, and demographics were used. Results A total of 607 treatment episodes were identified, with 395 excluded due to lack of follow-up vitamin D level within 16 weeks, no treatment documented, topical treatment, doxercalciferol treatment, or non-compliance. Of the remaining patients, there were 212 treatment instances on 178 patients. Ergocalciferol 50,000 international units (IU) was used most frequently (71.4% of the time.). A higher initial vitamin D level was positively associated with treatment success (adjusted odds ratio = 1.11, p=0.002). Increased doses of ergocalciferol increased the likelihood of treatment success (p=0.0011). Seasonal variation was related to posttreatment 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as was body mass index (BMI) (p=0.003 and p=0.044). Conclusion Pretreatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, BMI, season, and vitamin D dose are predictors of successful hypovitaminosis D treatment. Our data suggest that patients with initial 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations of <20 should be treated with a higher total dose of ergocalciferol than 50,000 IU for 8 weeks. Further studies, including prospective, randomized trials, are needed to determine an optimal treatment protocol to account for the numerous variables. PMID:23882348

  7. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Grechkin, Maxim; Logsdon, Benjamin A; Gentles, Andrew J; Lee, Su-In

    2016-05-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed-having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  8. Identifying Network Perturbation in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Benjamin A.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Lee, Su-In

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational framework, called DISCERN (DIfferential SparsE Regulatory Network), to identify informative topological changes in gene-regulator dependence networks inferred on the basis of mRNA expression datasets within distinct biological states. DISCERN takes two expression datasets as input: an expression dataset of diseased tissues from patients with a disease of interest and another expression dataset from matching normal tissues. DISCERN estimates the extent to which each gene is perturbed—having distinct regulator connectivity in the inferred gene-regulator dependencies between the disease and normal conditions. This approach has distinct advantages over existing methods. First, DISCERN infers conditional dependencies between candidate regulators and genes, where conditional dependence relationships discriminate the evidence for direct interactions from indirect interactions more precisely than pairwise correlation. Second, DISCERN uses a new likelihood-based scoring function to alleviate concerns about accuracy of the specific edges inferred in a particular network. DISCERN identifies perturbed genes more accurately in synthetic data than existing methods to identify perturbed genes between distinct states. In expression datasets from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), breast cancer and lung cancer, genes with high DISCERN scores in each cancer are enriched for known tumor drivers, genes associated with the biological processes known to be important in the disease, and genes associated with patient prognosis, in the respective cancer. Finally, we show that DISCERN can uncover potential mechanisms underlying network perturbation by explaining observed epigenomic activity patterns in cancer and normal tissue types more accurately than alternative methods, based on the available epigenomic data from the ENCODE project. PMID:27145341

  9. Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs…

  10. Description of a Practitioner Model for Identifying Preferred Stimuli with Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsten, Amanda M.; Carr, James E.; Lepper, Tracy L.

    2011-01-01

    The rich technology of stimulus preference assessment (SPA) is a product of 40 years of experimental research. Basic principles of reinforcement and a modest empirical literature suggest that high-preference stimuli identified via SPA may enhance treatment efficacy and decrease problem behavior more effectively than less-preferred stimuli. SPAs

  11. 76 FR 44593 - Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Science and Research Needs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Identifying the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's...) develop and improve predictive models of safety and efficacy in humans; (6) improve clinical trial design... for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER), and will guide strategic planning of internal...

  12. [Gifted children! How to identify].

    PubMed

    Revol, O; Bléandonu, G

    2012-03-01

    Recognizing the intellectually gifted child allows one to anticipate the onset of behavioral disorders and to respond to them so as to improve quality of life for these children and their family. Certain signs can draw attention to this phenomenon. The decisive criterion has always been IQ. The notion of intelligence should be broadened and researchers have adventured beyond the purely intellectual competencies, which value most prominently the educational sphere. In addition, the modeling of high potential is currently renewing the approach to this question. This article takes this complexity into account and presents the main criteria used for identifying intellectually gifted children. PMID:22325457

  13. Methods for Identifying Pair Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brendan; Caputo, Regina; Atwood, William; Ritz, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    The flux of very high energy gamma rays from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is attenuated via interactions with extragalactic background photons and is converted into e+e- pairs. With non-zero intergalactic magnetic fields, the electrons and positrons will deflect as they propagate and simultaneously lose energy by upscattering cosmic microwave background photons. "Pair halos," the visible consequences of these electromagnetic cascades, are faint and difficult to observe against their AGN counterparts. We investigate three methods for indirectly identifying pair halos, using a two-component approach to model the AGN core/halo image. We estimate each method's sensitivity by utilizing a new, detailed Monte Carlo pair-halo simulation.

  14. Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

  15. Postoperative self-efficacy and psychological morbidity in radical prostatectomy1

    PubMed Central

    da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos; Gomes, Cássia Regina Gontijo; da Silva, Ana Cristina; Pereira, Maria da Graça

    2015-01-01

    Objective: evaluate the general and perceived self-efficacy, psychological morbidity, and knowledge about postoperative care of patients submitted to radical prostatectomy. Identify the relationships between the variables and know the predictors of self-efficacy. Method: descriptive, cross-sectional study, conducted with 76 hospitalized men. The scales used were the General and Perceived Self-efficacy Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, in addition to sociodemographic, clinical and knowledge questionnaires. Results: a negative relationship was found for self-efficacy in relation to anxiety and depression. Psychological morbidity was a significant predictor variable for self-efficacy. An active professional situation and the waiting time for surgery also proved to be relevant variables for anxiety and knowledge, respectively. Conclusion: participants had a good level of general and perceived self-efficacy and small percentage of depression. With these findings, it is possible to produce the profile of patients about their psychological needs after radical prostatectomy and, thus, allow the nursing professionals to act holistically, considering not only the need for care of physical nature, but also of psychosocial nature. PMID:26487129

  16. Screening and Brief Intervention for Unhealthy Drug Use: Little or No Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy drug use ranges from use that risks health harms through severe drug use disorders. This narrative review addresses whether screening and brief intervention (SBI), efficacious for risky alcohol use, has efficacy for reducing other drug use and consequences. Brief intervention among those seeking help shows some promise. Screening tools have been validated though most are neither brief nor simple enough for use in general health settings. Several randomized trials have tested the efficacy of brief intervention for unhealthy drug use identified by screening in general health settings (i.e., in people not seeking help for their drug use). Substantial evidence now suggests that efficacy is limited or non-existent. Reasons likely include a range of actual and perceived severity (or lack of severity), concomitant unhealthy alcohol use and comorbid mental health conditions, and the wide range of types of unhealthy drug use (e.g., from marijuana, to prescription drugs, to heroin). Although brief intervention may have some efficacy for unhealthy drug users seeking help, the model of SBI that has effects in primary care settings on risky alcohol use may not be efficacious for other drug use. PMID:25228887

  17. The effect of clinical nursing instructors on student self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, Melodie; Owen, Rachel M

    2015-11-01

    Clinical practicum experiences for nursing students provides the students an opportunity to apply concepts learned in class, practice skills learned in lab, and interact with patients, families, and other nurses. Although students look forward to these experiences, they often feel intimated and anxious about them. Clinical instructors play an important role in this experience and can either help or hinder student learning and self-efficacy. Using Bandura's Social Learning Theory as foundation, this descriptive study examined the relationship between perceived instructor effectiveness and student self-efficacy. Data were collected from a BSN school of nursing at a Midwestern USA comprehensive masters university. The instruments used were the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) and the student self-efficacy (SSE) questionnaire. Participants (n = 236) were from a traditional nursing program with 86% female and 14% male. Data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation and MANCOVA. Results indicated: Out of the five areas of attributes, one area showed significant (p < .01) difference between the lower and higher self-efficacy groups and with specific teacher behaviors within the Evaluation category. Students with high self-efficacy reported faculty who suggested ways to improve, identified strengths and weaknesses, observed frequently, communicated expectations, gives positive reinforcement ad corrects without belittling. This can help faculty develop behaviors that increases student learning and student self-efficacy. PMID:26482402

  18. The Adoption and Integration of Technology Within the Classroom: Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haight, Kevin W.

    Many teachers are failing to incorporate technology into their classroom instruction. Researchers have reported a general failure in this regard; however, minimal study is available on the role of teacher self-efficacy in incorporating technology into pedagogy. This sequential, mixed-method study sought to discover whether a significant correlation exists between teacher self-efficacy and technology adoption within an urban K--12 school district. The conceptual framework for the research is grounded in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy. A sample of K--12 faculty members completed a 38-item Likert-type survey designed to measure self-efficacy as it relates to the integration of technology within the classroom. Quantitative data were analyzed using a Pearson product-moment correlation to identify relationships between self-efficacy and technology adoption. In the qualitative phase of the study, 6 participants were interviewed. Constant comparison was performed to analyze the transcribed interview data. The findings indicated a positive correlation between teacher self-efficacy and the integration of technology. The results provide valuable information needed to address the concerns and fears of teachers as they integrate technology into their classroom instruction. Implications for social change include providing educators and administrators with the needed data to develop the skills required to teach technology to their students. Acquiring technical skills will prepare students to become more competitive in a technology based society and for further educational endeavors.

  19. A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

    2013-01-01

    Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

  20. Development of Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese Family Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Ying; Edwards, Helen; Yates, Patsy; Ruth, Elder; Guo, Qi Hao

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese Family Caregivers. Semi-structured interviews with 10 family caregivers of people with dementia were conducted to explore how Chinese caregivers manage caregiving and what difficulties they face. The findings of the study assisted in the development of the instrument. Five categories of caregiver behaviours were identified from the qualitative data: gathering information about treatment, symptoms, and health care; obtaining support; responding to behaviour disturbances; managing household, personal, and medical care; and managing distress associated with caregiving. The challenges of caregiving were also identified, including deterioration of care recipients, particularly their behaviour disturbances, a shortage of supportive resources, stigmatization of dementia among the general population, as well as increased distress and decreased social activities due to increased care demand. The findings were used to develop the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese Family Caregivers, and 35 items comprising five subscales (representing the above five categories of caregiver behaviour) were generated. PMID:22340015

  1. The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

  2. Identifying teaching in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Alex; Raihani, Nichola J

    2010-08-01

    After a long period of neglect, the study of teaching in nonhuman animals is beginning to take a more prominent role in research on social learning. Unlike other forms of social learning, teaching requires knowledgeable individuals to play an active role in facilitating learning by the naive. Casting aside anthropocentric requirements for cognitive mechanisms assumed to underpin teaching in our own species, researchers are now beginning to discover evidence for teaching across a wide range of taxa. Nevertheless, unequivocal evidence for teaching remains scarce, with convincing experimental data limited to meerkats, pied babblers, and tandem-running ants. In this review, our aim is to stimulate further research in different species and contexts by providing conceptual and methodological guidelines for identifying teaching, with a focus on natural populations. We begin by highlighting the fact that teaching is a form of cooperative behavior that functions to promote learning in others and show that consideration of these key characteristics is critical in helping to identify suitable targets for future research. We then go on to discuss potential observational, experimental, and statistical techniques that may assist researchers in providing evidence that the criteria that make up the accepted operational definition of teaching have been met. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://lb.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental. PMID:20628167

  3. "Tener Exito": Stories of Self-Efficacy from Undocumented Latinos in the Pursuit of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the evolvement of self-efficacy and the lived experiences of five undocumented Latino/as during their first semester in a Texas college or university. The snowball sampling method was used to identify participants who were undocumented, immigrated as children and enrolled in K-12 public school, and self-identified…

  4. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole ...

  5. Affective Teaching for Data Driven Learning: How Can Strengths-Based Training Support Urban Teacher Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Teri

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine urban teachers' identified strengths in varied cognitive, affective, and psychological capacities, and their impact on self-efficacy and teacher practices. Clifton and Anderson in the Gallup Organization's Strengths Quest (2004) presented compelling evidence suggesting a mind-set of "what's right with me"…

  6. Level of Self-Efficacy of Prospective Mathematics Teachers on Competencies for Planning and Organizing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of self-efficacy of prospective mathematics teachers (PMTs) on the competency "planning and organizing instruction" that is one of the teacher competencies identified in 2009 by Ministry of Education. The sample of this study consists of 111 total prospective teachers (PTs) study in…

  7. Canadian In-Service Teachers' Concerns, Efficacy, and Attitudes about Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura; Sharma, Umesh

    2014-01-01

    The study examined concerns, attitudes, and teacher efficacy of 131 in-service, Kindergarten to Grade 8 teachers in three school divisions in Manitoba, Canada. Analyses were conducted to identify the relationships between teachers' back-ground variables, their attitudes and concerns about teaching in inclusive classrooms, and their efficacy…

  8. Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed

  9. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.

  10. The Teacher Self-Efficacy Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Effects on Principal Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberry, James E.

    2010-01-01

    School principal's practices are affected by many factors on a daily basis. Various factors affecting their practice are invisible to the eye and silent by the spoken word. However, the problem exists that there is a lack of research identifying the experiences of practicing principals regarding teacher self-efficacy. Furthermore, there is not…

  11. The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies Instruction on Students' Academic Time Management and Academic Self Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Fathi Abdul Hamid Abdul; Eissa, Mourad Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using time management strategies instruction on improving first year learning disabled students' academic time management and academic self efficacy. A total of 60 students identified with LD participated. The sample was divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30 boys) and control (n = 30 boys). ANCOVA and…

  12. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

  13. Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

  14. Examination of Urban High School Dropouts with High Self-Efficacy: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayles, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of urban students in Central Alabama with high self-efficacy who have dropped out of school to pursue a GED. This study: (a) provided a platform that gave voice to students to share their lived experience as they made the decision to drop out of high school, (b) identified the character…

  15. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  16. Lifelong Education, Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy of Chinese Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Dion S. Y.; Liu, Ben C. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the relationships between lifelong learning, quality of life, and self-efficacy of older adults. One thousand and three participants of a lifelong educational program participated; the mean age was 50.6 (SD = 7.8, range: 18-78). Findings revealed that the patterns of study established a positive association with…

  17. Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

    2013-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

  18. The Mediating Role of Attribution and Self-Efficacy Variables for Treatment Effects on Achievement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relich, Joseph D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This experiment explored the mediating functions of attributional and self-efficacy variables on achievement outcomes for skill training treatments offered in conjunction with attributional feedback. Children who were identified as learned helpless and deficient in division skills received training on division operations either through modeling

  19. Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, J. Darrell

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

  20. Longitudinal Associations among Undergraduates' Research Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robnett, Rachael D.; Chemers, Martin M.; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that undergraduates tend to identify more strongly with the field of science after participating in scientific research. However, mediators that might account for this association are not well understood. In the current study, we propose that science self-efficacy may serve this mediational function. Specifically, data from a…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teaching Mathematics with Concrete Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonneau, Kira J.; Marley, Scott C.; Selig, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics is often prescribed as an efficacious teaching strategy. To examine the empirical evidence regarding the use of manipulatives during mathematics instruction, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. This search identified 55 studies that compared instruction with manipulatives to a control…

  2. Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and

  3. Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has

  4. Impact of Peer Coaching on Self-Efficacy and Instructional Skills in TEFL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goker, Suleyman Davut

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the study was to test whether student teachers trained using a peer coaching training program after teaching practicum sessions in teaching of English as a foreign language would demonstrate greater improvement on measures of a number of identified instructional skills and self-efficacy than those just receiving traditional supervisor…

  5. The efficacy of poetry therapy: a computerized content analysis of the death poetry of Emily Dickinson.

    PubMed

    McDermott, J F; Porter, D

    1989-11-01

    A computer content analysis of a representative sample of the death poetry of Emily Dickinson is examined in an attempt to identify its therapeutic efficacy. The findings suggest that its therapeutic value lies in an underlying theme that offers a coherent experience with death from which the reader can achieve a degree of mastery and control. PMID:2587681

  6. The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

    According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

  7. Perceptions and Writing Experiences of Nursing Students: A Mixed Methods Exploration of Writing Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The investigated research problem was the need to identify the facilitators and barriers to competent academic writing by examining writing self-efficacy and academic writing experiences of entry-level BSN students. The study's participants included entry-level bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) students in a Midwestern state. The mixed methods…

  8. Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

  9. Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

  10. Genomic architecture of pharmacological efficacy and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    Chhibber, Aparna; Kroetz, Deanna L; Tantisira, Kelan G; McGeachie, Michael; Cheng, Cheng; Plenge, Robert; Stahl, Eli; Sadee, Wolfgang; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Pendergrass, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic disciplines address pharmacological traits, including efficacy and adverse events. Pharmacogenomics studies have identified pervasive genetic effects on treatment outcomes, resulting in the development of genetic biomarkers for optimization of drug therapy. Pharmacogenomics-based tests are already being applied in clinical decision making. However, despite substantial progress in identifying the genetic etiology of pharmacological response, current biomarker panels still largely rely on single gene tests with a large portion of the genetic effects remaining to be discovered. Future research must account for the combined effects of multiple genetic variants, incorporate pathway-based approaches, explore gene-gene interactions and nonprotein coding functional genetic variants, extend studies across ancestral populations, and prioritize laboratory characterization of molecular mechanisms. Because genetic factors can play a key role in drug response, accurate biomarker tests capturing the main genetic factors determining treatment outcomes have substantial potential for improving individual clinical care. PMID:25521360

  11. "A Compliment Is All I Need"--Teachers Telling Principals How to Promote Their Staff's Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kass, Efrat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to compare the perceptions of teachers representing opposite ends of the self-efficacy spectrum regarding the effects of the principal's behavior on their professional self-efficacy. In the first quantitative stage, a statistical procedure was conducted to identify the two groups of teachers: a group of 16…

  12. A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoretz, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

  13. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Idris

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

  14. Development of a Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Hebert, Edward; Daigle, Kay; Martin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Relationships have been found between teacher efficacy and many teaching and learning variables, but few researchers have examined teaching efficacy in physical education. The instrument reported here, the Physical Education Teaching Efficacy Scale, was developed based on the teaching efficacy literature, existing scales, and National Association…

  15. Teacher Efficacy and Diversity: Implications for Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasan, Andrea P.

    This study investigated teacher efficacy in the context of diversity, focusing on: whether elementary school teachers' feelings of efficacy would differ according to their students' language backgrounds; whether the teachers' feelings of efficacy in teaching standard English speaking students would relate to their feelings of efficacy in teaching…

  16. Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Morrow, B H

    1999-03-01

    Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability. PMID:10204285

  17. Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children

    PubMed Central

    Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

  18. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy: applications to oncology.

    PubMed

    Lev, E L

    1997-01-01

    Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1986) has been shown to impact on health practices as well as adaptation to illness and treatment. The purposes of this paper are to describe self-efficacy theory and review literature using self-efficacy theory to investigate prevention of cancer and adaptation to cancer. Measurement of self-efficacy is also discussed. Evidence from research examining applications of Bandura's theory of self-efficacy in oncology suggests relationships between self-efficacy and cancer prevention and self-efficacy and adaptation to cancer. Strong percepts of self-efficacy predict intention to quit smoking, increased participation in screening programs, and adjustment to cancer diagnosis. Increased self-efficacy is associated with increased adherence to treatment, increased self-care behaviors, and decreased physical and psychological symptoms. The advanced practice nurse is in an excellent position to give feedback that may help support patients' self-efficacy. PMID:9188268

  19. Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Sola

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a

  20. Does Emotional Self-Efficacy Predict Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Empathy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goroshit, Mariana; Hen, Meirav

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that teachers' self-efficacy and empathy are two of the most important variables consistently related to outcomes of positive teaching and student learning. Emotional self-efficacy refers to peoples' judgment regarding their own capacity to process emotional information accurately and effectively. It is considered a powerful…

  1. Generalized Self-Efficacy, Holland Theme Self-Efficacy, and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lori D.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of Self-Efficacy Scale, Skills Confidence Inventory; ACT Assessment, and grade point average (GPA) results for 189 women and 91 men revealed strong relationships between generalized self-efficacy and confidence in Investigative and Enterprising occupations for both and Conventional occupations for men. ACT scores were related to

  2. Co-constructing Efficacy: A "Communities of Practice" Perspective on Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Sola

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs are critical to improving student learning, but we have yet to fully understand how these beliefs develop. The prevailing model of teachers' efficacy development emerges from cognitive theories, but sociocultural theories may add insights to modeling the impact of teachers' school contexts. This case study takes a…

  3. Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2009-01-01

    Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

  4. Priority Planetary Science Missions Identified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Research Council's (NRC) planetary science decadal survey report, released on 7 March, lays out a grand vision for priority planetary science missions for 2013-2022 within a tightly constrained fiscal environment. The cost-conscious report, issued by NRC's Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, identifies high-priority flagship missions, recommends a number of potential midsized missions, and indicates support for some smaller missions. The report states that the highest-priority flagship mission for the decade is the Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher (MAX-C)—the first of three components of a NASA/European Space Agency Mars sample return campaign—provided that the mission scope can be reduced so that MAX-C costs no more than $2.5 billion. The currently estimated mission cost of $3.5 billion “would take up a disproportionate near-term share of the overall budget for NASA's Planetary Science Division,” the report notes.

  5. Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.

    PubMed Central

    van Es, R.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572

  6. Identifying and Bounding Ethnic Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Spielman, Seth; Xu, Hongwei; Klein, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents three novel approaches to the question of how best to identify ethnic neighborhoods (or more generally, neighborhoods defined any aspect of their population composition) and to define their boundaries. It takes advantage of unusual data on the residential locations of all residents of Newark, NJ, in 1880 to avoid having to accept arbitrary administrative units (like census tracts) as the building blocks of neighborhoods. For theoretical reasons the street segment is chosen as the basic unit of analysis. All three methods use information on the ethnic composition of buildings or street segments and the ethnicity of their neighbors. One approach is a variation of k-functions calculated for each adult resident, which are then subjected to a cluster analysis to detect discrete patterns. The second is an application of an energy minimization algorithm commonly used to enhance digital images. The third is a Bayesian approach previously used to study county-level disability data. Results of all three methods depend on decisions about technical procedures and criteria that are made by the investigator. Resulting maps are roughly similar, but there is no one best solution. We conclude that researchers should continue to seek alternative methods, and that the preferred method depends on how one’s conceptualization of neighborhoods matches the empirical approach. PMID:24039327

  7. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Neonatal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Alicia; Levy, Ofer

    2009-01-01

    Newborns have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. Nevertheless, certain vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), do demonstrate safety and some efficacy at birth, providing proof of principal that certain antigen-adjuvant combinations are able to elicit protective neonatal responses. Moreover, birth is a major point of healthcare contact globally meaning that effective neonatal vaccines achieve high population penetration. Given the potentially significant benefit of vaccinating at birth, availability of a broader range of more effective neonatal vaccines is an unmet medical need and a public health priority. This review focuses on safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination in humans as well as recent research employing novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of neonatal vaccination. PMID:19089811

  9. DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Nölte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjörleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

    2008-01-01

    In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

  10. Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

  11. Efficacy of posaconazole in murine experimental sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Guarro, Josep

    2012-05-01

    We developed a murine model of systemic sporotrichosis by using three strains of each of the two commonest species causing sporotrichosis, i.e., Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, in order to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole (PSC). The drug was administered at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day by gavage, and one group was treated with amphotericin B (AMB) as a control treatment. Posaconazole, especially at 5 mg/kg, showed good efficacy against all the strains tested, regardless of their MICs, as measured by prolonged survival, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:22330929

  12. Efficacy of Posaconazole in Murine Experimental Sporotrichosis

    PubMed Central

    Fernndez-Silva, Fabiola; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    We developed a murine model of systemic sporotrichosis by using three strains of each of the two commonest species causing sporotrichosis, i.e., Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and Sporothrix brasiliensis, in order to evaluate the efficacy of posaconazole (PSC). The drug was administered at a dose of 2.5 or 5 mg/kg of body weight twice a day by gavage, and one group was treated with amphotericin B (AMB) as a control treatment. Posaconazole, especially at 5 mg/kg, showed good efficacy against all the strains tested, regardless of their MICs, as measured by prolonged survival, tissue burden reduction, and histopathology. PMID:22330929

  13. Optimal models to evaluate the protective efficacy of tuberculosis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J F; Chinn, D N; Rodgers, C R; Mackintosh, C G

    2001-01-01

    BCG has been used widely as a vaccine to prevent tuberculosis (TB) for 80 years, yet there is still considerable controversy about its efficacy. Many experimental variables have obscured the true efficacy of BCG. The absence of appropriate animal models for the study of protective efficacy and the lack of in vitro correlates of protective immunity have impeded progress. Laboratory animal studies, which have contributed to understanding the pathogenesis, heritability of resistance and immunology of TB, have failed to identify the immunological pathways necessary for protective immunity. In recent years, cattle and deer, which are naturally susceptible to TB, have been used to study protective immunity in vaccinated animals, challenged with virulent bacteria. A deer TB infection model has been developed that can measure protection against TB infection or the development of disease. Data from this model show that, providing live BCG is administered in a short interval prime-boost protocol, significant protection against infection and disease can be obtained. Single dose vaccine provides suboptimal protection that attenuates pathology but does not prevent infection. Low dose BCG vaccine (10(4)cfu), administered in a prime-boost protocol, sufficient to prevent infection, does not cause conversion to delayed type hypersensitivity or produce unacceptable side-effects. Immune memory for protection against infection persists at optimal levels for at least 12 months post vaccination. Used optimally, BCG produces good levels of protection against TB and improved protocols or its use should be explored, before attempts are made to replace it with new-generation vaccines. It is now possible to integrate the fundamental information obtained from laboratory animals with studies of functional immune protection in target host species. Justification for the use of TB vaccines for domestic livestock under field conditions, must be underpinned by scientific evidence that they provide acceptable levels of protection long term. PMID:11463234

  14. Efficacy of primary care in a nursing center.

    PubMed

    Helvie, C O

    1999-01-01

    Nursing opportunities have expanded beyond the traditional bedside role. Nurses serve in a variety of roles such as administrators, teachers, or primary care givers in a variety of settings. The role of primary care giver is a more recent role; it involves relatively independent nursing practice with clients who have acute or chronic illnesses. Client groups may include the elderly in high rise buildings, mothers and children at schools, or homeless and low-income populations at homeless shelters. This care is often provided in a nursing center. Nursing centers are nurse-managed centers in which nurses are accountable and responsible for care of clients; they are the primary provider of care and the one most seen by clients. Case managers may be in a position to refer patients to nursing centers or to work directly with nurse practitioners in nursing centers. However, questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be addressed for healthcare providers, insurance companies, and patients to be confident in the efficacy of this delivery system. Is the primary care comprehensive? Is it of high quality? Is it cost effective? Is it satisfactory to clients? These and other questions about the primary care provided in nursing centers must be answered to effect political and other changes needed to fulfill the role of nursing centers envisioned by early leaders of the movement. This article addresses questions related to the efficacy of primary care provided in nursing centers by family nurse practitioners. After defining efficacy, the discussion focuses on the components identified and studied in one nursing center and includes information on opportunities for case managers to utilize nursing centers for referral and appropriate follow-up of their patients. PMID:10690109

  15. Hidden consequences of political efficacy: Testing an efficacy-apathy model of political mobilization.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Danny; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Sibley, Chris G

    2015-10-01

    Political efficacy-the belief that one can influence politics-is a key predictor of people's involvement in social movements. Political institutions that are open to change should, however, be seen as just. Thus, political efficacy may ironically undermine minority group members' support for collective action by simultaneously increasing their belief in the fairness of the system. The current study aims to examine this possibility in a national sample of Māori-New Zealand's indigenous minority population. Participants (N = 399) were Māori (Mage = 44.22; SD = 13.30) women (n = 272) and men (n = 115; unreported = 12) who completed a survey assessing their levels of (a) political efficacy, (b) system justification, and (c) support for the political mobilization of their group, as well as relevant demographic covariates. Consistent with past research, political efficacy had a positive direct effect on participants' support for the political mobilization of Māori. Nevertheless, political efficacy also had a negative indirect effect on political mobilization support via increases in system justification. These results held after controlling for participants' ethnic identification, self-efficacy, and conservatism. Our findings uncover a hidden consequence of political efficacy and show that, while believing that the political system is receptive to change predicts political mobilization, it can also undermine minorities' support for the mobilization of their group. Thus, our results uncover a previously unknown process that maintains inequality between ethnic minority and majority group members. PMID:25774896

  16. Aminothiazoles: Hit to lead development to identify antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Bhuniya, Debnath; Mukkavilli, Rao; Shivahare, Rahul; Launay, Delphine; Dere, Ravindra T; Deshpande, Anil; Verma, Aditya; Vishwakarma, Preeti; Moger, Manjunath; Pradhan, Ashok; Pati, Hari; Gopinath, Vadiraj S; Gupta, Suman; Puri, Sunil K; Martin, Denis

    2015-09-18

    As part of Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative's lead optimization program for the development of new chemical entities to treat visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a series of aminothiazoles were synthesized and screened for in vitro efficacy, solubility and microsomal stability. The primary aim of identifying a lead structure with sub-micromolar activity was achieved. Out of 43 compounds synthesized, 16 compounds showed in vitro activity at less than 1 ?M against VL. Compound 32 showed excellent antileishmanial potency (IC50 = 3 nM) and had all the acceptable properties except for metabolic instability. Blocking the metabolic soft spots in compound 32, where the 4-methoxy pyridine substituent was replaced by 5-ethoxy group, led to compound 36 (IC50 = 280 nM) with improved stability. To understand the disposition of 36, in vivo pharmacokinetic study was conducted in a mouse model. Compound 36 showed high clearance (91 mL/min/kg); short half-life (0.48 h) after intravenous administration (1 mg/kg) and exposure (AUC0-24) following oral administration was 362 ng h/mL with absolute bioavailability of 8%. To summarize, 43 analogs were synthesized out of which 15 compounds showed very potent sub-nanomolar efficacy in in vitro systems but the liability of metabolic instability seemed to be the major challenge for this chemical class and remains to be addressed. PMID:26318065

  17. Perceived self-efficacy in parents of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Tint, Ami; Paquette-Smith, Melissa; Lunsky, Yona

    2016-05-01

    Many parents of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder experience difficulty accessing appropriate services for their children, and may report low levels of parent self-efficacy. In an effort to identify the factors that contribute to the difficulties these families face, this study examined the role of demographic, systemic, and clinical need variables as they relate to parents' experience of self-efficacy. Participants included 324 parents of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, 12-25 years of age. Results suggest that parent self-efficacy is related to a number of variables and not simply a child's clinical situation, including child age, parent immigrant status, barriers to service access, and caregiver burden. Given the crucial role that parents often play in the lives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder across the lifespan, it is important that service providers support the efforts of parents who provide and access care for their children. PMID:26019305

  18. Factors influencing satisfaction and efficacy of services at a free-standing psychiatric occupational therapy clinic.

    PubMed

    Haertl, Kristine; Behrens, Kari; Houtujec, Jill; Rue, Ashley; Ten Haken, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    As the number of therapists in mental health settings continues to decline, research is needed to explore the scope, satisfaction, and efficacy of services. In this study, we used Patton's (1997) Utilization-Focused Program Evaluation to explore scope of services, therapist and client satisfaction, and perceived efficacy of services in a free-standing community-based mental health occupational therapy clinic. Surveys were administered to 36 clients and 9 therapists and followed up by qualitative interviews with 6 therapists. We identified characteristics unique to a free-standing psychiatric occupational therapy clinic, along with factors contributing to satisfaction and perceived efficacy of services. The importance of a supportive therapeutic environment and emphasis on the therapist-client relationship were cited as key factors influencing both satisfaction and effectiveness of service. Results are presented and compared with the existing literature. PMID:20092105

  19. Self-efficacy and Quality of Life among People with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Kristen M.; Miller, Christopher J.; Birgenheir, Denis G.; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, co-morbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses. PMID:25010107

  20. Self-efficacy and quality of life among people with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Christopher J; Birgenheir, Denis G; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

    2014-08-01

    People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population does, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses. PMID:25010107

  1. Mediation of an efficacious HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Bellamy, Scarlett; Icard, Larry D; Ngwane, Zolani

    2015-10-01

    "Men, Together Making a Difference!" is an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that significantly increased self-reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse compared with a health-promotion attention-control intervention among men (N = 1181) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The present analyses were designed to identify mediators of the intervention's efficacy. The potential mediators were Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs that the intervention targeted, including several aspects of condom-use self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and knowledge. Mediation was assessed using a product-of-coefficients approach where an α path (the intervention's effect on the potential mediator) and a β path (the potential mediator's effect on the outcome of interest, adjusting for intervention) were estimated independently in a generalized estimating equations framework. Condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, technical-skill self-efficacy, and impulse-control self-efficacy were significant mediators. Although not mediators, descriptive norm and expected friends' approval of condom use predicted subsequent self-reported condom use, whereas the expected approval of sexual partner did not. The present results suggest that HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions that draw upon SCT and that address self-efficacy to negotiate condom use, to apply condoms correctly, and to exercise sufficient control when sexually aroused to use condoms may contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behavior among South African men. Future research must examine whether approaches that build normative support for condom use among men's friends are also efficacious. PMID:25969177

  2. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration.

    PubMed

    Lobritz, Michael A; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B M; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H; Schwarz, Eric G; Dwyer, Daniel J; Khalil, Ahmad S; Collins, James J

    2015-07-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes--the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26100898

  3. Quantitative efficacy of soy isoflavones on menopausal hot flashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lujin; Lv, Yinghua; Xu, Ling; Zheng, Qingshan

    2015-01-01

    AIM This study aimed to quantitate the efficacy of soy isoflavones in the treatment of menopausal hot flashes. METHODS Model based meta-analysis (MBMA) was used to quantitate the efficacy of soy isoflavones. We conducted a systemic literature search to build a time–effect model for placebo and soy isoflavones in treating menopausal hot flashes. Studies were identified, subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and reviewed. RESULTS From 55 articles, 16 studies of soy isoflavones met the inclusion criteria, and contained 65 and 66 mean effect values in placebo and soy isoflavone groups, respectively, from about 1710 subjects. Interestingly, the developed model was found to describe adequately the time course of hot flashes reduction after administration of placebo and soy isoflavones. Using this model, we found that the maximal percentage change of hot flashes reduction by soy isoflavones was 25.2% after elimination of the placebo effect, accounting for 57% of the maximum effects of estradiol (Emax-estradiol = 44.9%). However, a time interval of 13.4 weeks was needed for soy isoflavones to achieve half of its maximal effects, much longer than estradiol, which only required 3.09 weeks. These results suggest that treatment intervals of 12 weeks are too short for soy isoflavones, which require at least 48 weeks to achieve 80% of their maximum effects. CONCLUSIONS Soy isoflavones show slight and slow effects in attenuating menopausal hot flashes compared with estradiol. PMID:25316502

  4. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Lobritz, Michael A.; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B. M.; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H.; Schwarz, Eric G.; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes—the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26100898

  5. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques.

    Experiments w...

  6. Self-Efficacy and Academic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one's ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost…

  7. Treatment Efficacy and Risk Factors of Neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shigang; Cheng, Yan; Liao, Yali; Zhang, Zhelin; Yin, Xuhua; Shi, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to analyze the risk factors and treatment efficacy of neurobrucellosis. Material/Methods A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was carried out in 557 patients with brucellosis by specially trained neurologic clinicians. Sixty-six patients with neurobrucellosis were treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and ceftriaxone sodium as standard medication and evaluated for efficacy on a regular basis. Results (1) Symptoms improved in most patients after 6 weeks of treatment, which demonstrated a favorable efficacy. (2) Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey suggested that sex, nationality, and regional distribution were not related to nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P>0.05), whereas age and duration of disease were related factors. Increased age as well as a prolonged duration of disease were risk factors for nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P<0.05). Conclusions (1) Doxycycline, rifampicin, and third-generation cephalosporins should be considered both standard and first-choice medications for neurobrucellosis. Treatment should last for at least 6 weeks. Standardized, sufficient, and combined medication is recommended for better efficacy and prognosis. (2) Age and duration of disease are risk factors for neurobrucellosis, whereas sex, nationality, and regional distribution are not. Older patients with a prolonged duration of disease are more likely to develop neurobrucellosis. PMID:27018084

  8. Treatment Efficacy and Risk Factors of Neurobrucellosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shigang; Cheng, Yan; Liao, Yali; Zhang, Zhelin; Yin, Xuhua; Shi, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to analyze the risk factors and treatment efficacy of neurobrucellosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was carried out in 557 patients with brucellosis by specially trained neurologic clinicians. Sixty-six patients with neurobrucellosis were treated with doxycycline, rifampicin, and ceftriaxone sodium as standard medication and evaluated for efficacy on a regular basis. RESULTS (1) Symptoms improved in most patients after 6 weeks of treatment, which demonstrated a favorable efficacy. (2) Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey suggested that sex, nationality, and regional distribution were not related to nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P>0.05), whereas age and duration of disease were related factors. Increased age as well as a prolonged duration of disease were risk factors for nervous system damage in patients with brucellosis (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS (1) Doxycycline, rifampicin, and third-generation cephalosporins should be considered both standard and first-choice medications for neurobrucellosis. Treatment should last for at least 6 weeks. Standardized, sufficient, and combined medication is recommended for better efficacy and prognosis. (2) Age and duration of disease are risk factors for neurobrucellosis, whereas sex, nationality, and regional distribution are not. Older patients with a prolonged duration of disease are more likely to develop neurobrucellosis. PMID:27018084

  9. Teachers' Efficacy Perceptions about Individualized Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2010-01-01

    The population of the study consists of primary school teachers working in the province of Eskisehir. The sample of the study consists of 321 primary school teachers working at 40 primary schools. In the present study, a questionnaire, an instrument to collect data, was used to determine teachers' perceptions of efficacy about individualized…

  10. Efficacy Enhancing Communication within the Online Courseroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasitz, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Online learning is becoming more prevalent in high schools especially with at-risk students who may need to recover credits to meet graduation requirements. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an online courseroom design that delivers performance-based efficacy enhancing feedback at regular intervals, rather than relying on the

  11. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  12. Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona

  13. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  14. 24-h Efficacy of Glaucoma Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Quaranta, Luciano; Bozkurt, Banu; Katsanos, Andreas; Garcia-Feijoo, Julian; Rossetti, Luca; Shaarawy, Tarek; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Miglior, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Current management of glaucoma entails the medical, laser, or surgical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) to a predetermined level of target IOP, which is commensurate with either stability or delayed progression of visual loss. In the published literature, the hypothesis is often made that IOP control implies a single IOP measurement over time. Although the follow-up of glaucoma patients with single IOP measurements is quick and convenient, such measurements often do not adequately reflect the untreated IOP characteristics, or indeed the quality of treated IOP control during the 24-h cycle. Since glaucoma is a 24-h disease and the damaging effect of elevated IOP is continuous, it is logical that we should aim to understand the efficacy of all treatment options throughout the 24-h period. This article first reviews the concept and value of diurnal and 24-h IOP monitoring. It then critically evaluates selected available evidence on the 24-h efficacy of medical, laser and surgical therapy options. During the past decade several controlled trials have significantly enhanced our understanding on the 24-h efficacy of all glaucoma therapy options. Nevertheless, more long-term evidence is needed to better evaluate the 24-h efficacy of glaucoma therapy and the precise impact of IOP characteristics on glaucomatous progression and visual prognosis. PMID:26909513

  15. Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

  16. Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

  17. Efficacy Enhancing Communication within the Online Courseroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasitz, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Online learning is becoming more prevalent in high schools especially with at-risk students who may need to recover credits to meet graduation requirements. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an online courseroom design that delivers performance-based efficacy enhancing feedback at regular intervals, rather than relying on the…

  18. Teacher Efficacy of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Teacher Efficacy Scale in Physical Education (TESPE) in Turkey's conditions, and to test if there are any differences in gender and teaching experience of Turkish PE teachers. Turkish version of the scale was administered to 257 physical education teachers (184

  19. Teacher Efficacy of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Teacher Efficacy Scale in Physical Education (TESPE) in Turkey's conditions, and to test if there are any differences in gender and teaching experience of Turkish PE teachers. Turkish version of the scale was administered to 257 physical education teachers (184…

  20. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  1. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae microsclerotial granules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil incorporation bioassays of dried microsclerotial (MS) preparations of three isolates of M. anisopliae isolates were conducted using third instar Tetanops myopaeformis (sugarbeet root maggot) in clay and/or clay loam field soils as a model system to demonstrate efficacy. At rates as low as 23 mg...

  2. Evaluating Ritual Efficacy: Evidence from the Supernatural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legare, Cristine H.; Souza, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Rituals pose a cognitive paradox: although widely used to treat problems, rituals are causally opaque (i.e., they lack a causal explanation for their effects). How is the efficacy of ritual action evaluated in the absence of causal information? To examine this question using ecologically valid content, three studies (N=162) were conducted in…

  3. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers

  4. Self-Efficacy, an Oriental Twist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady M.; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Hoan-Lin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study involving Taiwanese elementary teachers who teach science at the elementary grade school level. It advocates the position that a teacher's personal science efficacy belief influences his or her science teaching outcome expectations. It also points to an important metamorphosis that is taking place…

  5. Determination of repellent efficacy of natural compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1942, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has performed repellent testing, initially for the U.S. military. In recent years, there has been a collaborative effort to evaluate a number of natural extracts and compounds for their repellent efficacy. Plant-produced compounds are u...

  6. Improving preclinical models of HIV microbicide efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Nadia R.; Münch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Despite potent in vitro efficacy, most topical microbicides failed to effectively prevent HIV transmission. One reason for clinical failure may be that current microbicide testing does not reflect the environment encountered during sexual virus transmission. We discuss how preclinical microbicide development could be improved by more closely mimicking real-life conditions. PMID:26250616

  7. Predictors of Ibandronate Efficacy for the Management of Osteoporosis: A Meta-Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zeren; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ming; Huang, Kedi; Hu, Hejun; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiaosheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of ibandronate efficacy in subjects with osteoporosis or decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Method Several electronic databases were searched by using specific keywords for the acquisition of research articles reporting the efficacy of ibandronate in subjects with osteoporosis or decreased BMD. Metaregression analyses were carried out by using changes in the BMD of lumbar spine and total hip following ibandronate treatment as dependent (outcome) variables against several independent (explanatory) variables. Results Data were extracted from 34 studies (11,090 ibandronate treated subjects) which fulfilled eligibility criteria. A history of previous fracture/s was reported by 46% of these subjects. In overall population, longer treatment duration from 1 to 5 years, increasing age, history of previous fractures, lower baseline T score, and higher baseline levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX) predicted higher ibandronate efficacy in improving BMD of the lumbar spine as well as of the total hip. Lower baseline levels of vitamin D and higher baseline levels of bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) predicted higher efficacy of ibandronate for lumbar spine only. In postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or decreased BMD, in addition to above-mentioned predictors, better efficacy of ibandronate was also associated with increasing time since menopause for both lumbar spine and total hip and lower body weight for lumbar spine only. Conclusion Longer treatment duration from 1 to 5 years, increasing age, lower baseline T scores, and higher serum CTX levels are identified as the predictors of better efficacy of ibandronate in the study subjects with osteoporosis or decreased BMD. PMID:26930292

  8. The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light for Treating Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea Is Related to Severity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disease. Therapeutic modalities should be chosen based on the identified sub-types and clinical features in each patient. Vascular lasers, including intense pulsed light (IPL), are reportedly safe and effective in treating erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Objective In this study, we assess the comparative efficacy of IPL related to several factors including clinical severity and the age of patients with ETR. Methods Patients with ETR were classified into two groups according to the National Rosacea Society Severity Guideline. Severity score and erythema index (EI) were measured using a clinical scorecard and mexameter. For additional evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, investigator and patient global assessments (IGA, PGA) were checked. Efficacy of IPL was analyzed according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA related to sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity. Results Analyses of the efficacy of IPL according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA based on sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity revealed significant differences with age and severity only. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of IPL treatment for patients with ETR. IPL may be more effective in patients with more severe ETR and in younger patients with ETR. PMID:25143679

  9. Using personal health records to scaffold perceived self-efficacy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    According to Bandura (1977), believing in one's ability to achieve a goal is one of the best predictors that a goal will be accomplished. Given its predictive power, the concept of belief in one's ability to succeed, or perceived self-efficacy, is well researched for its influence on health promotion. It has been argued that a paradigm shift must occur away from illness treatment towards illness prevention and health promotion, for healthcare to accommodate the needs of the population. Personal Health Records (PHRs) may be a tool to help facilitate this paradigm shift. PHRs are repositories of information that individuals can use to access, manage, and share their personal health information. An extension of Bandura's model of self-efficacy will be presented here which identifies opportunities for PHRs to enhance perceived self-efficacy through mastery, social modeling, social persuasion, and physiological state. Bolstering self-efficacy through PHR tools will expand the utility of PHRs beyond self-management to also facilitate health promotion and illness prevention and gains in self-efficacy are also likely to transcend into other areas of consumers' lives. PMID:25676990

  10. The impact of clinical simulation on learner self-efficacy in pre-registration nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pike, Tamsin; O'Donnell, Victoria

    2010-07-01

    Clinical simulation is becoming increasingly popular in pre-registration nursing education. Incorporating teaching and learning strategies that enhance learner self-efficacy will theoretically improve clinical competence (Bandura, 1986, 1997). This paper presents the findings of a study that aimed to explore the impact of clinical simulation on self-efficacy beliefs amongst pre-registration nurses. A preliminary study (Pike, 2008) used a pre- and post-test design to measure learner self-efficacy before and after a clinical simulation session. Qualitative responses to questions on the post-test questionnaire provided themes to explore in a focus group interview with a convenience sample of nine participants. Thematic content analysis of the interview highlighted two principal findings. Firstly, students described low levels of self-efficacy with regards to communication skills, an area identified as a priority within pre-registration nursing education (NMC, 2007a). Second, students highlighted the need for learning experiences within clinical simulation to be more authentic, to improve the theory to practice gap. It is argued by incorporating strategies within clinical simulation that enhance learner self-efficacy, overall clinical competence will be improved. Suggestions for how pedagogical approaches may be developed within clinical simulation are discussed, whilst acknowledging the limitations of the small scale nature of the study. PMID:19883960

  11. Pediatric nurses’ perception of factors associated with caring self-efficacy: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Azam; Bahrami, Masoud; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali; Yousefy, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nurses, who are considered to form the largest group of professional healthcare providers, face the challenge of maintaining, promoting, and providing quality nursing care and to prepare themselves to function confidently and to care effectively. Among the factors affecting nursing performance, self-efficacy has been expected to have the greatest influence. However, the concept of caring self-efficacy was not considered and no research has been done in this field in Iran. This study was conducted to explore and identify the factors described by pediatric nurses as related to caring self-efficacy. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study conducted through content analysis in 2013 in Iran. Twenty-four participants were selected through purposive sampling method from pediatric nurses and educators. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: The analysis of the interviews in this study led to the development of four main themes: (1) Professional knowledge of children caring, (2) experience, (3) caring motivation, and (4) efficient educational system as the factors influencing caring self-efficacy perception of pediatric nurses. Conclusions: This article presents the factors associated with the perception of caring self-efficacy in pediatric nurses’ perspective. This finding can be used by nursing administrators and instructors, especially in the area of pediatric caring, to enhance nursing professional practice and the quality of pediatric caring. PMID:25878702

  12. Mechanisms behind efficacy of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Caroline Meyer; Coskun, Mehmet; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2016-03-01

    Biological treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors is successful in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). All TNF inhibitors antagonize the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? but with varying efficacies in IBD. The variations in efficacy probably are caused by structural differences between the agents that affect their mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetic properties. Several mechanisms have been proposed, such as modulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators and a reduction in the number of activated immune cells. However, it seems that clinical efficacy is the result of a number of different mechanisms and that binding of transmembrane TNF by TNF inhibitors. Knowledge of the mechanisms of action has been obtained mainly through the use of in vitro assays that may differ significantly from the situation in vivo. This review discusses the available data on TNF inhibitors in order to identify mechanisms of importance for their efficacy in IBD. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanistic basis for clinical efficacy can lead to a more rational use of TNF inhibitors in the management of IBD. PMID:26808166

  13. Moderation and Mediation of an Efficacious Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963

  14. Possible Selves and Self-Regulatory Beliefs: Exploring the Relationship Between Health Selves, Health Efficacy, and Psychological Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L

    2016-03-01

    The present study identified middle-aged (ages 40-64) and older individuals (ages 65-90) who reported a highly important possible self related to health. The relationship between age, physical health, health efficacy, and psychological well-being were examined among these individuals. We tested a model in which health efficacy predicted both positive and negative psychological well-being. For both age groups, self-reported health predicted health self-efficacy; however, the direct effects of health efficacy on both positive and negative psychological well-being were also significant. Higher levels of health efficacy were associated with higher levels of positive psychological well-being and lower levels of negative well-being, as predicted. Physical health indirectly predicted well-being through its impact on health self-efficacy for middle-aged and older individuals who valued their health highly. Overall, these results support the notion that health efficacy related to a most important health self is a predictor of psychological well-being in mid and late life. PMID:26843522

  15. The roles of social factor and internet self-efficacy in nurses' web-based continuing learning.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yen-Lin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to explore the relationships among social factor, Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning in a clinical nursing setting. The participants recruited were 244 in-service nurses from hospitals in Taiwan. Three instruments were used to assess their perceptions of social factor, Internet self-efficacy (including basic and advanced Internet self-efficacy) and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, affection and behavior). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to identify the hypothesized structural model. The results of this study support that social factor is a significant factor correlated to Internet self-efficacy and attitudes toward web-based continuing learning (including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection). In addition, nurses' basic Internet self-efficacy plays a key role in attitudes including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and affection. However, advanced self-efficacy was not correlated to any of the attitudes. The behavior dimension was not linked to social factor or Internet self-efficacy, but was linked to perceived ease of use and affection. PMID:23669599

  16. Large screen approaches to identify novel malaria vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Duffy, Patrick; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Felgner, Philip L; Doolan, Denise L

    2015-12-22

    Until recently, malaria vaccine development efforts have focused almost exclusively on a handful of well characterized Plasmodium falciparum antigens. Despite dedicated work by many researchers on different continents spanning more than half a century, a successful malaria vaccine remains elusive. Sequencing of the P. falciparum genome has revealed more than five thousand genes, providing the foundation for systematic approaches to discover candidate vaccine antigens. We are taking advantage of this wealth of information to discover new antigens that may be more effective vaccine targets. Herein, we describe different approaches to large-scale screening of the P. falciparum genome to identify targets of either antibody responses or T cell responses using human specimens collected in Controlled Human Malaria Infections (CHMI) or under conditions of natural exposure in the field. These genome, proteome and transcriptome based approaches offer enormous potential for the development of an efficacious malaria vaccine. PMID:26428458

  17. Development of leadership self-efficacy and collective efficacy: adolescent girls across castes as peer educators in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Posner, J; Kayastha, P; Davis, D; Limoges, J; O'Donnell, C; Yue, K

    2009-01-01

    Adolescent girls in Nepal face enormous social barriers to accessing education and health services due to exclusionary socio-religious traditions and years of conflict. The programme and study reported here address two issues that a national assembly of in-school and out-of-school adolescent girls, who had completed a basic life skills class, and, in the case of unschooled girls, an intensive literacy course, identified as important to their well-being - menstrual restrictions and HIV awareness and prevention. Local non-governmental organizations developed a peer education programme in three districts of Nepal that paired girls from different castes and different educational levels. The programme sought to increase peer educators' (PE) leadership and collective efficacy for informing peers and adults in their communities about the effects that these issues have on women and girls. In total, 504 girls were selected and trained as PEs. They conducted targeted discussion sessions with other girls and organised mass awareness events, reaching 20,000 people. Examination of the effects of participating in the programme on key outcome measures showed that leadership self-efficacy, which was a central theoretical construct for the programme, provided a strong predictor of both increased HIV knowledge and of practicing fewer menstrual restrictions at endline. The project demonstrated that girls from different caste and educational backgrounds are able to work together to change individual behaviour and to address socio-cultural norms that affect their lives and well-being within their communities. PMID:19437216

  18. The Potential for Poverty to Lower the Self-Efficacy of Adults With Asthma: An Australian Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It is known that strong feelings of self-efficacy are linked with better management of asthma. However, it is not known whether the experience of poverty can detrimentally impact the self-efficacy feelings of asthma patients. This paper aims to determine whether falling into income or multidimensional poverty lowers self-efficacy among people diagnosed with asthma. Methods Longitudinal analysis of Waves 7 to 11 (2007 to 2011) of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey using generalized linear models. The analysis was limited to those who had been diagnosed with asthma. The Freedom Poverty Measure was used to identify those in multidimensional poverty. Results People with asthma who fell into income poverty had significantly lower self-efficacy scores-23% lower (95% CI: -35.1 to -9.1), after falling into income poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 compared to those who were never in income poverty. Those who fell into multidimensional poverty also had significantly lower self-efficacy scores-25% lower (95% CI: -42.8 to -2.0), after being in multidimensional poverty for 3 or 4 years between 2007 and 2011 compared to those who were never in poverty. Conclusions Asthmatics who fall into poverty are likely to experience a decline in their feelings of self-efficacy. The findings of this study show that experiencing poverty should be a flag to identify those who may need extra assistance in managing their condition. PMID:26739407

  19. A Bayesian Adaptive Phase I-II Clinical Trial for Evaluating Efficacy and Toxicity with Delayed Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Modiano, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background In traditional phase I oncology trials, the safety of a new chemotherapeutic agent is tested in a dose escalation study to identify the maximum tolerated dose, which is defined as the highest dose with acceptable toxicity. An alternate approach is to jointly model toxicity and efficacy and allow dose finding to be directed by a pre-specified trade-off between efficacy and toxicity. With this goal in mind, several designs have been proposed to jointly model toxicity and efficacy in a phase I-II dose escalation study. A factor limiting the use of these designs is that toxicity and efficacy must be observed in a timely manner. Purpose One approach to overcoming this problem is to model toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. This would allow new subjects to be enrolled before full information is available for previous subjects while incorporating partial information when adaptively assigning new subjects to a dose level. Methods We propose a phase I-II dose escalation study for evaluating toxicity and efficacy with delayed outcomes by jointly modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. We apply our proposed design to a phase I-II clinical trial of a novel targeted toxin for canine hemangiosarcoma. Results Our simulation results show that our design identifies the optimal dose at a similar rate to dose finding that treats toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes but with a substantial savings in study duration. Limitations Our proposed design has acceptable operating characteristics and dramatically reduces the trial duration compared to a design that considers toxicity and efficacy as binary outcomes but comes at the cost of enrolling additional subjects when all dose levels are unacceptable. Conclusions We developed a novel phase I-II design that accounts for delayed outcomes by modeling toxicity and efficacy as time-to-event outcomes. Our design has similar operating characteristics to efficacy/toxicity trade-off designs that consider efficacy and toxicity as binary outcomes but with a dramatically shorter study duration. PMID:24082004

  20. Identifying and Aligning Expectations in a Mentoring Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Huskins, W. Charles; Silet, Karin; Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Begg, Melissa D.; Fowler, Vance G.; Hamilton, John; Fleming, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The mentoring relationship between a scholar and their primary mentor is a core feature of research training. Anecdotal evidence suggests this relationship is adversely affected when scholar and mentor expectations are not aligned. We examined three questions: (1) What is the value in assuring that the expectations of scholars and mentors are mutually identified and aligned? (2) What types of programmatic interventions facilitate this process? (3) What types of expectations are important to identify and align? We addressed these questions through a systematic literature review, focus group interviews of mentors and scholars, a survey of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) KL2 program directors, and review of formal programmatic mechanisms used by KL2 programs. We found broad support for the importance of identifying and aligning the expectations of scholars and mentors and evidence that mentoring contracts, agreements, and training programs facilitate this process. These tools focus on aligning expectations with respect to the scholar’s research, education, professional development and career advancement as well as support, communication, and personal conduct and interpersonal relations. Research is needed to assess test the efficacy of formal alignment activities. PMID:22212226

  1. A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

    2004-09-01

    The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

  2. Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Elena K.

    The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

  3. Efficacy of auricular therapy for pain management: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W S; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [-2.36, -0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

  4. Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L.; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [−2.36, −0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

  5. Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Betsy Ann

    This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

  6. Discourse in freshman engineering teams: The relationship between verbal persuasions, self-efficacy, and achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasar, Senay

    Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, p<.01). There was also a positive correlation between support-orientated discourse and post self-efficacy scores ( r=.43, p<.05). Negative correlations were observed between disruptive discourse behaviors and post self-efficacy (r=-.48, p<.05). Neither being challenged by peers nor receiving negative feedback revealed significant correlations with student self-efficacy. In addition, no direct correlations between the team discourse characteristics and achievement were found. These findings suggest that collaborative teamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.

  7. Cognitive Processes in Intimate Conflict: II. Efficacy and Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Presents the second part of a cognitive model of family conflict. Proposes that high efficacy enhances persistence in family problem solving while low efficacy inhibits such efforts, and that chronic low efficacy may lead to learned helplessness responses in family members. (Author)

  8. Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

  9. Pre-Service Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs and Emotional States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMauro, Anthony A.; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' efficacy beliefs play an important role in how they create quality learning environments. When pre-service teachers (also known as initial teacher trainees) develop strong efficacy beliefs, they can be confident in their abilities to be successful teachers once they enter the field. One way pre-service teachers obtain efficacy

  10. Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

  11. The Development of Parenting Efficacy among New Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Burney, Regan V.

    2007-01-01

    Predictors of prenatal and postnatal parenting efficacy were examined in a sample of 115 primiparous mothers and 73 fathers in an effort to examine the association between preexisting parental characteristics and prenatal efficacy and the association between prenatal characteristics and postnatal efficacy when aspects of the current parenting…

  12. The Development of Parenting Efficacy among New Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Burney, Regan V.

    2007-01-01

    Predictors of prenatal and postnatal parenting efficacy were examined in a sample of 115 primiparous mothers and 73 fathers in an effort to examine the association between preexisting parental characteristics and prenatal efficacy and the association between prenatal characteristics and postnatal efficacy when aspects of the current parenting

  13. Examination of Faculty Self-Efficacy Related to Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.; Anderson, Mary L.; Xia, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Through this study we sought to gain understanding of the challenges professors face as they make the transition to teaching online. We measured professors' online teaching self-efficacy using survey research methods. Results showed that online teaching self-efficacy was high among the professors surveyed with no self-efficacy scores lower than

  14. The Role of Means Efficacy When Predicting Creative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Aneika L.; Payne, Stephanie C.; Pariyothorn, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    According to the "Internal-External Efficacy model", self-efficacy is an insufficient explanation for self-regulated behavior because it ignores the influence of external resources. Applying this theory of motivation to the prediction of creative performance, the extent to which means efficacy or the belief in the utility of external…

  15. Examination of Faculty Self-Efficacy Related to Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvitz, Brian S.; Beach, Andrea L.; Anderson, Mary L.; Xia, Jiangang

    2015-01-01

    Through this study we sought to gain understanding of the challenges professors face as they make the transition to teaching online. We measured professors' online teaching self-efficacy using survey research methods. Results showed that online teaching self-efficacy was high among the professors surveyed with no self-efficacy scores lower than…

  16. Teacher Efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Willhite, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is the belief teachers have in their ability to impact student learning. Efficacy includes teacher confidence in instructional, management and collaboration skills. The following study addresses teacher efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (PDS). The PDS experience provides an opportunity for mentor…

  17. Examining Dimensions of Self-Efficacy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…

  18. The Relationship between Principals' and Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolas, Julie Marie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between principals' and teachers' self-efficacy beliefs. The study focused on the efficacy beliefs in instructional leadership, instructional strategies, school management, classroom management, and the effect of specific demographics on efficacy beliefs. The study, conducted during…

  19. Examining Dimensions of Self-Efficacy for Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along

  20. Self-Efficacy and Learning in Sorority and Fraternity Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jon G., Jr.; Oberle, Crystal D.; Lilley, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Past research consistently reveals that "self-efficacy," referring to one's perceived ability to obtain a desired outcome, in academic courses is linked to academic achievement and motivation in those courses. In particular, high self-efficacy in courses is associated with high academic performance, and low self-efficacy in courses is associated…

  1. University Faculty Members' Perceptions of Their Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Huei-Hsuan; Song, Mei-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate faculty members' perceptions of teaching efficacy and their relation to faculty members' backgrounds. A questionnaire measuring six dimensions of teaching efficacy was distributed to faculty members at 17 universities in Taiwan, yielding 513 complete sets of responses. Faculty members felt efficacious,…

  2. Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Competence of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Delila; Bodenhorn, Nancy; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between school counselor self efficacy and perceived multicultural competence self efficacy in a sample of 157 school counselors. Results reveal School Counselor Self-Efficacy (SCSE) cultural acceptance subscale was a statistically significant predictor of all three multicultural competencies (MCC: Terminology,…

  3. [The efficacy of psychodynamic therapy: a controversy].

    PubMed

    Leichsenring, Falk; Rabung, Sven

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence from randomized controlled trials supporting the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) in specific mental disorders. Yet the evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy has not gone unchallenged. Several responses have addressed these concerns, showing that most of the criticism was not justified. Nevertheless, the evidence for psychodynamic psychotherapy continues to be frequently ignored, criticized or presented in a distorted way. A recent controversy published in the Nervenarzt may serve as an illustrative example, which is discussed here more in detail. This example shows that some authors are not interested in a truly scientific discussion, but rather try to discredit a rival method of psychotherapy and its scientific representatives for political reasons. PMID:23467995

  4. Levetiracetam: preliminary efficacy in generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothée G A; Hirsch, Edouard

    2003-05-01

    Levetiracetam is a novel antiepileptic drug (AED) with proven efficacy against partial seizures, but there is limited information about its effectiveness against generalized seizures. In animal models, levetiracetam protects against seizures in audiogenic susceptible rodents, and it is effective in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rat from Strasbourg, a model of absence seizures. In these models, levetiracetam has a therapeutic index that is higher than those of other AEDs. A number of small open-label studies suggest that levetiracetam reduces seizure frequency in patients with generalized seizures, including primarily generalized seizures and myoclonic seizures. Case reports provide additional information regarding the potential efficacy of levetiracetam in postanoxic, post-encephalitic and progressive myoclonus. Although random-ized controlled studies of patients with generalized seizures have not yet been conducted, on the basis of available information, levetiracetam may be prom-ising in the treatment of generalized seizures. PMID:12915340

  5. [Immunological surrogate endpoints to evaluate vaccine efficacy].

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengfei; Li, Jingxin; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Fengcai

    2015-12-01

    An immunological surrogate endpoints is a vaccine-induced immune response (either humoral or cellular immune) that predicts protection against clinical endpoints (infection or disease), and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy in clinical vaccine trials. Compared with field efficacy trials observing clinical endpoints, immunological vaccine trials could reduce the sample size or shorten the duration of a trial, which promote the license and development of new candidate vaccines. For these reasons, establishing immunological surrogate endpoints is one of 14 Grand Challenges of Global Health of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. From two parts of definition and statistical methods for evaluation of surrogate endpoints, this review provides a more comprehensive description. PMID:26887309

  6. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  7. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Lukash, V. S.; Stepanov, S. A.; Yangyang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  8. Quaternary ammonium biocides: efficacy in application.

    PubMed

    Gerba, Charles P

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  9. Treatment efficacy: hearing loss in children.

    PubMed

    Carney, A E; Moeller, M P

    1998-02-01

    This article provides a review of the topic of treatment efficacy for children with hearing loss. Efficacy is related to a wide range of treatment goals in the areas of sensory and perceptual skill development, language development (regardless of communication modality), speech-production skill development, academic performance, and social-emotional growth. Topics addressed in this article include (a) the definition of hearing loss in children; (b) incidence and prevalence data; (c) the effects of childhood hearing loss on daily life, including language and literacy, speech perception and production, socialization and family dynamics; (d) the role of audiologists and speech-language pathologists in managing children with hearing loss; and (e) a summary of pertinent efficacy research for children with hearing loss. The analysis of the available research suggests that (a) early intervention for children who are deaf or hard of hearing has long-term positive effects on overall development; (b) a variety of communication modalities exist for this population, and research to date has been more descriptive than prognostic on the choice of modality; (c) sensory aids (hearing aids, tactile aids, and cochlear implants) provide different degrees of benefit for children in the areas of speech perception, production, and language development, depending upon the extent of their hearing loss; (d) few studies have addressed rates of learning and long-term outcomes, but existing data suggest that enriched programs provide some children with hearing loss with the ability to overcome developmental lags in language and academic skills. PMID:9493747

  10. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  11. Efficacy of acute treatment for geriatric depression.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Schneider LS; Olin JT

    1995-01-01

    The antidepressant literature for depression in late life tends to be interpreted as saying that certain antidepressant medications--e.g, nortriptyline, doxepin, fluoxetine--have fewer and milder side effects than others, whereas overall efficacy is equivalent (Plotkin et al., 1987; Rush, 1993; Salzman et al., 1995; Schneider, 1994). Further examination of this literature, however, suggests that both efficacy and side effect rates for any particular medication vary among trials, and often depend on the medications being compared, the use of placebo, the dose, and the design of the trial. In this report we review selected clinical trials, and summarize and discuss a previously published meta-analysis. Treatment recommendations from the 1991 NIH Consensus Development Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression in Late Life and from the Agency for Health Care Policy Research are discussed. Directions for future research are suggested. Both antidepressant medications and brief structured psychotherapies have efficacy in the acute treatment of elderly depressed outpatients with major unipolar, nondelusional depression. Effective treatment for depression involves consideration of the type and severity of illness, adequate prescribing, patient education, and regular patient monitoring for compliance, symptom change, side effects, and intercurrent medical disorders, which may complicate antidepressant therapy.

  12. Reducing the Need for Postsecondary Remediation Using Self-Efficacy to Identify Underprepared African-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange, Carolyn; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postsecondary remedial education is a major problem for Higher Education affecting retention rates, degree completion rates and cost of enrollment. Identification of students who are underprepared for managing the rigors of college and who would benefit from early intervention is necessary to reduce the need for postsecondary

  13. Reducing the Need for Postsecondary Remediation Using Self-Efficacy to Identify Underprepared African-American and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange, Carolyn; Ramalho, Elizabeth Murakami

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Postsecondary remedial education is a major problem for Higher Education affecting retention rates, degree completion rates and cost of enrollment. Identification of students who are underprepared for managing the rigors of college and who would benefit from early intervention is necessary to reduce the need for postsecondary…

  14. 78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... marketing applications could make an important contribution to that goal by providing scientific data that... arise from analysis of diverse data submitted as part of marketing applications, including, for...

  15. Social and emotional self-efficacy at work.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. PMID:26882457

  16. Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Perceptions of Computer Self-Efficacy and General Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topkaya, Ece Zehir

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of computer self-efficacy in relation to different variables. Secondarily, the study also explores the relationship between pre-service English language teachers' perceptions of computer self-efficacy and their perceptions of general self-efficacy.…

  17. Dimensions of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Relations with Strain Factors, Perceived Collective Teacher Efficacy, and Teacher Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed and factor analyzed the Norwegian Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale. They also examined relations among teacher self-efficacy, perceived collective teacher efficacy, external control (teachers' general beliefs about limitations to what can be achieved through education), strain factors, and teacher burnout.…

  18. Using feedback analysis to uncover the physical origin of efficacy differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Vanessa; Dietmüller, Simone; Ponater, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The climate sensitivity parameter has long been assumed to be constant. However, recent studies found that the climate sensitivity parameter varies, not only amongst models for the same forcing, but also within the same model where it may strongly depend on the strength and the type of the applied forcing. The so-called efficacy differences are essential to assess the relative importance of several contributing agents to a total climate impact. Running equilibrium climate change simulation for various radiative forcing agents allows to quantify the efficacy differences, but the use of such information in assessment studies remains problematic as long as the underlying physical processes are insufficiently understood. By means of a feedback analysis, efficacy differences can be attributed to the responsible feedback processes. Applying the "Partial Radiative Perturbation"-method to a set of CO2 and non-CO2 driven climate change simulation allows to identify those feedback processes which play the key role in controlling differences in efficacy. The water vapour, the cloud and the stratospheric temperature feedback vary the most under increasing CO2 forcing. For differences in the efficacy between an ozone and a CO2 driven simulation, the water vapour and the lapse rate feedback changes significantly, but their changes cancel each other. Hence, cloud and stratospheric temperature feedback are found to be responsible for a significantly lower efficacy in the ozone driven simulation. Furthermore, in this talk we will point out some merits and shortcomings of the "Partial Radiative Perturbation"-method in determining global radiative feedbacks and we will outline an appropriate framework for the most auspicious application of this method. Statistical assessment problems arising for relatively small forcings, inherent non-linearities and inter-dependency of feedback mechanisms will all be addressed.

  19. Anthelmintic efficacy of oral trichlorfon solution against ivermectin resistant nematode strains in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; dos Santos, Thaís Rabelo; Borges, Fernando de Almeida; Sakamoto, Claudio A M; Soares, Vando Edésio; Costa, Gustavo Henrique Nogueira; Camargo, Gilberto; Pulga, Mário Eduardo; Bhushan, Chandra; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2009-12-01

    Infected calves from two different rural estates in Brazil were studied to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of oral trichlorfon against naturally occurring ivermectin resistant parasitic nematode strains. In experiment I, infected animals were from a region where ivermectin resistant populations of Haemoncus placei, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia spatulata and Trichuris discolor have recently been identified. Six calves with natural gastrointestinal nematode infections were treated with 48.5mg/kg aqueous trichlorfon administered orally and six calves acted as a non-treated control group. In experiment II 24 naturally infected calves were selected to enter one of four treatment groups, six animals each received: 48.5mg/kg oral trichlorfon; 200 microg/kg subcutaneous 1% ivermectin; 630 microg/kg subcutaneous 3.15% ivermectin; or no treatment (control group). Gastrointestinal helminths were counted and identified post-mortem at 7 days (trichlorfon and 1% ivermectin treated and untreated animals) or 14 days (3.15% ivermectin treated and untreated animals) after administration of the test agents. Experiment I identified a high level efficacy for oral trichlorfon against four helminth species that have previously been shown to be ivermectin resistant in this geographical region: percentage efficacy was 99.82% against adult H. placei, 99.18% against C. punctata, 99.33% against C. spatulata, 81.06% against T. axei, 98.46% against Oesophagostomum radiatum and 100% against T. discolor. Trichlorfon also showed activity against the ivermectin (1% and 3.15%) resistant helminth species identified in experiment II, attaining efficacy levels of 99.17% against H. placei, 98.46% against C. punctata and 100.00% against T. discolor. These findings indicate that oral trichlorfon is an effective treatment option in the management of cattle infected with ivermectin resistant helminths. PMID:19709817

  20. Path analysis of self-efficacy and diving performance revisited.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Deborah L; Chow, Graig M; Hepler, Teri J

    2008-06-01

    The Feltz (1982) path analysis of the relationship between diving efficacy and performance showed that, over trials, past performance was a stronger predictor than self-efficacy of performance. Bandura (1997) criticized the study as statistically "overcontrolling" for past performance by using raw past performance scores along with self-efficacy as predictors of performance. He suggests residualizing past performance by regressing the raw scores on self-efficacy and entering them into the model to remove prior contributions of self-efficacy imbedded in past performance scores. To resolve this controversy, we reanalyzed the Feltz data using three statistical models: raw past performance, residual past performance, and a method that residualizes past performance and self-efficacy. Results revealed that self-efficacy was a stronger predictor of performance in both residualized models than in the raw past performance model. Furthermore, the influence of past performance on future performance was weaker when the residualized methods were conducted. PMID:18648112

  1. Phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein is a potential predictive marker of irinotecan efficacy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikai, Atsushi; Watanabe, Motoki; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Yanagisawa, Akio; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Otsuji, Eigo; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Irinotecan has been used in the first-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, no clear predictive marker of irinotecan efficacy has been identified. It is controversial whether the response to irinotecan could be predicted by the expression level of topoisomerase-I, a direct target of irinotecan. The present study aimed to identify a feasible predictive marker of irinotecan efficacy. We hypothesized that the efficacy of SN38 (an active metabolite of irinotecan) is related to the cell proliferation and the phosphorylation status of RB in colorectal cancer cells. Indeed, the IC50 of SN38 was positively correlated with the doubling time of each cell line (R2=0.9315). Moreover, the phosphorylation level of RB was related to SN38 sensitivity. Consistent with the in vitro data, colorectal cancer tissues of irinotecan responders showed a significantly higher rate of phosphorylated RB (serine 780) expression using immunohistochemistry (P=0.0006), although a generally used proliferative marker, Ki-67, showed no significance. Finally, we investigated whether the phosphorylation of RB plays a crucial role in the efficacy of irinotecan. To suppress the expression of phosphorylated RB, we performed the knockdown of CDKs, which are known to phosphorylate RB. Intriguingly, the knockdown of both CDK4 and CDK6, but not CDK2, allowed RB to become the most hypophosphorylated form and converted the SN38-sensitive cells to a resistant state. Taking together the above findings from in vitro and clinical research, the immunohistochemistry of phosphorylated RB protein might be feasible to predict the irinotecan efficacy of colorectal cancer in clinical practice. PMID:26783196

  2. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy. PMID:26042918

  3. Identification of Compounds with Efficacy against Malaria Parasites from Common North American Plants.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shengxin; Risinger, April L; Nair, Shalini; Peng, Jiangnan; Anderson, Timothy J C; Du, Lin; Powell, Douglas R; Mooberry, Susan L; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2016-03-25

    Some of the most valuable antimalarial compounds, including quinine and artemisinin, originated from plants. While these drugs have served important roles over many years for the treatment of malaria, drug resistance has become a widespread problem. Therefore, a critical need exists to identify new compounds that have efficacy against drug-resistant malaria strains. In the current study, extracts prepared from plants readily obtained from local sources were screened for activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Bioassay-guided fractionation was used to identify 18 compounds from five plant species. These compounds included eight lupane triterpenes (1-8), four kaempferol 3-O-rhamnosides (10-13), four kaempferol 3-O-glucosides (14-17), and the known compounds amentoflavone and knipholone. These compounds were tested for their efficacy against multi-drug-resistant malaria parasites and counterscreened against HeLa cells to measure their antimalarial selectivity. Most notably, one of the new lupane triterpenes (3) isolated from the supercritical extract of Buxus sempervirens, the common boxwood, showed activity against both drug-sensitive and -resistant malaria strains at a concentration that was 75-fold more selective for the drug-resistant malaria parasites as compared to HeLa cells. This study demonstrates that new antimalarial compounds with efficacy against drug-resistant strains can be identified from native and introduced plant species in the United States, which traditionally have received scant investigation compared to more heavily explored tropical and semitropical botanical resources from around the world. PMID:26722868

  4. Development of a survey to identify vaccine-hesitant parents

    PubMed Central

    Mangione-Smith, Rita; Taylor, James A; Korfiatis, Carolyn; Wiese, Cheryl; Catz, Sheryl; Martin, Diane P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop a survey to accurately assess parental vaccine hesitancy. Results The initial survey contained 17 items in four content domains: (1) immunization behavior; (2) beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy; (3) attitudes about vaccine mandates and exemptions; and (4) trust. Focus group data yielded an additional 10 survey items. Expert review of the survey resulted in the deletion of nine of 27 items and revisions to 11 of the remaining 18 survey items. Parent pretesting resulted in the deletion of one item, the addition of one item, the revision of four items, and formatting changes to enhance usability. The final survey contains 18 items in the original four content domains. Methods An iterative process was used to develop the survey. First, we reviewed previous studies and surveys on parental health beliefs regarding vaccination to develop content domains and draft initial survey items. Focus groups of parents and pediatricians generated additional themes and survey items. Six immunization experts reviewed the items in the resulting draft survey and ranked them on a 1–5 scale for significance in identifying vaccine-hesitant parents (5 indicative of a highly significant item). The lowest third of ranked items were dropped. The revised survey was pretested with 25 parents to assess face validity, usability and item understandability. Conclusions The Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines survey was constructed using qualitative methodology to identify vaccine-hesitant parents and has content and face validity. Further psychometric testing is needed. PMID:21389777

  5. Which atypical antipsychotics are identified by screening tests?

    PubMed

    Moore, N C; Gershon, S

    1989-06-01

    Only two tests were specific for antipsychotic potential. All effective antipsychotics blocked pharmacologically induced locomotion and affected firing in the mesolimbic DA neurons. The remaining single- (Table 1) and repeated- (Table 2) dose tests identified the atypical antipsychotics. Clozapine, thioridazine, sulpiride, tiospirone, and molindone were atypical in both types of study. Pimozide, pipamperone, aceperon, methylperon, and clotiapine were atypical in single-dose studies, clopenthixol in repeated-dose studies. Since the biochemical abnormality causing psychoses is unknown, it may be that current methods of screening for new antipsychotics are inadequate and possibly inappropriate. If a neurotransmitter other than DA is the primary cause, then totally new tests may be needed. Present tests, especially those involving behavioral paradigms, may continue to select out compounds that cause EPS side-effects. New methods such as positron emission tomography scanning and other brain-imaging techniques hold the promise of studying specific types and subtypes of receptors in the living human brain. The recent discovery of chromosomal abnormalities in psychotic illness may provide new insights into the biochemical causes of such disorders and lead to completely new compounds that will be both safer and more effective. In the meantime we plan to review the literature on the clinical use of the compounds identified as atypical in this article and to develop research protocols to assess their efficacy in treatment-resistant psychoses and intractable conditions such as tardive dyskinesia. PMID:2568176

  6. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  7. Genotype dependent burst of transposable element expression in crowns of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during cold acclimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs) represented in the Affymetix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of 4 hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throug...

  8. Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Gwendolen E.; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR ; Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J.; Raber, Jacob; Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR; Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

  9. [Genotype dependence of cytogenetic and epidemiological characteristics in the liquidators of the accident at the ChNPP].

    PubMed

    Sal'nikova, L E; Fomin, D K; Elisova, T V; Akaeva, E A; Kuz'mina, N S; Lapteva, N Sh; Nilova, I N; Iofa, E L; Kostina, L N; Kuznetsova, G I; Kulikova, T A; Panushkina, O G; Rubanovich, A V

    2008-01-01

    The dependence of the level of unstable chromosome aberrations and nononcological diseases on the genotype in 57 liquidators of the ChNPP accident was studied. Candidate genes presumably affecting radiosensitivity were highly polymorphic loci of xenobiotic detoxication genes (glutathione-S-transferases GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1) and the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) involved in DNA methylation and synthesis. An increased frequency (0.014 +/- 0.001 per cell) of unstable chromosome aberrations, including radiation-specific dicentrics and centric rings (0.0015 +/- 0.0002 per cell), has been found to be preserved in the group of liquidators examined in 2006-2007. No associations of polymorphism for each of the studied genes with cytogenetic parameters were revealed. Increased frequencies of chromosome aberrations were recorded in homozygous carriers of a deletion at the GSTM1 locus in combination with homozygosity for minor alleles at the MTHFR and GSTP1 loci (p = 0.00002 and p = 0.0233, respectively). The number of homozygous carriers of the minor allele GSTP1 was increased among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in liquidators with acute circulation disturbances (p = 0.014 and p = 0.04, respectively). Double homozygotes for GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions were significantly more frequent among subjects with benign tumors (cysts, polyps, p = 0.015) and with benign thyroid tumors (p = 0.017). This genotype has proved to be protective for patients with severe cardiovascular diseases (acute circulation disturbances, p = 0.027). PMID:18689254

  10. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls. This study investigated the response of three medically significant microorganisms grown in the RWV to antibiotics that could be used on spaceflight missions. Our findings suggest potential alterations in antibiotic efficacy during spaceflight and indicate that future studies on the antibiotic response require additional basic research using the RWV and/or true spaceflight. However, while this analogue has reinforced these potential alterations, the results suggest the best approach for applied forward work is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight, including human and rodent studies. The complex nature of the analysis for many antibiotics and organism suggests the best approach to determine in vivo responses during pharmaceutical treatment is evaluating an in vivo system during spaceflight.

  11. Association of Learning Styles with Research Self-Efficacy: Study of Short-Term Research Training Program for Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Dumbauld, Jill; Black, Michelle; Depp, Colin A.; Daly, Rebecca; Curran, Maureen A.; Winegarden, Babbi; Jeste, Dilip V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose With a growing need for developing future physician scientists, identifying characteristics of medical students who are likely to benefit from research training programs is important. This study assessed if specific learning styles of medical students, participating in federally funded short-term research training programs, were associated with research self-efficacy, a predictor of research career success. Method Seventy-five first-year medical students from 28 medical schools, selected to participate in two competitive NIH-supported summer programs for research training in aging, completed rating scales to evaluate learning styles at baseline, and research self-efficacy before and after training. We examined associations of individual learning styles (visual-verbal, sequential-global, sensing-intuitive, and active-reflective) with students’ gender, ranking of medical school, and research self-efficacy. Results Research self-efficacy improved significantly following the training programs. Students with a verbal learning style reported significantly greater research self-efficacy at baseline, while visual, sequential, and intuitive learners demonstrated significantly greater increases in research self-efficacy from baseline to post-training. No significant relationships were found between learning styles and students’ gender or ranking of their medical school. Conclusions Assessments of learning styles may provide useful information to guide future training endeavors aimed at developing the next generation of physician-scientists. PMID:25079678

  12. Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2014-05-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  13. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  14. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor... DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying information..., http://www.pbgc.gov, the following identifying information with respect to each member of the...

  15. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of

  16. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  17. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Bent, Andrew F.; Innes, Roger W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  18. Efficacy and food safety considerations of poultry competitive exclusion products.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert Doug

    2006-11-01

    Competitive exclusion (CE) products are anaerobic cultures of bacteria that are applied to poultry hatchlings to establish a protective enteric microbiota that excludes intestinal colonization by human food-borne pathogens. For safety of the poultry flock and human consumers, the identities of bacteria in CE products need to be known. A CE product is a culture of intestinal contents from adult chickens. It may be microbiologically defined by analysis of bacteria isolated from the culture, but many bacteria are hard to reliably isolate, identify, and characterize with conventional techniques. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes may be more reliable than conventional techniques to identify CE bacteria. Bacteria in CE products may contain antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence mechanisms that could be transferred to the enteric bacteria of the food animal and to the human consumer. Detection methods for specific antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence genes and the integrase genes of conjugative transposons, mostly utilizing PCR technology, are being developed that can be applied to assess these risks in CE bacteria. With improvements in efficacy, bacterial identification, and detection and control of the possible risks of gene transfer, CE product technology can be made a more effective food safety tool. PMID:17039457

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  20. The Relationship between Listening Strategies Used by Egyptian EFL College Sophomores and Their Listening Comprehension and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassem, Hassan M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored listening strategy use among a group of Egyptian EFL college sophomores (N = 84). More specifically, it aimed to identify 1) the strategies used more often by participants, 2) the relationship between listening strategy use, and listening comprehension and self-efficacy, and 3) differences in listening comprehension and…

  1. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology Integration Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semiz, Kivanc; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations (ITOE) of pre-service physical education teachers, (2) examine the relationships among TPACK, TISE and ITOE, and lastly (3) examine the differences…

  2. Career Maturity, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Career Indecision: A Review of the Accrued Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prideaux, Lee-Ann; Creed, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A review of literature on three career development constructs--career maturity, career decision-making self-efficacy, and career indecision--identified the usefulness and validity of each and strengths and weaknesses of relevant research. A close relationship suggests they should be investigated together and more systematically. Revision of career…

  3. Lost Confidence and Potential: A Mixed Methods Study of Underachieving College Students' Sources of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Carlton J.; Krause, Jaimie M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the sources of self-efficacy of college students enrolled in a learning frameworks course, whom we identified as underachievers. Through weekly journal entries, the group of underachievers (n = 13) cited the factors that made them feel confident or not confident. Students' responses to open-ended prompts were coded…

  4. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading

  5. The Trainee in Context: Examining the Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Transfer Climate for Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sookhai, Fiona; Budworth, Marie-Helene

    2010-01-01

    Trainee perceptions of transfer climate have been found to be an important predictor of transfer of training. Self-efficacy has also been identified as an important individual difference related to transfer. Few studies have examined how these variables work together to enhance or limit performance following training. In a field study of 37…

  6. Technology Implementation: Teacher Age, Experience, Self-Efficacy, and Professional Development as Related to Classroom Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the combination of factors that pertain to the implementation of new technologies in the classroom. Specifically, the study was an analysis of the age of the teacher, years of teaching experience, quality of professional development, and teacher self-efficacy as defined by Bandura (1997) to…

  7. Characterization and efficacy determination of commercially available Central American H5N2 avian influenza vaccines for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A poultry vaccination program was implemented in Central America beginning in January 1995 to control both H5N2 low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza. This study was conducted to identify seed strain composition and the efficacy of nine commercially available H5 vaccines against challen...

  8. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Group Equine Assisted Counseling with At-Risk Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Kay Sudekum; Chandler, Cynthia K.; Goodwin-Bond, Deborah; Casey, Janie

    2008-01-01

    This study demonstrates the efficacy of Equine Assisted Counseling (EAC) by comparing EAC to classroom-based counseling. Students (n = 164) identified as being at high risk for academic and/or social failure participated in 12 weekly counseling sessions. Within-group paired sample t-test results comparing pre- and post-treatment scores for…

  9. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  10. Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

  11. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  12. Efficacies of commercial sticky yellow rectangles against eight Rhagoletis fly species (Dipt., Tephritidae) in Washington state, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps are used against Rhagoletis flies (Dipt., Tephritidae) for detection in fly management and ecological studies. Here, the main objective was to identify the most efficacious of five commercial sticky yellow rectangles baited with ammonium carbonate against R. indifferens Curran, R. pomonella (...

  13. Assuring the safety and efficacy of therapies.

    PubMed

    Stolley, P D

    1974-01-01

    The randomized, controlled clinical trial now makes it possible to test the hypothesis that 1 form of treatment is preferable to another and to express the results in the form of the probability of the differences found being because of chance or not. The means exist to evaluate much of medical and surgical therapy, and the problems of evaluating surgical procedures, increasing drug use and adverse reactions to therapy are discussed. The purpose is to raise key issues and critical questions. The example of a minor epidemic of drug induced cancer is described to illustrate the use of the epidemiologic method in detecting adverse effects and for its implications for the development of of a more resonsible public policy to prevent such occurrences. The example of the use of DES in pregnancy and the resulting minor "epidemic" of adenocarcinoma of the vagina among the adolescent daughters of these women was chosen because this example of an adverse drug reaction reveals 1) the complexities of detection; 2) the role of the epidemiologist; 3) the possible results of uncritical acceptance of therapeutic reports; and 4) the need for a new policy of drug regulation. Advances in the epidemiologic detection of adverse effects, along with the development and application of the controlled clinical trial have provided the needed evidence for the development of new governmental regulations which ensure safety and efficacy. Such evidence suggests that regulation should be expanded to require that manufacturers of new drugs introduced into the market demonstrate, in addition to safety and efficacy, the relative efficacy of their products over existing formulations. Surgical procedures also need to be subjected to scrutiny. More attention needs to be paid to the ecologic consequences of drugs and food additives. PMID:4597990

  14. An Integrative Review of Self-Efficacy Measurement Instruments in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes (T1DM)

    PubMed Central

    Rasbach, Lisa; Jenkins, Carolyn; Laffel, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the extant literature on instruments used to measure self-efficacy in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and their caregivers and to critically evaluate these measurements. Methods An integrative review (2003–2013) was conducted searching PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and U.S. National Library of Medicine PubMed service (PubMed) databases using key words diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and self-efficacy. The authors reviewed the resulting294 references for inclusion criteria of (a) sample of youth with T1DM or sample of caregivers of youth with T1DM, (b) description of the self-efficacy instrument as primary research, and (c) the instrument measured self-efficacy specifically related to diabetes management. Forty-five articles out of the initial 294 met criteria. Results Of the 45 articles, 10 different self-efficacy instruments were identified. The primary theoretical framework used was Bandura’s social cognitive theory and model of self-efficacy. Most participants were white middle class T1DM youth. Evaluations to assess validity often were not reported; however, a majority of studies reported high internal consistency of the instruments. Conclusions Sample homogeneity could limit the applicability of results to certain patient populations. Further psychometric analysis, including validity assessments, should be conducted in more diverse samples. Development of valid and reliable instruments for measuring self-efficacy that are sensitive to change across a wider caregiver base over time is necessary. While this review examined reliable and valid instruments used in research, future opportunities include evaluation of measuring self-efficacy in T1DM youth exposed to recent advances in diabetes management technologies. PMID:25216655

  15. Resilience Building in Students: The Role of Academic Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy relates to an individual's perception of their capabilities. It has a clear self-evaluative dimension leading to high or low perceived self-efficacy. Individual differences in perceived self-efficacy have been shown to be better predictors of performance than previous achievement or ability and seem particularly important when individuals face adversity. The study investigated the nature of the association between academic self-efficacy (ASE) and academic resilience. Undergraduate student participants (N = 435) were exposed to an adverse situation case vignette describing either personal or vicarious academic adversity. ASE was measured pre-exposure and academic resilience was measured post-exposure. ASE was correlated with, and a significant predictor of, academic resilience and students exhibited greater academic resilience when responding to vicarious adversity compared to personal adversity. Identifying constructs that are related to resilience and establishing the precise nature of how such constructs influence academic resilience will assist the development of interventions aimed at promoting resilience in students. PMID:26640447

  16. Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. PMID:24955675

  17. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of its efficacy.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Francesca; Ernst, Edzard

    2008-07-01

    Since conventional hormone replacement therapy has fallen out of favour, alternatives are being sought by many women. These therapies include herbal preparations such as black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). The purpose of this update of a previous systematic review is to evaluate the clinical evidence for or against the efficacy of black cohosh in alleviating menopausal symptoms. Five computerized databases (Medline, Embase, Amed, Phytobase and Cochrane Library) were searched to identify all clinical data that provided evidence on the efficacy of C. racemosa. Bibliographies of the articles thus located were scanned for further relevant publications. Only double blind, randomized, clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the evaluation of efficacy. No language restrictions were imposed. Trials were excluded if they did not focus on menopausal problems, they included women suffering medically induced menopause, they did not use black cohosh monopreparations, or they did not use placebo or a standard drug treatment for the control group. Six studies with a total of 1112 peri- and post-menopausal women met our inclusion criteria. The evidence from these RCTs does not consistently demonstrate an effect of black cohosh on menopausal symptoms; a beneficial effect of black cohosh on peri-menopausal women cannot be excluded. The efficacy of black cohosh as a treatment for menopausal symptoms is uncertain and further rigorous trials seem warranted. PMID:18585461

  18. Investigation of preservative efficacy and microbiological content of some cosmetics found on the market.

    PubMed

    Birteksöz Tan, Ayşe Seher; Tüysüz, Mayram; Ötük, Gülten

    2013-01-01

    In this study, microbial content and preservative efficacy of various cosmetic products, which are produced and sold in markets of our country, were investigated. Microbial content and preservative efficacies of products were investigated according to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) method. Microorganism counts of out 14 of 93 cosmetic products were recovered in the range between 1.5 x 10(2)-5.5 x 10(5) cfu/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common contaminant identified in samples (from six different products) and was followed by Burkholderia cepacia (from four different products). Gram negative organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a yeast Candida krusei, were also isolated from samples. Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. were not recovered from any of samples. Preservative efficacies of fourteen out of ninety-three products did not meet the general efficacy of antimicrobial preservation criteria of the USP. Among these fourteen products, degradation and color change by Aspergillus niger was observed in one of samples. According to results, it was observed that pathogen and potential pathogen microorganisms can be found in unused cosmetic products and also preservatives may be ineffective in preventing them. Thus, in order to prevent the contamination that can occur during production, manufacturers are required to manufacture products in compliance with wholesome manufacturing practices and, considering consumer health, it is necessary to add an effective preservative as determined by regulations. PMID:23261741

  19. Efficacy of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    BARBER, JACQUES P.

    1994-01-01

    The author outlines the history of brief dynamic psychotherapy, describes some of its characteristics, and addresses methodological requirements for assessing the efficacy of psychotherapy. Review of two major meta-analyses suggests that manual-based brief dynamic psychotherapy by trained therapists is likely to be as effective as other forms of psychotherapy and more effective than no treatment. More studies are needed that 1) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with other forms of treatment for specific psychiatric disorders; 2) use theory-specific measures of outcome in addition to measures of symptoms; and 3) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with long-term psychotherapy. PMID:22700185

  20. Anthelmintic efficacy fenbendazole paste in equines.

    PubMed

    Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K; Scialdo, R C

    1981-06-01

    A single oral dose of fenbendazole (FBZ) paste at 7,5 mg/kg body mass was given to 5 horses. It was highly effective against adults of the following genera: Cyathostomum, Cylicostephanus, Cylicondontophorus, Poteriostomum, Cylicocyclus, Triodontophorus, Oesophagodontus (and other genera belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae). Similarly, high efficacy was obtained against the adults of the following species: Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Probstmayria vivipara. These results were confirmed in 12 horses and in addition FBZ at 7,5 mg/kg was highly effective against Parascaris equorum, Craterostomum and Gyalocephalus. PMID:7277372

  1. Condom use self-efficacy and HIV risk practices among men who use the internet to find male partners for unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hugh

    2014-05-01

    This research examines the levels of condom use self-efficacy in a population of men who have sex with men who are at great risk for contracting/transmitting HIV. It focuses on the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and risk involvement, and examines the factors associated with greater/lower levels of condom use self-efficacy. The data come from a national sample of men, randomly chosen, who used any of 16 websites specifically to identify other men with whom they could engage in unprotected sex. Data were collected between January 2008 and May 2009 from 332 men, via telephone interviews. Multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling were used to test a conceptual model based on syndemics theory. Overall levels of condom use self-efficacy were fairly high, and self-efficacy was related inversely to involvement in HIV risk practices. Six factors were found to be indicative of levels of condom use self-efficacy: the number of drug problems experienced, sexual role identity as a "bottom," not caring about the HIV serostatus of potential sex partners, experiencing childhood maltreatment, having confidence in HIV-related information provided in other men's online profiles, and level of HIV knowledge. Condom use self-efficacy plays an integral role in HIV risk practices among high-risk men who have sex with men. This is true despite the fact that, overall, condom use self-efficacy levels were fairly high in this population. PMID:23832954

  2. A systems biology approach to identify effective cocktail drugs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complex diseases, such as Type 2 Diabetes, are generally caused by multiple factors, which hamper effective drug discovery. To combat these diseases, combination regimens or combination drugs provide an alternative way, and are becoming the standard of treatment for complex diseases. However, most of existing combination drugs are developed based on clinical experience or test-and-trial strategy, which are not only time consuming but also expensive. Results In this paper, we presented a novel network-based systems biology approach to identify effective drug combinations by exploiting high throughput data. We assumed that a subnetwork or pathway will be affected in the networked cellular system after a drug is administrated. Therefore, the affected subnetwork can be used to assess the drug's overall effect, and thereby help to identify effective drug combinations by comparing the subnetworks affected by individual drugs with that by the combination drug. In this work, we first constructed a molecular interaction network by integrating protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions, and signaling pathways. A new model was then developed to detect subnetworks affected by drugs. Furthermore, we proposed a new score to evaluate the overall effect of one drug by taking into account both efficacy and side-effects. As a pilot study we applied the proposed method to identify effective combinations of drugs used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Our method detected the combination of Metformin and Rosiglitazone, which is actually Avandamet, a drug that has been successfully used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Conclusions The results on real biological data demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method, which can not only detect effective cocktail combination of drugs in an accurate manner but also significantly reduce expensive and tedious trial-and-error experiments. PMID:20840734

  3. Adapting Computer Programming Self-Efficacy Scale and Engineering Students' Self-Efficacy Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis

    2014-01-01

    Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…

  4. Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

    2013-12-01

    Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

  5. Increasing the Efficacy of Oncolytic Adenovirus Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Karoly; Wold, William S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) vectors present a new modality to treat cancer. These vectors attack tumors via replicating in and killing cancer cells. Upon completion of the vector replication cycle, the infected tumor cell lyses and releases progeny virions that are capable of infecting neighboring tumor cells. Repeated cycles of vector replication and cell lysis can destroy the tumor. Numerous Ad vectors have been generated and tested, some of them reaching human clinical trials. In 2005, the first oncolytic Ad was approved for the treatment of head-and-neck cancer by the Chinese FDA. Oncolytic Ads have been proven to be safe, with no serious adverse effects reported even when high doses of the vector were injected intravenously. The vectors demonstrated modest anti-tumor effect when applied as a single agent; their efficacy improved when they were combined with another modality. The efficacy of oncolytic Ads can be improved using various approaches, including vector design, delivery techniques, and ancillary treatment, which will be discussed in this review. PMID:21994711

  6. Bicycle helmet efficacy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Attewell, R G; Glase, K; McFadden, M

    2001-05-01

    Bicycle helmet efficacy was quantified using a formal meta-analytic approach based on peer-reviewed studies. Only those studies with individual injury and helmet use data were included. Based on studies from several countries published in the period 1987-1998, the summary odds ratio estimate for efficacy is 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.29, 0.55) for head injury, 0.42 (0.26, 0.67) for brain injury, 0.53 (0.39, 0.73) for facial injury and 0.27 (0.10, 0.71) for fatal injury. This indicates a statistically significant protective effect of helmets. Three studies provided neck injury results that were unfavourable to helmets with a summary estimate of 1.36 (1.00, 1.86), but this result may not be applicable to the lighter helmets currently in use. In conclusion, the evidence is clear that bicycle helmets prevent serious injury and even death. Despite this, the use of helmets is sub-optimal. Helmet use for all riders should be further encouraged to the extent that it is uniformly accepted and analogous to the use of seat belts by motor vehicle occupants. PMID:11235796

  7. Efficacy of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lünemann, Jan D; Quast, Isaak; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its anti-inflammatory efficacy in various autoimmune disease conditions, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-pooled IgG obtained from the plasma of several thousands individuals-has been used for nearly three decades and is proving to be efficient in a growing number of neurological diseases. IVIG therapy has been firmly established for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and multifocal motor neuropathy, either as first-line therapy or adjunctive treatment. IVIG is also recommended as rescue therapy in patients with worsening myasthenia gravis and is beneficial as a second-line therapy for dermatomyositis and stiff-person syndrome. Subcutaneous rather than intravenous administration of IgG is gaining momentum because of its effectiveness in patients with primary immunodeficiency and the ease with which it can be administered independently from hospital-based infusions. The demand for IVIG therapy is growing, resulting in rising costs and supply shortages. Strategies to replace IVIG with recombinant products have been developed based on proposed mechanisms that confer the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG, but their efficacy has not been tested in clinical trials. This review covers new developments in the immunobiology and clinical applications of IVIG in neurological diseases. PMID:26400261

  8. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. PMID:25937455

  9. Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

  10. Efficacy of cleaning products for C difficile

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod-Glover, Nora; Sadowski, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for the efficacy of products used for environmental or hand cleaning on the rates of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles pertinent to the efficacy of cleaning products against C difficile or studies with outcomes related to rates of CDAD. Evidence was level II. MAIN MESSAGE Minimizing the incidence of CDAD in geriatric rehabilitation units is essential to achieving the goals of increasing patient function and independence for discharge into the community. Attention to environmental control of C difficile and its spores by health care workers and patient visitors is an important secondary prevention strategy. CONCLUSION Chlorine-releasing agents are more effective than detergents for killing spores produced by C difficile. No level I evidence is available to determine if the use of chlorine-releasing agents has an effect on rates of CDAD. Hand-washing is currently the recommended strategy for reducing transmission of C difficile. Alcohol gels do not inactivate C difficile spores; however, increased use of alcohol hand gel has not been associated with higher rates of CDAD. PMID:20463269

  11. Production of anti-fungal volatiles by non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and its efficacy in suppression of verticillium wilt of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The study aimed to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strain CanR-46, and to determine the anti-fungal spectrum and the control efficacy of the Fo-VOCs. Methods: The Fo-VOCs were identified by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of the...

  12. Positive Impacts of Modeling Instruction on Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2010-10-01

    Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel [1] to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.

  13. Novel composite efficacy measure to demonstrate the rationale and efficacy of combination antiviral-anti-inflammatory treatment for recurrent herpes simplex labialis.

    PubMed

    Hull, Christopher M; Levin, Myron J; Tyring, Stephen K; Spruance, Spotswood L

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size--a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P<0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P<0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

  14. Novel Composite Efficacy Measure To Demonstrate the Rationale and Efficacy of Combination Antiviral–Anti-Inflammatory Treatment for Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Spruance, Spotswood L.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size—a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P < 0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P < 0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

  15. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L.; Schenter, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  16. Alternative conceptions in science and science teaching efficacy: Remediating preservice teachers' alternative conceptions and their effect on science teaching efficacy and reflective judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Scott Michael

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a Science Methods course experience on preservice teachers' personal science teaching efficacy. Additionally, attitudes toward science and constructivist learning environments, and possible correlations of these attributes to the Reflective Judgment model of King and Kitchener (1990) were investigated. The Spring 1999 Science Methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Idaho was based on National Science Education Standards and included a focus on dispelling science misconceptions in an attempt to boost efficacy and attitudes toward science and science teaching. Two cohorts of undergraduate students (Moscow and Coeur d'Alene campuses) voluntarily took part in the study. It was hypothesized that a heavy emphasis on standards, constructivist approaches to teaching and learning, and the process of dispelling common misconceptions would promote participants' efficacy in science and science teaching as they learned to de-construct currently held beliefs and reformulate more scientifically correct personal understandings. In this quasi-experimental (pre-and post-treatment survey) study the experience of fully deconstructing science misconceptions and remediating understanding through collaborative inquiry was considered as "treatment". More precisely, the treatment was the course experience itself, its social constructivist context, course content and theories, as well as the teaching practices shared and discussed. Multiple Linear Regression analyses revealed a relationship between remedying common science misconceptions in an open and constructivist learning environment, and changes in personal science teaching efficacy. For both cohorts of participants there was an overall rise in personal science teaching efficacy as a result of the course experience. Attitudes did not significantly change overall, and openness to constructivist learning environments did not appreciably change for the groups as a whole. Reflective Judgment stage scores were correlated with gains in personal science teaching efficacy, attitude toward science, and openness to constructivist learning environments. Qualitative data was explored to further identify emergent patterns in student beliefs and attitudes. Online threaded discussions documenting student thinking, their science experiences, class discussions and lab activities, along with participant observations by the author comprised the qualitative component of the study.

  17. High-impact practices and first-year seminars: A quasi-experimental study measuring change in academic self-efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber Applewhite, Stephanie

    First-year seminars, high-impact practices, and academic self-efficacy have been identified as relevant to the successful transition process from high school to college. This study investigated the interconnections between freshman academic self-efficacy, high-impact practices, zone of proximal development and first-year seminars. This research contributed to the understandings of the significance of high-impact practices in the development of academic self-efficacy in freshman students. As colleges strive to improve retention from the freshman to sophomore years, it is useful to identify the relevance of high-impact practices within a first-year seminar on academic self-efficacy. A two-group, quasi-experimental study using a pre/post survey was conducted at a regional comprehensive university in east Texas in which 800 students were given a pre and post survey to measure academic self-efficacy. After matching for fidelity, eleven sections were identified for the control group (104 participants) and eleven sections (91 participants) were selected for the experiment group. The findings revealed that the overall gain in the mean of both groups from the pre to post survey was statistically significant. While the students in the high-impact sections reported a higher post mean on the College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale than those who did not receive high-impact instruction, the gain was not statistically significant.

  18. The Efficacy of Strontium and Potassium Toothpastes in Treating Dentine Hypersensitivity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Karim, B. F. A.; Gillam, D. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present paper was to review the published literature in order to identify all relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence of the efficacy of strontium and potassium toothpastes in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Methods. Following a review of 94 relevant papers both from searching electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, 13 studies were identified, and 7 papers (1 for strontium-based toothpastes and 6 for potassium-based toothpastes) were finally accepted for inclusion. The main outcome measures were the methodology and assessment used by Investigators in studies designed to evaluate DH. Results. The results of the present paper would indicate that the reported efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving DH is questionable. Conclusions. The results from the present paper would appear to support the conclusions of previous investigators that there is only minimal evidence for the efficacy of both strontium- and potassium-based toothpastes in relieving symptoms of DH. PMID:23653647

  19. Predictive biomarkers of sorafenib efficacy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Are we getting there?

    PubMed

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-09-28

    Sorafenib is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its efficacy is modest with low response rates and short response duration. Predictive biomarkers for sorafenib efficacy are necessary. However, efforts to determine biomarkers for sorafenib have led only to potential candidates rather than clinically useful predictors. Studies based on patient cohorts identified the potential of blood levels of angiopoietin-2, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and transforming growth factor-β1 for predicting sorafenib efficacy. Alpha-fetoprotein response, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment-related side effects may serve as early surrogate markers. Novel approaches based on super-responders or experimental mouse models may provide new directions in biomarker research. These studies identified tumor amplification of FGF3/FGF4 or VEGFA and tumor expression of phospho-Mapk14 and phospho-Atf2 as possible predictive markers that await validation. A group effort that considers various prognostic factors and proper collection of tumor tissues before treatment is imperative for the success of future biomarker research in advanced HCC. PMID:26420960

  20. Testing Tuberculosis Drug Efficacy in a Zebrafish High-Throughput Translational Medicine Screen

    PubMed Central

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J.; Wiweger, Malgorzata I.; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H.; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P.

    2014-01-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  1. Predictive biomarkers of sorafenib efficacy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: Are we getting there?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yu-Yun; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the current standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its efficacy is modest with low response rates and short response duration. Predictive biomarkers for sorafenib efficacy are necessary. However, efforts to determine biomarkers for sorafenib have led only to potential candidates rather than clinically useful predictors. Studies based on patient cohorts identified the potential of blood levels of angiopoietin-2, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, and transforming growth factor-β1 for predicting sorafenib efficacy. Alpha-fetoprotein response, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment-related side effects may serve as early surrogate markers. Novel approaches based on super-responders or experimental mouse models may provide new directions in biomarker research. These studies identified tumor amplification of FGF3/FGF4 or VEGFA and tumor expression of phospho-Mapk14 and phospho-Atf2 as possible predictive markers that await validation. A group effort that considers various prognostic factors and proper collection of tumor tissues before treatment is imperative for the success of future biomarker research in advanced HCC. PMID:26420960

  2. Testing tuberculosis drug efficacy in a zebrafish high-throughput translational medicine screen.

    PubMed

    Ordas, Anita; Raterink, Robert-Jan; Cunningham, Fraser; Jansen, Hans J; Wiweger, Malgorzata I; Jong-Raadsen, Susanne; Bos, Sabine; Bates, Robert H; Barros, David; Meijer, Annemarie H; Vreeken, Rob J; Ballell-Pages, Lluís; Dirks, Ron P; Hankemeier, Thomas; Spaink, Herman P

    2015-02-01

    The translational value of zebrafish high-throughput screens can be improved when more knowledge is available on uptake characteristics of potential drugs. We investigated reference antibiotics and 15 preclinical compounds in a translational zebrafish-rodent screening system for tuberculosis. As a major advance, we have developed a new tool for testing drug uptake in the zebrafish model. This is important, because despite the many applications of assessing drug efficacy in zebrafish research, the current methods for measuring uptake using mass spectrometry do not take into account the possible adherence of drugs to the larval surface. Our approach combines nanoliter sampling from the yolk using a microneedle, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. To date, no single physicochemical property has been identified to accurately predict compound uptake; our method offers a great possibility to monitor how any novel compound behaves within the system. We have correlated the uptake data with high-throughput drug-screening data from Mycobacterium marinum-infected zebrafish larvae. As a result, we present an improved zebrafish larva drug-screening platform which offers new insights into drug efficacy and identifies potential false negatives and drugs that are effective in zebrafish and rodents. We demonstrate that this improved zebrafish drug-screening platform can complement conventional models of in vivo Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected rodent assays. The detailed comparison of two vertebrate systems, fish and rodent, may give more predictive value for efficacy of drugs in humans. PMID:25385118

  3. Superstition and self-efficacy in Chinese postgraduate students.

    PubMed

    Sachs, John

    2004-10-01

    43 Chinese postgraduate education students (16 men and 27 women), whose mean age was 33.5 yr., completed a questionnaire measuring superstitious beliefs (Superstitious Beliefs Scale) and self-efficacy (General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale). Higher scores on belief in superstition were associated with lower rated self-efficacy. While not significant, the observed correlation of -.28 between superstitious belief and self-efficacy was of a similar magnitude and in the same direction as that previously reported for western students. Such cross-cultural validation is consistent with the generality of this relationship. Suggestions for further research are made. PMID:15587212

  4. Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M

    2011-03-01

    Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated with enhanced sense of employee capacity for creative work. Contrary to what was expected, employees who experienced increased requirements for creativity in their jobs actually reported a decreased sense of efficaciousness for creative work. Results show that increases in creative self-efficacy corresponded with increases in creative performance as well. PMID:20954756

  5. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  6. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

  7. Self-Identifying Emergency Radio Beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton L.

    1987-01-01

    Rescue teams aided by knowledge of vehicle in distress. Similar to conventional emergency transmitters except contains additional timing and modulating circuits. Additions to standard emergency transmitter enable transmitter to send rescuers identifying signal in addition to conventional distress signal created by sweep generator. Data generator contains identifying code.

  8. Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their

  9. Identifying, Measuring, and Teaching Helping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Lawrence

    Addressed is the need in social work education to identify the skills required for effective practice, to develop instruments to measure these skills, and to design an approach to teach them effectively. In the first chapter, "Identifying the Worker Helping Skills," 27 communication, relationship, and problem-solving skills are described. The

  10. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying...

  11. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying...

  12. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying...

  13. 29 CFR 4010.7 - Identifying information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Identifying information. 4010.7 Section 4010.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION CERTAIN REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.7 Identifying...

  14. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  15. Identifying Cognitively Gifted Ethnic Minority Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia Strong; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study administered a cognitive battery of 9 tasks to 400 regular kindergarten children and 31 children identified as gifted. The upper 2% of the regular sample outperformed 81% of the gifted sample, with minority group students achieving most of the top scores. Results support the use of such batteries in identifying previously unidentified…

  16. What are the most effective techniques in changing obese individuals’ physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Increasing self-efficacy is generally considered to be an important mediator of the effects of physical activity interventions. A previous review identified which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) were associated with increases in self-efficacy and physical activity for healthy non-obese adults. The aim of the current review was to identify which BCTs increase the self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour of obese adults. A systematic search identified 61 comparisons with obese adults reporting changes in self-efficacy towards engaging in physical activity following interventions. Of those comparisons, 42 also reported changes in physical activity behaviour. All intervention descriptions were coded using Michie et al’s (2011) 40 item CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. Meta-analysis was conducted with moderator analyses to examine the association between whether or not each BCT was included in interventions, and size of changes in both self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour. Overall, a small effect of the interventions was found on self-efficacy (d = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16-0.29, p < 0.001) and a medium sized effect on physical activity behaviour (d = 0.50, 95% CI 0.38-0.63, p < 0.001). Four BCTs were significantly associated with positive changes in self-efficacy; ‘action planning’, ‘time management’, ‘prompt self-monitoring of behavioural outcome’ and ‘plan social support/social change’. These latter two BCTs were also associated with positive changes in physical activity. An additional 19 BCTs were associated with positive changes in physical activity. The largest effects for physical activity were found where interventions contained ‘teach to use prompts/cues’, ‘prompt practice’ or ‘prompt rewards contingent on effort or progress towards behaviour’. Overall, a non-significant relationship was found between change in self-efficacy and change in physical activity (Spearman’s Rho = −0.18 p = 0.72). In summary, the majority of techniques increased physical activity behaviour, without having discernible effects on self-efficacy. Only two BCTs were associated with positive changes in both physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour. This is in contrast to the earlier review which found a strong relationship between changes in physical activity self-efficacy and behaviour. Mechanisms other than self-efficacy may be more important for increasing the physical activity of obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals. PMID:23452345

  17. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the tool for these use cases and more.

  18. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF INTRACANAL MEDICAMENTS ON BACTERIAL BIOFILM: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow; Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss critically the antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments on bacterial biofilm. Longitudinal studies were evaluated by a systematic review of English-language articles retrieved from electronic biomedical journal databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL) and handsearching records, using different matches of keywords for root canal biofilm, between 1966 and August 1st, 2007. The selected articles were identified from titles, abstracts and full-text articles by two independent reviewers, considering the tabulated inclusion and exclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. The search retrieved 91 related articles, of which 8.8% referred to in vivo studies demonstrating the lack of efficacy of endodontic therapy on bacterial biofilm. Intracanal medicaments were found to have a limited action against bacterial biofilm. PMID:19148398

  19. One-session treatment of specific phobias: a detailed description and review of treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zlomke, Kimberly; Davis, Thompson E

    2008-09-01

    One-Session Treatment (OST) is a form of massed exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. OST combines exposure, participant modeling, cognitive challenges, and reinforcement in a single session, maximized to three hours. Clients are gradually exposed to steps of their fear hierarchy using therapist-directed behavioral experiments. Although there are several studies in the literature examining the efficacy of OST, little has been done to summarize this research. In the following review, research on and empirical support for OST are reviewed with an emphasis on the types of stimuli, samples, and methodologies utilized. Research generally supports OST's efficacy, although replication by independent examiners using adult and child samples is needed using more rigorous comparisons (e.g., psychological placebo or other treatments). Overall, OST continues to be a promising treatment for specific phobias; however, a great deal more investigation is needed to identify mechanisms of change, mediators, and moderators. PMID:18721635

  20. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E; Pittler, M H

    2000-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is often advocated as beneficial for nausea and vomiting. Whether the herb is truly efficacious for this condition is, however, still a matter of debate. We have performed a systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials for or against the efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting. Six studies met all inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Three on postoperative nausea and vomiting were identified and two of these suggested that ginger was superior to placebo and equally effective as metoclopramide. The pooled absolute risk reduction for the incidence of postoperative nausea, however, indicated a non-significant difference between the ginger and placebo groups for ginger 1 g taken before operation (absolute risk reduction 0.052 (95% confidence interval -0.082 to 0.186)). One study was found for each of the following conditions: seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy-induced nausea. These studies collectively favoured ginger over placebo. PMID:10793599

  1. Retrospective survey to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Japanese botulinum antitoxin therapy in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mottate, Keita; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Mori, Shigemi; Horita, Akira; Miyatsu, Yoshinobu; Torii, Yasushi; Kozaki, Shunji; Iwaki, Masaaki; Takahashi, Motohide; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    Japanese botulinum antitoxins have been used for more than 50 years; however, their safety and therapeutic efficacy are not clear. In order to analyze the available data on botulinum antitoxin therapy in Japan, we surveyed published reports about botulism cases in which botulinum antitoxins were used, and retrospectively analyzed the safety and efficacy of the therapy. A total of 134 patients administered botulinum antitoxins were identified from published reports. Two cases of side effects (1.5%) were detected after antitoxin administration, both not fatal. The fatality rate was 9.4%, and more than 70% of the patients showed improvement in their symptoms and better clinical conditions than those not treated with antitoxins. These data suggest that the therapy with Japanese antitoxins is safe and highly effective. PMID:26615088

  2. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L; Riesch, Susan K

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem-solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem-Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem-Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed. PMID:26936844

  3. Rational Combination of Immunotherapies with Clinical Efficacy in Mice with Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bransi, Ali; Salgado, Oscar Camilo; Beffinger, Michal; Milo, Karim; Silina, Karina; Yagita, Hideo; Becher, Burkhard; Knuth, Alexander; van den Broek, Maries

    2015-11-01

    In the context of cancer, naïve T cells are insufficiently primed and become progressively dysfunctional. Boosting antitumor responses by blocking PD-1 or CTLA-4 results in durable clinical responses only in a limited proportion of cancer patients, suggesting that other pathways must be targeted to improve clinical efficacy. Our preclinical study in TRAMP mice comparing 14 different immune interventions identified anti-CD40 + IL2/anti-IL2 complexes + IL12Fc as a uniquely efficacious treatment that prevents tolerance induction, promotes priming of sustained, protective tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells, and cures late-stage cancer when given together with adoptively transferred tumor-specific T cells. We propose that improving signals 2 (costimulation) and 3 (cytokines) together with fresh tumor-specific, rather than boosting of dysfunctional preexisting memory, T cells represents a potent therapy for advanced cancer. PMID:26141620

  4. [Clinical efficacy of the biospecific hemosorbent "Liposorb"].

    PubMed

    Vvedenskiĭ, D V; Kirkovskiĭ, V P; Gapanovich, V N; Starostin, A V; Makarevich, D A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate clinical efficacy of the biospecific hemosorbent "Liposorb". The main component of "Liposorb" is polyacrylamide gel containing an immobilized affine ligand (antibiotic polymyxin E-colistyne). 40 patients with abdominal sepsis and peritonitis of different genesis underwent a total of 52 seances of vein-venous extracorporeal hemoperfusion of hemosorbent "Liposorb". Endotoxin level (lipopolysaccharide - LPS) was measured by the turbodimetric method. Blood perfusion through a "Liposorb" column at 50-70 ml/min during 90 minutes permitted to reach stabilization of parameters of systemic hemodynamics. All the patients showed positive dynamics of general well-being, blood gas composition, clinical and biochemical blood analyses. The endotoxin (LPS) level of Gramm-negative flora significantly decreased. It is concluded that hemosorbtion using biospecific polymyxin-containing hemosorbent "Liposorb" effectively removes Gramm-negative endotoxin and leads to stabilization of hemodynamic in patients with Gramm-negative abdominal sepsis. PMID:20000104

  5. Condom use: a self-efficacy model.

    PubMed

    Wulfert, E; Wan, C K

    1993-09-01

    A survey of heterosexually active college students gathered information about condom use, self-efficacy (SE), outcome expectancies, sexual attitudes, peer group influences, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and perceived vulnerability to AIDS. On the basis of A. Bandura's (1986) social-cognitive theory, a structural model with SE as the central mediator was formulated and evaluated with LISREL. This model explained 46% of the variance in condom use from judgments of SE and effects attributable to peers and 53% of the variance in SE from outcome expectancies and peer group influences. Sexual attitudes, AIDS knowledge, and perceived vulnerability did not predict condom use. Most students were well-informed about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but reported not feeling at risk, even though many engaged in risky sexual behavior. PMID:8223358

  6. Antihypertensive efficacy of propranolol given twice daily.

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, S M; Hamet, P; Kaplan, H; Larochelle, P; Nadeau, J; Ogilvie, R I; Rangno, R E; Ruedy, J; Sellers, E M; Ti, T Y

    1979-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of propranolol in four and two daily doses was compared in 63 treated hypertensive patients in a multicentre trial. After 3 months of a stable diastolic blood pressure while receiving propranolol four times a day the patients were switched to a twice-a-day regimen, the drug being given at 8 am and 8 pm, with the same total daily dose, for 3 more months. Blood pressures and heart rates were measured at 8 am, 12 noon, 4 pm and 8 pm at 4-week intervals. There were no significant changes in mean blood pressure after the change to the twice-a-day regimen, although some patients reported new side effects. Compliance appeared to be unaffected. PMID:391380

  7. Boosting vaccine efficacy the natural (killer) way.

    PubMed

    Rydyznski, Carolyn E; Waggoner, Stephen N

    2015-09-01

    Coordination of the innate and adaptive immune systems is paramount to the development of protective humoral and cellular immunity following vaccination. Natural killer (NK) cells are front-line soldiers of the innate immune system, and recent studies have revealed functions for NK cells in long-lived immune memory and the regulation of adaptive immune responses. These findings suggest that NK cells may play important roles in the development of efficacious vaccines, as well as, in some contexts, failed immunizations. Here, we review the current understanding of the immunomodulatory and memory differentiation capabilities of NK cells. We examine the context dependency of the mechanisms and the nature of NK cell-mediated modulation of the immune response, and discuss how these insights may impact immunization strategies and the development of next-generation vaccines. PMID:26272882

  8. Therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in dementia.

    PubMed

    Fischhof, P K; Möslinger-Gehmayr, R; Herrmann, W M; Friedmann, A; Russmann, D L

    1996-01-01

    This trial was performed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in the treatment of primary degenerative and vascular dementia. 152 male and female patients aged between 50 and 85 years from two psychogeriatric centers and two nursing homes were initially included in the trial and screened for eligibility. 142 patients completed the trial. Clinical diagnosis was established according to DSM-III-R criteria. Allocation of the patients to the primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) group or the multi-infarct dementia (MID) group was based on computed tomography scans, electroencephalographic findings and the Hachinski Ischemic Score. In a 12-week double-blind treatment either 30 mg vincamine or placebo was given twice daily. Confirmatory statistics included item 2 of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the total score of the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric (SCAG) scale, the subscale 'need for help' of the nurse's rating of geriatric patients (Beurteilungsskala für geriatrische Patienten; BGP) and the total score of the Short Cognitive Performance Test (Syndrom-Kurztest; SKT). In addition, data on tolerance and on therapy response were evaluated based on descriptive statistics. The therapeutic efficacy of vincamine was clearly demonstrated by confirmatory analysis as the drug was statistically significantly superior to placebo in all four target variables. The clinical relevance of the outcome was further underlined by the results of the responder analysis of the variables SCAG, BGP and SKT. Based on the results of this trial, it can be accepted that the therapeutic effect of vincamine is superior to placebo in patients with mild to moderate dementia of degenerative and vascular etiologies. PMID:8884757

  9. Antivenom efficacy or effectiveness: the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2010-02-01

    Despite widespread use of antivenoms, many questions remain about their effectiveness in the clinical setting. The almost universal acceptance of their value is based mainly on in vitro studies, animal studies and human observational studies. Numerous examples exist where they demonstrate clear benefit, such as consumption coagulopathy in viper envenoming, prevention of neurotoxicity in Australasian elapid bites, systemic effects in scorpion and funnel-web spider envenoming. There are also concerns about the quality and efficacy of some antivenoms. However, it is important not to confuse the efficacy of antivenom, defined as its ability to bind and neutralise venom-mediated effects under ideal conditions, and the effectiveness of antivenom, defined as its ability to reverse or prevent envenoming in human cases. There are numerous potential reasons for antivenom failure in human envenoming, of which antivenom inefficacy is only one. Other important reasons include venom-mediated effects being irreversible, antivenom being unable to reach the site of toxin-mediated injury, or the rapidity of onset of venom-mediated effects. A number of recent studies in Australia bring into question the effectiveness of some antivenoms, including snake antivenom for coagulopathy, redback spider and box jellyfish antivenoms. Despite brown snake antivenom being able to neutralise venom induced clotting in vitro, use of the antivenom in human envenoming does not appear to change the time course of coagulopathy. However, it is important that apparent antivenom ineffectiveness in specific cases is correctly interpreted and does not lead to a universal belief that antivenom is ineffective. It should rather encourage further studies to investigate the underlying pathophysiology of envenoming, the pharmacokinetics of venoms and antivenoms, and ultimately the effectiveness of antivenom based on snake type, clinical effects and timing of administration. PMID:19782716

  10. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment. PMID:25082395

  11. Identifying suspects by matching hand photographs with video evidence.

    PubMed

    Busch, Johannes; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Reports by minors of sexual relations against their will are not rare, and in some cases pornographic photography is a part of the abuse. Such material can be used to help identify the perpetrator. In this study we examined the efficacy of visual comparison between two databases. One consisted of blinded still images of the back of the right hand of 51 males from video recordings, the other of blinded high quality camera images of the back of the right hand from the same 51 individuals. The images were compared in pairs (2601 combinations) and a judgment was made about whether they were a highly likely, possible or unlikely match, using several anatomical features as markers for comparison. Using this method all 51 high quality images were correctly matched with the video image from the same person, though in some cases there was up to 5 other samples that could not be excluded as possible matches. In total there were no false positive "highly possible" matches, but there were 50 false positive "possible" matches. Visual comparison of the back of the hand is a valuable addition to the burden of evidence in a judicial setting, but should not be used as a standalone method to establish proof of identity. The applicability of the method is dependent on the existence of a database of images; the degree of certainty of the identification is directly correlated to the size of the database. PMID:26499953

  12. A Plume Tracing, Source Identifying Technique for Mars Rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banfield, Don; Lamb, Brian; Hovde, Chris; Ferrara, Tom

    2015-11-01

    We have developed and field-tested a technique to identify and characterize the source of an effluent plume (biogenic or otherwise) on Mars, using a slow-moving vehicle like a Mars Rover. The technique is based on terrestrial plume characterization methods (EPA Method 33a), and uses puff models of variable complexity to predict the plume behavior for a given source. The technique is developed assuming that a Mars Rover would be equipped with a high-performance eddy-sensing 3-D anemometer (e.g., a Martian Sonic Anemometer), as well as a fast-response tracer molecule-specific sensor (e.g., a TLS methane sensor). The platform is assumed to move only once a day, but have the ability to observe throughout the day and night. Data obtained from any one sol while the effluent plume meanders across the rover can be used to estimate the azimuth, range and strength of the source, but combining observations from multiple sols and locations is used to improve the estimate of the souce location and strength.We have conducted preliminary field tests using a Sonic Anemometer (Gill and Campbell) and fast-response methane sensors (LICOR and Picarro) on mobile platforms using both controlled and existing methane releases to prove our algorithm in simple terrain, and with varying atmospheric stability. We will discuss our results and the efficacy of our algorithm in real world conditions.

  13. Identifying potential programs and platforms to deliver multiple micronutrient interventions.

    PubMed

    Olney, Deanna K; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the potential of four broad types of platforms, health, agriculture, market-based, and social protection programs, to deliver multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions (supplementation, fortification, and dietary modification). We assessed the platforms' potential based on seven performance criteria related to programs within these platforms: 1) targeting, 2) efficacy of interventions, 3) quality of implementation, 4) utilization, 5) impact, 6) coverage, and 7) sustainability. We highlight one type of program per platform to illustrate strengths and weaknesses for delivering MMN interventions, identify critical knowledge gaps, and highlight what is needed to increase effectiveness for delivering MMN interventions. We found that all four platforms have the potential to effectively deliver MMN interventions if the following key program elements are addressed: 1) strong behavior change communication strategies to increase demand and proper utilization of services/products; 2) supply side interventions to ensure consistent availability of high quality interventions, products, and well-trained staff; 3) rigorous evaluations of effectiveness, quality of delivery, and impact pathways to generate best practices for replication and scale-up; and 4) timely dissemination of evaluation results to ensure use by program implementers and policy makers. The diversification of delivery platforms, which simultaneously addresses multiple determinants of MMN deficiencies and expands coverage, is needed to accelerate progress in reducing MMN deficiencies. PMID:22131548

  14. Newer Approaches to Identify Potential Untoward Effects in Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Marone, Palma Ann; Birkenbach, Victoria L; Hayes, A Wallace

    2016-03-01

    Globalization has greatly accelerated the numbers and variety of food and beverage products available worldwide. The exchange among greater numbers of countries, manufacturers, and products in the United States and worldwide has necessitated enhanced quality measures for nutritional products for larger populations increasingly reliant on functionality. These functional foods, those that provide benefit beyond basic nutrition, are increasingly being used for their potential to alleviate food insufficiency while enhancing quality and longevity of life. In the United States alone, a steady import increase of greater than 15% per year or 24 million shipments, over 70% products of which are food related, is regulated under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This unparalleled growth has resulted in the need for faster, cheaper, and better safety and efficacy screening methods in the form of harmonized guidelines and recommendations for product standardization. In an effort to meet this need, the in vitro toxicology testing market has similarly grown with an anticipatory 15% increase between 2010 and 2015 of US$1.3 to US$2.7 billion. Although traditionally occupying a small fraction of the market behind pharmaceuticals and cosmetic/household products, the scope of functional food testing, including additives/supplements, ingredients, residues, contact/processing, and contaminants, is potentially expansive. Similarly, as functional food testing has progressed, so has the need to identify potential adverse factors that threaten the safety and quality of these products. PMID:26657815

  15. The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Mary E.

    Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p <.001. An analysis of covariance using the pretest as the covariate yielded an F value of 6.41 which was statistically significant at p <.001. These quantitative results were supported by interviews and by written comments on questionnaires that determined ratings for the extent of impact on self-efficacy from site based experiences. Results of this study indicate that the experiences of the site based program has a significant positive impact on the preservice teachers' self-efficacy. The implication for teacher educators is that this specific affective dimension can be significantly enhanced. The site based program can provide the four factors Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

  16. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Atemnkeng, Magnus A; De Cock, Katelijne; Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. Method UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET) following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Results Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP), propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP), benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml), Alaxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andGvither ® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam® (artemether 180 mg/60 ml) while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andArtexin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) respectively. Cotecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6) of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam® and Gvither® met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. Conclusion These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both the active ingredient and the preservative, including the efficacy of the latter. PMID:17257400

  17. The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

    2011-01-01

    This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,

  18. The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

    2011-01-01

    This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

  19. Cognitive Attributes, Attention, and Self-Efficacy of Adequate and Inadequate Responders in a Fourth Grade Reading Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsoo; Roberts, Garrett J.; Capin, Philip; Roberts, Greg; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    We examined cognitive attributes, attention, and self-efficacy of fourth grade struggling readers who were identified as adequate responders (n = 27), inadequate responders with comprehension only deficits (n = 46), and inadequate responders with comprehension and word reading deficits (n = 52) after receiving a multicomponent reading intervention. We also included typical readers (n = 40). These four groups were compared on measures of nonverbal reasoning, working memory, verbal knowledge, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, and rapid naming as well as on teacher ratings of attention problems and self-reported self-efficacy. The two inadequate responder groups demonstrated difficulties primarily with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension compared to typical readers and adequate responders. Phonological awareness and rapid naming differentiated the two inadequate responder groups. In addition, both inadequate responder groups showed more attention problems and low self-efficacy compared to typical readers. PMID:26997755

  20. Activities of Murine Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Provide Immune Correlates That Predict Francisella tularensis Vaccine Efficacy.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Roberto; Mittereder, Lara; Kennett, Nikki J; Elkins, Karen L

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified potential correlates of vaccine-induced protection againstFrancisella tularensisusing murine splenocytes and further demonstrated that the relative levels of gene expression varied significantly between tissues. In contrast to splenocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) represent a means to bridge vaccine efficacy in animal models to that in humans. Here we take advantage of this easily accessible source of immune cells to investigate cell-mediated immune responses against tularemia, whose sporadic incidence makes clinical trials of vaccines difficult. Using PBLs from mice vaccinated withF. tularensisLive Vaccine Strain (LVS) and related attenuated strains, we combined the control ofin vitroFrancisellareplication within macrophages with gene expression analyses. Thein vitrofunctions of PBLs, particularly the control of intramacrophage LVS replication, reflected the hierarchy ofin vivoprotection conferred by LVS-derived vaccines. Moreover, several genes previously identified by the evaluation of splenocytes were also found to be differentially expressed in immune PBLs. In addition, more extensive screening identified additional potential correlates of protection. Finally, expression of selected genes in mouse PBLs obtained shortly after vaccination, withoutex vivorestimulation, was different among vaccine groups, suggesting a potential tool to monitor efficacious vaccine-induced immune responses againstF. tularensis Our studies demonstrate that murine PBLs can be used productively to identify potential correlates of protection againstF. tularensisand to expand and refine a comprehensive set of protective correlates. PMID:26810039

  1. Association between self-efficacy, career interest and rural career intent in Australian medical students with rural clinical school experience

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Vivian; Walters, Lucie; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate medical student's self-efficacy at the time of finishing their rural clinical school (RCS) placement and factors associated with self-efficacy. Secondary aims are to explore whether interest levels or self-efficacy are associated with rural or remote career intentions. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of medical students who had completed their RCS term in 17 Australian universities. Data were derived from the 2013 Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators (FRAME) evaluation survey. Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia. All 732 students who completed their RCS term in 2013 were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures Rural self-efficacy: Six questions to measure self-efficacy beliefs in rural medical practice, based on the sources of self-efficacy described by Bandura. Rural career intention: Students were asked to identify their preferred location for future practice. The options were, Capital or Major City; Inner regional city or large town; Smaller town and very remote area. Results Questionnaire responses were analysed from 653 medical students from regional Australia (response rate 89.2%). 83.8% of all students recalled an increase in their interest levels for rural medicine as a result of their RCS experience. Actual career intention to work in a regional area or rural area was 60.2%. Bivariate analyses showed female gender (p=0.003), rural background (p<0.001), an RCS preference for clinical training (p<0.001) and general practice intentions (p=0.004) were factors associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Logistic regression analyses showed that self-efficacy was independently associated with increased interest in rural medicine (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5)) and rural career intent (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.3)). (Model included gender, rural background, preference for RCS, generalist intent, rural practice interest and self-efficacy). Conclusions Self-efficacy is associated with increased interest levels for rural medicine and rural medical career intent. PMID:26671960

  2. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuebo; Shi, Xian; Tang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is one of the important parts of therapeutic methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and has been widely used for the treatment of nerve deafness in recent years. The current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness compared with conventional medicine therapy. Methods: PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy and side effects between acupuncture and conventional medicine therapies up to 2013/06. Results: A total of 12 studies, including 527 patients assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness. Overall, the efficacy of acupuncture was significantly better than that of the conventional western medication (RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) or traditional Chinese medicines (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.84), and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with conventional western medication or traditional Chinese medicine was better than that of the conventional western medication alone (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.29-1.77) or traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.95). Based on the comparison of number of deafness patients who were completely cured, the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with traditional Chinese medicines was better than that of traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 4.62, 95% CI: 1.38-15.47). Conclusions: Acupuncture therapy can significantly improve the hearing of patients with nerve deafness, and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with medication is superior to medication alone. PMID:25932209

  3. Fear of Movement and Low Self-Efficacy Are Important Barriers in Physical Activity after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Klaassen, Gerald; Schutte, Elise; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and exercise are commonly used as preventive measures for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and could be effective in the management of post-transplantation cardiovascular risk. PA levels are low after renal transplantation and very few renal transplant recipients (RTR) meet the PA guidelines. Identification of barriers to regular PA is important to identify targets for intervention to improve PA levels after renal transplantation. We investigated fear of movement and physical self-efficacy as barriers to PA in RTR. Methods RTR were investigated between 2001–2003. The Tampa Score of Kinesiophobia–Dutch Version (TSK-11) was used to assess fear of movement. Physical self-efficacy was measured with the LIVAS-scale. PA was assessed using validated questionnaires (Tecumseh Occupational Activity Questionnaire and the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire). Results A total of 487 RTR (age 51±12 years, 55% men) were studied. Median score [interquartile range] on TSK-11 was 22 [17–26]. Low physical self-efficacy (Exp B:0.41[0.31–0.54], p<0.001) and history of myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident (Exp B:1.30[1.03–1.63],p = 0.03) were independent determinants for fear of movement. Fear of movement was associated with lower daily PA, occupational, sports and leisure time PA. Mediation-analysis showed that a large part (73%) of the effect of fear of movement on PA was explained by low physical self-efficacy. Conclusions This study was the first to examine fear of movement and self-efficacy in relation to PA in RTR. Fear of movement was associated with a low PA level, and the larger part of this relation was mediated by low physical self-efficacy. Both fear of movement and physical self-efficacy level are important targets for intervention during rehabilitation after renal transplantation. PMID:26844883

  4. Discrimination of SM-identified individuals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The belief that sadomasochism (SM) is violence or abusive behavior has resulted in harassment, physical attacks, and discrimination against SM-identified individuals. Historically, they were often opposed by self-identified feminists. One reason the women who practiced SM were targeted was the official opposition to sadomasochistic practices promulgated by the National Organization for Women (NOW). Current statistics of incidents of discrimination, harassment and physical attacks against SM-identified individuals and SM groups are compiled by the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom (NCSF). PMID:16803765

  5. Current treatment for anorexia nervosa: efficacy, safety, and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K

    2010-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, psychosocial impairment, increased risk of death, and chronicity. Given the severity of the disorder, the establishment of safe and effective treatments is necessary. Several treatments have been tried in AN, but few favorable results have emerged. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials in AN, and provides a synthesis of existing data regarding the efficacy, safety, and adherence associated with pharmacologic and psychological interventions. Randomized controlled trials for the treatment of AN published in peer-reviewed journals were identified by electronic and manual searches. Overall, pharmacotherapy has limited benefits in the treatment of AN, with some promising preliminary findings associated with olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent. No single psychological intervention has demonstrated clear superiority in treating adults with AN. In adolescents with AN, the evidence base is strongest for the use of family therapy over alternative individual psychotherapies. Results highlight challenges in both treating individuals with AN and in studying the effects of those treatments, and further emphasize the importance of continued efforts to develop novel interventions. Treatment trials currently underway and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22110333

  6. Evaluating the potential efficacy of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) removals.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Andrew B; Allen, Micheal S; Allen, Michael S; Frazer, Thomas K; Sherman, Krista D

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (L(vul)), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  7. Evaluating the Potential Efficacy of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) Removals

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Andrew B.; Allen, Michael S.; Frazer, Thomas K.; Sherman, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (Lvul), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Mudpack Therapy in Treating Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jie; Wu, Dongying; Li, Jian’an

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of mudpack therapy for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and identify the likely factors associated with the high heterogeneity of combined studies. Design The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials in which mudpack therapy was used to treat knee osteoarthritis. Results Ten publications that reported the results from a total of 1010 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of improvement in joint function at the final follow-up visit suggested, given that the follow-up time was less than 4 mos, that the combined effect size of four studies was −0.30 (−0.62 to 0.02) and the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. When the follow-up time reached 4 mos, the combined effect size was −1.10 (−2.07 to −0.14) and the difference was significant. The I2 values of the two groups were 21.4% and 93.8%. Conclusion Functional improvement of the knee joint in patients treated with mudpack therapy was not significantly different from that of control subjects at the end of the 4-mo follow-up. The quality of current publications was a factor causing heterogeneity. PMID:26203645

  9. The Efficacy of the Cycles Approach: A Multiple Baseline Design

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Wendt, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach as an intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine intervention effects. Three children (ages 4;3 to 5;3) with moderate-severe to severe SSDs participated in two cycles of therapy. Three phonological patterns were targeted for each child. Generalization probes were administered during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance of learned skills. Two of the three participants exhibited statistically and clinically significant gains by the end of the intervention phase and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The third participant exhibited significant gains at follow-up. Phonologically known target patterns showed greater generalization than unknown target patterns across all phases. Individual differences in performance were examined at the participant level and the target pattern level. Learner Outcomes The reader will be able to: (1) enumerate the three major components of the cycles approach, (2) describe factors that should be considered when selecting treatment targets, and (3) identify variables that may affect a child’s outcome following cycles treatment PMID:24438911

  10. Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

    2001-07-27

    Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

  11. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  12. A Professional Development Program Evaluation: Teacher Efficacy, Learning, and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomonari, Dana Anne Miyuki

    2012-01-01

    Although professional development is an important means of improving both teachers' skills and student outcomes, there is a dearth of high quality empirical research on the efficacy of such efforts. The efficacy of the Challenging Behavior Process was assessed using a mixed method approach which included the use of pre-, post-, and follow-up…

  13. Exploring First-Year Science Students' Chemistry Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalgety, Jacinta; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    First-year chemistry classes typically comprise of a mixture of majors and non-majors. Reports in the literature suggest that students have lower self-efficacy for subjects outside their intending major. Here we report on research that examines changes in chemistry students' chemistry self-efficacy throughout their first year of chemistry study at…

  14. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy…

  15. Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

  16. Music Teachers' Computer Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kili, Deniz Beste evik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer anxiety and self-efficacy of music teachers in terms of different variables. The research is implemented on 124 music teachers. A personal information form and scales of Computer Anxiety and Self Efficacy are implemented on 124 music teachers. Data are analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and

  17. Development and Exploratory Validation of an Organizational Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Although many instruments have been developed to measure organizational constructs such as citizenship, climate, and organization-based esteem, to date no scale has been designed specifically to measure efficacy at the organizational level. Tools to measure organizational efficacy in a business context have been recommended for over two decades.…

  18. Profiles of the Sources of Science Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jason A.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students' (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in…

  19. Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality…

  20. Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...