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1

Identifying events that impact self-efficacy in physics learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one’s own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of self-efficacy have required participants to recollect past events. This reliance on participant memory makes it difficult to understand what impact particular events may have on developing self-efficacy in the moment. We use video recordings of three undergraduate Modeling Instruction students solving a physics problem to characterize SEOs in a moment-by-moment analysis. We then validate these characterizations of the development of self-efficacy by reviewing the problem-solving session with the participants and find evidence that the SEOs identified are taken up and impact self-efficacy. This characterization and validation of SEOs in the moment represents a first step towards establishing a methodology for analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-12-01

2

Identifying Events that Impact Self-Efficacy in Physics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs). Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one's own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of…

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-01-01

3

The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal  

PubMed Central

Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as “migration load.” The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

2013-01-01

4

Does Smoking Abstinence Self-Efficacy Vary Across Situations? Identifying Context-Specificity Within the Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to self-efficacy and relapse theories, abstinence self-efficacy (ASE) ratings should be context-specific; they should vary across situations. This variability may be important, as it could signal high-risk for relapse situations. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify situational variability in a novel ASE assessment (Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire, or RSEQ). Results supported a hierarchical structure, where

Chad J. Gwaltney; Saul Shiffman; Gregory J. Norman; Jean A. Paty; Jon D. Kassel; Maryann Gnys; Mary Hickcox; Andrew Waters; Mark Balabanis

2001-01-01

5

Identifying Taiwanese University Students' Physics Learning Profiles and Their Role in Physics Learning Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purposes of this study were to identify Taiwanese university students' physics learning profiles in terms of their critical conceptions of learning physics and to compare their physics learning self-efficacy with the different learning profiles. A total of 250 Taiwanese undergraduates who were majoring in physics participated in this study and were invited to complete two instruments, physics learning profile and physics learning self-efficacy (PLSE). The main results indicated that, first, the two instruments developed in this study had satisfactory validity and reliability. Second, three fundamental physics learning profiles, the reproductive, transitional, and constructive profiles, were characterized based on the cluster analysis. It is also evident that the three learning profiles demonstrated different levels of self-efficacy for the five PLSE dimensions. The students with a reproductive profile tended to possess the lowest PLSE across the five dimensions. The students with a transitional profile may possess higher confidence in higher-order cognitive skills and laboratory activities than those with a reproductive profile. However, only those with a constructive profile, highlighting a comprehensive understanding of physics knowledge/concepts as well as de-emphasizing physics learning as preparing for tests and calculating and practising tutorial problems, possessed stronger PLSE in applying what they learned to real-world contexts as well as in scientifically communicating with others.

Lin, Tzung-Jin; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2014-09-01

6

Maximizing the Efficacy of SAGE Analysis Identifies Novel Transcripts in Arabidopsis1[w  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) to analyze the transcriptome of the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis was assessed. We describe an iterative tag-to-gene matching process that exploits the availability of the whole genome sequence of Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of 98% of the annotated Arabidopsis genes could theoretically be evaluated through SAGE and using an iterative matching process 79% could be identified by a tag found at a unique site in the genome. A total of 145,170 reliable experimental tags from two Arabidopsis leaf tissue SAGE libraries were analyzed, of which 29,632 were distinct. The majority (93%) of the 12,988 experimental tags observed greater than once could be matched within the Arabidopsis genome. However, only 78% were matched to a single locus within the genome, reflecting the complexities associated with working in a highly duplicated genome. In addition to a comprehensive assessment of gene expression in Arabidopsis leaf tissue, we describe evidence of transcription from pseudo-genes as well as evidence of alternative mRNA processing and anti-sense transcription. This collection of experimental SAGE tags could be exploited to assist in the on-going annotation of the Arabidopsis genome. PMID:15489285

Robinson, Stephen J.; Cram, Dustin J.; Lewis, Christopher T.; Parkin, Isobel A.P.

2004-01-01

7

Teacher- and school-level predictors of teacher efficacy and burnout: identifying potential areas for support.  

PubMed

Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and school-level factors on the development of both teacher efficacy and burnout. Data were collected 3 times across 2 academic years from 600 teachers at 31 elementary schools. The results indicated that both teacher efficacy and burnout increased over time. Teacher preparedness and perceptions of teacher affiliation and leadership were significantly associated with both the intercept and growth of teacher efficacy and burnout; however, school-level factors were generally unrelated to both outcomes. Implications for screenings and teacher-targeted interventions are discussed. PMID:22386082

Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Hershfeldt, Patricia A

2012-02-01

8

The tricks of the trait: neural implementation of personality varies with genotype-dependent serotonin levels.  

PubMed

Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has developed into one of the most prominent personality theories of the last decades. The RST postulates a Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) modulating the reaction to stimuli indicating aversive events. A number of psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosomatic illnesses have been associated with extreme BIS responsiveness. In recent years, neuroimaging studies have implicated the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as an important neural substrate of the BIS. However, the neurogenetic basis of the regulation of this behaviorally and clinically essential system remains unclear. Investigating the effects of two functional genetic polymorphisms (tryptophan hydroxylase-2, G-703T, and serotonin transporter, serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region) in 89 human participants, we find significantly different patterns of associations between BIS scores and amygdala-hippocampus connectivity during loss anticipation for genotype groups regarding both polymorphisms. Specifically, the correlation between amygdala-hippocampus connectivity and Gray's trait anxiety scores is positive in individuals homozygous for the TPH2 G-allele, while carriers of at least one T-allele show a negative association. Likewise, individuals homozygous for the 5-HTTLPR L(A) variant display a positive association while carriers of the S/L(G) allele show a trend towards a negative association. Thus, we show converging evidence of different neural implementation of the BIS depending on genotype-dependent levels of serotonin. We provide evidence suggesting that genotype-dependent serotonin levels and thus putative changes in the efficiency of serotonergic neurotransmission might not only alter brain activation levels directly, but also more fundamentally impact the neural implementation of personality traits. We outline the direct clinical implications arising from this finding and discuss the complex interplay of neural responses, genes and personality traits in this context. PMID:23684859

Hahn, Tim; Heinzel, Sebastian; Notebaert, Karolien; Dresler, Thomas; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Jakob, Peter M; Windmann, Sabine; Fallgatter, Andreas J

2013-11-01

9

Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

10

The genotype dependent presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as tertiary amine in Jacobaea vulgaris.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolites such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. PAs can occur in plants in two forms: tertiary amine (free base) and N-oxide. PA extraction and detection are of great importance for the understanding of the role of PAs as plant defense compounds, as the tertiary PA form is known for its stronger influence on several generalist insects, whereas the N-oxide form is claimed to be less deterrent. We measured PA N-oxides and their reduced tertiary amines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We show that the occurrence of tertiary PAs is not an artifact of the extraction and detection method. We found up to 50% of tertiary PAs in shoots of Jacobine - chemotype plants of Jacobaea vulgaris. Jacobine and its derivatives (jacoline, jaconine, jacozine and dehydrojaconine) may occur for more than 20% in reduced form in the shoots and more than 10% in the roots. For 22 PAs detected in F(2) hybrids (J. vulgaris × Jacobaea aquatica), we calculate the tertiary amine percentage (TA%=the tertiary amine concentration/(tertiary amine concentration+the corresponding N-oxide concentration) × 100). We found that the TA% for various PAs was genotype-dependent. Furthermore, TA% for the different PAs were correlated and the highest correlations occurred between PAs which share high structural similarity. PMID:21159354

Joosten, Lotte; Cheng, Dandan; Mulder, Patrick P J; Vrieling, Klaas; van Veen, Johannes A; Klinkhamer, Peter G L

2011-02-01

11

[Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].  

PubMed

The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change. PMID:18592707

Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

2007-01-01

12

Genotype-dependent efficiency of endosperm development in culture of selected cereals: histological and ultrastructural studies.  

PubMed

The paper reports studies, including histological and ultrastructural analyses, of in vitro cell proliferation and development of immature endosperm tissue isolated from caryopses of Triticum aestivum, Triticum durum, and Triticosecale plants. Endosperm isolated at 7-10 days post-anthesis developed well on MS medium supplemented with auxins and/or cytokinins. The efficiency of endosperm response was highly genotype-dependent and best in two winter cultivars of hexaploid species. The pathways of development and proliferation were very similar among the selected species and cultivars. Histological and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that only the part of the endosperm not touching the medium surface continued growth and development, resulting in swelling. The central part of swollen regions was composed mainly of cells containing many large starch grains. The peripheric parts of developed endosperm consisted of highly vacuolated cells and small cells with dense cytoplasm. SEM showed that cells from the swollen region were covered partially with a membraneous structure. Transmission electron microscope studies of cells from the outer part of the developing region showed features typical for cell activity connected with lipid metabolism. PMID:22643840

Popielarska-Konieczna, Marzena; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Ma?gorzata; Tuleja, Monika; ?lesak, Halina; Kapusta, Pawe?; Marci?ska, Izabela; Bohdanowicz, Jerzy

2013-02-01

13

Global RNA sequencing reveals that genotype-dependent allele-specific expression contributes to differential expression in rice F1 hybrids  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive studies on heterosis in plants using transcriptome analysis have identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in F1 hybrids. However, it is not clear why yield in heterozygotes is superior to that of the homozygous parents or how DEGs are produced. Global allele-specific expression analysis in hybrid rice has the potential to answer these questions. Results We report a genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology of 3,637–3,824 genes from three rice F1 hybrids. Of the expressed genes, 3.7% exhibited an unexpected type of monoallelic expression and 23.8% showed preferential allelic expression that was genotype-dependent in reciprocal crosses. Those genes exhibiting allele-specific expression comprised 42.4% of the genes differentially expressed between F1 hybrids and their parents. Allele-specific expression accounted for 79.8% of the genes displaying more than a 10-fold expression level difference between an F1 and its parents, and almost all (97.3%) of the genes expressed in F1, but non-expressed in one parent. Significant allelic complementary effects were detected in the F1 hybrids of rice. Conclusions Analysis of the allelic expression profiles of genes at the critical stage for highest biomass production from the leaves of three different rice F1 hybrids identified genotype-dependent allele-specific expression genes. A cis-regulatory mechanism was identified that contributes to allele-specific expression, leading to differential gene expression and allelic complementary effects in F1 hybrids. PMID:24358981

2013-01-01

14

The Efficacy of Wire and Glue Hair Snares in Identifying Mesocarnivores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Track plates and cameras are proven methods for detecting and identifying fishers (Martes pennanti) and other mesocarnivores. But these methods are inadequate to achieve demographic and population-monitoring objectives that require identifying sex and individuals. Although noninvasive collection of biological material for genetic analysis (i.e., hair-snaring methods) may help achieve these objectives, they have yet to be evaluated. We incorporated wire-

WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; FREDRICK V. SCHLEXER; KRISTINE L. PILGRIM; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

2006-01-01

15

Explorative study to identify novel candidate genes related to oxaliplatin efficacy and toxicity using a DNA repair array  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To identify new polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) in DNA repair pathways that are associated with efficacy and toxicity in patients receiving oxaliplatin and capecitabine for advanced colorectal cancer (ACC). Methods: We studied progression-free survival (PFS) in 91 ACC patients, of whom germ-line DNA was isolated and genotyped using an Asper Biotech array. Overall survival (OS) and toxicity were studied as secondary end points. A step-wise selection of SNPs was performed, involving univariate and multivariate log-rank tests and Cox regression analysis, with age and performance status as covariates. Results: A total of 81 SNPs in 46 genes on the array were selected for further analysis, based on genotyping success rates and minor allele frequencies. After step-wise selection, we found that homozygosity for the ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) rs1801516 or excision repair cross-complementing gene (ERCC5) rs1047768 SNPs was associated with shorter PFS; however there were no significant associations (P>0.01) with OS or toxicity. Discussion: This is the first study describing the pathway gene approach for the selection of new candidate genes involved in oxaliplatin efficacy and toxicity. The results suggest that the ATM and ERCC5 genes may be associated with oxaliplatin efficacy in ACC. PMID:19536092

Kweekel, D M; Antonini, N F; Nortier, J W R; Punt, C J A; Gelderblom, H; Guchelaar, H-J

2009-01-01

16

Efficacy of identifying stocked crappies in a Tennessee reservoir through oxytetracycline marking  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oxytetracycline (OTC) immersion was used to identify black-nosed crappies, a morphological variation of black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Normandy Reservoir, Tennessee, during fall 1997. The technique effectively marked 97% of the treated fish. Analysis of one otolith per fish by one reader successfully identified 98% of marked and unmarked fish in a blind test. Marks were formed before annulus formation and were not obscured by annulus-related autofluorescence, suggesting that OTC can be effectively used late in the year (October and November) in Tennessee.

Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.

1999-01-01

17

A chemical genetic screen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies carbon-source-dependent growth inhibitors devoid of in vivo efficacy  

PubMed Central

Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine–imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics. PMID:20975714

Pethe, Kevin; Sequeira, Patricia C.; Agarwalla, Sanjay; Rhee, Kyu; Kuhen, Kelli; Phong, Wai Yee; Patel, Viral; Beer, David; Walker, John R.; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Jiricek, Jan; Keller, Thomas H.; Chatterjee, Arnab; Tan, Mai Ping; Ujjini, Manjunatha; Rao, Srinivasa P.S.; Camacho, Luis; Bifani, Pablo; Mak, Puiying A.; Ma, Ida; Barnes, S. Whitney; Chen, Zhong; Plouffe, David; Thayalan, Pamela; Ng, Seow Hwee; Au, Melvin; Lee, Boon Heng; Tan, Bee Huat; Ravindran, Sindhu; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Lin, Xiuhua; Goh, Anne; Lakshminarayana, Suresh B.; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael; Kreiswirth, Barry; Dartois, Veronique; Peters, Eric C.; Glynne, Richard; Brenner, Sydney; Dick, Thomas

2010-01-01

18

Collective efficacy as identified by teachers at Heritage Middle School, East Central Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas  

E-print Network

efficacy were connected to school level. “In general, elementary teachers perceived higher collective efficacy and a more positive school culture for professional learning communities to develop than did middle and high school teachers” (Mawhinney et al... efficacy were connected to school level. “In general, elementary teachers perceived higher collective efficacy and a more positive school culture for professional learning communities to develop than did middle and high school teachers” (Mawhinney et al...

Naumann, Luisa Maria

2008-10-10

19

Genotype-dependent whole plant regeneration from protoplasts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts are useful for subcellular studies, in vitro selection, somatic hybridization and transformation. Whole plant regeneration from protoplasts is a prerequisite to producing altered crop plants using these methods. Whole plant regeneration was achieved from leaf- and suspension culture-derived protoplasts of T. pratense. Regeneration was most dependent upon identifying genotypes with genetic capacity to regenerate. Additional factors that were used

J. R. Myers; J. W. Grosser; N. L. Taylor; G. B. Collins

1989-01-01

20

An empirically derived description of self-efficacy and empowerment for parents of children identified as psychologically disordered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parents of clinic-referred preschool children are particularly vulnerable to less self-efficacious judgments of their ability to effectively parent their child. It is vital that these parents demonstrate empowerment through proactive involvement in treatment. Descriptions of parent self-efficacy and empowerment that could aid counseling agency facilitation of these qualities in parents are lacking. This study pursued an empirically derived description of

Michael J. Scheel; Traci Rieckmann

1998-01-01

21

Genotype-dependent response to carbon availability in growing tomato1 Short running title: Responses to carbon availability in tomato fruit3  

E-print Network

1 Genotype-dependent response to carbon availability in growing tomato1 fruit2 Short running title: Responses to carbon availability in tomato fruit3 4 Marion PRUDENT 1,2, *, Nadia BERTIN 1 , Michel GENARD 1 in "Plant Cell & Environment (2010) 33, 1186-1204" #12;2 Abstract1 Tomato fruit growth and composition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

2014-01-01

23

The efficacy of oral brush biopsy with computer-assisted analysis in identifying precancerous and cancerous lesions  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer of the oral cavity is the sixth most common malignancy reported worldwide and one with the highest mortality rate among all malignancies. There is a paucity of reliable diagnostic methods to detect early malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of brush biopsy in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Methods Oral brush and scalpel biopsies were performed on 85 consecutive patients presenting with an oral lesion deemed to be minimally suspicious by clinical examination and the results were compared. Results Of 79 patients with adequate brush biopsy samples with matching scalpel biopsies, 27 revealed histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma, 26 of which were independently identified with the oral brush biopsy (sensitivity: 96.3% - 95% CI, 87%-100%). 52 oral lesions did not reveal any histopathologic evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma and of these, brush biopsy reported 47 as "negative" and 5 as "atypical"(specificity of "positive" brush biopsy result is 100%- 95% CI, 93%-100%; specificity for "atypical" brush biopsy result is 90.4%- 95% CI, 82%-97%. The positive predictive value of an abnormal oral brush biopsy was 84% and the negative predictive value was 98%. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that the oral brush biopsy is an accurate test in identifying oral premalignant and malignant lesions, even if minimally suspicious. PMID:21864339

2011-01-01

24

A systematic review to identify challenges of demonstrating efficacy of HIV behavioral interventions for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM).  

PubMed

Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV but few MSM-specific evidence-based interventions (EBIs) have been identified for this vulnerable group. We conducted a systematic review to identify reasons for the small number of EBIs for MSM. We also compared study, intervention and sample characteristics of EBIs versus non-EBIs to better understand the challenges of demonstrating efficacy evidence. Thirty-three MSM-specific studies were evaluated: Nine (27 %) were considered EBIs while 24 (73 %) were non-EBIs. Non-EBIs had multiple methodological limitations; the most common was not finding a significant positive effect. Compared to EBIs, non-EBIs were less likely to use peer intervention deliverers, include sexual communication in their interventions, and intervene at the community level. Incorporating characteristics associated with EBIs may strengthen behavioral interventions for MSM. More EBIs are needed for substance-using MSM, MSM of color, MSM residing in the south and MSM in couples. PMID:23397183

Higa, Darrel H; Crepaz, Nicole; Marshall, Khiya J; Kay, Linda; Vosburgh, H Waverly; Spikes, Pilgrim; Lyles, Cynthia M; Purcell, David W

2013-05-01

25

Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

2013-01-01

26

Metastatic bone tumors: Analysis of factors affecting prognosis and efficacy of CT and 18F-FDG PET-CT in identifying primary lesions  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the prognostic factors in patients with metastatic bone tumors and evaluated the efficacy of different modalities in identifying the primary lesions. A total of 145 patients with bone metastases who attended the orthopaedic outpatient clinic were included in this study. The most frequent site of bone metastases was the spine. The primary tumor type was differently distributed between patients with a known primary tumor at the first visit and those with an unknown primary lesion. The number of breast cancer cases was statistically significantly lower in the primary-unknown group. However, the number of myeloma cases was significantly higher in the primary-unknown group. Survival was significantly lower in the skeletal-related events (SREs) compared to that in the non-SREs group. Furthermore, survival was significantly worse in patients with a performance status (PS) of ?2 compared to those with a PS of ?1 and neurological complications occurred statistically more often in the group with worse PS (?2). Survival rates were significantly lower in the non-spinal compared to those in the spinal metastatic group. Since the majority of breast cancer patients presented with metastasis in the spine, a breast cancer origin was a positive prognostic factor in patients with spinal metastases. Although there were no significant differences between computed tomography (CT) and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in detecting primary lesions, CT may be the first choice due to its feasibility. In conclusion, lung cancer, SREs and worse PS were adverse prognostic factors for patients with bone metastasis. In addition, CT scans may be more useful for determining the primary lesion of a bone metastasis compared to 18F-FDG PET-CT in a timelier manner. PMID:25054061

SHIMADA, HIROFUMI; SETOGUCHI, TAKAO; YOKOUCHI, MASAHIRO; SASAKI, HIROMI; ISHIDOU, YASUHIRO; KAWAMURA, ICHIRO; ABEMATSU, MASAHIKO; NAGANO, SATOSHI; KOMIYA, SETSURO

2014-01-01

27

Preparing an E-learning-based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy study: Identifying suitable outcome measures to detect within-subject changes of speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers.  

PubMed

Abstract We explored the suitability of perceptual and acoustic outcome measures to prepare E-learning based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy tests regarding speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers. Eight speakers with stroke (n?=?3), Parkinson's disease (n?=?4) and traumatic brain injury (n?=?1) participated in a 4 weeks EST trial. A repeated measures design was employed. Perceptual measures were (a) scale ratings for "ease of intelligibility" and "pleasantness" in continuous speech and (b) orthographic transcription scores of semantically unpredictable sentences. Acoustic measures were (c) "intensity during closure" (?IDC) in the occlusion phase of voiceless plosives, (d) changes in the vowel space of /a/, /e/ and /o/ and (e) the F0 variability in semantically unpredictable sentences. The only consistent finding concerned an increased (instead of the expected decreased) ?IDC after EST, possibly caused by increased speech intensity without articulatory adjustments. The importance of suitable perceptual and acoustic measures for efficacy research is discussed. PMID:25025268

Beijer, L J; Rietveld, A C M; Ruiter, M B; Geurts, A C H

2014-12-01

28

Efficacy of Leishmania donovani trypanothione reductase, identified as a potent Th1 stimulatory protein, for its immunogenicity and prophylactic potential against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.  

PubMed

In visceral leishmaniasis (VL), Th1-type of immune responses play an important role which correlates with recovery from and resistance to disease resulting in lifelong immunity. Based on this rationale, the soluble leishmanial antigens that elicit cellular responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured Leishmania patients were characterized through immunoproteomic approach which led to the identification of trypanothione reductase (TPR) (a cytosolic enzyme explored as a drug target), as one of the potent Th1 stimulatory protein. In this study, the immunogenicity of recombinant Leishmania donovani TPR (rLdTPR) was assessed in PBMCs of cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and further evaluated its prophylactic efficacy against L. donovani challenges in hamsters. Substantial proliferative responses to rLdTPR, as compared to soluble L. donovani antigen, were observed in Leishmania-infected cured patients as well as in hamsters. Moreover, rLdTPR reasonably stimulated PBMCs of cured Leishmania patients to produce IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? but not IL-4 or IL-10. On the other hand, the protein downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani antigen-induced IL-4 production in PBMCs of Leishmania patients. In case of cured hamsters, rLdTPR generates mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccination with rLdTPR along with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was able to provide considerably good prophylactic efficacy (~60%) against L. donovani challenge in hamsters. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFN?, IL-12, and TNF-? and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-?. Since rLdTPR protein is an important target, further attempts towards determination of immunodominant regions for designing fusion peptides may be taken up to optimize its prophylactic efficacy. PMID:24370734

Khare, Prashant; Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

2014-03-01

29

Construction of Syrian hamster lines congenic at the polymorphic acetyltransferase locus (NAT2): acetylator genotype-dependent N- and O-acetylation of arylamine carcinogens.  

PubMed

Congenic Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 Syrian hamster lines were constructed by introducing the NAT2r gene from MHA/SsLak inbred hamsters into a background BIO 1.5 Syrian inbred hamster line. Genetic identity of the Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic lines and nonidentity with the previously constructed Bio. 82.73/H-Pat congenic lines were determined by "DNA fingerprints" of genomic DNA derived from the different hamster lines. The N-acetylation capacity of the Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic hamster lines was clearly NAT2-dependent both in vivo and in vitro, with highest levels expressed in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2r homozygous rapid acetylators, intermediate levels in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2r/NAT2s heterozygous acetylators, and lowest levels in Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2s homozygous slow acetylators. The NAT2-dependent expression of N-acetyltransferase activity was evident toward p-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminophenol, 2-aminofluorene, 4-aminobiphenyl, beta-naphthylamine, and 3,2'-dimethyl-4-amino-biphenyl in liver, kidney, colon, lung, and urinary bladder cytosols. The polymorphic acetyltransferase (NAT2) and the monomorphic acetyltransferase (NAT1) were isolated from hepatic cytosols and tested separately for their ability to catalyze arylamine N-acetyltransferase and N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase activities. Both arylamine N-acetylation and N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetylation were clearly acetylator genotype-dependent when catalyzed by NAT2, and both were clearly acetylator genotype-independent when catalyzed by NAT1. NAT2/NAT1 activity ratios varied with the particular arylamine substrate acetylated. These studies show an important role for NAT2 acetylator genotype in Syrian hamster carcinogenic arylamine metabolism and confirm its role in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxyarylamines. The Bio. 1.5/H-NAT2 congenic lines provide a new model for investigating the precise role of the NAT2 gene locus in arylamine metabolism and toxicity. PMID:8291057

Hein, D W; Doll, M A; Rustan, T D; Gray, K; Ferguson, R J; Feng, Y

1994-01-01

30

Mice expressing T4826I-RYR1 are viable but exhibit sex- and genotype-dependent susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia and muscle damage  

PubMed Central

Mutation T4825I in the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1T4825I/+) confers human malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). We report a knock-in mouse line that expresses the isogenetic mutation T4826I. Heterozygous RYR1T4826I/+ (Het) or homozygous RYR1T4826I/T4826I (Hom) mice are fully viable under typical rearing conditions but exhibit genotype- and sex-dependent susceptibility to environmental conditions that trigger MH. Hom mice maintain higher core temperatures than WT in the home cage, have chronically elevated myoplasmic[Ca2+]rest, and present muscle damage in soleus with a strong sex bias. Mice subjected to heat stress in an enclosed 37°C chamber fail to trigger MH regardless of genotype, whereas heat stress at 41°C invariably triggers fulminant MH in Hom, but not Het, mice within 20 min. WT and Het female mice fail to maintain euthermic body temperature when placed atop a bed whose surface is 37°C during halothane anesthesia (1.75%) and have no hyperthermic response, whereas 100% Hom mice of either sex and 17% of the Het males develop fulminant MH. WT mice placed on a 41°C bed maintain body temperature while being administered halothane, and 40% of the Het females and 100% of the Het males develop fulminant MH within 40 min. Myopathic alterations in soleus were apparent by 12 mo, including abnormally distributed and enlarged mitochondria, deeply infolded sarcolemma, and frequent Z-line streaming regions, which were more severe in males. These data demonstrate that an MHS mutation within the S4-S5 cytoplasmic linker of RYR1 confers genotype- and sex-dependent susceptibility to pharmacological and environmental stressors that trigger fulminant MH and promote myopathy.—Yuen, B., Boncompagni, S., Feng, W., Yang, T., Lopez, J. R., Matthaei, K. I., Goth, S. R., Protasi, F., Franzini-Armstrong, C., Allen, P. D., Pessah, I. N. Mice expressing T4826I-RYR1 are viable but exhibit sex- and genotype-dependent susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia and muscle damage. PMID:22131268

Yuen, Benjamin; Boncompagni, Simona; Feng, Wei; Yang, Tianzhong; Lopez, Jose R.; Matthaei, Klaus I.; Goth, Samuel R.; Protasi, Feliciano; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Allen, Paul D.; Pessah, Isaac N.

2012-01-01

31

An assessment of the efficacy of searching in biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE in identifying studies for a systematic review on ward closures as an infection control intervention to control outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of our study is to determine the value and efficacy of searching biomedical databases beyond MEDLINE for systematic reviews. Methods We analyzed the results from a systematic review conducted by the authors and others on ward closure as an infection control practice. Ovid MEDLINE including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, CINAHL Plus, LILACS, and IndMED were systematically searched for articles of any study type discussing ward closure, as were bibliographies of selected articles and recent infection control conference abstracts. Search results were tracked, recorded, and analyzed using a relative recall method. The sensitivity of searching in each database was calculated. Results Two thousand ninety-five unique citations were identified and screened for inclusion in the systematic review: 2,060 from database searching and 35 from hand searching and other sources. Ninety-seven citations were included in the final review. MEDLINE and Embase searches each retrieved 80 of the 97 articles included, only 4 articles from each database were unique. The CINAHL search retrieved 35 included articles, and 4 were unique. The IndMED and LILACS searches did not retrieve any included articles, although 75 of the included articles were indexed in LILACS. The true value of using regional databases, particularly LILACS, may lie with the ability to search in the language spoken in the region. Eight articles were found only through hand searching. Conclusions Identifying studies for a systematic review where the research is observational is complex. The value each individual study contributes to the review cannot be accurately measured. Consequently, we could not determine the value of results found from searching beyond MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL with accuracy. However, hand searching for serendipitous retrieval remains an important aspect due to indexing and keyword challenges inherent in this literature. PMID:25387523

2014-01-01

32

[Efficacy studies].  

PubMed

Pravafenix(®) is a fixed-dose combination of 40mg of pravastatin and 160 mg of fenofibrate. The rationale behind the use of Pravafenix(®) is based on the increased residual cardiovascular risk observed in high risk patients with hypertriglyceridemia and/or low HDL cholesterol levels despite treatment with statins in monotherapy. In this article, we review the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of Pravafenix(®), which shows complementary benefits in the overall lipid profile of high risk patients with mixed dyslipidemia not controlled with 40-mg pravastatin or 20-mg simvastatin. PMID:25043542

Pedro-Botet, Juan; Flores-Le Roux, Juana A

2014-07-01

33

A multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus imipenem/cilastatin in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections [Study ID Numbers: 3074A1-301-WW; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00081744  

PubMed Central

Background Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remain challenging to treat because of their polymicrobial etiology including multi-drug resistant bacteria. The efficacy and safety of tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic, was compared with imipenem/cilastatin (IMI/CIS) in patients with cIAI. Methods A prospective, double-blind, multinational trial was conducted in which patients with cIAI randomly received intravenous (IV) tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg every 12 hours [q12h]) or IV IMI/CIS (500/500 mg q6h or adjusted for renal dysfunction) for 5 to14 days. Clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (14–35 days after therapy) for microbiologically evaluable (ME) and microbiological modified intent-to-treat (m-mITT) populations were the co-primary efficacy endpoint populations. Results A total of 825 patients received ? 1 dose of study drug. The primary diagnoses for the ME group were complicated appendicitis (59%), and intestinal (8.8%) and gastric/duodenal perforations (4.6%). For the ME group, clinical cure rates at TOC were 80.6% (199/247) for tigecycline versus 82.4% (210/255) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -8.4, 5.1 for non-inferiority tigecycline versus IMI/CIS). Corresponding clinical cure rates within the m-mITT population were 73.5% (227/309) for tigecycline versus 78.2% (244/312) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -11.0, 2.5). Nausea (31.0% tigecycline, 24.8% IMI/CIS [P = 0.052]), vomiting (25.7% tigecycline, 19.4% IMI/CIS [P = 0.037]), and diarrhea (21.3% tigecycline, 18.9% IMI/CIS [P = 0.435]) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that tigecycline is as efficacious as imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of patients with cIAI. PMID:16236177

Oliva, María E; Rekha, Arcot; Yellin, Albert; Pasternak, Jacyr; Campos, Maria; Rose, Gilbert M; Babinchak, Timothy; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Loh, Evan

2005-01-01

34

MUD and Self Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying Bandura's social learning theory, this paper proposes a theoretical framework for analysing the effect of MUD playing on users' self efficacy. Three types of self efficacy – computer self efficacy (CSE), social self efficacy (SSE) and generalized self efficacy (GSE) – are introduced. A possible hypothesis – successful performance, vicarious experience, hearing positive verbal persuasion and massive exposure during

Kwan Min Lee

2000-01-01

35

Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes - rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, Identified as Th1 Stimulatory Proteins, for Their Immunogenicity and Immunoprophylactic Efficacies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani - Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters’ along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ?90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (?65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

2014-01-01

36

ASSESSMENT: Coaching Efficacy As Indicators Of Coach Education Program Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to identify the level of coaching efficacy among a group of high school coaches so as to gain an insight for planning future coach preparation programs. In this study, the Coaching Efficacy Scale was used to assess the efficacy of high school coaches in four dimensions: Motivating Athletes, Strategy Use, Coaching Techniques, and Character

Lena Fung

2003-01-01

37

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

38

Efficacy of climate forcings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the ``efficacy'' of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ~110%, which increases to ~145% when its indirect

J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

2005-01-01

39

Identifying the Efficacy of Central Bank Interventions: The Australian Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endogeneity of exchange rates and intervention has long plagued studies of the effectiveness of central banks actions in foreign exchange markets. Researchers have either excluded contemporaneous intervention, so that their explanators are predetermined, or obtained a small, and typically incorrectly signed, coefficient on contemporaneous intervention. Failing to account for the endogeneity, when central banks lean against the wind and

Jonathan Kearns; Roberto Rigobon

2002-01-01

40

Efficacy of fractal analysis in identifying glaucomatous damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose a novel fractal-based technique to analyze pseudo 2D representation of 1D retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement data vector set for early detection of glaucoma. In our proposed technique, we first convert the 1D RNFL data vector sets into pseudo 2D images and then exploit 2D fractal analysis (FA) technique to obtain the representative features. These 2D fractal-based features are further processed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the final classification between normal and glaucomatous eyes is obtained using Fischer's linear discriminant analysis (LDA). An independent dataset is used for training and testing the classifier. The technique is used on randomly selected GDx variable corneal compensator (VCC) eye data from 227 study participants (116 patients with glaucoma and 111 patients with healthy eyes). We compute sensitivity, specificity and area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) for statistical performance comparison with other known techniques. Our classification performance shows that fractal-based technique is superior to the standard machine classifier Nerve Fiber Indicator (NFI).

Kim, P. Y.; Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Gunvant, P.; Tóth, M.; Holló, G.; Essock, E. A.

2010-02-01

41

Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

2013-01-01

42

Boosting Empowerment by Developing Self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countless articles have urged managers to empower their staff, yet, few provide concrete suggestions about how to prepare staff for a more challenging role. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986, 1997) has identified the three main sources of self-efficacy, which is a person's belief that they can proficiently achieve their objectives. Based upon recent research, this paper proposes a model of

Peter A. Heslin

1999-01-01

43

Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

2003-01-01

44

Genotype-Dependent Leaf Senescence in Maize 1  

PubMed Central

Objective of research was (a) to evaluate the influence of pollination-prevention on various metabolic parameters of the two maize inbreds B73 and B14A and their F1, and (b) to gain information on the inheritance of leaf senescence, in response to pollination-prevention. The results show that the visual pattern of leaf senescence, in response to prevention of ear pollination, contrasts markedly between the two inbred lines. Relative to control plants, prevention of ear pollination, causes a premature senescence in B73 and B73 × B14A plants, while leaves of unpollinated B14A remain green and similar in appearance to pollinated controls. Furthermore, prevention of ear pollination induces a sizable reduction of dry matter accumulation of all above-ground material and changes in various metabolic parameters. An accumulation of sucrose in the leaves of unpollinated B73 and B73 × B14A plants is correlated with the development of premature senescence. Finally, the genetic analysis supports suggestions that a single dominant gene is responsible for the differences observed, in the visual pattern of leaf senescence, in response to prevention of ear pollination. PMID:16665767

Ceppi, Davide; Sala, Mario; Gentinetta, Eugenio; Verderio, Alberto; Motto, Mario

1987-01-01

45

Writing essays: does self-efficacy matter? The relationship between self-efficacy in reading and in writing and undergraduate students’ performance in essay writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students’ academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students’ writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and second year undergraduate psychology students at a UK university (N?=?145), the results showed

Merce Prat-Sala; Paul Redford

2012-01-01

46

Writing essays: does self-efficacy matter? The relationship between self-efficacy in reading and in writing and undergraduate students’ performance in essay writing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy beliefs have been identified as associated with students’ academic performance. The present research assessed the relationship between two new self-efficacy scales (self-efficacy in reading [SER] and self-efficacy in writing [SEW]) and students’ writing performance on a piece of assessed written coursework. Using data from first and second year undergraduate psychology students at a UK university (N?=?145), the results showed

Merce Prat-Sala; Paul Redford

2011-01-01

47

Efficacy of climate forcings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

2005-09-01

48

State supervisors' perceptions of teacher efficacy regarding alternatively certified/licensed secondary agriculture teachers.  

E-print Network

??The purpose of this study was to identify state supervisors’ perceptions of teacher efficacy regarding alternatively certified/licensed secondary agriculture teachers. The researcher focused on state… (more)

Rice, Joshua E.

2012-01-01

49

A gender study investigating physics self-efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that creating a model to impact the retention rates of women in physics should include attending to self-efficacy and designing activities in the classroom that create self-efficacy opportunities.

Sawtelle, Vashti

50

Identifying careless responses in survey data.  

PubMed

When data are collected via anonymous Internet surveys, particularly under conditions of obligatory participation (such as with student samples), data quality can be a concern. However, little guidance exists in the published literature regarding techniques for detecting careless responses. Previously several potential approaches have been suggested for identifying careless respondents via indices computed from the data, yet almost no prior work has examined the relationships among these indicators or the types of data patterns identified by each. In 2 studies, we examined several methods for identifying careless responses, including (a) special items designed to detect careless response, (b) response consistency indices formed from responses to typical survey items, (c) multivariate outlier analysis, (d) response time, and (e) self-reported diligence. Results indicated that there are two distinct patterns of careless response (random and nonrandom) and that different indices are needed to identify these different response patterns. We also found that approximately 10%-12% of undergraduates completing a lengthy survey for course credit were identified as careless responders. In Study 2, we simulated data with known random response patterns to determine the efficacy of several indicators of careless response. We found that the nature of the data strongly influenced the efficacy of the indices to identify careless responses. Recommendations include using identified rather than anonymous responses, incorporating instructed response items before data collection, as well as computing consistency indices and multivariate outlier analysis to ensure high-quality data. PMID:22506584

Meade, Adam W; Craig, S Bartholomew

2012-09-01

51

Efficacy of OTC analgesics.  

PubMed

For many 'over-the-counter' (OTC) analgesics, there is little information available about their relative efficacy. We have examined information available in a series of Cochrane reviews of single doses of analgesic drugs in acute pain and migraine for its relevance for analgesic products commonly available without prescription, at doses generally equivalent to two tablets. Pain following third molar extraction was used as a homogeneous acute pain model; with the outcome of at least 50% maximum pain relief over 6 h. For many OTC drugs, there was no information available. For some OTC drugs, there was at least some information available either for the marketed product itself, or from studies that used the same doses of drug or drugs. For acute pain, data from third molar extraction studies showed that several OTC products were highly efficacious, principally non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) and combination products based on ibuprofen; aspirin and paracetamol-based products were less efficacious. Fixed-dose combinations, especially those with ibuprofen, provided high levels of analgesia. For migraine headache, the outcome used was pain initially moderate or severe becoming no worse than mild pain (no pain, mild pain) at 2 h. Single-dose ibuprofen 400 mg was better than aspirin and paracetamol. PMID:23163544

Moore, R A; Derry, C

2013-01-01

52

Self-efficacy, imagery use, and adherence during injury rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Previous observational studies examining imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence during injury rehabilitation have been cross-sectional and thus have not provided a clear representation of what occurs over the course of the rehabilitation period. The objectives of this research were (1) to examine the temporal patterns of imagery, self-efficacy, and rehabilitation adherence during an 8-week rehabilitation program and (2) to identify the time-order relationships between imagery, self-efficacy, and adherence. The design of the study was prospective and observational. 90 injured people (n=57 males; n=33 females) aged 18-78 years attending an injury rehabilitation clinic participated. The main outcome measures were imagery (cognitive, motivational, and healing), self-efficacy (task and coping), and rehabilitation adherence (duration, quality, and frequency). Results indicated that task efficacy, imagery use, and adherence levels remained stable, while coping efficacy declined over time. During the course of rehabilitation, moderate to strong reciprocal relationships existed between self-efficacy and adherence to rehabilitation. Weak to moderate relationships were found between imagery use and rehabilitation adherence. The results of this study can be used to inform the development of interventions steeped in self-efficacy and imagery aimed at improving rehabilitation adherence and treatment outcome. PMID:21496107

Wesch, N; Hall, C; Prapavessis, H; Maddison, R; Bassett, S; Foley, L; Brooks, S; Forwell, L

2012-10-01

53

Identifiability of Finite Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, the class of mixtures of the family of normal distributions or of Gamma (Type III) distributions or binomial distributions is not identifiable (see [3], [4] or Section 2 below for the meaning of this statement). In [4] it was shown that the class of all mixtures of a one-parameter additively-closed family of distributions is identifiable. Here, attention will

Henry Teicher

1963-01-01

54

Identifying opportunities Overcoming barriers  

E-print Network

of localised culling on neighbouring populations and on woodlands. · deer-related road traffic accidents management involves and affects many people with diverse aims and values. Our objective is to understand issues and management, and identify those involved and who is affected. · identify opportunities

55

Evaluating Social–Cognitive Mechanisms That Regulate Self-Efficacy in Response to Provocative Smoking Cues: An Experimental Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers' self-efficacy appraisals strongly predict smoking outcomes. However, the cognitive structures that regulate smokers' self-efficacy appraisals have not yet been identified. Knowledge of such structures could assist in designing treatments that target self-efficacy appraisals to improve smoking outcomes. This study evaluated whether 2 abstinence-related self-schemas, the abstainer ideal- and abstainer ought-possible selves, regulated self-efficacy to resist smoking when smokers were

William G. Shadel; Daniel Cervone

2006-01-01

56

Identifying Extreme Exposure Values  

Cancer.gov

There are various perspectives on whether to exclude potentially unlikely exposure values. If the researcher chooses to do so, several approaches exist for identifying extreme values. We examined the plausibility of the reported frequencies for each food item in the NHANES 2009-10 DSQ and chose to exclude extreme values using a method that identifies them based on the actual distribution of the sample, but also minimizes the number of values excluded.

57

Genetic interactions affecting human gene expression identified by variance association mapping  

PubMed Central

Non-additive interaction between genetic variants, or epistasis, is a possible explanation for the gap between heritability of complex traits and the variation explained by identified genetic loci. Interactions give rise to genotype dependent variance, and therefore the identification of variance quantitative trait loci can be an intermediate step to discover both epistasis and gene by environment effects (GxE). Using RNA-sequence data from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the TwinsUK cohort, we identify a candidate set of 508 variance associated SNPs. Exploiting the twin design we show that GxE plays a role in ?70% of these associations. Further investigation of these loci reveals 57 epistatic interactions that replicated in a smaller dataset, explaining on average 4.3% of phenotypic variance. In 24 cases, more variance is explained by the interaction than their additive contributions. Using molecular phenotypes in this way may provide a route to uncovering genetic interactions underlying more complex traits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01381.001 PMID:24771767

Brown, Andrew Anand; Buil, Alfonso; Vinuela, Ana; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Richards, J Brent; Small, Kerrin S; Spector, Timothy D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Durbin, Richard

2014-01-01

58

Career decision-making self-efficacy and institutional integration of underprepared college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation applied, as the theoretical base, a model of student persistence and departure (Tinto, 1987) to explore the nature of the relationship between career decision-making self-efficacy and integration. Career decision-making self-efficacy identifies students' perceived confidence (self-efficacy) in their ability to plan and execute vocationally relevant tasks in the educational environment. The sample comprised 418 underprepared students. Data were analyzed

Shari L. Peterson

1993-01-01

59

Identifying eating disorders.  

PubMed

While most nurses are familiar with anorexia and bulimia, how many nurses have heard of compulsive overeating, also known as binge eating? This is not a new condition but the medical profession has been very slow to recognize it as a problem, let alone as an eating disorder. This article looks at the different types of eating disorders, their differences, how to identify sufferers and where to refer them. Identifying patients with eating disorders is a very hard task since sufferers have learned the art of secrecy, denial and deception. PMID:16301950

Jenkins, Alison

60

Cognition and Identifying Reference  

E-print Network

of 0 is a D-IC; or (iii) is a non- descriptive IC and 0 is not analyzable as D-IC. However, Russell's views imply that a person may have non- descriptive knowledge with respect to items with which » he is "acquainted," i.e., his own mental states... COGNITION AND IDENTIFYING REFERENCE Gary Rosenkrantz An examination of the relevant literature indicates that few attempts have been made to provide a comprehen­ sive cognitive account of identifying reference. Much of the work on the subject...

Rosenkrantz, Gary

1978-11-01

61

Identifying and Managing Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

Abraham, Janice M.

1999-01-01

62

ECG to identify individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrocardiogram (ECG also called EKG) trace expresses cardiac features that are unique to an individual. The ECG processing followed a logical series of experiments with quantifiable metrics. Data filters were designed based upon the observed noise sources. Fiducial points were identified on the filtered data and extracted digitally for each heartbeat. From the fiducial points, stable features were computed

Steven A. Israel; John M. Irvine; Andrew Cheng; Mark D. Wiederhold; Brenda K. Wiederhold

2005-01-01

63

Identifying Technical Vocabulary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

2004-01-01

64

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2014-01-01

65

Social and Cultural Meanings of Self-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

This article describes the influences of social context on women’s health behavior through illustration of the powerful influences of social capital (the benefits and challenges that accrue from participation in social networks and groups) on experiences and perceptions of self-efficacy. The authors conducted inductive interviews with Latino and Filipino academics and social service providers and with U.S.-born and immigrant Latinas and Filipinas to explore direct and indirect influences of social context on health behaviors such as mammography screening. Iterative thematic analysis identified themes (meanings of efficacy, spheres of efficacy, constraints on efficacy, sources of social capital, and differential access to and quality of social capital) that link the domain of social capital with the behavioral construct perceived self-efficacy. The authors conclude that social capital addresses aspects of social context absent in the current self-efficacy construct and that these aspects have important implications for scholars’ and practitioners’ understandings of health behavior and intervention development. PMID:19805794

Burke, Nancy J.; Bird, Joyce A.; Clark, Melissa A.; Rakowski, William; Guerra, Claudia; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.

2010-01-01

66

Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for characterizing synaptic efficacy.  

PubMed

The role of background synaptic activity in cortical processing has recently received much attention. How do individual neurons extract information when embedded in a noisy background? When examining the impact of a synaptic input on postsynaptic firing, it is important to distinguish a change in overall firing probability from a true change in neuronal sensitivity to a particular input (synaptic efficacy) that corresponds to a change in detection performance. Here we study the impact of background synaptic input on neuronal sensitivity to individual synaptic inputs using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. We use the area under the ROC curve as a measure of synaptic efficacy, here defined as the ability of a postsynaptic action potential to identify a particular synaptic input event. An advantage of using ROC analysis to measure synaptic efficacy is that it provides a measure that is independent of postsynaptic firing rate. Furthermore, changes in mean excitation or inhibition, although affecting overall firing probability, do not modulate synaptic efficacy when measured in this way. Changes in overall conductance also affect firing probability but not this form of synaptic efficacy. Input noise, here defined as the variance of the input current, does modulate synaptic efficacy, however. This effect persists when the change in input variance is coupled with a change in conductance (as would result from changing background activity). PMID:17167062

Chance, Frances S

2007-02-01

67

The Effects of Obesity on Fall Efficacy in Elderly People  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217

Jeon, Byoung-Jin

2013-01-01

68

Assessing the Efficacy of a Student Expectations Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses Rasch analysis to explore the efficacy of a questionnaire designed to assist university teaching staff in identifying those Level 4 students most in need of mathematics support. The students were all taking a mathematics module as part of their first year Computing curriculum, and the questionnaire explores the students' previous…

Warwick, Jon

2012-01-01

69

A Factor Analysis of the Research Self-Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counseling professionals' and counseling psychology students' interest in performing research seems to be waning. Identifying the impediments to graduate students' interest and participation in research is important if systematic efforts to engage them in research are to succeed. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale (RSES) was designed to measure…

Bieschke, Kathleen J.; And Others

70

Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

71

Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed a professional development (PD) program to increase the teacher efficacy of mathematics teachers. We randomly assigned 106 Grade 6 teachers in 1 school district to treatment and control conditions in a delayed-treatment design. The PD explicitly addressed 4 sources of teacher-efficacy information identified in social-cognition theory…

Ross, John; Bruce, Catherine

2007-01-01

72

Development and Use of the Task-Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a rationale for the development of the Task-Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale and studies that have investigated its psychometric attributes. Describes it as a tool for identifying career areas in which individuals see themselves as strong and areas in which self-perception indicates lower self-efficacy beliefs. (SK)

Osipow, Samuel H.; Temple, Richard D.

1996-01-01

73

A Highly Efficacious Lymphocyte Chemoattractant, Stromal Cell-derived Factor 1 (SDF-1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Chemotactic factors are postulated to direct emigration of lymphocytes from the blood stream into sites of inflammation. Members of a family ofchemotactic cytokines, termed chemokines, have been shown to attract lymphocytes but efficacy, i.e., the maximal percentage of attracted cells, has been low. We have identified a highly efficacious lymphocyte chemotactic activity in the supernatants of the murine bone

Conrad C. Bleul; Robert C. Fuhlbrigge; Jose M. Casasnovas; Alessandro Aiuti; Timothy A. Springer

1996-01-01

74

A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The psychometric properties of the Parent Self-efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale (PSMTSS) were investigated with a sample of 763 mothers whose children were starting primary school in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, Efficacy and Worry, accounting for 56.6% of the total variance in parent…

Giallo, Rebecca; Kienhuis, Mandy; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan

2008-01-01

75

The Relationship of Academic Self-Efficacy to Class Participation and Exam Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of academic self-efficacy to engagement in class discussion and performance on major course exams among students (N = 165) in an undergraduate human development course. Cluster analysis was used to identify three levels of academic self-efficacy: high (n = 34), medium (n = 91), and low (n = 40). Results…

Galyon, Charles E.; Blondin, Carolyn A.; Yaw, Jared S.; Nalls, Meagan L.; Williams, Robert L.

2012-01-01

76

Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: Efficacy and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Murphy NA, Nicole Irwin MC, Hoff C. Intrathecal baclofen therapy in children with cerebral palsy: efficacy and complications. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1721-5. Objectives: To describe the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in the management of spasticity in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to identify risk factors for complications. Design: Consecutive case series of 25 implanted ITB

Nancy A. Murphy; Melanie C. Nicole Irwin; Charles Hoff

2002-01-01

77

Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two main purposes guided this study. The first was to identify the degree to which Jordanian teachers practise classroom management styles in their classrooms and their level of teacher self-efficacy. The second purpose was to explore the relationships between classroom management styles and teacher self-efficacy. This study is quantitative in…

Abu-Tineh, Abdullah M.; Khasawneh, Samar A.; Khalaileh, Huda A.

2011-01-01

78

Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

2009-01-01

79

Factor Structure, Stability, and Predictive Validity of College Students' Relationship Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored the underlying structure, stability, and predictive validity of college students' scores on a measure of relationship maintenance self-efficacy beliefs. Three identified efficacy-related factors were found to be stable; related in expected directions with gender, commitment status, and adult attachment orientations; and…

Lopez, Frederick G.; Morua, Wendy; Rice, Kenneth G.

2007-01-01

80

Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substance abuse researchers identify self-efficacy and group cohesion as important components in alcohol and other drug-dependency treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this single-group, pretest-posttest study is to explore the therapeutic value of a challenge course intervention on the self-efficacy and group cohesion of nine chemically…

Clem, Jamie M.; Smith, Thomas E.; Richards, Kristin V.

2012-01-01

81

Hunting Icebergs: Identifying Icebergs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial guides learners through the decision-making process in locating data that will enable the identification of tabular icebergs, including: selecting the appropriate satellite orbit, and identifying the optimal solar and infrared wavelength values to discriminate between water and ice in remotely-sensed images. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

82

Proximate sources of collective teacher efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty of the teaching task that faces the school and the faculty's collective competence to be successful

Curt M. Adams; Patrick B. Forsyth

2006-01-01

83

Proximate Sources of Collective Teacher Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Recent scholarship has augmented Bandura's theory underlying efficacy formation by pointing to more proximate sources of efficacy information involved in forming collective teacher efficacy. These proximate sources of efficacy information theoretically shape a teacher's perception of the teaching context, operationalizing the difficulty…

Adams, Curt M.; Forsyth, Patrick B.

2006-01-01

84

On identified predictive control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-tuning control algorithms are potential successors to manually tuned PID controllers traditionally used in process control applications. A very attractive design method for self-tuning controllers, which has been developed over recent years, is the long-range predictive control (LRPC). The success of LRPC is due to its effectiveness with plants of unknown order and dead-time which may be simultaneously nonminimum phase and unstable or have multiple lightly damped poles (as in the case of flexible structures or flexible robot arms). LRPC is a receding horizon strategy and can be, in general terms, summarized as follows. Using assumed long-range (or multi-step) cost function the optimal control law is found in terms of unknown parameters of the predictor model of the process, current input-output sequence, and future reference signal sequence. The common approach is to assume that the input-output process model is known or separately identified and then to find the parameters of the predictor model. Once these are known, the optimal control law determines control signal at the current time t which is applied at the process input and the whole procedure is repeated at the next time instant. Most of the recent research in this field is apparently centered around the LRPC formulation developed by Clarke et al., known as generalized predictive control (GPC). GPC uses ARIMAX/CARIMA model of the process in its input-output formulation. In this paper, the GPC formulation is used but the process predictor model is derived from the state space formulation of the ARIMAX model and is directly identified over the receding horizon, i.e., using current input-output sequence. The underlying technique in the design of identified predictive control (IPC) algorithm is the identification algorithm of observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters developed by Juang et al. at NASA Langley Research Center and successfully applied to identification of flexible structures.

Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

1993-01-01

85

Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian Institution website features the publication "Identifying Harmful Marine Dinoflagellates", a fully illustrated identification guide for harmful dinoflagellate taxa. The website reviews general information on dinoflagellate morphology and other criteria used in species identification. Each taxon is presented with a species overview, and a taxonomic description of cell and thecal plate morphology, reproduction, life cycle, ecology, toxicity, species comparison, habitat and locality, and etymology. This is supplemented with a number of high-resolution light and scanning electron photomicrographs and line drawings. Taxonomic treatment of harmful dinoflagellate taxa includes nomenclatural types, type locality, and common synonyms. An extensive glossary of terms and relevant literature citations are also provided.

Faust, Maria A.; Gulledge, Rose A.; Institution, The S.

2009-11-25

86

Identifying Equivalent Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site helps students understand how to identify equivalent fractions by explaining what equivalent fractions are and how to compare two fractions to see if they are equivalent. There is also a list of fractions equivalent to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 2/5 so students can begin to see the pattern that emerges. Finally, the site presents an interactive game in which students can practice by naming the equivalent fraction to a given fraction.

Banfill, J. C.

2007-12-12

87

Identifying Distant AGNs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([OIII]/H? versus [NII]/H?, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by AGN activity (BPT-AGN). Yet the BPT diagram is limited to z<0.5, the redshift at which [NII]?6584 leaves the optical spectral window. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we construct a new diagnostic, or TBT diagram, that is based on rest-frame g-z color, [NeIII]?3869, and [OII]??3726+3729 and can be used for galaxies out to z<1.4. The TBT diagram identifies 98.7% of the SDSS BPT-AGN as TBT-AGN and 97% of the SDSS BPT-SF as TBT-SF. Furthermore, it identifies 97% of the OPTX Chandra X-ray selected AGNs as TBT-AGN. This is in contrast to the BPT diagram, which misidentifies 20% of X-ray selected AGNs as BPT-SF.

Trouille, Laura; Barger, Amy; Tremonti, Christy

2014-07-01

88

Adolescents' physical activities and peer norms: the mediating role of self-efficacy.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among adolescents' self-efficacy and social norms, and physical activity and whether self-efficacy mediated the relationship between social norms and physical activity. 400 junior high school students (202 boys, 198 girls, 2 not identified; M age = 15.3yr., SD = 0.6) completed a demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Perceived Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity Scale, and the Physical Activity Social Norms Scale. Regression analyses indicated that both self-efficacy and social norms predicted physical activity. Self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between peer norms and physical activity for boys but partially mediated the relationship for girls. An application of the results may be to foster self-efficacy and peer norms as a motivational strategy for supporting increased physical activity. PMID:24897873

Lu, Frank J H; Lin, Ju-Han; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chou, Chien-Chih; Wang, Erica T W; Yeh, Li-Chin

2014-04-01

89

Using commercial landings data to identify environmental correlates with distributions of fish stocks  

E-print Network

Using commercial landings data to identify environmental correlates with distributions of fish Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA ABSTRACT We examined the efficacy of using commercial land data for two commercially important species, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus

Robinson, Allan R.

90

Identifying Diverse HIV Risk Groups Among American Indian Young Adults: The Utility of Cluster Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate the utility of cluster analysis for identifying diverse HIV risk groups found in a community-based sample. Within a group of 706 American Indian young adults, we used cluster analysis to identify four profiles of HIV risk\\/protection. The High Efficacy\\/Low Risk cluster had high levels of knowledge\\/education, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations about HIV protection, with low levels of risk

Christina M. Mitchell; Carol E. Kaufman; Janette Beals

2004-01-01

91

Identifying Young, Nearby Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better constrains the age of beta Pictoris to be approx. 10 Myr.

Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

2001-01-01

92

The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

2011-01-01

93

Teacher Efficacy in Rural Zimbabwe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need to address contextual variables, such as cultural bias and cultural norms, is a common challenge for researchers in international education. This article highlights societal conditions and cultural issues that could have impacted teacher efficacy data in Zimbabwe, a country known for its ongoing economic crisis, political repression, and…

Dunham, Judy K.; Song'ony, Daniel

2008-01-01

94

Identifying spiders through DNA barcodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With almost 40 000 species, the spiders provide important model systems for studies of sociality, mating systems, and sexual dimorphism. However, work on this group is regularly constrained by difficulties in species identi- fication. DNA-based identification systems represent a promising approach to resolve this taxonomic impediment, but their efficacy has only been tested in a few groups. In this study,

Rowan D. H. Barrett; Paul D. N. Hebert

2005-01-01

95

Efficacy and safety of ginseng.  

PubMed

Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

Kitts, D; Hu, C

2000-12-01

96

A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.  

PubMed

Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

2011-01-01

97

The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management\\u000a of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the\\u000a treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. This paper describes the validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy\\u000a Scale (HIV-ASES) with two samples of HIV+ adults

Mallory O. Johnson; Torsten B. Neilands; Samantha E. Dilworth; Stephen F. Morin; Robert H. Remien; Margaret A. Chesney

2007-01-01

98

Adolescent work experience and self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Ordinary least squares regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings – The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms. Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy

Keith A. Cunnien; Nicole MartinRogers; Jeylan T. Mortimer

2009-01-01

99

Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher efficacy has proved to be powerfully related to many meaningful educational outcomes such as teachers’ persistence, enthusiasm, commitment and instructional behavior, as well as student outcomes such as achievement, motivation, and self-efficacy beliefs. However, persistent measurement problems have plagued those who have sought to study teacher efficacy. We review many of the major measures that have been used to

Megan Tschannen-Moran; Anita Woolfolk Hoy

2001-01-01

100

Promoting Self-Efficacy in Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have linked self-efficacy to a wide array of outcomes including psychological adjustment, resilience, physical health, achievement, and self-regulation, among others. In this article, the author describes self-efficacy and the factors that contribute to it, highlights the positive outcomes that self-efficacy leads to, and provides…

Reivich, Karen

2010-01-01

101

Teacher Efficacy in Classroom Management and Discipline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring teacher efficacy in classroom management and discipline is presented, along with results from a factor analysis of intercorrelations of items from the scale and items from two other teacher efficacy scales. Data sources included 119 preservice teacher education students and 42 student teachers. Results are presented indicating that classroom management\\/discipline efficacy is distinct from other types

Edmund T. Emmer; Julia Hickman

1991-01-01

102

The Relation between Teachers' Personal Teaching Efficacy and Students' Academic Efficacy for Science and Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

2011-01-01

103

Linking Preservice Teachers' Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy to Their Mathematical Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined preservice teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching efficacy and compared them to their mathematical performance. Participants included 89 early childhood preservice teachers at a Midwestern university. Instruments included the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSES), Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs…

Bates, Alan B.; Latham, Nancy; Kim, Jin-ah

2011-01-01

104

A prospective evaluation of the efficacy of preoperative coagulation testing.  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of routine screening coagulation tests was studied to identify occult coagulopathies in patients prior to elective general and vascular surgery procedures. The efficacy of screening tests was compared to that of indicated tests performed for predefined clinical indications, which were elicited by history and physical examination and a detailed coagulation history questionnaire. Tests were prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), platelet count (PC), and bleeding time (BT). Of 514 screening tests done in the 282 patients, 4.1% were abnormal, but none of them identified a clinically significant coagulopathy. Of the 605 indicated tests, 7.4% were abnormal, and all significant coagulopathies were found in this group. The study shows that preoperative screening tests for coagulopathies not suspected on the basis of detailed clinical information are unnecessary and should not be done. In the authors' institution 46% of screening coagulation tests could be eliminated. PMID:3190281

Rohrer, M J; Michelotti, M C; Nahrwold, D L

1988-01-01

105

Sexual offender treatment efficacy revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several authors have recently addressed current views of sexual offender treatment efficacy. Some maintain that offenders\\u000a can gain from treatment while others argue that the vast majority cannot. Some researchers say that the field of sexual offender\\u000a treatment is too new to be able to determine whether or not treatment works. This latter group notes that most studies in\\u000a this

Margaret A. Alexander

1999-01-01

106

Self-Efficacy and Burnout in Teaching: The Importance of Interpersonal-Relations Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association between perceived self-efficacy and burnout among teachers. Self-efficacy has been defined operationally based on a three-dimensional conceptualization: task, relations and organization. Efficacy variables were three classroom efficacy factors: instruction (task), discipline control (task), and consideration (relations), and two organizational efficacy factors: inclusion (task) and influence (relations). Burnout was measured as both a three-dimensional measure comprised

Isaac A. Friedman

2003-01-01

107

Identifying Optimal Measurement Subspace for the Ensemble Kalman Filter  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the computational load of the ensemble Kalman filter while maintaining its efficacy, an optimization algorithm based on the generalized eigenvalue decomposition method is proposed for identifying the most informative measurement subspace. When the number of measurements is large, the proposed algorithm can be used to make an effective tradeoff between computational complexity and estimation accuracy. This algorithm also can be extended to other Kalman filters for measurement subspace selection.

Zhou, Ning; Huang, Zhenyu; Welch, Greg; Zhang, J.

2012-05-24

108

Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

2010-01-01

109

Mental efficacy, social support resources and aging well of veteran athletes and older adults in Greece: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors have been identified as important contributors to aging well. However, few studies examined how mental efficacy and social support contribute to aging well of veteran athletes versus older adults. This study examined the impact of mental efficacy and social support on aging well of Greek veteran track and field athletes versus non-athletes. Older adults (N=259) and veteran athletes

Yvonne Harahousou; Odysseus Trikkos; Nickos Kabitsis

2012-01-01

110

The influence of self-efficacy and past behaviour on the physical activity intentions of young people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to identify the influence of self-efficacy and past behaviour on young people's physical activity intentions using an augmented version of Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour. We hypothesized that self-efficacy would exhibit discriminant validity with perceived behavioural control and explain unique variance in young people's intentions to participate in physical activity. We also expected

MARTIN S. HAGGER; NIKOS CHATZISARANTIS; STUART J. H. BIDDLE

2001-01-01

111

Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement in Australian High School Students: The Mediating Effects of Academic Aspirations and Delinquency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have shown that self-efficacy, aspirational, and other psychosocial influences account for considerable variance in academic achievement through a range of mediational pathways, although no research to date has tested the mediational relationships identified. The present research investigated the structural relations among self-efficacy,…

Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Robert; Unsworth, Kerrie; Hattie, John; Gordon, Lisa; Bower, Julie

2009-01-01

112

Efficacy of Methotrexate in Ulcerative Colitis: Failure or Promise  

PubMed Central

Background Low-dose methotrexate is a widely used and efficacious therapy in chronic inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. Prospective randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of parenteral methotrexate in Crohn’s disease (CD). We performed a systematic review of the efficacy of methotrexate in ulcerative colitis (UC) and discuss the results in the context of the known pharmacokinetics and adverse events of methotrexate therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature in Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. All publications describing patients with UC treated with methotrexate were included. Results We identified 12 studies or retrospective case series and 5 meeting abstracts that met the inclusion criteria. Only 1 study reported a prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial using methotrexate at a dose of 12.5 mg orally with no significant clinical benefit. However, the majority of uncontrolled retrospective analyses suggest a clinical response to methotrexate therapy in a range of 30%–80% when the drug is applied by parenteral route in doses between 20–25 mg. Conclusions The only randomized controlled trial of methotrexate in UC employed oral dosing and doses lower than those shown to be effective in CD and did not demonstrate efficacy, whereas uncontrolled, retrospective studies using doses and routes of administration similar to those employed in CD suggest benefit. Well-designed, prospective, placebo-controlled trials of methotrexate in UC are needed. PMID:20186931

Herfarth, Hans H.; Osterman, Mark T.; Isaacs, Kim L.; Lewis, James D.; Sands, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

113

Identifying clusters in Bayesian disease mapping.  

PubMed

Disease mapping is the field of spatial epidemiology interested in estimating the spatial pattern in disease risk across [Formula: see text] areal units. One aim is to identify units exhibiting elevated disease risks, so that public health interventions can be made. Bayesian hierarchical models with a spatially smooth conditional autoregressive prior are used for this purpose, but they cannot identify the spatial extent of high-risk clusters. Therefore, we propose a two-stage solution to this problem, with the first stage being a spatially adjusted hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm. This algorithm is applied to data prior to the study period, and produces [Formula: see text] potential cluster structures for the disease data. The second stage fits a separate Poisson log-linear model to the study data for each cluster structure, which allows for step-changes in risk where two clusters meet. The most appropriate cluster structure is chosen by model comparison techniques, specifically by minimizing the Deviance Information Criterion. The efficacy of the methodology is established by a simulation study, and is illustrated by a study of respiratory disease risk in Glasgow, Scotland. PMID:24622038

Anderson, Craig; Lee, Duncan; Dean, Nema

2014-07-01

114

Tripartite efficacy profiles: a cluster analytic investigation of athletes' perceptions of their relationship with their coach.  

PubMed

Recent studies of coach-athlete interaction have explored the bivariate relationships between each of the tripartite efficacy constructs (self-efficacy; other-efficacy; relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) and various indicators of relationship quality. This investigation adopted an alternative approach by using cluster analyses to identify tripartite efficacy profiles within a sample of 377 individual sport athletes (Mage = 20.25, SD = 2.12), and examined how individuals in each cluster group differed in their perceptions about their relationship with their coach (i.e., commitment, satisfaction, conflict). Four clusters emerged: High (n = 128), Moderate (n = 95), and Low (n = 78) profiles, in which athletes reported relatively high, moderate, or low scores across all tripartite perceptions, respectively, as well as an Unfulfilled profile (n = 76) in which athletes held relatively high self-efficacy, but perceived lower levels of other-efficacy and RISE. Multivariate analyses revealed differences between the clusters on all relationship variables that were in line with theory. These results underscore the utility of considering synergistic issues in the examination of the tripartite efficacy framework. PMID:21659670

Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

2011-06-01

115

Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

1995-12-01

116

Promoting and Measuring Family Caregiver Self-Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a 5-item scale that assesses family caregivers' self-efficacy in communicating with physicians about ill family members (Perceived Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions–PECPI) in the context of an evaluation study of an online training in health care communication skills for caregivers. A national sample of 197 self-identified family caregivers participated in an online webinar and completed

Crystal Dea Moore; Kevin M. Cook

2011-01-01

117

Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed a professional development (PD) program to increase the teacher efficacy of mathematics teachers. We randomly assigned 106 Grade 6 teachers in 1 school district to treatment and control conditions in a delayedtreatment design. The PD explicitly addressed 4 sources of teacher-efficacy information identified in social-cognition theory (Bandura, 1997). Treatment teachers outperformed control-group teachers on 3 measures of teacher

John Ross; Catherine Bruce

2007-01-01

118

Efficacy of novel alcohol-based hand rub products at typical in-use volumes.  

PubMed

In vivo efficacies of 2 alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) products (gel and foam) were evaluated at a volume of 1.1 mL. Both met US Food and Drug Administration log(10) reduction requirements after a single application and 10 consecutive applications. This is the first study to identify ABHR formulations capable of meeting efficacy requirements with a single-dispenser actuation. PMID:23388365

Macinga, David R; Edmonds, Sarah L; Campbell, Esther; Shumaker, David J; Arbogast, James W

2013-03-01

119

Identifying Botanical Mechanisms of Action  

PubMed Central

The biological mechanism of action for any botanical extract is a necessary part of discovery to determine pharmacological use and safety. Interestingly, many activities that are governed by endogenous compounds are not fully understood making the characterization of mechanisms elusive. For example, phytoestrogens are being consumed for menopausal symptoms while the biological action of estradiol are still being investigated. Therefore, long term efficacy and safety issues are a challenge in the field. As new activities are associated with new biological pathways, an important component of therapeutic discovery will need to be the re-evaluation of negative or less active natural products to determine their relative use as medicines. PMID:20837111

Toh, May Fern

2010-01-01

120

Self-efficacy, motivation, and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the relation of self-efficacy to motivation and performance in cognitive and sport domains. Self-efficacy refers to one's beliefs about accomplishing a task and can influence choice of activities. effort, persistence. and achievement. People enter activities with varying levels of self-efficacy derived from prior experience, personal qualities, and social support. As they work on tasks they acquire information

Dale H. Schunk

1995-01-01

121

Efficacy, Emotions and the Habit of Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political behavior is triggered by the presence of a variety of material and cognitive resources, including political efficacy.\\u000a The dominant view conceptualizes efficacy as capital, used to overcome obstacles to participation. Our theory suggests that\\u000a unlike other resources, efficacy aids in the development of habitual participation by activating a particular negative emotion,\\u000a anger. Using the 1990–1992 NES Panel, we find

Nicholas A. Valentino; Krysha Gregorowicz; Eric W. Groenendyk

2009-01-01

122

Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

Albert Bandura

1982-01-01

123

Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence: perceptions of district personnel of implementation and impact on collective teacher efficacy  

E-print Network

The purpose of this study was to identify those elements of the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence that central office leaders, principals, and teachers perceive as having an impact on collective teacher efficacy. The study...

LeRoy, Kathryn A.

2005-11-01

124

Self-efficacy in Environmental Education: Experiences of elementary education preservice teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite research showing Environmental Education can provide positive student outcomes in academic achievement, critical thinking, motivation and engagement (Ernst, 2007; Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Orr, 1992; Palmer, 1998; Powers, 2004; Volk & Cheak, 2003), Environmental Education is currently not a critical element in American public school K-12 education. The present study investigates self-efficacy in Environmental Education through a mixed methods research approach. The data reveal the participants' perspectives of their sense of self-efficacy in Environmental Education. It adds to the body of work on Environmental Education and self-efficacy by specifically investigating the topics through interviews with preservice teachers. Purposeful sampling is used to identify preservice elementary education teachers in their senior year of college with a high measure of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is measured using the Environmental Education Efficacy Belief Instrument (Sia, 1992). Forty-six preservice teachers completed the instrument. Six preservice teachers were interviewed to determine experiences that impact their self-efficacy in Environmental Education. Continual comparison and cross-case analysis are used to analyze the data. The results reveal a relationship between personal experiences with nature as a young child and current beliefs toward their personal efficacy and teaching outcome efficacy in Environmental Education. Similar to the findings of Sia (1992), the researcher discovered that preservice teachers realize that they lack sufficient knowledge and skill in Environmental Education but believe that effective teaching can increase students understanding of Environmental Education. While the preservice teachers do not believe they will teach Environmental Education as well as other subjects, they will continually seek out better ways to teach Environmental Education. Interviews with participants who had a high self-efficacy revealed the importance of playing outdoors as young children and having an adult role model with whom to share nature. Results showed that experiences with nature are absent in formal schooling, including courses in teacher education programs.

Gardner, Cynthia Crompton

125

The efficacy of denture cleansers.  

PubMed

The efficacy of two soaking cleansers, a toothbrush/paste and a brush with soap and water have been compared in relation to their ability to remove three types of soil from dentures. A 4 week cross-over trial involving a panel of 80 volunteers was used. Each denture was scored for stain, calculus and disclosed plaque, both before and after cleaning with one of the chosen cleaners. A soaking cleanser used at 50 degrees C was more effective than the other products at removing plaque and stain. There was no difference amongst the materials in terms of calculus removal, the scores being low in all cases. The reliability of scoring is influenced by the presence of large numbers of low 'before-cleaning' scores. This problem can be overcome by using a selection criterion which requires a certain minimum level of soil to be present before cleaning. PMID:8603160

McCabe, J F; Murray, I D; Kelly, P J

1995-09-01

126

Efficacy or inefficacy, that's the question: Burnout and work engagement, and their relationships with efficacy beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We challenge traditional view that lack of efficacy — measured with the corresponding reversed efficacy scale (Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI) — is a burnout dimension. Instead, we claim that in addition to exhaustion and cynicism, inefficacy — measured with a newly developed scale — characterizes burnout. MBI-efficacy is apparently related to work engagement, considered as the positive antithesis of burnout.

Wilmar B. Schaufeli; Marisa Salanova

2007-01-01

127

Examining the influence of other-efficacy and self-efficacy on personal performance.  

PubMed

This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (M(age) = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts. PMID:21808081

Dunlop, William L; Beatty, Daniel J; Beauchamp, Mark R

2011-08-01

128

Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students  

PubMed Central

Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem.

2014-01-01

129

Self-efficacy as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

2012-01-01

130

Self-Efficacy as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review  

PubMed Central

Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

2012-01-01

131

Self-efficacy and self-esteem in third-year pharmacy students.  

PubMed

Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students' levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

Yorra, Mark L

2014-09-15

132

Differential efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells based on source of origin.  

PubMed

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful in tissue repair but also possess immunomodulatory properties. Murine and uncontrolled human trials suggest efficacy of MSCs in treating lupus. Autologous cells are preferable; however, recent studies suggest that lupus-derived MSCs lack efficacy in treating disease. Thus, the optimum derivation of MSCs for use in lupus is unknown. It is also unknown which in vitro assays of MSC function predict in vivo efficacy. The objectives for this study were to provide insight into the optimum source of MSCs and to identify in vitro assays that predict in vivo efficacy. We derived MSCs from four umbilical cords, four healthy bone marrows (BMs), and four lupus BMs. In diseased MRL/lpr mice, MSCs from healthy BM and umbilical cords significantly decreased renal disease, whereas lupus BM MSCs only delayed disease. Current in vitro assays did not differentiate efficacy of the different MSCs. However, differences in MSC efficacy were observed in B cell proliferation assays. Our results suggest that autologous MSCs from lupus patients are not effective in treating disease. Furthermore, standard in vitro assays for MSC licensing are not predictive of in vivo efficacy, whereas inhibiting B cell proliferation appears to differentiate effective MSCs from ineffective MSCs. PMID:25274529

Collins, Erin; Gu, Fei; Qi, Maosong; Molano, Ivan; Ruiz, Phillip; Sun, Lingyun; Gilkeson, Gary S

2014-11-01

133

Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: While "teaching self-efficacy" has been supported as an important construct related to teacher competence (eg. Goddard, Hoy & Hoy, 2000), little is known about how in-service teachers think about themselves as writers, or writing self-efficacy, particularly as it relates to writing performance. The present study is a preliminary…

Lavelle, Ellen

2006-01-01

134

Teacher Efficacy: Influence of Principal Leadership Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings of a study that explored the relationships among principals' leadership behaviors and teacher efficacy in Wisconsin middle schools involved in building-level change efforts. An adaptation of Bandura's social cognitive learning theory of self-efficacy (A. Woolfolk and W. Hoy 1993) provided the theoretical framework.…

Hipp, Kristine A.

135

Development of Physics Self-Efficacy Scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we describe development of a Physics Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES) that is a self-administered measure to assess physics self-efficacy beliefs regarding one's ability to successfully perform physics tasks in physics classroom. The scale is initially composed of 56 items prepared following a brief scrutiny of relating literature on self-efficacy. It was initially administered 30 physics teacher candidates and was also examined by 6 experts of physics education, then ambiguous or incomprehensible 6 items were dismissed. This PSES was tested on 558 undergraduate students all completed fundamental physics courses. Cronbach's Alpha reliability coefficient of the PSES was calculated as 0.94. The final version of the PSES contained 30 items with 5 dimensions namely, 1. Self-efficacy towards solving physics problems, 2. Self-efficacy towards physics laboratory, 3. Self-efficacy towards learning physics, 4. Self-efficacy towards application of physics knowledge and 5. Self-efficacy towards memorizing physics knowledge.

Çali?kan, Serap; Selçuk, Gamze S.; Erol, Mustafa

2007-04-01

136

Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET)  

Cancer.gov

The Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the cancer prevention efficacy and safety of a daily combination of 30 milligrams (mg) of beta-carotene and 25,000 IU of retinyl palmitate in 18,314 persons who were at high risk for lung cancer.

137

The NOAA Dataset Identifier Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated a project in 2013 to assign persistent identifiers to datasets archived at NOAA and to create informational landing pages about those datasets. The goals of this project are to enable the citation of datasets used in products and results in order to help provide credit to data producers, to support traceability and reproducibility, and to enable tracking of data usage and impact. A secondary goal is to encourage the submission of datasets for long-term preservation, because only archived datasets will be eligible for a NOAA-issued identifier. A team was formed with representatives from the National Geophysical, Oceanographic, and Climatic Data Centers (NGDC, NODC, NCDC) to resolve questions including which identifier scheme to use (answer: Digital Object Identifier - DOI), whether or not to embed semantics in identifiers (no), the level of granularity at which to assign identifiers (as coarsely as reasonable), how to handle ongoing time-series data (do not break into chunks), creation mechanism for the landing page (stylesheet from formal metadata record preferred), and others. Decisions made and implementation experience gained will inform the writing of a Data Citation Procedural Directive to be issued by the Environmental Data Management Committee in 2014. Several identifiers have been issued as of July 2013, with more on the way. NOAA is now reporting the number as a metric to federal Open Government initiatives. This paper will provide further details and status of the project.

de la Beaujardiere, J.; Mccullough, H.; Casey, K. S.

2013-12-01

138

Perceived efficacy of analgesic drug regimens used for koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia.  

PubMed

Recent publications report that some therapeutic drugs used in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) have poor oral absorption and are rapidly eliminated. Therefore, information on both the analgesic drug dosage regimens used to treat koalas in Australia and koala caretakers' perceptions of the efficacy of these drugs to control pain was collected for the purpose of identifying the most popular analgesics to prioritize future analgesic pharmacokinetic studies for this species. A one-page, double-sided questionnaire was distributed both electronically and by mail to Australian koala care facilities such as zoos and wildlife hospitals. Information was received from 13 respondents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most frequently used analgesics, followed by full micro- and partial opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine. The full micro-opioid receptor agonists and acetaminophen with or without codeine were most consistently considered efficacious, with wider variation in perceived efficacy of the NSAIDs. Analgesic drug combinations were generally thought efficacious. PMID:25000697

de Kauwe, Tyron; Kimble, Benjamin; Govendir, Merran

2014-06-01

139

Identifying Elements of a Biography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

Readworks

2012-03-23

140

Identifying Occupationally Specific Affective Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from two groups of cosmetology instructors (n=15) and two groups of machinist instructors (n=17) validated the Occupational Affective Behavior Analysis instrument as capable of identifying affective behaviors viewed as important to success in a given occupation. (SK)

Pucel, David J.

1993-01-01

141

Identifying Babies with Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit Button CDC Features Identifying Babies with Hearing Loss Share Compartir Each year in the U.S., thousands of babies are born with a hearing loss. An undetected hearing loss can affect a ...

142

Identifying Context Variables in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies context variables in written composition from theoretical perspectives in cognitive psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Considers how multiple views of context from across the disciplines can build toward a broader definition of writing. (JD)

Piazza, Carolyn L.

1987-01-01

143

Observing, Describing, and Identifying Clouds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They then correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. . The intended outcome is that students will be able to identify cloud types using standard cloud classification names.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

144

Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. It contains information about identifying animal tracks, including those of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain lions. Also, there is a helpful guide to preserving animal tracks by making track casts, including the procedure and materials needed. A recommended reading list is also presented to give visitors a starting point for more information.

2008-02-21

145

Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation in adolescents.  

PubMed

Adolescent smoking remains a public health problem. Despite concerns regarding adolescent nicotine dependence, few well-designed smoking cessation studies have been conducted with teen smokers. This is particularly true regarding pharmacologic treatments for nicotine dependence. Currently, pharmacologic aids are not recommended for treating adolescent nicotine dependence, as efficacy has not been shown in this population. This review includes studies that have examined the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking abstinence and/or reduction in cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers who want to quit smoking, laboratory-based adolescent studies that have examined the efficacy of these medications in reducing cravings and/or withdrawal symptoms, and/or studies that have assessed the tolerability of medications for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers. It provides information on the pharmacologic action of each medication, the efficacy of each medication for adolescent smoking cessation, the tolerability of each medication based on reported adverse events, and compliance with the medication protocols. Thirteen relevant articles were identified and included in the review. Nicotine patch (NP), nicotine gum, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion, and varenicline have been studied in adolescent smokers. The adverse events reported in the studies on pharmacology for adolescent smoking suggest that the side effect profiles for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are similar to those reported in adult studies. There is some evidence of efficacy of NP and bupropion at the end of treatment (efficacy of varenicline has not been assessed), but none of the medications included in this review were efficacious in promoting long-term smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. It is noted that many of the study protocols did not follow the recommended dose or length of pharmacotherapy for adults, rendering it difficult to determine the true efficacy of medication for adolescent smoking cessation. Future efficacy studies are warranted before recommending pharmacotherapy for adolescent smoking cessation. PMID:22248234

Bailey, Steffani R; Crew, Erin E; Riske, Emily C; Ammerman, Seth; Robinson, Thomas N; Killen, Joel D

2012-04-01

146

The efficacy of resilience training programs: a systematic review protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Resilience has been defined as the ability of individuals to manage and adapt to stress and life challenges. Training programs that develop and/or enhance resilience may have efficacy in improving health, well-being, and quality of life. Because patients with chronic conditions must reliably self-manage their health, strategies to bolster resilience in this population may be of particular value. The objectives of this systematic review are to synthesize the evidence of resilience training program efficacy in improving outcomes related to quality of life, self-efficacy and activation, and resilience and coping ability in: 1) diverse adult populations; and 2) patients with chronic conditions. Methods/Design We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of any program designed to enhance resilience in adults that measure any outcome against any comparator. We will search multiple electronic databases, trial registries, bibliographies, and will contact authors and experts to identify studies. We will use systematic review software to independently and in duplicate screen reports and extract data. We will extract characteristics of the study populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and quality/risk of bias. Primary, patient reported outcomes will be categorized into domains of quality of life, self-efficacy, and resilience. Secondary outcomes will be considered based on findings of the review. We will attempt meta-analysis by pooling standardized mean differences and minimally important differences (MIDs), when possible. Planned trial subgroup analyses are: 1) studies of patients with chronic conditions; 2) studies with placebo controls; 3) studies with similar intervention characteristics; and 4) studies with common lengths of follow-up. Discussion This study is intended to accumulate the evidence for resilience training programs in improving quality of life, resilience, and self-efficacy for care management, particularly among adult patients with chronic conditions. Its findings will be valuable to policy-makers, funding agencies, clinicians, and patients seeking innovative and effective ways to achieve patient-centered care. Trial registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42014007185. PMID:24602236

2014-01-01

147

Peering into the crystal ball: influenza pandemics and vaccine efficacy.  

PubMed

The looming threat of a new influenza virus pandemic has fueled ambitious efforts to devise more predictive parameters for assessing the risks associated with emergent virus strains. At the same time, a comprehensive understanding of critical factors that can accurately predict the outcome of vaccination is sorely needed in order to improve the effectiveness of influenza virus vaccines. Will new studies aimed at identifying adaptations required for virus transmissibility and systems-level analyses of influenza virus vaccine responses provide an improved framework for predictive models of viral adaptation and vaccine efficacy? PMID:24725400

Miller, Matthew S; Palese, Peter

2014-04-10

148

The relationship of ethnic identity, career decision-making self-efficacy and outcome expectations among Latino\\/a high school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino\\/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making self-efficacy, while its association with career planning outcome expectations was mediated by self-efficacy.

George V. Gushue

2006-01-01

149

Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race  

PubMed Central

Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use. PMID:23730395

Moraska, Albert

2013-01-01

150

The efficacy of triptans in childhood and adolescence migraine.  

PubMed

Studies on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents are rare and difficult to design. In particular, the high placebo response in some trials makes it difficult to prove efficacy of a verum drug. All available placebo-controlled trials on the acute migraine treatment in children and adolescents with a triptan were analyzed with respect to different end points (rate of pain free and pain relief at 2 hours; rate of adverse events). We identified 6 crossover and 11 parallel group trials. Although the trials were heterogenous with respect to the triptans and the dosage, pooled data were calculated. The pooled responder rate of triptans for 2 hours pain free was 36.0 % in crossover trials (significant difference to placebo with 17.7 %) and 32.5 % in parallel group trials (significant difference to placebo with 26.3 %). Triptans also showed a significantly higher pain relief rate at 2 hours than placebo both in crossover and parallel group trials. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher after triptans than after placebo. However, triptans were well tolerated in all trials. At least 1 trial with significant efficacy was found for sumatriptan (10-20 mg nasal spray), zolmitriptan (2.5-5 mg tablet), rizatriptan (5-10 mg tablet), and almotriptan (12.5-25 mg tablet). Placebo rates for efficacy were considerably lower in crossover trials than in parallel group trials. This analysis suggests that parallel group trials on the acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents with a triptan show a very low therapeutic gain because of a high placebo rate. The verum response rates, however, are very similar to those seen in adulthood trials. However, there is sufficient evidence that at least some triptans are efficacious even in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23709234

Evers, Stefan

2013-07-01

151

The relation between teachers' personal teaching efficacy and students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between middle school teachers' personal teaching efficacy and their students' academic efficacy for science and inquiry science. Teachers can create classroom environments that promote the development of students' science self-efficacy (Britner & Pajares, 2006). Teachers who are efficacious and believe they are able to effectively teach science are more comfortable teaching science (Plourde, 2002) and more likely to commit classroom time to teaching science. Additionally, they are better equipped to challenge and support students as they develop their science skills and efficacy beliefs. Therefore, it was expected that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for science would be related to their students' science efficacy. Similarly, it was predicted that teachers' personal teaching efficacy for inquiry science would be related to their students' inquiry science efficacy. It was expected that the relation between teacher and student efficacy would not differ by students' gender. Data was collected from 26 middle school science teachers who were participating in a professional development program and 660 students from their classes. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses were completed to evaluate the relation between teacher and student efficacy for science and inquiry science. Planned analyses revealed no significant predictors of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. Exploratory analyses were then conducted which added student grade and a measure evaluating the quality of teacher-student relationships to the original HLM analyses. Results indicated a significant interaction between the quality of teacher-student relationships and student grade on the prediction of students' science and inquiry science efficacy. A discussion of the results along with limitations of the study and avenues for future research will be provided.

Kurien, Sarah Anjali

152

Identifying tier one key suppliers.  

PubMed

In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

Wicks, Steve

2013-01-01

153

Genotype dependent radiosensitivity of autotetraploids in Trigonella foenum-graecum L.  

PubMed

Different diploids of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and their corresponding autotetraploids were seed-treated with 40 krad of ?-rays, and parameters such as germination, survival, growth reduction, pollen fertility, pod setting, etc. were recorded. A stimulation of seed germination due to the irradiation could be observed. Contrary to the general rule that polyploids are more radioresistant than their corresponding diploids, one 4x strain was completely killed while the 2x version survived comparatively well. Apparently gene reduplication is not the overall protective mechanism as was once earlier believed. The importance of genotypic influence on radiosensitivity was demonstrated at both the 2x and 4x level. The limitation of interphase chromosome volume and degree of ploidy in predicting radiosensitivity is discussed. PMID:24301448

Raghuvanshi, S S; Singh, A K

1980-09-01

154

APOE genotype-dependent modulation of astrocyte chemokine CCL3 production.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as a regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, and is increasingly recognized to play a prominent role in the modulation of innate immune response, including cell-to-cell communication and migration. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation that appears to be an important component of the pathophysiology of the disease. Astrocytes are the majority cell type in brain, exerting significant influence over a range of central nervous system activities, including microglial-mediated neuroinflammatory responses. As the resident innate immune effector cells of the brain, microglia respond to soluble chemical signals released from tissue during injury and disease by mobilizing to lesion sites, clearing toxic molecules, and releasing chemical signals of their own. While microglial-mediated neuroinflammation in the AD brain remains an area of intense investigation, the mechanisms underlying reinforcement and regulation of these aberrant microglial responses by astrocytes are largely unstudied. Moreover, although inheritance of APOE ?4 represents the greatest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD, the mechanism by which apoE isoforms differentially influence AD pathophysiology is unknown. Here we show that APOE ?4 genotype specifically modulates astrocyte secretion of potent microglial chemotactic agents, including CCL3, thus providing evidence that APOE modulation of central nervous system (CNS) innate immune response is mediated through astrocytes. GLIA 2015;63:51-65. PMID:25092803

Cudaback, Eiron; Yang, Yue; Montine, Thomas J; Keene, C Dirk

2015-01-01

155

Osteoradionecrosis in Head-and-Neck Cancer Has a Distinct Genotype-Dependent Cause  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We performed a case-control study to establish whether the development of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) was related to a variant allele substituting T for C at -509 of the transforming growth factor-{beta}1 gene (TGF-{beta}1). Patients and Methods: A total of 140 patients, 39 with and 101 without ORN, who underwent radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer with a minimum of 2 years follow-up, were studied. None of the patients had clinical evidence of recurrence at this time. DNA extracted from blood was genotyped for the -509 C-T variant allele of the TGF-{beta}1 gene. Results: There were no significant differences in patient, cancer treatment, or tumor characteristics between the two groups. Of the 39 patients who developed ORN, 9 were homozygous for the common CC allele, 19 were heterozygous, and 11 were homozygous for the rare TT genotype. Of the 101 patients without ORN, the distribution was 56 (CC), 33 (CT), and 12 (TT). The difference in distribution was significant, giving an increased risk of ORN of 5.7 (95% CI, 1.7-19.2) for homozygote TT patients (p = 0.001) and 3.6 (95% CI, 1.3-10.0) for heterozygotes (p = 0.004) when compared with patients with the CC genotype. Postradiotherapy dentoalveolar surgery preceding the development of ORN was associated with the CC genotype (p = 0.02). Conclusions: Our findings support the postulate that the development of ORN is related to the presence of the T variant allele at -509 within the TGF-{beta}1 gene.

Lyons, Andrew J., E-mail: Andrew.Lyons@gstt.nhs.uk [Head and Neck Unit, Guy's and St. Thomas' Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M. [University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Risk, Janet M. [Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Slevin, Nick J.; Chan, Clara [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Crichton, Siobhan [Division of Health and Social Care Research, King's College, London (United Kingdom); Rinck, Gabrielle; Howell, Dawn [Laboratory 21, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Shaw, Richard J. [Liverpool CR-UK Centre, Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15

156

Viability of cytochrome c genotypes depends on cytoplasmic backgrounds in Tigriopus californicus.  

PubMed

Because of their extensive functional interaction, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear genes may evolve to form coadapted complexes within reproductively isolated populations. As a consequence of coadaptation, the fitness of particular nuclear alleles may depend on mtDNA genotype. Among populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus, there are high levels of amino acid substitutions in both the mtDNA genes encoding subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and the nuclear gene encoding cytochrome c (CYC), the substrate for COX. Because of the functional interaction between enzyme and substrate proteins, we hypothesized that the fitness of CYC genotypes would depend on mtDNA genotype. To test this hypothesis, segregation ratios for CYC and a second nuclear marker (histone H1) unrelated to mitochondrial function were scored in F2 progeny of several reciprocal interpopulation crosses. Genotypic ratios at the CYC locus (but not the H1 locus) differed between reciprocal crosses and differed from expected Mendelian ratios, suggesting that CYC genotypic fitnesses were strongly influenced by cytoplasmic (including mtDNA) background. However, in most cases the nature of the deviations from Mendelian ratios and differences between reciprocal crosses are not consistent with simple coevolution between CYC and mtDNA background. In a cross in which both newly hatched larvae and adults were sampled, only the adult sample showed deviations from Mendelian ratios, indicating that genotypic viabilities differed. In two of six crosses, large genotypic ratio differences for CYC were observed between the sexes. These results suggest that significant variation in nuclear-mtDNA coadaptation may exist between T. californicus populations and that the relative viability of specific cytonuclear allelic combinations is somehow affected by sex. PMID:11580018

Willett, C S; Burton, R S

2001-08-01

157

Genotype-dependent variation of mitochondrial transcriptional profiles in interpopulation hybrids.  

PubMed

Hybridization between populations can disrupt gene expression, frequently resulting in deleterious hybrid phenotypes. Reduced fitness in interpopulation hybrids of the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus has been traced to interactions between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here, we determine transcript levels of four to six genes involved in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway for a series of parental and inbred hybrid lines using RT-qPCR. Both nuclear and mitochondrial-encoded genes are included in the analysis. Although all genes studied are up-regulated under salinity stress, only expression of genes located on the mtDNA differed among lines. Because mitochondrial genes are transcribed by a dedicated RNA polymerase encoded in the nuclear genome, we compare transcript levels among hybrid lines with different combinations of mitochondrial RNA polymerase and mtDNA genotypes. Lines bearing certain mtDNA-mitochondrial RNA polymerase genotypic combinations show a diminished capacity to up-regulate mitochondrial genes in response to hypoosmotic stress. Effects on the transcriptional profile depend on the specific interpopulation cross and are correlated with viability effects. We hypothesize that disruption of the mitochondrial transcriptional system in F(2) hybrids may play a central role in hybrid breakdown. PMID:18843106

Ellison, Christopher K; Burton, Ronald S

2008-10-14

158

The genotype dependent presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as tertiary amine in Jacobaea vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary metabolites such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. PAs can occur in plants in two forms: tertiary amine (free base) and N-oxide. PA extraction and detection are of great importance for the understanding of the role of PAs as plant defense compounds, as the tertiary PA form is known for its stronger influence on

Lotte Joosten; Dandan Cheng; Patrick P. J. Mulder; Klaas Vrieling; Johannes A. van Veen; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer

2011-01-01

159

Tissue Distribution, Gender- and Genotype-Dependent Expression of Autophagy-Related Genes in Avian Species  

PubMed Central

As a result of the genetic selection of broiler (meat-type breeders) chickens for enhanced growth rate and lower feed conversion ratio, it has become necessary to restrict feed intake. When broilers are fed ad libitum, they would become obese and suffer from several health-related problems. A vital adaptation to starvation is autophagy, a self-eating mechanism for recycling cellular constituents. The autophagy pathway has witnessed dramatic growth in the last few years and extensively studied in yeast and mammals however, there is a paucity of information in avian (non-mammalian) species. Here we characterized several genes involved in autophagosome initiation and elongation in Red Jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and Japanese quail (coturnix coturnix Japonica). Both complexes are ubiquitously expressed in chicken and quail tissues (liver, leg and breast muscle, brain, gizzard, intestine, heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, ovary and testis). Alignment analysis showed high similarity (50.7 to 91.5%) between chicken autophagy-related genes and their mammalian orthologs. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the evolutionary relationship between autophagy genes is consistent with the consensus view of vertebrate evolution. Interestingly, the expression of autophagy-related genes is tissue- and gender- dependent. Furthermore, using two experimental male quail lines divergently selected over 40 generations for low (resistant, R) or high (sensitive, S) stress response, we found that the expression of most studied genes are higher in R compared to S line. Together our results indicate that the autophagy pathway is a key molecular signature exhibited gender specific differences and likely plays an important role in response to stress in avian species. PMID:25386921

Greene, Elizabeth; Lassiter, Kentu; Mason, James G.; Anthony, Nicholas; Dridi, Sami

2014-01-01

160

Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.  

PubMed

Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice. PMID:19089630

Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

2009-01-01

161

Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male C57BL\\/6J, BALB\\/c, and DBA\\/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL\\/6J mice\\u000a had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB\\/c mice had low levels\\u000a of memory trace retention and DBA\\/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent

A. P. Bel’nik; R. U. Ostrovskaya; I. I. Poletaeva

2009-01-01

162

Morpho-histology and genotype dependence of in vitro morphogenesis in mature embryo cultures of wheat.  

PubMed

Cellular totipotency is one of the basic principles of plant biotechnology. Currently, the success of the procedure used to produce transgenic plants is directly proportional to the successful insertion of foreign DNA into the genome of suitable target tissue/cells that are able to regenerate plants. The mature embryo (ME) is increasingly recognized as a valuable explant for developing regenerable cell lines in wheat biotechnology. We have previously developed a regeneration procedure based on fragmented ME in vitro culture. Before we can use this regeneration system as a model for molecular studies of the morphogenic pathway induced in vitro and investigate the functional links between regenerative capacity and transformation receptiveness, some questions need to be answered. Plant regeneration from cultured tissues is genetically controlled. Factors such as age/degree of differentiation and physiological conditions affect the response of explants to culture conditions. Plant regeneration in culture can be achieved through embryogenesis or organogenesis. In this paper, the suitability of ME tissues for tissue culture and the chronological series of morphological data observed at the macroscopic level are documented. Genetic variability at each step of the regeneration process was evaluated through a varietal comparison of several elite wheat cultivars. A detailed histological analysis of the chronological sequence of morphological events during ontogeny was conducted. Compared with cultures of immature zygotic embryos, we found that the embryogenic pathway occurs slightly earlier and is of a different origin in our model. Cytological, physiological, and some biochemical aspects of somatic embryo formation in wheat ME culture are discussed. PMID:24763701

Delporte, Fabienne; Pretova, Anna; du Jardin, Patrick; Watillon, Bernard

2014-11-01

163

The genotype-dependent influence of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes on fetal development.  

PubMed

In many cases cancer is caused by gene deficiency that is being passed along from generation to generation. Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promising applications in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, however, the potential relationship between cancer-prone individuals and response to CNT exposure as a prerequisite for development of personalized nanomedicine, is still poorly understood. Here we report that intravenous injections of multi-walled carbon nanotubes into p53 (a well-known cancer-susceptible gene) heterozygous pregnant mice can induce p53- dependent responses in fetal development. Larger sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes moved across the blood-placenta barrier (BPB), restricted the development of fetuses, and induced brain deformity, whereas single-walled and smaller sized multi-walled carbon nanotubes showed no or less fetotoxicity. A molecular mechanism study found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes directly triggered p53-dependent apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. Based on the molecular mechanism, we also incorporated N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an FDA approved antioxidant, to prevent CNTs induced nuclear DNA damage and reduce brain development abnormalities. Our findings suggest that CNTs might have genetic background-dependent toxic effect on the normal development of the embryo, and provide new insights into protection against nanoparticle-induced toxicity in potential clinical applications. PMID:24344357

Huang, Xinglu; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Xiaolian; Choi, Ki-Young; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Guofeng; Guo, Jinxia; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

2014-01-01

164

[Dabigatran (Pradaxa): efficacy and safety].  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in developing new, orally available anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. In Europe, the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) are more commonly prescribed for thrombosis prevention, but require parenteral administration, platelets monitoring twice a week during the first month. Furthermore, LMWH are not synthetic. All of these characteristics can be an obstacle to optimal patient care, particularly when outpatient dosing is required after early discharge. New oral anticoagulants that require no monitoring and can be administered in a fixed dose without drug-drug and drug-food interactions would clearly offer practical advantages if shown to be safe and effective. dabigatran étexilate, a new oral, direct thrombin inhibitor, is the prodrug of the active compound dabigatran, which binds reversibly to thrombin with high affinity and specificity. This agent has a rapid onset of action, a predictable and reproducible that permit once-daily dosing. To date, more than 8,000 patients have been studied in clinical trials, and more than 38,000 individuals are enrolled in ongoing trials. Three major prospective, randomized, double-blind non-inferiority trials have compared the efficacy and safety of dabigatran étexilate (150 mg or 220 mg once-daily) starting postoperatively, with subcutaneous enoxaparin, in patients undergoing hip (RE-NOVATE trial) or knee arthroplasty (RE-MOBILIZE and RE-MODEL). Based on these trial results, dabigatran étexilate is approved for use in the European Union and Canada for primary prevention of VTE in patients having undergone elective total hip and knee arthroplasty. Pradaxa is now on the market in France since December 2008. PMID:19875000

Rosencher, N; Bellamy, L

2009-09-01

165

Identifier Labeling Using Graphical Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we apply Bayesian Networks to the labeling of arbitrary string identifiers from search results over a music database. We find that our models perform with a 58% labeling ac- curacy, with errors primarily occurring when la- beling string data not been seen during training. We also present a method for searching potential labelings which attempts to address

Brian Ferris; Stephen Friedman

166

Identified Sins in Teaching Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper cites as selected taboos in teaching reading (identified by educators very frequently) the following: (1) homogeneous grouping; (2) round robin reading; (3) use of textbooks and workbooks in the curriculum; (4) individual endeavors in school work; (5) memorization of content; and (6) the controlled vocabulary in reading. The paper…

Ediger, Marlow

167

Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

2012-01-01

168

Identifying predictors of treatment response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a rationale for considering predictors of growth in a treatment group as inadequate to identifying predictors of treatment response. When we interpret predictors of growth in a treatment group as synonymous with predictors of treatment response, we implicitly attribute all of the treated children's growth to the treatment, an untenable assump- tion under most conditions. We also

Paul Yoder; Don Compton

2004-01-01

169

Minimal output sets for identifiability.  

PubMed

Ordinary differential equation models in biology often contain a large number of parameters that must be determined from measurements by parameter estimation. For a parameter estimation procedure to be successful, there must be a unique set of parameters that can have produced the measured data. This is not the case if a model is not uniquely structurally identifiable with the given set of outputs selected as measurements. In designing an experiment for the purpose of parameter estimation, given a set of feasible but resource-consuming measurements, it is useful to know which ones must be included in order to obtain an identifiable system, or whether the system is unidentifiable from the feasible measurement set. We have developed an algorithm that, from a user-provided set of variables and parameters or functions of them assumed to be measurable or known, determines all subsets that when used as outputs give a locally structurally identifiable system and are such that any output set for which the system is structurally identifiable must contain at least one of the calculated subsets. The algorithm has been implemented in Mathematica and shown to be feasible and efficient. We have successfully applied it in the analysis of large signalling pathway models from the literature. PMID:22609467

Anguelova, Milena; Karlsson, Johan; Jirstrand, Mats

2012-09-01

170

"Geriatricizing" Hospitalists: Identifying Educational Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to identify differences between geriatricians and hospitalists in caring for hospitalized older adults, so as to inform faculty development programs that have the goal of improving older patient care. Eleven hospitalists and 13 geriatricians were surveyed regarding knowledge, confidence, and practice patterns in…

Friedman, Susan M.; Gillespie, Suzanne M.; Medina-Walpole, Annette M.; Caprio, Thomas V.; Karuza, Jurgis; McCann, Robert M.

2013-01-01

171

Developing Self-Efficacy through Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A coach's role is to develop and sustain the athlete's self-efficacy by ensuring performance success, communicating effectively, using role-modeling techniques, reducing anxiety-producing factors, and using positive reinforcement. (JN)

Feltz, Deborah L.; Weiss, Maureen R.

1982-01-01

172

Testing Compounds for Efficacy against Schistosomiasis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this four year funding period, attempts were made to determine the efficacy of the compound Niclosamide as a potential Topical Antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae (ineffective larval) of Schistosoma mansoni, S. haemotobium, and S.japonicum in mon...

J. I. Bruce

1990-01-01

173

Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.  

PubMed

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

174

Identifying Periods of Drowsy Driving Using EEG  

PubMed Central

Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation’s highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

2013-01-01

175

Quantifying Influenza Vaccine Efficacy and Antigenic Distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new measure of antigenic distance between influenza A vaccine\\u000aand circulating strains. The measure correlates well with efficacies of the\\u000aH3N2 influenza A component of the annual vaccine between 1971 and 2004, as do\\u000aresults of a theory of the immune response to influenza following vaccination.\\u000aThis new measure of antigenic distance is correlated with vaccine efficacy

Vishal Gupta; David J. Earl; Michael W. Deem

2005-01-01

176

Self-Efficacy and Teaching Effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

programs with high levels of self-efficacy (a belief in one's capabilities). These levels of self-efficacy frequently decline as pre-service teachers progress through their curriculum and make the transition to in-service teaching. A slight decline in these levels can be interpreted as a novice teacher's greater understanding of the complexity of the teaching process. Eighteen pre-service string teachers evaluated their levels

Gail V. Barnes

177

Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

Julian Barling; Mike Abel

1983-01-01

178

Development of a Career Task Self-Efficacy Scale: The Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study consisted of developing the Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES). The KTSES is a 30-item scale measuring a person's self-efficacy for tasks corresponding to Kuder's 10 occupational interest areas (Kuder Zytowski, 1991). Responses from the KTSES were compared with responses to the Self-Esteem Inventory (SES; Rosenberg, 1965) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor Betz, 1983) to

Jennifer L. Lucas; Connie R. Wanberg; Donald G. Zytowski

1997-01-01

179

Social-Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social-cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (pmtintan- tion). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave

180

Social–Cognitive Predictors of Health Behavior: Action Self-Efficacy and Coping Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of social–cognitive variables on preventive nutrition and behavioral intentions were studied in 580 adults at 2 points in time. The authors hypothesized that optimistic self-beliefs operate in 2 phases and made a distinction between action self-efficacy (preintention) and coping self-efficacy (postintention). Risk perceptions, outcome expectancies, and action self-efficacy were specified as predictors of the intention at Wave 1.

Ralf Schwarzer; Britta Renner

2000-01-01

181

Falls efficacy and self-rated health in older African American adults.  

PubMed

Fear of falling and mobility restrictions have a significant negative impact on the quality of life of older adults. Because older African American adults are at increased risk for various modifiable health problems, understanding potential constraints on their overall health and mobility is critical in this population. The current study investigated this issue by analyzing a dataset of 449 older African American adults (mean age=72.3 years) living in Detroit. We characterized and investigated the relationships among the following falls- and health-related variables: previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, self-rated health (SRH), and depression and well-being. As a whole, participants reported moderate health and well-being, little depression, few mobility problems (mean=8.4/40), and very high falls efficacy (mean=94.9/100) despite the fact that a quarter of the sample experienced a fall within the past year. Correlation results indicated that previous falls, falls efficacy, mobility, SRH and depression and well-being were all inter-related. Regression analyses revealed that higher falls efficacy was more closely associated with better SRH than was having previously fallen. Findings suggest that improving falls efficacy in older African American adults may be beneficial to their mobility and overall health and well-being. Further, by asking a single-item SRH question, clinicians may be able to quickly identify older African American adults who have low falls efficacy and are at high risk for falling. PMID:24063870

Tiernan, Chad; Lysack, Cathy; Neufeld, Stewart; Goldberg, Allon; Lichtenberg, Peter A

2014-01-01

182

Sex Educators and Self-Efficacy: Toward a Taxonomy of Enactive Mastery Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Enactive mastery experiences have been identified as the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs. Yet little is known about enactive mastery experiences, including how such experiences manifest in naturally occurring situations (as opposed to simulated situations). This study draws from semistructured interviews (N = 50) with sex…

Jensen, Robin E.

2012-01-01

183

Impact of Peer Coaching on Self-Efficacy and Instructional Skills in TEFL Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to test whether student teachers trained using a peer coaching training program after teaching practicum sessions in teaching of English as a foreign language would demonstrate greater improvement on measures of a number of identified instructional skills and self-efficacy than those just receiving traditional supervisor…

Goker, Suleyman Davut

2006-01-01

184

A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teaching Mathematics with Concrete Manipulatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics is often prescribed as an efficacious teaching strategy. To examine the empirical evidence regarding the use of manipulatives during mathematics instruction, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. This search identified 55 studies that compared instruction with manipulatives to a control…

Carbonneau, Kira J.; Marley, Scott C.; Selig, James P.

2013-01-01

185

Generalist Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Primary School Music Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study focuses on the music teaching experiences of five Australian generalist primary school teachers in their third year of teaching. The aim was to identify these teachers' current practices in teaching music, in particular their self-efficacy in relation to teaching music. A narrative inquiry methodology was employed,…

de Vries, Peter

2013-01-01

186

Evaluation of efficacy and safety of rucinol serum in patients with melasma: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Melasma is a hyperpigmentation disorder predominantly affecting sun- exposed areas in women, which is often refractory to treatment. Most commer- cially available treatments incorporate inhibitors of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin production within the melanocyte. In general, however, the efficacy of these therapies is somewhat limited. Recent studies have identified other enzymes that play an important role in

A. Khemis; A. Kaiafa; C. Queille-Roussel; L. Duteil; J. P. Ortonne

2007-01-01

187

Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of environmental management for malaria control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roll Back Malaria aims at halving the current burden of the disease by the year 2010. The focus is on sub-Saharan Africa, and it is proposed to implement efficacious and costeffective control strategies. However, the evidence-base of such information is scarce, and a notable missing element is discussion of the potential of environmental management. We reviewed the literature and identified

Jürg Utzinger; Yesim Tozan; Burton H. Singer

2001-01-01

188

Discovery of CX-6258. A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious pan-Pim Kinases Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Structure–activity relationship analysis in a series of 3-(5-((2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)methyl)furan-2-yl)amides identified compound 13, a pan-Pim kinases inhibitor with excellent biochemical potency and kinase selectivity. Compound 13 exhibited in vitro synergy with chemotherapeutics and robust in vivo efficacy in two Pim kinases driven tumor models. PMID:24900437

2011-01-01

189

Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

Cooper, J. Darrell

2010-01-01

190

Confidence: A Better Predictor of Academic Achievement than Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Anxiety?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a study that assessed confidence together with scales measuring self-belief--i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety--among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics (N = 1940) and English (N = 1786). Our…

Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun; Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.

2012-01-01

191

Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

2000-01-01

192

Efficacy and Tolerability of Topiramate in Children Younger Than 2 Years Old  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in children with epilepsy younger than 2 years of age, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients treated at our institution between 2001 and 2003. Thirteen children ages 5 to 23 months, five boys and eight girls, were identified. Seizure types were partial (five), generalized tonic-clonic (three), myoclonic (one), and infantile spasms

Ignacio Valencia; Carmen Fons; Sanjeev V. Kothare; Divya S. Khurana; Sabrina Yum; H. Huntley Hardison; Agustin Legido

2005-01-01

193

The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

194

"A Compliment Is All I Need"--Teachers Telling Principals How to Promote Their Staff's Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study is to compare the perceptions of teachers representing opposite ends of the self-efficacy spectrum regarding the effects of the principal's behavior on their professional self-efficacy. In the first quantitative stage, a statistical procedure was conducted to identify the two groups of teachers: a group of 16…

Kass, Efrat

2013-01-01

195

A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

Skoretz, Yvonne M.

2011-01-01

196

Identifying the potential rural optometrist.  

PubMed

Rural optometrists were found to differ from urban optometrists in background, environmental attitude, and interest patterns. Attitude toward the urban environment and place of origin were the best predictors of an optometrist's practice location. When "urbanism" and "origin" were scaled and placed in a multiple regression equation to predict practice location, identification of an optometrist's location as rural or urban was highly accurate. Most importantly, scores on the equation were predictive of optometry students' future practice locations. A single cut-off point on the equation correctly identified 79% of students who entered rural or isolated small city practice and 81% of those who entered urban practice. The findings suggest that optometry students most likely to enter rural (or indeed urban) practice can be objectively identified early in, or even prior to, training. Such identification may assist educators in selecting and training optometrists who will deliver vision care to people in areas of greatest need. PMID:984177

Kegel-Flom, P

1976-09-01

197

Identifying and managing problem drinkers.  

PubMed Central

Problem drinking is far more common than severe alcohol dependence and is associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Whereas patients with alcohol dependence respond best to intensive treatment, one or more brief sessions of physician advice and counseling reduces alcohol consumption among problem drinkers. The two most useful tools to identify problem drinkers are the CAGE and the drinking problem question. PMID:8653034

Kahan, M.

1996-01-01

198

DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological\\u000a characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study,\\u000a a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species\\u000a from European seas based on

M. Kochzius; M. Nölte; H. Weber; N. Silkenbeumer; S. Hjörleifsdottir; G. O. Hreggvidsson; V. Marteinsson; K. Kappel; S. Planes; F. Tinti; A. Magoulas; E. Garcia Vazquez; C. Turan; C. Hervet; D. Campo Falgueras; A. Antoniou; M. Landi; D. Blohm

2008-01-01

199

A Yeast Chemical Genetic Screen Identifies Inhibitors of Human Telomerase  

PubMed Central

Summary Telomerase comprises a reverse transcriptase and an internal RNA template that maintains telomeres in many eukaryotes, and it is a well-validated cancer target. However, there is a dearth of small molecules with efficacy against human telomerase in vivo. We developed a surrogate yeast high-throughput assay to identify human telomerase inhibitors. The reversibility of growth arrest induced by active human telomerase was assessed against a library of 678 compounds preselected for bioactivity in S. cerevisiae. Four of eight compounds identified reproducibly restored growth to strains expressing active human telomerase, and three of these four compounds also specifically inhibited purified human telomerase in vitro. These compounds represent probes for human telomerase function, and potential entry points for development of lead compounds against telomerase-positive cancers. PMID:23521791

Wong, Lai Hong; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Spitzer, Michaela; White, Rachel; Tyers, Mike; Harrington, Lea

2013-01-01

200

Mapping the Nomological Network of Career Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined degree to which personality hardiness, career beliefs, self-efficacy, and occupational choice status related to career self-efficacy among 181 college juniors and seniors. Results indicated that motivation, self-efficacy, occupational choice status, and commitment correlated significantly to career self-efficacy. (Author/NB)

Niles, Spencer G.; Sowa, Claudia J.

1992-01-01

201

Multifaceted Impact of Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Academic Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed the psychosocial influences through which efficacy beliefs affect academic achievement. Found that parents' sense of academic efficacy and aspirations for their children, children's beliefs in their efficacy to regulate their own learning and academic attainments, children's perceived social efficacy and ability to manage peer pressure,…

Bandura, Albert; And Others

1996-01-01

202

Teacher Efficacy and Diversity: Implications for Teacher Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated teacher efficacy in the context of diversity, focusing on: whether elementary school teachers' feelings of efficacy would differ according to their students' language backgrounds; whether the teachers' feelings of efficacy in teaching standard English speaking students would relate to their feelings of efficacy in teaching…

Tasan, Andrea P.

203

Efficacy Methods to Evaluate Health Communication and Marketing Campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication and marketing are growing areas of health research, but relatively few rigorous efficacy studies have been conducted in these fields. In this article, we review recent health communication and marketing efficacy research, present two case studies that illustrate some of the considerations in making efficacy design choices, and advocate for greater emphasis on rigorous health communication and marketing efficacy

W. Douglas Evans; Jennifer Uhrig; Kevin Davis; Lauren McCormack

2009-01-01

204

Development and validation of in-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the context of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery. Validation of the four scales for the Pakistani teachers was achieved by obtaining unidimensional factors. Cronbach

Sadia Shaukat

2011-01-01

205

Maternal Self-Efficacy of Mothers of Children with Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, Down Syndrome, and Autism in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to identify the perception of maternal self-efficacy among 95 Kuwaiti mothers of children with Developmental\\u000a Disabilities (DD) to determine the differences in perception of maternal self-efficacy variables among the mothers based on\\u000a demographic variables: Child’s age, Gender, Type of disability, Leisure time, and Mother’s age. A survey was conducted using\\u000a Kandari’s (2005, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simmons College,

Humoud Al-Qashan

2010-01-01

206

THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND COLLECTIVE EFFICACY  

PubMed Central

Collective efficacy, or perception of mutual trust and willingness to help each other, is a measure of neighborhood social capital and has been associated with positive health outcomes including lower rates of assaults, homicide, premature mortality, and asthma. Collective efficacy is frequently considered a “cause”, but we hypothesized that environmental features might be the foundation for, or the etiology of personal reports of neighborhood collective efficacy. We analyzed data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study (LA FANS) together with geographical data from Los Angeles County to determine which social and environmental features were associated with personal reports of collective efficacy, including presence of parks, alcohol outlets, elementary schools and fast food outlets. We used multi-level modeling controlling for age, education, annual family income, sex, marital status, employment and race/ethnicity at the individual level. At the tract level we controlled for tract level disadvantage, the number of off-sale alcohol outlets per roadway mile; the number of parks and the number of fast-food outlets within the tract and within one-half mile of the tract’s boundaries. We found that parks were independently and positively associated with collective efficacy; alcohol outlets were negatively associated with collective efficacy only when tract level disadvantage was not included in the model. Fast food outlets and elementary schools were not linearly related to collective efficacy. Certain environmental features may set the stage for neighborhood social interactions, thus serving as a foundation for underlying health and well-being. Altering these environmental features may have greater than expected impact on health. PMID:17644395

Cohen, Deborah A; Inagami, Sanae; Finch, Brian

2009-01-01

207

[Gifted children! How to identify].  

PubMed

Recognizing the intellectually gifted child allows one to anticipate the onset of behavioral disorders and to respond to them so as to improve quality of life for these children and their family. Certain signs can draw attention to this phenomenon. The decisive criterion has always been IQ. The notion of intelligence should be broadened and researchers have adventured beyond the purely intellectual competencies, which value most prominently the educational sphere. In addition, the modeling of high potential is currently renewing the approach to this question. This article takes this complexity into account and presents the main criteria used for identifying intellectually gifted children. PMID:22325457

Revol, O; Bléandonu, G

2012-03-01

208

Covariates of Self-Efficacy: Caregiver Characteristics Related to Mental Health Services Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly, professionals are recognizing the need to involve parents and other caregivers in the mental health treatment of children. However, parents and caregivers may not feel efficacious when participating in mental health care. Self-efficacy is a mechanism of human agency that describes people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise…

Reich, S.; Bickman, L.; Heflinger, C. A.

2004-01-01

209

Covariates of Self-EfficacyCaregiver Characteristics Related to Mental Health Services Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, professionals are recognizing the need to involve parents and other caregivers in the mental health treatment of children. However, parents and caregivers may not feel efficacious when participating in mental health care. Self-efficacy is a mechanism of human agency that describes people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives. The authors of this

Stephanie Reich; Leonard Bickman; Craig Anne Heflinger

2004-01-01

210

Relationships among Measures of Career Self-Efficacy, Generalized Self-Efficacy, and Global Self-Esteem.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students (n=200) completed the Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDMSE-SF) and Skills Confidence Inventory; 147 completed the CDMSE-SF and Occupational and Mathematical Self-Efficacy Scales. Career decision-making self-efficacy was more highly correlated with generalized self-efficacy than global self-esteem,…

Betz, Nancy E.; Klein, Karla L.

1996-01-01

211

MODERATOR EFFECTS OF SELF-EFFICACY ON OCCUPATIONAL STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses self-efficacy as a moderator in the occupational stress process. Specifically, it analyses the comple- mentarity between two self-efficacy measures: generalised and professional. The initial hypothesis was that specific self- efficacy will moderate more stress-strain relationships than generalised self-efficacy. Based on data collected from 140 wor- kers that use new technologies in their jobs, we found that self-efficacy

Rosa Grau; Marisa Salanova; José María Peiró

212

Identifying future zoonotic disease threats  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Emerging infectious diseases often originate in wildlife, making it important to identify infectious agents in wild populations. It is widely acknowledged that wild animals are incompletely sampled for infectious agents, especially in developing countries, but it is unclear how much more sampling is needed, and where that effort should focus in terms of host species and geographic locations. Here, we identify these gaps in primate parasites, many of which have already emerged as threats to human health. Methodology: We obtained primate host–parasite records and other variables from existing databases. We then investigated sampling effort within primates relative to their geographic range size, and within countries relative to their primate species richness. We used generalized linear models, controlling for phylogenetic or spatial autocorrelation, to model variation in sampling effort across primates and countries. Finally, we used species richness estimators to extrapolate parasite species richness. Results: We found uneven sampling effort within all primate groups and continents. Sampling effort among primates was influenced by their geographic range size and substrate use, with terrestrial species receiving more sampling. Our parasite species richness estimates suggested that, among the best sampled primates and countries, almost half of primate parasites remain to be sampled; for most primate hosts, the situation is much worse. Conclusions and implications: Sampling effort for primate parasites is uneven and low. The sobering message is that we know little about even the best studied primates, and even less regarding the spatial and temporal distribution of parasitism within species. PMID:24481184

Cooper, Natalie; Nunn, Charles L.

2013-01-01

213

Maintaining autonomy despite multimorbidity: self-efficacy and the two faces of social support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multimorbidity—the co-occurrence of multiple illnesses—is a frequent condition in older adults and poses serious threats to\\u000a autonomy. In order to identify resources for autonomy despite multimorbidity, our longitudinal study tested main and interaction\\u000a effects of personal and social resources (self-efficacy and social support) on maintaining autonomy. Three hundred and nine\\u000a individuals (aged 65–85 years) with multiple illnesses completed measures of self-efficacy

Lisa M. WarnerJochen; Jochen P. Ziegelmann; Benjamin Schüz; Susanne Wurm; Clemens Tesch-Römer; Ralf Schwarzer

2011-01-01

214

Sex educators and self-efficacy: toward a taxonomy of enactive mastery experiences.  

PubMed

Enactive mastery experiences have been identified as the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs. Yet little is known about enactive mastery experiences, including how such experiences manifest in naturally occurring situations (as opposed to simulated situations). This study draws from semistructured interviews (N = 50) with sex educators working in public secondary schools throughout Indiana to explicate distinct categories of enactive mastery experiences. Three types of enactive mastery experiences--growth, interactive, and endorsed--emerged from the data and are delineated. This formative taxonomy provides detailed targets for those working to foster individuals' perceived self-efficacy in a variety of contexts, including the health education classroom. PMID:21551422

Jensen, Robin E

2012-06-01

215

Identifying Old Tidal Dwarf Irregulars  

E-print Network

We examine the observational consequences of the two possible origins for irregular galaxies: formation from collapse of a primordial cloud of gas early in the age of the Universe, and formation from tidal tails in an interaction that could have occured any time in the history of the Universe. Because the formation from tidal tails could have occurred a long time ago, proximity to larger galaxies is not sufficient to distinguish tidal dwarfs from traditional dwarfs. We consider the effects of little or no dark matter on rotation speeds and the Tully-Fisher relationship, the metallicity-luminosity relationship, structure, and stellar populations. From these selection criteria, we identify a small list of dwarf irregular galaxies that are candidates for having formed as tidal dwarfs.

Deidre A. Hunter; Sally D. Hunsberger; Erin W. Roye

2000-05-11

216

Identifying Contienents, Oceans, and Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah Core Curriculum Social Studies Standard #6: Students use map skills to analyze the influence of physical features of th building of communities in the United States. Objective #1: Examine Maps and Globes Indicator #1: Identify Oceans and Continents of the World. Using the following activities and instructions you will be able to learn about the 5 oceans and the 7 continents. You will also be able to find them on a map get better understanding of the four directions. As we discussed last time in class the five oceans of the world are: Artic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean (discovered in 2000) Click on the link below and print out the worksheet. This will help you locate the oceans and recognize their placement. Complete the worksheet to the best of our ...

Ms.bingham

2007-11-06

217

Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

2007-02-02

218

Self-Efficacy and green entrepreneurship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.

Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.

2013-06-01

219

Promoting and measuring family caregiver self-efficacy in caregiver-physician interactions.  

PubMed

This article describes the development of a 5-item scale that assesses family caregivers' self-efficacy in communicating with physicians about ill family members (Perceived Efficacy in Caregiver-Physician Interactions-PECPI) in the context of an evaluation study of an online training in health care communication skills for caregivers. A national sample of 197 self-identified family caregivers participated in an online webinar and completed a brief evaluation instrument before and immediately after the training. Results indicated that the webinar was effective in increasing perceived self-efficacy and self-reported knowledge about and level of preparation for medical visits. Principal component analysis indicates that the PECPI is unidimensional with a Cronbach's alpha of .91. PMID:22136346

Moore, Crystal Dea; Cook, Kevin M

2011-01-01

220

Self-efficacy and quality of life among people with bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

People with bipolar disorders report a lower quality of life than the general population does, and few mutable factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people with bipolar disorders have been identified. Using a cross-sectional design, these analyses examined whether self-efficacy was associated with mental and physical HRQoL in a sample of 141 patients with bipolar disorder who completed baseline assessments for two randomized controlled trials. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with higher mental and physical HRQoL, after controlling for demographic factors and clinical factors (including mood symptoms, comorbid medical conditions, and substance use). Future research should examine whether targeted treatments that aim to improve self-efficacy (such as self-management interventions) lead to improvements in HRQoL among people with bipolar disorder and other serious mental illnesses. PMID:25010107

Abraham, Kristen M; Miller, Christopher J; Birgenheir, Denis G; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy M

2014-08-01

221

Anti-Cancer Efficacy of Silybin Derivatives - A Structure-Activity Relationship  

PubMed Central

Silybin or silibinin, a flavonolignan isolated from Milk thistle seeds, is one of the popular dietary supplements and has been extensively studied for its antioxidant, hepatoprotective and anti-cancer properties. We have envisioned that potency of silybin could be further enhanced through suitable modification/s in its chemical structure. Accordingly, here, we synthesized and characterized a series of silybin derivatives namely 2,3-dehydrosilybin (DHS), 7-O-methylsilybin (7OM), 7-O-galloylsilybin (7OG), 7,23-disulphatesilybin (DSS), 7-O-palmitoylsilybin (7OP), and 23-O-palmitoylsilybin (23OP); and compared their anti-cancer efficacy using human bladder cancer HTB9, colon cancer HCT116 and prostate carcinoma PC3 cells. In all the 3 cell lines, DHS, 7OM and 7OG demonstrated better growth inhibitory effects and compared to silybin, while other silybin derivatives showed lesser or no efficacy. Next, we prepared the optical isomers (A and B) of silybin, DHS, 7OM and 7OG, and compared their anti-cancer efficacy. Isomers of these three silybin derivatives also showed better efficacy compared with respective silybin isomers, but in each, there was no clear cut silybin A versus B isomer activity preference. Further studies in HTB cells found that DHS, 7OM and 7OG exert better apoptotic activity than silibinin. Clonogenic assays in HTB9 cells further confirmed that both the racemic mixtures as well as pure optical isomers of DHS, 7OM and 7OG were more effective than silybin. Overall, these results clearly suggest that the anti-cancer efficacy of silybin could be significantly enhanced through structural modifications, and identify strong anti-cancer efficacy of silybin derivatives, namely DHS, 7OM, and 7OG, signifying that their efficacy and toxicity should be evaluated in relevant pre-clinical cancer models in rodents. PMID:23555889

Agarwal, Chapla; Wadhwa, Ritambhara; Deep, Gagan; Biedermann, David; Gažák, Radek; K?en, Vladimír; Agarwal, Rajesh

2013-01-01

222

Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To present a meta-analysis of current research on the prevalence, identification, and treatment of problem and compulsive gamblers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Problem and compulsive gambling was not a socio-scientific concern until the last two decades. Hence research on this topic is limited. The summary and analysis for this paper relied on computer searches of journal and news abstracts in addition to direct contact with organizations addressing the identification and treatment of compulsive gamblers. MAIN MESSAGE: An estimated 5% of those who gamble run into problems. About 1% of those who gamble are predicted to experience serious problems. Successful treatment of problem and compulsive gambling continues to be a challenge. Although cognitive therapy has been the favoured approach, a combination of several therapeutic approaches is advocated. CONCLUSIONS: Problem and compulsive gambling can present a real health threat. As with other addictions, treatment strategies continue to be a baffling social problem. Aware and informed physicians can have a pivotal role in the difficult process of identifying, acknowledging, and remediating problem and compulsive gambling. PMID:10907572

van Es, R.

2000-01-01

223

Identifying acid salts of magnesium  

SciTech Connect

In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

1987-11-05

224

Identifying and Inactivating Bacterial Spores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems associated with, and new strategies for, inactivating resistant organisms like Bacillus canaveralius (found at Kennedy Space Center during a survey of three NASA cleanrooms) have been defined. Identifying the particular component of the spore that allows its heightened resistance can guide the development of sterilization procedures that are targeted to the specific molecules responsible for resistance, while avoiding using unduly harsh methods that jeopardize equipment. The key element of spore resistance is a multilayered protein shell that encases the spore called the spore coat. The coat of the best-studied spore-forming microbe, B. subtilis, consists of at least 45 proteins, most of which are poorly characterized. Several protective roles for the coat are well characterized including resistance to desiccation, large toxic molecules, ortho-phthalaldehyde, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One important long-term specific goal is an improved sterilization procedure that will enable NASA to meet planetary protection requirements without a terminal heat sterilization step. This would support the implementation of planetary protection policies for life-detection missions. Typically, hospitals and government agencies use biological indicators to ensure the quality control of sterilization processes. The spores of B. canaveralius that are more resistant to osmotic stress would serve as a better biological indicator for potential survival than those in use currently.

Newcombe, David; Dekas, Anne; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2009-01-01

225

Identifying classes of veterans with multiple risk factors.  

PubMed

As researchers examine the efficacy of interventions that simultaneously target more than 1 symptom, it is important to identify ways to help guide research and program development. This study used electronic medical record data to examine the covariation of multiple risk factors regularly assessed among primary care patients. It also examined the health care utilization of those patients identifying where the health care system came in contact with them to help identify the ideal locations these interventions may be most often used. We obtained data for six risk factors, as well as the number of primary care, mental health, and emergency department visits, from Veteran patients with a primary care visit. There were three main groups of primary care patients, identified using latent class analysis and regression. Although the smallest group, the "High Treatment Need" group, had an increased probability of screening positive for all four risk factors, the post-traumatic stress disorder screen was a significant discriminator of this group from the others. Results show that this group had the greatest number of encounters in all health care locations suggesting significant opportunities for intervention. However, future research is needed to examine the current interventions offered and potential avenues where risk factors may be addressed simultaneously. PMID:25269130

Funderburk, Jennifer S; Kenneson, Aileen; Maisto, Stephen A

2014-10-01

226

Collective efficacy and obesity: the potential influence of social factors on health.  

PubMed

Social determinants have been identified as a fundamental cause of health and disease in most industrialized countries. However, much less is known about which characteristics of communities may lead to disparities in health outcomes. Collective efficacy--the willingness of community members to look out for each other and intervene when trouble arises--is a social factor shown to be associated with outcomes related to obesity, including premature mortality and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study is to determine whether neighborhood collective efficacy is associated with individual measures of body mass index (BMI) in adolescents. We use a multi-level, cross-sectional survey in Los Angeles County, involving 807 adolescents in 684 households in 65 neighborhoods in addition to a sample of 3000 adult respondents. The main outcomes measures are BMI, at risk of overweight, and overweight status. Using a two-level model, we find significant relationships between collective efficacy and all three outcomes, net of levels of neighborhood disadvantage. The associations between BMI and collective efficacy could potentially be explained by several factors, including a metabolic pathway, neighborhood differences in the physical and social environments, or a combination of these two. If group-level collective efficacy is indeed important in the regulation of individual-level net energy balance, it suggests that future interventions to control weight by addressing the social environment at the community level may be promising. PMID:16039767

Cohen, Deborah A; Finch, Brian K; Bower, Aimee; Sastry, Narayan

2006-02-01

227

Study of induction chemotherapy efficacy in oral squamous cell carcinoma using pseudotargeted metabolomics.  

PubMed

The effect of induction chemotherapy on oral cancer is controversial owing to inconsistent results. However, the efficacy of induction chemotherapy is closely related to locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall survival after the treatment. A pseudotargeted metabolomics revealed that metabolites involved in glycolysis and amino acid metabolism were inversely regulated in patients with different chemotherapy responses, and most fatty acids, steroids, and antioxidant substances were up-regulated in all patients after the treatment. Among the metabolites, lactic acid, glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, and glycerol were remarkably associated with induction chemotherapy efficacy. Subsequently, lactic acid, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were defined as potential biomarkers of the suitability and efficacy of induction chemotherapy. Our results show that 100.0 and 84.37% of patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were correctly identified in the training and test sets, respectively. Moreover, patient suitability for treatment was correctly predicted for 100.0, 81.25, and 100.0% of patients in the training, test, and external validation sets, respectively. In conclusion, metabolites related to glycolysis, redox homeostasis, and anabolic progress were indicative of induction chemotherapy efficacy both pre- and post-chemotherapy and beneficial for outcome evaluation and prediction. These results illustrate the potentials of metabolomics in personalized induction chemotherapy. PMID:24552607

Ye, Guozhu; Liu, Ying; Yin, Peiyuan; Zeng, Zhongda; Huang, Qiang; Kong, Hongwei; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Laiping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Xu, Guowang

2014-04-01

228

The Efficacy of Intense Pulsed Light for Treating Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea Is Related to Severity and Age  

PubMed Central

Background Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous disease. Therapeutic modalities should be chosen based on the identified sub-types and clinical features in each patient. Vascular lasers, including intense pulsed light (IPL), are reportedly safe and effective in treating erythematotelangiectatic rosacea (ETR). Objective In this study, we assess the comparative efficacy of IPL related to several factors including clinical severity and the age of patients with ETR. Methods Patients with ETR were classified into two groups according to the National Rosacea Society Severity Guideline. Severity score and erythema index (EI) were measured using a clinical scorecard and mexameter. For additional evaluation of therapeutic efficacy, investigator and patient global assessments (IGA, PGA) were checked. Efficacy of IPL was analyzed according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA related to sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity. Results Analyses of the efficacy of IPL according to severity score, EI, IGA, and PGA based on sex, age, lactic acid stinging test, and severity revealed significant differences with age and severity only. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of IPL treatment for patients with ETR. IPL may be more effective in patients with more severe ETR and in younger patients with ETR. PMID:25143679

Lim, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho

2014-01-01

229

DNA Microarrays for Identifying Fishes  

PubMed Central

In many cases marine organisms and especially their diverse developmental stages are difficult to identify by morphological characters. DNA-based identification methods offer an analytically powerful addition or even an alternative. In this study, a DNA microarray has been developed to be able to investigate its potential as a tool for the identification of fish species from European seas based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. Eleven commercially important fish species were selected for a first prototype. Oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rDNA sequences obtained from 230 individuals of 27 fish species. In addition, more than 1200 sequences of 380 species served as sequence background against which the specificity of the probes was tested in silico. Single target hybridisations with Cy5-labelled, PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments from each of the 11 species on microarrays containing the complete set of probes confirmed their suitability. True-positive, fluorescence signals obtained were at least one order of magnitude stronger than false-positive cross-hybridisations. Single nontarget hybridisations resulted in cross-hybridisation signals at approximately 27% of the cases tested, but all of them were at least one order of magnitude lower than true-positive signals. This study demonstrates that the 16S rDNA gene is suitable for designing oligonucleotide probes, which can be used to differentiate 11 fish species. These data are a solid basis for the second step to create a “Fish Chip” for approximately 50 fish species relevant in marine environmental and fisheries research, as well as control of fisheries products. PMID:18270778

Nolte, M.; Weber, H.; Silkenbeumer, N.; Hjorleifsdottir, S.; Hreggvidsson, G. O.; Marteinsson, V.; Kappel, K.; Planes, S.; Tinti, F.; Magoulas, A.; Garcia Vazquez, E.; Turan, C.; Hervet, C.; Campo Falgueras, D.; Antoniou, A.; Landi, M.; Blohm, D.

2008-01-01

230

Testing the Efficacy of Chaplaincy Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current article reviews the research conducted in the United States on the clinical practice of chaplains with patients and family members, referrals to chaplains, patient satisfaction with chaplaincy services, and the limited literature on the efficacy of chaplain interventions. It also discusses the methodological limitations of studies conducted on these topics and makes suggestions for improving future chaplaincy research.

Katherine R. B. Jankowski; George F. Handzo; Kevin J. Flannelly

2011-01-01

231

Educational Efficacy of Weekly Movie Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the efficacy of a weekly movie class through students' in-school achievement, a general proficiency test, and surveys about their cultural awareness and interest in English. An experimental group watched movies with viewing guides every week for 2 months. They improved significantly more than the control group in their in-school…

Choi, Taehee

2000-01-01

232

Phonological Treatment Efficacy and Developmental Norms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies, one within subjects and the other across subjects, evaluated the efficacy of teaching sounds in developmental sequence to nine young children (ages three to five). Treatment of later-acquired phonemes led to systemwide changes in untreated sound classes, whereas treatment of early-acquired phonemes did not. Findings suggest…

Gierut, Judith A.; And Others

1996-01-01

233

Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

2000-01-01

234

Sweat Therapy Theory, Practice, and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine the potential application of sweat rituals to group counseling, adventure therapy, and other forms of group work by describing a theoretical model for how sweat rituals work and presenting the results of a randomized comparative outcome study on the efficacy of sweat therapy. The theoretical model proposes…

Eason, Allen; Colmant, Stephen; Winterowd, Carrie

2009-01-01

235

Personal Empowerment, Efficacy, and Environmental Characteristics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the personal empowerment and efficacy of teachers, relating these constructs to environmental characteristics in order to provide information for school counselors who are helping teachers in personal growth. The study also assesses the relationship to teacher conceptual level in order to determine its relationship to…

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Green, Kathy E.; Lyons, Cherie A.

236

Curricular Evaluation Using Self-Efficacy Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a methodology using self-efficacy measurements in curricular evaluation and assessment, and discusses their potential uses in pharmacy education. The suggested methodology includes item generation, validation, administration, and correlation with behavior. Describes an exploratory study using the methodology at the University of Arizona…

Plaza, Cecilia M.; Draugalis, JoLaine R.; Retterer, Jennifer; Herrier, Richard N.

2002-01-01

237

Self-Efficacy and Music Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

2006-01-01

238

Preclinical animal efficacy studies and drug development  

E-print Network

statistics, biased reporting etc Most of these major issues are caught during peer-review. Most journals do set of standards that will fit *all* studies. Limits to journals' power: Journals rely on peerPreclinical animal efficacy studies and drug development Most basic science journals do

239

The efficacy of relaxation training with children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training

Neil C. Richter

1984-01-01

240

Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

2009-01-01

241

Evaluating the efficacy of intervention.  

PubMed

The standard for reaching a verdict in civil trials is "the preponderance of the evidence." This is a valid standard to apply to evaluating the medical literature as well. Every published report should be given weight based on physicians' judgment of its reliability. Larger-scale studies should be weighted more heavily than smaller-scale studies, randomized trials more heavily than observation studies, rigorously designed trials more heavily than studies that may be biased. If there seems to be a relationship between a factor and an outcome, this does not necessarily imply that the factor caused the outcome. The association could be a result of chance variation between individuals. Statistical testing allows researchers to exclude chance as a likely cause of the relationship, but this is the only explanation ruled out by a significance test. The relationship could be a result of bias: bias in the selection of individuals for the study, bias in measurement of the factor or the outcome, or bias in differential loss to follow-up. A thorough analysis of the data is necessary to identify and exclude other possible explanations of the association. A government agency dealing with environmental regulations experimented with replacing administrative law judges with scientists. It was believed that scientists were better qualified to make the necessary technical evaluations. The experiment was not considered successful because, as one observer remarked, "Judges are used to having to reach a verdict within a short period of time based on whatever evidence is presented--scientists just can't seem to make decisions." This illustrates a similar difference between the role of the researcher and the role of the physician. The physician must decide the best treatment for each patient based only on whatever evidence is available. There is little question, however, what the patient would decide if allowed to choose between receiving the standard therapy today or waiting 5 years until conclusive scientific evidence has been obtained about whether an alternative treatment is better. Few patients would choose to wait. Yet the decisions a physician makes today will be criticized in 5 years, especially by those who never have had to make similar decisions themselves. Some decisions will turn out to be wrong when additional data are available, but physicians must make choices based on the best data currently available. The choice of medicine as a profession implies the acceptance of a life sentence to jury duty: the evidence will never stop accumulating, and the verdict must be continually reevaluated. PMID:14560895

Guzick, David S; Queenan, John T

2003-09-01

242

Systematic review of clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To collect and evaluate all trials on clinical efficacy of topical treatments for head lice. DESIGN--Systematic review of randomised trials identified from following data sources: Medline, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Science Citation Index, letters to key authors and companies, and hand search of journals. SETTING--Trials in schools or communities. SUBJECTS--Patients infested with lice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Cure rate (absence of live lice and viable nits) on day 14 after treatment. RESULTS--Total of 28 trials were identified and evaluated according to eight general and 18 lice specific criteria. Of the 14 trials rated as having low to moderate risk of bias, seven were selected as they used the main outcome measure. These seven trials described 21 evaluations of eight different compounds and placebo (all but two evaluations were of single applications). Only permethrin 1% creme rinse showed efficacy in more than two studies with the lower 95% confidence limit of cure rate above 90%. CONCLUSIONS--Only for permethrin has sufficient evidence been published to show efficacy. Less expensive treatments such as malathion and carbaryl need more evidence of efficacy. Lindane and the natural pyrethrines are not sufficiently effective to justify their use. PMID:7545045

Vander Stichele, R. H.; Dezeure, E. M.; Bogaert, M. G.

1995-01-01

243

Changes in perceived self-efficacy and attitude toward science and teaching science in elementary school  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was developed in an effort to ascertain if a proposed biological laboratory curriculum as developed and modeled by the instructor would affect the attitudes and perceived self-efficacy towards science, science teaching and ability to learn science of pre-service elementary teachers. Self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies were incorporated as the variation. Attitudinal topics investigated were the perceived ability to learn science and to teach science. Students in one biology for non-science majors. biology laboratory class at the University of Southern Mississippi participated in this case study. The group participated in the modified laboratory section which utilized SRL activities, including reflections on in-class activities. In addition to these activities, the group worked within the state.s elementary science framework to design and implement science lessons. Password protected on-line surveys were used at the beginning and the end of the course to assess the attitudes, perceived self-efficacy and self-regulated learning level of all students. Interviews with participants were conducted as follow up to ascertain long-term impact of the curriculum. Student artifacts, researcher observations and follow up interviews were analyzed to identify any changes in student attitude towards and perceived self-efficacy in science and teaching science. Analysis identified a positive change in students. attitudes and perceived self-efficacy after participation in the modified laboratory section, indicating moderate success of the proposed curriculum based on SRL.

Sullivan, Betsy Ann

244

Self-efficacy inom individuell idrott och lagidrott.  

E-print Network

?? Syftet med studien var att undersöka skillnader mellan individuella- och lagidrottares upplevda self-efficacy samt skillnader mellan män och kvinnors self-efficacy. I studien undersöktes även… (more)

Gustafsson, Claes

2012-01-01

245

Development of a Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The construct of self-efficacy has been used extensively to analyze and predict what motivates human behavior, to include leadership behaviors. The connection between self-efficacy and leader effectiveness may be critical to finding new ways of selecting ...

S. D. Platt

2010-01-01

246

A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy  

E-print Network

The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

Lovell, Emily Marie

2011-01-01

247

Identifying and Aligning Expectations in a Mentoring Relationship  

PubMed Central

The mentoring relationship between a scholar and their primary mentor is a core feature of research training. Anecdotal evidence suggests this relationship is adversely affected when scholar and mentor expectations are not aligned. We examined three questions: (1) What is the value in assuring that the expectations of scholars and mentors are mutually identified and aligned? (2) What types of programmatic interventions facilitate this process? (3) What types of expectations are important to identify and align? We addressed these questions through a systematic literature review, focus group interviews of mentors and scholars, a survey of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) KL2 program directors, and review of formal programmatic mechanisms used by KL2 programs. We found broad support for the importance of identifying and aligning the expectations of scholars and mentors and evidence that mentoring contracts, agreements, and training programs facilitate this process. These tools focus on aligning expectations with respect to the scholar’s research, education, professional development and career advancement as well as support, communication, and personal conduct and interpersonal relations. Research is needed to assess test the efficacy of formal alignment activities. PMID:22212226

Huskins, W. Charles; Silet, Karin; Weber-Main, Anne Marie; Begg, Melissa D.; Fowler, Vance G.; Hamilton, John; Fleming, Michael

2012-01-01

248

A nonmusical paradigm for identifying absolute pitch possessors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to identify and reproduce sounds of specific frequencies is remarkable and uncommon. The etiology and defining characteristics of this skill, absolute pitch (AP), have been very controversial. One theory suggests that AP requires a specific type of early musical training and that the ability to encode and remember tones depends on these learned musical associations. An alternate theory argues that AP may be strongly dependent on hereditary factors and relatively independent of musical experience. To date, it has been difficult to test these hypotheses because all previous paradigms for identifying AP have required subjects to employ knowledge of musical nomenclature. As such, these tests are insensitive to the possibility of discovering AP in either nonmusicians or musicians of non-Western training. Based on previous literature in pitch memory, a paradigm is presented that is intended to distinguish between AP possessors and nonpossessors independent of the subjects' musical experience. The efficacy of this method is then tested with 20 classically defined AP possessors and 22 nonpossessors. Data from these groups strongly support the validity of the paradigm. The use of a nonmusical paradigm to identify AP may facilitate research into many aspects of this phenomenon.

Ross, David A.; Olson, Ingrid R.; Marks, Lawrence E.; Gore, John C.

2004-09-01

249

Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

2012-01-01

250

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa  

E-print Network

Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Update on the soybean aphid efficacy program Erin Hodgson and Greg VanNostrand Department of Entomology #12;Soybean aphid efficacy program update 2011 ICM Conference, Ames Iowa Outline · Review of survey to Iowa soybean growers in 2010

Jurenka, Russell A.

251

Factors Affecting Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservice elementary teachers entering the specialized coursework designed to prepare them for science teaching responsibilities have a broad range of efficacy beliefs about their success as future science teachers. As they progress through science methods and practicum courses, and on to complete their student teaching, their efficacy beliefs may change. Knowing the variables that affect the development of positive efficacy

Pamela Cantrell; Suzanne Young; Alan Moore

2003-01-01

252

Person-Environment Congruence and Career Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Female students (n=200) completed the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (CDMSE) Scale and Career Search Efficacy Scale. Undecided women had lower CDMSE and search self-efficacy than those who had chosen a college major, regardless of whether the major was congruent with their personality type. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

Srsic, Colby Sandoval; Walsh, W. Bruce

2001-01-01

253

Self-Efficacy and Learning in Sorority and Fraternity Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research consistently reveals that "self-efficacy," referring to one's perceived ability to obtain a desired outcome, in academic courses is linked to academic achievement and motivation in those courses. In particular, high self-efficacy in courses is associated with high academic performance, and low self-efficacy in courses is associated…

Thompson, Jon G., Jr.; Oberle, Crystal D.; Lilley, Jennifer L.

2011-01-01

254

Measuring Distinct Types of Musical Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examines the specific nature of self-efficacy beliefs within music. Separate questionnaires assessing self-efficacy for musical learning and self-efficacy for musical performing were developed and tested, and the reliability of the new questionnaires was demonstrated using internal reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis. A…

Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

2011-01-01

255

Faculty Perceptions of Teaching Support and Teaching Efficacy in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate university faculty's perceptions of teaching support and their teaching efficacy in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship of perceived teaching support to faculty' teaching efficacy was examined. Questionnaires measuring three dimensions of teaching support and six dimensions of teaching efficacy were…

Chang, Te-Sheng; McKeachie, Wilbert; Lin, Yi-Guang

2010-01-01

256

Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

2000-01-01

257

Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

2014-01-01

258

[Tuberculosis control programme in Tunisia: efficacy assessment].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the national Tuberculosis Control Programme in Tunisia, by applying the 8-stage model proposed by Piot (1967). Two retrospective cohorts of tuberculosis cases, including all new smear-positive cases detected by all laboratories in the study area during the study period, were selected at least 2 years after treatment began. The real number of new active cases during the study period was estimated at 142, the case detection rate at 61%. In all, 70% of patients started tuberculosis treatment, and regular use of the home treatment varied from 87% (including irregular use) to 71% (excluding irregular use). The low global efficacy of the program, which ranged from 26 to 31%, indicates the need for improved application of the strategy by programme managers. PMID:20685638

Kouni Chahed, Mohamed; Bellali, Hédia; Dhouibi, Sassia; Ben Alaya, Nissaf; Zouari, Béchir

2010-01-01

259

[The efficacy of psychodynamic therapy: a controversy].  

PubMed

There is growing evidence from randomized controlled trials supporting the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) in specific mental disorders. Yet the evidence for the efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy has not gone unchallenged. Several responses have addressed these concerns, showing that most of the criticism was not justified. Nevertheless, the evidence for psychodynamic psychotherapy continues to be frequently ignored, criticized or presented in a distorted way. A recent controversy published in the Nervenarzt may serve as an illustrative example, which is discussed here more in detail. This example shows that some authors are not interested in a truly scientific discussion, but rather try to discredit a rival method of psychotherapy and its scientific representatives for political reasons. PMID:23467995

Leichsenring, Falk; Rabung, Sven

2013-01-01

260

Self-efficacy for science: An investigation of middle school students' self-efficacy and science achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated Self-Efficacy for science and achievement in science at the middle school level. Combining science grade Self-Efficacy and laboratory skills Self-Efficacy described Self-Efficacy for science; achievement in science was described by a combination of science class grade and science lab grade. In an effort to minimize variables, this study was conducted within a race-homogeneous eighth grade student population.

Adam Rosen

2008-01-01

261

Efficacy of treatment for unexplained infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To analyze the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of alternative treatments for unexplained infertility.Design: Retrospective analysis of 45 published reports.Setting: Clinical practices.Patient(s): Couples who met criteria for unexplained infertility. Women with Stage I or Stage II endometriosis were included.Intervention(s): Observation; clomiphene citrate (CC); gonadotropins (hMG); IUI; and GIFT and IVF.Main Outcome Measure(s): Clinical pregnancy rate.Result(s): Combined pregnancy rates per initiated cycle,

DavidS Guzick; MichaelW Sullivan; G. David Adamson; MarcelleI Cedars; RichardJ Falk; EdwinP Peterson; MichaelP Steinkampf

1998-01-01

262

Self-Efficacy and Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated self-efficacy to use research methods skills in samples of sport students. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was a quantitative study that investigated the extent to which self-esteem influenced changes in self-effica cy following the receipt of grades for an assignment from a research methods module. Ninety-seven Level 2 students completed a self-esteem scale and a

Tracey J. Devonport

2004-01-01

263

Modelling the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment  

PubMed Central

Multimodal oncological strategies which combine chemotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia, have a potential of improving the efficacy of the non-surgical methods of cancer treatment. Hyperthermia engages the heat-shock response (HSR) mechanism, the main component of which are heat-shock proteins. Cancer cells have already partially activated HSR, thereby hyperthermia may be more toxic to them relative to normal cells. On the other hand, HSR triggers thermotolerance, i.e. hyperthermia-treated cells show an impairment in their susceptibility to a subsequent heat-induced stress. This poses questions about efficacy and optimal strategy for anti-cancer therapy combined with hyperthermia treatment. To address these questions, we adapt our previous HSR model and propose its stochastic extension. We formalize the notion of a HSP-induced thermotolerance. Next, we estimate the intensity and the duration of the thermotolerance. Finally, we quantify the effect of a multimodal therapy based on hyperthermia and a cytotoxic effect of bortezomib, a clinically approved proteasome inhibitor. Consequently, we propose an optimal strategy for combining hyperthermia and proteasome inhibition modalities. In summary, by a mathematical analysis of HSR, we are able to support the common belief that the combination of cancer treatment strategies increases therapy efficacy. PMID:23985732

Rybi?ski, Miko?aj; Szyma?ska, Zuzanna; Lasota, S?awomir; Gambin, Anna

2013-01-01

264

Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown.

2014-01-01

265

Efficacy of anticholinergic drugs in asthma.  

PubMed

Although bronchial hyperresponsiveness to cholinergic agents is a main feature of asthma, the role of anticholinergic drugs in chronic asthma management has been largely underestimated. Several single-dose studies comparing acute bronchodilation induced by ipratropium bromide with salbutamol have shown that salbutamol was more effective than ipratropium in asthma treatment. Recently, tiotropium has been studied in asthma, when added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids in unselected moderate asthmatics or in patients with uncontrolled asthma, or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and history of asthma. Later, studies on patients with Arg/Arg ?(2)-receptor polymorphism demonstrated a similar efficacy of tiotropium in comparison with salmeterol when both were added to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Further long-term studies are currently in progress, for the evaluation of the efficacy of tiotropium on clinical asthma control, and on the rate and severity of asthma exacerbations, as well as the potential modification of inflammatory mechanisms and varying efficacy in specific asthma phenotypes (such as smoking asthmatics). PMID:22788945

Novelli, Federica; Malagrinò, Laura; Dente, Federico L; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

2012-06-01

266

Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler versus MDI.  

PubMed

We compared the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler, a novel propellant-free inhaler, versus chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-metered dose inhaler (MDI) and ipratropium Respimat inhaler in patients with COPD. This was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week, parallel-group, active-controlled study. Patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to ipratropium bromide/albuterol (20/100mcg) Respimat inhaler, ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI [36mcg/206mcg (Combivent Inhalation Aerosol MDI)], or ipratropium bromide (20mcg) Respimat inhaler. Each medication was administered four times daily. Serial spirometry was performed over 6h (0.15min, then hourly) on 4 test days. The primary efficacy variable was forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) change from test day baseline at 12 weeks. A total of 1209 of 1480 randomized, treated patients completed the study; the majority were male (65%) with a mean age of 64 yrs and a mean screening pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (percent predicted) of 41%. Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler had comparable efficacy to ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI for FEV(1) area under the curve at 0-6h (AUC(0-6)), superior efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(0-4) and comparable efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(4-6). All active treatments were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ipratropium bromide/albuterol 20/100mcg inhaler administered four times daily for 12 weeks had equivalent bronchodilator efficacy and comparable safety to ipratropium bromide/albuterol 36mcg/206mcg MDI, and significantly improved lung function compared with the mono-component ipratropium bromide 20 mcg Respimat inhaler. [Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT00400153]. PMID:20172704

Zuwallack, R; De Salvo, M C; Kaelin, T; Bateman, E D; Park, C S; Abrahams, R; Fakih, F; Sachs, P; Pudi, K; Zhao, Y; Wood, C C

2010-08-01

267

Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n?=?420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (??=?0.36, p?efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID:24304903

2013-01-01

268

The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for reducing anxiety sensitivity: A meta-analytic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study meta-analytically reviewed the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. control conditions in the reduction of anxiety sensitivity. A computerized search was conducted to indentify CBT outcome studies that included the Anxiety Sensitivity Index as a dependent variable. Of the 989 studies that were identified, 24 randomized-controlled trials with a total of 1851 participants met inclusion criteria and

Jasper A. J. Smits; Angela C. Berry; Candyce D. Tart; Mark B. Powers

2008-01-01

269

Biofouling of fish-cage netting: efficacy and problems of in situ cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid biofouling of fish-cage netting in Tasmania, Australia, necessitates the frequent changing of nets for on-shore cleaning. To reduce the cost associated with this capital- and labour-intensive process, a prototype underwater net cleaner was designed and constructed for the Tasmanian Atlantic salmon industry. This study describes trials aimed to determine the efficacy of this prototype, and to identify areas

Stephen L. Hodson; Thomas E. Lewis; Christopher M. Burkea

1997-01-01

270

Condom use self?efficacy among U.S.? and foreign?born Latinos in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the influence of condom use self?efficacy on the reported condom use of Latinos. We conducted a rapid needs assessment study among U.S. and foreign?born Latinos living in Houston, TX, to identify behavioral and psychosocial factors that influence their risk for HIV. Bilingual Latino interviewers conducted confidential face?to?face interviews with individuals living in

John Atkinson; Pamela Diamond; Bernardo Useche; Ricardo Mendiola

2004-01-01

271

Efficacy of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveA systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of interventions incorporating motivational interviewing for smoking cessation and identify correlates of treatment effectsData sourcesMedline\\/PubMed, PsycInfo and other sources including grey literatureStudy selectionTitle\\/abstract search terms were motivational interview* OR motivational enhancement AND smok*, cigarette*, tobacco, OR nicotine. Randomised trials reporting number of smokers abstinent at follow up were eligible.Data extractionData were

Carolyn J Heckman; Brian L Egleston; Makary T Hofmann

2010-01-01

272

Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore the variability in reliability scores on a commonly used career scale, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE). Reliability generalization was employed to identify typical score reliability, variability of score reliability, and variables explaining this variability. Forty-nine pieces of work were examined, and the results revealed that 41% of them reported score

Johanna E. Nilsson; Christa K. Schmidt; William D. Meek

2002-01-01

273

Safety and Efficacy of MRI-Based Thrombolysis in Unclear-Onset Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Standard selection criteria for thrombolysis typically exclude patients with acute ischemic stroke with unclear onset. Multimodal MRI screening may be able to identify those with a favorable benefit-risk ratio for thrombolysis. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of MRI-based thrombolysis in unclear-onset stroke (UnCLOS). Methods: We reviewed the thrombolysis database registries from 3 medical centers in Korea.

A-Hyun Cho; Sung-Il Sohn; Moon-Ku Han; Deok Hee Lee; Jong S. Kim; Choong Gon Choi; Chul-Ho Sohn; Sun U. Kwon; Dae Chul Suh; Sang Joon Kim; Hee-Joon Bae; Dong-Wha Kang

2008-01-01

274

The Efficacy of Exercise in Reducing Depressive Symptoms among Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of exercise to reduce depressive symptoms among cancer survivors. In addition, we examined the extent to which exercise dose and clinical characteristics of cancer survivors influence the relationship between exercise and reductions in depressive symptoms.MethodsWe conducted a systematic search identifying randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions among adult cancer survivors,

Justin C. Brown; Tania B. Huedo-Medina; Linda S. Pescatello; Stacey M. Ryan; Shannon M. Pescatello; Emily Moker; Jessica M. LaCroix; Rebecca A. Ferrer; Blair T. Johnson

2012-01-01

275

Multidimensional self-efficacy and affect in wheelchair basketball players.  

PubMed

In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22-.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40-.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive thoughts. Athletes with strong resiliency and thought control efficacy also reported more PA and less NA. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the four efficacies predicted 10 and 22% of the variance in PA and NA, respectively. PMID:18955745

Martin, Jeffrey J

2008-10-01

276

78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...value in the generation of new knowledge to facilitate innovation in...maximized for the benefit of society. The Agency invites comments...to enhance the science and knowledge critical to improving the...The development of new knowledge and insights from...

2013-06-04

277

Correlates of self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico.  

PubMed

Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

2014-05-01

278

Efficacy of ribavirin against malignant glioma cell lines  

PubMed Central

Ribavirin (1-?-D-ribofuranosy-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) has been widely administered as an antiviral agent against RNA and DNA viruses. Ribavirin, in combination with interferon, has predominantly been applied in the treatment of the hepatitis C virus infection and its potential antitumor efficacy has recently become a point of interest. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ribavirin on the growth of malignant glioma cells, to identify novel predictive genes in malignant glioma cells (by analyzing gene expression profiles) and to assess the influence of ribavirin on the cell cycle of malignant glioma cells. The present study evaluated the antitumor efficacy of ribavirin against various malignant glioma cell lines (A-172, AM-38, T98G, U-87MG, U-138MG, U-251MG and YH-13). After culturing the cells in ribavirin-containing culture medium (final concentration, 0–1,000 ?M) for 72 h, the viable proliferated cells were harvested and counted. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of ribavirin, with regard to the growth of the malignant glioma cell lines, was determined from the concentration of ribavirin required for 50% growth inhibition in comparison to the untreated control cells. Furthermore, the current study identified the genes in which the gene expression levels correlated with the ribavirin sensitivity of the malignant glioma cells lines, using a high-density oligonucleotide array. Finally, cell cycle analysis was performed on the U-87MG cell line. It was identified that ribavirin inhibited the growth of all of the malignant glioma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, although the ribavirin sensitivity varied between each cell line. Of the extracted genes, PDGFRA demonstrated the strongest positive correlation between gene expression level and ribavirin sensitivity. Cell cycle analysis of the U-87MG cell line demonstrated that ribavirin treatment induces G0/G1 arrest and thus may be an effective agent for inhibiting malignant glioma cell growth. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that ribavirin may have potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:25364409

OGINO, AKIYOSHI; SANO, EMIKO; OCHIAI, YUSHI; YAMAMURO, SHUN; TASHIRO, SHINYA; YACHI, KAZUNARI; OHTA, TAKASHI; FUKUSHIMA, TAKAO; OKAMOTO, YUTAKA; TSUMOTO, KOUHEI; UEDA, TAKUYA; YOSHINO, ATSUO; KATAYAMA, YOICHI

2014-01-01

279

Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Technology Integration Self-Efficacy and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to (1) identify the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), Technology Integration Self Efficacy (TISE) and Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations (ITOE) of pre-service physical education teachers, (2) examine the relationships among TPACK, TISE and ITOE, and lastly (3) examine the differences…

Semiz, Kivanc; Ince, Mustafa Levent

2012-01-01

280

Efficacy of the potential chemopreventive agent, hesperetin (citrus flavanone), on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our current study is an effort to identify a potent chemopreventive agent against colon cancer. Here we have investigated the efficacy of hesperetin on tissue lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense system and colonic histoarchitecture in male Wistar rats in colon carcinogenesis. Rats in groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were treated with DMH (20mgkg body weight s.c.) once a week for

S. Aranganathan; N. Nalini

2009-01-01

281

INVESTIGATING THE SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS OF SCIENCE AND ELEMENTARY TEACHERS WITH RESPECT TO SOME VARIABLES 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to identify how the level of the primary school science and elementary teachers' self- efficacy beliefs changed in terms of some variables such as branch, gender, seniority, weekly lesson hours, in- service training, satisfaction with her\\/his job, socio-economic level of the school, and satisfaction with the working environment. In this study, which is bases on

ÖZ-YETERL' K; KENLER AÇISINDAN' NCELENMES; Asuman Seda

282

Social Indicators, Dysfunctional Career Cognitions, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Work Role Participation of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…

Hodge, Sharon

283

Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have become the mainstay in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Within the last decade, controlled trials have shown that numerous other drugs relieve such pain. We identified all placebo-controlled trials and calculated numbers needed to treat (NNT) to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief in order to compare the efficacy with the current

Søren H. Sindrup; Troels S. Jensen

1999-01-01

284

A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

2008-01-01

285

Lost Confidence and Potential: A Mixed Methods Study of Underachieving College Students' Sources of Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the sources of self-efficacy of college students enrolled in a learning frameworks course, whom we identified as underachievers. Through weekly journal entries, the group of underachievers (n = 13) cited the factors that made them feel confident or not confident. Students' responses to open-ended prompts were coded…

Fong, Carlton J.; Krause, Jaimie M.

2014-01-01

286

Insights into improving the efficacy of nuclear power plant inspection procedures based upon risk analysis. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study was conducted to determine how the insights gained through the Reactor Safety Study might be applied to improve the efficacy of nuclear power plant inspection activities. Abstracts of Licensee Event Reports and non-compliance citations for all operating plants for selected periods were reviewed to identify and classify performance deviations associated with risk-mitigating systems. Procedural deficiencies were observed

A. M. Plummer; R. S. Denning

1978-01-01

287

A Discriminant Analysis of Young Adults' Knowledge of the Human Papillomavirus and Self-Efficacy of Condom Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five hundred and fifteen sexually active undergraduate students classified according to self reports of condom use responded to questions on knowledge of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) and self-efficacy regarding condom use. Varimax factor analysis of 21 knowledge questions on HPV and 14 attitudinal questions about sexually transmitted disease (STDs) identified 3 factors with internal levels of reliability of .60 or

Janet Reis; Yvonne D. Stephens

1998-01-01

288

The Effect of a Training Program in Communication Skills on Primary Health Care Physicians' Knowledge, Attitudes and Self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication has been identified as one of the core clinical skills for all health care providers, but it is especially important for primary health care disciplines. Findings suggest the need for more attention to communication skills in continued physician education. This work aims at evaluating the effect of a communication skills training program on physicians' knowledge, attitude and self efficacy

Mona E. Shama; Fatma A. Meky; Nagwa Y. Abou; El Enein; Mohamed Y. Mahdy

289

Exploring Pre-Service Teachers' Perceived Teaching-Efficacy, Attitudes and Concerns about Inclusive Education in Bangladesh  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on pre-service teachers' preparedness for inclusive education in Bangladesh through measuring their perceived teaching-efficacy, concerns and attitudes towards inclusive education and identifying predictor variables that contribute to those three variables. Using two standardized scales with 1,623 pre-service teachers from 16…

Ahsan, M. Tariq; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

2012-01-01

290

Comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate and 1% triclosan handwash products in an acute clinical ward  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial efficacy of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and 1% triclosan as handwash antiseptics is well established. Few published studies have identified hand bacteria found in glove juice samples, and most studies have used nonclinical study subjects. We report a longitudinal comparative study to determine the effect of 4% CHG and 1% triclosan on the composition of the hand bacterial

Joan L. Faoagali; Narelle George; Jonathan Fong; Jenny Davy; Muriel Dowser

1999-01-01

291

Efficacy and food safety considerations of poultry competitive exclusion products.  

PubMed

Competitive exclusion (CE) products are anaerobic cultures of bacteria that are applied to poultry hatchlings to establish a protective enteric microbiota that excludes intestinal colonization by human food-borne pathogens. For safety of the poultry flock and human consumers, the identities of bacteria in CE products need to be known. A CE product is a culture of intestinal contents from adult chickens. It may be microbiologically defined by analysis of bacteria isolated from the culture, but many bacteria are hard to reliably isolate, identify, and characterize with conventional techniques. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes may be more reliable than conventional techniques to identify CE bacteria. Bacteria in CE products may contain antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence mechanisms that could be transferred to the enteric bacteria of the food animal and to the human consumer. Detection methods for specific antimicrobial drug resistance and virulence genes and the integrase genes of conjugative transposons, mostly utilizing PCR technology, are being developed that can be applied to assess these risks in CE bacteria. With improvements in efficacy, bacterial identification, and detection and control of the possible risks of gene transfer, CE product technology can be made a more effective food safety tool. PMID:17039457

Wagner, Robert Doug

2006-11-01

292

Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (n = 1007), factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents (n = 1127) with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa. PMID:23251106

Louw, Julia; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness

2012-01-01

293

Different Residues in the GABAA Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Pocket Mediate Benzodiazepine Efficacy and BindingS?  

PubMed Central

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) exert their therapeutic actions by binding to the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and allosterically modulating GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA). A variety of ligands with divergent structures bind to the BZD site, and the structural mechanisms that couple their binding to potentiation of IGABA are not well understood. In this study, we measured the effects of individually mutating 22 residues throughout the BZD binding pocket on the abilities of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and flurazepam to potentiate IGABA. Wild-type and mutant ?1?2?2 GABAARs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. GABA EC50, BZD EC50, and BZD maximal potentiation were measured. These data, combined with previous radioligand binding data describing the mutations' effects on BZD apparent binding affinities (J Neurosci 28:3490–3499, 2008; J Med Chem 51:7243–7252, 2008), were used to distinguish residues within the BZD pocket that contribute to BZD efficacy and BZD binding. We identified six residues whose mutation altered BZD maximal potentiation of IGABA (BZD efficacy) without altering BZD binding apparent affinity, three residues whose mutation altered binding but had no effect on BZD efficacy, and four residues whose mutation affected both binding and efficacy. Moreover, depending on the BZD ligand, the effects of some mutations were different, indicating that the structural mechanisms underlying the ability of BZD ligands with divergent structures to potentiate IGABA are distinct. PMID:21447642

Morlock, Elaine V.

2011-01-01

294

Self-efficacy: a mediator of smoking behavior and depression among college students.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs. PMID:24757914

Mee, Susan

2014-01-01

295

Some limitations on the external validity of psychotherapy efficacy studies and suggestions for future research.  

PubMed

Increased emphasis on identifying empirically supported treatments (ESTs) has enhanced the scientific basis for psychotherapy practice, but uncritical acceptance of ESTs as the basis for credentialing and policy decisions risks stifling innovation and creativity in the field. There are limitations inherent in efficacy studies of psychotherapy that can constrain external validity. This article discusses several limitations on the external validity of efficacy studies, as well as other issues related to evaluating psychotherapy outcome research. These limitations and concerns include: 1) the practice of maximizing homogeneity by selecting participants diagnosed with a single Axis I disorder; 2) the practice of requiring manualized therapies for efficacy research; 3) the assumption that lasting and meaningful changes occur and can be assessed within a relatively short time frame; 4) the assumption that valid assessments of outcome can be conducted in randomized control trials studies without concern for researcher allegiance; and 5) the view that evidence of effectiveness from non-RCT design studies can be ignored. Finally, alternative research approaches for studying psychotherapy that can potentially supplement knowledge gained from efficacy studies and foster continued innovation and creativity in the field are discussed. PMID:23091884

Shean, Glenn D

2012-01-01

296

Determining identifiable parameter combinations using subset profiling.  

PubMed

Identifiability is a necessary condition for successful parameter estimation of dynamic system models. A major component of identifiability analysis is determining the identifiable parameter combinations, the functional forms for the dependencies between unidentifiable parameters. Identifiable combinations can help in model reparameterization and also in determining which parameters may be experimentally measured to recover model identifiability. Several numerical approaches to determining identifiability of differential equation models have been developed, however the question of determining identifiable combinations remains incompletely addressed. In this paper, we present a new approach which uses parameter subset selection methods based on the Fisher Information Matrix, together with the profile likelihood, to effectively estimate identifiable combinations. We demonstrate this approach on several example models in pharmacokinetics, cellular biology, and physiology. PMID:25173434

Eisenberg, Marisa C; Hayashi, Michael A L

2014-10-01

297

10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine ...

298

NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene  

MedlinePLUS

... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

299

Vardenafil: efficacy, tolerability and future directions.  

PubMed

Vardenafil is a short-acting PDE5 inhibitor used in the treatment of male erectile dysfunction. It is the most potent and specific of the three commercially available PDE5 inhbitors, which may decrease incidence of side effects, although this has not been demonstrated clinically. Although its efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction has been demonstrated in several studies, recent and continuing studies have shown vardenafil's promise as an effective agent in penile rehabilitation, decreasing lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic hyperplasia and management of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:19416089

Rice, Kevin R; Dean, Robert C

2009-05-01

300

[Sickness absence may impair self-efficacy].  

PubMed

Self-efficacy (SE) questionnaire data from the DWECS study in 2000 and 2005, age, sex, and transfer of sickness absence compensation data from the DREAM register. Men: sickness absence for more than 12 weeks and one and three absence spells are associated with decline in SE; women: decline in SE is associated with sickness absence for more than 52 weeks and two sickness absence spells. For both sexes SE declines at age 40-50 years. SE declines with length of sickness and sickness absence spells. PMID:23721838

Sommer, Birgitte; Thomsen, Gert Frank; Labriola, Merete

2013-05-27

301

Structural Identifiability of Viscoelastic Mechanical Systems  

PubMed Central

We solve the local and global structural identifiability problems for viscoelastic mechanical models represented by networks of springs and dashpots. We propose a very simple characterization of both local and global structural identifiability based on identifiability tables, with the purpose of providing a guideline for constructing arbitrarily complex, identifiable spring-dashpot networks. We illustrate how to use our results in a number of examples and point to some applications in cardiovascular modeling. PMID:24523860

2014-01-01

302

Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Internet Self-Efficacy in Web-based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study of junior high school students in Seoul, Korea that examined the effects of student motivation on performance in Web-based instruction. Tested the applicability of the self-efficacy theory in Web-based contexts through motivational surveys, path analyses, written tests, and search tests. Internet self-efficacy scale and sample…

Joo, Young-Ju; Bong, Mimi; Choi, Ha-Jeen

2000-01-01

303

Efficacy of Structural-Level Condom Distribution Interventions: A Meta-Analysis of U.S. and International Studies, 1998–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

This systematic review examines the overall efficacy of U.S. and international-based structural-level condom distribution\\u000a interventions (SLCDIs) on HIV risk behaviors and STIs and identifies factors associated with intervention efficacy. A comprehensive\\u000a literature search of studies published from January 1988 through September 2007 yielded 21 relevant studies. Significant intervention\\u000a effects were found for the following outcomes: condom use, condom acquisition\\/condom carrying,

Mahnaz R. CharaniaNicole Crepaz; Nicole Crepaz; Carolyn Guenther-Gray; Kirk Henny; Adrian Liau; Leigh A. Willis; Cynthia M. Lyles

304

Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science) was undertaken (6/1/11). The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II) to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Further research is needed to establish the evidence for other treatment modalities and treatment for tinea pedis for people with diabetes. Future efforts are needed to improve the efficacy of treatment intervention. PMID:22136082

2011-01-01

305

Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance  

DOEpatents

A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

Ecker, Joseph R. (Erial, NJ); Staskawicz, Brian J. (Castro Valley, CA); Bent, Andrew F. (Piedmont, CA); Innes, Roger W. (Bloomington, IN)

1997-10-07

306

Novel Composite Efficacy Measure To Demonstrate the Rationale and Efficacy of Combination Antiviral–Anti-Inflammatory Treatment for Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis  

PubMed Central

Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size—a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P < 0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P < 0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

Levin, Myron J.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Spruance, Spotswood L.

2014-01-01

307

The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES)  

PubMed Central

Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. This paper describes the validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES) with two samples of HIV+ adults on ART. Factor analyses support subscales measuring Adherence Integration (eigenvalue = 6.12) and Adherence Perseverance (eigenvalue = 1.16), accounting for 61% of the variance in scale items. The HIV-ASES demonstrates robust internal consistency (?s > .90) and 3-month (rs > .70) and 15-month (rs > .40) test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity analyses revealed relationships with psychosocial measures, ART adherence, clinical status, and healthcare utilization. Findings support the use of the HIV-ASES and provide guidance for further investigation of adherence self-efficacy in the context of treatment for HIV and other diseases. PMID:17588200

Johnson, Mallory O.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dilworth, Samantha; Morin, Stephen F.; Remien, Robert H.; Chesney, Margaret A.

2008-01-01

308

Hyperbaric oxygen - its mechanisms and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background This paper outlines therapeutic mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) and reviews data on its efficacy for clinical problems seen by plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Methods The information in this review was obtained from the peer-reviewed medical literature. Results Principal mechanisms of HBO2 are based on intracellular generation of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. Reactive species are recognized to play a central role in cell signal transduction cascades and the discussion will focus on these pathways. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials support clinical use of HBO2 for refractory diabetic wound healing and radiation injuries; treatment of compromised flaps and grafts and ischemia-reperfusion disorders is supported by animal studies and a small number of clinical trials, but further studies are warranted. Conclusions Clinical and mechanistic data support use of hyperbaric oxygen for a variety of disorders. Further work is needed to clarify clinical utility for some disorders and to hone patient selection criteria to improve cost-efficacy. PMID:21200283

Thom, Stephen R.

2010-01-01

309

Efficacy of some synthesized thiazoles against dermatophytes.  

PubMed

Twelve thiazoles and their fused derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton rubrum, T. terrestre, Epidermophyton floccosum, and Microsporum gypseum. Most of the synthesized compounds were inhibitory to the tested fungi. The most effective compound was 5-(4-ethoxybenzylidene-4,5-dihydro-4-oxothiazol-2-yl)-N,3-diphenylbut-2-namide (3c) followed by 2-(4-oxo-4,5-dihydrothiazol-2-yl)-3-phenyl-but-2-enoic acid-(3-cyano-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-2-yl)-amide (2b). These compounds were more efficacious than terbinafine, the reference drug. The tested compounds caused variable reduction in the activity of keratinase of the dermatophytes, depending on the azole derivative and the test fungus. Thiazole derivatives (2b) and (3c) exhibited the highest efficacy in decreasing ergosterol biosynthesis of the tested dermatophytes. The treatment of guinea pigs with compound (3c) induced complete curing in the case of all the test dermatophytes 30days post-treatment. The percent curing for compounds (3c) and (2b) was better than the reference drug. PMID:24129248

Ouf, S A; Taleb, A M Abu; Tharwat, N A; Geweely, N S

2013-12-01

310

Alternative conceptions in science and science teaching efficacy: Remediating preservice teachers' alternative conceptions and their effect on science teaching efficacy and reflective judgment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a Science Methods course experience on preservice teachers' personal science teaching efficacy. Additionally, attitudes toward science and constructivist learning environments, and possible correlations of these attributes to the Reflective Judgment model of King and Kitchener (1990) were investigated. The Spring 1999 Science Methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Idaho was based on National Science Education Standards and included a focus on dispelling science misconceptions in an attempt to boost efficacy and attitudes toward science and science teaching. Two cohorts of undergraduate students (Moscow and Coeur d'Alene campuses) voluntarily took part in the study. It was hypothesized that a heavy emphasis on standards, constructivist approaches to teaching and learning, and the process of dispelling common misconceptions would promote participants' efficacy in science and science teaching as they learned to de-construct currently held beliefs and reformulate more scientifically correct personal understandings. In this quasi-experimental (pre-and post-treatment survey) study the experience of fully deconstructing science misconceptions and remediating understanding through collaborative inquiry was considered as "treatment". More precisely, the treatment was the course experience itself, its social constructivist context, course content and theories, as well as the teaching practices shared and discussed. Multiple Linear Regression analyses revealed a relationship between remedying common science misconceptions in an open and constructivist learning environment, and changes in personal science teaching efficacy. For both cohorts of participants there was an overall rise in personal science teaching efficacy as a result of the course experience. Attitudes did not significantly change overall, and openness to constructivist learning environments did not appreciably change for the groups as a whole. Reflective Judgment stage scores were correlated with gains in personal science teaching efficacy, attitude toward science, and openness to constructivist learning environments. Qualitative data was explored to further identify emergent patterns in student beliefs and attitudes. Online threaded discussions documenting student thinking, their science experiences, class discussions and lab activities, along with participant observations by the author comprised the qualitative component of the study.

Graves, Scott Michael

311

Positive Impacts of Modeling Instruction on Self-Efficacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the impact of Modeling Instruction (MI) on the sources of self-efficacy for students in Introductory Physics 1 will be presented. We measured self-efficacy through a quantitative diagnostic (SOSESC) developed by Fencl and Scheel [1] to investigate the impact of instruction on the sources of self-efficacy in all introductory physics classes. We collected both pre- semester data and post-semester data, and evaluated the effect of the classroom by analyzing the shift (Post-Pre). At Florida International University, a Hispanic-serving institution, we find that traditional lecture classrooms negatively impact the self-efficacy of all students, while the MI courses had no impact for all students. Further, when disaggregating the data by gender and sources of self-efficacy, we find that Modeling Instruction positively impacted the Verbal Persuasion source of self-efficacy for women. This positive impact helps to explain high rates of retention for women in the MI classes.

Sawtelle, Vashti; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2010-10-01

312

Increased efficacy of omalizumab in atopic dermatitis patients with wild-type filaggrin status and higher serum levels of phosphatidylcholines.  

PubMed

Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting IgE, is an established therapy for severe allergic asthma and has shown efficacy in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Small-scale studies indicated some beneficial effect also in atopic dermatitis (AD). To evaluate the efficacy of omalizumab in AD and to identify markers associated with treatment response, we conducted a prospective 28-week open-label trial on 20 adults with moderate-to-severe AD. Our results confirm previous observations of a positive response in a subgroup of patients and suggest that responders are characterized by the absence of filaggrin mutations and altered lipid metabolite profiles with high levels of various glycerophospholipids. PMID:24111531

Hotze, M; Baurecht, H; Rodríguez, E; Chapman-Rothe, N; Ollert, M; Fölster-Holst, R; Adamski, J; Illig, T; Ring, J; Weidinger, S

2014-01-01

313

Molecular and genetic analyses of four nonfunctional S haplotype variants derived from a common ancestral S haplotype identified in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).  

PubMed

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S(4)S(6)S(36a)S(36b) genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S(36a) and S(36b) haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S(36) variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S(36) haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F

2010-02-01

314

Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Four Nonfunctional S Haplotype Variants Derived from a Common Ancestral S Haplotype Identified in Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.)  

PubMed Central

Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) has an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system; however, individuals can be either self-incompatible (SI) or self-compatible (SC). Unlike the situation in the Solanaceae, where self-compatibility accompanying polyploidization is often due to the compatibility of heteroallelic pollen, the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the compatibility of pollen containing two nonfunctional S haplotypes. Sour cherry individuals with the S4S6S36aS36b genotype are predicted to be SC, as only pollen containing both nonfunctional S36a and S36b haplotypes would be SC. However, we previously found that individuals of this genotype were SI. Here we describe four nonfunctional S36 variants. Our molecular analyses identified a mutation that would confer loss of stylar S function for one of the variants, and two alterations that might cause loss of pollen S function for all four variants. Genetic crosses showed that individuals possessing two nonfunctional S36 haplotypes and two functional S haplotypes have reduced self-fertilization due to a very low frequency of transmission of the one pollen type that would be SC. Our finding that the underlying mechanism limiting successful transmission of genetically compatible gametes does not involve GSI is consistent with our previous genetic model for Prunus in which heteroallelic pollen is incompatible. This provides a unique case in which breakdown of SI does not occur despite the potential to generate SC pollen genotypes. PMID:19917768

Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Hauck, Nathanael R.; Tao, Ryutaro; Jiang, Ning; Iezzoni, Amy F.

2010-01-01

315

Development of a drinking self-efficacy questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy has been postulated as a construct of central importance in the acquisition, maintenance, and treatment of addictive behavior. To date research has largely examined the role of outcome expectancies but literature on the relationship of self-efficacy and drinking is still unclear. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a Drinking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (DSEQ). In Study I, 251

R. McD Young; Tian P. S. Oei; G. M. Crook

1991-01-01

316

Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the utility and validity of A. Bandura's self-efficacy theory and G. A. Marlatt's (1978) theoretical model of relapse in a study of 78 cigarette smokers (aged 16–70 yrs) from 2 cessation programs. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and follow-up assessments of smoking behavior, self-efficacy, and mood states (Profile of Mood States) were obtained. Efficacy state was found to be significantly enhanced as

Mark M. Condiotte; Edward Lichtenstein

1981-01-01

317

Career Self-Efficacy: Exemplary Recent Research and Emerging Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses what the author views as exemplary work illustrating important directions in research on the applications of Bandura's self-efficacy theory to career theory, assessment, and counseling. The author begins with research on measuring career self-efficacy, following which research testing the postulated behavioral consequences of career self-efficacy expectations is discussed. Notable studies of the learning experiences postulated to lead

Nancy E. Betz

2007-01-01

318

Correlates of Self-efficacy among Rural Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy has been related to intent to stop smoking, abstinence success, and risk for relapse. Because limited research exists regarding self-efficacy among rural smokers, the current study examined correlates of self-efficacy among rural primary care patients smoking ?10 cigarettes per day. Participants completed a telephone survey assessing demographics, smoking history, and psychosocial variables (e.g. motivation, depression). Among the 750 participants,

Carla J. Berg; Lisa Sanderson Cox; Jonathan D. Mahnken; K. Allen Greiner; Edward F. Ellerbeck

2008-01-01

319

A Trisubstituted Benzimidazole Cell Division Inhibitor with Efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Trisubstituted benzimidazoles have demonstrated potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Previously, a library of novel trisubstituted benzimidazoles was constructed for high throughput screening, and compounds were identified that exhibited potency against M. tuberculosis H37Rv and clinical isolates, and were not toxic to Vero cells. A new series of 2-cyclohexyl-5-acylamino-6-N, N-dimethylaminobenzimidazoles derivatives has been developed based on SAR studies. Screening identified compounds with potency against M. tuberculosis. A lead compound from this series, SB-P17G-A20, was discovered to have an MIC of 0.16 µg/mL and demonstrated efficacy in the TB murine acute model of infection based on the reduction of bacterial load in the lungs and spleen by 1.73±0.24 Log10 CFU and 2.68±Log10 CFU, respectively, when delivered at 50 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection (IP) twice daily (bid). The activity of SB-P17G-A20 was determined to be concentration dependent and to have excellent stability in mouse and human plasma, and liver microsomes. Together, these studies demonstrate that SB-P17G-A20 has potency against M. tuberculosis clinical strains with varying susceptibility and efficacy in animal models of infection, and that trisubstituted benzimidazoles continue to be a platform for the development of novel inhibitors with efficacy. PMID:24736743

Knudson, Susan E.; Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Carreau, Alexandra; Goullieux, Laurent; Lagrange, Sophie; Vermet, Helen; Ojima, Iwao; Slayden, Richard A.

2014-01-01

320

Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

2013-01-01

321

The Effects of Interval Feedback on The Self-Efficacy of Netball Umpires  

PubMed Central

The present study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the relationship between interval feedback and self-efficacy toward umpiring netball games. Grade “A ”level umpires (n = 7) provided feedback to umpires (n = 40) under two conditions; 1) interval feedback given at the end of one tournament game (after 14 minutes) and again at the end of a second consecutive game (after 28 minutes), and 2) feedback at the end of the game (after 28 minutes). Umpires in both conditions completed an Umpiring Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (USEQ) which was a 14-item measure designed to assess factors relevant to netball umpire performance. Participants completed the USEQ immediately before game one, during the interval, and after a second game. Umpires also completed a feedback questionnaire which enabled them to reflect on the feedback received. A repeated measures factorial (time x feedback condition) ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect (F = 0.05, p > .05), and no main effect for condition (F = 0.06, p > .05) or time (F = 1.61, p > .05) for changes in self-efficacy. Although there were no significant effects, qualitative data alluded to aspects of feedback perceived to enhance umpire self-efficacy, thus identifying ways in which feedback might have a more consistent effect. Practical implications of the study in relation to verbal interval feedback are discussed. Key pointsInterval feedback may detract from umpires processing of information during a game.Interval feedback can enhance self-efficacy.Findings show that personal and situational factors interacted to determine the outcome of feedback.Feedback should be tailored for the needs of the individual and take into account situational factors, to enhance the possibility of accruing positive outcomes. PMID:24150132

Mahoney, Alison J.; Devonport, Tracey; Lane, Andrew M.

2008-01-01

322

The effects of interval feedback on the self-efficacy of netball umpires.  

PubMed

The present study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the relationship between interval feedback and self-efficacy toward umpiring netball games. Grade "A "level umpires (n = 7) provided feedback to umpires (n = 40) under two conditions; 1) interval feedback given at the end of one tournament game (after 14 minutes) and again at the end of a second consecutive game (after 28 minutes), and 2) feedback at the end of the game (after 28 minutes). Umpires in both conditions completed an Umpiring Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (USEQ) which was a 14-item measure designed to assess factors relevant to netball umpire performance. Participants completed the USEQ immediately before game one, during the interval, and after a second game. Umpires also completed a feedback questionnaire which enabled them to reflect on the feedback received. A repeated measures factorial (time x feedback condition) ANOVA indicated no significant interaction effect (F = 0.05, p > .05), and no main effect for condition (F = 0.06, p > .05) or time (F = 1.61, p > .05) for changes in self-efficacy. Although there were no significant effects, qualitative data alluded to aspects of feedback perceived to enhance umpire self-efficacy, thus identifying ways in which feedback might have a more consistent effect. Practical implications of the study in relation to verbal interval feedback are discussed. Key pointsInterval feedback may detract from umpires processing of information during a game.Interval feedback can enhance self-efficacy.Findings show that personal and situational factors interacted to determine the outcome of feedback.Feedback should be tailored for the needs of the individual and take into account situational factors, to enhance the possibility of accruing positive outcomes. PMID:24150132

Mahoney, Alison J; Devonport, Tracey; Lane, Andrew M

2008-01-01

323

Efficacy and tolerance of lactitol supplementation for adult constipation: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Constipation is a common complaint in adults. Lactitol is an osmotic disaccharide laxative that increases fecal volume and stimulates peristalsis. In this paper, we present the first meta-analysis on the efficacy and tolerance of lactitol for adult constipation. Methods We searched MEDLINE® and Embase, with no date or language restrictions, for studies of lactitol supplementation on adult constipation. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed on pre- to posttreatment changes in stool frequency and consistency with lactitol among all studies, as well as a comparison of efficacy and tolerance outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lactitol versus lactulose. Results A total of eleven studies representing 663 distinct patients were included in the final analysis, including five single-arm studies, four RCTs comparing lactitol with lactulose, one RCT comparing lactitol with placebo, and one nonrandomized controlled trial comparing lactitol with stimulant laxatives. Weekly stool frequency was significantly increased with lactitol compared with baseline (standardized mean difference [SMD]: 1.56, P<0.001). Stool consistency also improved over the supplementation period with lactitol (SMD: 1.04, P<0.001). Approximately one-third of patients experienced an adverse event; however, symptoms were generally mild and rarely (5%) resulted in study withdrawal. In RCTs of lactitol versus lactulose, lactitol was slightly more effective than lactulose in increasing weekly stool frequency (SMD: 0.19, P=0.06). No statistically significant differences between lactitol and lactulose were identified in any other efficacy or tolerance outcome. Lactitol demonstrated favorable efficacy and tolerance in individual studies when compared to stimulant laxatives and placebo. Conclusion Lactitol supplementation is well tolerated and improves symptoms of adult constipation. The efficacy and tolerance of lactitol and lactulose are similar, with a trend for more frequent stools with lactitol. Limited evidence suggests lactitol is superior to stimulant laxatives and placebo for relieving constipation symptoms. PMID:25050074

Miller, Larry E; Tennila, Julia; Ouwehand, Arthur C

2014-01-01

324

Efficacy of EMDR in children: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with post-traumatic stress symptoms was meta-analytically examined from the perspective of incremental efficacy. Overall post-treatment effect size for EMDR was medium and significant (d=.56). Results indicate efficacy of EMDR when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the non-established trauma treatment or the no-treatment control groups, and the incremental efficacy when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the established (CBT) trauma treatment. The discussion focuses on the future replication of EMDR findings and further research on post-traumatic stress in children. PMID:19616353

Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; de Roos, Carlijn; Meijer, Ann Marie; Stams, Geert Jan

2009-11-01

325

Creative self-efficacy development and creative performance over time.  

PubMed

Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated with enhanced sense of employee capacity for creative work. Contrary to what was expected, employees who experienced increased requirements for creativity in their jobs actually reported a decreased sense of efficaciousness for creative work. Results show that increases in creative self-efficacy corresponded with increases in creative performance as well. PMID:20954756

Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M

2011-03-01

326

Health Locus of Control and Self-Efficacy Predict Back Pain Rehabilitation Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic back pain treatments have generally been costly and/or ineffective despite advances in medical technology. Patient selection and factors intrinsic to patients, including beliefs and behaviors, have been increasingly looked upon as possible predictive factors for success following multidisciplinary intervention for chronic back pain. The current study investigated the value of using patients' perceived control over health changes (health locus of control) and their perceived ability to engage in pain management behaviors (pain-related self-efficacy) to predict physical and mental health outcomes. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 61 patients who completed a two-week multidisciplinary chronic back pain rehabilitation program at our institution between 2007 and 2009. Patient demographics were identified and categorized. Pre- and post-intervention functional surveys, including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Form C, Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Version 2, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Oswestry Disability Index Version 2, were used to evaluate benefit from back pain intervention and to examine patient factors that may predict physical and mental health outcomes. Results Participants included 28 males and 33 females, ages 28 to 72, completing chronic back pain rehabilitation. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and physical and mental health demonstrated treatment-related changes, with notable improvements in physical and mental health. Regression analyses examined the value of pre-treatment health locus of control and pain-related self-efficacy as predictors of physical and mental health one month following treatment. Higher internal and lower doctor health locus of control, and higher self-efficacy at baseline predicted higher lift scores one month after treatment (p <. 05; p <. 01; p <. 01, respectively). Higher baseline self-efficacy also predicted better physical functioning (p <. 01) and lower disability (p <. 01) at one month. Conclusions In addition to supporting the multiple benefits of multidisciplinary rehabilitation, this study suggests that pain-related self-efficacy and health locus of control may be valuable predictors of treatment benefit for chronic back pain patients. These results provide direction in screening for factors that may maximize the potential to benefit from multidisciplinary intervention for chronic back pain. PMID:25328476

Keedy, Nicole H; Keffala, Valerie J; Altmaier, Elizabeth M; Chen, Joseph J

2014-01-01

327

The effect of site-based preservice experiences on elementary science teaching self-efficacy beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reform in science education has focused on the need for improvement of preservice teacher training (National Science Education Standards, 1996). As a situation specific construct (Bandura, 1977), self-efficacy studies have been conducted to investigate factors that impact preservice teachers' sense of confidence as it relates to their ability to become successful science teachers. This descriptive study identified factors in the site based experiences that affected preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBL-B) (Enochs and Riggs, 1990). The sample consisted of the entire population of undergraduate elementary preservice teachers in the site based teacher education program during the fall semester of 1997 at a large south central urban university. The 131 paired, pretest posttests of the entire STEBL-B and the two constructs were analyzed for significance in mean score gains. Results of the paired t test yielded a t value of 11.52 which was significant at p <.001. An analysis of covariance using the pretest as the covariate yielded an F value of 6.41 which was statistically significant at p <.001. These quantitative results were supported by interviews and by written comments on questionnaires that determined ratings for the extent of impact on self-efficacy from site based experiences. Results of this study indicate that the experiences of the site based program has a significant positive impact on the preservice teachers' self-efficacy. The implication for teacher educators is that this specific affective dimension can be significantly enhanced. The site based program can provide the four factors Bandura identified as sources of information used to determine self-efficacy. These include performance accomplishments through authentic teaching experiences, vicarious experiences through observation of the site based teachers, and verbal persuasion and physiological states from feedback given by the university coordinators. The majority of these preservice teachers started the semester with a negative attitude toward teaching science, but ended the semester with a positive view of themselves as effective science teachers in the future.

Wingfield, Mary E.

328

An Objective Approach for Burkholderia pseudomallei Strain Selection as Challenge Material for Medical Countermeasures Efficacy Testing  

PubMed Central

Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a rare disease of biodefense concern with high mortality and extreme difficulty in treatment. No human vaccines are available that protect against B. pseudomallei infection, and with the current limitations of antibiotic treatment, the development of new preventative and therapeutic interventions is crucial. Although clinical trials could be used to test the efficacy of new medical countermeasures (MCMs), the high mortality rates associated with melioidosis raises significant ethical issues concerning treating individuals with new compounds with unknown efficacies. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has formulated a set of guidelines for the licensure of new MCMs to treat diseases in which it would be unethical to test the efficacy of these drugs in humans. The FDA “Animal Rule” 21 CFR 314 calls for consistent, well-characterized B. pseudomallei strains to be used as challenge material in animal models. In order to facilitate the efficacy testing of new MCMs for melioidosis using animal models, we intend to develop a well-characterized panel of strains for use. This panel will comprise of strains that were isolated from human cases, have a low passage history, are virulent in animal models, and are well-characterized phenotypically and genotypically. We have reviewed published and unpublished data on various B. pseudomallei strains to establish an objective method for selecting the strains to be included in the panel of B. pseudomallei strains with attention to five categories: animal infection models, genetic characterization, clinical and passage history, and availability of the strain to the research community. We identified 109 strains with data in at least one of the five categories, scored each strain based on the gathered data and identified six strains as candidate for a B. pseudomallei strain panel. PMID:23057010

Van Zandt, Kristopher E.; Tuanyok, Apichai; Keim, Paul S.; Warren, Richard L.; Gelhaus, H. Carl

2012-01-01

329

Condom use: a self-efficacy model.  

PubMed

A survey of heterosexually active college students gathered information about condom use, self-efficacy (SE), outcome expectancies, sexual attitudes, peer group influences, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, and perceived vulnerability to AIDS. On the basis of A. Bandura's (1986) social-cognitive theory, a structural model with SE as the central mediator was formulated and evaluated with LISREL. This model explained 46% of the variance in condom use from judgments of SE and effects attributable to peers and 53% of the variance in SE from outcome expectancies and peer group influences. Sexual attitudes, AIDS knowledge, and perceived vulnerability did not predict condom use. Most students were well-informed about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but reported not feeling at risk, even though many engaged in risky sexual behavior. PMID:8223358

Wulfert, E; Wan, C K

1993-09-01

330

Therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in dementia.  

PubMed

This trial was performed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of vincamine in the treatment of primary degenerative and vascular dementia. 152 male and female patients aged between 50 and 85 years from two psychogeriatric centers and two nursing homes were initially included in the trial and screened for eligibility. 142 patients completed the trial. Clinical diagnosis was established according to DSM-III-R criteria. Allocation of the patients to the primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) group or the multi-infarct dementia (MID) group was based on computed tomography scans, electroencephalographic findings and the Hachinski Ischemic Score. In a 12-week double-blind treatment either 30 mg vincamine or placebo was given twice daily. Confirmatory statistics included item 2 of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI), the total score of the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric (SCAG) scale, the subscale 'need for help' of the nurse's rating of geriatric patients (Beurteilungsskala für geriatrische Patienten; BGP) and the total score of the Short Cognitive Performance Test (Syndrom-Kurztest; SKT). In addition, data on tolerance and on therapy response were evaluated based on descriptive statistics. The therapeutic efficacy of vincamine was clearly demonstrated by confirmatory analysis as the drug was statistically significantly superior to placebo in all four target variables. The clinical relevance of the outcome was further underlined by the results of the responder analysis of the variables SCAG, BGP and SKT. Based on the results of this trial, it can be accepted that the therapeutic effect of vincamine is superior to placebo in patients with mild to moderate dementia of degenerative and vascular etiologies. PMID:8884757

Fischhof, P K; Möslinger-Gehmayr, R; Herrmann, W M; Friedmann, A; Russmann, D L

1996-01-01

331

Efficacy of Linezolid in Experimental Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Therapy for otitis media (OM) due to resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC of penicillin, ?2.0 ?g/ml) is challenging. Linezolid, an oxazolidinone, represent a new class of antimicrobial agents with excellent in vitro activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae; however, in vitro activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is limited. We evaluated its efficacy against experimental acute OM due to a multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae isolate and two isolates of NTHI. The chinchilla model was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of linezolid against experimental infection due to S. pneumoniae or NTHI. Serum and middle ear antibiotic concentrations were determined, and sterilization of experimental OM was evaluated. Chinchillas were inoculated directly with S. pneumoniae into the superior bulla. Twenty-four hours after inoculation, all animals had positive middle ear and nasopharyngeal cultures. Animals were given linezolid at 25 mg/kg/dose twice a day (b.i.d.) by orogastric feeding tube or amoxicillin at 40 mg/kg/dose b.i.d. intramuscularly for 5 days. By day 5, all animals in the linezolid group had sterile middle ear cultures and eradication of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. In the amoxicillin group, all nine animals remained middle ear and nasopharynx positive (P < 0.01). In animals inoculated with NTHI, 25 and 37.5 mg/kg b.i.d. failed to sterilize middle ear infection or eradicate colonization. Mean levels in middle ear fluid measured during experimental infection were 12.8 ?g/ml at 2 to 6 h and 4.1 ?g/ml at 16 to 17 h after orogastric dosing at 25 mg/kg. Linezolid achieved a high concentration in the middle ear during experimental OM. Linezolid eradicated multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae from the middle ear and nasopharynx. Experimental infection and nasopharyngeal colonization due to NTHI persisted despite achievement of concentrations in the middle ear that were above the MIC (for NTHI). PMID:10681334

Pelton, S. I.; Figueira, M.; Albut, R.; Stalker, D.

2000-01-01

332

The Augmented Efficacy of PBS Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents empirical data on the implementation of exemplar PBS systems. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors that support and impede PBS implementation and approaches that support transporting model PBS implementation. In addition, this study identified and evaluated the ratings of each PBS school category (e.g.,…

Yergat, Jessica Djabrayan

2011-01-01

333

Occurrence of household mold and efficacy of sodium hypochlorite disinfectant.  

PubMed

The occurrence and distribution of mold on household surfaces and the efficacy of bleach-based (sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl) disinfectants on mold viability and allergenicity was documented. Household microenvironments prone to increased moisture were specifically targeted. Using the sticky tape method, 1330 samples were collected from non-porous indoor surfaces of 160 homes across the United States, and analyzed for mold. Homes were randomly selected and recruited via phone interviews. Culture and immunoassays were used to measure the viability and reduction of allergenic properties of Aspergillus fumigatus following 2.4% NaOCl treatment. All homes and 72.9% of surfaces tested positive for mold. Windowsills were the most frequently contaminated site (87.5%) and Cladosporium the most commonly identified mold (31.0%). Five-minute exposures to 2.4% NaOCl resulted in a >3 to >6-log?? reduction of culturable mold counts in controlled laboratory studies. Organisms were nonculturable after 5- and 10-min contact times on non-porous and porous ceramic carriers, respectively, and A. fumigatus spore-eluted allergen levels were reduced by an average 95.8% in 30 sec, as indicated by immunoassay. All homes are contaminated with some level of mold, and regrowth is likely in moisture-prone microenvironments. The use of low concentrations (2.4%) of NaOCl for the reduction of culturable indoor mold and related allergens is effective and recommended. PMID:23016564

Reynolds, Kelly A; Boone, Stephanie; Bright, Kelly R; Gerba, Charles P

2012-01-01

334

Current treatment for anorexia nervosa: efficacy, safety, and adherence  

PubMed Central

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, psychosocial impairment, increased risk of death, and chronicity. Given the severity of the disorder, the establishment of safe and effective treatments is necessary. Several treatments have been tried in AN, but few favorable results have emerged. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials in AN, and provides a synthesis of existing data regarding the efficacy, safety, and adherence associated with pharmacologic and psychological interventions. Randomized controlled trials for the treatment of AN published in peer-reviewed journals were identified by electronic and manual searches. Overall, pharmacotherapy has limited benefits in the treatment of AN, with some promising preliminary findings associated with olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent. No single psychological intervention has demonstrated clear superiority in treating adults with AN. In adolescents with AN, the evidence base is strongest for the use of family therapy over alternative individual psychotherapies. Results highlight challenges in both treating individuals with AN and in studying the effects of those treatments, and further emphasize the importance of continued efforts to develop novel interventions. Treatment trials currently underway and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22110333

Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K

2010-01-01

335

Re-evaluation of ivermectin efficacy against equine gastrointestinal parasites.  

PubMed

Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P<0.05) fewer (>99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, P<0.05-0.01) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Habronema spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189

Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P

2001-07-27

336

Omalizumab for severe asthma: efficacy beyond the atopic patient?  

PubMed

Several years ago, omalizumab became commercially available for the treatment of severe asthma. It remains the only monoclonal antibody to be marketed for this purpose. Since then, many studies have been published endorsing its efficacy and effectiveness. Concomitantly, evidence of an overlap between atopic and non-atopic severe asthma has emerged. However, there also appears to be some disagreement regarding the value of omalizumab in the management of non-atopic disease, as some studies have failed to show any benefit in these patients. The recent literature has also sought to identify appropriate prognostic biomarkers for the use of omalizumab, other than immunoglobulin (IgE) levels. This article briefly summarizes the evolution of asthma treatment, the pathophysiology of the condition, and the method of action of omalizumab. The author describes the controlled and uncontrolled studies (also named "real-life studies") published in adult and pediatric populations in different countries and expresses his view on the current place of the drug in the management of severe allergic asthma. He offers a personal perspective on the recent evidence for the use of omalizumab in non-atopic patients, highlighting the implications for current clinical practice and the gaps in our knowledge. The author justifies his belief that omalizumab is not only an IgE-blocking drug and should be considered as a disease-modifying therapy because of its multiple effects on different biologic pathways. Finally, some areas for future research are indicated. PMID:24691707

Domingo, Christian

2014-04-01

337

Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

Zhang, Hong-yan

2011-01-01

338

Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer  

E-print Network

Identifying Risk Groups Associated with Colorectal Cancer Jie Chen1 , Hongxing He1 , Huidong Jin1 of identifying and describing risk groups for colorectal cancer (CRC) from population based administrative health are applied to the colorectal cancer patients' profiles in contrast to background pa- tients' profiles

Jin, Huidong "Warren"

339

Identifying, Measuring, and Teaching Helping Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addressed is the need in social work education to identify the skills required for effective practice, to develop instruments to measure these skills, and to design an approach to teach them effectively. In the first chapter, "Identifying the Worker Helping Skills," 27 communication, relationship, and problem-solving skills are described. The…

Shulman, Lawrence

340

Learning to Identify New Information Barry Schiffman  

E-print Network

Learning to Identify New Information Barry Schiffman Submitted in partial fulfillment UNIVERSITY 2005 #12;c 2005 Barry Schiffman All Rights Reserved #12;ABSTRACT Learning to Identify New Information Barry Schiffman This thesis is an investigation into a new problem in natural language processing

Schiffman, Barry

341

Identifying Bilingual Semantic Neural Representations across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the study was to identify the neural representation of a noun's meaning in one language based on the neural representation of that same noun in another language. Machine learning methods were used to train classifiers to identify which individual noun bilingual participants were thinking about in one language based solely on their…

Buchweitz, Augusto; Shinkareva, Svetlana V.; Mason, Robert A.; Mitchell, Tom M.; Just, Marcel Adam

2012-01-01

342

Identifying meteor showers from video observations  

E-print Network

Identifying meteor showers from video observations Bachelor thesis 1160 Physics Pavol Matlovic and encouragement throughout this work. #12;Abstract Author: Pavol Matlovic Title: Identifying meteor showers from recent collection of data from video meteor observations, this work delivers information about numerous

Veres, Peter

343

Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users  

PubMed Central

This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

2009-01-01

344

An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults  

PubMed Central

We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations. PMID:23888284

PONNIAH, Kathryn; MAGIATI, Iliana; HOLLON, Steven D.

2013-01-01

345

An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy  

PubMed Central

Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

2013-01-01

346

Beating the Placebo in HIV Prevention Efficacy Trials: The Role of the Minimal Efficacy Bound  

PubMed Central

Objective To produce an effect on the HIV epidemic, preventive interventions need to achieve a minimum level of efficacy in order to offset potential indirect effects such as an increase in risky behavior. The current generation of HIV prevention trials on oral pre-exposure prophylaxis and on vaginal microbicides were designed using different set points for minimum individual-level efficacy (MIE). Some trials were designed not only to show superiority over placebo but also to rule out lower efficacies. The MIE has a substantial impact on the size and cost of a trial. Ideally, the MIE should be chosen to reduce uncertainty in the estimation of population level effects. In this paper, we investigate the effect of MIE on estimates of population level impact in order to better inform trial design. Methods We used mathematical model simulations assuming various rates of efficacy obtained from trials and different MIEs to study the impact of wide-scale interventions on two public health indicators. Results Implementation factors were the main drivers of uncertainty in public health indicators for an intervention, although MIE also contributed. The level of uncertainty introduced by the MIE was substantially lower than that of the other factors. Conclusions Investigators in clinical trials have set the MIE solely on the basis of potential public health impact. However, the substantial increase in trial costs associated with a large MIE is unlikely to be justified. These additional funds would be better spent in evaluating more critical implementation factors that cannot be assessed in clinical trials. PMID:23075921

DIMITROV, Dobromir T.; MASSE, Benoit R.; BOILY, Marie-Claude

2012-01-01

347

Faith in Treatment Influences Efficacy Among AIDS Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the extent to which patients' faith in a treatment influences its efficacy, one-hundred and forty men, requesting an alternative therapy for AIDS, consisting of repeated injections of typhoid vaccine, were enrolled in a treatment program by a San Francisco AIDS Clinic and also agreed to participate in this independent study of other factors which might affect treatment efficacy.

Lewis E. Mehl-Madrona; Beth Chan

1999-01-01

348

Self-Efficacy, Stress, and Academic Success in College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27…

Zajacova, Anna; Lynch, Scott M.; Espenshade, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

349

Development of the Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual Change Learning Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess college students' efficacy beliefs for conceptual change and to examine the psychometric properties of the instrument. Participants were 692 students. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized single factor structure of Efficacy Beliefs for Conceptual…

Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Tuckman, Bruce W.; Krissek, Lawrence A.

2012-01-01

350

Short communication Quantifying influenza vaccine efficacy and antigenic distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new measure of antigenic distance between influenza A vaccine and circulating strains. The measure correlates well with efficacies of the H3N2 influenza A component of the annual vaccine between 1971 and 2004, as do results of a theory of the immune response to influenza following vaccination. This new measure of antigenic distance is correlated with vaccine efficacy

Vishal Gupta; David J. Earl; Michael W. Deem

351

Impact of Self-Efficacy Expectations on Adolescent Career Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to explore the impact of several aspects of self-efficacy expectations in relation to the vocational considerations of high school students. Career self-efficacy expectations and decision making by male (N=132) and female (N=92) high school students in general education (N=108), special education (N=41), and an alternative…

Gillespie, David; Hillman, Stephen B.

352

The Self-Directed Search and Career Self-Efficacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school students (n=237) completed the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and Task Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale. A significant relationship between responses to the two instruments supports the validity of the SDS in predicting career self-efficacy. (SK)

Feehan, Patrick F.; Johnston, Joseph A.

1999-01-01

353

Socioeconomic status and exercise self-efficacy in late life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy, or assessments about one's ability to carry out particular tasks, has been shown to play a central role in the adoption and maintenance of exercise. The relationship between exercise self-efficacy and socioeconomic status (SES), however, has not been formally developed or tested, and the implications of SES for exercise interventions are not known. We hypothesize pathways through which income,

Daniel O. Clark; Donald L. Patrick; David Grembowski; Mary L. Durham

1995-01-01

354

A Professional Development Program Evaluation: Teacher Efficacy, Learning, and Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although professional development is an important means of improving both teachers' skills and student outcomes, there is a dearth of high quality empirical research on the efficacy of such efforts. The efficacy of the Challenging Behavior Process was assessed using a mixed method approach which included the use of pre-, post-, and follow-up…

Tomonari, Dana Anne Miyuki

2012-01-01

355

Examining Explanatory Style's Relationship to Efficacy and Burnout in Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explanatory style, the ways in which people explain both good and bad events (Seligman, 1998), shares theoretical components with teachers' sense of efficacy (Tshannon-Moran & Woolfolk-Hoy, 2001), which is how capable teachers feel about teaching. According to Bandura (1994), efficacy informs explanatory style, but this assertion does not explain…

Fineburg, Amy Cheek

2010-01-01

356

Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

2012-01-01

357

Perceived Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Nigerian Science Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess differences between Nigerian junior and senior preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 221 preservice teachers enrolled in junior and senior secondary science teacher education programs in Nigeria using Science Teaching Efficacy Belief…

Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

2010-01-01

358

Self-Efficacy Development in School Leaders: An Alternate Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although self-efficacy is an area of self-cognition that has been well explored in psychology, teacher education and business management, it has not been investigated or related to school leadership. In this article the author presents an example of how her administrative credential students developed greater efficacy perceptions through a…

Ketelle, Diane

2005-01-01

359

A Case Study of Elementary Beginning Mathematics Teachers' Efficacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this research was to explore the developmental process of and possible changes in beginning elementary mathematics teachers' efficacy. Beginning teachers with and without mathematics and science backgrounds were also compared to explore differences in their efficacy development. A multiple-case study method with a process and…

Chang, Yu-Liang

2010-01-01

360

Conceptualising Work Engagement: An Individual, Collective and Organisational Efficacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of multi-level forms of efficacy and organisational interactions necessary for promoting effective work engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Work engagement is explored from a multi-level efficacy perspective (self, collective and organisational). Based on the ideas of Bandura,…

Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Morris, Lynn

2013-01-01

361

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

362

Computational investigation of the relative efficacies of nail-and  

E-print Network

fracture-fixation and bone-healing promotion efficacies of an intramedullary (IM) nail-type and an external a large range of scenarios involving relative importance of the bone-healing promotion and fractureComputational investigation of the relative efficacies of nail- and plate-type proximal femoral-fracture

Grujicic, Mica

363

Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of per- sonal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and

Albert Bandura

1977-01-01

364

The Role of Self-Efficacy in Performing Emotion Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a sample of 154 cabin attendants to examine the role of self-efficacy in the performance of emotion work. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that self-efficacy would have a moderating influence on the relationship between emotional job demands (i.e., feeling rules and emotionally charged interactions with passengers)…

Heuven, Ellen; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Huisman, Noortje

2006-01-01

365

Examining Internet Interactivity Effects on Young Adult Political Information Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political information efficacy theory was examined in this pretest-posttest experiment of Web interactivity. Experimental (high) and control (low) interactive conditions produced significantly different effects for the participants (N = 271). Exposure to highly interactive Web features resulted in significant increases in political information efficacy. Participants in the highly interactive condition were also significantly more likely than those in the low

John C. Tedesco

2007-01-01

366

Self-Efficacy and Collaborative Learning: An Intervention Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from empirical research suggest that both self-efficacy beliefs and collaborative learning may have an influence upon student academic performance. However, the phenomena of self-efficacy beliefs, collaborative learning, and academic achievement have not been studied in concert with one another. Using quantitative research methods, I…

Robertson, Jane

2012-01-01

367

Early Career Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Balanced Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to Bandura (1986; 1997), perceptions of efficacy are based on four sources: enactive attainment; vicarious experience; physiological and emotional states; and verbal persuasion. The factors affecting Early Career Teachers' self-efficacy for reading instruction are closely related to these four sources. It is not difficult to imagine an…

Hastings, Petra

2012-01-01

368

Efficacy of Self-Administered Treatments for Depression and Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-administered treatments (SATs) are widely used by the general public and mental health professionals. Previous reviews of the efficacy of SATs have included under this category interventions for nonclinical problems, group interventions, and interventions involving significant amounts of therapist contact. The efficacy of SATs for clinical levels of depression and anxiety with minimal therapeutic contact was examined by meta-analyzing 24

Marisa Menchola; Hal S. Arkowitz; Brian L. Burke

2007-01-01

369

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL  

E-print Network

TIMING OF HERBICIDE APPLICATIONS MAY INFLUENCE EFFICACY OF AFLATOXIN BIOCONTROL Nicholas Garber herbicides and AF36 have not previously been investigated. AF36 product efficacy in the field is dependant spores was quantified after exposure to the common herbicides: Buctril® 4EC, Bueno® 6, Caparol® 4L, Direx

Cotty, Peter J.

370

Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

2006-01-01

371

Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be congruent with behavioral economic measures, which provide a framework for integrating the discordant results.

MATTHEW W. JOHNSON; WARREN K. BICKEL

2006-01-01

372

Self-efficacy Feelings Moderate Implementation Intention Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-efficacy was analyzed as a potential moderator of implementation intention effects on goal attainment. Participants' self-efficacy with respect to taking an analytic reasoning test (Advanced Progressive Matrices; Raven, 1976) was manipulated before they formed the goal to perform well. Next, all participants learned about double checking as an effective strategy to improve test performance, but only in the implementation intention

Frank Wieber; Georg Odenthal; Peter Gollwitzer

2010-01-01

373

Diversity Training: Analysis of the Impact of Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the importance of diversity in organizations is widely recognized, diversity training is under attack. Drawing from self-efficacy theory and research, we developed a questionnaire to measure one's efficacy of successfully coping with widely recognized diversity initiatives. Then we conducted a study examining the effect of…

Combs, Gwendolyn M.; Luthans, Fred

2007-01-01

374

Efficacy of In-Home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, there has been much discussion of the efficacy of mental health interventions for children as well as the transportation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) to field settings. A logical initial step in this line of research is to examine whether the efficacy of ESTs can be demonstrated in community settings such as in the…

Ware, Lisa M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Masse, Joshua; Stevens, Sarah

2008-01-01

375

Efficacy of In-Home Parent-Child Interaction Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been much discussion of the efficacy of mental health interventions for children as well as the transportation of empirically-supported treatments (ESTs) to field settings. A logical initial step in this line of research is to examine whether the efficacy of ESTs can be demonstrated in community settings such as in the home environment. The purpose

Lisa M. Ware; Cheryl B. McNeil; Joshua Masse; Sarah Stevens

2008-01-01

376

Business Student Computer Self-Efficacy: Ten Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes computer self-efficacy for two independent samples of students enrolled in an introduction to information systems course in 1996 and 2006. We administered two validated and frequently employed measures of general computer self-efficacy to each group of students and collected demographic and computer-use data. Our findings…

Karsten, Rex; Schmidt, Dennis

2008-01-01

377

Assessing Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy in Three Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Regulatory Emotional Self-Efficacy (RESE) scale was developed to assess perceived self-efficacy in managing negative (NEG) and in expressing positive (POS) affect (G. V. Caprara & M. Gerbino, 2001). In this study of young adults, the factorial structure of the RESE scale was found to be similar in Italy, the United States, and Bolivia: In…

Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Giunta, Laura Di; Eisenberg, Nancy; Gerbino, Maria; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tramontano, Carlo

2008-01-01

378

Entrepreneurial Attitude and Entrepreneurial Efficacy of Technical Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students' intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia.…

Zaidatol Akmaliah, Lope Pihie; Bagheri, Afsaneh

2010-01-01

379

A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

2012-01-01

380

Self-Efficacy and Statistics Performance among Sport Studies Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored predictive paths between performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, and performance among Sport Studies students taking a Level 1 statistics module. Fifty-eight Level 1 Sport Studies undergraduate degree students completed a 44-item self-efficacy measure and an assessment of perceived academic success at the start of…

Lane, Andrew M.; Hall, Ross; Lane, John

2004-01-01

381

High School Accountability: The Role of Perceived Collective Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between collective efficacy and high school student achievement in a state with an accountability system heavily focused on achievement, measured by mandatory assessments in multiple content areas. Using social cognitive theory, a theoretical model was developed linking school context and collective efficacy to…

Goddard, Roger D.; LoGerfo, Laura; Hoy, Wayne K.

2004-01-01

382

Mental Health Promotion in Schools by Strengthening Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review two school intervention projects aiming to promote students' self-efficacy in Germany. Self-efficacy, defined as people's "beliefs in their capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments", is a core prevention criterion of mental health. It is…

Jerusalem, Matthias; Hessling, Johannes Klein

2009-01-01

383

Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy among Physical Education Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of…

Mouton, Alexandre; Hansenne, Michel; Delcour, Romy; Cloes, Marc

2013-01-01

384

Situational Familiarity, Efficacy Expectations, and the Process of Credibility Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments investigated the influence of situational familiarity within a judgmental context on the process of credibility attribution. We predicted that high familiarity with a situation would lead to higher efficacy expectations for, and a more pronounced use of, verbal information when making judgments of credibility. Under low situational familiarity, judges were expected to experience higher efficacy expectations for, and

Marc-Andre Reinhard; Martin Scharmach; Siegfried L. Sporer

2012-01-01

385

Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Ulm, J.E. [TN Dept. of Health, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

386

The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

Briley, Jason S.

2012-01-01

387

Investigating the efficacy of terrorist network visualizations  

E-print Network

Military intelligence analysts are increasingly tasked to sift through enormous volumes of data to identify the proverbial intelligence "needle in a haystack." One specific domain exemplifying this new intelligence paradigm ...

Berardi, Christopher W. (Christopher Walter)

2013-01-01

388

Clinical Focus Identifying Residual Speech Sound  

E-print Network

AJSLP Clinical Focus Identifying Residual Speech Sound Disorders in Bilingual Children: A Japanese speech sound disorders (SSDs) in bilinguals by distinguishing speech patterns associated with second understanding of a client's strengths and needs. Key Words: bilingualism, articulation, residual speech sound

389

Experimental designs for identifying causal mechanisms  

E-print Network

Experimentation is a powerful methodology that enables scientists to establish causal claims empirically. However, one important criticism is that experiments merely provide a black box view of causality and fail to identify ...

Imai, Kosuke

390

Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

391

Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution  

E-print Network

This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

Reeder, Christopher Campbell

2014-01-01

392

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-03-01

393

Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a commercial lighting design computer program, Lumen-Micro, to explore how to place luminaires within greenhouses and plant growth chambers to achieve light (PAR) uniformity and relatively high lighting efficacies. Several suggestions are presented which could encourage systematic design of plant lighting systems.

Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

1994-01-01

394

Math LD: Identifying Basic Number Processing Difficulties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blogpost Dr. Daniel B. Berch explains the difficulties in identifying math learning disabilities and how math learning disabilities may present themselves in young children. Dr. Berch identifies "transcoding" and "subitizing" as two ways in which math learning disabilities may first become clear to educators and researchers. A related resource,"How Teachers and Parents Can Help Elementary School Students with Math LD" by Dr. Berch, is cataloged separately.

Berch, Daniel B.

2012-05-15

395

Connecting Research and Researchers: ORCID Identifiers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lack of standards for identification of researchers is a major challenge for the research community. It is difficult not only to unambiguously associate researchers with their own work, but also to track use and re-use of those works. The goal of ORCID (orcid.org) is to connect research with researchers, ultimately saving researchers time in entering data, improving discoverability, and facilitating the flow of research information and data re-use. ORCID is a community-driven non-profit organization that provides an open registry of unique persistent identifiers for researchers. We work collaboratively with the research community to embed these identifiers in research workflows, including manuscript submission, grant application, and data set deposit. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of ORCID, an in particular how it is being used as a switchboard to connect existing but fragmented researcher identifiers. ORCID also provides researchers search and link tools to link their ORCID identifier to their existing datasets, grants, other research works, and an automated method to link new works to their identifier. ORCID is fundamental to solving the name ambiguity problem for researchers and scholars. Together with unique and persistent identifiers for publications, data sets, and research samples, ORCID is an essential underpinning needed to support interoperability between research systems.

Haak, L.; Bryant, R.

2013-12-01

396

IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT  

SciTech Connect

The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J., E-mail: rmarcus@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2011-05-20

397

Teacher Sense of Efficacy for Literacy Instruction and Student Reading Achievement in Grades Three through Eight  

E-print Network

& Gibson, 1986), a global measure of teacher efficacy was used for data collection. Bandura (2001) highlighted the need for a context specific measure when measuring efficacy, "Scales of perceived self-efficacy must be tailored to the particular domains...

Poggio, Jennifer Marie

2012-05-31

398

Semen enhances HIV infectivity and impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides.  

PubMed

Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. We report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 co-receptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help to explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R; Kluge, Silvia F; Müller, Janis A; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

2014-11-12

399

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder. PMID:23467711

Prazeres, Angelica M; Nascimento, Antonio L; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

2013-01-01

400

Optimizing siRNA efficacy through alteration in the target cell-adhesion substrate interaction  

PubMed Central

The clinical potential of siRNA based therapeutics remains hindered by the challenge of delivering enough siRNA into the cytoplasm to yield a clinically relevant effect. Although much research has focused on optimizing delivery vehicles for this class of molecules, considerably less is known about the microenvironmental influences on the response of target cells to siRNA. The substrate to which cells adhere is one component of the microenvironment that can modulate cellular behavior. Here, we tested the hypothesis that modulating the properties of cellular adhesion substrates can alter siRNA efficacy. Specifically, cationic lipid complexed siRNA particles were applied to U251 cells seeded on alginate hydrogel surfaces with systematic variation in elastic modulus and integrin ligand RGD density. These experiments revealed no change in siRNA mediated eGFP knockdown over the elastic modulus range tested (53 to 133 kPa). However, an eight-fold increase in RGD content of the alginate growth substrate resulted in an increase in siRNA knockdown efficacy from 25 ± 12% to 52 ± 10%, a more than two fold increase in silencing. Our results identify control of the cell-adhesion substrate interaction as a modulator of siRNA protein silencing efficacy. PMID:22615234

Khormaee, Sariah; Ali, Omar A.; Chodosh, James; Mooney, David J.

2013-01-01

401

Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds  

PubMed Central

Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters. PMID:18328107

2008-01-01

402

A live Pasteurella haemolytica vaccine efficacy trial.  

PubMed

A live Pasteurella haemolytica serotype 1 vaccine was used in an efficacy trial conducted on 100 lightweight feeder calves purchased from a Florida ranch. Forty-one calves were inoculated with the vaccine intradermally in the neck. Fifty-nine calves served as nonvaccinated controls. Fourteen days later, the calves were shipped to an order buyer in eastern Tennessee, where the calves were mixed with 60 local calves in a community sale barn for 72 hours. After 3 additional days, the calves were shipped to a research feedlot in Bushland, Tex. They remained in the feedlot for 56 days, and the test was concluded 76 days after vaccination. The P haemolytica vaccine had no significant effect on performance, morbidity, or mortality. There was no significant difference between the vaccinated and nonvaccinated calves in the number of times Pasteurella was isolated. The calves became seropositive to bovine viral diarrhea virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus during the 76-day experiment. All calves initially were seropositive to parainfluenza-3 virus. A virulent outbreak of IBR occurred 30 days after the calves arrived at the feedlot. Before the onset of IBR, the isolation of P haemolytica serotype 1 from nasal turbinates was rare (2 of 500 nasal swabs). After the IBR outbreak, P haemolytica serotype 1 was isolated from 40 of 92 calves. PMID:3514562

Purdy, C W; Livingston, C W; Frank, G H; Cummins, J M; Cole, N A; Loan, R W

1986-03-15

403

Efficacy of surgery for internal snapping hip.  

PubMed

Our purpose was to evaluate evidence regarding the effectiveness of open iliopsoas release and lengthening with arthroscopic approaches, which combine iliopsoas release with the treatment of intra-articular pathology as treatments for internal snapping hip syndrome. Searches were performed of 4 databases and 12 reports on the surgical treatment of internal snapping hip were reviewed. The authors tabulated data according to year of study, journal, study type, level of evidence, patient demographics, procedure, and outcomes. We found that surgical treatment of internal snapping hip improves patient symptoms in the majority of patients. Endoscopic release is associated with fewer reported complications compared with open release. All studies of endoscopic treatment of internal snapping hip syndrome also performed intra-articular examination and treatment of intra-articular pathology. The incidence of associated intra-articular pathology was reported in 5 of 6 studies. These results suggest that a painful snapping iliopsoas tendon in many cases may be a result of intra-articular hip pathology rather than an independent entity. Early studies suggest no difference in efficacy or associated complications rate when comparing extracapsular to transcapsular iliopsoas tendon release. Further studies are needed comparing operative to nonoperative treatment and methods of determining patients likely to benefit from operative intervention. PMID:23740339

Kroger, E W; Griesser, M J; Kolovich, G P; Ellis, T J

2013-10-01

404

Optimizing efficacy of amphotericin B through nanomodification.  

PubMed

Fungal infections and leishmaniasis are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The macrolide polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal and leishmanicidal drug. A conventional intravenous dosage form of AmB, AmB- deoxycholate (Fungizone or D-AmB), is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal and parasitic (leishmaniasis) infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects mainly nephrotoxicity. Efforts to lower the toxicity are based on synthesis of AmB analogues such as AmB esters or preparation of AmB-lipid associations in the forms of liposomal AmB (L-AmB or AmBisome), AmB lipid complex (Abelcet or ABLC), AmB colloidal dispersion (Amphocil or ABCD), and intralipid AmB. These newer formulations are substantially more expensive, but allow patients to receive higher doses for longer periods of time with decreased renal toxicity than conventional AmB. Modifications of liposomal surface in order to avoid RES uptake, thus increased targetability has been attempted. Emulsomes and other nanoparticles are special carrier systems for intracellular localization in macrophage rich organs like liver and spleen. Injectable nano-carriers have important potential applications as in site-specific drug delivery. PMID:17722276

Vyas, Suresh P; Gupta, Swati

2006-01-01

405

Optimizing efficacy of amphotericin B through nanomodification  

PubMed Central

Fungal infections and leishmaniasis are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The macrolide polyene antibiotic amphotericin B (AmB) has long been recognized as a powerful fungicidal and leishmanicidal drug. A conventional intravenous dosage form of AmB, AmB- deoxycholate (Fungizone or D-AmB), is the most effective clinically available for treating fungal and parasitic (leishmaniasis) infections. However, the clinical efficacy of AmB is limited by its adverse effects mainly nephrotoxicity. Efforts to lower the toxicity are based on synthesis of AmB analogues such as AmB esters or preparation of AmB-lipid associations in the forms of liposomal AmB (L-AmB or AmBisome), AmB lipid complex (Abelcet or ABLC), AmB colloidal dispersion (Amphocil or ABCD), and intralipid AmB. These newer formulations are substantially more expensive, but allow patients to receive higher doses for longer periods of time with decreased renal toxicity than conventional AmB. Modifications of liposomal surface in order to avoid RES uptake, thus increased targetability has been attempted. Emulsomes and other nanoparticles are special carrier systems for intracellular localization in macrophage rich organs like liver and spleen. Injectable nanocarriers have important potential applications as in site-specific drug delivery. PMID:17722276

Vyas, Suresh P; Gupta, Swati

2006-01-01

406

Bariatric surgery: indications, safety and efficacy.  

PubMed

Obesity among adults, children and adolescents has markedly increased regardless of gender, age, ethnicity or educational level, and has become a national health threat and a major public health challenge. This obesity epidemic can be attributed to excess energy intake and decreased energy expenditure experienced in Westernized countries. Unfortunately, there is no single solution to prevent or treat obesity that will be inclusive of everyone. Often times, treatment of obesity may include a combination of diet, exercise, behavior modification, medication, and sometimes weight-loss surgeries. Hence, bariatric surgery has evolved over the last four decades and has been shown to be effective in reducing obesity related comorbidities, improve the quality of life, number of sick days, monthly medication costs, and overall mortality. With the increasing rates of weight loss surgical procedures, the quality, efficacy and surgical outcomes have improved with the creation of Bariatric Centers of Excellence designated by the American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery or American College of Surgeons. The benefits of bariatric procedures in morbidly obese patients outweigh the risks. With the advent of minimally invasive surgical procedures, bariatric surgery is a reasonable treatment option in those who strongly desire substantial weight loss and have life-threatening comorbid conditions. PMID:21492093

Ben-David, K; Rossidis, G

2011-01-01

407

Application of Perez Daylight Efficacy Model for Kolkata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of daylight on any plane of a building and the passive heat gain due to the corresponding incident solar radiation is correlated by daylight luminous efficacy. The present study was carried out to evaluate daylight efficacy on exterior horizontal plane for Kolkata using Perez Model an established analytical model and Indian measured solar radiation database. The analytical model was selected according to the sky conditions throughout the year. The estimated efficacy models were used to predict horizontal global and diffuse illuminances. The predicted global and diffuse illuminance was validated with the measured illuminance values using standard statistical tools. The estimated Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) and Mean Bias Deviation (MBD) between experimental and simulated values of illuminance are +7 % and ±4.5 % respectively. An analytical model of luminous efficacy for Kolkata was also developed from the measured values. From the study, it has been found that diffuse luminous efficacy varies from 114-138 lm/W whereas global luminous efficacy varies from 98-112 lm/W in a year. It is also observed that sky clearness index and diffuse irradiance ratio have significant effect on the variations of luminous efficacy in different seasons.

Raul, Debashis; Pal, Sujoy; Roy, Biswanath

2014-09-01

408

Genotype-dependent effect of ACTH 1–24 on grooming and yawning in two inbred strains of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been known that the intracerebroventricular administration of ACTH1–24 increases the duration of grooming episodes and the frequency of yawning in rats. The objective of this study was to investigate in what way these episodes are prolonged and whether and to what extent genotype influences such effects. We compared the effect of increasing doses of intracerebroventricular injections of

José R. Eguibar; Margarita Barajas; Alejandro Moyaho

2004-01-01

409

Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

Haley, Gwendolen E. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)] [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Raber, Jacob, E-mail: raberj@ohsu.edu [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

2012-11-01

410

Genotype-dependence in the interaction between Glomus fistulosum, Phytophthora fragariae and the wild strawberry ( Fragaria vesca )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root colonisation byGlomus fistulosum BEG 31 of a plant population from the outbreeding wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) ranged from 42 to 80%; this was correlated with a significant increase in fruit trusses, berries and leaves. The mycorrhizal plants produced significantly more primary and secondary runners but less lateral runners. One hundred randomly selected seeds were multiplied in vitro and 4

G. L. Mark; A. C. Cassells

1996-01-01

411

One-to-one comparison of sunscreen efficacy, aesthetics and potential nanotoxicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous reports have described the superior properties of nanoparticles and their diverse range of applications. Issues of toxicity, workplace safety and environmental impact have also been a concern. Here we show a theoretical comparison of how the size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and their concentration in sunscreens can affect efficacy, aesthetics and potential toxicity from free radical production. The simulation results reveal that, unless very small nanoparticles can be shown to be safe, there is no combination of particle size and concentration that will deliver optimal performance in terms of sun protection and aesthetics. Such a theoretical method complements well the experimental approach for identifying these characteristics.

Barnard, Amanda S.

2010-04-01

412

Identifying Optimal Models to Represent Biochemical Systems  

PubMed Central

Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an “optimal” reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model. PMID:24416170

Apri, Mochamad; de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Simon; Molenaar, Jaap

2014-01-01

413

Identifying Surfaces on the Pale Blue Dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changing color of an unresolved planet hint at its cloud structure and surface features. Principal component analysis has previously been shown to robustly identify the number of surfaces contributing to disk-integrated observations. We have taken an important next step by showing that one can identify the reflectance spectra of unknown surface types, based solely on time-resolved, disk-integrated multi-band photometry. We test our method on disk-integrated observations of Earth taken by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission. Critically, we borrow analysis tools from the remote sensing community, where spatially-resolved spectral data are routinely analyzed in an automated way to identify known (eg. boreal forest) as well as unknown surfaces (eg. military bunkers). Our study indicates that planned missions like the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will be able to identify new surfaces on exoplanets, and also offers a relatively model-independent avenue to identifying surface liquid water on other worlds.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, T. E.

2013-01-01

414

Different residues in the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine binding pocket mediate benzodiazepine efficacy and binding.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines (BZDs) exert their therapeutic actions by binding to the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) and allosterically modulating GABA-induced chloride currents (I(GABA)). A variety of ligands with divergent structures bind to the BZD site, and the structural mechanisms that couple their binding to potentiation of I(GABA) are not well understood. In this study, we measured the effects of individually mutating 22 residues throughout the BZD binding pocket on the abilities of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and flurazepam to potentiate I(GABA). Wild-type and mutant ?(1)?(2)?(2) GABA(A)Rs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. GABA EC(50), BZD EC(50), and BZD maximal potentiation were measured. These data, combined with previous radioligand binding data describing the mutations' effects on BZD apparent binding affinities (J Neurosci 28:3490-3499, 2008; J Med Chem 51:7243-7252, 2008), were used to distinguish residues within the BZD pocket that contribute to BZD efficacy and BZD binding. We identified six residues whose mutation altered BZD maximal potentiation of I(GABA) (BZD efficacy) without altering BZD binding apparent affinity, three residues whose mutation altered binding but had no effect on BZD efficacy, and four residues whose mutation affected both binding and efficacy. Moreover, depending on the BZD ligand, the effects of some mutations were different, indicating that the structural mechanisms underlying the ability of BZD ligands with divergent structures to potentiate I(GABA) are distinct. PMID:21447642

Morlock, Elaine V; Czajkowski, Cynthia

2011-07-01

415

Antidepressant efficacy of agomelatine: meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To systematically review published and unpublished efficacy studies of agomelatine in people with depression. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Literature search (Pubmed, Embase, Medline), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, European Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory file for agomelatine, manufacturers of agomelatine (Servier). Eligibility criteria Double blind randomised placebo and comparator controlled trials of agomelatine in depression with standard depression rating scales. Data synthesis Studies were pooled by using a random effects model with DerSimonian and Laird weights for comparisons with placebo and comparator antidepressant. The primary efficacy measure (change in rating scale score) was summarised with standardised mean difference (SMD; a measure of effect size) and secondary outcome measures with relative risks. All results were presented with 95% confidence intervals. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by visual inspection of funnel plots and by the I2 statistic. Moderators of effect were explored by meta-regression. Results We identified 20 trials with 7460 participants meeting inclusion criteria (11 in the published literature, four from the European Medicines Agency file, and five from the manufacturer). Almost all studies used the 17 item Hamilton depression rating scale (score 0-50). Agomelatine was significantly more effective than placebo with an effect size (SMD) of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.35) and relative risk of response 1.25 (1.11 to 1.4). Compared with other antidepressants, agomelatine showed equal efficacy (SMD 0.00, ?0.09 to 0.10). Significant heterogeneity was uncovered in most analyses, though risk of bias was low. Published studies were more likely than unpublished studies to have results that suggested advantages for agomelatine. Conclusions Agomelatine is an effective antidepressant with similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. Published trials generally had more favourable results than unpublished studies. PMID:24647162

2014-01-01

416

Mathematics self-efficacy: stereotype threat versus resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children’s academic self-efficacy is one of the strongest predictors of achievement (Wigfield and Eccles, Contemporary Educational\\u000a Psychology 25(1): 68–81, 2000). The present research examined mathematics self-efficacy and the relationship of racial context\\u000a from the perspective of two competing bodies of research. Stereotype threat theory would predict that, under conditions where\\u000a negative stereotypes are salient, self-efficacy would decrease. So, Black\\/African American

Amy Schweinle; Grace A. Mims

2009-01-01

417

Estradiol Improves Genital Herpes Vaccine Efficacy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 causes genital herpes but is frequently transmitted asymptomatically; therefore, a prophylactic vaccine is desirable. A candidate vaccine in clinical trials has only shown efficacy in preventing disease in women. Using this subunit vaccine candidate, we were able to demonstrate infection prophylaxis, improved disease prevention and modulated antibody production by complimenting vaccination with estradiol in our murine model. Findings of estradiol-enhanced vaccine efficacy are the first of their kind using a vaccine of this type and have potential clinical relevance to the development of other vaccines and our understanding of gender differences in vaccine efficacy. PMID:19660586

Pennock, Jeffry W.; Stegall, Rachael; Bell, Brent; Vargas, Gracie; Motamedi, Massoud; Milligan, Gregg; Bourne, Nigel

2009-01-01

418

Self-efficacy, attendance, and weight loss in obesity treatment.  

PubMed

Self-efficacy is an important predictor of treatment outcomes for a variety of addictive behaviors. However, little research is available regarding its predictive value in obesity treatment. We assessed the predictive validity of the 20-item version of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL) in a consecutive sample of 109 obese adults seeking outpatient treatment at a university-based weight-management center. Although the WEL demonstrated a stable factor structure and sound psychometric properties, it failed to correlate with either program attendance or weight loss. We concluded that self-efficacy judgments (as measured by the WEL) are not predictive of short-term obesity treatment outcomes. PMID:9290865

Fontaine, K R; Cheskin, L J

1997-01-01

419

Nurses' self-efficacy and academic degree advancement.  

PubMed

The last decade has brought about a synergy of influences for registered nurses to advance their academic preparation. Literature indicates that there is correlation between self-efficacy and goal establishment and success. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the relationship between self-efficacy and advancing academic aspirations of registered nurses. Findings indicated that there was a trend toward a difference in the self-efficacy of nurses who began their career with a diploma or associate degree and went on for academic advancement and those who did not. PMID:24845088

Winslow, Susan; DeGuzman, Pamela; Kulbok, Pamela; Jackson, Stephanie

2014-01-01

420

Perceived Efficacy Beliefs of Prospective Nigerian Science Teachers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to assess differences between Nigerian junior and senior preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. Data in this study were collected from a total number of 221 preservice teachers enrolled in junior and senior secondary science teacher education programs in Nigeria using Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEB-B) (Enoch and Riggs in Sci Educ 74:625-638 1990). Results indicated that junior secondary preservice teachers were as efficacious as their senior secondary preservice teachers on the two dimensions of STEB-B. In addition, analyses did not reveal any significant gender differences on the two dimensions of STEB-B.

Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

2010-02-01

421

Editorial Editorial Dialogue on Identifying Culture  

E-print Network

The theme ‘Identifying Culture’, and the contents of this IJCCM special issue, emerged from the international multi-disciplinary ‘Identifying Culture ’ conference held in Stockholm 13–15 June 2002. 1 The special issue opens with a dialogue on ‘identifying culture ’ involving five culture scholars, followed by four articles selected after a double-blind peerreview process, and concludes with an invited article that proposes a future research paradigm for cross cultural management research. Who then should read this IJCCM special issue? First, scholars who are interested in the identification of culture – national, organizational, professional, group or any other ‘culture’. Second, researchers interested in cultural processes or the role culture plays with implications for management, leadership, organizations and teams. Third, those who are interested in grasping the state of the art across different disciplines involving studies of culture. The articles included add to our empirical, conceptual and methodological knowledge and the invited contribution guides us at a meta-level firmly

Mats Alvesson; Mary Yoko Brannen; Mary Jo Hatch; Gustav Jahoda; Lena Z; Lena Zander

422

Identifying influential nodes in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying influential nodes that lead to faster and wider spreading in complex networks is of theoretical and practical significance. The degree centrality method is very simple but of little relevance. Global metrics such as betweenness centrality and closeness centrality can better identify influential nodes, but are incapable to be applied in large-scale networks due to the computational complexity. In order to design an effective ranking method, we proposed a semi-local centrality measure as a tradeoff between the low-relevant degree centrality and other time-consuming measures. We use the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance by using the spreading rate and the number of infected nodes. Simulations on four real networks show that our method can well identify influential nodes.

Chen, Duanbing; Lü, Linyuan; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

2012-02-01

423

Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species  

PubMed Central

A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP) analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM). This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes. PMID:23844370

Spampinato, Claudia

2013-01-01

424

Efficacy of myringoplasty in older people.  

PubMed

The aim of current investigation was to analyze the efficacy of myringoplasty in an elderly population. The medical records of 12 males and 9 females, aged 65-90 years (mean 70.7 years), who underwent myringoplasty between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed for age, gender, co-morbidities, perforation size and location, pre- and postoperative pure tone averages of air/bone thresholds at 500, 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 Hz, graft material, postoperative complications and surgical outcome. The most frequent co-morbidities included hypertension (n = 8), hyperlipidemia (n = 7), diabetes mellitus (n = 5) and ischemic heart disease (n = 4). Fifteen patients had two or more co-morbidities. All surgeries were performed via a trans-canal approach. Seventeen patients had central perforations and four patients had marginal perforations. Temporalis fascia, perichondrium or chondro-perichondrial graft and fat were used as grafting material in 9, 11 and 1 patient, respectively. The post-operative complications were infection (n = 4) and tragal seroma (n = 1). Surgical outcome was successful in 16/21 patients with graft take rates of 89, 72 and 0 % for temporalis fascia, perichondrium/cartilage, and fat, respectively. Pre-operative audiometric data were available for all 21 patients; however, the post-operative data were available for only 15 of them. Myringoplasty in older people was a safe procedure with a 76.2 % surgical success rate in the current study. The choice of graft material, perforation size, gender and associated co-morbidities had no significant effect on achieving an intact tympanic membrane and a dry ear. The audiometric results did not show significant changes following myringoplasty. PMID:24789218

Migirov, Lela; Lipschitz, Noga; Slonimsky, Guy; Yakirevitch, Arkadi; Wolf, Michael

2014-12-01

425

Methotrexate: Optimizing the Efficacy in Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Methotrexate (MTX) is currently the most frequently used drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The drug had been synthesized in 1948 and first tests to treat patients with psoriasis and RA were published in 1951. However, until the 1980s there was only limited use of MTX in the treatment of RA. Since the 1990s MTX is the disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) of first choice for the treatment of RA in most countries worldwide. By definition, DMARDs in RA are those compounds for which an inhibiting effect on radiographic progression has been demonstrated. Several combinations of DMARDs have been tested, most commonly with MTX as the anchor drug. Regarding the route of administration of MTX there is some evidence that the parenteral route, most often performed subcutaneously, has some additional benefits over the oral route. In MTX monotherapy, dosages up to 30 mg/week are now used. There are now three main combinations that are playing an important role: MTX + sulfasalazine (SSZ) + hydroxychloroquine, MTX + leflunomide (LEF), and MTX + biologics such as antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) and other new compounds which block the interleukin 6 (IL6) receptor or T-cell activation and delete B cells. Regarding clinical efficacy, MTX monotherapy has performed almost similarly well in comparison with biologic mono-therapy, both usually combined with glucocorticoids. However, structural damage is usually inhibited to a significantly greater degree with the biologics. The combination of MTX with biologics has proven superior to either agent alone in all aspects. Current strategic regimens which concentrate on systematic ways to bring patients into remission all include MTX as first choice. PMID:22870474

Braun, Jurgen

2011-01-01

426

The efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in depression: a meta-analysis of studies against tricyclic antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of five selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against non-selective and noradrenergic re-uptake inhibitors (mainly tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs) is presented. Fifty five double- blind studies were identified after excluding those multiply reported or with methodological problems likely to bias the outcome in favour of SSRIs. Standardised effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated based on

I. M. Anderson; B. M. Tomenson

1994-01-01

427

A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food Choices. The scores on each of these subscales show a moderate to high degree

Christina M. Perry; R. J. De Ayala; Ryan Lebow; Emily Hayden

2008-01-01

428

Safety and efficacy assessment of standardized herbal formula PM012  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the herbal formula PM012 on an Alzheimer's disease model, human presenilin 2 mutant transgenic mice (hPS2m), and also to evaluate the toxicity of PM012 in Sprague-Dawely rats after 4 or 26 weeks treatment with repeated oral administration. Methods Spatial learning and memory capacities of hPS2m transgenic mice were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze. Simultaneously, PM012 was repeatedly administered orally to male and female SD rats (15/sex/group) at doses of 0 (vehicle control), 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg/day for 4 or 26 weeks. To evaluate the recovery potential, 5 animals of each sex were assigned to vehicle control and 2,000 mg/kg/day groups during the 4-week recovery period. Results The results showed that PM012-treated hPS2m transgenic mice showed significantly reduced escape latency when compared with the hPS2m transgenic mice. The repeated oral administration of PM012 over 26 weeks in male and female rats induced an increase and increasing trend in thymus weight in the female treatment groups (main and recovery groups), but the change was judged to be toxicologically insignificant. In addition, the oral administration of the herbal medicine PM012 did not cause adverse effects as assessed by clinical signs, mortality, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, blood clotting time, organ weights and histopathology. The No Observed Adverse Effects Levels of PM012 was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg/day for both sexes, and the target organ was not identified. Conclusion These results suggest that PM012 has potential for use in the treatment of the Alzheimer's disease without serious adverse effects. PMID:22458507

2012-01-01

429

Efficacy and Safety of Propiverine in Children with Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

Purpose Antimuscarinic therapy remains one of the most common forms of therapy for overactive bladder (OAB) in children. However, few clinical studies on the outcomes of antimuscarinics in children with OAB have been published. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of propiverine, which is frequently prescribed for the treatment of pediatric OAB. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed children with OAB treated with propiverine within the past 5 years. The response rates were compared between the non-urge incontinence (non-UI) and urge incontinence (UI groups). The cumulative response rate by treatment duration was also compared between the two groups. Results Among a total of 68 children, 50 children (73.5%) experienced UI. The overall response rate was 86.8%. Functional bladder capacity after treatment was 150 ml, which represented an increase compared with the value (140 ml) before treatment. The voiding frequency per day decreased from 14.0 to 8.5 times. The overall response rate (88.0%) in the non-UI group was not significantly different from that seen in the UI group (83.3%; p>0.05). In non-UI children, the cumulative response rates were 36.0%, 54.0%, 68.0%, 74.0%, 76.0%, and 78.0% at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks, respectively. The cumulative response rates in the UI children were 11.1%, 33.3%, 44.4%, 50.0%, 50.0%, and 55.6%, respectively during the same respective time periods. Adverse effects were identified in only two (2.9%) patients, and neither case was severe. Conclusions Propiverine is effective and well tolerated as a treatment for children suffering from OAB with or without UI. PMID:22536472

Kim, Woo Jung; Lee, Dong-Gi; Lee, Sang Wook; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Lee, Jae Seung; Park, Kwan Hyun

2012-01-01

430

Best Practices for Identifying Gifted Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents often go to principals to ask for help in supporting their gifted children. They may request acceleration for their child in mathematics, a specialized curriculum or course, extracurricular activities, a pullout program, or even a different teacher. Since misconceptions about identifying gifted students are prevalent, it's important that…

Johnsen, Susan K.

2009-01-01

431

Identifying Faculty Satisfaction in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of faculty attitudes toward online courses focuses on a survey at Penn State's World Campus that identified factors that facilitate satisfactory teaching experiences as well as factors of discontent. Topics include loss of control, reward systems, and land grant institutions that emphasize research activities rather than online course…

Distance Education Report, 2001

2001-01-01

432

Researchers identify biomarker for smoker's lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Mayo Clinic researchers have shown that a specific protein pair may be a successful prognostic biomarker for identifying smoking-related lung cancers. The protein — ASCL1 — is associated with increased expression of the RET oncogene, a particular cancer-causing gene called RET. The findings appear in the online issue of the journal Oncogene.

433

New Gene Variants for Prostate Cancer Identified  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. New Gene Variants for Prostate Cancer Identified 23 new variants associated with increased risk ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Prostate Cancer MONDAY, Sept. 15, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An international ...

434

A screening cascade to identify ER? ligands  

PubMed Central

The establishment of effective high throughput screening cascades to identify nuclear receptor (NR) ligands that will trigger defined, therapeutically useful sets of NR activities is of considerable importance. Repositioning of existing approved drugs with known side effect profiles can provide advantages because de novo drug design suffers from high developmental failure rates and undesirable side effects which have dramatically increased costs. Ligands that target estrogen receptor ? (ER?) could be useful in a variety of diseases ranging from cancer to neurological to cardiovascular disorders. In this context, it is important to minimize cross-reactivity with ER?, which has been shown to trigger increased rates of several types of cancer. Because of high sequence similarities between the ligand binding domains of ER? and ER?, preferentially targeting one subtype can prove challenging. Here, we describe a sequential ligand screening approach comprised of complementary in-house assays to identify small molecules that are selective for ER?. Methods include differential scanning fluorimetry, fluorescence polarization and a GAL4 transactivation assay. We used this strategy to screen several commercially-available chemical libraries, identifying thirty ER? binders that were examined for their selectivity for ER? versus ER?, and tested the effects of selected ligands in a prostate cancer cell proliferation assay. We suggest that this approach could be used to rapidly identify candidates for drug repurposing.

Filgueira, Carly S.; Benod, Cindy; Lou, Xiaohua; Gunamalai, Prem S.; Villagomez, Rosa A.; Strom, Anders; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Berkenstam, Anders L.; Webb, Paul

2014-01-01

435

Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

2013-01-01

436

Testing Identifiability of Causal Effects David Galles  

E-print Network

Testing Identifiability of Causal Effects David Galles Computer Science Department University of San Francisco San Francisco, CA 94117 galles@usfca.edu Judea Pearl Cognitive Systems Laboratory production plant. Before we take charge, we are given a blueprint of the plant together with an explanation

Galles, David

437

Identifying Fallacies of Reference in Argumentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The experience of teaching informal logic (sometimes called practical logic) at the introductory level over the last fifteen years has allowed the author the opportunity to identify some interesting problems. These problems have been encountered by students attempting to understand some of the ideas presented in the informal logic course and by…

Gough, Jim

2009-01-01

438

Identifying Benefit Segments among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using concept of market segmentation (dividing market into distinct groups requiring different product benefits), surveyed 398 college students to determine benefit segments among students selecting a college to attend and factors describing each benefit segment. Identified one major segment of students (classroomers) plus three minor segments…

Brown, Joseph D.

1991-01-01

439

Embedded sensor having an identifiable orientation  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described wherein a sensor, such as a mechanical strain sensor, embedded in a fiber core, is "flagged" to identify a preferred orientation of the sensor. The identifying "flag" is a composite material, comprising a plurality of non-woven filaments distributed in a resin matrix, forming a small planar tab. The fiber is first subjected to a stimulus to identify the orientation providing the desired signal response, and then sandwiched between first and second layers of the composite material. The fiber, and therefore, the sensor orientation is thereby captured and fixed in place. The process for achieving the oriented fiber includes, after identifying the fiber orientation, carefully laying the oriented fiber onto the first layer of composite, moderately heating the assembled layer for a short period in order to bring the composite resin to a "tacky" state, heating the second composite layer as the first, and assembling the two layers together such that they merge to form a single consolidated block. The consolidated block achieving a roughly uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin is prevented from "pooling" around the periphery of the fiber.

Bennett, Thomas E. (31 Portola Ct., Danville, CA 94506); Nelson, Drew V. (840 Cabot Ct., San Carlos, CA 94070)

2002-01-01

440

Odor recognition: familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency.  

PubMed

The investigation examined the association between the perceived identity of odorous stimuli and the ability to recognize the previous occurrence of them. The stimuli comprised 20 relatively familiar odorous objects such as chocolate, leather, popcorn, and soy sauce. Participants rated the familiarity of the odors and sought to identify them. At various intervals up to 7 days after initial inspection, the participants sought to recognize the odors among sets of distractor odors that included such items as soap, cloves, pipe tobacco, and so on. The recognition response entailed a confidence rating as to whether or not an item had appeared in the original set. At the time of testing, the participants also sought to identify the stimuli again. The results upheld previous findings of excellent initial recognition memory for environmentally relevant odors and slow forgetting. The results also uncovered, for the first time, a strong association between recognition memory and identifiability, rated familiarity, and the ability to use an odor label consistently at inspection and subsequent testing. Encodability seems to enhance rather than to permit recognizability. Even items identified incorrectly or inconsistently were recognized at levels above chance. PMID:6242742

Rabin, M D; Cain, W S

1984-04-01

441

Identifying areas at risk for arsenic contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of groundwater with arsenic poses a risk to the health of millions of people, especially in the densely populated river deltas of Southeast Asia. To date, no method has been available for identifying high-risk areas without conducting costly sampling campaigns. Now, Eawag has developed a model that allows vulnerable areas to be pinpointed using existing data on geology

Andri Bryner

442

The Impact of Personally Identifiable Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

As CIO and IT managers, we need to start looking outside the box to prevent the loss of personally identifiable information (PII). This means looking beyond hardware and software solutions to the personnel solutions that might result in an improved quality of life, with less work outside the office. Personal information can include your financial data, your medical data, and,

Linda Wilbanks

2007-01-01

443

Identifying Color in Motion in Video Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying or matching the surface color of a moving object in surveillance video is critical for achieving reli- able object-tracking and searching. Traditional color mod- els provide little help, since the surface of an object is usu- ally not flat, the object's motion can alter the surface's ori- entation, and the lighting conditions can vary when the ob- ject moves.

Gang Wu; Amir Rahimi; Edward Y. Chang; Kingshy Goh; Tomy Tsai; Ankur Jain; Yuan-fang Wang

2006-01-01

444

A remote sensor\\/cable identifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Errors in field wiring can result in significant correction costs in erroneous or unusable data, or in serious accidents. Detailed field wiring checkout and rework are tedious and expensive, but they are essential steps in the quality assurance process for large, complex instrumentation and control systems. A recent Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) development, the remote sensor\\/cable identifier (RSCI), automates

W. H. Jr. Andrews; S. P. Baker

1989-01-01

445

Identifying redundancy in source code using fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype implementation of a mechanism that uses fingerprints to identify exact repetitions of text in large program source trees has been built and successfully applied to a legacy source of over 300 megabytes. This prototype system has provided useful information as well as establishing the scalability of the technology. The approach will form the basis of a suite of

J. Howard Johnson

1993-01-01

446

Identifying Water Main Leaks With Trihalomethane Tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the trihalomethanes (THMs) chloroform and dichlorobromomethane, present in chlorinated drinking water, were used as tracer compounds to identify the presence of treated city water in samples of seepage collected at leak sites in the distribution system. Using physical and chemical tests such as alkalinity, hardness, conductivity, and pH, the origin of leakage water samples often could not

Erika E. Hargesheimer

1985-01-01

447

Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009  

E-print Network

://ec.europa.eu/intelligentenergy #12;Intelligent Energy ­ Europe Call for Proposals 2009 2/17 CALL FOR PROPOSALS 2009 FOR ACTIONS UNDER THE PROGRAMME "INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE" Call Identifier: CIP-IEE-2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. THE INTELLIGENT ENERGY ­ EUROPE PROGRAMME 3 2. BUDGET, FUNDING RATES AND ELIGIBILITY OF COSTS 5 3. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA 5

De Cindio, Fiorella

448

Do Colleges Identify or Develop Intelligence?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most colleges and universities emphasize identifying smartness much more than developing smartness. This value is made explicit in the many influential rankings of colleges and universities, in which elitist schools who recruit students with high SAT scores, grade point averages, and class rankings are declared "better" than other schools. The…

Moore, Randy

2004-01-01

449

Identifying Sexual Harassment: A Classroom Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We created a classroom activity to illustrate the complexity involved in identifying sexual harassment. In the activity, students decided whether 6 fictional scenarios constituted sexual harassment. The activity stimulates animated discussion, and evaluation data indicate that it received positive feedback from students and refined students'…

Madson, Laura; Shoda, Jennifer

2002-01-01

450

Exam Preparation Identifying Levels of Learning  

E-print Network

, identify, label, list, match, name, recall, select, show, state, translate, true/false, who, what, where you to employ certain criteria in order to appraise the degree to which a concept (e.g. ideas, solutions, work, and theory) is satisfying, effective or valid. Typical exam wording includes: appraise

451

Identifying important characteristics of municipal carbon footprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local climate action has been identified as a vital contributor to global mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper focuses on the GHG emissions resulting from the provision of local public services, illustrated through the Carbon Footprint (CF) indicator. The CF of all 429 Norwegian municipalities is calculated and compared to variables of interest. Results show that the CF

Hogne N. Larsen; Edgar G. Hertwich

2010-01-01

452

THE FEASIBILITY OF IDENTIFYING MYSTERY OIL SPILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several off-the-shelf passive tagging techniques for identifying the origin of mystery oil spills were evaluated to determine the viability of enforcement provisions of Maine's Oil Conveyance Law. Duplicating the operating conditions experienced during every-day marine terminals ...

453

Identifying Health-Related Topics on Twitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health-related topics are difficult to identify in large conversational datasets like Twitter. This study examines how to model and discover public health topics and themes in tweets. Tobacco use is chosen as a test case to demonstrate the effectiveness of topic modeling via LDA across a large, representational dataset from the United States, as well as across a smaller

Kyle W. Prier; Matthew S. Smith; Christophe Giraud-Carrier; Carl L. Hanson

2011-01-01

454

Identify Your Brand, Before You Market.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses marketing in special libraries and suggests that librarians need to identify library services that set them apart from others. Highlights include the competitive environment and alternatives for the consumer; value that the library offers; targeting consumers; return on investment; and determining why consumers choose your services. (LRW)

Claggett, Laura

2002-01-01

455

Identify the Problem: Reduce Waste By  

E-print Network

their overall usage. Consumers will also need to be educated as to how these bags must be separated. Recycling pursued. The store drop- off recycling could be improved by proposing an incentive encouraging consumersIdentify the Problem: Reduce Waste By Banning Plastic Bag Use Define Goal: Is the ban the most

Iglesia, Enrique

456

Identifying Information Spreaders in Twitter Follower Networks  

E-print Network

Identifying Information Spreaders in Twitter Follower Networks Xufei Wang, Huan Liu, Peng Zhang.wang, huan.liu, pzhang41, baoxin.li}@asu.edu ABSTRACT A number of research efforts on Twitter have been con between analyzing retweetbility and understanding information diffusion. Using a large scale Twitter data

Sukthankar, Gita Reese

457

Carina nebula optically identified YSOs (Kumar+, 2014)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

File table3.dat contains V magnitude, (V-I) colour index, Age and mass of optically identified YSOs. The numbering is in the increasing order of V magnitude of YOSs. Error-bars in magnitude and colour represent formal internal (comparative) errors and do not include the colour transformation and zero-point uncertainties. (1 data file).

Kumar, B.; Sharma, S.; Manfroid, J.; Gosset, E.; Rauw, G.; Naze, Y.; Yadav, R. K.

2014-05-01

458

Identifying and Supporting Gifted African American Men.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the unique challenges faced by the gifted and talented Black man. Reviews issues of identifying gifted African-American male college students and factors affecting retention. Profiles the Meyerhoff Scholars Program at the University of Maryland. Outlines seven recommendations that address campuswide attitudes and practices impeding the…

Fries-Britt, Sharon

1997-01-01

459

IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-print Network

IDENTIFYING AND OVERCOMING BARRIERS TO CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY Results from Case Studies A White Paper from the California Energy Commission's California Climate Change Center Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State

460

Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

1999-01-01

461

Identifying Dilemmas for Early Childhood Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines situation-based learning as used within the Bachelor of Teaching (Early Childhood) program at the University of Western Sydney, Australia, and the processes of reflection and evaluation that accompany it, and discusses how issues identified by educators are incorporated as subjects into packages for students' study and…

Dockett, Sue; Tegel, Kim

462

Diffraction gratings used as identifying markers  

DOEpatents

A finely detailed defraction grating is applied to an object as an identifier or tag which is unambiguous, difficult to duplicate, or remove and transfer to another item, and can be read and compared with prior readings with relative ease. The exact pattern of the defraction grating is mapped by diffraction moire techniques and recorded for comparison with future readings of the same grating.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1991-01-01

463

Identifying the brain's most globally connected regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in brain connectivity methods have made it possible to identify hubs—the brain's most globally connected regions. Such regions are essential for coordinating brain functions due to their connectivity with numerous regions with a variety of specializations. Current structural and functional connectivity methods generally agree that default mode network (DMN) regions have among the highest global brain connectivity (GBC).

Michael W. Cole; Sudhir Pathak; Walter Schneider

2010-01-01