Sample records for identifying genotype-dependent efficacy

  1. The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as “migration load.” The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

  2. Molecular mechanisms underlying genotype-dependent responses to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Schleit, Jennifer; Johnson, Simon C; Bennett, Christopher F; Simko, Marissa; Trongtham, Natalie; Castanza, Anthony; Hsieh, Edward J; Moller, Richard M; Wasko, Brian M; Delaney, Joe R; Sutphin, George L; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Tocchi, Autumn; Xian, Bo; Chen, Weiyang; Yu, Tao; Goswami, Sarani; Higgins, Sean; Holmberg, Mollie; Jeong, Ki-Soo; Kim, Jin R; Klum, Shannon; Liao, Eric; Lin, Michael S; Lo, Winston; Miller, Hillary; Olsen, Brady; Peng, Zhao J; Pollard, Tom; Pradeep, Prarthana; Pruett, Dillon; Rai, Dilreet; Ros, Vanessa; Singh, Minnie; Spector, Benjamin L; Vander Wende, Helen; An, Elroy H; Fletcher, Marissa; Jelic, Monika; Rabinovitch, Peter S; MacCoss, Michael J; Han, Jing-Dong J; Kennedy, Brian K; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2013-12-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan and attenuates age-related phenotypes in many organisms; however, the effect of DR on longevity of individuals in genetically heterogeneous populations is not well characterized. Here, we describe a large-scale effort to define molecular mechanisms that underlie genotype-specific responses to DR. The effect of DR on lifespan was determined for 166 single gene deletion strains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Resulting changes in mean lifespan ranged from a reduction of 79% to an increase of 103%. Vacuolar pH homeostasis, superoxide dismutase activity, and mitochondrial proteostasis were found to be strong determinants of the response to DR. Proteomic analysis of cells deficient in prohibitins revealed induction of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR), which has not previously been described in yeast. Mitochondrial proteotoxic stress in prohibitin mutants was suppressed by DR via reduced cytoplasmic mRNA translation. A similar relationship between prohibitins, the mtUPR, and longevity was also observed in Caenorhabditis elegans. These observations define conserved molecular processes that underlie genotype-dependent effects of DR that may be important modulators of DR in higher organisms. PMID:23837470

  3. Identifying Efficacious Treatment Components of Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents: A Preliminary Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micco, Jamie A.; Choate-Summers, Molly L.; Ehrenreich, Jill T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Panic Control Treatment for Adolescents (PCT-A) is a developmentally sensitive and efficacious treatment for adolescents with panic disorder. The present study is a preliminary examination of the relative efficacy of individual treatment components in PCT-A in a sample of treatment completers; the study identified when rapid improvements in panic…

  4. Evidence for specific genotype-dependent immune priming in the lophotrochozoan Biomphalaria glabrata snail.

    PubMed

    Portela, Julien; Duval, David; Rognon, Anne; Galinier, Richard; Boissier, Jérôme; Coustau, Christine; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the prevailing view in the field of invertebrate immunity was that invertebrates that do not possess acquired adaptive immunity rely on innate mechanisms with low specificity and no memory. Several recent studies have shaken this paradigm and suggested that the immune defenses of invertebrates are more complex and specific than previously thought. Mounting evidence has shown that at least some invertebrates (mainly Ecdysozoa) show high levels of specificity in their immune responses to different pathogens, and that subsequent reexposure may result in enhanced protection (recently called 'immune priming'). Here, we investigated immune priming in the Lophotrochozoan snail species Biomphalaria glabrata, following infection by the trematode pathogen Schistosoma mansoni. We confirmed that snails were protected against a secondary homologous infection whatever the host strain. We then investigated how immune priming occurs and the level of specificity of B. glabrata immune priming. In this report we confirmed that immune priming exists and we identified a genotype-dependent immune priming in the fresh-water snail B. glabrata. PMID:23343530

  5. Differential Genotype Dependent Inhibition of CYP2C9 in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Brundage, RichardC.; Oetting, William S.; Leppik, Ilo E.; Tracy, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., CYP2C9*3) on drug clearance have been well characterized but much less is known about whether these polymorphisms alter susceptibility to drug-drug interactions. Previous in-vitro work has demonstrated genotype-dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 mediated flurbiprofen metabolism, suggesting the possibility of genotype-dependent inhibition interactions in-vivo. In the current study, flurbiprofen was used as a probe substrate and fluconazole as a prototypical inhibitor to investigate whether genotype dependent inhibition of CYP2C9 occurs in-vivo. From 189 healthy volunteers who were genotyped for CYP2C9 polymorphisms, eleven control subjects (CYP2C9*1/*1), nine heterozygous and two homozygous for the CYP2C9*3 allele participated in the pharmacokinetic drug interaction study. Subjects received a single 50 mg oral dose of flurbiprofen alone or after administration of either 200 or 400 mg fluconazole for seven days using an open, randomized, cross-over design. Flurbiprofen and fluconazole plasma concentrations along with flurbiprofen and 4’-hydroxyflurbiprofen urinary excretion were monitored. Flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance differed significantly among the three genotype groups (p<0.05) at baseline but not after pretreatment with 400mg fluconazole for seven days. Changes in flurbiprofen apparent oral clearance after fluconazole co-administration were gene-dose dependent, with virtually no change occurring in *3/*3 subjects. Analysis of fractional clearances suggested that fraction metabolized by CYP2C9, as influenced by genotype, determined the degree of drug interaction observed. In summary, the presence of CYP2C9*3 alleles (either one or two alleles) can alter the degree of drug interaction observed upon co-administration of inhibitors. PMID:18378563

  6. Teacher- and School-Level Predictors of Teacher Efficacy and Burnout: Identifying Potential Areas for Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Hershfeldt, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies relate low teacher efficacy and high burnout to the quality of instruction and students' academic achievement, there has been limited research examining factors that predict teacher efficacy and burnout. The current study employed a longitudinal, multilevel modeling approach to examine the influence of teacher- and…

  7. Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

  8. [Genotype-dependent mice behavior in cognitive tasks. Effect of noopept].

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaia, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2007-01-01

    The interstrain differences in performance of C57BL/6J, BALB/c and DBA/2J male mice in two cognitive tasks were found. Mice C57BL/6J showed good learning ability and preservation of memory traces tested 10 days after performance in a simplified version of Morris water maze. Mice BALB/c learned the task but, virtually, no long-term memory traces were revealed, whereas DBA/2J demonstrated poor learning. The effect of nootropic drug Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenil-acetyl-L-prolylglycin ethyl ether) was shown to be genotype-dependent. Its administration (0.5 mg/kg i.p., 15 min before learning) improved the long-term memory in Morris test in BALB/c mice but failed to produce any improvement in C57BL/6J. The ability of mice for extrapolation of the direction of stimulus movement differently changed after Noopept injections: the proportion of correct task solutions increased in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, whereas the performance of DBA/2J did not change. PMID:18592707

  9. The Efficacy of Wire and Glue Hair Snares in Identifying Mesocarnivores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; FREDRICK V. SCHLEXER; KRISTINE L. PILGRIM; MICHAEL K. SCHWARTZ

    2006-01-01

    Track plates and cameras are proven methods for detecting and identifying fishers (Martes pennanti) and other mesocarnivores. But these methods are inadequate to achieve demographic and population-monitoring objectives that require identifying sex and individuals. Although noninvasive collection of biological material for genetic analysis (i.e., hair-snaring methods) may help achieve these objectives, they have yet to be evaluated. We incorporated wire-

  10. THE EFFICACY OF THREE OBJECTIVE SYSTEMS FOR IDENTIFYING BEEF CUTS THAT CAN BE GUARANTEED TENDER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the accuracies of three objective systems (BeefCam, Colorimeter, and Slice Shear Force) for identifying guaranteed tender beef. Three hundred eight carcasses (105 Top Choice, 101 Low Choice, and 102 Select from two commercial plants were tested. The thr...

  11. Collective efficacy as identified by teachers at Heritage Middle School, East Central Independent School District, San Antonio, Texas

    E-print Network

    Naumann, Luisa Maria

    2008-10-10

    ................................................................ 10 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................................. 11 Introduction .................................................................................... 11 Definition of Self-Efficacy... two types of efficacy: individual and collective. Both are distinct but theoretically connected (Goddard & Goddard, 2001). In the education arena, there exists the self-efficacy of students, the sense of efficacy of teachers, and the collective...

  12. University students' perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicidal warning signs and helping suicidal friends find campus intervention resources.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Strader, Jennifer L

    2008-10-01

    Currently, suicide is the third leading cause of death among youth 18 to 24 years of age and the second leading cause of death on college campuses. A sample of students (N = 1,019) from three midwestern universities were surveyed regarding their perceived self-efficacy in identifying suicide warning signs and campus suicide intervention resources. The results indicated that 11% strongly believed they could recognize a friend at suicidal risk, while 17% strongly believed they could ask a friend if he or she was suicidal. Students who had received high school suicide prevention education and who had ever had a family member or friend express suicidal thoughts to them were those most confident in recognizing a friend at risk, asking a friend if he/she is suicidal, and helping a friend to see a counselor. Most (71%) were not aware of on-campus help resources. These findings underscore the importance of suicide prevention education throughout the high school and college years. PMID:19014311

  13. Genotype-dependent whole plant regeneration from protoplasts of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Myers; J. W. Grosser; N. L. Taylor; G. B. Collins

    1989-01-01

    Protoplasts are useful for subcellular studies, in vitro selection, somatic hybridization and transformation. Whole plant regeneration from protoplasts is a prerequisite to producing altered crop plants using these methods. Whole plant regeneration was achieved from leaf- and suspension culture-derived protoplasts of T. pratense. Regeneration was most dependent upon identifying genotypes with genetic capacity to regenerate. Additional factors that were used

  14. Identifying the Antecedent in the Relation between Career Interests and Self-Efficacy: Is It One, the Other, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauta, Margaret M.; Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Angell, James W.; Cantarelli, Erika A.

    2002-01-01

    Social-cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) postulates that changes in self-efficacy precede changes in interests, but the cross-sectional nature of most research has precluded the examination of temporal precedence in the relation between these variables. The authors assessed college students' career interests and…

  15. Am Empirically Derived Description of Self-Efficacy and Empowerment for Parents of Children Identified as Psychologically Disordered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Michael J.; Rieckmann, Traci

    1998-01-01

    This study pursues an empirically derived description of parent self-efficacy and parent empowerment specific to the context of clinic-referred preschool children. Parent internal perceptions of stress, family functioning, stress due to child condition, and extrafamilial influences were considered in separate predictive models of parent…

  16. Comparative metabolomics charts the impact of genotype-dependent methionine accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Redestig, Henning; Kobayashi, Makoto; Otsuki, Hitomi; Onouchi, Hitoshi; Naito, Satoshi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki

    2010-10-01

    Methionine (Met) is an essential amino acid for all organisms. In plants, Met also functions as a precursor of plant hormones, polyamines, and defense metabolites. The regulatory mechanism of Met biosynthesis is highly complex and, despite its great importance, remains unclear. To investigate how accumulation of Met influences metabolism as a whole in Arabidopsis, three methionine over-accumulation (mto) mutants were examined using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach. Multivariate statistical analyses of the three mto mutants (mto1, mto2, and mto3) revealed distinct metabolomic phenotypes. Orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis highlighted discriminative metabolites contributing to the separation of each mutant and the corresponding control samples. Though Met accumulation in mto1 had no dramatic effect on other metabolic pathways except for the aspartate family, metabolite profiles of mto2 and mto3 indicated that several extensive pathways were affected in addition to over-accumulation of Met. The pronounced changes in metabolic pathways in both mto2 and mto3 were associated with polyamines. The findings suggest that our metabolomics approach not only can reveal the impact of Met over-accumulation on metabolism, but also may provide clues to identify crucial pathways for regulation of metabolism in plants. PMID:20354740

  17. Partial support for ZNF804A genotype-dependent alterations in prefrontal connectivity.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Frieder M; Krach, Sören; Bedenbender, Johannes; Pyka, Martin; Sommer, Jens; Krug, Axel; Knake, Susanne; Nöthen, Markus M; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo; Jansen, Andreas

    2013-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies identified the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1344706 in ZNF804A as a common risk-variant for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Whereas the molecular function of ZNF804A is yet unclear, recent imaging genetics studies have started to characterize the neural systems architecture linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. Carring rs1344706 risk-alleles was associated with a decrease in functional connectivity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFCs) as well as an increase in connectivity between the DLPFC and the hippocampal formation (HF) in the context of a working memory task. The present study aimed at replicating these findings in an independent sample of 94 healthy subjects. Subjects were genotyped for rs1344706 and performed a working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results indicate no support for a decrease of functional coupling between the bilateral DLPFCs at higher ZNF804A risk status. However, the current data show the previously described alteration in functional coupling between the right DLPFC and the HFs, albeit with weaker effects. Decoupled by default, the functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and anterior HFs increased with the number of rs1344706 risk alleles. The present data support fronto-hippocampal dysconnectivity as intermediate phenotype linking rs1344706 genotype to psychosis. We discuss the issues in replicating the interhemispheric DLPFC coupling in light of the effect sizes rs1344706 genotype has on brain function, concluding that further independent replication studies are fundamentally needed to ascertain the role of rs1344706 in the functional integration of neural systems. PMID:22042765

  18. Testing efficacy of teaching food safety and identifying variables that affect learning in a low-literacy population.

    PubMed

    Mosby, Terezie Tolar; Romero, Angélica Lissette Hernández; Linares, Ana Lucía Molina; Challinor, Julia M; Day, Sara W; Caniza, Miguela

    2015-03-01

    Nurses at a meeting of the Asociación de Hemato Oncología Pediátrica de Centroamérica y El Caribe recognized food safety as one of the main issues affecting patient care. The objective was to increase awareness of food safety issues among caregivers for pediatric cancer patients in Guatemala and El Salvador. A low-literacy booklet about food safety, "Alimentación del niño con cáncer (Feeding the child with cancer)," was developed for caregivers. Tests were developed to assess information acquisition and retention. An educator's guide was developed for consistency of education along with a demographics questionnaire. The efficacy of the booklet was tested with 162 caregivers of patients with newly diagnosed leukemia. Information retention was tested 1 and 3 months after the initial education. The booklet was found to be efficient for food safety education. There was no significant difference between post-educational knowledge in either country at 1 month or in Guatemala at 3 months. Pre-educational knowledge was not associated with any demographic variable except for self-reported ability to read in El Salvador. There was no significant association between learning ability and demographic variables in either country. Caregivers from El Salvador had a better ability to learn than caregivers from Guatemala. Education using the booklet greatly improved food safety knowledge, which remained high 1 and 3 months later. Education with the booklet was efficacious for teaching a low-literacy population about food safety. However, it is unknown which part of the education contributed to the significant improvement in knowledge. PMID:24781933

  19. The Association of Il28b Genotype with the Histological Features of Chronic Hepatitis C Is HCV Genotype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    D’Ambrosio, Roberta; Aghemo, Alessio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Galmozzi, Enrico; De Nicola, Stella; Cheroni, Cristina; Clark, Paul J.; Ronchi, Guido; Lampertico, Pietro; Colombo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphism is associated with treatment outcome in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 and 4 patients. Its association with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C and disease severity needs further clarifications. To assess the correlation between IL28B genotype, HCV genotype and liver biopsy findings in untreated patients. Materials and Methods Pre-treatment liver biopsies from 335 HCV Caucasian patients (59% males, age 50 years) enrolled in the MIST study were staged for fibrosis and inflammation according to the METAVIR and the Ishak scoring systems; steatosis was dichotomized as <5% or ?5%. IL28B was typed by Taqman Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. HCV genotype was 1 in 151 (45%), 2 in 99 (30%), 3 in 50 (15%) and 4 in 35 (10%) patients. IL28B genotype was CC in 117 (34%), CT in 166 (49%) and TT in 52 (15%). At univariate analysis, the IL28B CC genotype was associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 86% vs. 63%, p = 0.005), severe lobular inflammation in HCV-2 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 44% vs. 23%, p = 0.03), and less fatty infiltration in HCV-1 patients (CC vs. CT/TT: 72% vs. 51%, p = 0.02). Despite the lack of any association between IL28B and fibrosis stage, in HCV-3 patients IL28B CC correlated with METAVIR F3–F4 (CC vs. CT/TT: 74% vs. 26%, p = 0.05). At multivariate analysis, the genotype CC remained associated with severe portal inflammation in HCV-1, only (Odds Ratio (OR): 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 3.24 (1.23–8.51)). IL28B genotype is associated with the histological features of chronic hepatitis C in a HCV genotype dependent manner, with CC genotype being independently associated with severe portal inflammation. PMID:24776764

  20. Dietary protein intake affects expression of genes for lipid metabolism in porcine skeletal muscle in a genotype-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingying; Li, Fengna; He, Lingyun; Tan, Bie; Deng, Jinping; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Yinghui; Geng, Meimei; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-04-14

    Skeletal muscle is a major site for the oxidation of fatty acids (FA) in mammals, including humans. Using a swine model, we tested the hypothesis that dietary protein intake regulates the expression of key genes for lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. A total of ninety-six barrows (forty-eight pure-bred Bama mini-pigs (fatty genotype) and forty-eight Landrace pigs (lean genotype)) were fed from 5 weeks of age to market weight. Pigs of fatty or lean genotype were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (low- or adequate-protein diet), with twenty-four individually fed pigs per treatment. Our data showed that dietary protein levels affected the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of lipids in the longissimus dorsi and biceps femoris muscles in a genotype-dependent manner. Specifically, Bama mini-pigs had more intramuscular fat, SFA and MUFA, as well as elevated mRNA expression levels of lipogenic genes, compared with Landrace pigs. In contrast, Bama mini-pigs had lower mRNA expression levels of lipolytic genes than Landrace pigs fed an adequate-protein diet in the growing phase. These data are consistent with higher white-fat deposition in Bama mini-pigs than in Landrace pigs. In conclusion, adequate provision of dietary protein (amino acids) plays an important role in regulating the expression of key lipogenic genes, and the growth of white adipose tissue, in a genotype- and tissue-specific manner. These findings have important implications for developing novel dietary strategies in pig production. PMID:25771944

  1. A chemical genetic screen in Mycobacterium tuberculosis identifies carbon-source-dependent growth inhibitors devoid of in vivo efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Pethe; Patricia C. Sequeira; Sanjay Agarwalla; Kyu Rhee; Kelli Kuhen; Wai Yee Phong; Viral Patel; David Beer; John R. Walker; Jeyaraj Duraiswamy; Jan Jiricek; Thomas H. Keller; Arnab Chatterjee; Mai Ping Tan; Manjunatha Ujjini; Srinivasa P. S. Rao; Luis Camacho; Pablo Bifani; Puiying A. Mak; Ida Ma; S. Whitney Barnes; Zhong Chen; David Plouffe; Pamela Thayalan; Seow Hwee Ng; Melvin Au; Boon Heng Lee; Bee Huat Tan; Sindhu Ravindran; Mahesh Nanjundappa; Xiuhua Lin; Anne Goh; Suresh B. Lakshminarayana; Carolyn Shoen; Michael Cynamon; Barry Kreiswirth; Veronique Dartois; Eric C. Peters; Richard Glynne; Sydney Brenner; Thomas Dick

    2010-01-01

    Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine-imidazoles (PIs) were identified

  2. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume’s 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

  3. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Michael; Poussard, Allison; Taylor, Katherine; Seregin, Alexey; Smith, Jeanon; Peng, Bi-Hung; Walker, Aida; Linde, Jenna; Smith, Jennifer; Salazar, Milagros; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-11-21

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and Burch. In vivo imaging systems (IVIS) and bioluminescent enzyme technologies accomplish the reduction of animal requirements while shortening the experimental time and improving the accuracy in localizing active virus replication. In the case of murine models of viral encephalitis in which central nervous system (CNS) viral invasion occurs rapidly but the disease development is relatively slow, we visualized the initial brain infection and enhance the data collection process required for efficacy studies on antivirals or vaccines that are aimed at preventing brain infection. Accordingly, we infected mice through intranasal inoculation with the genetically modified pathogen, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, which expresses a luciferase gene. In this study, we were able to identify the invasion of the CNS at least 3 days before any clinical signs of disease, allowing for reduction of animal morbidity providing a humane means of disease and vaccine research while obtaining scientific data accurately and more rapidly. Based on our data from the imaging model, we confirmed the usefulness of this technology in preclinical research by demonstrating the efficacy of Ampligen, a TLR-3 agonist, in preventing CNS invasion. PMID:22001884

  4. Gender Fair Efficacy of Concept Mapping Tests in Identifying Students' Difficulties in High School Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.

    2014-01-01

    In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or…

  5. Neural Correlates of Efficacy of Voice Therapy in Parkinson’s Disease Identified by Performance–Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Robin, Donald A.; Vogel, Deanie; Ramig, Lorraine O.

    2009-01-01

    LSVT® LOUD (Lee Silverman Voice Treatment) is efficacious in the treatment of speech disorders in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), particularly hypophonia. Functional imaging in patients with IPD has shown abnormalities in several speech regions and changes in these areas immediately following treatment. This study serves to extend the analysis by correlating changes of regional neural activity with the main behavioral change following treatment, namely, increased vocal intensity. Ten IPD participants with hypophonia were studied before and after LSVT LOUD. Cerebral blood flow during rest and reading conditions were measured by H215O-positron emission tomography. Z-score images were generated by contrasting reading with rest conditions for pre- and post-LSVT LOUD sessions. Neuronal activity during reading in the pre- versus post-LSVT LOUD contrast was correlated with corresponding change in vocal intensity to generate correlation images. Behaviorally, vocal intensity for speech tasks increased significantly after LSVT LOUD. The contrast and correlation analyses indicate a treatment-dependent shift to the right hemisphere with modification in the speech motor regions as well as in prefrontal and temporal areas. We interpret the modification of activity in these regions to be a top–down effect of LSVT LOUD. The absence of an effect of LSVT LOUD on the basal ganglion supports this argument. Our findings indicate that the therapeutic effect of LSVT LOUD in IPD hypophonia results from a shift in cortical activity to the right hemisphere. These findings demonstrate that the short-term changes in the speech motor and multimodal integration areas can occur in a top–down manner. PMID:19639554

  6. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of four novel identified membrane associated proteins of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Wang, Yan; Deng, Limei; Zheng, Chengkun; Yuan, Fangyan; Chen, Huanchun; Bei, Weicheng; Li, Jinquan

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2) is an important zoonotic pathogen that can also cause epidemics of life-threatening infections in humans. Surface proteins of pathogens play a critical role in the interaction with host system or environment, as they take part in processes like virulence, cytotoxicity, adhesion, signaling or transport, etc. Thus, surface proteins identified by the screening of immunoproteomic techniques are promising vaccine candidates or diagnostic markers. In this study, four membrane associated proteins (MAP) identified by immunoproteomic method were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins with his-tag. Screening for vaccine candidates were firstly performed by protection assay in vivo and immunization with Sbp markedly protected mice against systemic S. suis 2 infection. The immune responses and protective of Sbp were further evaluated. The results showed that Sbp could elicit a strong humoral antibody response and protect mice from lethal challenge with S. suis 2. The antiserum against Sbp could efficiently impede survival of bacterial in whole blood killing assay and conferred significant protection against S. suis 2 infection in passive immunization assays. The findings indicate that Sbp may serve as an important factor in the pathogenesis of S. suis 2 and would be a promising subunit vaccine candidate. PMID:25820064

  7. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] . Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  8. Identifiers Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. . Tim Berners­Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] Stefan://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url­primer.html] . T. Berners­Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. . T. Berners­Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  9. Efficacy of the core DNA barcodes in identifying processed and poorly conserved plant materials commonly used in South African traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mankga, Ledile T.; Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Moteetee, Annah M.; Daru, Barnabas H.; van der Bank, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Medicinal plants cover a broad range of taxa, which may be phylogenetically less related but morphologically very similar. Such morphological similarity between species may lead to misidentification and inappropriate use. Also the substitution of a medicinal plant by a cheaper alternative (e.g. other non-medicinal plant species), either due to misidentification, or deliberately to cheat consumers, is an issue of growing concern. In this study, we used DNA barcoding to identify commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa. Using the core plant barcodes, matK and rbcLa, obtained from processed and poorly conserved materials sold at the muthi traditional medicine market, we tested efficacy of the barcodes in species discrimination. Based on genetic divergence, PCR amplification efficiency and BLAST algorithm, we revealed varied discriminatory potentials for the DNA barcodes. In general, the barcodes exhibited high discriminatory power, indicating their effectiveness in verifying the identity of the most common plant species traded in South African medicinal markets. BLAST algorithm successfully matched 61% of the queries against a reference database, suggesting that most of the information supplied by sellers at traditional medicinal markets in South Africa is correct. Our findings reinforce the utility of DNA barcoding technique in limiting false identification that can harm public health. PMID:24453559

  10. Genotype-dependent expression of specific members of potato protease inhibitor gene families in different tissues and in response to wounding and nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Turrà, David; Bellin, Diana; Lorito, Matteo; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2009-05-01

    Protease inhibitors (PIs) are small ubiquitous proteins with a variety of biological functions in plants, including protein stabilization, modulation of apoptosis and defense against pathogens. Kunitz-like inhibitors (PKPIs) and proteinase inhibitors 1 (PI-1) are abundant in storage organs of potato plants and are up-regulated in other tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress. However, little information is available on genotype-dependent regulation of individual PKPI group- and PI-1 genes. We isolated, sequenced and characterized four novel full-length PI-1 cDNAs (PPI3A2, PPI3A4, PPI2C4 and PPI2C1A) from Solanum tuberosum cv. Desirée. Specific primers were developed for PI-1 genes PPI3A2, PPI3B2 and PPI2C4 and the three PKPI homology groups A, B and C. Their expression profiles were studied by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in comparison with transcripts of the PI-1, Pin2 and PR1 gene families in various tissues, after wounding and Globodera rostochiensis infection of nematode-resistant genotypes P40 and LB7/4/c-I-7, and susceptible cv. Desirée. Individual PI-1 genes and PKPI homology groups were expressed in a tissue- and genotype-dependent manner after wounding and nematode infection. The differences in PI expression patterns were related to the intensity, type of inhibitors produced, and the kinetics of induction. Therefore, different genotype-environment combinations produce different sets of PI transcripts. Potato plants reacted to G. rostochiensis infection by modulating PKPI, PI-1 and Pin2, but not PR1 gene expression, suggesting that the jasmonic acid but not the salicylic acid defense signaling pathway is activated. PI expression profiles were not correlated with the resistance status of the potato genotype infected with G. rostochiensis. PMID:19095329

  11. Virus-Like Particle Secretion and Genotype-Dependent Immunogenicity of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 DNA Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Galula, Jedhan U.; Shen, Wen-Fan; Chuang, Shih-Te

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV), composed of four distinct serotypes, is the most important and rapidly emerging arthropod-borne pathogen and imposes substantial economic and public health burdens. We constructed candidate vaccines containing the DNA of five of the genotypes of dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) and evaluated the immunogenicity, the neutralizing (Nt) activity of the elicited antibodies, and the protective efficacy elicited in mice immunized with the vaccine candidates. We observed a significant correlation between the level of in vitro virus-like particle secretion, the elicited antibody response, and the protective efficacy of the vaccines containing the DNA of the different DENV genotypes in immunized mice. However, higher total IgG antibody levels did not always translate into higher Nt antibodies against homologous and heterologous viruses. We also found that, in contrast to previous reports, more than 50% of total IgG targeted ectodomain III (EDIII) of the E protein, and a substantial fraction of this population was interdomain highly neutralizing flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive antibodies, such as monoclonal antibody 1B7-5. In addition, the lack of a critical epitope(s) in the Sylvatic genotype virus recognized by interdomain antibodies could be the major cause of the poor protection of mice vaccinated with the Asian 1 genotype vaccine (pVD2-Asian 1) from lethal challenge with virus of the Sylvatic genotype. In conclusion, although the pVD2-Asian 1 vaccine was immunogenic, elicited sufficient titers of Nt antibodies against all DENV-2 genotypes, and provided 100% protection against challenge with virus of the homologous Asian 1 genotype and virus of the heterologous Cosmopolitan genotype, it is critical to monitor the potential emergence of Sylvatic genotype viruses, since vaccine candidates under development may not protect vaccinated humans from these viruses. IMPORTANCE Five genotype-specific dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) DNA vaccine candidates were evaluated for their immunogenicity, homologous and heterologous neutralizing (Nt) antibody titers, and cross-genotype protection in a murine model. The immunity elicited by our prototype vaccine candidate (Asian 1 genotype strain 16681) in mice was protective against viruses of other genotypes but not against virus of the Sylvatic genotype, whose emergence and potential risk after introduction into the human population have previously been demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of a lack of protection elicited by the prototype vaccine may at least be contributed by the absence of a flavivirus subgroup-cross-reactive, highly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 1B7-5-like epitope in DENV-2 of the Sylvatic genotype. The DENV DNA vaccine directs the synthesis and assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) and induces immune responses similar to those elicited by live-attenuated vaccines, and its flexibility permits the fast deployment of vaccine to combat emerging viruses, such as Sylvatic genotype viruses. The enhanced VLP secretion obtained by replacement of ectodomain I-II (EDI-II) of the Cosmopolitan genotype vaccine construct (VD2-Cosmopolitan) with the Asian 1 EDI-II elicited significantly higher total IgG and Nt antibody titers and suggests a novel approach to enhance the immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. A DENV vaccine capable of eliciting protective immunity against viruses of existing and emerging genotypes should be the focus of future DENV vaccine development. PMID:25008922

  12. Rapid, non-invasive imaging of alphaviral brain infection: Reducing animal numbers and morbidity to identify efficacy of potential vaccines and antivirals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Patterson; Allison Poussard; Katherine Taylor; Alexey Seregin; Jeanon Smith; Bi-Hung Peng; Aida Walker; Jenna Linde; Jennifer Smith; Milagros Salazar; Slobodan Paessler

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of disease progression are key factors in testing novel vaccines and antivirals against encephalitic alphaviruses. Typical efficacy studies utilize a large number of animals and severe morbidity or mortality as an endpoint. New technologies provide a means to reduce and refine the animal use as proposed in Hume's 3Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement) described by Russel and

  13. Preparing an E-learning-based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy study: Identifying suitable outcome measures to detect within-subject changes of speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers.

    PubMed

    Beijer, L J; Rietveld, A C M; Ruiter, M B; Geurts, A C H

    2014-12-01

    We explored the suitability of perceptual and acoustic outcome measures to prepare E-learning based Speech Therapy (EST) efficacy tests regarding speech intelligibility in dysarthric speakers. Eight speakers with stroke (n=3), Parkinson's disease (n=4) and traumatic brain injury (n=1) participated in a 4 weeks EST trial. A repeated measures design was employed. Perceptual measures were (a) scale ratings for "ease of intelligibility" and "pleasantness" in continuous speech and (b) orthographic transcription scores of semantically unpredictable sentences. Acoustic measures were (c) "intensity during closure" (?IDC) in the occlusion phase of voiceless plosives, (d) changes in the vowel space of /a/, /e/ and /o/ and (e) the F0 variability in semantically unpredictable sentences. The only consistent finding concerned an increased (instead of the expected decreased) ?IDC after EST, possibly caused by increased speech intensity without articulatory adjustments. The importance of suitable perceptual and acoustic measures for efficacy research is discussed. PMID:25025268

  14. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Fournier; James Hagler; Kent Daane; Jesse de León; Russell Groves

    2008-01-01

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular\\u000a gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)\\u000a assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here, we present results from the first study to simultaneously use both methods to identify\\u000a predators of the glassy winged sharpshooter (GWSS),

  15. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  16. Identifying the predator complex of Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae): a comparative study of the efficacy of an ELISA and PCR gut content assay.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Valerie; Hagler, James; Daane, Kent; de León, Jesse; Groves, Russell

    2008-10-01

    A growing number of ecologists are using molecular gut content assays to qualitatively measure predation. The two most popular gut content assays are immunoassays employing pest-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays employing pest-specific DNA. Here, we present results from the first study to simultaneously use both methods to identify predators of the glassy winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). A total of 1,229 arthropod predators, representing 30 taxa, were collected from urban landscapes in central California and assayed first by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a GWSS egg-specific mAb and then by PCR using a GWSS-specific DNA marker that amplifies a 197-base pair fragment of its cytochrome oxidase gene (subunit I). The gut content analyses revealed that GWSS remains were present in 15.5% of the predators examined, with 18% of the spiders and 11% of the insect predators testing positive. Common spider predators included members of the Salticidae, Clubionidae, Anyphaenidae, Miturgidae, and Corinnidae families. Common insect predators included lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), praying mantis (Mantodea: Mantidae), ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), and damsel bugs (Hemiptera: Nabidae). Comparison of the two assays indicated that they were not equally effective at detecting GWSS remains in predator guts. The advantages of combining the attributes of both types of assays to more precisely assess field predation and the pros and cons of each assay for mass-screening predators are discussed. PMID:18618149

  17. Genome-Wide Transcription Profiles Reveal Genotype-Dependent Responses of Biological Pathways and Gene-Families in Daphnia Exposed to Single and Mixed Stressors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the possibilities and limitations of implementing a genome-wide transcription-based approach that takes into account genetic and environmental variation to better understand the response of natural populations to stressors. When exposing two different Daphnia pulex genotypes (a cadmium-sensitive and a cadmium-tolerant one) to cadmium, the toxic cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa, and their mixture, we found that observations at the transcriptomic level do not always explain observations at a higher level (growth, reproduction). For example, although cadmium elicited an adverse effect at the organismal level, almost no genes were differentially expressed after cadmium exposure. In addition, we identified oxidative stress and polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism-related pathways, as well as trypsin and neurexin IV gene-families as candidates for the underlying causes of genotypic differences in tolerance to Microcystis. Furthermore, the whole-genome transcriptomic data of a stressor mixture allowed a better understanding of mixture responses by evaluating interactions between two stressors at the gene-expression level against the independent action baseline model. This approach has indicated that ubiquinone pathway and the MAPK serine-threonine protein kinase and collagens gene-families were enriched with genes showing an interactive effect in expression response to exposure to the mixture of the stressors, while transcription and translation-related pathways and gene-families were mostly related with genotypic differences in interactive responses to this mixture. Collectively, our results indicate that the methods we employed may improve further characterization of the possibilities and limitations of transcriptomics approaches in the adverse outcome pathway framework and in predictions of multistressor effects on natural populations. PMID:24552364

  18. GENOTYPE DEPENDENT INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDIZATION OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Australian Sorghum species which are a tertiary gene pool to grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] are of interest to sorghum breeders because they are resistant to important insects and pathogens. However, strong reproductive barriers have prevented hybridization between sorghum and th...

  19. A multicenter trial of the efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus imipenem/cilastatin in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections [Study ID Numbers: 3074A1-301-WW; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00081744

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, María E; Rekha, Arcot; Yellin, Albert; Pasternak, Jacyr; Campos, Maria; Rose, Gilbert M; Babinchak, Timothy; Ellis-Grosse, Evelyn J; Loh, Evan

    2005-01-01

    Background Complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) remain challenging to treat because of their polymicrobial etiology including multi-drug resistant bacteria. The efficacy and safety of tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic, was compared with imipenem/cilastatin (IMI/CIS) in patients with cIAI. Methods A prospective, double-blind, multinational trial was conducted in which patients with cIAI randomly received intravenous (IV) tigecycline (100 mg initial dose, then 50 mg every 12 hours [q12h]) or IV IMI/CIS (500/500 mg q6h or adjusted for renal dysfunction) for 5 to14 days. Clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (14–35 days after therapy) for microbiologically evaluable (ME) and microbiological modified intent-to-treat (m-mITT) populations were the co-primary efficacy endpoint populations. Results A total of 825 patients received ? 1 dose of study drug. The primary diagnoses for the ME group were complicated appendicitis (59%), and intestinal (8.8%) and gastric/duodenal perforations (4.6%). For the ME group, clinical cure rates at TOC were 80.6% (199/247) for tigecycline versus 82.4% (210/255) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -8.4, 5.1 for non-inferiority tigecycline versus IMI/CIS). Corresponding clinical cure rates within the m-mITT population were 73.5% (227/309) for tigecycline versus 78.2% (244/312) for IMI/CIS (95% CI -11.0, 2.5). Nausea (31.0% tigecycline, 24.8% IMI/CIS [P = 0.052]), vomiting (25.7% tigecycline, 19.4% IMI/CIS [P = 0.037]), and diarrhea (21.3% tigecycline, 18.9% IMI/CIS [P = 0.435]) were the most frequently reported adverse events. Conclusion This study demonstrates that tigecycline is as efficacious as imipenem/cilastatin in the treatment of patients with cIAI. PMID:16236177

  20. Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes - rAldolase and rEnolase of Leishmania donovani, Identified as Th1 Stimulatory Proteins, for Their Immunogenicity and Immunoprophylactic Efficacies against Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Reema; Kumar, Vikash; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Tripathi, Chandradev Pati; Joshi, Sumit; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Mitra, Kalyan; Sundar, Shyam; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Th1 immune responses play an important role in controlling Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) hence, Leishmania proteins stimulating T-cell responses in host, are thought to be good vaccine targets. Search of such antigens eliciting cellular responses in Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients and hamsters led to the identification of two enzymes of glycolytic pathway in the soluble lysate of a clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani - Enolase (LdEno) and aldolase (LdAld) as potential Th1 stimulatory proteins. The present study deals with the molecular and immunological characterizations of LdEno and LdAld. The successfully cloned and purified recombinant proteins displayed strong ability to proliferate lymphocytes of cured hamsters’ along with significant nitric-oxide production and generation of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-? and IL-12) from stimulated PBMCs of cured/endemic VL patients. Assessment of their prophylactic potentials revealed ?90% decrease in parasitic burden in rLdEno vaccinated hamsters against Leishmania challenge, strongly supported by an increase in mRNA expression levels of iNOS, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-12 transcripts along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-?, IL-4 and IL-10. However, animals vaccinated with rLdAld showed comparatively lesser prophylactic efficacy (?65%) with inferior immunological response. Further, with a possible implication in vaccine design against VL, identification of potential T-cell epitopes of both the proteins was done using computational approach. Additionally, in-silico 3-D modelling of the proteins was done in order to explore the possibility of exploiting them as potential drug targets. The comparative molecular and immunological characterizations strongly suggest rLdEno as potential vaccine candidate against VL and supports the notion of its being effective T-cell stimulatory protein. PMID:24475071

  1. Station Identifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stepan

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes an end office tributary identifier which sends to a toll center the calling subscriber's directory number. It is arranged to interface with the Bell System's centralized automatic message accounting (CAMA) centers. The electronic identifier operates on either a terminal per line, a terminal per station, or mixed basis. In operating, it feeds an ac signal on the

  2. Efficacy of climate forcings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hansen; M. Sato; R. Ruedy; L. Nazarenko; A. Lacis; G. A. Schmidt; G. Russell; I. Aleinov; M. Bauer; S. Bauer; N. Bell; B. Cairns; V. Canuto; M. Chandler; Y. Cheng; A. Del Genio; G. Faluvegi; E. Fleming; A. Friend; T. Hall; C. Jackman; M. Kelley; N. Kiang; D. Koch; J. Lean; J. Lerner; K. Lo; S. Menon; R. Miller; P. Minnis; T. Novakov; V. Oinas; Ja. Perlwitz; Ju. Perlwitz; D. Rind; A. Romanou; D. Shindell; P. Stone; S. Sun; N. Tausnev; D. Thresher; B. Wielicki; T. Wong; M. Yao; S. Zhang

    2005-01-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ?110%, which increases to ?145% when its indirect

  3. Identifying Erosion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSI

    2009-01-01

    In this environmental science activity (page 3 of the PDF), leaners will identify and explain the causes of erosion. They will observe the effects of erosion on the surrounding area and further explore examples of erosion online. An extension activity allows learners to make a hands-on model of soil erosion. Though this was created as a pre-visit activity for a workshop about water flow and erosion, it makes a great stand-alone activity as well!

  4. Identify Symmetry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Neubert

    2011-03-03

    This unit will teach you how to identify symmetry in everyday objects and mathematical shapes in lines and rotational symmetry. What is line symmetry? Click on the link to find out: Line Symmetry Here is a line activity to see if you understand it: Line Symmetry Class Zone See if you understand the concepts by doing the following quiz: Line Symmetry Work Now for rotational symmetry: Rotational Symmetry See if you understand rotational symmetry by taking this quiz: Rotational Symmetry Work ...

  5. Identifying Species

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael DiSpezio

    This two part activity will allow students to investigate biological diversity in the area of their school. They will first prepare a taxonomic key to distinguish between the four insects or spiders that they have selected. All of the keys are combined and students then perform a transect study of a neighborhood field or school playing ground. Finally as a class students will compile a list of the animals and plants that are found within a mile of their school. They may need to use field guides, local resources, taxonomic keys, and species lists to help identify these organisms. Once they have compiled their list they will organize the species into the taxonomic groups they have studied.

  6. The Efficacy of Optometric Vision Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the American Optometric Association, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This review aims to document the efficacy and validity of vision therapy for modifying and improving vision functioning. The paper describes the essential components of the visual system and disorders which can be physiologically and clinically identified. Vision therapy is defined as a clinical approach for correcting and ameliorating the effects…

  7. Treatment efficacy in behavioral pediatric sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R Kuhn; Amy J Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have been identified as the treatment of choice for many forms of pediatric sleep disturbance. We adopt criteria established by the Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures (1996) to evaluate the literature base describing behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep disturbance. Three well-established interventions, one promising intervention and one probably efficacious intervention, have emerged for bedtime

  8. Understanding women's self-efficacy beliefs and career choices in chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan L Grunert

    2008-01-01

    This study identified the factors and experiences that contribute to the development of women's self-efficacy beliefs in chemistry; how women's self-efficacy beliefs contribute to their education and career decisions; and how women's self-efficacy beliefs in science and chemistry change over time. This was accomplished through a comparison of self-efficacy beliefs among female chemistry graduate and undergraduate students. Data collection included

  9. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such as land use change and heavy regional concentrations of BC aerosols, include more specific regional characteristics. We suggest that anthropogenic tropospheric O3 and the BC snow albedo effect contribute substantially to rapid warming and sea ice loss in the Arctic. As a complement to a priori forcings, such as Fi, Fa, and Fs, we tabulate the a posteriori effective forcing, Fe, which is the product of the forcing and its efficacy. Fe requires calculation of the climate response and introduces greater model dependence, but once it is calculated for a given amount of a forcing agent it provides a good prediction of the response to other forcing amounts.

  10. Teacher efficacy: A construct validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sherri Gibson; Myron H. Dembo

    1984-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure teacher efficacy and examined the relationship between teacher efficacy and observable teacher behaviors. Factor analysis of responses from 208 elementary school teachers to a 30-item Teacher Efficacy Scale yielded 2 substantial factors that corresponded to A. Bandura's 2-factor theoretical model of self-efficacy. A multitrait–multimethod analysis that supported both convergent and discriminant validity analyzed data from

  11. Haptoglobin Genotype-dependent Differences in Macrophage Lysosomal Oxidative Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Asleh, Rabea; Ward, John; Levy, Nina S.; Safuri, Shady; Aronson, Doron; Levy, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    The major function of the Haptoglobin (Hp) protein is to control trafficking of extracorpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) thru the macrophage CD163 receptor with degradation of the Hb in the lysosome. There is a common copy number polymorphism in the Hp gene (Hp 2 allele) that has been associated with a severalfold increased incidence of atherothrombosis in multiple longitudinal studies. Increased plaque oxidation and apoptotic markers have been observed in Hp 2-2 atherosclerotic plaques, but the mechanism responsible for this finding has not been determined. We proposed that the increased oxidative injury in Hp 2-2 plaques is due to an impaired processing of Hp 2-2-Hb complexes within macrophage lysosomes, thereby resulting in redox active iron accumulation, lysosomal membrane oxidative injury, and macrophage apoptosis. We sought to test this hypothesis in vitro using purified Hp-Hb complex and cells genetically manipulated to express CD163. CD163-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of Hp-Hb were decreased for Hp 2-2-Hb complexes. Confocal microscopy using lysotropic pH indicator dyes demonstrated that uptake of Hp 2-2-Hb complexes disrupted the lysosomal pH gradient. Cellular fractionation studies of lysosomes isolated from macrophages incubated with Hp 2-2-Hb complexes demonstrated increased lysosomal membrane oxidation and a loss of lysosomal membrane integrity leading to lysosomal enzyme leakage into the cytoplasm. Additionally, markers of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, and active caspase 3 were increased in macrophages that had endocytosed Hp 2-2-Hb complexes. These data provide novel mechanistic insights into how the Hp genotype regulates lysosomal oxidative stress within macrophages after receptor-mediated endocytosis of Hb. PMID:24778180

  12. Efficacy of iodine urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Broga, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Urinalysis is one of the monitoring techniques recommended for identifying potential thyroid uptake by most of the organizations involved with radiation protection. However, little exists in the literature outlining the methodology to be used or the efficacy of this monitoring technique. The research upon which this dissertation was based was designed to assess the efficacy of urinalysis. A review of the applicable kinetic models was done to determine their appropriateness. Computer modeling and graphics were used to assess the variances between the two most appropriate models. A study was done using normal subjects to acquire data to be used to evaluate the overall efficacy of iodine urinalysis. The results of the study indicate that an integral sampling technique is the most accurate for back-calculating thyroid activities. A new set of parameters called adjusted man are proposed. The study concludes that iodine urinalysis can be efficaciously used to identify thyroid uptakes.

  13. [Efficacy--appropriateness].

    PubMed

    Baldasseroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    I discuss the meaning and differences between the Appropriateness and Efficacy in the prevention of occupational risks and damage. It is argued that to be "appropriate" an intervention should be suitable, keeping with the circumstances, while the intervention that achieves the goal is "effective". In practice, the appropriateness is very used in the field of clinical medicine, with reference to the treatment, while in the prevention it is usual to use with greater frequency the term of effectiveness. PMID:25558725

  14. The Exploration of Elementary School Teachers' Internet Self-Efficacy and Information Commitments: A Study in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ying-Tien; Wang, Li-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore teachers' Internet self-efficacy and information commitments. More importantly, this study also attempted to identify possible factors that affect the teachers' Internet self-efficacy. The participants were 301 elementary school teachers. In this study, the Internet Self-efficacy Survey (ISS) and the Information…

  15. Efficacy of radioiodine urinalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Broga, D.W.; Berk, H.W.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Little exists in the literature to support the efficacy of urinalysis for demonstrating thyroid uptake of radioiodine. A review was made of a variety of kinetic models. Computer analysis and graphics were used to assess the variables in the two models chosen for this study. The applicability of each model was tested by using data obtained from a group of euthyroid subjects. The results indicate that using an integral urine-sampling method and a three-component model yields minimum detectable thyroid uptakes which fall well below required reporting limits. Furthermore, the results show that integral urine samples obtained in the first few hours post exposure may be used to predict major thyroid uptakes in time for effective thyroid blocking.

  16. Epistemological Beliefs and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Griffin W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the strength of teachers' epistemological beliefs predicted variance in teachers' sense of efficacy. Specifically, the study sought to determine the extent to which beliefs in Certain Knowledge and Omniscient Authority accounted for variability in general teaching efficacy, over and above that…

  17. Self-efficacy instruments for patients with chronic diseases suffer from methodological limitations - a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Frei; Anna Svarin; Claudia Steurer-Stey; Milo A Puhan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of self-efficacy requires carefully developed and validated instruments. It is currently unclear whether available self-efficacy instruments for chronic diseases fulfill these requirements. Our aim was to systematically identify all existing self-efficacy scales for five major chronic diseases and to assess their development and validation process. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE, PSYCHINFO, and

  18. Factor Structure, Stability, and Predictive Validity of College Students' Relationship Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Morua, Wendy; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the underlying structure, stability, and predictive validity of college students' scores on a measure of relationship maintenance self-efficacy beliefs. Three identified efficacy-related factors were found to be stable; related in expected directions with gender, commitment status, and adult attachment orientations; and…

  19. School Nurses' Perceptions of Self-Efficacy in Providing Diabetes Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kelly L.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure school nurses' perceived self-efficacy in providing diabetes care and education to children and to identify factors that correlate with higher self-efficacy levels in the performance of these tasks. The results of this study revealed that the surveyed school nurses perceived a moderate level of…

  20. Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John; Bruce, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    We designed a professional development (PD) program to increase the teacher efficacy of mathematics teachers. We randomly assigned 106 Grade 6 teachers in 1 school district to treatment and control conditions in a delayed-treatment design. The PD explicitly addressed 4 sources of teacher-efficacy information identified in social-cognition theory…

  1. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Self-Efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Kienhuis, Mandy; Treyvaud, Karli; Matthews, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Parent Self-efficacy in Managing the Transition to School Scale (PSMTSS) were investigated with a sample of 763 mothers whose children were starting primary school in Australia. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, Efficacy and Worry, accounting for 56.6% of the total variance in parent…

  2. An Examination of Co-Teaching: Perspectives and Efficacy Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hang, Qi; Rabren, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Co-teaching has been developed as an instructional approach to support students with disabilities in general education classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify teachers' and students' perspectives of co-teaching and the efficacy of this teaching approach. Forty-five co-teachers and 58 students with disabilities (N = 103), all of whom…

  3. An Integrative Review of Early Intervention Efficacy Studies with At-Risk Children: Implications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karl; Casto, Glendon

    1985-01-01

    Results of 162 early intervention efficacy studies with disadvantaged, at-risk, and handicapped children were analyzed to draw conclusions about efficacy of early intervention, identify variables which covary with effectiveness, and identify areas for future reseach. It is concluded that early intervention has substantial immediate benefits for…

  4. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

  5. The Role of Teacher Characteristics and Practices on Upper Secondary School Students' Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Nyanza Province of Kenya: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagaka's, Joshua Gisemba

    2011-01-01

    The study identified two dimensions of teacher self-efficacy and practices and five dimensions of students' mathematics self-efficacy and sought to determine the extent to which teacher characteristics and practices can enhance secondary school students' self-efficacy. Data were collected from 13,173 students in 193 teachers' classrooms from 141…

  6. Transcultural self-efficacy perceptions of baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Halter, Margaret; Grund, Faye; Fridline, Mark; See, Sharon; Young, Lisa; Reece, Carol

    2015-05-01

    Addressing the health care needs of a 21st-century nation that is experiencing increased diversity and disparity will require new models of educating future providers. The cultural competence and confidence model was the guiding framework in a study evaluating the influence of cultural educational offerings on the transcultural self-efficacy (TSE) perceptions in baccalaureate nursing students. The Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool was used to measure perceived TSE in a pretest (N = 260), posttest (N = 236) study over an academic year. Significant changes were demonstrated in overall self-efficacy and on the cognitive, practical, and affective subscales. A classification and regression tree analysis identified social orientation as the demographic variable most predictive of the TSE level. This study supports previous research where positive changes were found in students' TSE based on the inclusion of cultural interventions in the nursing curriculum. PMID:24841469

  7. Does Self-Efficacy Affect Cognitive Performance in Persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H.; Gilhuis, H. Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G.; Brands, Augustina M.

    2015-01-01

    In persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) a lowered self-efficacy negatively affects physical activities. Against this background we studied the relationship between self-efficacy and cognitive performance in the early stages of MS. Thirty-three patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting MS (eRRMS) were assessed for self-efficacy (MSSES-18), cognition (CDR System), fatigue (MFIS-5), depressive symptoms (BDI), disease impact (MSIS-29), and disability (EDSS). Correlative analyses were performed between self-efficacy and cognitive scores, and stepwise regression analyses identified predictors of cognition and self-efficacy. Good correlations existed between total self-efficacy and Power of Attention (r= 0.65; P< 0.001), Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.57; P< 0.001), and Speed of Memory (r= 0.53; P< 0.01), and between control self-efficacy and Reaction Time Variability (r= 0.55; P< 0.01). Total self-efficacy predicted 40% of Power of Attention, 34% of Reaction Time Variability, and 40% of Speed of Memory variabilities. Disease impact predicted 65% of total self-efficacy and 58% of control self-efficacy variabilities. The findings may suggest that in persons with CIS and eRRMS self-efficacy may positively affect cognitive performance and that prevention of disease activity may preserve self-efficacy.

  8. Gang Identifiers and Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Mary Lynn

    1992-01-01

    Provides lists of gang identifiers and terminology. Suggests that, to find out names and associated identifiers of local gangs, readers should talk to their local police. Included in listing are descriptions of gang-related symbols, physical signals, graffiti, slogans, right-left rules, colors, clothing, jewelry, hair styles, and fingernails. Also…

  9. On Identifying the Sound Sources in a Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.

    2008-01-01

    A space-time filtering approach is used to divide an unbounded turbulent flow into its radiating and non-radiating components. The result is then used to clarify a number of issues including the possibility of identifying the sources of the sound in such flows. It is also used to investigate the efficacy of some of the more recent computational approaches.

  10. The Role of Self-Efficacy in HIV Treatment Adherence: Validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mallory O. Johnson; Torsten B. Neilands; Samantha E. Dilworth; Stephen F. Morin; Robert H. Remien; Margaret A. Chesney

    2007-01-01

    Adherence to HIV treatment, including adherence to antiretroviral (ART) medication regimens, is paramount in the management\\u000a of HIV. Self-efficacy for treatment adherence has been identified as an important correlate of medication adherence in the\\u000a treatment of HIV and other medical conditions. This paper describes the validation of the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy\\u000a Scale (HIV-ASES) with two samples of HIV+ adults

  11. A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is defined as the extent to which referees believe they have the capacity to perform successfully in their job. Referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to be influenced by mastery experiences, referee knowledge/education, support from significant others, physical/mental preparedness, environmental comfort, and perceived anxiety. In turn, referee efficacy beliefs are hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction. PMID:21713174

  12. Identifying the Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Identifying the Acoustic Neuroma Advances in medicine have made possible the identification of small acoustic neuromas (those still confined to the internal auditory ...

  13. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayoun Lee; Michael W. Deem

    2002-01-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system

  14. Infant Care Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Robin D.

    The Infant Care Survey (ICS) was developed to measure new mothers' confidence in their knowledge and skills regarding the care of babies under one year of age. One potential use of this test would be the identification of groups at high risk for health problems or for avoiding medical care. Self-efficacy was an important construct in the…

  15. OPERATIONAL NOTE EFFICACY OF DUETTM

    E-print Network

    OPERATIONAL NOTE EFFICACY OF DUETTM DUAL-ACTION ADULTICIDE AGAINST CAGED AEDES ALBOPICTUS, NJ 08901-8536 ABSTRACT. DuetTM was field evaluated against caged Aedes albopictus, with the use, sumithrin, adulticide, mosquito, Aedes albopictus Ultra-low volume (ULV) application is a proven method

  16. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  17. The efficacy and value of emergency medicine: a supportive literature review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Study objectives The goal of this study was to identify publications in the medical literature that support the efficacy or value of Emergency Medicine (EM) as a medical specialty and of clinical care delivered by trained emergency physicians. In this study we use the term "value" to refer both to the "efficacy of clinical care" in terms of achieving desired patient outcomes, as well as "efficiency" in terms of effective and/or cost-effective utilization of healthcare resources in delivering emergency care. A comprehensive listing of publications describing the efficacy or value of EM has not been previously published. It is anticipated that the accumulated reference list generated by this study will serve to help promote awareness of the value of EM as a medical specialty, and acceptance and development of the specialty of EM in countries where EM is new or not yet fully established. Methods The January 1995 to October 2010 issues of selected journals, including the EM journals with the highest article impact factors, were reviewed to identify articles of studies or commentaries that evaluated efficacy, effectiveness, and/or value related to EM as a specialty or to clinical care delivered by EM practitioners. Articles were included if they found a positive or beneficial effect of EM or of EM physician-provided medical care. Additional articles that had been published prior to 1995 or in other non-EM journals already known to the authors were also included. Results A total of 282 articles were identified, and each was categorized into one of the following topics: efficacy of EM for critical care and procedures (31 articles), efficacy of EM for efficiency or cost of care (30 articles), efficacy of EM for public health or preventive medicine (34 articles), efficacy of EM for radiology (11 articles), efficacy of EM for trauma or airway management (27 articles), efficacy of EM for using ultrasound (56 articles), efficacy of EM faculty (34 articles), efficacy of EM residencies (24 articles), and overviews and editorials of EM efficacy and value (35 articles). Conclusion There is extensive medical literature that supports the efficacy and value for both EM as a medical specialty and for emergency patient care delivered by trained EM physicians. PMID:21781295

  18. Efficacy Beliefs of Special Educators: The Relationships among Collective Efficacy, Teacher Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viel-Ruma, Kim; Houchins, David; Jolivette, Kristine; Benson, Gwen

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between reported levels of teacher self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and job satisfaction in special educators, teachers in one school district completed three surveys measuring these constructs. The results indicated that teacher self-efficacy had a direct effect on job satisfaction. It was further found…

  19. Efficacy and safety of ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kitts, D; Hu, C

    2000-12-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng, C.A. Meyer) has been a popular herbal remedy used in eastern Asian cultures for thousands of years. In North America, the ginseng species indigenous to both Canada and the United States (Panax quinquefolium) represents an important industry for both domestic and export markets. There are numerous theories and claims describing the efficacy of ginseng, which can combat stress, enhance both the central and immune systems and contribute towards maintaining optimal oxidative status against certain chronic disease states and aging. Risk issues concerning the safety of ginseng at recommended dosages are less prominent and scientifically based. While some epidemiological or clinical studies have reported indications of efficacy for specific health benefits or potential toxicity, there are an equal number of studies that provide contradictory evidence. This situation has led to questionable conclusions concerning specific health benefits or risks associated with ginseng. Recent advances in the development of standardized extracts for both Panax ginseng (G-115) and Panax quinquefolius (CNT-2000) have and will continue to assist in the assessment of efficacy and safety standards for ginseng products. This paper reviews the scientific literature and evidence for ginseng efficacy and safety derived mostly from in vitro and animal studies and places emphasis on the need for more randomized, double-blinded, placebo clinical studies that can provide unequivocal conclusions. An example of the efficacy and safety of ginseng is provided with the description of biological activity of a North American ginseng extract (NAGE), which includes illustrating mechanisms for antioxidant activity without prooxidant properties. PMID:11276295

  20. Teacher Report and Direct Assessment of Preferences for Identifying Reinforcers for Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE A. COTE; R ACHEL H. THOMPSON; Gregory P Hanley; PAIGE M. MCKERCHAR

    2007-01-01

    Teachers were asked to identify and rank 10 preferred stimuli for 9 toddlers, and a hierarchy of preference for these items was determined via a direct preference assessment. The reinforcing efficacy of the most highly preferred items identified by each method was evaluated concurrently in a reinforcer assessment. The reinforcer assessment showed that all stimuli identified as highly preferred via

  1. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D. (Avondale, MD); Brown, Jr., Robert D. (Avondale, MD)

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  2. Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura

    1984-01-01

    This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial

  3. Using Commonality Analysis to Quantify Contributions that Self-Efficacy and Motivational Factors Make in Mathematics Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda Reichwein; Thompson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety have been identified as predictors of mathematics achievement. In the present study, secondary analyses on matrix summaries available from prior published studies were utilized to investigate the contribution that self-efficacy and mathematics anxiety made in mathematics performance. Commonality analyses were…

  4. Discriminating Student Learning and Efficacy Levels in Higher Education: Contributions of Classroom Environment and Teaching and Learning Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugutt, John K.; Ellett, Chad D.; Culross, Rita R.

    This study examined the contribution of classroom learning environment and teaching and learning effectiveness variables to student learning and learning efficacy in higher education settings. It attempted to identify classroom environment characteristics that differentiate high- and low- academic-efficacy student groups and the teaching and…

  5. Parent-Teacher Relationship, Instructor Self-Efficacy and Their Effects on Student Goal Attainment in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    For the past 35 years, researchers examining the factors that contribute to student achievement have identified teacher self-efficacy (a teacher's belief that they have the ability to influence student achievement) as one contributing characteristic. Bandura's theory of self-efficacy has been applied to a wealth of research looking at the early…

  6. Mental efficacy, social support resources and aging well of veteran athletes and older adults in Greece: a comparative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Harahousou; Odysseus Trikkos; Nickos Kabitsis

    2012-01-01

    Many factors have been identified as important contributors to aging well. However, few studies examined how mental efficacy and social support contribute to aging well of veteran athletes versus older adults. This study examined the impact of mental efficacy and social support on aging well of Greek veteran track and field athletes versus non-athletes. Older adults (N=259) and veteran athletes

  7. Identifying Technical Vocabulary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This study compared four different approaches to identifying technical words in an anatomy text. The first approach used a four step rating scale, and was used as the comparison for evaluating the other three approaches. It had a high degree of reliability. The least successful approach was that using clues provided by the writer such as labels in…

  8. METHODS TO IDENTIFY YEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are commonly identified from either phenotype or, more recently, from diagnostic gene sequences. Methods based on phenotype include fermentation reactions on a select set of sugars and growth responses on various carbon and nitrogen sources or on other diagnostic compounds. Isolates are fur...

  9. Identifying Critical Job Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer

    This guide, which is intended for project directors, coordinators, and other professional staff involved in developing and delivering workplace education programs, explains the implications of identifying critical job tasks and details a process by which educational partners can facilitate identification of critical job tasks. First, critical job…

  10. A screening method to identify genetic variation in root growth response to a salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Afrasyab; Munns, Rana; Poustini, Kazem; Watt, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Salinity as well as drought are increasing problems in agriculture. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) is relatively salt sensitive compared with bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yields poorly on saline soil. Field studies indicate that roots of durum wheat do not proliferate as extensively as bread wheat in saline soil. In order to look for genetic diversity in root growth within durum wheat, a screening method was developed to identify genetic variation in rates of root growth in a saline solution gradient similar to that found in many saline fields. Seedlings were grown in rolls of germination paper in plastic tubes 37 cm tall, with a gradient of salt concentration increasing towards the bottom of the tubes which contained from 50-200 mM NaCl with complete nutrients. Seedlings were grown in the light to the two leaf stage, and transpiration and evaporation were minimized so that the salinity gradient was maintained. An NaCl concentration of 150 mM at the bottom was found suitable to identify genetic variation. This corresponds to a level of salinity in the field that reduces shoot growth by 50% or more. The screen inhibited seminal axile root length more than branch root length in three out of four genotypes, highlighting changes in root system architecture caused by a saline gradient that is genotype dependent. This method can be extended to other species to identify variation in root elongation in response to gradients in salt, nutrients, or toxic elements. PMID:21118825

  11. Vaccine Efficacy and Affinity Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hayoun; Deem, Michael W.

    2002-03-01

    We propose macroscopic equations to describe variable vaccine efficacy between repeated vaccinee and first time vaccinee. The main ingredients are antigenic distance between epidemic strain and vaccne strain, and affinity maturation dynamics which differs in primary and second response. Increase of affinity by repeated vaccine leads to localization in immune space. This localization decreases the ability of the immune system to response to distant, but related epidemic strains.

  12. Impact of Physical Activity Intervention Programs on Self-Efficacy in Youths: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151

  13. Predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women in South Florida.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2013-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a critical element for HIV prevention, however little is known about the predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women. In this cross-sectional study we assessed if age, living with a partner, employment status, HIV knowledge, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence (IPV) predicted self-efficacy for HIV prevention in 548 Hispanic women in South Florida who participated in a randomized controlled trial (SEPA). The majority of Hispanic women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, had less HIV knowledge, and had a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:22795758

  14. Science teaching self-efficacy in a primary school: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Jenny; Watters, James J.

    1995-12-01

    Bandura's theory of self-efficacy predicts that teachers with high, self-efficacy should persist longer, provide a greater academic focus in child-centred classrooms and exhibit different types of feedback than teachers who have lower self-efficacy. This paper reports on the science teaching self-efficacy in a group of teachers at a state primary school. The research was conducted in two stages using firstly the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (STEBI-A) to identify cases, and secondly, a semistructured interview coupled with classroom observations. Thirty seven teaching staff were surveyed with the STEBI-A instrument. The five highest and five lowest scoring teachers on the personal science teaching self-efficacy subscale of the STEBI-A were interviewed. The analysis of interviews and observations indicated that teachers with high personal science teaching self-efficacy have had a long interest in science and a relatively strong background of formal science studies with opportunities for exploring out of school activities. Although they may have experienced negative science experiences in their own schooling other ameliorating factors existed which maintained their interest. Their instructional strategies in science lessons were more child-centred than those reported by teachers with lower personal science teaching self-efficacy. The implications of the results for the inservice training of teachers are discussed.

  15. Identifying Effective School Principals 

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Kandyce; Flores, Santa; Huang, Emily; Igwe, Carolyn; McDonald, Leslie; Stroud, Ryan; Willis, Rebecca; Dugat, Amber

    2007-01-01

    METHODOLOGY Evaluating geostatistical m p ir e p cases that occurs within a group of people in a geographic area over a defined period of time. The Centers for Disease first step because of a failure to identify a critically small p-value [2..., is usually a statistical evaluation of the likelihood of the disease distribution. Commonly the state health agency examines its health registry data and performs statistical testing comparing in- cidence rates among arbitrary geographic areas [1]. Once a...

  16. Hunting Icebergs: Identifying Icebergs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This self-paced, interactive tutorial guides learners through the decision-making process in locating data that will enable the identification of tabular icebergs, including: selecting the appropriate satellite orbit, and identifying the optimal solar and infrared wavelength values to discriminate between water and ice in remotely-sensed images. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Hunting Icebergs. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

  17. Exploring the Sources of Turkish Pre-service Chemistry Teachers’ Chemistry Self-efficacy Beliefs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esen Uzuntiryaki

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the underlying sources in developing chemistry self-efficacy beliefs of Turkish pre-service chemistry teachers. For this purpose, the College Chemistry Self-efficacy Scale (CCSS) was administered to 20 pre-service chemistry teachers. Then, phenomenological approach was employed and semi-structured interviews were conducted with five pre-service teachers selected based on their scores on the CCSS to identify the underlying

  18. The Role of Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, Attitudes and Previous Math Achievement in Students' Math Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mas' oud Kabiri; Ali Reza Kiamanesh

    According to Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1997), self-efficacy has an important role in students' achievement. The present study was designed in order to investigate the role of personal variables on students' math achievement. To achieve this goal, four variables, i.e., math self-efficacy, mathematics anxiety, math attitudes and prior math achievement were identified on the basis of theoretical principles and research

  19. The efficacy of levetiracetam for patients with supratentorial brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Peizhi, Zhou; Maling, Gou; Wu, Lang; Yunhe, Mao; Xiang, Wang; Qing, Mao; Yanhui, Liu; Ruofei, Liang; Jiewen, Luo

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the current data on the overall efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV), a new generation antiepileptic drug, in patients with brain tumors. The efficacy of LEV in patients diagnosed with brain tumors has been evaluated in several studies, however, with inconsistent results. Bibliographic searches of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov and Cochrane Central Register of the Controlled Trials databases were performed to identify articles and conference abstracts that investigated the efficacy of LEV in the treatment of brain tumor patients. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. Among the 14 included studies, two were randomized controlled trials. The subgroup analysis demonstrated that the complete response rate of LEV was 94% during the postoperative period and 84% during the long-term follow-up period. Our results suggest that LEV is a relatively effective drug for the treatment of brain tumor patients and its efficacy is slightly lower during the long-term follow-up period than during the postoperative period. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID:26051171

  20. Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence: perceptions of district personnel of implementation and impact on collective teacher efficacy

    E-print Network

    LeRoy, Kathryn A.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify those elements of the Baldrige Education Criteria for Performance Excellence that central office leaders, principals, and teachers perceive as having an impact on collective teacher efficacy. The study...

  1. Identifying Equivalent Fractions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J.C. Banfill

    2007-12-12

    This site helps students understand how to identify equivalent fractions by explaining what equivalent fractions are and how to compare two fractions to see if they are equivalent. There is also a list of fractions equivalent to 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, and 2/5 so students can begin to see the pattern that emerges. Finally, the site presents an interactive game in which students can practice by naming the equivalent fraction to a given fraction.

  2. Identifying a Theft Suspect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page was authored by the CATALST Group at the University of Minnesota, based on an activity developed by Roxy Peck at California Polytechnic State University that is based on an original idea by Tom Short, John Carroll University, and Iddo Gal, University of Haifa, Israel.

    This model-eliciting activity (MEA) challenges students to develop a model for predicting the characteristics of a person who has committed a crime. Students work with real data on shoe length, height, and gender to develop the model. Students write a report to the crime victim that identifies a suspect and justifies their decision. The activity sets the stage for students to learn about regression models, and reinforces their understanding of central tendency and variability. It is suggested that this activity be used prior to a formal introduction to linear relationships.

  3. AIMing towards improved antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Matthew J; Kearns, Alison K; Stump, Sascha; Li, Chun; Gajewski, Mariusz P; Rider, Kevin C; Backos, Donald S; Reigan, Philip R; Beall, Howard D; Natale, Nicholas R

    2015-04-15

    Using the structure-activity relationship emerging from previous Letter, and guided by pharmacokinetic properties, new AIMs have been prepared with both improved efficacy against human glioblastoma cells and cell permeability as determined by fluorescent confocal microscopy. We present our first unambiguous evidence for telomeric G4-forming oligonucleotide anisotropy by NMR resulting from direct interaction with AIMs, which is consistent with both our G4 melting studies by CD, and our working hypothesis. Finally, we show that AIMs induce apoptosis in SNB-19 cells. PMID:25782743

  4. Efficacy of postexposure therapy against glanders in mice.

    PubMed

    Waag, David M

    2015-04-01

    Burkholderia mallei, the causative agent of glanders, is a CDC Tier 1 Select Agent for which there is no preventive vaccine and antibiotic therapy is difficult. In this study, we show that a combination of vaccination using killed cellular vaccine and therapy using moxifloxacin, azithromycin, or sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim can protect BALB/c mice from lethal infection even when given 5 days after infectious challenge. Vaccination only, or antibiotic therapy only, was not efficacious. Although antibiotics evaluated experimentally can protect when given before or 1 day after challenge, this time course is not realistic in the cases of natural infection or biological attack, when the patient seeks treatment after symptoms develop or after a biological attack has been confirmed and the agent has been identified. Antibiotics can be efficacious after a prolonged interval between exposure and treatment, but only if the animals were previously vaccinated. PMID:25645854

  5. Psychological impact of identifying character strengths in people with psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Anna; Barker, Chris; Price, Claire; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    A one group pre–post test design investigated the impact of identifying character strengths using the Values In Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) with individuals with early psychosis (N = 29). Post-test improvements in positive affect and cognitive performance were observed. Neither self-esteem nor self-efficacy improved. The technique appears feasible for use within early intervention services. Adverse consequences should be monitored and additional components considered to enhance benefits. PMID:25932041

  6. Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Bandura

    1982-01-01

    Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to

  7. The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Leader Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moe Machida; John Schaubroeck

    2011-01-01

    This article examines various ways in which self-efficacy belief influences leader development. Drawing from social cognitive theory, we discuss four self-efficacy concepts that are pertinent to leader development: (a) preparatory self-efficacy, (b) efficacy spirals, (c) learning self-efficacy, and (d) resilient self-efficacy. We argue that the role of self-efficacy in leader development is more complex than traditionally considered. The article also

  8. Identifying Microlensing by Binaries

    E-print Network

    Rosanne Di Stefano; Rosalba Perna

    1997-02-11

    The microlensing monitoring programs have studied large numbers of standard light curves which seem to be due to lensing by a dark point mass. Theory predicts that many microlensing events should display significant deviations from the standard form. Lens binarity in particular is expected to be common. So far, however, only a handful of light curves exhibit evidence that the lens is a binary; all of these display dramatic deviations from the standard light curve, exhibiting pronounced multiple peaks and/or caustic crossings. Binary-lens events in which the light curve is less dramatically perturbed should also exist in the data set. Why, then, have we not detected them? The answer may lie in the fact that the perturbations, though often significant, tend to be less distinctive than those associated with caustic crossings. We present a method to determine whether a light curve is due to lensing by a binary. The method works for both gently and dramatically perturbed binary-lens light curves. Our method identifies all degenerate solutions-- i.e., all possible lensing events that might have given rise to the observed light curve. It also enables us to eliminate from consideration large ranges of possible false positive identifications associated with light curves that might mimic microlensing by a binary. This method, or a generalization of it, can also be applied to the analysis of light curves that deviate from the standard point-mass lens form because of astronomical effects other than lens binarity.

  9. Self-Efficacy as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Self-efficacy denotes people's beliefs about their ability to perform in different situations. It functions as a multilevel and multifaceted set of beliefs that influence how people feel, think, motivate themselves, and behave during various tasks. Self-efficacy beliefs are informed by enactive attainment, vicarious experience, imaginal experiences, and social persuasion as well as physical and emotional states. These beliefs are mediated by cognitive, motivational, affective, and selection processes to generate actual performance. Self-efficacy development is closely intertwined with a person's experiences, competencies, and developmental tasks in different domains at different stages in life. This paper reviews the literature to outline the definition and theoretical conceptualizations of the construct originally devised by Bandura that have flourished since the 1990s. Drawing from the studies of the construct to assess self-efficacy, and to inform positive youth development, the paper will present the determinants of the development of self-efficacy beliefs and identify the connection between self-efficacy and adolescent developmental outcomes. The paper will conclude with strategies to enhance youth self-efficacy and proposals for future research directions. PMID:22645423

  10. Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Third-Year Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the experiential and demographic factors affecting the self-efficacy and self-esteem of third-year pharmacy (P3) students. Methods. A 25-item survey that included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale, as well as types and length of pharmacy practice experiences and demographic information was administered to doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students from 5 schools of pharmacy in New England at the completion of their P3 year. Results. The survey response rate was approximately 50% of the total target population (399/820). Students with a grade point average (GPA)?3.0 demonstrated a higher significant effect from unpaid introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) on their self-efficacy scores (p<0.05) compared to students with lower GPAs. Students who had completed more than the required amount of pharmacy experiences had higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem (p<0.05). Ethnicity also was related to students’ levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Conclusion. Self-efficacy and self-esteem are two important factors in pharmacy practice. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should ensure that students complete enough practice experiences, beyond the minimum of 300 IPPE hours, as one way to improve their self-efficacy and self-esteem. PMID:25258439

  11. Teacher Report and Direct Assessment of Preferences for Identifying Reinforcers for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Catherine A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Hanley, Gregory P.; McKerchar, Paige M.

    2007-01-01

    Teachers were asked to identify and rank 10 preferred stimuli for 9 toddlers, and a hierarchy of preference for these items was determined via a direct preference assessment. The reinforcing efficacy of the most highly preferred items identified by each method was evaluated concurrently in a reinforcer assessment. The reinforcer assessment showed…

  12. Validation of the Online Efficacy 1 Running Head: VALIDATION OF THE ONLINE EFFICACY

    E-print Network

    Yu, Alex

    Validation of the Online Efficacy 1 Running Head: VALIDATION OF THE ONLINE EFFICACY Validation-0611 Phone: (480) 965-3475 Aalexyu98@hotmail #12;Validation of the Online Efficacy 2 Abstract Educational. This paper provides a brief history of the online environment and discusses the development and validation

  13. STAT3-Mediated Autophagy Dependence Identifies Subtypes of Breast Cancer where Autophagy Inhibition can be Efficacious

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Gearheart, Christy M.; Barnard, Rebecca; Aryal, Suraj; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M.; Fosmire, Susan P.; Hansen, Ryan J.; Morgan, Michael J.; Porter, Christopher C.; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Thorburn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a protein and organelle degradation pathway that is involved in diverse diseases including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that autophagy is a cell survival mechanism in tumor cells and that its inhibition especially in combination with other therapy could be beneficial but it remains unclear if all cancer cells behave the same way when autophagy is inhibited. We inhibited autophagy in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and found that some of them are dependent on autophagy for survival even in nutrient rich conditions without any additional stress while others need autophagy only when stressed. Survival under unstressed conditions is due to cell type specific autophagy regulation of STAT3 activity and this phenotype is enriched in triple negative cell lines. This autophagy-dependency affects response to therapy because autophagy inhibition reduced tumor growth in vivo in autophagy-dependent but not in autophagy-independent breast tumors while combination treatment with autophagy inhibitors and other agent was preferentially synergistic in autophagy-dependent cells. These results imply that autophagy-dependence represents a tumor cell specific characteristic where autophagy inhibition will be more effective. Moreover, our results suggest that autophagy inhibition might be a potential therapeutic strategy for triple negative breast cancers, which currently lack an effective targeted treatment. PMID:24590058

  14. Divergent Synthesis of a Pochonin Library Targeting HSP90 and in vivo Efficacy of Identified Inhibitor**

    PubMed Central

    Barluenga, Sofia; Wong, Cuihua; Fontaine, Jean-Gonzague; Aouadi, Kaïss; Beebe, Kristin; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Neckers, Len; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) has emerged as one of the most exciting therapeutic target in recent years.[1, 2] Despite the seemingly ubiquitous function of this constitutively expressed chaperone, its role in stabilizing conformationally labile proteins has implications in pathologies ranging from oncology to neurodegenerative diseases. Most of HSP90’s endogenous clients[3] are key regulators of cell signaling which are destabilized and degraded in the absence of HSP90’s chaperoning activity. The dependence of transformed cells on HSP90 is further heightened by the fact that many oncogenic mutations, while increasing the activity of pro-growth signaling pathways, are less stable than their wild type counterpart and have an increased dependence on HSP90’s chaperoning activity.[4] A clinically relevant example is the heightened dependence of drug resistant Bcr-Abl mutants on HSP90’s activity and the fact that HSP90 inhibitors in combination with Abl inhibitors remain effective against such mutants.[5, 6] Accordingly, HSP90 inhibition provides a broad and effective target for anticancer treatment. Furthermore, HSP90 inhibitors can act synergistically with a cytotoxic agent.[7] HSP90 is also implicated in regulating the fate of a number of conformationally unstable proteins which underlie the development of neurodegenerative diseases.[8] It has been shown that HSP90 inhibitors can reduce protein aggregates in cellular and animal models of Huntington disease,[9] spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy,[10] Parkinson disease,[11] and other Tau protein-related neurodegenerative diseases.[12] PMID:18435518

  15. Pharmacological principles of antidepressant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Schatzberg, Alan F

    2002-06-01

    Both noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) appear to be involved in depression. Evidence suggests that dual-acting antidepressants, i.e. those that affect both monoamine systems, such as tricyclic antidepressants and the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant mirtazapine, may have greater efficacy and a faster onset of action than drugs that act on a single monoamine system only, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Cell firing is reduced by SSRIs in the short-term, but is increased by mirtazapine, probably due to its actions on both NA (via alpha(2) antagonism) and 5-HT (via alpha(1)-stimulation by NA). This may help to explain clinical evidence suggesting that mirtazapine has a faster onset of action than the more selective antidepressants. PMID:12404665

  16. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...

  17. Career Development and Self-Efficacy Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumari, Melati

    This article discusses the application of self-efficacy beliefs on career development. This theory was introduced by Hackett and Betz (1981) and has received many extensive studies. There are many factors that may influence career self-efficacy such as gender, culture, parental, and family backgrounds. The methods of increasing career…

  18. Measuring Teacher Efficacy to Implement Inclusive Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Forlin, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure perceived teacher efficacy to teach in inclusive classrooms. An 18-item scale was developed on a sample of 607 pre-service teachers selected from four countries (Canada, Australia, Hong Kong and India). Factor analysis of responses from the sample revealed three factors: efficacy in…

  19. The Health Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingery, Paul M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Health Teaching Self-Efficacy (HTSE) Scale was devised to measure perceived deficits in ability at pretest and changes in self-efficacy in response to intervention. HTSE was tested on 31 school health teachers and was found to be highly reliable and internally consistent. (MDM)

  20. Examining Elementary School-Aged Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children's self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV…

  1. Developing a personal health record self-efficacy tool.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Kathleen M; Verkuilen, Jay; Hickey, Dorothy E; James-Borga, Judith C; Shan, Jing

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary work was to develop a new short tool to assess personal health records (PHRs) self-efficacy. Prior work had found 4 distinct skills related to creating, updating, tracking symptoms, and sharing information with health care providers using PHR. Although PHRs have great promise, their uptake has been rather limited, especially in economically limited populations. A convenience sample of community-living persons with HIV/AIDS (N = 100) was asked to complete the new tool along with other self-efficacy measures. Preliminary work indicated more confidence about paper-based PHRs compared with computer-based PHRs. The paper-based subscale was significantly correlated to chronic illness and HIV treatment self-efficacy scales as expected, but there were no relationships for the computer-based subscale. This simple screening tool could identify interested clients and their preference either for a paper-based or computer-based PHR. Further research is needed with larger sample sizes and different chronically ill populations to further explore the psychometrics of the instrument. PMID:23332014

  2. Towards increase of diagnostic efficacy in gynecologic OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail; Panteleeva, Olga; Eliseeva, Darya; Kachalina, Olga; Sergeeva, Ekaterina; Dubasova, Lyubov; Agrba, Pavel; Mikailova, Gyular; Prudnikov, Maxim; Shakhova, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    Gynecologic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are usually performed in combination with routine diagnostic procedures: laparoscopy and colposcopy. In combination with laparoscopy OCT is employed for inspection of fallopian tubes in cases of unrecognized infertility while in colposcopy it is used to identify cervix pathologies including cancer. In this paper we discuss methods for increasing diagnostic efficacy of OCT application in these procedures. For OCT-laparoscopy we demonstrate independent criteria for pathology recognition which allow to increase accuracy of diagnostics. For OCT-colposcopy we report on application of device for controlled compression allowing to sense the elasticity of the inspected cervix area and distinguish between neoplasia and inflammatory processes.

  3. The efficacy of anthelmintics against Thysaniezia giardi in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Van Schalkwyk, P C; Geyser, T L; Davies, P V; Récio, M

    1981-09-01

    Two field cases of apparent inefficacy of albendazole against cestodes in lambs were investigated. In both farms Thysaniezia giardi was identified and 2 critical controlled trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of 5 anthelmintics against T. giardi. Albendazole dosed at 3,8 mg/kg or 7,6 mg/kg live mass, mebendazole at 15 mg/kg were totally ineffective against T. giardi. Treatment with resorantel at 65 mg/kg or niclosamide at 50 mg/kg however, caused expulsion of the strobilae within 16--24 hours after treatment and at autopsy, lambs were free of scoleces of T. giardi. PMID:7310792

  4. Massage Efficacy Beliefs for Muscle Recovery from a Running Race

    PubMed Central

    Moraska, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in efficacy of CAM therapies has been sparsely reported and may be different than reported use of the therapy. Purpose The aim of this study was to identify efficacy beliefs of massage for muscle recovery following a 10-km running race. Setting Finish zone of a 10-km race. Research Design Participants completed a brief survey regarding running race characteristics, prior use of massage, and belief in efficacy of massage regarding muscle recovery from the race. Participants The subject pool consisted of 745 individuals who completed a running race and were within 60 minutes of race completion. Main Outcome Measures Subjects reported demographic information (age, gender), race information (finish time, perceived exertion, muscle soreness, fatigue), prior use of massage, and belief regarding efficacy of massage for postrace muscle recovery. Results Most study participants believed that massage would benefit muscle recovery following the running race (80.0%), even though only 43.9% had received a massage previously. Those who had received at least one massage were significantly more likely to believe that massage would benefit muscle recovery (91.9% vs. 70.4%, p < .001). Females were more likely than males to have had a massage (52.3% vs. 36.0%, p < .001) and to believe it would benefit recovery (83.1% vs. 77.1%, p = .046). Conclusions Massage is well-accepted as a muscle recovery aid following a running race, but females and those who have used massage were significantly more likely to perceive it as advantageous. Belief in a therapeutic value of massage for muscle recovery exceeds its reported use. PMID:23730395

  5. A Study of the Impact of a School-Based, Job-Embedded Professional Development Program on Elementary and Middle School Teacher Efficacy for Technology Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoretz, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a school-based, job-embedded professional development program on elementary and middle school teacher efficacy for technology integration. Teacher efficacy has been identified as a strong predictor of whether the content of professional development will transfer to classroom practice…

  6. Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers' Preference for Class Management Profiles and Teacher's Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Idris

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to identify pre-service physical education teachers' class management profiles, teachers' self-efficacy and the relationship between their class management profiles and teacher self-efficacy beliefs. The universe comprised junior and senior students studying physical education teaching at six different universities…

  7. Vaccine efficacy and control measures in pertussis.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, S R

    1991-01-01

    An outbreak of pertussis in primary school-children in the St David's area of Pembrokeshire provided the opportunity to estimate pertussis vaccine efficacy. The estimate of efficacy was 88% when notified cases were used, but this fell to 68% when all children with bouts of coughing for two or more weeks were included. Notified cases were significantly less likely to have been vaccinated than other cases with similar symptoms. Therefore vaccine efficacy estimates based upon notified cases are likely to be biased. However, even the lower estimates suggest that pertussis immunisation is highly desirable and efforts to improve coverage should be increased. PMID:1863099

  8. Thermal styling: efficacy, convenience, damage tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Harper, Don; Qi, Jia Catherine; Kaplan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple method to explore the efficacy of thermal styling, By using a temperature gradient curling iron we rapidly explore a range of thermal treatment conditions. The thermodynamic literature on the glass transition in keratin fibers explains the surprisingly limited role of elevated temperature in improvements in the efficacy of holding the styled curvature of the fibers. The onset of damage, however, is strongly temperature dependent. This combination of measurements of damage and efficacy shows the range of conditions over which thermal protection products must be functional. PMID:21635843

  9. The Generality of Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy across Social Situations and Solitary Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; Nolan, Heather; Rieder, Christie

    According to a recent national survey, 9 out of 10 high school students in the United States reported that they had tried alcohol at least once. Previous research has identified drug resistance self-efficacy (DRSE) as an important construct in adolescent drug use, which is the focus of this research study. A total of 361 students in grades 9-12…

  10. Confidence: A Better Predictor of Academic Achievement than Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept and Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar; Lee, Jihyun; Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report the results from a study that assessed confidence together with scales measuring self-belief--i.e., self-efficacy, different kinds of self-concepts, and anxiety--among the 15-year old students from Singapore. A distinct confidence factor was identified in the domains of mathematics (N = 1940) and English (N = 1786). Our…

  11. Meta-Analysis of Biofeedback for Tension-Type Headache: Efficacy, Specificity, and Treatment Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Rief, Winfried; Martin, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The aims of the present meta-analysis were to investigate the short- and long-term efficacy, multidimensional outcome, and treatment moderators of biofeedback as a behavioral treatment option for tension-type headache. A literature search identified 74 outcome studies, of which 53 were selected according to predefined inclusion criteria.…

  12. Discovery of CX-6258. A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious pan-Pim Kinases Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Structure–activity relationship analysis in a series of 3-(5-((2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)methyl)furan-2-yl)amides identified compound 13, a pan-Pim kinases inhibitor with excellent biochemical potency and kinase selectivity. Compound 13 exhibited in vitro synergy with chemotherapeutics and robust in vivo efficacy in two Pim kinases driven tumor models. PMID:24900437

  13. Estradiol gel: review of the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in menopausal women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Naunton; Jacobus R. B. J. Brouwers; David F. Archer

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of a gel containing estradiol that is applied to the skin. Design: MEDLINE and EMBASE searches were conducted from 1966 to March 2005. Additional references were identified from bibliographies from selected studies in addition to approved product information. Results: Estradiol gel is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe vasomotor

  14. Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Self-Efficacy in Relation to Medication Calculation Performance in Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melius, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze the relationships that exist between mathematics anxiety and nurse self-efficacy for mathematics, and the medication calculation performance of acute care nurses. This research used a quantitative correlational research design and involved a sample of 84 acute care nurses, LVNs and RNs, from a…

  15. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of rucinol serum in patients with melasma: a randomized controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Khemis; A. Kaiafa; C. Queille-Roussel; L. Duteil; J. P. Ortonne

    2007-01-01

    Background Melasma is a hyperpigmentation disorder predominantly affecting sun- exposed areas in women, which is often refractory to treatment. Most commer- cially available treatments incorporate inhibitors of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in melanin production within the melanocyte. In general, however, the efficacy of these therapies is somewhat limited. Recent studies have identified other enzymes that play an important role in

  16. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Teaching Mathematics with Concrete Manipulatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonneau, Kira J.; Marley, Scott C.; Selig, James P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of manipulatives to teach mathematics is often prescribed as an efficacious teaching strategy. To examine the empirical evidence regarding the use of manipulatives during mathematics instruction, we conducted a systematic search of the literature. This search identified 55 studies that compared instruction with manipulatives to a control…

  17. Collective Efficacy, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, and School Effectiveness in Alabama Public High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, J. Darrell

    2010-01-01

    For several decades, researchers have searched for school-level properties that can overcome the negative consequences of student SES on school effectiveness. Two promising constructs that have been identified are collective teacher efficacy (CE) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study examined the relationship between these two…

  18. Efficacy of Barabasz's Instant Alert Hypnosis in the Treatment of ADHD with Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathryn; Barabasz, Marianne; Barabasz, Arreed; Warner, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Tested use of instant alert hypnosis on 16 children diagnosed with attention deficit disorder. Found that EEG beta-theta ratio means were significantly higher in trials of neurotherapy combined with alert hypnosis than neurotherapy alone. Beta was significantly enhanced, whereas theta was inhibited. Identified improved treatment efficacy and…

  19. Identify fractions in multiple ways

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Marsh

    2006-10-27

    Practice identifying fractions 1. Compare fractions and find different fractions using the same denominators. 2. Identify fractions on a number line and see if you can do it. 3. Help find grampy and identify the fraction to find him. 4. Comparing fractions with pie charts ...

  20. Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

  1. Self-Efficacy as a Factor in Abstinence from Alcohol\\/Other Drug Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alyssa A. Forcehimes; J. Scott Tonigan

    2008-01-01

    Increased self-efficacy or confidence to remain abstinent has been identified as one mechanism explaining behavior change, with investigations of this mechanism occurring most frequently in prospective mutual-help research. This study meta-analytically combined 11 studies to address critical questions about the nature and magnitude of change in self-efficacy in predicting drinking reductions among 12-step exposed individuals. Findings suggested that changes in

  2. Development and validation of in-service teachers' self-efficacy beliefs in the context of Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sadia Shaukat

    2011-01-01

    This study explains the development and validation of a questionnaire instrument to measure the self-efficacy beliefs of 180 in-service schoolteachers in Pakistan. Four dimensions of teacher self-efficacy were identified in the Pakistani context: classroom management, persistent behaviour, level of teacher anxiety and professional mastery. Validation of the four scales for the Pakistani teachers was achieved by obtaining unidimensional factors. Cronbach

  3. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Sales Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Barling; Russell Beattie

    1983-01-01

    Self-efficacy theory predicts that people will perform better when they believe they have the skills necessary for success. It also suggests, however, that believing in long-term rewards for success (\\

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY TESTING (IN-HOUSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project initiates the in-house study of antimicrobial efficacy, growth parameters, and transport characteristics of biological contaminants. Viable and non-viable microbial analysis will be performed by growth culture and molecular biology techniques. Experiments w...

  5. Who Benefited from an Efficacious Intervention for Youth Living with HIV: A Moderator Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marguerita Lightfoot; Heather Tevendale; W. Scott Comulada; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus

    2007-01-01

    An efficacious intervention that results in young people living with HIV (YPLH) reducing their transmission risk has been\\u000a identified. The present study identifies who is most likely to benefit from the intervention. Regression models were used\\u000a to examine whether background contextual factors moderated the intervention’s success. Percentage of protected sex was moderated\\u000a by ethnicity, use of antiretroviral medications (ARV), healthcare

  6. The Efficacy of Selected Desensitizing OTC Products: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Talioti, E.; Hill, R.; Gillam, D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to review the published literature in order to identify relevant studies for inclusion and to determine whether there was any evidence on the clinical effectiveness of selected desensitizing toothpastes, calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS), amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), nanohydroxyapatite, and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (tooth mousse) on reducing dentine hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods. Following a review of 593 papers identified from searching both electronic databases (PUBMED) and hand searching of relevant written journals, only 5 papers were accepted for inclusion. Results. Analysis of the included studies (3 CSPS and 2 ACP) would suggest that there may be some benefit for patients using these products for reducing DH. No direct comparative studies were available to assess all these products under the same conditions neither were there any comparative randomised controlled studies that compared at least two of these products in determining their effectiveness in treating DH. Conclusions. Due to the small number of included studies, there are limited clinical data to support any claims of clinical efficacy of these OTC products. Further studies are therefore required to determine the efficacy of these products in well-controlled RCT studies with a larger sample size. PMID:25006466

  7. Self-efficacy beliefs and tennis performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Barling; Mike Abel

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological aspects of self-efficacy theory are assessed in this study, and the tennis performance of 40 active players (M age = 26.6 years) serves as the criterion variable. On a theoretical level, only self-efficacy beliefs, and not response-outcome expectations or the valence thereof, were consistently and significantly related to 12 dimensions of tennis performance. This phenomenon pertained to

  8. Accelerating HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Michael, Nelson L

    2014-11-20

    Despite major advances in HIV-1 therapeutics and prevention strategies, the development of a safe and effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine will likely be critical for ending the global HIV-1 epidemic. Yet only four HIV-1 vaccine concepts have been tested for clinical efficacy over the past 30 years. In this Commentary, we describe key hurdles facing the HIV-1 vaccine development field and outline strategies to accelerate efficacy evaluation of novel HIV-1 vaccine candidates. PMID:25416935

  9. Clinical and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Antimicrobial Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Simon; Percival, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Hydrogels have been shown to have a significant role to play in wound healing. Hydrogels are used to assist in the management of dry, sloughy, or necrotic wounds. However, recent scientific evidence has shown that biofilms delay wound healing and increase a wound propensity to infection. It is therefore essential that hydrogels incorporating antimicrobials demonstrate efficacy on biofilms. Consequently, it is the aim of this article to review the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on wounds with specific reference to their efficacy on biofilms. Recent Advances: Technologies being developed for the management of wounds are rapidly expanding. In particularly next-generation hydrogels, incorporating copolymers, have been reported to enable the smart release of antimicrobials. This has led to the development of a more tailored patient-specific antimicrobial hydrogel therapy. Critical Issues: Evidence relating to the efficacy of hydrogels, incorporating antimicrobials, on biofilms within both the in vitro and in vivo environments is lacking. Future Direction: Studies that investigate the efficacy of antimicrobial hydrogel wound dressings on both in vivo and in vitro biofilms are important. However, there is a significant need for better and more reproducible in vivo biofilm models. Until this is possible, data generated from appropriate and representative in vitro models will help to assist researchers and clinicians in evaluating antimicrobial and antibiofilm hydrogel technology for the extrapolation of efficacy data relevant to biofilms present in the in vivo environment.

  10. Adolescent Work Experience and Self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cunnien, Keith A.; MartinRogers, Nicole; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of this paper To assess the relationship between high school work experiences and self-efficacy. Design/methodology/approach OLS regressions are applied to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study to examine work experiences and self-efficacy. Findings The analyses indicate that employment fosters self-efficacy in multiple realms, Occasional and sporadic workers exhibit less self-efficacy than steady workers. Supervisory support may be especially important in enhancing adolescents’ confidence as they anticipate their future family lives, community participation, personal health, and economic achievements. Research limitations/Implications This research includes only a small set of the work dimensions that may be important for adolescents. Ethnography and in-depth interviews are recommended to further explore the subjective and emotional dimensions of youth work experiences. Practical implications In developing policies and guidance, educators, parents, and employers should be aware that steady employment and supervisory support enhance the development of adolescent self-efficacy. Original value of paper This paper finds evidence that adolescent work experiences spill over to influence youth’s developing confidence in the realms of family life, community and personal health. It also suggests that sporadic and occasional work patterns can impair the development of self-efficacy in adolescence. PMID:19750144

  11. Linking Leadership to Student Learning: The Contributions of Leader Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth Leithwood; Doris Jantzi

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: This study aimed to improve our understanding of the nature, causes and consequence of school leader efficacy, including indirect influences on student learning. We asked about district contributions to school leader efficacy, whether leader self- and collective efficacy responded to the same or different district conditions and the effects of leader efficacy on conditions in the school and the

  12. Stochastic control system parameter identifiability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Herget, C. J.

    1975-01-01

    The parameter identification problem of general discrete time, nonlinear, multiple input/multiple output dynamic systems with Gaussian white distributed measurement errors is considered. The knowledge of the system parameterization was assumed to be known. Concepts of local parameter identifiability and local constrained maximum likelihood parameter identifiability were established. A set of sufficient conditions for the existence of a region of parameter identifiability was derived. A computation procedure employing interval arithmetic was provided for finding the regions of parameter identifiability. If the vector of the true parameters is locally constrained maximum likelihood (CML) identifiable, then with probability one, the vector of true parameters is a unique maximal point of the maximum likelihood function in the region of parameter identifiability and the constrained maximum likelihood estimation sequence will converge to the vector of true parameters.

  13. Efficacy of different contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M; Lawless, M; Yeates, D

    1982-04-10

    The Oxford Family Planning Association (Oxford, England) contraceptive study has yielded data on the efficacy of a wide range of birth control methods for a large, homogeneous group of married women attending family planning clinics. Some of the main findings are summarized in the hope that they may be of direct value to the practicing physician. 17,032 women were recruited from 17 large family planning clinics in England and Scotland during 1968-1974. At recruitment, every woman was aged 25-39 years, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and either a current user of oral contraceptives (OCs) of at least 5 months' standing or a current user of a diaphragm or an IUD of at least 5 months' standing without prior exposure to the pill. On return visits to the clinic, each woman is questioned and data, including details of all pregnancies and any change in contraceptive practice together with reasons for the change, are recorded on a special form. In the analyses which follow, the failure rates represent "use-effectiveness," i.e., they include accidental pregnancies attributable both to failure of the method and to failure by the woman to use the method correctly. Overall failure rates for the different contraceptive methods together with 95% confidence limits are shown in a table. The failure rate/100 woman-years is as follows: for combined OCs with more than 50 mcg estrogen--0.32, with 50 mcg estrogen--0.16, and with less than 50 mcg estrogen--0.27; progestogen-only OC, 1.2; diaphragm, 1.9; condom, 3.6; Lippes loop A 6.8; Lippes loop B, 1.8; Lippes loop C, 1.4; Lippes loop D, 1.3; Saf-T-Coil, 1.3; Dalkon shield, 2.4; Birnberg bow, 1.6; Antigon, 0.4; M-213, 1.3; Copper-T, 1.2; Copper-7, 1.5; Multiload, 0.0; type unknown, 1.8; rhythm, 15.5; coitus interruptus, 6.7; chemicals alone, 11.9; female sterilization, 0.13; and male sterilization, 0.02. Sustained motivation is essential for effective use of contraceptive methods requiring deliberate action on the part of the user. Accordingly, the failure rates were analyzed for OC users, diaphragm and condom users in relation to the only direct indicator of motivation recorded in the study, i.e., whether or not a woman considered her family to be complete. A substantial effect was apparent only for diaphragm users. PMID:6122067

  14. Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.

    PubMed

    High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

    2010-04-01

    Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

  15. MODERATOR EFFECTS OF SELF-EFFICACY ON OCCUPATIONAL STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Grau; Marisa Salanova; José María Peiró

    This paper analyses self-efficacy as a moderator in the occupational stress process. Specifically, it analyses the comple- mentarity between two self-efficacy measures: generalised and professional. The initial hypothesis was that specific self- efficacy will moderate more stress-strain relationships than generalised self-efficacy. Based on data collected from 140 wor- kers that use new technologies in their jobs, we found that self-efficacy

  16. Covariates of Self-Efficacy: Caregiver Characteristics Related to Mental Health Services Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, S.; Bickman, L.; Heflinger, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly, professionals are recognizing the need to involve parents and other caregivers in the mental health treatment of children. However, parents and caregivers may not feel efficacious when participating in mental health care. Self-efficacy is a mechanism of human agency that describes people's beliefs about their capabilities to exercise…

  17. The impact of self-efficacy and perceived system efficacy on effectiveness of virtual training systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawei Jia; Asim Bhatti; Saeid Nahavandi

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a research model which examined the impact of user perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) and virtual environment (VE) efficacy on the effectiveness of VE training systems. The model distinguishes between the perceptions of one's own capability to perform trained tasks effectively and the perceptions of system performance, regarding the established parameters from literature. Specifically, the model

  18. Identifying challenges in humanitarian logistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen Spens

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges of humanitarian logisticians with respect to different types of disasters, phases of disaster relief and the type of humanitarian organization. A conceptual model is constructed that serves as a basis to identify these challenges. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on a country as a case, namely Ghana.

  19. Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug

    E-print Network

    Tamhane, Ajit C.

    Multiple Test Procedures for Identifying the Minimum Effective and Maximum Safe Doses of a Drug of a drug by finding its minimum effective and maximum safe doses (MINED and MAXSD). The MINED is the lowest dose that exceeds the mean efficacy of the zero dose by a specified threshold, and the MAXSD

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A SELF-EFFICACY SCALE FOR ASSESSING SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS' SCIENCE SELF-EFFICACY BELIEFS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Wong; Siew Lian

    This paper details the development of a self-efficacy scale for assessing secondary school students' science self-efficacy (SSE) beliefs. Differences in the way self-efficacy and self-concept are assessed is discussed in light of the conceptual difference between self-efficacy and other self-percepts. Steps in the formulation of the scale in accordance with theoretical guidelines on how self-efficacy should be assessed and measures

  1. Energy profile and secondary structure impact shRNA efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hong; Zeng, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is a cellular mechanism in which a short/small double stranded RNA induces the degradation of its sequence specific target mRNA, leading to specific gene silencing. Since its discovery, RNAi has become a powerful biological technique for gene function studies and drug discovery. The very first requirement of applying RNAi is to design functional small interfering RNA (siRNA) that can uniquely induce the degradation of the targeted mRNA. It has been shown that many functional synthetic siRNAs share some common characteristics, such as GC content limitation and free energy preferences at both terminals, etc. Results Our three-phase algorithm was developed to design siRNA on a whole-genome scale based on those identified characteristics of functional siRNA. When this algorithm was applied to design short hairpin RNA (shRNA), the validated success rate of shRNAs was over 70%, which was almost double the rate reported for TRC library. This indicates that the designs of siRNA and shRNA may share the same concerns. Further analysis of the shRNA dataset of 444 designs reveals that the high free energy states of the two terminals have the largest positive impact on the shRNA efficacy. Enforcing these energy characteristics of both terminals can further improve the shRNA design success rate to 83.1%. We also found that functional shRNAs have less probability for their 3' terminals to be involved in mRNA secondary structure formation. Conclusion Functional shRNAs prefer high free energy states at both terminals. High free energy states of the two terminals were found to be the largest positive impact factor on shRNA efficacy. In addition, the accessibility of the 3' terminal is another key factor to shRNA efficacy. PMID:19594886

  2. Colistin: efficacy and safety in different populations.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Foroud; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews mechanisms, incidences, risk factors and preventive modalities of colistin toxicity as well as colistin use in special populations and through special routes. All clinical studies that examined the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, efficacy and side effects of colistin in the management of multidrug-resistant organisms in different patient population including pediatrics, adults, obese, critically ill, burn or cancer patients with any route of drug administration were considered. Compared with older recommended doses, current dosing approach improves cure rate without significant increase in the rate of colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Efficacy and safety of high doses of colistin should be considered in the future studies. Also comparing efficacy and safety of different doses of aerosolized colistin and defining the appropriate dose in different populations is another open area of future researches. PMID:26041134

  3. Safety and Efficacy of Neonatal Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Demirjian, Alicia; Levy, Ofer

    2009-01-01

    Newborns have an immature immune system that renders them at high risk for infection while simultaneously reducing responses to most vaccines, thereby posing challenges in protecting this vulnerable population. Nevertheless, certain vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) and Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), do demonstrate safety and some efficacy at birth, providing proof of principal that certain antigen-adjuvant combinations are able to elicit protective neonatal responses. Moreover, birth is a major point of healthcare contact globally meaning that effective neonatal vaccines achieve high population penetration. Given the potentially significant benefit of vaccinating at birth, availability of a broader range of more effective neonatal vaccines is an unmet medical need and a public health priority. This review focuses on safety and efficacy of neonatal vaccination in humans as well as recent research employing novel approaches to enhance the efficacy of neonatal vaccination. PMID:19089811

  4. Using personal health records to scaffold perceived self-efficacy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Monkman, Helen; Kushniruk, Andre W

    2015-01-01

    According to Bandura (1977), believing in one's ability to achieve a goal is one of the best predictors that a goal will be accomplished. Given its predictive power, the concept of belief in one's ability to succeed, or perceived self-efficacy, is well researched for its influence on health promotion. It has been argued that a paradigm shift must occur away from illness treatment towards illness prevention and health promotion, for healthcare to accommodate the needs of the population. Personal Health Records (PHRs) may be a tool to help facilitate this paradigm shift. PHRs are repositories of information that individuals can use to access, manage, and share their personal health information. An extension of Bandura's model of self-efficacy will be presented here which identifies opportunities for PHRs to enhance perceived self-efficacy through mastery, social modeling, social persuasion, and physiological state. Bolstering self-efficacy through PHR tools will expand the utility of PHRs beyond self-management to also facilitate health promotion and illness prevention and gains in self-efficacy are also likely to transcend into other areas of consumers' lives. PMID:25676990

  5. Self-efficacy is independently associated with brain volume in older women

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer C.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Beattie, B. Lynn; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Background Aging is highly associated with neurodegeneration and atrophy of the brain. Evidence suggests that personality variables are risk factors for reduced brain volume. We examine whether falls-related self-efficacy is independently associated with brain volume. Method A cross-sectional analysis of whether falls-related self-efficacy is independently associated with brain volumes (total, grey, and white matter). Three multivariate regression models were constructed. Covariates included in the models were age, global cognition, systolic blood pressure, functional comorbidity index, and current physical activity level. MRI scans were acquired from 79 community-dwelling senior women aged 65 to 75 years old. Falls-related self-efficacy was assessed by the Activities Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale. Results After accounting for covariates, falls-related self-efficacy was independently associated with both total brain volume and total grey matter volume. The final model for total brain volume accounted for 17% of the variance, with the ABC score accounting for 8%. For total grey matter volume, the final model accounted for 24% of the variance, with the ABC score accounting for 10%. Conclusion We provide novel evidence that falls-related self-efficacy, a modifiable risk factor for healthy aging, is positively associated with total brain volume and total grey matter volume. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881. PMID:22436405

  6. Moderation and Mediation of an Efficacious Sexual Risk-Reduction Intervention for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Bellamy, Scarlett; Ngwane, Zolani; Icard, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Background “Let Us Protect Our Future” is a sexual risk-reduction intervention for sixth-grade adolescents in South Africa. Tested in a cluster-randomized controlled trial, the intervention significantly reduced self-reported intercourse and unprotected intercourse during a 12-month follow-up period. Purpose The present analyses were conducted to identify moderators of the intervention’s efficacy as well as which theory-based variables mediated the intervention’s effects. Methods: Intervention efficacy over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups was tested using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Results Living with their father in the home, parental strictness, and religiosity moderated the efficacy of the intervention in reducing unprotected intercourse. Self-efficacy to avoid risky situations and expected parental disapproval of their having intercourse, derived from Social Cognitive Theory, significantly mediated the intervention’s effect on abstinence. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that Social Cognitive variables mediate the efficacy of a sexual risk-reduction intervention among South African adolescents. PMID:22618963

  7. Identify Measuring ORNL Facility Service

    E-print Network

    Identify Measuring Equipment · ORNL Facility Service Center (FSC), Asset Management · Non Data Manager*. SPRUCE Implementation of ORNL Measuring Equipment Calibration Guidelines Out-FSC, SPRUCE equipment tracking Calibration Decisions SPRUCE - User Calibration Calibration Organization SPRUCE

  8. Identifying Elements of a Biography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ReadWorks

    2012-03-23

    In this resource, students will identify and describe evidence in a text showing that it is a biography. In guided and independent practice students will use A Picture Book of Anne Frank by David A. Adler.

  9. Identifying Clients Predisposed To Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnes, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Studies are reviewed that report the prediction of rehabilitation failure from personality measures. Related research is discussed that suggest the dynamics underlying a key concept, the "hypochondriacally organized personality" which is identifiable from the Rorschach anatomy response percentage. (Author)

  10. Eigenbehaviors: Identifying Structure in Routine

    E-print Network

    Pentland, Alex Paul

    Longitudinal behavioral data generally contains a significant amount of structure. In this work, we identify the structure inherent in daily behavior with models that can accurately analyze, predict, and cluster multimodal ...

  11. Observing, Describing, and Identifying Clouds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    In this activity students observe and sketch clouds, describing their forms. They initially generate descriptions of a personal nature and then move toward building a more scientific vocabulary. They then correlate their descriptions with the standard classifications using the ten cloud types identified for GLOBE. Each student develops a personal cloud booklet to be used in conjunction with the GLOBE Cloud Chart. . The intended outcome is that students will be able to identify cloud types using standard cloud classification names.

  12. Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. It contains information about identifying animal tracks, including those of deer, elk, antelope, and mountain lions. Also, there is a helpful guide to preserving animal tracks by making track casts, including the procedure and materials needed. A recommended reading list is also presented to give visitors a starting point for more information.

  13. Antibiotic efficacy is linked to bacterial cellular respiration

    PubMed Central

    Lobritz, Michael A.; Belenky, Peter; Porter, Caroline B. M.; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Yang, Jason H.; Schwarz, Eric G.; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotic treatments result in two fundamentally different phenotypic outcomes—the inhibition of bacterial growth or, alternatively, cell death. Most antibiotics inhibit processes that are major consumers of cellular energy output, suggesting that antibiotic treatment may have important downstream consequences on bacterial metabolism. We hypothesized that the specific metabolic effects of bacteriostatic and bactericidal antibiotics contribute to their overall efficacy. We leveraged the opposing phenotypes of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs in combination to investigate their activity. Growth inhibition from bacteriostatic antibiotics was associated with suppressed cellular respiration whereas cell death from most bactericidal antibiotics was associated with accelerated respiration. In combination, suppression of cellular respiration by the bacteriostatic antibiotic was the dominant effect, blocking bactericidal killing. Global metabolic profiling of bacteriostatic antibiotic treatment revealed that accumulation of metabolites involved in specific drug target activity was linked to the buildup of energy metabolites that feed the electron transport chain. Inhibition of cellular respiration by knockout of the cytochrome oxidases was sufficient to attenuate bactericidal lethality whereas acceleration of basal respiration by genetically uncoupling ATP synthesis from electron transport resulted in potentiation of the killing effect of bactericidal antibiotics. This work identifies a link between antibiotic-induced cellular respiration and bactericidal lethality and demonstrates that bactericidal activity can be arrested by attenuated respiration and potentiated by accelerated respiration. Our data collectively show that antibiotics perturb the metabolic state of bacteria and that the metabolic state of bacteria impacts antibiotic efficacy. PMID:26100898

  14. Age-related changes in sleep in inbred mice are genotype dependent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibah Hasan; Yves Dauvilliers; Valérie Mongrain; Paul Franken; Mehdi Tafti

    2010-01-01

    Aging produces major changes in sleep structure and intensity which might be linked to cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, the genetic contribution to age-related changes in sleep was assessed in three inbred mouse strains of various ages. Baseline sleep and the response to 6 hours sleep deprivation (SD) achieved by gentle handling were quantified in young, middle-aged,

  15. Genotype-Dependent Differences in Sleep, Vigilance, and Response to Stimulants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Landolt

    2008-01-01

    To better understand the neurobiology of sleep disorders, detailed understanding of circadian and homeostatic sleep-wake regulation in healthy volunteers is mandatory. Sleep physiology and the repercussions of experimentally- induced sleep deprivation on sleep and waking electroencephalogram (EEG), vigilance and subjective state are highly variable, even in healthy individuals. Accumulating evidence suggests that many aspects of normal sleep-wake regulation are at

  16. Genotype-dependent consequences of traumatic stress in four inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, K; Korostynski, M; Golda, S; Solecki, W; Przewlocki, R

    2012-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops in predisposed individuals following a terrifying event. Studies on isogenic animal populations might explain susceptibility to PTSD by revealing associations between the molecular and behavioural consequences of traumatic stress. Our study employed four inbred mouse strains to search for differences in post-stress response to a 1.5-mA electric foot shock. One day to 6?weeks after the foot shock anxiety, depression and addiction-like phenotypes were assessed. In addition, expression levels of selected stress-related genes were analysed in hippocampus and amygdala. C57BL/6J mice exhibited up-regulation in the expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Crhr1 genes in both brain regions. These alterations were associated with an increase of sensitized fear and depressive-like behaviour over time. Traumatic stress induced expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia, Plat and Fkbp5 genes and developed social withdrawal in DBA/2J mice. In 129P3/J strain, exposure to stress produced the up-regulation of Tsc22d3 and Nfkbia genes and enhanced sensitivity to the rewarding properties of morphine. Whereas, SWR/J mice displayed increase only in Pdyn expression in the amygdala and had the lowest conditioned fear. Our results reveal a complex genetic background of phenotypic variation in response to stress and indicate the SWR/J strain as a valuable model of stress resistance. We found potential links between the alterations in expression of Tsc22d3, Nfkbia and Pdyn, and different aspects of susceptibility to stress. PMID:22974489

  17. Tetranychus urticae-triggered responses promote genotype-dependent conspecific repellence or attractiveness in citrus.

    PubMed

    Agut, Blas; Gamir, Jordi; Jaques, Josep A; Flors, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The citrus rootstocks sour orange and Cleopatra mandarin display differential resistance against Tetranychus urticae. Sour orange plants support reduced oviposition, growth rates and damage compared with Cleopatra mandarin plants. Jasmonic acid signalling and flavonoid accumulation have been revealed as key mechanisms for the enhanced resistance of sour orange plants. In this study, we observed that the release of T. urticae herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) from sour orange plants has a marked repellent effect on conspecific mites associated with the production of the terpenes ?-ocimene, ?-farnesene, pinene and d-limonene, and the green leaf volatile 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. By contrast, T. urticae HIPVs from Cleopatra mandarin plants promote conspecific mite attraction associated with an increase in (2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol, benzaldehyde and methyl salicylate levels. HIPVs released from sour orange plants following T. urticae infestation induce resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants, thereby reducing oviposition rates and stimulating the oxylipin biosynthetic gene lipoxygenase2 (LOX2). Cleopatra HIPVs do not affect the response to T. urticae of these rootstocks. We conclude that sour orange plants promote herbivore-induced resistance in Cleopatra mandarin plants and, despite the weak basal resistance of these rootstocks, herbivore resistance can be induced through the combination of HIPVs, such as ?-ocimene and d-limonene. PMID:25771705

  18. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept.

    PubMed

    Bel'nik, A P; Ostrovskaya, R U; Poletaeva, I I

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL/6J, BALB/c, and DBA/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL/6J mice had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB/c mice had low levels of memory trace retention and DBA/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent Noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg 15 min before the start of the test induced significant improvements in long-term memory in this test in BALB/c mice but no further improvement in C57BL/6J mice, and had no effect in DBA/2J mice. On testing the ability to extrapolate the direction of movement of a stimulus, administration of Noopept increased the proportion of correct responses in C57BL/6J and BALB/c mice, but had no effect in DBA/2J mice. PMID:19089630

  19. Genotype-dependent characteristics of behavior in mice in cognitive tests. The effects of Noopept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Bel’nik; R. U. Ostrovskaya; I. I. Poletaeva

    2009-01-01

    Male C57BL\\/6J, BALB\\/c, and DBA\\/2J mice showed differences in their abilities to perform two cognitive tests. C57BL\\/6J mice\\u000a had good learning ability and memory trace retention (at 10 days) in a simplified Morris maze, while BALB\\/c mice had low levels\\u000a of memory trace retention and DBA\\/2J mice had low learning ability in this test. I.p. administration of the nootropic agent

  20. Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chiang, Yi Chien; Hoffman, Samuel L.; Liang, Zhan; Klem, Mary Lou; Tam, Wilson W. S.; Chien, Lung-Chang; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [?2.36, ?0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. PMID:25165482

  1. Clinical Evidence for Polyol Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, P.; Söderling, E.M.; Nelson, S.; Chi, D.L.; Nakai, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

  2. Clinical evidence for polyol efficacy.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, P; Söderling, E M; Nelson, S; Chi, D L; Nakai, Y

    2012-09-01

    Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem. PMID:22899692

  3. Identifying periods of drowsy driving using EEG.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation's highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

  4. Identifying Periods of Drowsy Driving Using EEG

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Robin; Milavetz, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Drowsy driving is a significant contributor to death and injury crashes on our nation’s highways. Predictive neurophysiologic/physiologic solutions to reduce these incidences have been proposed and developed. EEG based metrics were found to be promising in initial studies, but remain controversial in their efficacy, primarily due to failures to develop replication studies within the simulation settings used for development, and real-world validation. This analysis sought to address these short comings by assessing the utility of the B-Alert algorithms, in a replication study of driving and drowsiness. Data were collected on the National Advanced Driving Simulator from 72 volunteer drivers exposed to three types of roadways at three times of day representing different levels of drowsiness. EEG metrics, collected using the B-Alert X10 Wireless Headset were evaluated to determine their utility in future predictive studies. The replication of the B-Alert algorithms was a secondary focus for this analysis, resulting in highly variable start times within each time of day segment, leading to EEG data being confounded by the diurnal variations that occur in the basal EEG signal. Regardless of this limitation, the analysis revealed promising outcomes. The EEG based algorithms for sleep onset, drowsiness, as well as fatigue related power spectral bandwidths (i.e. lateral central, and parietal alpha) varied with time of day of the drives. Interestingly, EEG metrics of cognitive workload were also sensative to the terrain of the drives. The replicaiton of the B-Alert algorithms were a secondary focuse in the study design, Taken together, these data indicate great potential of carefully designed studies to utilize neurophysiologic metrics to identify time of day and task and road conditions that may be at greatest risk during fatigued/drowsy periods. PMID:24406950

  5. Inference for identifiable parameters in partially identified econometric models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Romano; Azeem M. Shaikh

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of inference for partially identified econometric models. The class of models studied are defined by a population objective function Q(?,P) for ???. The second argument indicates the dependence of the objective function on P, the distribution of the observed data. Unlike the classical extremum estimation framework, it is not assumed that Q(?,P) has a unique

  6. Percutaneous Lung Biopsy: Technique, Efficacy, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Winokur, Ronald S.; Pua, Bradley B.; Sullivan, Brian W.; Madoff, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the lung is an indispensable tool in the evaluation of pulmonary abnormalities due to its high diagnostic accuracy in the detection of malignancy. Percutaneous biopsy in the lung plays a critical role in obtaining pathologic proof of malignancy, guiding staging and planning treatment. This article reviews biopsy techniques and their related efficacy and complications. PMID:24436527

  7. The Efficacy of Career Education, Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterbury, Elvis; And Others

    The paper reviewed existing evaluative studies indicative of the efficacy of the career awareness element of career education. The studies represent a sampling of the degree of success achieved in implementing and evaluating career education across the nation. Information sources included the U.S. Office of Education and the National Institute of…

  8. Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…

  9. Self-Efficacy and Music Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

    2006-01-01

    This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

  10. Teacher Efficacy of Turkish Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencay, Okkes Alpaslan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Teacher Efficacy Scale in Physical Education (TESPE) in Turkey's conditions, and to test if there are any differences in gender and teaching experience of Turkish PE teachers. Turkish version of the scale was administered to 257 physical education teachers (184…

  11. Self-Efficacy Perspective on Achievement Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunk, Dale H.

    In an initial section, this paper presents a review of the literature and discusses the hypothesized relationship between self-efficacy, (defined as personal judgments of how well one can organize and implement behaviors in situations that may contain novel, unpredictable and possibly stressful elements) and achievement behavior. Source of…

  12. Creative Self-Efficacy: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathisen, Gro Ellen; Bronnick, Kolbjorn S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of creativity training on creative self-efficacy. We developed a creativity course based on social cognitive theory. The course was conducted in two formats: a five-day course and a condensed one-day course. Samples consisted of students and municipality employees (five-day course), and special education teachers…

  13. Improving Math Proficiency through Self Efficacy Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanlon, Ellie H.; Schneider, Yasemin

    This paper reports the results of a pilot intervention designed to improve students' mathematics proficiency through self-efficacy training. Seventeen pre-first year college students participated in a five-week summer program that included whole class instruction, small group tutoring, and individual meetings with instructional coordinators. As…

  14. The efficacy of relaxation training with children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil C. Richter

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews studies that have examined the efficacy of relaxation training techniques in the treatment of childhood disorders. Methodological problems encountered in doing research in this area resemble those found in working with an adult population: imprecise definitions of subject populations and use of a variety of dependent variables from one study to another. Findings suggest that relaxation training

  15. Employee engagement and manager self-efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Luthans; Suzanne J. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Although technology still dominates, human resources and how they are managed is receiving increased attention in the analysis of gaining competitive advantage. Yet, many complex questions remain. This study first examines the theoretical understanding of employee engagement. Then an empirical investigation is made of the role that a wide variety of managers’ (n = 170) psychological state of self-efficacy plays

  16. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Postpartum Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. O'Hara; Scott Stuart; Laura L. Gorman; Amy Wenzel

    2000-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression causes women great suffering and has negative consequences for their social relationships and for the development of their in- fants. Research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of psy- chotherapy for postpartum depression. Methods: A total of 120 postpartum women meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to 12 weeks

  17. Promoting Efficacy Research on Functional Analytic Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Daniel W. M.; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) is a form of therapy grounded in behavioral principles that utilizes therapist reactions to shape target behavior. Despite a growing literature base, there is a paucity of research to establish the efficacy of FAP. As a general approach to psychotherapy, and how the therapeutic relationship produces change,…

  18. Nanotechnology and Secondary Science Teacher's Self-Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Elena K.

    The recommendations of the United States President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and the multi-agency National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) identified the need to prepare the workforce and specialists in the field of nanotechnology in order for the United States to continue to compete in the global marketplace. There is a lack of research reported in recent literature on the readiness of secondary science teachers to introduce higher level sciences---specifically nanotechnology---in their classes. The central research question of this study examined secondary science teachers' beliefs about teaching nanotechnology comfortably, effectively, and successfully. Bandura's self-efficacy theory provided the conceptual framework for this phenomenological study. A data analysis rubric was used to identify themes and patterns that emerged from detailed descriptions during in-depth interviews with 15 secondary science teachers. The analysis revealed the shared, lived experiences of teachers and their beliefs about their effectiveness and comfort in teaching higher-level sciences, specifically nanotechnology. The results of the study indicated that, with rare exceptions, secondary science teachers do not feel comfortable or effective, nor do they believe they have adequate training to teach nanotechnology concepts to their students. These teachers believed they were not prepared or trained in incorporating these higher level science concepts in the curriculum. Secondary science teachers' self-efficacy and personal beliefs of effectiveness in teaching nanotechnology can be an important component in achieving a positive social change by helping to familiarize high school students with nanotechnology and how it can benefit society and the future of science.

  19. A soft circuit curriculum to promote technological self-efficacy

    E-print Network

    Lovell, Emily Marie

    2011-01-01

    The development of technological self-efficacy in young people can have a dramatic impact on diversity in the field of computing. Students'self-efficacy and scientific understanding can benefit from engaging in hands-on ...

  20. Eigenbehaviors: identifying structure in routine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Eagle; Alex Sandy Pentland

    2009-01-01

    In this work we identify the structure inherent in daily human behavior with models that can accurately analyze, predict and cluster multimodal data from individu- als and groups. We represent this structure by the principal components of the complete behavioral dataset, a set of characteristic vectors we have termed eigenbehaviors. In our model, an individual's behavior over a specific day

  1. Identifying, Assisting the Disturbed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Patricia L.; Schaefer, William

    1986-01-01

    Educators are in an excellent position to identify seriously troubled young people. Major causes of adolescent problems are discussed, including drugs, parental failure, and biochemical disturbances. Educators can best intervene by becoming aware of support services within their own school and community. (TE)

  2. Identifying Elements in the Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educational brief provides a description of the use of spectroscopy to identify elements in the stars, including a scientific explanation of bright line and dark line spectra, from an historical perspective. A list of links to additional information and images of atomic spectra is also provided.

  3. 3. Uniform Resource Identifiers 3-1 Uniform Resource Identifiers

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    , July 1998. · Tim Berners-Lee: Cool URIs don't change. [http://www.w3.org/Provider/Style/URI] · Uniform://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/demoweb/url-primer.html] · T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter: Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax. RFC Names. RFC 1737, December 1994, 7 pages. · T. Berners-Lee, L. Masinter, M. McCahill: Uniform Resource

  4. Self-efficacy beliefs in college statistics courses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J Finney; Gregory Schraw

    2003-01-01

    We developed measures of current statistics self-efficacy (CSSE) and self-efficacy to learn statistics (SELS) to address whether statistics self-efficacy is related to statistics performance, and whether self-efficacy for statistics increases during an introductory statistics course. Both instruments yielded reliable, one-factor solutions that were related positively to each other and to two measures of statistics performance (i.e., specific statistics problems and

  5. Florida Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability and Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability and efficacy of Florida preservice agricultural education teachers. Results indicated that the preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems. On the other hand, the preservice teachers were efficacious in personal teaching efficacy and personal…

  6. Teacher Efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Ann; Willhite, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is the belief teachers have in their ability to impact student learning. Efficacy includes teacher confidence in instructional, management and collaboration skills. The following study addresses teacher efficacy in an Early Childhood Professional Development School (PDS). The PDS experience provides an opportunity for mentor…

  7. Self-Efficacy as a Function of Attributional Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Sachin; Bruce, Mary Alice; Stellern, John; Srivastava, Namita

    2007-01-01

    The researchers investigated the effect of attributional feedback on self efficacy judgments among a sample of 192 eighth grade students. Self efficacy judgments were measured by the scale developed by Bandura and Schunk (1981). The results showed that improvement in self efficacy judgments was significantly more for attributional feedback…

  8. Self-Efficacy of Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students and Preceptors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Dolly; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Nursing students (n=23) rated their self-efficacy in nursing behaviors and clinical preceptors (n=24) rated their self-efficacy in helping students with the behaviors. Students' self-efficacy increased after the preceptorship; preceptors' scores remained high both before and after. The value of the preceptorship was supported. (SK)

  9. The Efficacy of the Mathematical Academic Centre for Excellence

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    (Math/Stats) Kamal Lutfi, Disability Management July 2008 #12;The Efficacy of MACE 1 IntroductionThe Efficacy of the Mathematical Academic Centre for Excellence MACE A Technical Report Delivered Associate award to do an analysis of usage and efficacy of MACE. This report summarizes the results

  10. Self-Efficacy and Multicultural Competence of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Delila; Bodenhorn, Nancy; Bryant, Rhonda M.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between school counselor self efficacy and perceived multicultural competence self efficacy in a sample of 157 school counselors. Results reveal School Counselor Self-Efficacy (SCSE) cultural acceptance subscale was a statistically significant predictor of all three multicultural competencies (MCC: Terminology,…

  11. Sense of Efficacy among Beginning Teachers in Sarawak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murshidi, Rahmah; Konting, Mohd Majid; Elias, Habibah; Fooi, Foo Say

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the level of teachers' sense of efficacy among beginning teachers in Sarawak, Malaysia. It also sought to investigate whether there is any difference in beginning teachers' sense of efficacy in relation to gender, race and types of teacher preparation program. The study was conducted by using the teacher sense of efficacy

  12. Nurses’ self-efficacy and practices relating to weight management of adult patients: a path analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health professionals play a key role in the prevention and treatment of excess weight and obesity, but many have expressed a lack of confidence in their ability to manage obese patients with their delivery of weight-management care remaining limited. The specific mechanism underlying inadequate practices in professional weight management remains unclear. The primary purpose of this study was to examine a self-efficacy theory-based model in understanding Registered Nurses’ (RNs) professional performance relating to weight management. Methods A self-report questionnaire was developed based upon the hypothesized model and administered to a convenience sample of 588 RNs. Data were collected regarding socio-demographic variables, psychosocial variables (attitudes towards obese people, professional role identity, teamwork beliefs, perceived skills, perceived barriers and self-efficacy) and professional weight management practices. Structural equation modeling was conducted to identify correlations between the above variables and to test the goodness of fit of the proposed model. Results The survey response rate was 71.4% (n?=?420). The respondents reported a moderate level of weight management practices. Self-efficacy directly and positively predicted the weight management practices of the RNs (??=?0.36, p?efficacy, respectively. Conclusions Self-efficacy theory appears to be useful in understanding the weight management practices of RNs. Interventions targeting the enhancement of self-efficacy may be effective in promoting RNs’ professional performance in managing overweight and obese patients. PMID:24304903

  13. A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids.

    PubMed

    Slocombe, J Owen D

    2004-04-01

    Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm's prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. "Major fragments" (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic's efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell-Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

  14. Prophylactic Efficacy of TcVac2 against Trypanosoma cruzi in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivali Gupta; Nisha Jain Garg

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundChagas disease is a major health problem in Latin America, and an emerging infectious disease in the US. Previously, we have screened the Trypanosoma cruzi sequence database by a computational\\/bioinformatics approach, and identified antigens that exhibited the characteristics of vaccine candidates.MethodologyWe investigated the protective efficacy of a multi-component DNA-prime\\/protein-boost vaccine (TcVac2) constituted of the selected candidates and cytokine (IL-12 and

  15. Efficacy of native FXPRLamides (pyrokinins) and synthetic analogs on visceral muscles of the American cockroach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reinhard Predel; Ronald J Nachman

    2001-01-01

    Six pyrokinins, members of a widely distributed neuropeptide family in insects (FXPRLamides), have been identified from the American cockroach. Five of these peptides, Pea-PK-1–5, were tested in different myotropic bioassays, including hyperneural muscle, hindgut, foregut and oviduct. Among these muscles, the hyperneural muscle exhibited the highest sensitivity to pyrokinin applications. The efficacy of the different pyrokinins differed dramatically. No muscle

  16. Further statistical and clinical validity for the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form.

    PubMed

    Ames, Gretchen E; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Grothe, Karen B; Clark, Matthew M

    2015-08-01

    Identifying barriers to long-term adherence to reduced energy intake and increased physical activity level is critically important for obese patients seeking weight loss treatment. Previous research has identified that one such barrier is low eating self-efficacy or poor confidence in one's ability to control eating behavior in the presence of challenging situations. Accordingly, a valid, brief measure of eating self-efficacy for longitudinal assessment of weight loss and regain is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the internal consistency and clinical validity of the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire-Short Form (WEL-SF). Participants were 1740 consecutive obese patients who presented for a psychological evaluation in consideration for bariatric surgery. Median BMI was 44.9 (range: 35.0-111.9), age 48.7years (range: 18.9-77.3years), and patients were predominantly female (71.1%) and Caucasian (90.8%). The median WEL-SF total score was 56 (range: 0-80) and Cronbach's alpha measuring internal consistency was 0.92 with a one-factor structure. In terms of clinical validation, lower WEL-SF total scores were significantly associated with higher rates of binge eating episodes (P<0.0001), food addiction severity and dependence (P<0.0001), night eating syndrome (P<0.0001), depression (P<0.0001), and anxiety (P<0.0001). In contrast, higher WEL-SF total scores were associated with higher weight management self-efficacy (P<0.0001) and motivation to make positive lifestyle changes (P<0.0001). Taken together, these findings suggest that the WEL-SF is a psychometrically valid clinically meaningful measure of eating self-efficacy. PMID:26042918

  17. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status. PMID:25467027

  18. Eigenbehaviors: identifying structure in routine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Eagle; Alex Sandy Pentland

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal behavioral data generally contains a significant amount of structure. In this work, we identify the structure\\u000a inherent in daily behavior with models that can accurately analyze, predict, and cluster multimodal data from individuals\\u000a and communities within the social network of a population. We represent this behavioral structure by the principal components\\u000a of the complete behavioral dataset, a set of

  19. [New methods of identifying chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Poroshenko, G G; Gor'kova, S N

    1975-01-01

    The data are considered on the possibility to identify chromosome after differential inhibition of their spiralization when staining the preparations with acrichin derivatives with the subsequent application of fluorescent microscopy as well as with staining by Giemza after treatment of the preparations with hot salt solutions, alkalies or proteolytic enzymes. Materials of the Paris Conference on the human chromosome nomenclature 1971 are described briefly and recommendations of the Committee on standardization of the mice genetic nomenclature are given. PMID:56795

  20. Correlates of Self-efficacy for Condom Use among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Semple, Shirley J.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past four months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior. PMID:23842786

  1. Mental Efficacy and Physical Efficacy at the Team Level: Inputs and Outcomes Among Newly Formed Action Teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Hirschfeld; Jeremy B. Bernerth

    2008-01-01

    The authors demarcated mental efficacy and physical efficacy at the team level, and they explored these 2 factors as outcomes of 4 potential inputs and as predictors of 3 outcomes among 110 newly formed action teams in a military setting. Both types of team efficacy benefited from greater team size and an initial experience of enactive mastery, but they were

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Vaccine Efficacy of Recombinant Marek's Disease Virus Vaccine Lacking Meq Oncogene in Commercial Chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...

  3. A Systematic Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy and Heterogeneity of Disease Management Programs in Congestive Heart Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Göhler; James L. Januzzi; Stewart S. Worrell; Karl Josef Osterziel; G. Scott Gazelle; Rainer Dietz; Uwe Siebert

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundWe sought to systematically combine the evidence on efficacy of disease management programs (DMPs) in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF), to identify and explain heterogeneity of results from prior studies of DMPs, and to assess potential publication bias from these studies.

  4. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  5. Efficacy of pharmacological treatments of neuropathic pain: an update and effect related to mechanism of drug action

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Søren H. Sindrup; Troels S. Jensen

    1999-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants and carbamazepine have become the mainstay in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Within the last decade, controlled trials have shown that numerous other drugs relieve such pain. We identified all placebo-controlled trials and calculated numbers needed to treat (NNT) to obtain one patient with more than 50% pain relief in order to compare the efficacy with the current

  6. Students' major choice in accounting and its effect on their self-efficacy towards generic skills : An Australian study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Sugahara; Kazumi Suzuki; Gregory Boland

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this paper is to explore undergraduate students' self-efficacy of their generic skills in an attempt to identify whether a student's choice of a major in accounting develops these types of skills. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The present paper collected its data from a survey administered in September, 2007 to undergraduate students studying at an Australian university located

  7. The Efficacy of Pharmacotherapy for Decreasing the Expansion Rate of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Idris Guessous; Daniel Periard; Diane Lorenzetti; Jacques Cornuz; William A. Ghali

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pharmacotherapy may represent a potential means to limit the expansion rate of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Studies evaluating the efficacy of different pharmacological agents to slow down human AAA-expansion rates have been performed, but they have never been systematically reviewed or summarized. Methods and Findings: Two independent reviewers identified studies and selected randomized trials and prospective cohort studies comparing

  8. Social Indicators, Dysfunctional Career Cognitions, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy in Work Role Participation of Welfare Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Sharon

    Profiles of 104 welfare recipients in Georgia were examined to identify social indicators and cognitive variables that influenced work role participation. Three instruments were administered the Career Thought Inventory, the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form, and the demographic profile and participation scale of the Salience…

  9. Ciclosporin 10 years on: indications and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Forsythe, Peter; Paterson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Ciclosporin is a lipophilic cyclic polypeptide with powerful immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory properties that has been used in veterinary medicine for two decades. It is a calcineurin inhibitor whose principal mode of action is to inhibit T cell activation. The drug is principally absorbed from the small intestine and is metabolised in the intestine and liver by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system. Ciclosporin is known to interact with a wide range of pharmacological agents. Numerous studies have demonstrated good efficacy for the management of canine atopic dermatitis and this has been a licensed indication since 2003. In addition to the treatment of atopic dermatitis, it has been used as an aid in the management of numerous other dermatological conditions in animals including perianal fistulation, sebaceous adenitis, pododermatitis, chronic otitis externa and pemphigus foliaceus. This article reviews the mode of action, pharmacokinetics, indications for use and efficacy of ciclosporin in veterinary dermatology. PMID:24682697

  10. Identifying classes of veterans with multiple risk factors.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Jennifer S; Kenneson, Aileen; Maisto, Stephen A

    2014-10-01

    As researchers examine the efficacy of interventions that simultaneously target more than 1 symptom, it is important to identify ways to help guide research and program development. This study used electronic medical record data to examine the covariation of multiple risk factors regularly assessed among primary care patients. It also examined the health care utilization of those patients identifying where the health care system came in contact with them to help identify the ideal locations these interventions may be most often used. We obtained data for six risk factors, as well as the number of primary care, mental health, and emergency department visits, from Veteran patients with a primary care visit. There were three main groups of primary care patients, identified using latent class analysis and regression. Although the smallest group, the "High Treatment Need" group, had an increased probability of screening positive for all four risk factors, the post-traumatic stress disorder screen was a significant discriminator of this group from the others. Results show that this group had the greatest number of encounters in all health care locations suggesting significant opportunities for intervention. However, future research is needed to examine the current interventions offered and potential avenues where risk factors may be addressed simultaneously. PMID:25269130

  11. Efficacy of silver-coated medical devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Schierholz; L. J. Lucas; A. Rump; G. Pulverer

    1998-01-01

    Silver coating of medical devices is believed to prevent device-associated infection. Several in-vitro and in-vivo studies, as well as clinical observations on silver—nylon, silver-intramedullary pins, silver oxide Foley catheters and silver-coated vascular prostheses have been performed during the past 30 years. Nevertheless, randomized clinical studies showing efficacy of such coated medical devices in high-risk patient populations are rare, have dealt

  12. Math Self-Efficacy and Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OliviaLett; Nillas

    2012-01-01

    Bandura states that self-perceptions can affect a student’s actions, thus affecting performance in the classroom regardless of actual knowledge (as quoted in Pajares, 1995). The purpose of this research study is to determine any relationship between math self-efficacy and performance in the classroom. This research was done in an Algebra II classroom in an urban high school. Through the use

  13. Endolymphatic mastoid shunt: A reevaluation of efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. BRADLEY WELLING; H. N. NAGARAJA

    2000-01-01

    Objectives : The main goal of this paper was to statistically reevaluate the efficacy of the endolymphatic shunt procedure for Meniere’s disease. Methods : Thomsen et al (Arch Otolaryngol 1981;107:271-7) reported on the placebo effect in surgery for Meniere’s disease in a controlled double-blind study. Thirty patients with typical Meniere’s disease in whom medical treatment failed participated in the study.

  14. Evaluating the Antifracture Efficacy of Bisphosphonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Pazianas; Solomon Epstein; Mone Zaidi

    2009-01-01

    Oral bisphosphonate dosing schedules have evolved from the original daily regimens to weekly (alendronate and risedronate) and monthly (risedronate and ibandronate) regimens. Intravenous (i.v.) bisphosphonates are administered less frequently—quarterly ibandronate injection and yearly zoledronic acid i.v. infusion. Comparative fracture efficacy among BP options is increasingly a focus of debate. The approved daily oral BPs and annual zoledronic acid infusion demonstrated

  15. Dapagliflozin efficacy and safety: a perspective review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a prevalent, progressive disease with a need for innovative therapeutic agents to continue to advance disease management. Dapagliflozin is the second agent in a new class of oral antihyperglycemic drugs: sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of renal glucose reuptake; inhibition of the cotransporter allows for increased renal glucose excretion that consequently leads to reduced plasma glucose levels. Because this mechanism does not require the action of insulin, dapagliflozin rarely causes hypoglycemia and is effective in patients both early and late in the course of their disease. Studies of dapagliflozin have demonstrated efficacy both as monotherapy and in combination with oral antihyperglycemic agents and insulin. Dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values 6 mmol/mol (0.5%) to 8 mmol/mol (0.7%). The most common adverse reactions observed with dapagliflozin in clinical trials were female genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, and nasopharyngitis. Dapagliflozin is a new oral agent for type 2 diabetes with short-term efficacy similar to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors; its long-term safety and efficacy are unknown. PMID:25436106

  16. A review of sunscreen safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, F P; Mitchnick, M; Nash, J F

    1998-09-01

    The use of sunscreen products has been advocated by many health care practitioners as a means to reduce skin damage produced by ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from sunlight. There is a need to better understand the efficacy and safety of sunscreen products given this ongoing campaign encouraging their use. The approach used to establish sunscreen efficacy, sun protection factor (SPF), is a useful assessment of primarily UVB (290-320 nm) filters. The SPF test, however, does not adequately assess the complete photoprotective profile of sunscreens specifically against long wavelength UVAI (340-400 nm). Moreover, to date, there is no singular, agreed upon method for evaluating UVA efficacy despite the immediate and seemingly urgent consumer need to develop sunscreen products that provide broad-spectrum UVB and UVA photoprotection. With regard to the safety of UVB and UVA filters, the current list of commonly used organic and inorganic sunscreens has favorable toxicological profiles based on acute, subchronic and chronic animal or human studies. Further, in most studies, sunscreens have been shown to prevent the damaging effects of UVR exposure. Thus, based on this review of currently available data, it is concluded that sunscreen ingredients or products do not pose a human health concern. Further, the regular use of appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreen products could have a significant and favorable impact on public health as part of an overall strategy to reduce UVR exposure. PMID:9747581

  17. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  18. Human carcinogens so far identified.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, L; Aitio, A; Wilbourn, J; Shuker, L

    1989-09-01

    The massive exploitation of natural resources, of which tobacco and asbestos are two conspicuous, though very different examples, and the synthesis of industrial chemicals have generated new hazards and new carcinogens which have been added to older ones. The majority of the over 50 agents that have been firmly identified so far as being human carcinogens belong to the relatively new hazards, that is environmental chemicals or chemical mixtures to which humans have been exposed only during the last century and a half. They are of more importance for cancer occurring in men than in women, and there is no evidence so far that they are related to cancers occurring at some of the most common target sites in either sex. It would be mistaken to believe that complete cancer prevention could be achieved solely by controlling these new, or relatively new, carcinogenic agents, but it would be similarly wrong to deny the importance of trying to control them and of continuing to do so. The experimental approach for the identification of carcinogens has an irreplaceable role to play in preventing the dispersal into our environment of new hazards and in identifying among the chemicals already in use, those that are carcinogenic. That a closer integration between the epidemiological and the experimental approaches may succeed in substantially reducing the size of the unknown region within the spectrum of cancer-causing factors, is today's hope that awaits confirmation. At the same time, advances in the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the different steps of the process leading to the clinical manifestation of cancer may help in the uncovering of agents and risk factors that the approaches used, at least in the way they have been used until now, may not have been apt to identify. PMID:2513295

  19. Different Residues in the GABAA Receptor Benzodiazepine Binding Pocket Mediate Benzodiazepine Efficacy and BindingS?

    PubMed Central

    Morlock, Elaine V.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) exert their therapeutic actions by binding to the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) and allosterically modulating GABA-induced chloride currents (IGABA). A variety of ligands with divergent structures bind to the BZD site, and the structural mechanisms that couple their binding to potentiation of IGABA are not well understood. In this study, we measured the effects of individually mutating 22 residues throughout the BZD binding pocket on the abilities of eszopiclone, zolpidem, and flurazepam to potentiate IGABA. Wild-type and mutant ?1?2?2 GABAARs were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and analyzed using a two-electrode voltage clamp. GABA EC50, BZD EC50, and BZD maximal potentiation were measured. These data, combined with previous radioligand binding data describing the mutations' effects on BZD apparent binding affinities (J Neurosci 28:3490–3499, 2008; J Med Chem 51:7243–7252, 2008), were used to distinguish residues within the BZD pocket that contribute to BZD efficacy and BZD binding. We identified six residues whose mutation altered BZD maximal potentiation of IGABA (BZD efficacy) without altering BZD binding apparent affinity, three residues whose mutation altered binding but had no effect on BZD efficacy, and four residues whose mutation affected both binding and efficacy. Moreover, depending on the BZD ligand, the effects of some mutations were different, indicating that the structural mechanisms underlying the ability of BZD ligands with divergent structures to potentiate IGABA are distinct. PMID:21447642

  20. Development and evaluation of the Marijuana Reduction Strategies Self-Efficacy Scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Leith, Jaclyn; Rosenberg, Harold; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Hawley, Anna; Bannon, Erin E; Jesse, Samantha; Kraus, Shane; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Cross, Nicole; Carhart, Victoria; Baik, Kyoung-deok

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess college students' self-efficacy to employ 21 cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the amount and/or frequency with which they consume marijuana, we recruited 273 marijuana-using students to rate their confidence that they could employ each of the strategies. Examination of frequency counts for each item, principal components analysis, internal consistency reliability, and mean interitem correlation supported retaining all 21 items in a single scale. In support of criterion validity, marijuana use-reduction self-efficacy scores were significantly positively correlated with cross-situational confidence to abstain from marijuana, and significantly negatively correlated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems. In addition, compared with respondents whose use of marijuana either increased or remained stable, self-efficacy was significantly higher among those who had decreased their use of marijuana over the past year. This relatively short and easily administered questionnaire could be used to identify college students who have low self-efficacy to employ specific marijuana reduction strategies and as an outcome measure to evaluate educational and skill-training interventions. PMID:24955675

  1. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Ruth; Groarke, AnnMarie; Sullivan, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently non-skin cancer diagnosed among men. Diagnosis, a significant burden, generates many challenges which impact on emotional adjustment and so warrants further investigation. Most studies to date however, have been carried out at or post treatment with an emphasis on functional quality of life outcomes. Men recently diagnosed with localised prostate cancer (N = 89) attending a Rapid Access Prostate Clinic to discuss treatment options completed self report questionnaires on stress, self-efficacy, and mood. Information on age and disease status was gathered from hospital records. Self-efficacy and stress together explained more than half of the variance on anxiety and depression. Self-efficacy explained variance on all 6 emotional domains of the POMS (ranging from 5–25%) with high scores linked to good emotional adjustment. Perceived global and cancer specific stress also explained variance on the 6 emotional domains of the POMS (8–31%) with high stress linked to poor mood. These findings extend understanding of the role of efficacy beliefs and stress appraisal in predicting emotional adjustment in men at diagnosis and identify those at risk for poor adaptation at this time. Such identification may lead to more effective patient management. PMID:24993798

  2. Identifying the health conscious consumer.

    PubMed

    Kraft, F B; Goodell, P W

    1993-01-01

    Individuals who lead a "wellness-oriented" lifestyle are concerned with nutrition, fitness, stress, and their environment. They accept responsibility for their health and are excellent customers for health-related products and services. Those who lack a wellness orientation are identified as higher health risks and become candidates for health promotion program intervention. The authors report a new scale by which to measure the wellness-oriented lifestyle. Scale development procedures are detailed, followed by information from five studies that support its validity. The authors suggest ways health care marketers may use the Wellness Scale to segment and target potential customers and position their products and services. PMID:10129812

  3. Inhibiting drug efflux transporters improves efficacy of ALS therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, Michael R; Markandaiah, Shashirekha S; Jacob, Dena; Meng, Ni J; Li, Ke; Gennaro, Victoria; Lepore, Angelo C; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research identified promising therapeutics in cell models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but there is limited progress translating effective treatments to animal models and patients, and ALS remains a disease with no effective treatment. One explanation stems from an acquired pharmacoresistance driven by the drug efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP), which we have shown are selectively upregulated at the blood-brain and spinal cord barrier (BBB/BSCB) in ALS mice and patients. Pharmacoresistance is well appreciated in other brain diseases, but overlooked in ALS despite many failures in clinical trials. Methods Here, we prove that a P-gp/BCRP-driven pharmacoresistance limits the bioavailability of ALS therapeutics using riluzole, the only FDA-approved drug for ALS and a substrate of P-gp and BCRP. ALS mice (SOD1-G93A) were treated with riluzole and elacridar, to block P-gp and BCRP, and monitored for survival as well as behavioral and physiological parameters. Results We show that riluzole, which normally is not effective when given at onset of symptoms, is now effective in the ALS mice when administered in combination with the P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar. Chronic elacridar treatment increases riluzole Central nervous system (CNS) penetration, improves behavioral measures, including muscle function, slowing down disease progression, and significantly extending survival. Interpretation Our approach improves riluzole efficacy with treatment beginning at symptom onset. Riluzole will not provide a cure, but enhancing its efficacy postsymptoms by addressing pharmacoresistance demonstrates a proof-of-principle concept to consider when developing new ALS therapeutic strategies. We highlight a novel improved therapeutic approach for ALS and demonstrate that pharmacoresistance can no longer be ignored in ALS. PMID:25574474

  4. Nocturnal hypoventilation - identifying & treating syndromes.

    PubMed

    Piper, Amanda J

    2010-02-01

    Nocturnal hypoventilation is a common feature of disorders affecting the function of the diaphragm or central respiratory drive mechanisms. The ensuing change in gas exchange is initially confined to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but over time buffering of the raised carbon dioxide produces a secondary depression of respiratory drive that will further reduce ventilation not only during sleep but eventually during wakefulness as well. Failure to identify and treat nocturnal hypoventilation results in impairments in daytime function, quality of life and premature mortality. While some simple daytime tests of respiratory function can identify at risk individuals, these cannot predict the nature or severity of any sleep disordered breathing present. Nocturnal monitoring of gas exchange with or without full polysomnography is the only way to comprehensively assess this disorder, especially in the early stages of its evolution. Non invasive ventilation used during sleep is the most appropriate approach to reverse the consequences of nocturnal hypoventilation, although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be effective in those individuals where a significant degree of upper airway obstruction is present. When appropriately selected patients use therapy on a regular basis, significant improvements in quality of life, exercise capacity and survival can be achieved, irrespective of the underlying disease process. PMID:20308760

  5. Efficacy of tailored-print interventions to promote physical activity: a systematic review of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Computer-tailored physical activity interventions are becoming increasingly popular. Recent reviews have comprehensively synthesised published research on computer-tailored interventions delivered via interactive technology (e.g. web-based programs) but there is a paucity of synthesis for interventions delivered via traditional print-based media in the physical activity domain (i.e. tailored-print interventions). The current study provides a systematic review of the tailored-print literature, to identify key factors relating to efficacy in tailored-print physical activity interventions. Method Computer-tailored print intervention studies published up until May 2010 were identified through a search of three databases: Medline, CINAHL, and Psycinfo; and by searching reference lists of relevant publications, hand searching journals and by reviewing publications lists of 11 key authors who have published in this field. Results The search identified 12 interventions with evaluations reported in 26 publications. Seven out of the 12 identified studies reported positive intervention effects on physical activity behaviour, ranging from one month to 24 months post-baseline and 3 months to 18 months post-intervention. The majority of studies reporting positive intervention effects were theory-based interventions with multiple intervention contacts. Conclusion There is preliminary evidence that tailored-print interventions are a promising approach to promoting physical activity in adult populations. Future research is needed to further identify key factors relating to efficacy and to determine if this approach is cost-effective and sustainable in the long-term. PMID:21999329

  6. Identifying Contienents, Oceans, and Directions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Bingham

    2007-11-06

    Utah Core Curriculum Social Studies Standard #6: Students use map skills to analyze the influence of physical features of th building of communities in the United States. Objective #1: Examine Maps and Globes Indicator #1: Identify Oceans and Continents of the World. Using the following activities and instructions you will be able to learn about the 5 oceans and the 7 continents. You will also be able to find them on a map get better understanding of the four directions. As we discussed last time in class the five oceans of the world are: Artic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean Southern Ocean (discovered in 2000) Click on the link below and print out the worksheet. This will help you locate the oceans and recognize their placement. Complete the worksheet to the best of our ...

  7. Identifying and mapping community vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Morrow, B H

    1999-03-01

    Disaster vulnerability is socially constructed, i.e., it arises out of the social and economic circumstances of everyday living. Most often discussed from the perspective of developing nations, this article extends the argument using American demographic trends. Examples from recent disasters, Hurricane Andrew in particular, illustrate how certain categories of people, such as the poor, the elderly, women-headed households and recent residents, are at greater risk throughout the disaster response process. Knowledge of where these groups are concentrated within communities and the general nature of their circumstances is an important step towards effective emergency management. Emergency planners, policy-makers and responding organisations are encouraged to identify and locate high-risk sectors on Community Vulnerability Maps, integrating this information into GIS systems where feasible. Effective disaster management calls for aggressively involving these neighbourhoods and groups at all levels of planning and response, as well as mitigation efforts that address the root causes of vulnerability. PMID:10204285

  8. Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

  9. Identified particles from viscous hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Denes

    2011-12-01

    Identified particle observables from viscous hydrodynamics are sensitive to the fluid-to-particle conversion. Instead of the commonly assumed 'democratic' Grad ansatz for phase space corrections ?f, we utilize corrections calculated from linearized covariant transport theory. Estimates based on a ?-p system with binary collisions indicate that protons are much closer to equilibrium than pions, significantly affecting the dissipative reduction of differential elliptic flow in Au+Au at the RHIC. In addition, we test the linear response against fully nonlinear transport for a two-component massless system in a Bjorken scenario. Strikingly, we find that, while linear response accounts well for the dynamical sharing of shear stress, the momentum dependence of phase space corrections is best described by Grad's quadratic ansatz, and not the linear response solution.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for benign prostatic hyperplasia: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun Ho; Lin, Wai Ling; Lui, Sing Leung; Cai, Xun-Yuan; Wong, Vivian Taam; Ziea, Eric; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine is commonly used as a treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but its efficacy and safety remain to be examined. To compare the efficacy and adverse events of Chinese herbal medicine alone or used adjuvantly with Western medications for BPH. Two independent reviewers searched the major electronic databases for randomized controlled trials comparing Chinese herbal medicine, either in single or adjuvant use with Western medication, with placebo or Western medication. Relevant journals and grey literature were also hand-searched. The outcome measures included changes in urological symptoms, urodynamic measures, prostate volume and adverse events. The frequency of commonly used herbs was also identified. Out of 13 922 identified citations of publications, 31 studies were included. Eleven studies with a Jadad score ?3 were selected for meta-analysis. Chinese herbal medicine was superior to Western medication in improving quality of life and reducing prostate volume. The frequency of adverse events in Chinese herbal medicine was similar to that of placebo and less than that of Western medication. The evidence is too weak to support the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for BPH due to the poor methodological quality and small number of trials included. The commonly used herbs identified here should provide insights for future clinical practice and research. Larger randomized controlled trials of better quality are needed to truly evaluate the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:23728585

  11. Alternative conceptions in science and science teaching efficacy: Remediating preservice teachers' alternative conceptions and their effect on science teaching efficacy and reflective judgment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Scott Michael

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a Science Methods course experience on preservice teachers' personal science teaching efficacy. Additionally, attitudes toward science and constructivist learning environments, and possible correlations of these attributes to the Reflective Judgment model of King and Kitchener (1990) were investigated. The Spring 1999 Science Methods course for elementary education majors at the University of Idaho was based on National Science Education Standards and included a focus on dispelling science misconceptions in an attempt to boost efficacy and attitudes toward science and science teaching. Two cohorts of undergraduate students (Moscow and Coeur d'Alene campuses) voluntarily took part in the study. It was hypothesized that a heavy emphasis on standards, constructivist approaches to teaching and learning, and the process of dispelling common misconceptions would promote participants' efficacy in science and science teaching as they learned to de-construct currently held beliefs and reformulate more scientifically correct personal understandings. In this quasi-experimental (pre-and post-treatment survey) study the experience of fully deconstructing science misconceptions and remediating understanding through collaborative inquiry was considered as "treatment". More precisely, the treatment was the course experience itself, its social constructivist context, course content and theories, as well as the teaching practices shared and discussed. Multiple Linear Regression analyses revealed a relationship between remedying common science misconceptions in an open and constructivist learning environment, and changes in personal science teaching efficacy. For both cohorts of participants there was an overall rise in personal science teaching efficacy as a result of the course experience. Attitudes did not significantly change overall, and openness to constructivist learning environments did not appreciably change for the groups as a whole. Reflective Judgment stage scores were correlated with gains in personal science teaching efficacy, attitude toward science, and openness to constructivist learning environments. Qualitative data was explored to further identify emergent patterns in student beliefs and attitudes. Online threaded discussions documenting student thinking, their science experiences, class discussions and lab activities, along with participant observations by the author comprised the qualitative component of the study.

  12. Urinary peptidomics identifies potential biomarkers for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jianjun; Chen, Liang; Zheng, Peng; Xu, Hong-Bo; Lu, Jia; Zhong, Jiaju; Lei, Yang; Zhou, Chanjuan; Ma, Qingwei; Li, Yan; Xie, Peng

    2014-06-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness with no available objective laboratory-based diagnostic test. In this study, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based peptidomics was applied to identify potential urinary diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. A training set of 42 first-episode drug-naive MDD patients and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC) was used to develop a peptide diagnostic pattern. Then, the diagnostic efficacy of this pattern was assessed in an independent blinded test set consisting of 24 MDD patients and 13 age- and gender-matched HC. A combination of five potential biomarkers was identified, yielding a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 84.6% in the test set. Moreover, the protein precursors of four of the five peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometric analysis: serum albumin, apolipoprotein A-I, protein AMBP, and basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Taken together, the peptide pattern may be valuable for establishing an objective laboratory-based diagnostic test for MDD. PMID:24661976

  13. Trial shows Nonoxynol 9 efficacy is questionable.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    The first "real-life" controlled trial of the spermicide Nonoxynol 9 (N-9) has indicated that N-9 may be ineffective in reducing rates of HIV, gonorrhea, or chlamydia. Also, there is concern that since N-9 causes vaginal irritation, it may increase the chances of developing infections or possibly increase HIV risk. The lack of firm evidence about N-9's potency in preventing HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases is causing some researchers to suggest it not be used. Other researchers suggest that there is a hint of efficacy, so using N-9 may be better than using nothing at all. PMID:11365872

  14. Safe and efficacious probiotics: what are they?

    PubMed

    Reid, Gregor

    2006-08-01

    Each year, >20 billion doses of probiotics are used by healthy people and by those diagnosed with a range of medical conditions. Compared to many pharmaceutical agents, probiotics are well tolerated and extremely safe, and serious adverse effects rarely occur. Nevertheless, as many new researchers enter the field and companies launch "probiotic" products, it is essential that standards are set for naming a product "probiotic" to show that it meets an acceptable level of safety and efficacy, and to understand the strengths and limitations of its activity. In this Opinion article, recommendations are made based upon the current understanding of scientific, clinical and regulatory issues, with a special focus on safety. PMID:16809039

  15. Efficacy prediction of jamu formulations by PLS modeling.

    PubMed

    Afendi, Farit M; Darusman, Latifah K; Morita, Aki Hirai; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Takahashi, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kensuke; Tanaka, Ken; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-03-01

    Indonesian herbal medicines made from mixtures of several plants are called "Jamu." The efficacy of a particular Jamu is determined by its ingredients i.e. the composition of the plants. Thus, we modeled the ingredients of Jamu formulas using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) in order to predict their efficacy. The plants used in each Jamu medicine served as the predictors, whereas the efficacy of each Jamu provided the responses. Utilizing response predictions obtained from PLS-DA, we predicted the efficacies of Jamu formulations using two methods: maximum response prediction and maximum probability. In predictions of Jamu efficacy, the maximum response prediction method produced a smaller error than that the maximum probability method. Furthermore, utilizing the PLS-DA coefficient matrix, we determined the efficacy for which a plant is most useful, based on its largest coefficients. PMID:23106776

  16. College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindy Woodrow

    This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type scale to measure self-efficacy and anxiety in writing.

  17. Perceived Characteristics and Pedagogical Efficacy of Animated Conversational Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen N. Moreno; Bianca Klettke; Kiran Nibbaragandla; Arthur C. Graesser

    2002-01-01

    We investigated college students’ perceptions of a diverse sample of animated conversational agents. We also examined the\\u000a pedagogical efficacy of those agents. We found that people perceive differences among the agents on several dimensions, such\\u000a as likeability, and that the agents differ in pedagogical efficacy. However, none of the characteristics that we measured\\u000a accounted for differences in pedagogical efficacy across

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen – its mechanisms and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Background This paper outlines therapeutic mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) and reviews data on its efficacy for clinical problems seen by plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Methods The information in this review was obtained from the peer-reviewed medical literature. Results Principal mechanisms of HBO2 are based on intracellular generation of reactive species of oxygen and nitrogen. Reactive species are recognized to play a central role in cell signal transduction cascades and the discussion will focus on these pathways. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials support clinical use of HBO2 for refractory diabetic wound healing and radiation injuries; treatment of compromised flaps and grafts and ischemia-reperfusion disorders is supported by animal studies and a small number of clinical trials, but further studies are warranted. Conclusions Clinical and mechanistic data support use of hyperbaric oxygen for a variety of disorders. Further work is needed to clarify clinical utility for some disorders and to hone patient selection criteria to improve cost-efficacy. PMID:21200283

  19. [Human papillomavirus vaccine. Efficacy and safety].

    PubMed

    Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases. PMID:25937455

  20. Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

    1990-01-01

    The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

  1. Efficacies of selected disinfectants against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Best, M; Sattar, S A; Springthorpe, V S; Kennedy, M E

    1990-10-01

    The activities of 10 formulations as mycobactericidal agents in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-contaminated suspensions (suspension test) and stainless steel surfaces (carrier test) were investigated with sputum as the organic load. The quaternary ammonium compound, chlorhexidine gluconate, and an iodophor were ineffective in all tests. Ethanol (70%) was effective against M. tuberculosis only in suspension in the absence of sputum. Povidone-iodine was not as efficacious when the test organism was dried on a surface as it was in suspension, and its activity was further reduced in the presence of sputum. Sodium hypochlorite required a higher concentration of available chlorine to achieve an effective level of disinfection than did sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Phenol (5%) was effective under all test conditions, producing at least a 4-log10 reduction in CFU. The undiluted glutaraldehyde-phenate solution was effective against M. tuberculosis and a second test organism, Mycobacterium smegmatis, even in the presence of dried sputum, whereas the diluted solution (1:16) was only effective against M. smegmatis in the suspension test. A solution of 2% glutaraldehyde was effective against M. tuberculosis. This investigation presents tuberculocidal efficacy data generated by methods simulating actual practices of routine disinfection. PMID:2121783

  2. Efficacy of cleaning products for C difficile

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod-Glover, Nora; Sadowski, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To review the evidence for the efficacy of products used for environmental or hand cleaning on the rates of Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for articles pertinent to the efficacy of cleaning products against C difficile or studies with outcomes related to rates of CDAD. Evidence was level II. MAIN MESSAGE Minimizing the incidence of CDAD in geriatric rehabilitation units is essential to achieving the goals of increasing patient function and independence for discharge into the community. Attention to environmental control of C difficile and its spores by health care workers and patient visitors is an important secondary prevention strategy. CONCLUSION Chlorine-releasing agents are more effective than detergents for killing spores produced by C difficile. No level I evidence is available to determine if the use of chlorine-releasing agents has an effect on rates of CDAD. Hand-washing is currently the recommended strategy for reducing transmission of C difficile. Alcohol gels do not inactivate C difficile spores; however, increased use of alcohol hand gel has not been associated with higher rates of CDAD. PMID:20463269

  3. Shampoos: ingredients, efficacy and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2007-05-01

    Shampoos are the most frequently prescribed treatment for the hair and scalp. The different qualities demanded from a shampoo go beyond cleansing. A cosmetic benefit is expected, and the shampoo has to be tailored to variations associated with hair quality, age, hair care habits, and specific problems related to the condition of the scalp. The reciprocal relationship between cosmetic technology and medical therapy is reflected in the advances of shampoo formulation that has made applications possible that combine benefits of cosmetic hair care products with efficacy of medicinal products. A shampoo is composed of 10 to 30 ingredients: cleansing agents (surfactants), conditioning agents, special care ingredients, and additives. Since the cleansing activity depends on the type and amount of surfactants utilized, shampoos are composed of a blend of different surfactants, depending on the requirements of the individual hair type. Development time from the concept to the commercial shampoo may take longer than a year. Much effort is invested in the development of conditioning agents, which impart luster, smoothness, volume and buoyancy. Another prerequisite is a scalp free of scaling. Current anti-dandruff agents primarily have an antimicrobial mode of action, and inhibit growth of Malassezia spp. Recent developments in shampoo technology have led to increased efficacy of anti-dandruff agents, allowing shorter contact time, and reducing irritation. PMID:17451380

  4. [Generic drugs: quality, efficacy, safety and interchangeability].

    PubMed

    Tschabitscher, Doris; Platzer, Peter; Baumgärtel, Christoph; Müllner, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of generic drugs to the pharmaceutical market a sometimes emotional debate exists whether they are well-investigated and of high quality. There is some uncertainty about whether evidence of bioequivalence is enough to guarantee efficacy and safety of generic drugs. Some physicians ask the question if competent authorities are able to ascertain that the pharmaceutical quality of generics is acceptable. Doctors and patients sometimes are ill at ease about the interchangeability of innovator and generic products. This article describes how the European Union legislation ensures that a generic drug is only approved if its risk-benefit relationship is favourable and that it is essentially similar to the innovator product. In this context pharmacokinetic parameters are accepted as surrogates for clinical results because bioequivalence means therapeutic equivalence as well. For most drugs, current bioequivalence testing generally enables clinicians to routinely substitute generic for innovator products. Published findings, however, suggest that particular drugs may not be ideally suited for generic substitution when a patient is already on that drug. These are the so called critical dose medicinal products (drugs with a narrow therapeutic range). When starting a new therapy with any generic drug, however, its similarity to the innovator drug in terms of efficacy, safety and quality is guaranteed. PMID:18322766

  5. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuebo; Shi, Xian; Tang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture is one of the important parts of therapeutic methods in traditional Chinese medicine, and has been widely used for the treatment of nerve deafness in recent years. The current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness compared with conventional medicine therapy. Methods: PubMed, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, the Wanfang Database were searched for articles published to identify randomized controlled trials evaluating efficacy and side effects between acupuncture and conventional medicine therapies up to 2013/06. Results: A total of 12 studies, including 527 patients assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for nerve deafness. Overall, the efficacy of acupuncture was significantly better than that of the conventional western medication (RR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.36-1.74) or traditional Chinese medicines (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.84), and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with conventional western medication or traditional Chinese medicine was better than that of the conventional western medication alone (RR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.29-1.77) or traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.30-1.95). Based on the comparison of number of deafness patients who were completely cured, the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with traditional Chinese medicines was better than that of traditional Chinese medicine alone (RR: 4.62, 95% CI: 1.38-15.47). Conclusions: Acupuncture therapy can significantly improve the hearing of patients with nerve deafness, and the efficacy of acupuncture in combination with medication is superior to medication alone. PMID:25932209

  6. Efficacy of EMDR in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Roos; Benjamin, Anja; de Roos, Carlijn; Meijer, Ann Marie; Stams, Geert Jan

    2009-11-01

    The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with post-traumatic stress symptoms was meta-analytically examined from the perspective of incremental efficacy. Overall post-treatment effect size for EMDR was medium and significant (d=.56). Results indicate efficacy of EMDR when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the non-established trauma treatment or the no-treatment control groups, and the incremental efficacy when effect sizes are based on comparisons between the EMDR and the established (CBT) trauma treatment. The discussion focuses on the future replication of EMDR findings and further research on post-traumatic stress in children. PMID:19616353

  7. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed. PMID:25448831

  8. Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

  9. An update on the efficacy of psychological therapies in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Magiati, Iliana; Hollon, Steven D

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a review to provide an update on the efficacy of psychological treatments for OCD in general and with regard to specific symptom presentations. The PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to mid February 2012. Forty-five such studies were identified. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) were found to be efficacious and specific for OCD. More purely cognitive interventions that did not include ERP or behavioral experiments were found to be possibly efficacious, as were Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Motivational Interviewing as an adjunct to the established treatments, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Satiation Therapy. There was little support for Stress Management or Psychodynamic Therapy. Although the majority of the studies recruited mixed or unspecified samples of patients and did not test for moderation, CBT was efficacious for obsessional patients who lacked overt rituals. One more purely cognitive intervention named Danger Ideation Reduction Therapy was found to be possibly efficacious for patients with contamination obsessions and washing compulsions. Although ERP and CBT are the best established psychological treatments for OCD, further research is needed to help elucidate which treatments are most effective for different OCD presentations. PMID:23888284

  10. Immunological biomarkers identifying natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis patients at risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Serana, Federico; Chiarini, Marco; Sottini, Alessandra; Bertoli, Diego; Giustini, Viviana; Tessitore, Marion Vaglio; Caimi, Luigi; Capra, Ruggero; Imberti, Luisa

    2014-12-15

    Natalizumab-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy appears to be unleashed by complex interactions between viral and immunological host factors leading the latent form of JC virus to become pathogenic. Positive anti-JC virus antibody status, prior use of immunosuppressants, and increasing duration of natalizumab treatment have been proposed as risk factors for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in multiple sclerosis patients, but while they may help to identify the most appropriate patients for natalizumab, their use have some limitations. Therefore, a large body of studies is ongoing to identify alternative, reliable immunological markers capable to improve the safety and efficacy of therapy, and to guide tailored clinical decisions. PMID:25468273

  11. 78 FR 33421 - Availability of Masked and De-identified Non-Summary Safety and Efficacy Data; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...and treatment strategies when designing registration trials. The use...specifically set forth in the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and FDA's...and 537(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...FDA has verified all the Web site addresses in this...

  12. Current treatment for anorexia nervosa: efficacy, safety, and adherence

    PubMed Central

    Bodell, Lindsay P; Keel, Pamela K

    2010-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness associated with significant medical and psychiatric morbidity, psychosocial impairment, increased risk of death, and chronicity. Given the severity of the disorder, the establishment of safe and effective treatments is necessary. Several treatments have been tried in AN, but few favorable results have emerged. This paper reviews randomized controlled trials in AN, and provides a synthesis of existing data regarding the efficacy, safety, and adherence associated with pharmacologic and psychological interventions. Randomized controlled trials for the treatment of AN published in peer-reviewed journals were identified by electronic and manual searches. Overall, pharmacotherapy has limited benefits in the treatment of AN, with some promising preliminary findings associated with olanzapine, an antipsychotic agent. No single psychological intervention has demonstrated clear superiority in treating adults with AN. In adolescents with AN, the evidence base is strongest for the use of family therapy over alternative individual psychotherapies. Results highlight challenges in both treating individuals with AN and in studying the effects of those treatments, and further emphasize the importance of continued efforts to develop novel interventions. Treatment trials currently underway and areas for future research are discussed. PMID:22110333

  13. Comparative efficacy of indacaterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Chapman, Kenneth R

    2012-01-01

    Long-acting bronchodilators have been shown to improve multiple clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including lung function, symptoms, dyspnea, quality of life, and exacerbations. Indacaterol is a novel, inhaled, long-acting ?2-agonist providing 24-hour bronchodilation with once-daily dosing. It is currently approved for the maintenance treatment of COPD to be administered as 150 or 300 ?g once-daily doses as licensed in many countries and 75 ?g as licensed in the US by means of a single-dose dry powder inhaler. The data from clinical development support a favorable safety and tolerability profile within the ?2-agonist drug class, with no relevant issues identified. Current evidence indicates that indacaterol is suitable for use as first-line monotherapy in COPD patients with moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage II) and beyond that do not require an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as per GOLD guidelines, or in combination with an ICS in severe or very severe patients with repeated exacerbations. Data from trials with the novel once-daily ?2-agonist, indacaterol, indicate superior bronchodilation and clinical efficacy over twice-daily long-acting ?2-agonists and at least equipotent bronchodilation as once-daily tiotropium. Bronchodilators are central in the symptomatic management of COPD. It is likely that once-daily dosing of a bronchodilator would be a significant convenience and probably a compliance-enhancing advantage, leading to improved overall clinical outcomes in patients with COPD. PMID:22419862

  14. Disinfection efficacy against parvoviruses compared with reference viruses.

    PubMed

    Eterpi, M; McDonnell, G; Thomas, V

    2009-09-01

    Some virus species can resist harsh environmental conditions, surviving on surfaces for long periods with the possibility of being transmitted to susceptible hosts. Studies are limited on the efficacy of disinfectants against viruses dried onto surfaces, in particular, with the identification of new pathogenic non-enveloped viruses that are expected to have high resistance to disinfection, such as parvoviruses. In this study a range of commonly used biocides, including heat, was tested against porcine parvovirus (PPV), minute virus of mice (a parvovirus), poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5, and vaccinia virus dried onto surfaces. PPV was the most resistant species identified, since many biocides generally considered as effective against non-enveloped viruses and used for high level disinfection demonstrated limited activity. Ethanol had poor activity against all non-enveloped viruses. Effectiveness against these viruses may be important in preventing nosocomial transmission of emerging pathogenic species such as bocavirus and other parvoviruses. This work confirms the need to validate disinfection products against viruses dried onto surfaces and demonstrates that PPV is a particularly resistant surrogate. PMID:19646784

  15. Great efficacy of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium against acute murine toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Zhu, Shun-Hai; Dong, Hui; Han, Hong-Yu; Jiang, Lian-Lian; Wang, Quan; Cheng, Jun; Zhao, Qi-Ping; Ma, Wei-Jiao; Huang, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify more effective and less toxic drugs to treat animal toxoplasmosis. Methods Efficacy of seven kinds of sulfonamides against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in an acute murine model was evaluated. The mice used throughout the study were randomly assigned to many groups (10 mice each), which either remained uninfected or were infected intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii (strains RH and CN). All groups were then treated with different sulfonamides and the optimal treatment protocol was determined candidates. Sulfadiazine-sodium (SD) was used for comparison. Results The optimal therapy involved gavaging mice twice per day with 250 mg/kg bw of sulfachloropyrazine-sodium (SPZ) for five days. Using this protocol, the average survival time and the time-point of 50% fatalities were prolonged significantly compared with SD treatment. Treatment with SPZ protected 40% of mice from death, and the heart and kidney tissue of these animals was parasite-free, as determined by nested-PCR. SPZ showed excellent therapeutic effects in the treatment of T. gondii in an acute murine model and is therefore a promising drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of T. gondii in animals. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effective drug sulfachloropyrazine may be the new therapeutic options against animal toxoplasmosis. PMID:23569838

  16. The Efficacy of the Cycles Approach: A Multiple Baseline Design

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Johanna M.; Wendt, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach as an intervention for children with speech sound disorders (SSD). A multiple baseline design across behaviors was used to examine intervention effects. Three children (ages 4;3 to 5;3) with moderate-severe to severe SSDs participated in two cycles of therapy. Three phonological patterns were targeted for each child. Generalization probes were administered during baseline, intervention, and follow-up phases to assess generalization and maintenance of learned skills. Two of the three participants exhibited statistically and clinically significant gains by the end of the intervention phase and these effects were maintained at follow-up. The third participant exhibited significant gains at follow-up. Phonologically known target patterns showed greater generalization than unknown target patterns across all phases. Individual differences in performance were examined at the participant level and the target pattern level. Learner Outcomes The reader will be able to: (1) enumerate the three major components of the cycles approach, (2) describe factors that should be considered when selecting treatment targets, and (3) identify variables that may affect a child’s outcome following cycles treatment PMID:24438911

  17. Antidiarrheal Efficacy and Cellular Mechanisms of a Thai Herbal Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl? channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl? channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ?50% inhibition at a 1?50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca2+ agonist-induced Cl? conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ?50% inhibition at a 1?5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca2+-activated Cl? channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl? inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl? channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  18. At-Risk Boys' Self-Efficacy in A Summer Sports Camp

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiaoxia

    2014-12-09

    such benefits is largely determined by their self-efficacy, including social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine at-risk boys’ social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy in a summer...

  19. Efficacy of and Patient Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet in Adults with Intractable Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiao-Jia; Jiang, Wan-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite the successful use of a ketogenic diet in pediatric epilepsy, its application in adults has been limited. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the findings of relevant published studies in order to identify the efficacy of and compliance with a ketogenic diet and its main subtypes (i.e., classic ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet) in adults with intractable epilepsy, and to provide useful information for clinical practice. Methods Electronic searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, and the ISI Web of Science were conducted to identify studies of the efficacy of and patient compliance with a ketogenic diet in adults with intractable epilepsy; the included studies were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed using STATA to determine combined efficacy rates and combined rates of compliance with the ketogenic diet and its main subtypes. Results In total, 12 studies qualified for inclusion, and data from 270 patients were evaluated.The results of the meta-analysis revealed combined efficacy rates of all types of ketogenic diet, a classical ketogenic diet, and a modified Atkins diet were 42%, 52%, and 34%, respectively; the corresponding combined compliance rates were 45%, 38%, and 56%. Conclusions The results indicate that a ketogenic diet is a promising complementary therapy in adult intractable epilepsy, and that while a classical ketogenic diet may be more effective, adult patients are likely to be less compliant with it than with a modified Atkins diet. PMID:25628734

  20. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

  1. [Solar protection products: efficacy and risks].

    PubMed

    Beani, J-C

    2012-04-01

    Solar protection products (SPP) containing chemical filters and/or mineral filters are extensively used today in photoprotection; however, concerns continue to be voiced about their efficacy and about their possible dangers. A rapid review of photoprotection strategies shows that SPP owe their photoprotective effect to the absence of other photoprotection methods having clearly established efficacy in healthy subjects; in addition, they exhibit real protective efficacy against the majority of harmful effects of solar radiation, provided they have been devised in keeping with the specifications clearly set out in the recommendations of the French Medicines Agency (Afssaps). Such efficacy is dependent on their correct usage, recently reiterated by Afssaps in its recommendations to end-users concerning the good use of solar products: application of adequate quantities of such products, selection of the appropriate photoprotection class based on phototype and conditions of exposure, and regular renewal of applications in the event of prolonged exposure and after bathing or profuse sweating. Solar filters have long been known to cause contact allergic dermatitis, irritative dermatitis and photosensitisation, and a particular risk has appeared with the use of octocrylene. However, debate has centred primarily on the risk of endocrine disturbance potentially induced by chemical filters, certain of which exhibit established transcutaneous penetration. The risk of mimicry of an effect of oestradiol has been raised on the basis of a series of studies, almost all of which were carried out by the same team, and which mainly concerned 4-methylbenzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) following oral absorption in the rat. The risk of this type of effect with SPPs under normal conditions of use seems fairly remote according to the current state of knowledge; in any event, within the context of the "National Fertility Action Plan", Afssaps has been formally requested to analyse the risk associated with cosmetic substances that are "reprotoxic" and/or affect endocrine function, as a result of which various filters are currently being reassessed for such risk. The greater alleged safety of mineral filters, based on the absence of introduction of risk of photosensitisation (as a result of which they are preferred for use in young children), no longer seems so clear since the introduction of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) in the form of nanoparticles. Afssaps drew up a risk assessment report concerning cutaneous penetration, genotoxicity and oncogenesis for TiO(2) and ZnO in nanoparticle form; further studies are needed before any general conclusions may be drawn. The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) is also carrying out an evaluation of the use of TiO(2) and of ZnO as UV filters. Finally, current data do not suggest that SPPs exert any harmful effects by inhibiting the beneficial effects of the sun, in particular, vitamin D synthesis. PMID:22482479

  2. Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L. [Vanderbilt Univ. School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States); Ulm, J.E. [TN Dept. of Health, Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

  3. Classroom Teachers' Efficacy in Teaching Healthy Behaviour Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Cothran, Donetta; Kloeppel, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    This study, grounded in Self-Efficacy Theory, investigated classroom teachers' self-efficacy changes related to teaching healthy behaviour content after participating in ongoing workshops. Participants were 50 male and female teachers at the primary (n = 17) and secondary (n = 33) levels from two schools in one Native American community. Teacher…

  4. Creative Self-Efficacy Development and Creative Performance over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated…

  5. Structural fumigation efficacy against Tribolium castaneum in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structural fumigations of food processing plants to manage stored-product insects have been a major component of pest management programs, but limited information on field efficacy is available. Efficacy, based on pheromone trapping data, consists of initial reduction in captures after treatment and...

  6. Reinforcement Magnitude: An Evaluation of Preference and Reinforcer Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosclair-Lasserre, Nicole M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Call, Nathan A.; Addison, Laura R.; Kodak, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of reinforcer magnitude may be important for maximizing the efficacy of treatment for problem behavior. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about children's preferences for different magnitudes of social reinforcement or the extent to which preference is related to differences in reinforcer efficacy. The purpose of the current…

  7. Self-Efficacy and Marijuana Cessation: A Construct Validity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible relationships between self-efficacy for avoiding marijuana use and theoretically related measures in a sample of 161 men and 51 women who sought marijuana cessation treatments. Predictive validity was stronger for frequency of posttreatment use than for abstinence status. Discusses the need for better assessment of the efficacy

  8. A Reanalysis of Engineering Majors' Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…

  9. Career Development, Collective Efficacy, and Individual Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellett, Janet B.; Humphrey, Ronald H.; Sleeth, Randall G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that perceived collective efficacy would mediate the effects of self-efficacy on individual task performance. Design/methodology/approach: An assessment center design with 147 participants in 49 three-person groups was used. Findings: It is found that for individuals working on an…

  10. Changing Expectations, Same Perspective: Preservice Teachers' Judgments of Professional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Graham; Spendlove, David; Shortt, Damien

    2015-01-01

    This two-part study tracks and measures the professional self-efficacy judgements of two cohorts of pre-service teachers (PST). In Part One, the GTCE's Code of Conduct and Practice (GTCE, 2009) was used to help form an instrument which tracked changes in the professional self-efficacy judgements of 211 PST through a one-year graduate program.…

  11. Exploring the Development of Novice Teachers' Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongillo, Maria Boeke

    2011-01-01

    Teacher self-efficacy has been linked to multiple positive student outcomes and teacher practices (Ashton & Webb, 1986; Grant, 2006; Klassen, et al., 2009; Perrachione, Rosser, & Petersen, 2008). However, few studies, have explored teacher self-efficacy qualitatively (Manuel, 2003; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2007; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998).…

  12. High Efficacy and the Preservice Reading Teacher: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverback, Heather Rogers; Parault, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential impact of two field experiences, tutoring and observing, on preservice teachers' reading self-efficacy and content knowledge. Participants completed an adapted, reading version of The Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). Results showed that both groups reported growth in reading…

  13. The effects of adult learning on self?efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathie Hammond; Leon Feinstein

    2005-01-01

    We use quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the links between participation in adult learning and self?efficacy, particularly for the subgroup of adults who had low levels of achievement at school. We focus on self?efficacy because it translates into a range of wider benefits and because it may afford protection from depression and other forms of social exclusion. Quantitative analyses

  14. The Efficacy and Complications of Salvage Cryotherapy of the Prostate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis L. Pisters; Andrew C. von Eschenbach; Shellie M. Scott; David A. Swanson; Colin P. N. Dinney; Curtis A. Pettaway; R. Joseph Babaian

    1997-01-01

    PurposeA phase I\\/II study was done to evaluate the efficacy and complications of salvage cryotherapy as a treatment for locally recurrent prostate cancer following full dose radiation therapy and\\/or systemic therapy. The efficacy of single and double freeze-thaw cycles was compared using posttreatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and prostate biopsies as end points.

  15. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Sense of Efficacy in Teaching Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Stewart; Russell, William B., III

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy for character education of 130 preservice secondary teachers at a large university where there were no formal courses dedicated to character education, but the topic was included in some of the content coursework. The subjects were in one teacher education program…

  16. Do Personality Traits Contribute to Vocational Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Lisa M.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2006-01-01

    Although personality is viewed as a precursor to self-efficacy and interest development (e.g., Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), little research concerns linkages between personality and self-efficacy. This article bridges the relation by presenting the pattern of findings across four university samples. Three general and 11 specific personality…

  17. Efficacy of Writers' Workshop for Students with Significant Writing Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clippard, Dana; Nicaise, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the efficacy of a Writers' Workshop (WW) approach for promoting writing skills and writing self-efficacy in fourth- and fifth-grade learning-disabled students who had significant writing deficits. Compares various outcomes from WW students with outcomes of students with significant writing deficits who were exposed to a "writing across…

  18. College English Writing Affect: Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…

  19. Career Decision Self-Efficacy among Turkish Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Erkan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…

  20. Developing an ELT Context-Specific Teacher Efficacy Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbari, Ramin; Tavassoli, Kobra

    2014-01-01

    Teacher efficacy is a topic of significance in mainstream education and various instruments have been developed to measure this construct. The available instruments however, are general both in terms of their subject matter and context. To compensate for this generality, the present study aims to develop a new teacher efficacy instrument whose…

  1. Efficacy of climate forcings J. Hansen,1,2

    E-print Network

    Jackman, Charles H.

    Efficacy of climate forcings J. Hansen,1,2 M. Sato,2 R. Ruedy,3 L. Nazarenko,2 A. Lacis,1,4 G. A climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs

  2. Teacher Stress: The Mediating Role of Collective Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) examine the factor structure of measures of teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and job satisfaction, and (b) explore the mediating effect of collective efficacy on the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 951 teachers from elementary and secondary schools in…

  3. Cost-Efficacy in Wetland Restoration Projects in Coastal Louisiana

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE Cost-Efficacy in Wetland Restoration Projects in Coastal Louisiana Joy Merino & Christiane, such as wetland loss, influence CWPPRA project selection for funding. We found that the program was selecting cost- effective projects overall. Cost efficacy varied significantly by restoration project type, with barrier

  4. The Relationship between Cultural Competence and Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JohnBull, Ranjini Mahinda

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to determine the nature of the relationship between cultural competence and teacher efficacy. According to 30 years of NAEP data, stagnant achievement among minority students persists; among factors related to student achievement, teacher efficacy represents the school-related variable that is most closely correlated and…

  5. Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of technical secondary school students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie; Afsaneh Bagheri

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy are considered to be two important factors influencing students’ intention and success in becoming entrepreneurs. This study was conducted to determine the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of 3000 students following technical subjects in the secondary schools of Malaysia. The findings indicate that students scored high on entrepreneurial attitude components including self?esteem cognition, achievement cognition,

  6. Teachers Sense of Collective Efficacy: An International View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Tschannen-Moran, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores the notion of collective teacher efficacy, a characteristic of schools that has emerged as a significant factor in school productivity. More specifically, this paper examines the construct validity and reliability of the Israeli Collective Teacher Efficacy Scale and explores variables that may influence teachers' sense…

  7. Spatial approach to sustainable development: Challenges of equity and efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand Zuindeau

    2006-01-01

    Zuindeau B. (2006) Spatial approach to sustainable development: challenges of equity and efficacy, Regional Studies40, 459–470. Examining sustainable development by favouring a spatial approach leads one to modify the definition of the challenges relating to this issue. The present paper considers the two challenges of equity and efficacy, and it tries to specify the variables that influence each of them

  8. A Review of Literature on Teacher Efficacy and Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dibapile, Waitshega Tefo Smitta

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature on teacher efficacy and classroom management. The conceptual framework of this paper was based on the theories of Rotter (1966) and Bandura (1977). The review of literature indicated that teacher efficacy helps teachers plan effective instructional strategies, increases performance, and…

  9. Comparative efficacy of ketoconazole and mebendazole in experimental trichinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J A; Chandrasekar, P H; Mortiere, M; Molinari, J A

    1986-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of ketoconazole and mebendazole was studied in ICR/CD-1 mice infected with Trichinella spiralis for 17 to 20 weeks. Efficacy of both drugs was over 70% when compared with results in control mice. This study indicates that both ketoconazole and mebendazole should be considered in the treatment of trichinosis in humans. PMID:3813518

  10. Strengthening the Teaching Self-Efficacy of Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian Colin

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study exploring teaching self-efficacy (defined as a belief in capability to execute teaching-related tasks) in a higher education context. It is based on the views of 12 early career academics (ECAs) employed at Charles Sturt University who were interviewed to learn more about how their teaching self-efficacy

  11. Gelling medical knowledge: innovative pharmaceuticals, experience, and perceptions of efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eirik J. Saethre; Jonathan Stadler

    2010-01-01

    As new pharmaceutical products to combat the acquisition of HIV are produced, their clinical efficacy is determined through large-scale clinical trials. Trial participants, however, also independently evaluate the effectiveness of these technologies. During a phase III microbicide clinical trial in Johannesburg, South Africa, female participants acknowledged that although the gel had not yet been clinically proven to be efficacious, they

  12. Topiramate: efficacy and tolerability in children according to epilepsy syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yann Mikaeloff; Anne de Saint-Martin; Josette Mancini; Sylviane Peudenier; Jean-Michel Pedespan; Louis Vallée; Jacques Motte; Marie Bourgeois; Alexis Arzimanoglou; Olivier Dulac; Catherine Chiron

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate (TPM) as add-on therapy in children less than 12 years of age with refractory epilepsy, according to epilepsy syndromes, we conducted an open, prospective, pragmatic and multicenter study in France. Efficacy was assessed, especially according to epilepsy syndromes, as well as tolerability. We included 207 children (41 of whom were less than

  13. Music Teachers' Computer Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the computer anxiety and self-efficacy of music teachers in terms of different variables. The research is implemented on 124 music teachers. A personal information form and scales of Computer Anxiety and Self Efficacy are implemented on 124 music teachers. Data are analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and…

  14. Developing the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop the "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" for teacher candidates and to compare scale scores. The sample of this survey model study consists of 310 students studying in a faculty of education. The "Pedagogical Efficacy Perception Scale" developed by the author was used for data collection.…

  15. Emotional intelligence as a predictor of self-efficacy among students with different levels of academic achievement at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    GHARETEPEH, AMENEH; SAFARI, YAHYA; PASHAEI, TAHEREH; RAZAEI, MANSOUR; BAGHER KAJBAF, MOHAMMAD

    2015-01-01

    Introduction studies have indicated that emotional intelligence is positively related to self-efficacy and can predict the academic achievement. The present study aimed to investigate the role of emotional intelligence in identifying self-efficacy among the students of Public Health School with different levels of academic achievement. Methods This correlational study was conducted on all the students of Public Health School. 129 students were included in the study through census method. Data were collected using Emotional Intelligence and self-efficacy questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis by SPSS 14. Results The average score of students with high academic achievement was higher in self-efficacy (39.78±5.82) and emotional intelligence (117.07±10.33) variables and their components than that of students with low academic achievement (39.17±5.91, 112.07±13.23). The overall emotional intelligence score to predict self-efficacy explanation was different among students with different levels of academic achievement (p<0.001). Self-efficacy structure was explained through self-awareness and self-motivation components in students with low academic achievement (r=0.571). In students with high academic achievement, self-awareness, self-motivation and social consciousness played an effective role in explaining self-efficacy (r=0.677, p<0.001). Conclusion Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy play an important role in achieving academic success and emotional intelligence can explain self-efficacy. Therefore, it is recommended to teach emotional intelligence skills to students with low academic achievement through training workshops. PMID:25927067

  16. Promoting Self-Efficacy in Minimally Invasive Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Kevin C.; Kaul, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    Many surgeons continue to actively pursue surgical approaches that are less invasive for their patients. This pursuit requires the surgeon to adapt to new instruments, techniques, technologies, knowledge bases, visual perspectives, and motor skills, among other changes. The premise of this paper is that surgeons adopting minimally invasive approaches are particularly obligated to maintain an accurate perception of their own competencies and learning needs in these areas (ie, self-efficacy). The psychological literature on the topic of self-efficacy is vast and provides valuable information that can help assure that an individual develops and maintains accurate self-efficacy beliefs. The current paper briefly summarizes the practical implications of psychological research on self-efficacy for minimally invasive surgery training. Specific approaches to training and the provision of feedback are described in relation to potential types of discrepancies that may exist between perceived and actual efficacy. PMID:19366532

  17. Examination of coaches' self-efficacy: preliminary analysis of the coaching efficacy scale.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Daroglou, Garifallia; Zahariadis, Panayotis; Grouios, George

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Coaching Efficacy Scale, which measures coaches' beliefs about their capacity to affect the learning and performance of their athletes on Game Strategy, Motivation, Teaching Technique, and Character Building. 230 Greek male team coaches (M = 37.6 yr. +/- 6.2) with 5.5 yr. (SD = 4.8) of experience completed the Greek translation of the scale. A first-order confirmatory factor analysis supported the basic factorial structure of the scale. Examination of a higher order model of an overall coaching efficacy factor showed satisfactory fit, using second-order confirmatory factor analysis. Moreover, the scale showed satisfactory Cronbach of of .82 and 30-day test-retest reliability of .73. Significant differences between experienced and less experienced coaches, defined by mean score, were found on Teaching Technique and overall self-efficacy factors, with more experienced coaches having significantly higher scores. Results supported the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the scale. PMID:15002874

  18. Therapeutic efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin type A in trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder caused mainly by compression of the trigeminal nerve root by an overlying blood vessel. Pharmacotherapy and surgery are ineffective or unsuitable in many patients. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities have been tried, including injection of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A). This study aims to systematically review the therapeutic efficacy and safety of BTX-A in trigeminal neuralgia. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library Clinical Trials and Web of Science from January 1966 to March 2013 were searched with the terms of “botulinum toxin” AND “trigeminal neuralgia”, and references of related articles were traced. Data on the efficacy and safety of BTX-A in this disorder were extracted and analyzed by at least 2 reviewers. Data for individual studies were reported, and pooled data were analyzed if appropriate. Five prospective studies and one double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study were identified. Response was achieved in approximately 70-100% of patients, and the mean pain intensity and frequency were reduced by approximately 60-100% at 4 weeks after treatment in most studies. Major adverse events were not reported. Available studies show BTX-A may be effective in treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. However, well-designed randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial is still lacking. Future BTX-A treatment studies on optimal dose, duration of the therapeutic efficacy, common AEs, and the time and indications for repeat injection would be promising. PMID:23964790

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Per-Protocol Time-to-Event Treatment Efficacy in Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Peter B; Shepherd, Bryan E; Hudgens, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Assessing per-protocol treatment effcacy on a time-to-event endpoint is a common objective of randomized clinical trials. The typical analysis uses the same method employed for the intention-to-treat analysis (e.g., standard survival analysis) applied to the subgroup meeting protocol adherence criteria. However, due to potential post-randomization selection bias, this analysis may mislead about treatment efficacy. Moreover, while there is extensive literature on methods for assessing causal treatment effects in compliers, these methods do not apply to a common class of trials where a) the primary objective compares survival curves, b) it is inconceivable to assign participants to be adherent and event-free before adherence is measured, and c) the exclusion restriction assumption fails to hold. HIV vaccine efficacy trials including the recent RV144 trial exemplify this class, because many primary endpoints (e.g., HIV infections) occur before adherence is measured, and nonadherent subjects who receive some of the planned immunizations may be partially protected. Therefore, we develop methods for assessing per-protocol treatment efficacy for this problem class, considering three causal estimands of interest. Because these estimands are not identifiable from the observable data, we develop nonparametric bounds and semiparametric sensitivity analysis methods that yield estimated ignorance and uncertainty intervals. The methods are applied to RV144. PMID:24187408

  20. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  1. Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving Improves Caregiver Efficacy Following Adolescent Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Shari L.; Karver, Christine L.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Cassedy, Amy; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W.; Brown, Tanya Maines

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study is to examine the efficacy of Counselor-Assisted Problem Solving (CAPS) in improving caregiver adaptation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research Method/Design In a randomized clinical trial comparing CAPS (n = 65), an online problem-solving intervention with accompanying Web-based counseling sessions, with an information-based Internet Resource Comparison (IRC; n = 67) program, participants included families of 12- to17-year-olds who had sustained a TBI in the past 6 months. Linear regression analyses were used to identify main effects and to examine whether caregiver education, race, or prior computer use moderated treatment efficacy. Results Computer experience moderated postintervention improvements in caregiving self-efficacy following CAPS, Specifically, parents in CAPS with low levels of prior use reporting the greatest improvements. CAPS participants who completed 5 or more sessions reported greater reductions in depression than did the IRC; however, the groups did not differ on global distress. Conclusions/Implications Findings support the potential utility of counselor-supported Web-based interventions particularly for individuals with limited computer expertise following adolescent TBI. PMID:24611923

  2. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

  3. The Relationships among Mathematics Teaching Efficacy, Mathematics Self-Efficacy, and Mathematical Beliefs for Elementary Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Ninety-five elementary pre-service teachers enrolled in a mathematics content course for elementary school teachers completed 3 surveys to measure mathematics teaching efficacy, mathematics self-efficacy, and mathematical beliefs. The pre-service teachers who reported stronger beliefs in their capabilities to teach mathematics effectively were…

  4. One-to-one comparison of sunscreen efficacy, aesthetics and potential nanotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Amanda S.

    2010-04-01

    Numerous reports have described the superior properties of nanoparticles and their diverse range of applications. Issues of toxicity, workplace safety and environmental impact have also been a concern. Here we show a theoretical comparison of how the size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and their concentration in sunscreens can affect efficacy, aesthetics and potential toxicity from free radical production. The simulation results reveal that, unless very small nanoparticles can be shown to be safe, there is no combination of particle size and concentration that will deliver optimal performance in terms of sun protection and aesthetics. Such a theoretical method complements well the experimental approach for identifying these characteristics.

  5. Discovery of LAS101057: A Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious A2B Adenosine Receptor Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The structure?activity relationships for a series of pyrazine-based A2B adenosine receptor antagonists are described. From this work, LAS101057 (17), a potent, selective, and orally efficacious A2B receptor antagonist, was identified as a clinical development candidate. LAS101057 inhibits agonist-induced IL-6 production in human fibroblasts and is active in an ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mouse model after oral administration, reducing airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, Th2 cytokine production, and OVA-specific IgE levels. PMID:24900298

  6. Intergenerational parallelism of self-efficacy: moderating variables, mediating variables, and common antecedents 

    E-print Network

    Lin, Cheng-Hsien

    2004-11-15

    (grandparents, parents, and grandchildren) reporting their individual age, educational attainment, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, with both parent generation's self-efficacy and child generation's self-efficacy having been collected in the same developmental...

  7. A Proposal for Integrated Efficacy-to-Effectiveness (E2E) Clinical Trials

    E-print Network

    Selker, H P

    We propose an “efficacy-to-effectiveness” (E2E) clinical trial design, in which an effectiveness trial would commence seamlessly upon completion of the efficacy trial. Efficacy trials use inclusion/exclusion criteria to ...

  8. The influence of classroom experiences on community college students self-efficacy, attitude, and future intentions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawkins, Linda Mulderig

    Science and technology are an integral part of everyday life. Therefore it is necessary that the general population have some understanding and appreciation for science. Participating in activities that are science-related is one way a person could enhance their understanding and appreciation for science. According to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the attitude and self-efficacy beliefs a person holds regarding an object or activity will influence behavioral intentions (Ajzen, 1991). Therefore, if science educators can have a positive influence on their students' attitude and sense of efficacy toward science, perhaps the result will be a populace who willingly participates in science-related activities, ultimately gaining a better understanding and appreciation for science. The present study examined the relationships between the classroom environment students experienced during a ten week period of introductory chemistry and their attitudes toward chemistry (and general science), chemistry self-efficacy, and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities in the future. The participants of this study (N = 189) were Midwestern community college students enrolled in an introductory chemistry course. The efficacy scale of the Chemistry Attitude and Experiences Questionnaire (CAEQ) developed by Dalgety, Coll, and Jones (2003) was used to measure student chemistry self-efficacy. The attitude scale used in this study consisted of the attitude toward chemistry items of CAEQ and five additional items pertaining to general science attitude. The classroom environment scale was defined by two measures: (1) instructional pedagogies and (2) teacher immediacy behaviors. The items within the instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy measures were based on previous research that focused on identifying teaching techniques and teacher attributes that were conducive to promoting an engaging, supportive classroom environment that would promote better attitude toward science and stronger science self-efficacy beliefs. Exploratory factor analysis of the attitude items revealed that students did not differentiate between general science attitude and chemistry attitude. Therefore, all twenty-six attitude items were combined into one attitude measure. Additionally, factor analysis revealed that the items designed to measure the separate dimensions of instructional pedagogies and teacher immediacy behavior both loaded highly on the same factor, resulting in the combing of these two sets of items into one measure of classroom environment. Structural equations modeling (SEM) analyses of the relationships between student perceptions of the classroom environment and their attitude, efficacy and intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities revealed that a positive classroom environment was associated with positive changes in both attitude toward chemistry/science and chemistry self-efficacy, as hypothesized. These analyses also supported the hypothesis that a positive change in chemistry self-efficacy beliefs mediated student intentions to participate in chemistry-related activities. However, the findings did not support the hypothesis that positive changes in attitude toward chemistry/science would mediate participation in chemistry-related activities.

  9. Meta-analysis comparing the safety and efficacy of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment regimens, capecitabine plus irinotecan (CAPIRI) and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan (FOLFIRI).

    PubMed

    Ding, Hong-Hua; Wu, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jun; Ji, Zheng-Yi; Jin, Jia-Hua; Wang, Jing-Jue; Song, Wei-Feng; Wang, Li-Wei

    2015-05-01

    The relative efficacy and safety of first-line metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment regimens, capecitabine with irinotecan (CAPIRI) and 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin plus irinotecan (FOLFIRI), are not well defined. We identified and subsequently examined seven independent, randomized controlled clinical trials, performing a meta-analysis to compare these two treatment regimens. Using Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), and the American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting to search available literature until February 2014, we identified seven studies comparing safety and efficacy of CAPIRI and FOLFIRI in mCRC patients. These studies were pooled and evaluated for rates of progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), and diarrhea. CAPIRI and FOLFIRI demonstrated similar efficacy outcomes, though CAPIRI was associated with a higher incidence of diarrhea. CAPIRI and FOLFIRI are equally effective options for first-line treatment of mCRC. PMID:25534239

  10. Risk Recognition, Attachment Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and State Dissociation Predict Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Bockers, Estelle; Roepke, Stefan; Michael, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified a number of variables that constitute potential risk factors for victimization and revictimization. However, it remains unclear which factors are associated not only with childhood or adolescent victimization, but specifically with revictimization. The aim of this study was to determine whether risk recognition ability and other variables previously associated with revictimization are specifically able to differentiate individuals with childhood victimization only from revictimized individuals, and thus to predict revictimization. Methods Participants were N?=?85 women aged 21 to 64 years who were interpersonally victimized in childhood or adolescence only, interpersonally revictimized in another period of life, or not victimized. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine whether risk recognition ability, sensation seeking, self-efficacy, state dissociation, shame, guilt, assertiveness, and attachment anxiety predicted group membership. Results The logistic regression analysis revealed risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, state dissociation, and self-efficacy as significant predictors of revictimization. The final model accurately classified 82.4% of revictimized, 59.1% of victimized and 93.1% of non-victimized women. The overall classification rate was 80%. Conclusions This study suggests that risk recognition ability, attachment anxiety, self-efficacy, and state dissociation play a key role in revictimization. Increased risk recognition ability after an interpersonal trauma may act as a protective factor against repeated victimization that revictimized individuals may lack. A lack of increased risk recognition ability in combination with higher attachment anxiety, lower self-efficacy, and higher state dissociation may increase the risk of revictimization. PMID:25238153

  11. Antidepressant efficacy of agomelatine: meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review published and unpublished efficacy studies of agomelatine in people with depression. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Literature search (Pubmed, Embase, Medline), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, European Medicines Agency (EMA) regulatory file for agomelatine, manufacturers of agomelatine (Servier). Eligibility criteria Double blind randomised placebo and comparator controlled trials of agomelatine in depression with standard depression rating scales. Data synthesis Studies were pooled by using a random effects model with DerSimonian and Laird weights for comparisons with placebo and comparator antidepressant. The primary efficacy measure (change in rating scale score) was summarised with standardised mean difference (SMD; a measure of effect size) and secondary outcome measures with relative risks. All results were presented with 95% confidence intervals. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by visual inspection of funnel plots and by the I2 statistic. Moderators of effect were explored by meta-regression. Results We identified 20 trials with 7460 participants meeting inclusion criteria (11 in the published literature, four from the European Medicines Agency file, and five from the manufacturer). Almost all studies used the 17 item Hamilton depression rating scale (score 0-50). Agomelatine was significantly more effective than placebo with an effect size (SMD) of 0.24 (95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.35) and relative risk of response 1.25 (1.11 to 1.4). Compared with other antidepressants, agomelatine showed equal efficacy (SMD 0.00, ?0.09 to 0.10). Significant heterogeneity was uncovered in most analyses, though risk of bias was low. Published studies were more likely than unpublished studies to have results that suggested advantages for agomelatine. Conclusions Agomelatine is an effective antidepressant with similar efficacy to standard antidepressants. Published trials generally had more favourable results than unpublished studies. PMID:24647162

  12. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... exposure and other causes. 10 Ways to Identify Hearing Loss Take the following quiz to help determine if ...

  13. NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News From NIH NIH Researchers Identify OCD Risk Gene Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... and Alcoholism (NIAAA) have identified a previously unknown gene variant that doubles an individual's risk for obsessive- ...

  14. Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Qualitative terminology extraction: Identifying relational adjectives Béatrice Daille IRIN for terminology extraction and other automatic terminology tasks. 1. Introduction Identifying relational be interesting in several fields of NLP, such as terminology acquisition, topic detection, updating of thesauri

  15. Image-Based Chemical Screening Identifies Drug Efflux Inhibitors In Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaofeng; Yang, Jian; Li, Fuhai; Li, Ying; Zhou, Xiaobo; Dai, Yue; Wong, Stephen T C

    2010-01-01

    Cancer cells with active drug-efflux capability are multidrug resistant and pose a significant obstacle for the efficacy of chemotherapy. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that high drug-efflux cancer cells (HDECCs) may be selectively enriched with stem-like cancer cells, which are believed to be the cause for tumor initiation and recurrence. There is a great need for therapeutic reagents that are capable of eliminating HDECCs. We developed an image-based high-content screening (HCS) system to specifically identify and analyze the HDECC population in lung cancer cells. Using the system, we screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds which identified twelve potent HDECC inhibitors. It is shown that these inhibitors are able to overcome MDR and sensitize HDECCs to chemotherapeutic drugs, or directly reduce the tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells possibly by affecting stem-like cancer cells. The HCS system we established provides a new approach for identifying therapeutic reagents overcoming MDR. The compounds identified by the screening may potentially be used as potential adjuvant to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:20841476

  16. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin succinate with or without previous use of trospium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Metello; B. Nogueira; M. Torgal; J. Colaço; A. Vieira; V. Gonçalves; H. Retto

    2007-01-01

    Overactive bladder syndrome (OBS) is described as urinary urgency with or without incontinence, usually with increased daytime\\u000a frequency and nocturia in the absence of another identifiable pathological process. Nowadays and despite other alternative\\u000a therapies, the mainstay of OBS is still the pharmacological approach, mainly with anti-muscarinic drugs. To compare the efficacy\\u000a of a 30-day solifenacin succinate (5 mg OD) treatment with

  17. EMPLOYEE LEARNING ORIENTATION, TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP, AND EMPLOYEE CREATIVITY: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEE CREATIVE SELF-EFFICACY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YAPING GONG; JIA-CHI HUANG; JIING-LIH FARH

    We examined the relationship between employee creativity and job performance. Further- more, we identified two learning-related personal and situational variables—employee learning orientation and transformational leadership—and examined their effects on employee creativity through employee creative self-efficacy. We found that employee creativity was positively related to employee sales and to supervisor-rated employee job performance. Employee learning orientation and transformational leadership were posi-

  18. Musculoskeletal Pain in Primary Health Care: Subgroups Based on Pain Intensity, Disability, Self-Efficacy, and Fear-Avoidance Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Denison; Pernilla Åsenlöf; Maria Sandborgh; Per Lindberg

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe subgroup profiles based on self-reported pain intensity, disability, self-efficacy, fear of movement\\/(re)injury, and catastrophizing in patients with musculoskeletal pain. Two primary health care samples (n = 215 and n = 161) were used. Self-report questionnaires were completed at the start of physical therapy treatment. Cluster analysis was used to generate

  19. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R. (Erial, NJ); Staskawicz, Brian J. (Castro Valley, CA); Bent, Andrew F. (Piedmont, CA); Innes, Roger W. (Bloomington, IN)

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  20. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  1. The Efficacy of Surfactant Replacement Therapy in the Growth-Restricted Preterm Infant: What is the Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Atul; Sasi, Arun; Miller, Suzanne L.; Jenkin, Graham; Polglase, Graeme R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) is an integral part of management of preterm surfactant deficiency respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Its role in the management of RDS has been extensively studied. However, its efficacy in the management of lung disease in preterm infants born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has not been systematically studied. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of exogenous SRT in the management of preterm IUGR lung disease. Methods: A systematic search of all available randomized clinical trials (RCT) of SRT in preterm IUGR infants was done according to the standard Cochrane collaboration search strategy. Neonatal respiratory outcomes were compared between the preterm IUGR and appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA) preterm infant populations in eligible studies. Results: No study was identified which evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of exogenous SRT in preterm IUGR infants as compared to preterm AGA-infants. The only study identified through the search strategy used small for gestational age (SGA; defined as less than tenth centile for birth weight) as a proxy for IUGR. The RCT evaluated the efficacy or responsiveness of SRT in preterm SGA group as compared to AGA-infants. The rate of intubation, severity of RDS, rate of surfactant administration, pulmonary air leaks, and days on the ventilator did not differ between both groups. However, the requirement for prolonged nasal continuous positive airway pressure (p?efficacy of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. A variety of research strategies will be needed to enhance our understanding of the role and rationale for use of SRT in preterm IUGR lung disease. PMID:25401096

  2. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives. PMID:21272037

  3. Efficacy HPV vaccine in late 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Initial evaluation of the HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine showed about a 40% reduction in high-grade cervical dysplasia due to all virus genotypes among young women aged 16 to 23 years who were not yet sexually active. These results were obtained after 4 years of follow-up and were confirmed after an additional 3 years. Clinical assessment of the HPV 16, 18 vaccine yielded similar results. The interval between initial HPV infection and diagnosis of cervical cancer seems to be at least 20 years. Comparisons of vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts are consistent with the results of clinical trials, but follow-up is still too short because most of the women studied have not reached the age at which the incidence of high-grade dysplasia peaks. The available evidence shows no replacement of HPV vaccine genotypes by other highly oncogenic genotypes but, once again, follow-up is relatively short. In late 2014, follow-up is still too short to show whether HPV vaccination prevents cervical cancer in young women before they become sexually active. Earlier clinical trials showing efficacy in preventing high-grade dysplasia have not been challenged by epidemiological data. Overall, it will be several more years before conclusive evidence is obtained. In 2015, screening remains the cornerstone for reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26034805

  4. Antibiotic interference with oral contraceptive steroid efficacy.

    PubMed

    Siew, C; Gruninger, S E; Burrell, K H

    1991-01-01

    Dentists prescribing antibiotics to women of childbearing age should be aware that current lower dosage oral contraceptives may fail and cause pregnancy, putting the practitioner at risk for damage claims. The most common antibiotics used in dental practice that may compromise oral contraceptive efficacy are penicillins, such as penicillin V, penicillin G, ampicillin, flucloxacillin, tolampicillin, amoxycillin and cloxacillin, and tetracyclines, such as tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and chlortetracycline. Other common antibiotics include sulfonamides, erythromycin, metronidazole, griseofulvin and cephalosporins. The physiological basis for failure of the combined pill is loss of gut bacteria, and decreased enteric recycling of estrogen metabolites. The reason why progesterone-only pills may fail is unknown, and probably not related to drug interaction. Studies on blood levels of estrogens are conflicting; furthermore, it is impossible to predict which woman is at risk. Dentists should inform all women of childbearing age of possible failure of oral contraceptives. They should attempt to get an accurate drug history from female patients, and insert a signed copy in patients' record. It would be helpful to remind the pharmacist to label oral contraceptive prescription bottles with warnings about concurrent antibiotic usage. PMID:1886418

  5. Self-Efficacy for Career Development: A Study of Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists, and Speech-Language Pathologists in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Constance; Bennett, Onda; Costello, Patti

    2005-01-01

    Group achievements and social change are rooted in self-efficacy. This concept has important implications for career development in a changing environment. Associations that represent professionals involved with physical rehabilitation in the United States have identified activities that they feel are essential for the survival of the…

  6. Number of Different Purging Behaviors Used Among Women With Eating Disorders: Psychological, Behavioral, Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diann M. Ackard; Catherine L. Cronemeyer; Lisa M. Franzen; Sara A. Richter; Jane Norstrom

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine differences between a number of different purging behaviors used and outcome measures among eating disorder patients. Among 211 females who received inpatient or partial hospitalization eating disorder treatment, analyses of covariance and cross-tabulations identified associations among a number of different purging behaviors (vomiting, laxative use, diuretic use) used and psychological, behavioral, self-efficacy

  7. The Role of Math Self-Efficacy, Math Self-Concept, Perceived Usefulness of Mathematics and Math Anxiety in Math Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Reza Kiamanesh; Elaheh Hejazi; Zahra Nasr Esfahani

    In order to identify the main predictors of math achievement the following five variables were investigated using Regression Analysis and Path Analysis Method: math self-efficacy, math self concept (Marsh, 1983), perceived usefulness of mathematic (Fennema 2000), math anxiety (Betz, 1978) and gender. The responses of 400 subjects to the instruments used for measuring the above mentioned variables were analyzed. The

  8. The Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Among Latino/a High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushue, George V.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relation of ethnic identity to two determinants of career interests identified by social-cognitive career theory (SCCT): self-efficacy and outcome expectations. For a sample of 128 Latino/a ninth graders, the results indicated that ethnic identity had a direct and positive relationship to career decision-making…

  9. Examining Elementary School–Aged Children’s Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Children’s self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) and proxy efficacy to influence others to make fruit and vegetables (FV) available may influence their FVC. A previous investigation has demonstrated that self-efficacy for fruit consumption, self-efficacy for vegetable consumption, proxy efficacy to influence parents to make FV available, and proxy efficacy to influence after-school staff to make FV available can be measured with four independent but related scales. The purpose of the present investigation is to confirm this factor structure and determine if the scales were invariant across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES) subgroups of children attending after-school programs. Results provide further validity evidence for the four correlated scales. In addition, results confirm measurement invariance across gender, SES, and ethnicity, confirming the unbiased generalizability of the current measure to these demographic groups. Lastly, tests of population heterogeneity reveal no meaningful differences in self- and proxy efficacy among gender, SES, and ethnicity subgroups. PMID:19858314

  10. The efficacy of microarray screening for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    van Huet, Ramon A. C.; Pierrache, Laurence H.M.; Meester-Smoor, Magda A.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; van den Born, L. Ingeborgh; Hoyng, Carel B.; de Wijs, Ilse J.; Collin, Rob W. J.; Hoefsloot, Lies H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of multiple versions of a commercially available arrayed primer extension (APEX) microarray chip for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). Methods We included 250 probands suspected of arRP who were genetically analyzed with the APEX microarray between January 2008 and November 2013. The mode of inheritance had to be autosomal recessive according to the pedigree (including isolated cases). If the microarray identified a heterozygous mutation, we performed Sanger sequencing of exons and exon–intron boundaries of that specific gene. The efficacy of this microarray chip with the additional Sanger sequencing approach was determined by the percentage of patients that received a molecular diagnosis. We also collected data from genetic tests other than the APEX analysis for arRP to provide a detailed description of the molecular diagnoses in our study cohort. Results The APEX microarray chip for arRP identified the molecular diagnosis in 21 (8.5%) of the patients in our cohort. Additional Sanger sequencing yielded a second mutation in 17 patients (6.8%), thereby establishing the molecular diagnosis. In total, 38 patients (15.2%) received a molecular diagnosis after analysis using the microarray and additional Sanger sequencing approach. Further genetic analyses after a negative result of the arRP microarray (n = 107) resulted in a molecular diagnosis of arRP (n = 23), autosomal dominant RP (n = 5), X-linked RP (n = 2), and choroideremia (n = 1). Conclusions The efficacy of the commercially available APEX microarray chips for arRP appears to be low, most likely caused by the limitations of this technique and the genetic and allelic heterogeneity of RP. Diagnostic yields up to 40% have been reported for next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques that, as expected, thereby outperform targeted APEX analysis. PMID:25999674

  11. Efficacy of glucocorticoids in rodents of severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Yang, Zhen; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nonghua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of corticosteroid in the management of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) remains contentious and is still being debated despite many pre-clinical studies demonstrating benefits. The limitations of clinical research on corticosteroid in SAP are disparities with regard to benefit, a lack of adequate safety data and insufficient understanding of its mechanisms of action. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of corticosteroid in experimental SAP and take a closer look at the relation between the animal studies and prospective trials. Methods: Studies investigating corticosteroid use in rodent animal models of SAP were identified by searching multiple three electronic databases through October 2013, and by reviewing references lists of obtained articles. Data on mortality, changes of ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas were extracted. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled efficacy. Publication bias and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: We identified 15 published papers which met our inclusion criteria. Corticosteroid prolonged survival by a factor of 0.35 (95% CI 0.21-0.59). Prophylactic use of corticosteroid showed efficacy with regards to ascitic fluid and histopathology of pancreas, whereas therapeutic use did not. Efficacy was higher in large dose and dexamethasone groups. Study characteristics, namely type of steroids, rout of delivery, genders and strains of animal, accounted for a significant proportion of between-study heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was observed. Conclusions: On the whole, corticosteroids have showed beneficial effects in rodent animal models of SAP. Prophylactic use of corticosteroid has failed to validate usefulness in prophylaxis of postendoscopic retrogradcholangiopancreatography pancreatitis. Further appropriate and informative animal experiments should be performed before conducting clinical trials investigating therapeutic use in SAP. PMID:25120741

  12. Efficacy of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder. An empirical review.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S D; Gerrity, E T; Muff, A M

    1992-08-01

    OBJECTIVE--The purpose of this article is to review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of a range of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Reviewed studies focused on rape victims, combat veterans, the tragically bereaved, torture victims, accident victims, of physical assault, and child abuse victims. DATA SOURCES--Peer-reviewed journals (Psych-Info, MEDLINE), book chapters (PILOTS database), active investigators, abstracts from the 1990 and 1991 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. STUDY SELECTION--We identified 255 English-language reports of treatment for PTSD. We restricted our focus to randomized, clinical trials that included a systematic assessment of PTSD using DSM-III or DSM-III-R criteria (N = 11). DATA EXTRACTION--Studies were assessed according to methodological strength: random assignment to the treatment of interest, and either an alternative treatment or control group; sample selection; and inclusion of statistical tests of significance. DATA SYNTHESIS--Drug studies show a modest but clinically meaningful effect on PTSD. Stronger effects were found for behavioral techniques involving direct therapeutic exposure, particularly in terms of reducing PTSD intrusive symptoms. However, severe complications have also been reported from the use of these techniques in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders. Studies of cognitive therapy, psychodynamic therapy, and hypnosis suggest that these approaches may also hold promise. However, further research is needed before any of these approaches can be pronounced effective as lasting treatment of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS--Further studies should specifically address combined treatment approaches, optimal treatment length and timing, effects of comorbidity, and unstudied traumatized populations. PMID:1629993

  13. ForPeerReview Persuasive communication and advertising efficacy for

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ForPeerReview Persuasive communication and advertising efficacy for public health policy Research Article Keywords: Persuasive communication, Pragmatics, Social advertising, Health communication and preventive advertising. http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/commresearch Communication Researchhalshs-00410054

  14. Continuous periaortic infusion improves doxycycline efficacy in experimental aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiketsu Sho; Jack Chu; Mien Sho; Brian Fernandes; Diane Judd; Prema Ganesan; Hideo Kimura; Ronald L Dalman

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveWe created a novel continuous infusion system to evaluate the efficacy of juxta-aortic doxycycline delivery as a transitional step toward developing hybrid drug\\/device treatment strategies for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) disease.

  15. Microneedle delivery for improved efficacy of antiretroviral and antibiotic drugs

    E-print Network

    Stauber, Zachary Jason

    2012-01-01

    Two classes of drugs, antiretrovirals and antibiotics, could benefit greatly from delivery through microneedles. Microneedles (MN) offer an increase in efficacy for these drugs by providing delivery to the lymphatic system ...

  16. Efficacy Beliefs of Beginning Hispanic Teachers and the Organizational Health of Schools in a South Texas School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saenz, Gisela S.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between teachers' sense of efficacy and school organizational health. Teachers' sense of efficacy was measured using three dimensions of teacher efficacy: efficacy in student engagement, efficacy in instructional strategies, and efficacy in classroom management. Organizational health was…

  17. Place-based education: An impetus for teacher efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Tamara Chase

    This research investigated professional development in place-based (PB) methodology on the efficacy of science teachers. While teachers are expected to use best practices they do not always implement them due to a lack of efficacy in implementation. A professional development program (PD) was designed to increase confidence among teachers planning to incorporate PB methods. Place-based education (PBE) is recognized as a best-practice among professional educators. PBE includes the selection, design and engagement with science using the geographic place as the content. The literature reports that student learning and teacher efficacy will improve when teachers are prepared effectively in PB practices. This dissertation research examined the effects of PD in PB methodology and its influence on the efficacy of seven science teachers who participated in this research. An exploratory, qualitative research approach was used to study the characteristics of change among teachers. Qualitative information was collected about the teachers' confidence with PBE methodology and practices through interviews, in reflective journals and through observations of them working with students in PB settings. Changes in teacher efficacy were accompanied by their becoming more intentional with PBE, networking with experts and expressing a commitment to connect content with the community. The consistency of changes in efficacy among the seven teachers in the study was mixed. Three of the teachers became more confident in their approach to teaching using PB methods and reported the gain in confidence was influenced by the PBE professional development. Three teachers reported that the PD had little effect on their efficacy as teachers to implement PBE. These teachers cited complications from more critical issues in their careers such as time to prepare PBE lessons and meaningful participation in the PD. Those difficulties proved to be hindrances in developing efficacy in implementing PBE. Themes emerging from this research are: PBE is accepted by teachers as a positive methodology to improve efficacy; PBE was recognized as connecting students with and engaging them in learning about their local community and environment; longevity in teaching does not equate with efficacy, and the level of efficacy improves when teachers meaningfully engage in PBE.

  18. Long-acting risperidone injection: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of the first long-acting atypical antipsychotic

    PubMed Central

    Chue, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone. Methods Studies published between January 2000 and October 2006 evaluating the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of long-acting risperidone were reviewed, as identified from literature searches using Medline and EMBASE. Abstracts and posters on long-acting risperidone presented at key psychiatry congresses and available in the public domain during this time period were also reviewed. Results The unique pharmacokinetic profile of long-acting risperidone is derived from the encapsulation of risperidone in a glycolide/lactide matrix in the form of microspheres such that after a single intramuscular injection, significant plasma levels of the drug are achieved after week 3. Steady state, after repeated administration at 2-week intervals, is achieved after 3 injection cycles. Short- and long-term studies have demonstrated that long-acting risperidone (25, 37.5, or 50 mg) is both efficacious and well tolerated in a wide variety of patients with schizophrenia and related psychoses. Most patients can be switched from other oral and long-acting antipsychotic agents without compromising efficacy and safety. Long-acting risperidone may also reduce overall healthcare costs by decreasing rates of relapse and hospitalization. Conclusion The assured delivery of an atypical antipsychotic medication with long-acting risperidone has important implications for patient compliance, maintenance of stability, consistency of treatment, and improving patient outcomes including the achievement of remission. PMID:19300536

  19. Comparative efficacy of extracts from Lycium barbarum bark and fruit on estrogen receptor positive human mammary carcinoma MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Telang, Nitin; Li, Gou; Sepkovic, Daniel; Bradlow, H Leon; Wong, George Y C

    2014-01-01

    Chemo-endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) breast cancer exhibits acquired tumor resistance. Herbal medicines provide integrative support for breast cancer patients. Present study compared the efficacy of aqueous extracts from Lycium barbarum bark (LBB) and Lycium barbarum fruit (LBF) on ER(+) MCF-7 cells. Cellular growth and 17ß-estradiol (E2) metabolism quantified the efficacy. MCF-7 cells maintained in serum depleted medium+ E2 exhibited increased anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. LBB exhibited greater potency than LBF (95% reduction in IC50). LBB produced a 6.8-fold increase, 40% decrease, and a 3.7-fold increase in 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16?-hydroxyestrone (16?-OHE1), and estriol (E3) formation. The corresponding values for LBF were 3.9, 33, and 10.5. LBB produced a16.3-fold and a twofold increase in 2-OHE1:16?-OHE1 and E3:16?-OHE1 ratios, whereas LBF produced a sixfold and a 2.9-fold increase. The efficacy of LBB is due to increased 2-OHE1 formation, whereas that of LBF is due to accelerated conversion of 16?-OHE1 to E3. Specific growth inhibitory profiles of LBB and LBF may be due to their distinct chemical composition and their complementary actions on E2 metabolism. This study validates a mechanistic approach to identify efficacious herbal extracts for clinical ER(+) breast cancer. PMID:24377707

  20. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hollister, Emily B; Oezguen, Numan; Tsai, Cynthia M; McMeans, Ann R; Luna, Ruth A; Savidge, Tor C; Versalovic, James; Shulman, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole intestinal transit time, stool microbiome, and metabolite composition were collected and/or documented in eight children with IBS at baseline and during one week of an LFSD intervention. Pain frequency (P < 0.05), pain severity (P < 0.05), and pain-related interference with activities (P < 0.05) decreased in the subjects while on the LFSD. Responders vs. non-responders: four children (50%) were identified as responders (>50% decrease in abdominal pain frequency while on the LFSD). There were no differences between responders and non-responders with respect to hydrogen production, methane production, stooling characteristics, or gut transit time. Responders were characterized by increased pre-LFSD abundance of bacterial taxa belonging to the genera Sporobacter (P < 0.05) and Subdoligranulum (P < 0.02) and decreased abundance of taxa belonging to Bacteroides (P < 0.05) relative to non-responders. In parallel, stool metabolites differed between responders and non-responders and were associated with differences in microbiome composition. These pilot study results suggest that an LFSD may be effective in decreasing GI symptoms in children with IBS. Microbial factors such as gut microbiome composition and stool metabolites while on the diet may relate to LFSD efficacy. PMID:24637601

  1. Is acupuncture efficacious therapy in Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Jeon, Beom S

    2014-06-15

    This review aims to assess the evidences from recent clinical studies regarding the efficacy of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease. Relevant literatures were searched from 13 databases under the condition "published between 2000 and 2012" with language restrictions. Eleven studies were indentified including 6 randomized clinical trials (RCTs), 4 uncontrolled open label studies, and 1 crossover trial. The number of trials, and their total sample size were not enough to prove the favorable effects of acupuncture. Five studies failed to report proper diagnostic criteria for enrollment. Two of the 6 RCTs did not include the randomization methods and whether the assessors were blinded. Drop-outs were unreported or insufficiently reported in 2 trials. Three RCTs compared the effects of acupuncture with placebo acupuncture. Two of these trials failed to show superiority of acupuncture. One RCT showed beneficial effects of constitutional acupuncture, but not needle acupuncture. Three RCTs that assessed the effects of acupuncture adjunctive to conventional drugs reported beneficial effects of acupuncture. The placebo response to acupuncture was not excluded, because there was no control acupuncture group in these studies. Two uncontrolled studies showed significant positive effects of acupuncture, while other two uncontrolled trials failed. There were no recognized validated acupuncture treatment protocols and a lack of consensus on the location of acupoints. Safety and tolerability were reported only in 5 studies. No study evaluated the long-lasting effect of acupuncture following cessation of the treatment. To date, the evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating Parkinson's disease is not convincing. There are needs for further studies with improved methodological quality. PMID:24798223

  2. Efficacy and safety of bevacizumab in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    De Fazio, S; Russo, E; Ammendola, M; Donato Di Paola, E; De Sarro, G

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a common and malignant primary brain tumor arising from glial precursors the survival of which is estimated to be about 14 months after diagnosis despite current standard care with radiotherapy, surgery, and chemotherapies. Therapeutic approaches were greatly improved in the last years; however, GBM still represents the most lethal subtype of glioma. Actually, it has been estimated that only about 3.4% of patients will survive at the most five years when obtaining the best outcome from treatment; however, this depends on tumor resistance, which is generally related to repairing radiation injury, and self- improving cell growth repair and survival. All GBMs recur after initial therapy, limiting patients ? survival at 20-25% within 1 year after diagnosis of recurrent disease. Moreover, for recurrent GBM response rates are less than 10% (ranging from 5% to 9%), and progression free survival at 6-month (PFS-6) rates ranges between 9% and 28% (median 15%). The development of targeted therapy based on tumor vascular blockade led to the approval of bevacizumab for recurrent or progressive glioblastoma, since it was proven that this offers a new opportunity for patients suffering from this malignancy. Bevacizumab is a recombinant antivascular monoclonal antibody binding to circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) preventing this cytokine from reaching its receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) on endothelium, resulting in an inhibition of cells proliferation and vessels sprouting. The aim of this review is to address bevacizumab mode of action in malignant gliomas and provide a summary on currently available data on efficacy and safety. PMID:22214463

  3. [Efficacy of topiramate in childhood epilepsies].

    PubMed

    Adachi, Masao; Oyazato, Yoshinobu; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Murase, Masanori; Ishida, Akihito

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate (TPM) for the treatment of children with epilepsies, we introduced TPM to 45 patients whose epilepsy began in childhood and whose ages ranged from 4 months to 30 years old (mean age: 11 years 7 months). Thirteen of these patients had been diagnosed with generalized epilepsy (GE) (1 cryptogenic, 12 symptomatic), 30 with localization-related epilepsy (LRE) (7 idiopathic, 23 symptomatic), and 2 with unclassified epilepsy [1 case of severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI), 1 case of epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS)]. The initial dose of TPM was 1.97 +/- 0.45 mg/kg/day, followed by a slow titration to the maximum dose of 7.32 +/- 1.32 mg/kg/day. After a mean treatment period of 13.5 months (range 4-20 months), the rate of reduction in seizure frequency by more than 50% [50% responder rate (50% RR)] and the rate of complete remission (seizure-free) were 53.8% and 23.1%, respectively, in patients with GE, and 73.3% and 23.3%, respectively, in patients with LRE. TPM was significantly effective against many seizure types including tonic, clonic, complex partial, myoclonic, and atypical absence seizures. Adverse effects included sleepiness in 13 cases (28.9%), weight loss in 6 cases (13.3%), and metabolic acidosis in 2 cases (4.4%); all of these effects were both mild and transient. In conclusion, TPM is effective and safe for the treatment of pediatric epilepsies. PMID:20845767

  4. Efficacy of Auditory Training in Elderly Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Aline Albuquerque; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Auditory training (AT) has been used for auditory rehabilitation in elderly individuals and is an effective tool for optimizing speech processing in this population. However, it is necessary to distinguish training-related improvements from placebo and test–retest effects. Thus, we investigated the efficacy of short-term AT [acoustically controlled auditory training (ACAT)] in elderly subjects through behavioral measures and P300. Sixteen elderly individuals with auditory processing disorder (APD) received an initial evaluation (evaluation 1 – E1) consisting of behavioral and electrophysiological tests (P300 evoked by tone burst and speech sounds) to evaluate their auditory processing. The individuals were divided into two groups. The Active Control Group (n?=?8) underwent placebo training. The Passive Control Group (n?=?8) did not receive any intervention. After 12?weeks, the subjects were revaluated (evaluation 2 – E2). Then, all of the subjects underwent ACAT. Following another 12?weeks (eight training sessions), they underwent the final evaluation (evaluation 3 – E3). There was no significant difference between E1 and E2 in the behavioral test [F(9.6)?=?0.06, p?=?0.92, ? de Wilks?=?0.65)] or P300 [F(8.7)?=?2.11, p?=?0.17, ? de Wilks?=?0.29] (discarding the presence of placebo effects and test–retest). A significant improvement was observed between the pre- and post-ACAT conditions (E2 and E3) for all auditory skills according to the behavioral methods [F(4.27)?=?0.18, p?=?0.94, ? de Wilks?=?0.97]. However, the same result was not observed for P300 in any condition. There was no significant difference between P300 stimuli. The ACAT improved the behavioral performance of the elderly for all auditory skills and was an effective method for hearing rehabilitation.

  5. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Reynald C.; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm2), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

  6. Factors Influencing Efficacy of Bilayered Cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Allam, Reynald C; Van Driessche, Freya; Zhu, Yiliang

    2014-06-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) that fail to heal with standard care should be treated with advanced wound care products. Efficacy of advanced therapies is dependent on many factors. A secondary analysis of pivotal trial data for a bilayered cellular construct used in the treatment of DFU was undertaken to determine if glycemic control and other factors had an effect on time to healing. Approach: We analyzed the effect of age, gender, diabetes type, insulin usage, body mass index, smoking, initial and ending glycohemoglobin (HgbA1c), Charcot deformity, and wound area, duration, and location on likelihood of healing for wounds treated with bilayered cellular construct (BLCC). Results: In those treated with BLCC, initial wound area (cm(2)), age, and history of Charcot deformity were found to significantly affect healing. Neither initial HgbA1c nor change in HgbA1c was associated with healing. The bilayered product was found to be equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels (p-values 0.94 and 0.44, respectively). In the control group, initial HgbA1c, insulin usage, female gender, and wound location at the toes significantly influenced healing. Innovation: BLCC subgroup analysis to elucidate selection criteria allowing for targeted use of advanced products on those more likely to respond as well as direct further research into prognostic indicators for BLCC-treated patients. Conclusion: The bilayered cellular construct product remains equally effective regardless of initial or change in HgbA1c levels. Further specific research into the effect of glucose control and other factors on the effectiveness of different advanced DFU treatment products is recommended. PMID:24940555

  7. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 ?g of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], ?29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (?8%; 95% CI, ?59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  8. Building self-efficacy in tennis players: A coach's perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Weinberg; Allen Jackson

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the degree to which high school and age group tennis coaches use 13 strategies for influencing self-efficacy and their evaluation of the effectiveness of those strategies. Self-efficacy rating differences between categories of coaches (e.g., male versus female, successful versus less successful, more versus less experienced, physical education\\/coaching courses versus no courses)

  9. Efficacy of nitazoxanide against experimental cryptosporidiosis in goat neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Viel; Hélène Rocques; Jennifer Martin; Christophe Chartier

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary results obtained in mice, rats and piglets experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp have indicated a partial prophylactic or curative efficacy of nitazoxanide when administered between 50 and 250 mg\\/kg\\u000a BW. In this study, the efficacy of nitazoxanide was evaluated in goat neonates experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium sp oocysts. Forty-seven 2- to 4-day-old kids were experimentally infected once on day 0

  10. Towards Cognitive Modeling of Students? Self-Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bica; R. Verdin; R. M. Vicari

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a student model based on beliefs of self-efficacy to improve the effectiveness of intelligent e-learning system. The self-efficacy means the student's belief on his capacity of performing a task. This belief affects his behavior, motivation, affectivity and the choices he makes. We design an e-learning system, called InteliWeb, this environment is composed by the

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of lornoxicam versus tramadol in postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Staunstrup, H; Ovesen, J; Larsen, U T; Elbaek, K; Larsen, U; Krøner, K

    1999-08-01

    This randomized double-blind study compared the analgesic efficacy and tolerability of intramuscular lornoxicam and tramadol in 76 patients with moderate to unbearable pain following arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the patella bone-tendon-bone technique. Patients receiving a single dose of lornoxicam 16 mg experienced significantly greater total pain relief than patients receiving tramadol 100 mg over the following 8 hours. Lornoxicam had greater analgesic efficacy than tramadol in patients with moderate baseline pain but was of equivalent efficacy in those with severe/unbearable baseline pain. Fewer patients in the lornoxicam group required rescue medication (58% vs. 77%, respectively). Patients' global impression of efficacy showed lornoxicam to be superior to tramadol with 82% and 49% of patients, respectively, rating treatment as good, very good, or excellent. Following multiple-dose administration of lornoxicam (8 mg tid) or tramadol (100 mg tid) for 3 days, efficacy profiles similar to those following a single dose were obtained. Thus, slightly fewer patients in the lornoxicam group required rescue medication, and patients' global impression of efficacy again favored lornoxicam. Adverse events were reported by 38 of the 76 patients and were mainly mild to moderate in severity. Significantly fewer patients reported one or more adverse events with lornoxicam than with tramadol (14 vs. 24, respectively). Thus, intramuscular lornoxicam offers a useful alternative to tramadol for the treatment of moderate to severe postoperative pain. PMID:10434236

  12. The biomarker paradigm: between diagnostic efficiency and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-04-30

    The interest in biomarker research has been growing exponentially, and this trend is not expected to reverse soon. Although the clinical usefulness of laboratory tests is conventionally defined in terms of diagnostic efficiency or clinical efficacy (or effectiveness), these notions are complementary but not interchangeable. The former concept is an expression of diagnostic accuracy but does not entail outcome assessment. Conversely, clinical efficacy investigates whether or not a certain test can produce significant changes in managed care and an improvement of clinical outcomes. The vast majority of published studies were mainly focused on diagnostic efficacy rather than on clinical efficacy, and this seems no longer sustainable in a world with limited resources. Although bridging the gap between efficiency and efficacy is not a trivial endeavour, a paradigm shift is necessary, wherein the laboratory community should focus on what clinicians need rather than pursuing an endless search for analytically perfect tests. In the foreseeable future, efficacy should be improved by translating this concept into a simple "six R" paradigm, namely, performing the Right test, with the Right method, at the Right time, to the Right patient, at the Right cost, for the Right outcome. PMID:25764446

  13. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  14. Single mitochondrial gene barcodes reliably identify sister-species in diverse clades of birds

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding of life using a standardized COI sequence was proposed as a species identification system, and as a method for detecting putative new species. Previous tests in birds showed that individuals can be correctly assigned to species in ~94% of the cases and suggested a threshold of 10× mean intraspecific difference to detect potential new species. However, these tests were criticized because they were based on a single maternally inherited gene rather than multiple nuclear genes, did not compare phylogenetically identified sister species, and thus likely overestimated the efficacy of DNA barcodes in identifying species. Results To test the efficacy of DNA barcodes we compared ~650 bp of COI in 60 sister-species pairs identified in multigene phylogenies from 10 orders of birds. In all pairs, individuals of each species were monophyletic in a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree, and each species possessed fixed mutational differences distinguishing them from their sister species. Consequently, individuals were correctly assigned to species using a statistical coalescent framework. A coalescent test of taxonomic distinctiveness based on chance occurrence of reciprocal monophyly in two lineages was verified in known sister species, and used to identify recently separated lineages that represent putative species. This approach avoids the use of a universal distance cutoff which is invalidated by variation in times to common ancestry of sister species and in rates of evolution. Conclusion Closely related sister species of birds can be identified reliably by barcodes of fixed diagnostic substitutions in COI sequences, verifying coalescent-based statistical tests of reciprocal monophyly for taxonomic distinctiveness. Contrary to recent criticisms, a single DNA barcode is a rapid way to discover monophyletic lineages within a metapopulation that might represent undiscovered cryptic species, as envisaged in the unified species concept. This identifies a smaller set of lineages that can also be tested independently for species status with multiple nuclear gene approaches and other phenotypic characters. PMID:18328107

  15. An Analysis of Teacher Self-Efficacy, Teacher Trust, and Collective Efficacy in a Southwest Texas School District 

    E-print Network

    Ball, Jeanette

    2011-02-22

    The purpose of the study was to investigate relationships among teacher selfefficacy, trust, and collective efficacy among teachers in a southwest Texas school district. The research included three established surveys combined to create a single...

  16. Identifying work ability promoting factors for home care aides and assistant nurses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In workplace health promotion, all potential resources needs to be taken into consideration, not only factors relating to the absence of injury and the physical health of the workers, but also psychological aspects. A dynamic balance between the resources of the individual employees and the demands of work is an important prerequisite. In the home care services, there is a noticeable trend towards increased psychosocial strain on employees at work. There are a high frequency of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and a low prevalence of sustainable work ability. The aim of this research was to identify factors promoting work ability and self-efficacy in care aides and assistant nurses within home care services. Methods This study is based on cross-sectional data collected in a municipality in northern Sweden. Care aides (n = 58) and assistant nurses (n = 79) replied to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 46%). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of several independent variables on self-efficacy (model 1) and work ability (model 2) for care aides and assistant nurses separately. Results Perceptions of personal safety, self-efficacy and musculoskeletal wellbeing contributed to work ability for assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.36, p < 0.001), while for care aides, the safety climate, seniority and age contributed to work ability (R2adj of 0.29, p = 0.001). Self-efficacy was associated with the safety climate and the physical demands of the job in both professions (R2adj of 0.24, p = 0.003 for care aides), and also by sex and age for the assistant nurses (R2adj of 0.31, p < 0.001). Conclusions The intermediate factors contributed differently to work ability in the two professions. Self-efficacy, personal safety and musculoskeletal wellbeing were important for the assistant nurses, while the work ability of the care aides was associated with the safety climate, but also with the non-changeable factors age and seniority. All these factors are important to acknowledge in practice and in further research. Proactive workplace interventions need to focus on potentially modifiable factors such as self-efficacy, safety climate, physical job demands and musculoskeletal wellbeing. PMID:22236253

  17. Assessment of Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Teachers in an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Judith; Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Odgers, Barbara M.

    2004-01-01

    Research investigating science teaching efficacy was conducted in 1 Australian university. A sample of 314 elementary preservice teachers responded to the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI; L. G. Enochs & I. M. Riggs, 1990), which assesses 2 teaching efficacy dimensions: Personal Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs (PSTEB) and…

  18. Reading Intervention in Middle and High Schools: Implementation Fidelity, Teacher Efficacy, and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Carter, Janis C.; Rintamaa, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' efficacy and implementation in the context of a supplemental intervention for struggling adolescent readers. It examined teachers' efficacy at the start of their intervention training and investigated relationships among teachers' efficacy, implementation, and students' reading progress. The efficacy and…

  19. Tinkering and Technical Self-Efficacy of Engineering Students at the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Dale R.; Wood, Lorelei; Corkins, James; Krause, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy in engineering is important because individuals with low self-efficacy have lower levels of achievement and persistence in engineering majors. To examine self-efficacy among community college engineering students, an instrument to specifically measure two important aspects of engineering, tinkering and technical self-efficacy, was…

  20. Persistence at an Urban Community College: The Implications of Self-Efficacy and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Hsiang-Ann; Edlin, Margot; Ferdenzi, Anita Cuttita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how self-efficacy and motivation affected student persistence at an urban community college. Self-efficacy was studied at two dimensions: self-regulated learning efficacy and self-efficacy for academic achievement. Motivation was also investigated at two levels: intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Results show that…

  1. Functional kinomics identifies candidate therapeutic targets in head and neck cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Our functional kinomics approach identified novel survival kinases in HNSCC involved in G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, SFK, PI3K, and FAK pathways. RNAi-mediated knockdown and chemical inhibition of the WEE1 kinase with a specific inhibitor, MK-1775, had a significant effect on both viability and apoptosis. Sensitivity to the MK-1775 kinase inhibitor is in part determined by p53 mutational status, and due to unscheduled mitotic entry. MK-1775 displays single-agent activity and potentiates the efficacy of cisplatin in a p53-mutant HNSCC xenograft model.

  2. Functional kinomics identifies candidate therapeutic targets in head and neck cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Our functional kinomics approach identified novel survival kinases in HNSCC involved in G2-M cell-cycle checkpoint, SFK, PI3K, and FAK pathways. RNAi-mediated knockdown and chemical inhibition of the WEE1 kinase with a specific inhibitor, MK-1775, had a significant effect on both viability and apoptosis. Sensitivity to the MK-1775 kinase inhibitor is in part determined by p53 mutational status, and due to unscheduled mitotic entry. MK-1775 displays single-agent activity and potentiates the efficacy of cisplatin in a p53-mutant HNSCC xenograft model.

  3. The Effects of Commercial Exercise Video Models on Women's Self-Presentational Efficacy and Exercise Task Self-Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIE C. FLEMING; KATHLEEN A. MARTIN GINIS

    2004-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of commercial exercise video models on women's self-presentational efficacy (SPE) and exercise task self-efficacy (EXSE). Participants were 101 women (M age = 20.1, SD = 1.14) who completed baseline measures of exercise status, SPE, and EXSE. One week later, they watched an exercise video featuring either “perfect-looking” exercisers whose bodies epitomized the ultra-thin, ultra-toned female

  4. Monitoring therapeutic efficacy in breast carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne A. Tardivon; Liliane Ollivier; Carl El Khoury; Fabienne Thibault

    2006-01-01

    The aim of imaging during and after neoadjuvant therapy is to document and quantify tumor response: has the tumor size been\\u000a accurately measured? Certainly, the most exciting information for the oncologists is: can we identify good or nonresponders,\\u000a and can we predict the pathological response early after the initiation of treatment? This review article will discuss the\\u000a role and the

  5. Assessing the impact of vicarious experiences on preservice elementary science teacher efficacy and preservice elementary teacher efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagler, Ronald Robert

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of vicarious experiences (preservice teacher field experiences) on perceived preservice science teacher efficacy and perceived preservice teacher efficacy. The participants for the study were 46 preservice elementary education students who were enrolled in CIED 3430 (Early Lab and Clinical Experience in Elementary Education II) at a large Midwestern state university and 20 classroom inservice teachers. A pretest was administered early in the spring 2007 semester, before the preservice teachers did their field experience and consisted of demographic questions and the STEBI-B. A posttest was administered at the end of the spring 2007 semester, after the preservice teachers had completed their field experiences, and consisted of demographic questions, a rating of the teachers they observed during their educational field experience, the STEBI-B and the TES. The field experience classroom inservice teachers provided personal, professional, and classroom data in the middle of the spring 2007 semester. All data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Findings and conclusions. Factors of gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and preservice teacher program placement were found to be significant predictors of preservice teachers' efficacy scores. Even though, in some cases, these factors negatively impacted preservice teacher efficacy, preservice teachers should be placed in these environments when support is most available. The Teacher Efficacy Scale (Gibson & Dembo, 1984) is invalid. Even the construct of a general teacher efficacy is questionable.

  6. Alternative Methodologies for Identifying Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, William J.; And Others

    If an effective school is defined as a school that causes student improvement on a number of important educational outcomes, the problem of identifying effective schools becomes one of establishing legitimate predictions of student performance and comparing those predictions to actual student or school outcomes. In attempting to identify effective…

  7. Identifying Websites with Flow Simulation Pierre Senellart

    E-print Network

    Senellart, Pierre

    and website importance computation. To identify the boundaries of a website, we combine the use of an online in the same website are much more connected between them than webpages from different websites. We use prob- lem may be used to identify websites in the Web graph. We notice that in many cases, the seed

  8. Identifying Contingency Requirements Using Obstacle Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn R. Lutz; Stacy Nelson; Ann Patterson-hine; Chad R. Frost; Doron Tal

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Obstacle Analysis to identify anomaly-handling requirements for a safety- critical, autonomous system. The software requirements for the system evolved during operations due to an on-going effort to increase the autonomous system's robustness. The resulting increase in autonomy also increased system complexity. This investigation used Obstacle Analysis to identify and to reason incrementally about new

  9. Identifying Information Focuses in Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hong-yan

    2011-01-01

    The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…

  10. Identifying Surprising Events in Videos Using

    E-print Network

    Weinshall, Daphne

    and surveillance. In this paper we focus on the problem of identifying interesting parts of the video. Specifically, such as the inspection of surveillance videos, examination of 3D medical images, or cataloging and indexing of videoIdentifying Surprising Events in Videos Using Bayesian Topic Models by Avishai Hendel under

  11. A hidden efficacy of seemingly unproductive production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapur, Manu

    Contrary to the fairly established notion in the learning sciences that un-scaffolded, ill-structured problem-solving processes rarely lead to meaningful learning, this study reports a hidden efficacy of such processes in a synchronous, computer-supported, collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. A contrasting-case, double-transfer design investigated the effect of problem type (well- vs. ill-structured problems in Newtonian Kinematics) on collaborative processes and outcomes as well as the transfer of problem-solving skills to the individual. N = 104 triads of 11th-grade science students were randomly assigned to solve either well- or ill-structured problems. Thereafter, all participants individually solved well-structured problems followed by ill-structured problems. Findings suggested that compared to well-structured problem-solving groups, ill-structured problem-solving groups struggled with defining the problem and spent much of their sustained interactional effort around problem critiquing and solution evaluation within a discussion that was highly complex, chaotic, and divergent. As such, they found it difficult to converge on the causes of the problem, set appropriate criteria for a solution, and develop a solution, which, in turn, decreased their group performance. Thus, on many counts, production in ill-structured problem-solving groups seemed unproductive when compared to production in well-structured problem-solving groups. Notwithstanding, the contrasting-case, double-transfer design of this study provided participants in the ill-structured condition with an opportunity to spontaneously contrast the ill-structured problems that they had solved in groups with the well-structured problems they solved on an individual basis afterwards. This contrast helped them separate the relevant from the irrelevant components of ill-structured problems, thereby facilitating a spontaneous transfer of problem-solving skills, which, in the absence of the contrast, might have remained unrealized. Therefore, despite the seemingly unproductive production in ill-structured problem-solving groups, participants from these groups outperformed their counterparts in the well-structured condition on not only the well-structured problems' post-test but also the ill-structured one thereafter. Findings and their implications for CSCL research and practice are discussed. Leveraging on the laws of self-organization and complexity, specific implications for scaffolding learning processes and the development of adaptive expertise are drawn.

  12. EZID: Long term identifiers made easy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, J.

    2013-12-01

    Scholarly research is producing ever increasing amounts of digital research data, and this data should be managed throughout the research life cycle both as part of good scientific practice, but also to comply with funder mandates, such as the 2013 OSTP Public Access Memo (http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/ostp_public_access_memo_2013.pdf). By assigning unique and persistent identifiers to data objects, data managers can gain control and flexibility over what can be a daunting task. This is due to the fact that the objects can be moved to new locations without disruption to links, as long as the identifier target is maintained. EZID is a tool that makes assigning and maintaining unique, persistent identifiers easy. It was designed and built by California Digital Library (CDL) and has both a user interface and a RESTful API. EZID currently offers services for two globally unique, persistent identifier schemes: Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). DOIs are identifiers originating from the publishing world and are in widespread use for journal articles. CDL is able to offer DOIs because of being a founding member of DataCite (http://www.datacite.org/), an international consortium established to provide easier access to scientific research data on the Internet. ARKs are identifiers originating from the library, archive and museum community. Like DOIs, they become persistent when the objects and identifier forwarding information is maintained. DOIs and ARKs have a key role in data management and, therefore, in data management plans. DOIs are the recommended identifier for use in data citation, and ARKs provide the maximum flexibility needed for data documentation and management throughout the early phases of a project. The two identifier schemes are able to be used together, and EZID is made to work with both. EZID clients, coming from education, research, government, and the private sector, are utilizing the tool for these use cases and more.

  13. Association of the NPAS3 gene and five other loci with response to the antipsychotic iloperidone identified in a whole genome association study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Lavedan; L Licamele; S Volpi; C Heaton; K Mack; R Lannan; A Thompson; C D Wolfgang; M H Polymeropoulos

    2009-01-01

    A whole genome association study was performed in a phase 3 clinical trial conducted to evaluate a novel antipsychotic, iloperidone, administered to treat patients with schizophrenia. Genotypes of 407 patients were analyzed for 334 563 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs associated with iloperidone efficacy were identified within the neuronal PAS domain protein 3 gene (NPAS3), close to a translocation breakpoint

  14. Examination of the Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) with children with disabilities, their parents, and teachers.

    PubMed

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Pollock, Nancy; Law, Mary; Walter, Stephen; Cavey, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The Perceived Efficacy and Goal Setting System (PEGS) is an instrument and a process that enables children with disabilities to reflect on their ability to perform everyday occupations and to identify goals for occupational therapy intervention. In this study, 117 children with disabilities in grades 1-3 completed the PEGS with occupational therapists who work in school settings. Children from 6-9 years of age with a variety of disabilities were able to self-report perceptions of their effectiveness performing 24 activities that would be expected of them each day. Parents and teachers, who completed a parallel questionnaire, rated their abilities lower than the children did. The School Function Assessment, a measure of the amount and type of support required for school participation, had low correlations with the Parent and Teacher PEGS questionnaires and did not correlate with the Child PEGS. No differences in perceived efficacy were found for children across grades or gender; however, differences were found across types of disabilities. Children were able to use the perceived efficacy information to identify and prioritize goals for intervention and these goals remained stable 2 weeks later. Occupational therapists can use the PEGS within a client-centered practice to help the child set goals for therapy and to incorporate explicitly the perspectives of parents and teachers. PMID:16596924

  15. Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic self-efficacy, and internet self-efficacy in web-based instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Ju Joo; Mimi Bong; Ha-Jeen Choi

    2000-01-01

    Effects of student motivation on performance in Web-based instruction (WBI) were examined. In particular, applicability of the self-efficacy theory to WBI contexts was tested. A total of 152 junior high school students in Seoul, Korea, participated in WBI during regular science classes. Participants completed motivational surveys before the onset of WBI and took the written and search tests at the

  16. Integrating Condom Skills into Family-Centered Prevention: Efficacy of the Strong African American Families–Teen Program

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Corso, Phaedra S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The Strong African American Families–Teen (SAAF–T) program, a family-centered preventive intervention that included an optional condom skills unit, was evaluated to determine whether it prevented unprotected intercourse and increased condom efficacy among rural African American adolescents. Ancillary analyses were conducted to identify factors that predicted youth attendance of the condom skills unit. Methods African American 16-year-olds (N = 502) and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to SAAF–T (n = 252) or an attention control (n = 250) intervention. SAAF–T families participated in a 5-week family skills training program that included an optional condom skills unit. All families completed in-home pretest, posttest, and long-term follow-up interviews during which adolescents reported on their sexual behavior, condom use, and condom efficacy. Because condom use was addressed only in an optional unit that required caregiver consent, we analyzed efficacy using Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) analyses. Results Attendance in both SAAF–T and the attention control intervention averaged 4 of 5 sessions; 70% of SAAF–T youth attended the condom skills unit. CACE models indicated that SAAF–T was efficacious in reducing unprotected intercourse and increasing condom efficacy among rural African American high school students. Exploratory analyses indicated that religious caregivers were more likely than nonreligious caregivers to have their youth attend the condom skills unit. Conclusions Results suggest that brief condom skills educational modules in the context of a family-centered program are feasible and reduce risk for sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies. PMID:22824447

  17. Improved efficacy and enlarged spectrum of activity of a novel anthracycline disaccharide analogue of doxorubicin against human tumor xenografts.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, G; De Cesare, M; Caserini, C; Perego, P; Dal Bo, L; Polizzi, D; Supino, R; Bigioni, M; Manzini, S; Iafrate, E; Salvatore, C; Casazza, A; Arcamone, F; Zunino, F

    1998-11-01

    On the basis of a structure-activity study of a new series of anthracycline disaccharides, we recently identified a doxorubicin analogue (MEN 10755) with a promising antitumor activity. In the present study, to better support the pharmacological interest of MEN 10755, we extended the preclinical evaluation of antitumor efficacy to a large panel of 16 human tumor xenografts, which originated from different clinicopathological types. Tumors with typical multidrug-resistant phenotype were excluded because MEN 10755 was found unable to overcome resistance mediated by transport systems. In the doxorubicin-responsive series, MEN 10755 exhibited a higher activity in three of five tumors, as documented by a more marked tumor growth inhibition and an increased value of log-cell kill. In the series of doxorubicin-resistant tumors, MEN 10755 was found effective in 6 of 11 tumors (1 breast, 3 lung, and 2 prostate carcinomas). The overall response rates were 31% and 69% for doxorubicin and MEN 10755, respectively. The improvement in drug efficacy was also supported by a substantial increase in the long-term survivor rate of animals implanted with responsive tumors. Most of the tumors refractory to doxorubicin and responsive to MEN 10755 were characterized by overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In one of these tumors (MX-1 breast carcinoma), we examined the ability of MEN 10755 to induce phosphorylation of Bcl-2 after a single treatment with therapeutic doses. The results indicated that, unlike doxorubicin, MEN 10755 induced protein phosphorylation. A similar modification was produced by Taxol, which is known to be very effective against the tumor. The correlation between drug efficacy and Bcl-2 phosphorylation may underly a peculiar feature related to improvement of efficacy of the disaccharide analogue. In conclusion, the present study supports some favorable features of the novel doxorubicin analogue in terms of both efficacy and tolerability with comparison to doxorubicin, although the improvement is somewhat tumor- and schedule-dependent. PMID:9829750

  18. The Effect of Problem-Solving Instruction on the Programming Self-efficacy and Achievement of Introductory Computer Science Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddrey, Elizabeth

    Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this study may provide a gender-based increase in self-efficacy and future research should focus on exploring this possibility.

  19. International chemical identifier for chemical reactions

    E-print Network

    Grethe, Guenter; Goodman, Jonathan; Allen, Chad

    2013-03-22

    ORAL PRESENTATION Open Access International chemical identifier for chemical reactions Guenter Grethe1*, Jonathan Goodman2, Chad Allen2 From 8th German Conference on Chemoinformatics: 26 CIC-Workshop Goslar, Germany. 11-13 November 2012 An open... -access software for creating a unique, text-based identifier for reactions (RInChI) was developed by the Goodman group at the University of Cambridge, based on the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI) stan- dard. RInChIs describe the substances...

  20. Dynamics of Teacher Self-Efficacy: Middle School Reading and Language Arts Teacher Responses on a Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Kimberly Ann

    2010-01-01

    Efficacy is created early in a career and not easily influenced over time yet states and school districts loose tremendous amounts of money annually educating and training teachers who elect to leave the profession as a result of low self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived levels of self-efficacy of middle school…

  1. Optimizing therapeutic efficacy of chemopreventive agents: A critical review of delivery strategies in oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Holpuch, Andrew S.; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H.; Schwendeman, Steven P.; Mallery, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its characterized progression from recognized premalignant oral epithelial changes (i.e., oral epithelial dysplasia) to invasive cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma represents an optimal disease for chemopreventive intervention prior to malignant transformation. The primary goal of oral cancer chemoprevention is to reverse, suppress, or inhibit the progression of premalignant lesions to cancer. Over the last several decades, numerous oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials have assessed the therapeutic efficacy of diverse chemopreventive agents. The standard of care for more advanced oral dysplastic lesions entails surgical excision and close clinical follow-up due to the potential (~33%) for local recurrence at a similar or more advanced histological stage. The purpose of this review was to identify prominent oral cancer chemoprevention clinical trials, assess their overall therapeutic efficacy, and delineate effects of local versus systemic drug administration. In addition, these compiled clinical trial data present concepts for consideration in the design and conduction of future clinical trials. PMID:22013393

  2. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    PubMed

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women. PMID:18329595

  3. Adaptive and Effortful Control and Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs on Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of 1st through 3rd Graders

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; McTigue, Erin; Barrois, Lisa; Hughes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The linkages between self-regulatory processes and achievement were examined across three years in 733 children beginning at 1st grade (M = 6.57 years, SD = .39 at 1st grade) who were identified as lower achieving in literacy. Accounting for consistencies in measures (from one year prior) and for influences of child’s age, gender, IQ, ethnicity and economic adversity on achievement, results indicate that adaptive/effortful control at 1st grade contributed to both academic self-efficacy beliefs at 2nd grade, and reading (but not math) achievement at 3rd grade. Although academic self-efficacy did not partially mediate the linkage between adaptive/effortful control and achievement, academic self-efficacy beliefs were positively correlated with reading and math. Results support the notion that early efforts to promote children’s self-regulatory skills would enhance future academic self-beliefs and achievement, particularly in literacy. PMID:19169387

  4. Statistical considerations in biosimilar clinical efficacy trials with asymmetrical margins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulan; Liu, Qing; Wood, Patricia; Johri, Anandhi

    2013-02-10

    Development of biosimilars to innovative therapeutic biologics promises reduction of healthcare cost and therefore will provide patients worldwide greater access to effective treatments. Because of the differences in raw materials or manufacturing processes, 'equivalence' of bioavailability between a biosimilar and the reference biologic is generally regarded as insufficient, and thus, clinical trials providing efficacy and safety data are often required by regulatory agencies. The traditional non-inferiority trial design may not be accepted for establishing biosimilarity in order to avoid superior efficacy with additional safety (e.g., immunogenicity) risks. On the other hand, the bioequivalence trial design, which is used in the generic paradigm for the evaluation of bioavailability of generic chemical drugs, is not appropriate for evaluating clinical efficacy because the equivalence margins are generally too wide and not justified on statistical or clinical grounds. Motivated by the World Health Organization guideline and the newly released Food and Drug Administration draft guideline on biosimilars, we propose a biosimilarity trial design for evaluating clinical efficacy. The design uses a non-inferiority margin and an asymmetrical non-superiority margin for statistical inference. The independent choice of both margins provides the scientific foundation for drawing clinical efficacy conclusions while maintaining the logical consistency of the inference. The design also has a higher statistical power than a naïve equivalence trial design. PMID:22991275

  5. A program to support self-efficacy among athletes.

    PubMed

    Zagórska, A; Guszkowska, M

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a proprietary program for increasing self-efficacy among track and field athletes through vicarious experience and successful control over excitation and to determine the changes in the cognitive dimensions related to self-efficacy: dispositional optimism, hope of success and locus of control. An experimental two-group design with a pre-test and a post-test in the experimental and control groups was used. Forty-two athletes (29 women and 13 men) aged 17 to 24 years randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups took part in the study. The General Scale of Self-Efficacy, Hope for Success Questionnaire, Life Orientation Test Revised, and Internal-External Locus of Control Scale were used. The study's results indicate that the program was effective. Participants in the intervention group demonstrated a substantial increase in self-efficacy (P = 0.001). This was not observed in the control group (P = 0.732). After the completion of the program, athletes in the intervention group had significantly higher levels of self-efficacy (P = 0.001) and optimism (P = 0.017). They also had more internal locus of control compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Contrary to expectations, athletes in the intervention group demonstrated a substantially lower level of propensity in pathways (P = 0.001) as well as in agency (P = 0.001) (both components of the hope for success). PMID:24118561

  6. Apolipoprotein E Genotype-Dependent Paradoxical Short-Term Effects of {sup 56}Fe Irradiation on the Brain

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, Gwendolen E. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Villasana, Laura; Dayger, Catherine; Davis, Matthew J. [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)] [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Raber, Jacob, E-mail: raberj@ohsu.edu [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States) [Department of Behavioral Neuroscience, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR (United States); Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: In humans, apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by three major alleles ({epsilon}2, {epsilon}3, and {epsilon}4) and, compared to apoE3, apoE4 increases the risk of developing Alzheimer disease and cognitive impairments following various environmental challenges. Exposure to irradiation, including that of {sup 56}Fe, during space missions poses a significant risk to the central nervous system, and apoE isoform might modulate this risk. Methods and Materials: We investigated whether apoE isoform modulates hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance starting 2 weeks after {sup 56}Fe irradiation. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) can affect cognition and are induced by irradiation. Therefore, after cognitive testing, we assessed hippocampal ROS levels in ex vivo brain slices, using the ROS-sensitive fluorescent probe, dihydroethidium (DHE). Brain levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), extracellular SOD, and apoE were assessed using Western blotting analysis. Results: In the water maze, spatial memory retention was impaired by irradiation in apoE2 and apoE4 mice but enhanced by irradiation in apoE3 mice. Irradiation reduced DHE-oxidation levels in the enclosed blade of the dentate gyrus and levels of 3-NT and CuZnSOD in apoE2 but not apoE3 or apoE4 mice. Finally, irradiation increased apoE levels in apoE3 but not apoE2 or apoE4 mice. Conclusions: The short-term effects of {sup 56}Fe irradiation on hippocampal ROS levels and hippocampus-dependent spatial memory retention are apoE isoform-dependent.

  7. Genotype-dependence in the interaction between Glomus fistulosum, Phytophthora fragariae and the wild strawberry ( Fragaria vesca )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Mark; A. C. Cassells

    1996-01-01

    Root colonisation byGlomus fistulosum BEG 31 of a plant population from the outbreeding wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca) ranged from 42 to 80%; this was correlated with a significant increase in fruit trusses, berries and leaves. The mycorrhizal plants produced significantly more primary and secondary runners but less lateral runners. One hundred randomly selected seeds were multiplied in vitro and 4

  8. Genotype-dependent Burst of Transposable Element Expression in Crowns of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during Cold Acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Laudencia-Chingcuanco, Debbie; Fowler, D. Brian

    2012-01-01

    The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs) represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of four hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throughout the experiment in three of the genotypes. In winter Norstar, the most cold-hardy of the four genotypes, a subset of the TEs showed a burst of expression after vernalization saturation was achieved. About 47% of the TEs were expressed, and both Class I (retrotransposons) and Class II (DNA transposons) types were well represented. Gypsy and Copia were the most represented among the retrotransposons while CACTA and Mariner were the most represented DNA transposons. The data suggests that the Vrn-A1 region plays a role in the stage-specific induction of TE expression in this genotype. PMID:22474410

  9. Input classes for identifiability of bilinear systems

    E-print Network

    Sontag, Eduardo D.

    This paper asks what classes of input signals are sufficient in order to completely identify the input/output behavior of generic bilinear systems. The main results are that step inputs are not sufficient, nor are single ...

  10. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

  11. Experimental designs for identifying causal mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Imai, Kosuke

    Experimentation is a powerful methodology that enables scientists to establish causal claims empirically. However, one important criticism is that experiments merely provide a black box view of causality and fail to identify ...

  12. Identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution

    E-print Network

    Reeder, Christopher Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two computational approaches for identifying chromatin interactions at high spatial resolution from ChIA-PET data. We introduce SPROUT which is a hierarchical probabilistic model that discovers high ...

  13. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

  14. International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014 May 2014 International Team Identifies Biomarker for Scleroderma A higher level of a small signaling molecule correlates with a more severe form of scleroderma, a chronic autoimmune disorder that involves the abnormal ...

  15. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  16. Paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via upregulated CAR expression and dysfunctional cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Ingemarsdotter, Carin K; Tookman, Laura A; Browne, Ashley; Pirlo, Katrina; Cutts, Rosalind; Chelela, Claude; Khurrum, Karisma F; Leung, Elaine Y L; Dowson, Suzanne; Webber, Lee; Khan, Iftekhar; Ennis, Darren; Syed, Nelofer; Crook, Tim R; Brenton, James D; Lockley, Michelle; McNeish, Iain A

    2015-04-01

    Resistance to paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently develops in ovarian cancer. Oncolytic adenoviruses are a novel therapy for human malignancies that are being evaluated in early phase trials. However, there are no reliable predictive biomarkers for oncolytic adenovirus activity in ovarian cancer. We investigated the link between paclitaxel resistance and oncolytic adenovirus activity using established ovarian cancer cell line models, xenografts with de novo paclitaxel resistance and tumour samples from two separate trials. The activity of multiple Ad5 vectors, including dl922-947 (E1A CR2-deleted), dl1520 (E1B-55K deleted) and Ad5 WT, was significantly increased in paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. This was associated with greater infectivity resulting from increased expression of the primary receptor for Ad5, CAR (coxsackie adenovirus receptor). This, in turn, resulted from increased CAR transcription secondary to histone modification in resistant cells. There was increased CAR expression in intraperitoneal tumours with de novo paclitaxel resistance and in tumours from patients with clinical resistance to paclitaxel. Increased CAR expression did not cause paclitaxel resistance, but did increase inflammatory cytokine expression. Finally, we identified dysregulated cell cycle control as a second mechanism of increased adenovirus efficacy in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer. Ad11 and Ad35, both group B adenoviruses that utilise non-CAR receptors to infect cells, are also significantly more effective in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cell models. Inhibition of CDK4/6 using PD-0332991 was able both to reverse paclitaxel resistance and reduce adenovirus efficacy. Thus, paclitaxel resistance increases oncolytic adenovirus efficacy via at least two separate mechanisms - if validated further, this information could have future clinical utility to aid patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:25560085

  17. Efficacy of statins for primary prevention in people at low cardiovascular risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tonelli, Marcello; Lloyd, Anita; Clement, Fiona; Conly, Jon; Husereau, Don; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; McAlister, Finlay A.; Wiebe, Natasha; Manns, Braden

    2011-01-01

    Background: Statins were initially used to improve cardiovascular outcomes in people with established coronary artery disease, but recently their use has become more common in people at low cardiovascular risk. We did a systematic review of randomized trials to assess the efficacy and harms of statins in these individuals. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (to Jan. 28, 2011), registries of health technology assessments and clinical trials, and reference lists of relevant reviews. We included trials that randomly assigned participants at low cardiovascular risk to receive a statin versus a placebo or no statin. We defined low risk as an observed 10-year risk of less than 20% for cardiovascular-related death or nonfatal myocardial infarction, but we explored other definitions in sensitivity analyses. Results: We identified 29 eligible trials involving a total of 80 711 participants. All-cause mortality was significantly lower among patients receiving a statin than among controls (relative risk [RR] 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84–0.97) for trials with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease < 20% [primary analysis] and 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.94, for trials with 10-year risk < 10% [sensitivity analysis]). Patients in the statin group were also significantly less likely than controls to have nonfatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49–0.84) and nonfatal stroke (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68–0.96). Neither metaregression nor stratified analyses suggested statistically significant differences in efficacy between high-and low-potency statins, or larger reductions in cholesterol. Interpretation: Statins were found to be efficacious in preventing death and cardiovascular morbidity in people at low cardiovascular risk. Reductions in relative risk were similar to those seen in patients with a history of coronary artery disease. PMID:21989464

  18. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Improve Efficacy of Melanocyte Transplantation in Animal Skin

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Won-Suk; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Young; Do, Byung-Rok; Kim, Eo Jin; Lee, Ai-Young

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is a pigmentary disorder induced by a loss of melanocytes. In addition to replacement of pure melanocytes, cocultures of melanocytes with keratinocytes have been used to improve the repigmentation outcome in vitiligo treatment. We previously identified by in vitro studies, that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) could be a potential substitute for keratinocytes in cocultures with melanocytes. In this study, the efficacy of pigmentation including durability of grafted melanocytes and short-term safety was examined in the nude mouse and Sprague-Dawley rat after grafting of primary cultured human melanocytes, with or without different ratios of primary cultured human ADSCs. Simultaneous grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs, which were separately cultured and mixed on grafting at the ratios of 1:1, 1:2, or 1:3, showed better efficacy than that of pure melanocytes. Grafting of melanocytes cocultured with ADSCs resulted in a similar outcome as the grafting of cell mixtures. Skin pigmentation by melanocytes : ADSCs at the ratios of 1:1 and 1:2 was better than at 1:3. No significant difference was observed between the 1-week and 2-week durations in coculturing. Time-course microscopic examination showed that the grafted melanocytes remained a little longer than 6-week post-grafting. No inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the grafted skin and no melanocytes were detectable in other organs. Collectively, grafting of melanocytes and ADSCs was equally safe and more effective than grafting of melanocytes alone. Despite the absence of significant differences in efficacy between the group of 1:1 and that of 1:2 ratio, 1:2 ratio for 1-week coculturing may be better for clinical use from the cost-benefit viewpoint. PMID:25143812

  19. Efficacy of Retigabine in Adjunctive Treatment of Partial Onset Seizures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Splinter, Michele Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of retigabine (ezogabine, US adopted name) in the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Retigabine is the first anticonvulsant in its class, decreasing neuronal excitability by opening voltage-gated potassium channels. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched using search terms retigabine and ezogabine for randomized controlled trials published from 1980 through August 17, 2013. Additionally, articles relating to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and interactions were examined for inclusion. Published abstracts and websites of the Food and Drug Administration and European Medication Agency were reviewed for additional relevant information. Results One phase IIb and two phase III trials were identified. Retigabine has been reported to have dose dependent efficacy in adjunctive treatment of resistant partial-onset seizures in adults in doses of 600, 900 and 1200 mg/day. Similar to other anticonvulsants, the most common adverse events were central nervous system related. Retigabine has several unique adverse events compared to other anticonvulsants: urinary retention and, with extended use, pigment changes to the skin and retina. Retigabine is metabolized by glucuronidation and acetylation. There are few drug interactions with retigabine. Conclusions Retigabine has been shown to have efficacy when used as adjunctive therapy in partial-onset seizures. It has a novel mechanism of action, activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. It has less drug interactions than many other anticonvulsants because it is not metabolized through the P-450 system. Its place in therapy has yet to be determined, especially with recent reports of pigment discoloration of skin and the retina with extended use. PMID:24250245

  20. Indirect comparison analysis of efficacy and safety between olanzapine and aripiprazole for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kunitomi, Taro; Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    AIMS Indirect comparison (IC) and direct comparison (DC) between aripiprazole and olanzapine for schizophrenia were conducted to compare their efficacy and safety. The objective was to determine the usability of IC and consistency of results delivered by the two comparisons. Factors that might influence the inconsistency of results were also investigated. METHODS ICs and DCs were conducted using the change from baseline of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score as an efficacy endpoint and the dropout rate was selected as a safety endpoint. Placebo and risperidone were used as common comparators for ICs. RESULTS A literature search identified 20 articles. The efficacy analysis gave results on the mean difference in PANSS change (95% CI) of ?5.72 (?10.22, ?1.22) in ICs using placebo as a common comparator and ?7.41 (?15.96, 1.14) in DCs. When using risperidone as a common comparator, it was ?9.15 (?20.12, 1.82). In rate ratio analysis of the all cause dropout rate, the IC result was 1.17 (0.83, 1.65) using placebo as a common comparator and 1.56 (0.57, 4.26) using risperidone as a common comparator. Both analyses gave consistent results between ICs and DCs. A slightly lower estimated value was observed in ICs using placebo. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that ICs between olanzapine and aripiprazole can deliver results consistent with those of DCs. It is also suggested that the selection of a common comparator is important when control group bias is suspected in the data set. PMID:23919914

  1. Identifying Risks at a Superfund Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity helps students understand the types of risks found at Superfund sites and how these risks are identified and assessed. They learn how sites are discovered and where to report potential hazardous waste sites. The students also discuss the activities undertaken by the government or other parties at hazardous waste sites to identify sources of contamination, determine the type and extent of contamination, and evaluate the risks posed to human health and the environment.

  2. Comparing effectiveness with efficacy: outcomes of palliative chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, L.D.; Zhang–Salomons, J.; Mates, M.; Booth, C.M.; King, W.D.; Mackillop, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Randomized controlled trials (rcts) are the “gold standard” for establishing treatment efficacy; however, efficacy does not automatically translate to a comparable level of effectiveness in routine practice. Our objectives were to ? describe outcomes of palliative platinum-doublet chemotherapy (ppdc) in non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) in routine practice, in terms of survival and well-being; and? compare the effectiveness of ppdc in routine practice with its efficacy in rcts. Methods Electronic treatment records were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry to identify patients who underwent ppdc for nsclc at Ontario’s regional cancer centres between April 2008 and December 2011. At each visit to the cancer centre, a patient’s symptoms are recorded using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (esas). Score on the esas “well-being” item was used here as a proxy for quality of life (qol). Survival in the cohort was compared with survival in rcts, adjusting for differences in case mix. Changes in the esas score were measured 2 months after treatment start. The proportion of patients having improved or stable well-being was compared with the proportion having improved or stable qol in relevant rcts. Results We identified 906 patients with pre-ppdc esas records. Median survival was 31 weeks compared with 28–48 weeks in rcts. After accounting for deaths and cases lost to follow-up, we estimated that, at 2 months, 62% of the cohort had improved or stable well-being compared with 55%–63% who had improved or stable qol in rcts. Conclusions The effectiveness of ppdc for nsclc in routine practice in Ontario is consistent with its efficacy in rcts, both in terms of survival and improvement in well-being.

  3. Connecting Research and Researchers: ORCID Identifiers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haak, L.; Bryant, R.

    2013-12-01

    Lack of standards for identification of researchers is a major challenge for the research community. It is difficult not only to unambiguously associate researchers with their own work, but also to track use and re-use of those works. The goal of ORCID (orcid.org) is to connect research with researchers, ultimately saving researchers time in entering data, improving discoverability, and facilitating the flow of research information and data re-use. ORCID is a community-driven non-profit organization that provides an open registry of unique persistent identifiers for researchers. We work collaboratively with the research community to embed these identifiers in research workflows, including manuscript submission, grant application, and data set deposit. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of ORCID, an in particular how it is being used as a switchboard to connect existing but fragmented researcher identifiers. ORCID also provides researchers search and link tools to link their ORCID identifier to their existing datasets, grants, other research works, and an automated method to link new works to their identifier. ORCID is fundamental to solving the name ambiguity problem for researchers and scholars. Together with unique and persistent identifiers for publications, data sets, and research samples, ORCID is an essential underpinning needed to support interoperability between research systems.

  4. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J., E-mail: rmarcus@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  5. The efficacy of systemic therapy for internalizing and other disorders of childhood and adolescence: a systematic review of 38 randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, Ruediger; von Sydow, Kirsten; Beher, Stefan; Haun, Markus W; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-12-01

    Systemic therapy (ST) is one of the most widely applied psychotherapeutic approaches in the treatment of children and adolescents, yet few systematic reviews exist on the efficacy of ST with this age group. Parallel to a similar study on adults, a systematic review was performed to analyze the efficacy of ST in the treatment of children and adolescents. All randomized or matched controlled trials (RCT) evaluating ST in any setting with child and adolescent index patients were identified by database searches and cross-references, as well as in existing meta-analyses and reviews. Inclusion criteria were: index patient diagnosed with a DSM-IV or ICD-10 listed psychological disorder, or suffering from other clinically relevant conditions, and trial published by December 2011. Studies were analyzed according to their sample, research methodology, interventions applied, and results at end-of-treatment and at follow-up. This article presents findings for internalizing and mixed disorders. Thirty-eight trials were identified, with 33 showing ST to be efficacious for the treatment of internalizing disorders (including mood disorders, eating disorders, and psychological factors in somatic illness). There is some evidence for ST being also efficacious in mixed disorders, anxiety disorders, Asperger disorder, and in cases of child neglect. Results were stable across follow-up periods of up to 5 years. Trials on the efficacy of ST for externalizing disorders are presented in a second article. There is a sound evidence base for the efficacy of ST as a treatment for internalizing disorders of child and adolescent patients. PMID:24329407

  6. Safety and efficacy of Hemospray® in upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Alan Hoi Lun; Ou, George; Galorport, Cherry; Amar, Jack; Bressler, Brian; Donnellan, Fergal; Ko, Hin Hin; Lam, Eric; Enns, Robert Allan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray (Cook Medical, USA) has recently been approved in Canada for the management of nonvariceal upper gastrointestional bleeding (UGIB). OBJECTIVE: To review the authors’ experience with the safety and efficacy of Hemospray for treating UGIB. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients who required endoscopic evaluation for suspected UGIB and were treated with Hemospray. RESULTS: From February 2012 to July 2013, 19 patients (mean age 67.6 years) with UGIB were treated with Hemospray. A bleeding lesion was identified in the esophagus in one (5.3%) patient, the stomach in five (26.3%) and duodenum in 13 (68.4%). Bleeding was secondary to peptic ulcers in 12 (63.2%) patients, Dieulafoy lesions in two (10.5%), mucosal erosion in one (5.3%), angiodysplastic lesions in one (5.3%), ampullectomy in one (5.3%), polypectomy in one (5.3%) and an unidentified lesion in one (5.3%). The lesions showed spurting hemorrhage in four (21.1%) patients, oozing hemorrhage in 11 (57.9%) and no active bleeding in four (21.1%). Hemospray was administered as monotherapy in two (10.5%) patients, first-line modality in one (5.3%) and rescue modality in 16 (84.2%). Hemospray was applied prophylactically to nonbleeding lesions in four (21.1%) patients and therapeutically to bleeding lesions in 15 (78.9%). Acute hemostasis was achieved in 14 of 15 (93.3%) patients. Rebleeding within seven days occurred in seven of 18 (38.9%) patients. Potential adverse events occurred in two (10.5%) patients and included visceral perforation and splenic infarct. Mortality occurred in five (26.3%) patients but the cause of death was unrelated to gastrointestinal bleeding with the exception of one patient who developed hemoperitoneum. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of both acute hemostasis and recurrent bleeding suggest that Hemospray may be used in high-risk cases as a temporary measure or a bridge toward more definitive therapy. PMID:24501723

  7. Antimicrobial efficacy of surface-coated external fixation pins.

    PubMed

    Furkert, Franz H; Sörensen, Jan H; Arnoldi, Jörg; Robioneck, Bernd; Steckel, Hartwig

    2011-06-01

    In clinical applications, colonization of metal implants by adhesive and biofilm-forming bacteria not only prolong healing but create additional healthcare costs for implant revision and antimicrobial treatment. An in vitro assay was established investigating the antimicrobial surface activity of external fixation pins intended for use in bone fractures and deformities. Test articles made out of stainless steel and coated with a polymer-containing nanoparticulate silver were compared to non-coated reference controls out of stainless steel, copper and titanium. Staphylococcus epidermidis, known as a predominant cause for implant-related infections was used as test organism. Test pins and bacteria were incubated for a period of 20 h found to be sufficient for initiating biofilm formation. After removing non- and low-adherent bacteria by rinsing, two methods were used to isolate high-adherent (sessile) bacteria from the implant surfaces. Besides shaking the implants in a solution containing small glass beads, a cytobrush technique was used to mechanically harvest viable bacteria. Finally, the amount of detached bacteria was determined by plate counts. Several parameters identified to be critical within the different removal procedures such as the inoculum concentration and the shaking time in the presence of glass beads as well as time of the cytobrush treatment were analysed. The final test scheme resulted in the use of an inoculum of 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) per millilitre, ten rinsing steps for the removal of low adherent bacteria and 5 min of shaking in the presence of glass beads, detaching the high-adherent bacteria. Due to subjective variations impacting the outcome of the procedure, the cytobrush technique was not favoured and finally rejected. Using the in vitro assay developed, it could be demonstrated that fixation pins coated with silver show a 3 log step reduction in the number of biofilm-forming bacteria compared to a non-coated stainless steel or titanium implant. Pins made out of copper showed the highest antimicrobial efficacy, as the number of detached bacteria was found to be below the detection limit, they served as a positive control within this test. PMID:21442392

  8. Pharmacokinetics and efficacies of obidoxime and atropine in paraoxon poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoene, K; König, A; Oldiges, H; Krügel, M

    1988-04-01

    The efficacies (ED50) of obidoxime and atropine against paraoxon poisoning in mice were determined by administering the antidotes 5, 20, 40 and 60 min before administration of the organophosphate. With increasing time intervals t between the administration of the antidote and paraoxon, the dose of antidote (ED50), that reduced the lethality of 2 LD50 of paraoxon to 50% increased. The standardized log ED50/t plot was linear and yielded the "efficacy half-life". In addition, the blood concentrations c of the antidotes were measured, resulting in a linear log c/t plot. The "efficacy half-life" was approximately twice the half-life of the antidote in blood. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:3293553

  9. Efficacy and acceptability of brotizolam in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Von Delbrück, Orla; Nagel, Cornelia; Lichterfeld, Arnhild

    1983-01-01

    1 Efficacy of and tolerance to brotizolam were studied over 6 days in elderly patients (62 to 93 years) suffering from sleep disturbance requiring medication: 62.9% used 0.125 mg and 32.0% used 0.25 mg. Effectiveness of brotizolam was assessed as good-to-satisfactory in 87.1% of the patients. 2 Efficacy of and tolerance to brotizolam were compared with nitrazepam in mainly elderly patients (56-91 years) with sleep disturbances requiring medication. Efficacy was assessed as good-to-satisfactory in 89.8% of patients with 0.125 mg brotizolam, 93.9% with 0.25 mg brotizolam and 95.9% with 5 mg nitrazepam. Patients reported improved sleep with all three preparations. 3 The dose range of brotizolam recommended for the elderly is 0.125-0.25 mg, though for the vast majority of patients the lower dose will be sufficient. PMID:6661385

  10. Efficacy of afoxolaner against Dermacentor variabilis ticks in dogs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Dorr, Paul; Everett, William R; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-01

    Efficacy of afoxolaner, a novel isoxazoline insecticide/acaricide, against Dermacentor variabilis ticks was confirmed in two laboratory studies. Each study utilized a controlled, randomized block design. One day prior to treatment, beagle dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult ticks. Repeat infestations were performed weekly for four weeks. The number of live ticks remaining on each dog was determined 48 h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. A single oral treatment with a dose approaching the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner (2.5mg/kg) eliminated the pre-existing infestations by D. variabilis ticks and controlled weekly re-infestations with 99.7-100% efficacy up to Day 23 and >97% efficacy at Day 30. PMID:24629426

  11. Current developments for improving efficacy of allergy vaccines.

    PubMed

    Sandrini, Alessandra; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2015-08-01

    Allergic diseases are prevalent worldwide. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a current treatment for allergy, leading to modification of the natural course of disease. Mechanisms of efficacy include Treg through release of IL-10 and TGF-? and specific IgG4 blocking antibodies. Subcutaneous and sublingual routes are popular, but uptake is limited by inconvenience and safety concerns. Inclusion criteria limit application to a small proportion of allergic patients. New forms of immunotherapy are being investigated for more efficacious, convenient and safer options with promising advances in recent years. The rationale of reducing vaccine allergenicity to increase safety while improving immunogenicity led to investigation of T-cell epitope-based peptides and recombinant allergen derivatives. Additionally, different routes of administration and adjuvants and adjunct therapies are being explored. This review discusses the current status of AIT and recent advances to improve clinical efficacy, safety and long-term immune tolerance. PMID:26013124

  12. Sense of community and informal social control among lower income households: the role of homeownership and collective efficacy in reducing subjective neighborhood crime and disorder.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Mark R; Manturuk, Kim R; Quercia, Roberto G

    2013-03-01

    We examine the link between homeownership, collective efficacy, and subjective neighborhood crime and disorder. Although prior research suggests that homeownership provides social benefits, the housing downturn and foreclosure crisis, coupled with mounting evidence that people self-select into housing, raise questions about the role of homeownership. We adjust for respondents' decision to own or rent using a nationwide sample of lower-income households. We account for demographic and neighborhood characteristics as well as ratings of individual efficacy. We present a structural equation model that identifies how sense of community and informal social control jointly contribute to collective efficacy. The latent collective efficacy construct mediates the impact of homeownership on resident's perceptions of neighborhood disorder. Such perceptions matter because they have been linked to resident's physical and mental health. Our findings demonstrate that when coupled with sustainable mortgages, homeownership exerts a robust yet indirect effect in reducing subjective neighborhood crime and disorder. Our model also links collective efficacy to neighborhood racial homogeneity, a finding which presents challenges for the study of diversity and community. We discuss sense of community research as well as sustainable mortgages and implications of the foreclosure crisis for the future of homeownership opportunities among lower income households and neighborhoods. PMID:22484395

  13. Comprehensive Sieve Analysis of Breakthrough HIV-1 Sequences in the RV144 Vaccine Efficacy Trial

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Paul T.; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J.; deCamp, Allan C.; Magaret, Craig A.; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B.; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L.; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Michael, Nelson L.; Schief, William R.; Mullins, James I.; Kim, Jerome H.; Gilbert, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or “signatures” and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p < 0.0001), suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens. PMID:25646817

  14. Comprehensive sieve analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 sequences in the RV144 vaccine efficacy trial.

    PubMed

    Edlefsen, Paul T; Rolland, Morgane; Hertz, Tomer; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Gartland, Andrew J; deCamp, Allan C; Magaret, Craig A; Ahmed, Hasan; Gottardo, Raphael; Juraska, Michal; McCoy, Connor; Larsen, Brendan B; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Carrico, Chris; Menis, Sergey; Bose, Meera; Arroyo, Miguel A; O'Connell, Robert J; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Robb, Merlin L; Kirys, Tatsiana; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Scheffler, Konrad; Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Carlson, Jonathan M; Michael, Nelson L; Schief, William R; Mullins, James I; Kim, Jerome H; Gilbert, Peter B

    2015-02-01

    The RV144 clinical trial showed the partial efficacy of a vaccine regimen with an estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 31% for protecting low-risk Thai volunteers against acquisition of HIV-1. The impact of vaccine-induced immune responses can be investigated through sieve analysis of HIV-1 breakthrough infections (infected vaccine and placebo recipients). A V1/V2-targeted comparison of the genomes of HIV-1 breakthrough viruses identified two V2 amino acid sites that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Here we extended the V1/V2 analysis to the entire HIV-1 genome using an array of methods based on individual sites, k-mers and genes/proteins. We identified 56 amino acid sites or "signatures" and 119 k-mers that differed between the vaccine and placebo groups. Of those, 19 sites and 38 k-mers were located in the regions comprising the RV144 vaccine (Env-gp120, Gag, and Pro). The nine signature sites in Env-gp120 were significantly enriched for known antibody-associated sites (p = 0.0021). In particular, site 317 in the third variable loop (V3) overlapped with a hotspot of antibody recognition, and sites 369 and 424 were linked to CD4 binding site neutralization. The identified signature sites significantly covaried with other sites across the genome (mean = 32.1) more than did non-signature sites (mean = 0.9) (p < 0.0001), suggesting functional and/or structural relevance of the signature sites. Since signature sites were not preferentially restricted to the vaccine immunogens and because most of the associations were insignificant following correction for multiple testing, we predict that few of the genetic differences are strongly linked to the RV144 vaccine-induced immune pressure. In addition to presenting results of the first complete-genome analysis of the breakthrough infections in the RV144 trial, this work describes a set of statistical methods and tools applicable to analysis of breakthrough infection genomes in general vaccine efficacy trials for diverse pathogens. PMID:25646817

  15. Biofeedback treatment for functional anorectal disorders: a comprehensive efficacy review.

    PubMed

    Palsson, Olafur S; Heymen, Steve; Whitehead, William E

    2004-09-01

    This review aimed to critically evaluate the literature on the efficacy of biofeedback for functional anorectal disorders, rate these biofeedback applications according to established guidelines, and make recommendations for this field based on the literature. The Medline and PsychInfo databases were searched to obtain all papers published from 1975 to 2003 that included the terms "biofeedback" and either "constipation" "pelvic floor dyssynergia" "fecal incontinence" or "anorectal pain." Adult and pediatric papers in any language were screened. Prospective studies with five or more participants and a description of the treatment protocol and outcome were selected for review. Seventy-four studies qualified for review: 33 trials on fecal incontinence (FI), 38 on pelvic floor dyssynergia (PFD) or functional constipation, and 3 on anorectal pain. Only 20% of studies were controlled outcome trials. Treatment protocols, etiological subgroups studied and outcome measures varied greatly. The overall average probability of successful treatment outcome for patients treated with biofeedback was 67.2% for functional FI and 62.4% for constipation. There were insufficient data to warrant such calculation for anorectal pain. According to standard efficacy rating criteria, biofeedback treatment is efficacious for functional constipation or PFD in children and probably efficacious in adults; probably efficacious for functional FI; and possibly efficacious for anorectal pain. Utilizing data from all applicable studies, we found that success rate per subject is significantly higher for biofeedback treatment than for standard medical care for PFD/functional constipation, and FI (p < .001 for both). Biofeedback treatment may therefore be viewed as a valuable adjunct to medical management of functional PFD/constipation and incontinence. A number of recommendations for future investigations are made based on the review. PMID:15497616

  16. Efficacy of rabdosia rubescens in the treatment of gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sui; Liu, Jiarong; Zhang, Handong

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of rabdosia rubescens against gingivitis and compared the therapeutic efficacy of different dosage forms of rabdosia rubescens. A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, double-simulation, positive-controlled and parallel trial was conducted. A total of 136 patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of gingivitis were enrolled. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: test group (n=67), in which rabdosia rubescens drop pill (960 mg) and 4 tablets of simulation agent of rabdosia rubescen were orally given to the subjects three times a day for 5 days; and control group (n=69), in which the subjects were administered the tablets of rabdosia rubescens (1000 mg) and 24 drop pills of simulation agent of rabdosia rubescens thrice daily for 5 days. The experimental protocols and diagnostic criteria were established by expert panel prior to the experiment. The clinical symptoms were graded according to the severity of the disease and quantified. The total scores and scores for each clinical symptom of gingivitis were assessed at baseline and on the 6th day post-treatment. The therapeutic efficacy was compared between the two groups and in each group itself before and after the treatment. The results showed that in the two groups, the subjects who were given rabdosia rubescens, drop pill or tablet, had a decrease in total scores and scores for each clinical symptom when compared with those before treatment (P<0.01). There was significant difference in the therapeutic efficacy between the test group and the control group with the efficacy rate being 92.54% and 79.71% respectively (P<0.05). It was concluded that rabdosia rubescens showed great promise in treating gingivitis. And rabdosia rubescens drop pill was more efficacious than rabdosia rubescens tablet. PMID:19821105

  17. Efficacy of major anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins in France.

    PubMed

    Traversa, Donato; Castagna, Giuseppe; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Meloni, Silvana; Bartolini, Roberto; Geurden, Thomas; Pearce, Michael C; Woringer, Emmanuel; Besognet, Bruno; Milillo, Piermarino; D'Espois, Melanie

    2012-09-10

    This paper reports a survey conducted in France during 2011 to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used anthelmintics against horse cyathostomins. A total of 40 farms and 1089 horses were screened for the presence of cyathostomins. All farms but one were positive, with an overall animal infection rate of 53.7%, ranging from 9% to 83% on individual farms. On 445 horses from 30 of these farms, a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was performed to evaluate the efficacy of oral formulations of fenbendazole (FBZ), pyrantel embonate (PYR), ivermectin (IVM) and moxidectin (MOX). Calculation of the mean FECR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) around the mean was performed using bootstrap analysis. Resistance to FBZ was found on 17 of 18 farms investigated, with a mean reduction of 57% (95% CI: 38.5-71.2%). Suspected resistance for PYR was found on 6 of 30 farms, and confirmed on another 3 of 30 farms, with a mean reduction for PYR of 94.7% (95% CI: 88.9-98.5%). Reduced efficacy simultaneously of FBZ and PYR was found in 7 farms. Reduced efficacy of IVM was found in one animal on one farm and of MOX in one animal on another farm, and was combined with resistance against FBZ and/or PYR. These results indicate that single and multiple drug resistance and reduced efficacy in equine cyathostomins is present in France. Macrocylic lactones proved to be highly effective compounds against cyathostomins, with reduced efficacy for IVM and MOX in two farms only. These results extend present knowledge on the occurrence of drug resistant cyathostomins in Europe, and illustrate the necessity to use anthelmintics in appropriate worm control programmes. PMID:22538094

  18. Advertisements impact the physiological efficacy of a branded drug.

    PubMed

    Kamenica, Emir; Naclerio, Robert; Malani, Anup

    2013-08-01

    We conducted randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of direct-to-consumer advertisements on the efficacy of a branded drug. We compared the objectively measured, physiological effect of Claritin (Merck & Co.), a leading antihistamine medication, across subjects randomized to watch a movie spliced with advertisements for Claritin or advertisements for Zyrtec (McNeil), a competitor antihistamine. Among subjects who test negative for common allergies, exposure to Claritin advertisements rather than Zyrtec advertisements increases the efficacy of Claritin. We conclude that branded drugs can interact with exposure to television advertisements. PMID:23878212

  19. Clinical efficacy and safety of statins in managing cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Kapur, Navin K; Musunuru, Kiran

    2008-01-01

    Since their introduction in the 1980s, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have emerged as the one of the best-selling medication classes to date, with numerous trials demonstrating powerful efficacy in preventing cardiovascular outcomes. As our understanding of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherosclerosis continues to grow, the concept of ‘lower is better’ has corresponded with a ‘more is better’ approach to statin-based therapy. This review provides a detailed understanding of the clinical efficacy and safety of statins with a particular emphasis on the third generation drug, rosuvastatin. PMID:18561510

  20. Experimental efficacy of anidulafungin against Aspergillus terreus species complex.

    PubMed

    Sanchis, Marta; Capilla, Javier; Mayayo, Emilio; Pastor, Francisco J; Guarro, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Whereas echinocandins are alternatives for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis, the efficacy of anidulafungin (AFG) against Aspergillus terreus infection has not yet been explored. We have evaluated the in vitro activity, as well as the in vivo efficacy of AFG in neutropenic mice infected by A. terreus species complex. Time-kill studies showed in vitro fungistatic activity of AFG against two strains. AFG at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the fungal load in kidney of mice, but only the higher dose was able to prolong survival. PMID:25980004

  1. First attempt to implement ophthalmia neonatorum prophylaxis in angola: microorganisms, efficacy, and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Isabel; Justel, Mar; Martinez, Prudencio; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul; Pastor, J Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of povidone-iodine (P-I) prophylaxis for ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) in Angola and to document maternal prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates. Methods. Endocervical samples from mothers (n = 317) and newborn conjunctival smears (n = 245) were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Newborns were randomized into a noninterventional group and an interventional group that received a drop of P-I 2.5% bilaterally after conjunctival smear collection. Mothers were trained to identify signs of ON and attend a follow-up visit. Results. Forty-two newborns had ocular pathology, and 11 (4.4%) had clinical signs of ON at the time of delivery. Maternal PCR was positive for MG (n = 19), CT (n = 8), and NG (n = 2). Six newborns were positive for CT (n = 4), MG (n = 2), and NG (n = 1). Mother-to-child transmission rates were 50% for CT and NG and 10.5% for MG. Only 16 newborns returned for follow-up. Conclusions. Lack of maternal compliance prevented successful testing of prophylactic P-I efficacy in ON prevention. Nevertheless, we documented the prevalence and mother-to-child transmission rates for CT, NG, and MG. These results emphasize the need to develop an effective Angolan educational and prophylactic ON program. PMID:25785190

  2. Efficacy combined with specified ingredients: A new direction for empirically-supported addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Aims With the increased need for sanctioning behavioral addiction treatments to guide key stakeholders, focus has shifted to developing and applying criteria for establishing empirically-supported treatments (EST). Among the many criteria offered, demonstration of incremental efficacy over a placebo or comparison in at least two independent randomized clinical trials (RCT) has been the gold standard. While necessary, the present EST criteria are not sufficient. The present work: (1) argues for empirically supported specificity in behavioral addiction treatment, (2) explores the limitations of empirical support for EST efficacy without evidence of specificity, and (3) discusses implications and recommendations for ultimately raising the bar for status as an EST. Methods The authors review relevant literature on ESTs, evidence-based practice, and clinical trial design in the addictions and related disciplines. Results We clarify that the additional bar of specificity does not denote uniqueness in causal processes and we argue that specificity should not be inferred only via the nature of the experimental contrast. Rather, a treatment has specificity if its active ingredients are identified and empirically validated as predictors of subsequent treatment-related outcomes. Within this new definition, there are implications for clinical research and other key stakeholders. Conclusions A heightened centrality of empirically-supported addiction treatment ingredients moving forward will advance clinical knowledge and evaluation methodology at a far greater pace. PMID:23072622

  3. Treatment Research for Trauma/PTSD in Youth and Adults: Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Kolko, David J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Springgate, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Objective Population-based demands for trauma services have accelerated interest in rapid deployment of efficacious interventions to address the diverse mental health consequences of traumatic experiences. However, optimal strategies for supporting either implementation or dissemination of trauma-focused interventions within healthcare or mental healthcare systems are under developed. Methods This paper offers suggestions for adapting treatment research parameters in order to advance the science on the implementable and practical use of trauma-focused interventions within a public health framework. To this end, we briefly examine the current status of the research evidence in this area and discuss efficacy and effectiveness treatment research parameters with specific attention to the implications for developing the research base on implementation and dissemination of effective trauma practices for children. Results Examples from current studies are used to identify approaches for developing, testing, and enhancing strategies to roll-out effective treatment practices in real-world settings. Conclusions New approaches that reflect the contexts in which these practices are implemented may enhance the feasibility, acceptability, replicability, and sustainability of trauma treatments and services and thus improve outcomes for a broader population of youth and families. PMID:20851266

  4. Development and initial validation of the Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale--Racial Diversity Form.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Hung-Bin; Lent, Robert W

    2007-03-01

    Drawing upon social-cognitive theory and the multicultural counseling competency literature, the Multicultural Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale-Racial Diversity Form (MCSE-RD) was developed to assess perceived ability to counsel racially diverse clients. Data were collected from 181 graduate students in counseling-related programs, 41 undergraduate psychology students, and 22 graduate students enrolled in a prepracticum course. Results of an exploratory factor analysis retained 37 items and identified three underlying factors: Multicultural Intervention, Multicultural Assessment, and Multicultural Session Management. MCSE-RD subscale and total scores produced adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates. Initial validity findings indicated theory-consistent relations of MCSE-RD scores with general counseling self-efficacy, multicultural counseling competency, social desirability, therapist demographics, and educational/training variables. Participation in prepracticum was associated with positive change in MCSE-RD scores. Implications for training and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122166

  5. Opioid Therapy Pharmacogenomics for Noncancer Pain: Efficacy, Adverse Events, and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Chronic non-cancer pain is a debilitating condition associated with high individual and societal costs. While opioid treatment for pain has been available for centuries, it is associated with high variability in outcome, and a considerable proportion of patients is unable to attain relief from symptoms while suffering adverse events and developing medication dependence. We performed a review of the efficacy of pharmacogenomic markers and their abilities to predict adverse events, dependence, and associated economic costs, focusing on two genes: OPRM1 and CYP2D6. Data sources were articles indexed by PubMed on or before August 6, 2013. Articles were first selected after review of their titles and abstracts, and full papers were read to confirm eligibility. Initially, fifty-two articles were identified. Of these, 17 were relevant to biological actions of pharmacogenomic markers and their effect on therapeutic efficacy, 16 to adverse events, 15 to opioid dependence, and eight to economic costs. In conclusion, increasing costs of opioid therapy have made the advances in pharmacogenomics an attractive solution to personalize care with unclear repercussions related to the impact on costs, morbidity, and outcomes. This intersection of pharmacoeconomics and pharmacogenomics presents a unique platform to further examine current advances in clinical medicine and their utility in cost-effective treatment of chronic pain. PMID:24167729

  6. Extracts of Devil's club (Oplopanax horridus) exert therapeutic efficacy in experimental models of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    McGill, Colin M; Alba-Rodriguez, Estefania J; Li, Shuo; Benson, Charles J; Ondrasik, Regina M; Fisher, Lindsey N; Claxton, David F; Barth, Brian M

    2014-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a group of hematological malignancies defined by expanded clonal populations of immature progenitors (blasts) of myeloid phenotype in blood and bone marrow. Given a typical poor prognostic outlook, there is great need for novel agents with anti-AML activity. Devil’s club (Oplopanax horridus) is one of the most significant medicinal plants used among the indigenous people of Southeast Alaska and the coastal Pacific Northwest, with different linguistic groups utilizing various parts of the plant to treat many different conditions including cancer. Studies identifying medically relevant components in Devil’s club are limited. For this research study, samples were extracted in 70% ethanol before in vitro analysis, to assess effects on AML cell line viability as well as to study regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and cysteine oxidation. The root extract displayed better in vitro anti-AML efficacy in addition to a noted anti-tyrosine kinase activity independent of an antioxidant effect. In vivo therapeutic studies using an immunocompetent murine model of AML further demonstrated that Devil’s club root extract improved the murine survival while decreasing immunosuppressive regulatory T cells and improving CD8+ T-cell functionality. This study defines for the first time an anti-AML efficacy for extracts of Devil’s club. PMID:25340187

  7. Determination of Efficacy of Reflexology in Managing Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Krishna; Maran, V. Bharathi; Pandey, Ravindra M.; Tripathi, Manjari

    2014-01-01

    Background. The restricted usage of existing pharmacological methods which do not seem to provide the treatment of diabetic neuropathy may lead to exploring the efficacy of a complementary therapy. In this context, this paper was devoted to evaluate the efficacy of foot reflexology. This health science works on the hypothesis that the dysfunctional states of body parts could be identified by observing certain skin features and be rectified by stimulating certain specific areas mapped on feet. Method. Subjects (N = 58) with diagnosed diabetic neuropathy were randomly distributed into reflexology and control groups in which both group patients were treated with ongoing pharmacological drugs. Reflexology group patients were additionally treated holistically with the hypothesis that this therapy would bring homeostasis among body organ functions. This was a caregiver-based study with a follow-up period of 6 months. The outcome measures were pain reduction, glycemic control, nerve conductivity, and thermal and vibration sensitivities. The skin features leading to the detection of the abnormal functional states of body parts were also recorded and analyzed. Results. Reflexology group showed more improvements in all outcome measures than those of control subjects with statistical significance. Conclusion. This study exhibited the efficient utility of reflexology therapy integrated with conventional medicines in managing diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24527055

  8. The echinocandin antifungals: an overview of the pharmacology, spectrum and clinical efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lewis, Russell E

    2003-08-01

    For over four decades, the principal target of antifungal therapy has been the fungal cell membrane sterol ergosterol. Although this has proven to be a successful and relatively selective antifungal target, collateral toxicity to mammalian cells (amphotericin B) and drug interactions (azoles) have been by-products of agents that target the fungal cell membrane. In the 1970s, the echinocandins were identified during the screening of fungal fermentation products for new antibiotic agents. These agents were subsequently shown to inhibit production of beta(1,3)-glucan, a key structural component of the fungal cell wall. Subsequent chemical modification of these natural products has led to the development of safer, semi-synthetic beta(1,3)-glucan synthase inhibitors with enhanced microbiological and clinical efficacy against infections caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. In this review, the pharmacology, spectrum and clinical efficacy of the three leading beta(1,3)glucan synthase inhibitors (caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin), which have completed phase III clinical trials, will be discussed and a perspective for the role of these agents in the management of life-threatening mycoses will be offered. PMID:12882619

  9. Short-term safety and efficacy of calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) in children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E; Rychlik, Kristal A; Zychowski, Katherine E; Romoser, Amelia A; Phillips, Timothy D; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-10-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  10. BREAST: a novel method to improve the diagnostic efficacy of mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, P. C.; Tapia, K.; Ryan, J.; Lee, W.

    2013-03-01

    High quality breast imaging and accurate image assessment are critical to the early diagnoses, treatment and management of women with breast cancer. Breast Screen Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) provides a platform, accessible by researchers and clinicians world-wide, which will contain image data bases, algorithms to assess reader performance and on-line systems for image evaluation. The platform will contribute to the diagnostic efficacy of breast imaging in Australia and beyond on two fronts: reducing errors in mammography, and transforming our assessment of novel technologies and techniques. Mammography is the primary diagnostic tool for detecting breast cancer with over 800,000 women X-rayed each year in Australia, however, it fails to detect 30% of breast cancers with a number of missed cancers being visible on the image [1-6]. BREAST will monitor the mistakes, identify reasons for mammographic errors, and facilitate innovative solutions to reduce error rates. The BREAST platform has the potential to enable expert assessment of breast imaging innovations, anywhere in the world where experts or innovations are located. Currently, innovations are often being assessed by limited numbers of individuals who happen to be geographically located close to the innovation, resulting in equivocal studies with low statistical power. BREAST will transform this current paradigm by enabling large numbers of experts to assess any new method or technology using our embedded evaluation methods. We are confident that this world-first system will play an important part in the future efficacy of breast imaging.

  11. Efficacy of physiotherapy for musculoskeletal disorders: what can we learn from research?

    PubMed

    Beckerman, H; Bouter, L M; van der Heijden, G J; de Bie, R A; Koes, B W

    1993-02-01

    In order to summarize the available clinical evidence for the efficacy of physiotherapy, 400 randomized clinical trials were identified from the literature. Studies were found by using bibliographic databases, citation tracking, and correspondence with researchers in the field. Focusing on disorders of the musculoskeletal system, a number of criterion based meta-analyses were performed on 180 trials in order to summarize the available evidence. For each randomized clinical trial in each meta-analysis a methodological score was calculated using a set of explicit criteria and weighting factors applied by two or three independent reviewers who were blinded as to the outcomes, the journal and the authors of the publication. In each meta-analysis the randomized clinical trials were ordered hierarchically depending on their score for methodological quality. Meta-analyses were performed for spinal manipulation, exercise therapy, traction, ultrasound, and laser therapy, and for disorders of the back, neck, shoulder and knee. In general, the methodological quality of the studies appeared to be low, and the efficacy of physiotherapy was shown to be convincing for only a few indications and treatments. On the other hand, because of the prevalence of serious methodological flaws, it cannot be concluded that physiotherapy has no effect. PMID:8466780

  12. A comparative study of instructional efficacy between first and second-career teachers in secondary school math and science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Royal Anthony

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use Dr. James Stronge’s taxonomy of the qualities of effective teachers to determine whether there are significant differences in the instructional efficacy between first- and second-career teachers who teach math and science. Methodology: A causal-comparative study examined the effects of variables that cannot be manipulated experimentally. The survey instrument was a 50-tem self-identifying questionnaire addressing the 6 research questions used to determine significance between first- and second-career teachers in their classroom efficacy. Findings: A Mann-Whitney U-test determined there was an overall significant difference [p < 0.01] between first- and second-career teachers in their classroom efficacy, with second-career teachers being more aligned with research-based best practices for efficacy. Conclusions: The existing construct for hiring teachers should be reconsidered, so that teachers identified as effective by research-based methods are employed from the outset. Adult maturation patterns suggest that early adults serving as instructors are less effective for at least the first 3 to 5 years of the teachers’ career. This could be resolved by amending the criteria for teacher entry into the classroom. Maturity of the teacher plays a significant role in their classroom efficacy. Existing research has provided a construct for identifying effective teachers. Recommendations: Require teaching graduates to gain at least 5 years of practical experience in the disciplines in which they seek a license to teach before entering the classroom. Increase the age for teachers entering the profession to at least 26 before allowing them into the classroom to allow for adult maturation processes to occur. Increase the rigor for a teaching certification to the point where only high content knowledge instructors could pass. Require all potential teachers to be certified on a regular basis so that they have to keep up with the technology and the most current information of their professions. Develop an assessment to allow the instructor to display knowledge of the research-based best practices for instruction.

  13. Identifying optimal models to represent biochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Apri, Mochamad; de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Simon; Molenaar, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical systems involving a high number of components with intricate interactions often lead to complex models containing a large number of parameters. Although a large model could describe in detail the mechanisms that underlie the system, its very large size may hinder us in understanding the key elements of the system. Also in terms of parameter identification, large models are often problematic. Therefore, a reduced model may be preferred to represent the system. Yet, in order to efficaciously replace the large model, the reduced model should have the same ability as the large model to produce reliable predictions for a broad set of testable experimental conditions. We present a novel method to extract an "optimal" reduced model from a large model to represent biochemical systems by combining a reduction method and a model discrimination method. The former assures that the reduced model contains only those components that are important to produce the dynamics observed in given experiments, whereas the latter ensures that the reduced model gives a good prediction for any feasible experimental conditions that are relevant to answer questions at hand. These two techniques are applied iteratively. The method reveals the biological core of a model mathematically, indicating the processes that are likely to be responsible for certain behavior. We demonstrate the algorithm on two realistic model examples. We show that in both cases the core is substantially smaller than the full model. PMID:24416170

  14. Identifying Surfaces on the Pale Blue Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    The changing color of an unresolved planet hint at its cloud structure and surface features. Principal component analysis has previously been shown to robustly identify the number of surfaces contributing to disk-integrated observations. We have taken an important next step by showing that one can identify the reflectance spectra of unknown surface types, based solely on time-resolved, disk-integrated multi-band photometry. We test our method on disk-integrated observations of Earth taken by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission. Critically, we borrow analysis tools from the remote sensing community, where spatially-resolved spectral data are routinely analyzed in an automated way to identify known (eg. boreal forest) as well as unknown surfaces (eg. military bunkers). Our study indicates that planned missions like the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) will be able to identify new surfaces on exoplanets, and also offers a relatively model-independent avenue to identifying surface liquid water on other worlds.

  15. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of fibromyalgia treatment according to level of care

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Magdalena, Jesus; Magallón, Rosa; Fernández-García, Esther; Salas, Montserrat; Andrés, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this paper was to compare the efficacy of the treatments for fibromyalgia currently available in both primary care and specialised settings. Methods Published reports of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) researching pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments in patients with fibromyalgia were found in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsychInfo databases. The most recent electronic search was undertaken in June 2006. Results We identified a total of 594 articles. Based on titles and abstracts, 102 full articles were retrieved, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria. These RCTs assessed 120 treatment interventions in 7789 patients diagnosed with primary fibromyalgia. Of them, 4505 (57.8%) were included in the primary care group of our study and 3284 (42.2%) in the specialised intervention group. The sample was mostly made up of middle-aged women, who have had fibromyalgia for a mean period of 6 to 10 years. The mean effect size of the efficacy of the 120 treatment interventions in patients with fibromyalgia compared with controls was 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.58; p < 0.001). In the primary care group it was 0.46 (95% CI = 0.33 to 0.58) while in specialised care it was 0.53 (95% CI = 0.38 to 0.69), with no statistical significance in the differences. We analysed the efficacy of treatments by comparing primary and specialised care in the different fibromyalgia groups and there were no significant differences. The variables of the studies that affected the improvements in the efficacy of fibromyalgia treatment were low quality of the studies and a shorter duration of treatment. However, both factors were biased by the heterogeneity of the studies. Other variables that also improved outcome and were not biased by the heterogeneity of the studies, were younger age of the patients and shorter duration of the disorder. On the contrary, gender and type of treatment (pharmacological vs. psychological) did not affect outcome. Conclusion Based on this meta-analysis and despite the heterogeneity of specialised care studies and of the other limitations described in this article, treating fibromyalgia in specialised care offers no clear advantages. PMID:18627602

  16. Safety, efficacy and indications of prescription of maraviroc in clinical practice: Factors associated with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Llibre, Josep M; Rivero, Antonio; Rojas, Jhon F; Garcia Del Toro, Miguel; Herrero, Cristina; Arroyo, David; Pineda, Juan A; Pasquau, Juan; Masiá, Mar; Crespo, Manel; Blanco, José R; Moreno, Santiago

    2015-08-01

    Maraviroc is approved for treatment-experienced HIV+ adults in twice-daily administration. Limited data are available on safety, efficacy and use in routine clinical practice, outside of restrictive clinical trials. This retrospective multicenter (27 centers) study included 667 subjects starting a regimen with maraviroc. The primary endpoint was plasma HIV-RNA <50copies/mL and CD4(+) cell count change at 48 and 96weeks (FDA snapshot analysis). 94.4% had CCR5 tropism (58.3% Trofile™, 29.2% population genotype, and 12% genotyping proviral DNA). Half of the subjects received the drug in scenarios or dosages outside the initial approval. Maraviroc was prescribed for salvage in 346 (51.9%) individuals, as a switch strategy due to toxicity in 135 (38.7%), for immune discordance in 75 (11.2%), and for simplification in 48 (7.2%). After salvage therapy, 223 (64.5%) subjects had HIV-RNA <50copies/mL at 48weeks, and 178 (51.4%) at 96weeks. Darunavir/r was included in 224 (64.7%) subjects and associated with higher rates of virological and immunologic efficacy (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis MSM (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.29-3.94) and baseline HIV-RNA <100,000copies/mL (OR 1.96; 1.06-3.70) were associated with virological suppression. An increase in CD4(+) counts was seen at 48 and 96weeks in subjects with immune discordance (p<0.001). Maraviroc was used once-daily in 142 (21.3%) subjects overall, and 68 (57.4%) in switch/simplification. No new safety signals were identified. Besides in salvage regimens, maraviroc was frequently used in switch due to toxicity, simplification, and immune discordance. The efficacy in salvage in clinical practice was higher than in phase III clinical trials, likely due to availability of new active drugs in the regimen. These results increase our understanding of the efficacy, safety, and conditions of prescription of maraviroc beyond the initial registrational trials and the early manufacturer pharmacovigilance programs. PMID:25977241

  17. Photoacoustic tomography to identify inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Identifying neovascularity (angiogenesis) as an early feature of inflammatory arthritis can help in early accurate diagnosis and treatment monitoring of this disease. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a hybrid imaging modality which relies on intrinsic differences in the optical absorption among the tissues being imaged. Since blood has highly absorbing chromophores including both oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, PAT holds potential in identifying early angiogenesis associated with inflammatory joint diseases. PAT is used to identify changes in the development of inflammatory arthritis in a rat model. Imaging at two different wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, on rats revealed that there is a significant signal enhancement in the ankle joints of the arthritis affected rats when compared to the normal control group. Histology images obtained from both the normal and the arthritis affected rats correlated well with the PAT findings. Results support the fact that the emerging PAT could become a new tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23085914

  18. Case report. Efficacy of Hoodia for weight loss: is there evidence to support the efficacy claims?

    PubMed

    Whelan, A M; Jurgens, T M; Szeto, V

    2010-10-01

    Increasing rates of adult obesity and its negative health consequences are likely to become an increasing burden to the Canadian health care system. Consumers are looking for treatment options and often try the natural health products that are heavily promoted as safe, fast and effective. In this case report, MH, a 57-year-old overweight female wanted advice regarding whether she should use the natural product Hoodia to help her attain her weight loss goals. A literature search was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and IPA from inception to March 2009. The internet, files of the authors and bibliographies of articles were searched for additional references. No published, peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials examining efficacy of Hoodia were found. Unpublished data from two small trials reported promising results with no adverse events. However, this leaves many unanswered questions regarding the use of Hoodia for weight loss such as the appropriate dose and duration, short and long term safety and use in patients with concomitant diseases. Literature suggests that some commercial products may not actually contain Hoodia at all. Additionally, Hoodia is not yet listed in the Canadian Licensed Natural Health Products Database meaning products sold in Canada may not meet Canadian regulatory standards. Upon discussing this information, MH decided not to use Hoodia, and other evidence-based recommendations were discussed. PMID:20831685

  19. On identifiability of flexible structure parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, S. M.; Goglia, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    This report investigates the identifiability of modal parameters of flexible structures. Expressions are derived for Cramer-Rao lower bounds for the modal parameters, that is, frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes or slopes. The optimal initial state, which maximizes the trace of the Fisher information matrix in the absence of persistent input, is obtained. The concepts discussed are applied to a finite-element model of the 122 meter hoop/column antenna. The numerical results show that the identifiability of the structural frequencies is excellent, followed by that of the damping ratios and the mode-slopes.

  20. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  1. Molecular Fingerprints to Identify Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of molecular techniques have been developed for genotyping Candida species. Among them, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphisms (MLP) analysis have recently emerged. MLST relies on DNA sequences of internal regions of various independent housekeeping genes, while MLP identifies microsatellite instability. Both methods generate unambiguous and highly reproducible data. Here, we review the results achieved by using these two techniques and also provide a brief overview of a new method based on high-resolution DNA melting (HRM). This method identifies sequence differences by subtle deviations in sample melting profiles in the presence of saturating fluorescent DNA binding dyes. PMID:23844370

  2. Microorganisms from aphid honeydew attract and enhance the efficacy of natural enemies

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Pascal D.; Sabri, Ahmed; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Thonart, Philippe; Lognay, Georges; Verheggen, François J.; Francis, Frédéric; Brostaux, Yves; Felton, Gary W.; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Aphids are one of the most serious pests of crops worldwide, causing major yield and economic losses. To control aphids, natural enemies could be an option but their efficacy is sometimes limited by their dispersal in natural environment. Here we report the first isolation of a bacterium from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum honeydew, Staphylococcus sciuri, which acts as a kairomone enhancing the efficiency of aphid natural enemies. Our findings represent the first case of a host-associated bacterium driving prey location and ovipositional preference for the natural enemy. We show that this bacterium has a key role in tritrophic interactions because it is the direct source of volatiles used to locate prey. Some specific semiochemicals produced by S. sciuri were also identified as significant attractants and ovipositional stimulants. The use of this host-associated bacterium could certainly provide a novel approach to control aphids in field and greenhouse systems. PMID:21673669

  3. Evaluation of Efficacy of Preventive Measures under Hypokinesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Matveyev, Ivan O.

    1987-01-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of physical exercise alone and in combination with other preventive measures with 24 adult male subjects kept under a bed rest regime. It was concluded that physical exercise was the most reliable measure in counteracting neuromuscular system disorders under diminished muscular activity conditions. (Author/DB)

  4. Biofeedback Treatment for Functional Anorectal Disorders: A Comprehensive Efficacy Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olafur S. Palsson; Steve Heymen; William E. Whitehead

    2004-01-01

    This review aimed to critically evaluate the literature on the efficacy of biofeedback for functional anorectal disorders, rate these biofeedback applications according to established guidelines, and make recommendations for this field based on the literature. The Medline and PsychInfo databases were searched to obtain all papers published from 1975 to 2003 that included the terms “biofeedback” and either “constipation,” “pelvic

  5. Efficacy of Modular Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Taylor, Alissa A.; Francis, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Catherine; Austin, Ayda A.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific…

  6. Using Chemopreventive Agents to Enhance the Efficacy of Cancer Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fazlul H. Sarkar; Yiwei Li

    Emerging evidence suggests that cancer preventative agents might be combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy for the more effective treatment of cancer. Recent studies suggest that genistein and other dietary compounds that prevent cancer may enhance the efficacy of cancer therapeutics by modifying the activity of key cell proliferation and survival pathways, such as those controlled by Akt, nuclear factor-KB, and

  7. Antibacterial Efficacy of Benzoyl Peroxide in Phospholipid Liposomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Fluhr; O. Barsom; W. Gehring; M. Gloor

    1999-01-01

    Background: Literature reports indicate that phospholipid liposomes facilitate the accumulation of active agents in the infundibulum. Objective: The study hypothesis of an improved antibacterial efficacy of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in phospholipid liposomes was tested in comparison with a commercial and a pharmacopoeial BPO preparation. Methods: The infundibular bacterial samples were obtained with the Permabond technique from 20 acne patients who

  8. Efficacy-Information for Implementing Learning in Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesan, L. Jawahar

    2004-01-01

    This paper, while emphasizing the linkage between the concepts of "empowerment" and "learning", argues that empowerment provides the most appropriate base to effectively implement learning in construction organizations. It is argued that "efficacy-information", being a derivative of empowerment, helps influence employees' behavior in seeking,…

  9. Teacher Induction and Elementary Science Teaching: Enhancing Self-Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Judith; Wallace, John

    2001-01-01

    Followed an elementary teacher during her transition from preservice to inservice teaching, examining influences on her science teaching efficacy beliefs. Data from teacher interviews, observations, and journal writings indicated that mastery experience and verbal and other forms of social persuasion were the major sources of influence for…

  10. The Efficacy of Stuttering Measurement Training: Evaluating Two Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainbridge, Lauren A.; Stavros, Candace; Ebrahimian, Mineh; Wang, Yuedong; Ingham, Roger J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two stuttering measurement training programs currently used for training clinicians were evaluated for their efficacy in improving the accuracy of total stuttering event counting. Method: Four groups, each with 12 randomly allocated participants, completed a pretest-posttest design training study. They were evaluated by their counts of…

  11. Building Confident Teachers: Preservice Physical Education Teachers' Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding teachers' perceptions of their abilities across a variety of teaching strategies can provide insight for understanding teaching effectiveness and program review. Teaching efficacy reflects the degrees of confidence individuals have in their ability to successfully perform specific teaching proficiencies (Bandura, 1986). Additional…

  12. Model System to Define Pharmacokinetic Requirements for Antimalarial Drug Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Rahul P.; Nenortas, Elizabeth; Tripathi, Abhai K.; Sullivan, David J.; Shapiro, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria presents a tremendous public health burden and new therapies are needed. Massive compound libraries screened against Plasmodium falciparum have yielded thousands of lead compounds, resulting in an acute need for rational criteria to select the best candidates for development. We reasoned that, akin to antibacterials, antimalarials might have an essential pharmacokinetic requirement for efficacy: action governed either by total exposure or peak concentration (AUC/CMAX), or by duration above a defined minimum concentration (Time above Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, TMIC). We devised an in vitro system for P. falciparum, capable of mimicking the dynamic fluctuations of a drug in vivo. Utilizing this apparatus, we find that chloroquine is TMIC-dependent while the efficacy of artemisinin is driven by CMAX. The latter was confirmed in a mouse model of malaria. These characteristics can explain the clinical success of two antimalarial drugs with widely different kinetics in humans. Chloroquine, which persists for weeks, is ideally suited for its TMIC mechanism, whereas great efficacy despite short exposure (t1/2 in blood 3 h or less) is attained by CMAX-driven artemisinins. This validated preclinical model system can be used to select those antimalarial lead compounds whose CMAX or TMIC requirement for efficacy match pharmacokinetics obtained in vivo. The apparatus can also be used to explore the kinetic-dependence of other pharmacodynamic endpoints in parasites. PMID:24089407

  13. Efficacy of arsenic filtration by Kanchan arsenic filter in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anjana; Smith, Linda S; Shrestha, Shreekrishna; Maden, Narendra

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater arsenic contamination has caused a significant public health burden in lowland regions of Nepal. For arsenic mitigation purposes, the Kanchan Arsenic Filter (KAF) was developed and validated for use in 2003 after pilot studies showed its effectiveness in removing arsenic. However, its efficacy in field conditions operating for a long period has been scarcely observed. In this study, we observe the efficacy of KAFs running over 6 months in highly arsenic-affected households in Nawalparasi district. We assessed pair-wise arsenic concentrations of 62 randomly selected household tubewells before filtration and after filtration via KAFs. Of 62 tubewells, 41 had influent arsenic concentration exceeding the Nepal drinking water quality standard value (50 ?g/L). Of the 41 tubewells having unsafe arsenic levels, KAFs reduced arsenic concentration to the safe level for only 22 tubewells, an efficacy of 54%. In conclusion, we did not find significantly high efficacy of KAFs in reducing unsafe influent arsenic level to the safe level under the in situ field conditions. PMID:25252363

  14. Efficacy of curcumin in lung cancer: Histological evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreea Geamanu

    2008-01-01

    Curcumin, the polyphenolic pigment from the rhizome Curcuma longa , is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and recently, anticarcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate efficacy of curcumin in lung cancer induced hamster model. 32 male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into test (TO, T2 n= 10 each) and control (CO, C2 n=6 each) groups. Test

  15. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  16. Results from a Randomized Efficacy Trial of Cognitive Tutor Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, John F.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Ikemoto, Gina S.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Slaughter, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to help address a need for information about efficacious mathematics curriculum and instruction at the high school level. Data from national and international studies, including the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), show very low mathematics proficiency rates for high school students. Many educators recognize a…

  17. Primary School Children's Self-Efficacy for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy for Musical Learning questionnaire was adapted and tested with 404 primary school children, producing a robust Cronbach alpha (0.87) and confirming a single underlying factor through exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest scores showed the measure's stability over a 9-month period. Data were collected on children's prior music…

  18. The Efficacy of the Total Giftedness Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batterjee, Adel A.

    2010-01-01

    The study objective was to apply the Total Giftedness Development Model (TGDM) among a Saudi Arabian sample and study its effectiveness. The descriptive and case study research methods were applied on a sample of 807 male students, age 5 to 18 to test the efficacy of the model. Several instruments, including The Saudi Mental Abilities Test,…

  19. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. PMID:24238180

  20. Efficacy of Two Novel Fungicides for Control of Strawberry Anthracnose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the efficacy of sampangine and CAY-1, two new fungicides from natural sources, with that of the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin to prevent strawberry anthracnose using a detached leaf assay. Detached leaves of strawberry cv. Chandler were treated with fungicides 24 h before or after ...

  1. Growth Hormone Secretagogues: Characterization, Efficacy, and Minimal Bioactive Conformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. McDowell; Kathleen A. Elias; Mark S. Stanley; Daniel J. Burdick; John P. Burnier; Kathryn S. Chan; Wayne J. Fairbrother; R. Glenn Hammonds; Gladys S. Ingle; Neil E. Jacobsen; Deborah L. Mortensen; Thomas E. Rawson; Wesley B. Won; Ross G. Clark; Todd C. Somers

    1995-01-01

    Another class of growth hormone (GH) secretagogues has been discovered by altering the backbone structure of a flexible linear GH-releasing peptide (GHRP). In vitro and in vivo characterization confirms these GH secretagogues as the most potent and smallest (M_r < 500) reported. Anabolic efficacy is demonstrated in rodents with intermittent delivery. A convergent model of the bioactive conformation of GHRPs

  2. Investigating the Efficacy of Network Visualizations for Intelligence Tasks

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    Investigating the Efficacy of Network Visualizations for Intelligence Tasks Christopher W. Berardi- lytical methodologies to help military intelligence analysts cope with the growing amount of data and effectively exploited by intelligence analysts. Currently, the primary method within the intelligence do- main

  3. The Efficacy of Math Coaching: An Evaluative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbins, C. Neelie

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of implementation of instructional strategies to assist middle school teachers in improving mathematics education for their students. Coaching is one solution to this problem, but its impact on student achievement is unclear. This case study evaluated the relationship between coaching and teacher efficacy and the impact of these…

  4. Intervention Efficacy and Intensity for Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Method: Fifty-four preschool children with…

  5. Electromagnetic augmentation of antibiotic efficacy in infection of orthopaedic implants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. W. Pickering; R. Bayston; B. E. Scammell

    2003-01-01

    nfection of orthopaedic implants is a significant problem, with increased antibiotic resistance of adherent 'biofilm' bacteria causing difficulties in treatment. We have investigated the in vitro effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the efficacy of antibiotics in the treatment of infection of implants. Five-day biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis were grown on the tips of stainless-steel pegs. They were

  6. Luminous efficacy measurement of solid-state lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikonen, Tuomas; Pulli, Tomi; Vaskuri, Anna; Baumgartner, Hans; Kärhä, Petri; Ikonen, Erkki

    2012-04-01

    We present a system for luminous efficacy measurements of solid-state lamps (SSLs). It is based on a 1.65 m integrating sphere, originally designed for luminous flux measurements of dc-operated incandescent standard lamps. The sphere was slightly modified, and equipped with a programmable ac-power supply, as well as equipment for electrical power measurement of the lamps. The waveforms of both the electrical power and the luminous flux can be measured for analysing the quality of the electronics and the light produced by the SSLs. A goniospectrometer is used for angular characterization of the lamp intensity. Luminous efficacy test measurements were conducted for a group of 25 SSLs of different types. Special attention was paid to the spectral, spatial and self-absorption corrections to obtain low measurement uncertainty. The luminous efficacies were between 25 lm W-1 and 64 lm W-1, and the total harmonic distortions of the current waveforms were in the range of 30% to 280%. Depending on the lamp, the maximum deviation of the flux from its mean value was 0.06% to 105%. The relative expanded uncertainty obtainable for the luminous efficacy of a typical SSL with stable built-in electronics is 1.2% (k = 2).

  7. Efficacy of modular cognitive behavior therapy for childhood anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce F. Chorpita; Alissa A. Taylor; Sarah E. Francis; Catherine Moffitt; Ayda A. Austin

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cog- nitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific Island ethnicity ranging in age from 7 to 13

  8. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale: Initial Psychometric Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinelli, Selma de Cassia; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Caliatto, Susana Gakyia; Sassi, Adriana de Grecci

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of a self-efficacy measure for elementary school children. A sample of 514 children, ages 8 to 11, enrolled in Grades 2 to 4 of public schools in Brazil was investigated. The scale included 78 descriptive items about academic situations, in which the child was required to respond on a 5-point scale, the…

  9. The efficacy of vaccinial immune globulin. A 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Feery, B J

    1976-01-01

    This survey reports on the use of vaccinial immune globulin in Australia over the last 15 years. Evidence is produced that vaccinial immune globulin has proven efficacious in the prophylaxis and therapy of complications following smallpox vaccination. An indication of the type and frequency of complications following vaccination is provided. PMID:1007152

  10. The Efficacy of International Volunteerism: A Qualitative Review 

    E-print Network

    Womack, Leslye 1989-

    2012-04-12

    THE EFFICACY OF INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTEERISM IN PERU AND ECUADOR: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW Major: International Studies Spanish May 2012 Submitted to Honors and Undergraduate Research Texas A&M University... OF INTERNATIONAL VOLUNTEERISM IN PERU AND ECUADOR: A QUALITATIVE REVIEW Approved by: Research Advisor: Hiroshi Ono Associate Director, Honors and Undergraduate Research: Duncan MacKenzie Major: International Studies Spanish May 2012...

  11. Efficacy of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Generalized Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Linden; D. Zubraegel; T. Baer; U. Franke; P. Schlattmann

    2005-01-01

    Background: Generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) are amongst the most prevalent mental disorders. Recent studies have suggested that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for GAD. A controlled clinical trial was done to evaluate the efficacy of CBT treatment in outpatients with pure GAD who were treated by a therapist working in routine care. Methods: Seventy-two outpatients, fulfilling GAD

  12. Collective efficacy and HIV prevention in South African townships.

    PubMed

    Cain, Demetria; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Eaton, Lisa; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mwaba, Kelvin; Kalichman, Seth C

    2013-10-01

    South African townships have high HIV prevalence and a strong need for collective action to change normative sexual risk behaviors. This study investigated the relationship between perceptions of individuals about collective efficacy in the community's ability to prevent HIV and their personal HIV risk behaviors. Men (n = 1,581) and women (n = 718) completed anonymous surveys within four Black African Townships in Cape Town, South Africa from June 2008 to December 2010. Measures included demographics, alcohol use, attitudinal and behavioral norms, sexual health communications, and sexual risk behaviors. In multivariate logistic regressions, men were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they were married, drank less often in alcohol serving establishments, believed that fewer men approve of HIV risk behaviors, talk more with others about HIV/AIDS, and had more sex partners in the past month. Women were more likely to endorse collective efficacy if they drank alcohol less often, talked more with others about HIV/AIDS, had more sex partners in the past month, but reported fewer unprotected sex acts in the past month. Community level interventions that strengthen collective efficacy beliefs will have to consider both protective and risk behaviors associated with believing that the community is ready and capable of preventing HIV. PMID:23660646

  13. Non-Traditional Preservice Teachers and Their Mathematics Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amy Bingham

    2012-01-01

    In Florida, recent legislative changes have granted community colleges the ability to offer baccalaureate degrees in education, frequently to non-traditional students. Based on information obtained from the literature covering preservice teachers' math knowledge, teachers' efficacy beliefs about math, and high-stakes mathematics testing, a study…

  14. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao C. Chen; Patricia Gene Greene; Ann Crick

    1998-01-01

    Previous research on the psychology of entrepreneurs found that personality traits such as locus of control failed to distinguish entrepreneurs from managers. In search of an individual characteristic that is distinctively entrepreneurial, we proposed an entrepreneurial self-efficacy construct (ESE) to predict the likelihood of an individual being an entrepreneur. ESE refers to the strength of a person’s belief that he

  15. Bringing strategic efficacy to facility management through CAFM tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer W. Keller; Chris Keller

    2004-01-01

    Most larger companies and corporations who own or lease multiple locations face challenges in designing, tracking and managing property. The following case study examines the work of the Facilities Design and Planning Group at Dow Jones & Co. The study follows the group’s efforts to improve the strategic efficacy of its operations by expanding its implementation of its computer-aided facility

  16. Efficacy of Montessori Education in Attention Gathering Skill of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim Dogru, S. Sunay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Montessori education which is offered to upskill the attention gathering skill of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In total fifteen pre-schooler participants, six girls and nine boys who are diagnosed with ADHD (7 of the children with ADHD, 8 with only AD), joined to this…

  17. Assessing the Efficacy of Gaming in Economic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gremmen, Hans; Potters, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Presents the results of a study that measured the efficacy of an international economics simulation among undergraduates. The simulation consisted of a macroeconomics game where students develop economic policies for four hypothetical countries. A multiple choice test and posttest questionnaire suggests that classroom games are more effective than…

  18. Efficacy of lures and hair snares to detect lynx

    E-print Network

    to detect presence of lynx (Lynx canadensis). We tested 2 key elements of the protocol: 1) a hair- snaring listing the lynx (Lynx canadensis) as "threatened" under the Endangered SpeciesAct. The "take" provisionsEfficacy of lures and hair snares to detect lynx Gregory Jf: McDaniel, Kevin S. McKelvey, John R

  19. Social and Cultural Meanings of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nancy J.; Bird, Joyce A.; Clark, Melissa A.; Rakowski, William; Guerra, Claudia; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the influences of social context on women's health behavior through illustration of the powerful influences of social capital (the benefits and challenges that accrue from participation in social networks and groups) on experiences and perceptions of self-efficacy. The authors conducted inductive interviews with Latino and…

  20. International fungicide efficacy trials for management of soybean rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of fungicides in managing soybean rust was evaluated in early and late application protocols in 12 locations in South America and southern Africa during three growing seasons from 2002 to 2005. There were differences in final soybean rust severity, defoliation, yield and 1000 seed weigh...