Science.gov

Sample records for identifying well-supported lineages

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Sorghum based on combined sequence data from cpDNA regions and ITS generate well-supported trees with two major lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ng'uni, Dickson; Geleta, Mulatu; Fatih, Moneim; Bryngelsson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Wild Sorghum species provide novel traits for both biotic and abiotic stress resistance and yield for the improvement of cultivated sorghum. A better understanding of the phylogeny in the genus Sorghum will enhance use of the valuable agronomic traits found in wild sorghum. Methods Four regions of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA; psbZ-trnG, trnY-trnD, trnY-psbM and trnT-trnL) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were used to analyse the phylogeny of sorghum based on maximum-parsimony analyses. Key Results Parsimony analyses of the ITS and cpDNA regions as separate or combined sequence datasets formed trees with strong bootstrap support with two lineages: the Eu-sorghum species S. laxiflorum and S. macrospermum in one and Stiposorghum and Para-sorghum in the other. Within Eu-sorghum, S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14 originating from southern Africa form a distinct clade. S. bicolor-2, originally from Yemen, is distantly related to other S. bicolor accessions. Conclusions Eu-sorghum species are more closely related to S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum than to any other Australian wild Sorghum species. S. macrospermum and S. laxiflorum are so closely related that it is inappropriate to classify them in separate sections. S. almum is closely associated with S. bicolor, suggesting that the latter is the maternal parent of the former given that cpDNA is maternally inherited in angiosperms. S. bicolor-3, -11 and -14, from southern Africa, are closely related to each other but distantly related to S. bicolor-2. PMID:20061309

  2. Genetic lineage tracing identifies in situ Kit-expressing cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaozhen; Yang, Rui; Huang, Xiuzhen; Zhang, Hui; He, Lingjuan; Zhang, Libo; Tian, Xueying; Nie, Yu; Hu, Shengshou; Yan, Yan; Zhang, Li; Qiao, Zengyong; Wang, Qing-Dong; Lui, Kathy O; Zhou, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac cells marked by c-Kit or Kit, dubbed cardiac stem cells (CSCs), are in clinical trials to investigate their ability to stimulate cardiac regeneration and repair. These studies were initially motivated by the purported cardiogenic activity of these cells. Recent lineage tracing studies using Kit promoter to drive expression of the inducible Cre recombinase showed that these CSCs had highly limited cardiogenic activity, inadequate to support efficient cardiac repair. Here we reassess the lineage tracing data by investigating the identity of cells immediately after Cre labeling. Our instant lineage tracing approach identifies Kit-expressing cardiomyocytes, which are labeled immediately after tamoxifen induction. In combination with long-term lineage tracing experiments, these data reveal that the large majority of long-term labeled cardiomyocytes are pre-existing Kit-expressing cardiomyocytes rather than cardiomyocytes formed de novo from CSCs. This study presents a new interpretation for the contribution of Kit(+) cells to cardiomyocytes and shows that Kit genetic lineage tracing over-estimates the cardiogenic activity of Kit(+) CSCs. PMID:26634606

  3. Inferring Gene Family Histories in Yeast Identifies Lineage Specific Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Ryan M.; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes. PMID:24921666

  4. Tightly congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification identified in a continental ant radiation.

    PubMed

    Price, Shauna L; Etienne, Rampal S; Powell, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive diversification is thought to be shaped by ecological opportunity. A prediction of this ecological process of diversification is that it should result in congruent bursts of lineage and phenotypic diversification, but few studies have found this expected association. Here, we study the relationship between rates of lineage diversification and body size evolution in the turtle ants, a diverse Neotropical clade. Using a near complete, time-calibrated phylogeny we investigated lineage diversification dynamics and body size disparity through model fitting analyses and estimation of per-lineage rates of cladogenesis and phenotypic evolution. We identify an exceptionally high degree of congruence between the high rates of lineage and body size diversification in a young clade undergoing renewed diversification in the ecologically distinct Chacoan biogeographical region of South America. It is likely that the region presented turtle ants with novel ecological opportunity, which facilitated a nested burst of diversification and phenotypic evolution within the group. Our results provide a compelling quantitative example of tight congruence between rates of lineage and phenotypic diversification, meeting the key predicted pattern of adaptive diversification shaped by ecological opportunity. PMID:26935139

  5. Worldwide Lineages of Clinical Pneumococci in a Japanese Teaching Hospital Identified by DiversiLab System.

    PubMed

    Kashiwaya, Kiyoshi; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Sakata, Ryuji; Iwata, Morihiro; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Chang, Bin; Ohnishi, Makoto; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones are representatives of worldwide-spreading pathogens. DiversiLab system, a repetitive PCR system, has been proposed as a less labor-and time-intensive genotyping platform alternative to conventional methods. However, the utility and analysis parameters of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineages was not established. To evaluate and optimize the performance of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide pneumococcal lineages, we examined 245 consecutive isolates of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae from all age-group patients at a teaching hospital in Japan. The capsular swelling reaction of all isolates yielded 24 different serotypes. Intensive visual observation (VO) of DiversiLab band pattern difference divided all isolates into 73 clusters. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of representative 73 isolates from each VO cluster yielded 51 different STs. Among them, PMEN-related lineages accounted for 63% (46/73). Although the serotype of PMEN-related isolates was identical to that of the original PMEN clone in 70% (32/46), CC156-related PMEN lineages, namely Greece(6B)-22 and Colombia(23F)-26, harbored various capsular types discordant to the original PMEN clones. Regarding automated analysis, genotyping by extended Jaccard (XJ) with a 75% similarity index cutoff (SIC) showed the highest correlation with serotyping (adjusted Rand's coefficient, 0.528). Elevating the SIC for XJ to 85% increased the discriminatory power sufficient for distinguishing two major PMEN-related isolates of Taiwan(19F)-14 and Netherlands(3)-31. These results demonstrated a potential utility of DiversiLab for identifying worldwide lineage of pneumococcus. An optimized parameters of automated analysis should be useful especially for comparison for reference strains by "identification" function of DiversiLab. PMID:27107736

  6. Transcriptional, epigenetic and retroviral signatures identify regulatory regions involved in hematopoietic lineage commitment.

    PubMed

    Romano, Oriana; Peano, Clelia; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio Malagoli; Petiti, Luca; Poletti, Valentina; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Cavazza, Alessia; Rossi, Claudia; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Giuliana; Bicciato, Silvio; De Bellis, Gianluca; Mavilio, Fulvio; Miccio, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide approaches allow investigating the molecular circuitry wiring the genetic and epigenetic programs of human somatic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) give rise to the different blood cell types; however, the molecular basis of human hematopoietic lineage commitment is poorly characterized. Here, we define the transcriptional and epigenetic profile of human HSPC and early myeloid and erythroid progenitors by a combination of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE), ChIP-seq and Moloney leukemia virus (MLV) integration site mapping. Most promoters and transcripts were shared by HSPC and committed progenitors, while enhancers and super-enhancers consistently changed upon differentiation, indicating that lineage commitment is essentially regulated by enhancer elements. A significant fraction of CAGE promoters differentially expressed upon commitment were novel, harbored a chromatin enhancer signature, and may identify promoters and transcribed enhancers driving cell commitment. MLV-targeted genomic regions co-mapped with cell-specific active enhancers and super-enhancers. Expression analyses, together with an enhancer functional assay, indicate that MLV integration can be used to identify bona fide developmentally regulated enhancers. Overall, this study provides an overview of transcriptional and epigenetic changes associated to HSPC lineage commitment, and a novel signature for regulatory elements involved in cell identity. PMID:27095295

  7. Lineage mapping identifies molecular and architectural similarities between the larval and adult Drosophila central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Lacin, Haluk; Truman, James W

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis in Drosophila occurs in two phases, embryonic and post-embryonic, in which the same set of neuroblasts give rise to the distinct larval and adult nervous systems, respectively. Here, we identified the embryonic neuroblast origin of the adult neuronal lineages in the ventral nervous system via lineage-specific GAL4 lines and molecular markers. Our lineage mapping revealed that neurons born late in the embryonic phase show axonal morphology and transcription factor profiles that are similar to the neurons born post-embryonically from the same neuroblast. Moreover, we identified three thorax-specific neuroblasts not previously characterized and show that HOX genes confine them to the thoracic segments. Two of these, NB2-3 and NB3-4, generate leg motor neurons. The other neuroblast is novel and appears to have arisen recently during insect evolution. Our findings provide a comprehensive view of neurogenesis and show how proliferation of individual neuroblasts is dictated by temporal and spatial cues. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13399.001 PMID:26975248

  8. Transcriptional, epigenetic and retroviral signatures identify regulatory regions involved in hematopoietic lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Oriana; Peano, Clelia; Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio Malagoli; Petiti, Luca; Poletti, Valentina; Cocchiarella, Fabienne; Rizzi, Ermanno; Severgnini, Marco; Cavazza, Alessia; Rossi, Claudia; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Giuliana; Bicciato, Silvio; De Bellis, Gianluca; Mavilio, Fulvio; Miccio, Annarita

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide approaches allow investigating the molecular circuitry wiring the genetic and epigenetic programs of human somatic stem cells. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) give rise to the different blood cell types; however, the molecular basis of human hematopoietic lineage commitment is poorly characterized. Here, we define the transcriptional and epigenetic profile of human HSPC and early myeloid and erythroid progenitors by a combination of Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE), ChIP-seq and Moloney leukemia virus (MLV) integration site mapping. Most promoters and transcripts were shared by HSPC and committed progenitors, while enhancers and super-enhancers consistently changed upon differentiation, indicating that lineage commitment is essentially regulated by enhancer elements. A significant fraction of CAGE promoters differentially expressed upon commitment were novel, harbored a chromatin enhancer signature, and may identify promoters and transcribed enhancers driving cell commitment. MLV-targeted genomic regions co-mapped with cell-specific active enhancers and super-enhancers. Expression analyses, together with an enhancer functional assay, indicate that MLV integration can be used to identify bona fide developmentally regulated enhancers. Overall, this study provides an overview of transcriptional and epigenetic changes associated to HSPC lineage commitment, and a novel signature for regulatory elements involved in cell identity. PMID:27095295

  9. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Joseph W; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Stout, Jason E; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M

    2015-12-01

    Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. PMID:26542222

  10. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Joseph W.; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M.; Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Stout, Jason E.; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. PMID:26542222

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of Helicobacter pylori from Malaysia identifies three distinct lineages suggestive of differential evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Mariappan, Vanitha; Baddam, Ramani; Lankapalli, Aditya K.; Shaik, Sabiha; Goh, Khean-Lee; Loke, Mun Fai; Perkins, Tim; Benghezal, Mohammed; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Marshall, Barry J.; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2015-01-01

    The discordant prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and its related diseases, for a long time, fostered certain enigmatic situations observed in the countries of the southern world. Variation in H. pylori infection rates and disease outcomes among different populations in multi-ethnic Malaysia provides a unique opportunity to understand dynamics of host–pathogen interaction and genome evolution. In this study, we extensively analyzed and compared genomes of 27 Malaysian H. pylori isolates and identified three major phylogeographic lineages: hspEastAsia, hpEurope and hpSouthIndia. The analysis of the virulence genes within the core genome, however, revealed a comparable pathogenic potential of the strains. In addition, we identified four genes limited to strains of East-Asian lineage. Our analyses identified a few strain-specific genes encoding restriction modification systems and outlined 311 core genes possibly under differential evolutionary constraints, among the strains representing different ethnic groups. The cagA and vacA genes also showed variations in accordance with the host genetic background of the strains. Moreover, restriction modification genes were found to be significantly enriched in East-Asian strains. An understanding of these variations in the genome content would provide significant insights into various adaptive and host modulation strategies harnessed by H. pylori to effectively persist in a host-specific manner. PMID:25452339

  12. Transcriptome analysis of mammary epithelial subpopulations identifies novel determinants of lineage commitment and cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Kendrick, Howard; Regan, Joseph L; Magnay, Fiona-Ann; Grigoriadis, Anita; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Zvelebil, Marketa; Smalley, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular control of cell lineages and fate determination in complex tissues is key to not only understanding the developmental biology and cellular homeostasis of such tissues but also for our understanding and interpretation of the molecular pathology of diseases such as cancer. The prerequisite for such an understanding is detailed knowledge of the cell types that make up such tissues, including their comprehensive molecular characterisation. In the mammary epithelium, the bulk of the tissue is composed of three cell lineages, namely the basal/myoepithelial, luminal epithelial estrogen receptor positive and luminal epithelial estrogen receptor negative cells. However, a detailed molecular characterisation of the transcriptomic differences between these three populations has not been carried out. Results A whole transcriptome analysis of basal/myoepithelial cells, luminal estrogen receptor negative cells and luminal estrogen receptor positive cells isolated from the virgin mouse mammary epithelium identified 861, 326 and 488 genes as highly differentially expressed in the three cell types, respectively. Network analysis of the transcriptomic data identified a subpopulation of luminal estrogen receptor negative cells with a novel potential role as non-professional immune cells. Analysis of the data for potential paracrine interacting factors showed that the basal/myoepithelial cells, remarkably, expressed over twice as many ligands and cell surface receptors as the other two populations combined. A number of transcriptional regulators were also identified that were differentially expressed between the cell lineages. One of these, Sox6, was specifically expressed in luminal estrogen receptor negative cells and functional assays confirmed that it maintained mammary epithelial cells in a differentiated luminal cell lineage. Conclusion The mouse mammary epithelium is composed of three main cell types with distinct gene expression patterns

  13. Comparative genomics of pathogenic lineages of Vibrio nigripulchritudo identifies virulence-associated traits

    PubMed Central

    Goudenège, David; Labreuche, Yannick; Krin, Evelyne; Ansquer, Dominique; Mangenot, Sophie; Calteau, Alexandra; Médigue, Claudine; Mazel, Didier; Polz, Martin F; Le Roux, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio nigripulchritudo is an emerging pathogen of farmed shrimp in New Caledonia and other regions in the Indo-Pacific. The molecular determinants of V. nigripulchritudo pathogenicity are unknown; however, molecular epidemiological studies have suggested that pathogenicity is linked to particular lineages. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing-based comparative genome analysis of 16 V. nigripulchritudo strains to explore the genomic diversity and evolutionary history of pathogen-containing lineages and to identify pathogen-specific genetic elements. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed three pathogen-containing V. nigripulchritudo clades, including two clades previously identified from New Caledonia and one novel clade comprising putatively pathogenic isolates from septicemic shrimp in Madagascar. The similar genetic distance between the three clades indicates that they have diverged from an ancestral population roughly at the same time and recombination analysis indicates that these genomes have, in the past, shared a common gene pool and exchanged genes. As each contemporary lineage is comprised of nearly identical strains, comparative genomics allowed differentiation of genetic elements specific to shrimp pathogenesis of varying severity. Notably, only a large plasmid present in all highly pathogenic (HP) strains encodes a toxin. Although less/non-pathogenic strains contain related plasmids, these are differentiated by a putative toxin locus. Expression of this gene by a non-pathogenic V. nigripulchritudo strain resulted in production of toxic culture supernatant, normally an exclusive feature of HP strains. Thus, this protein, here termed ‘nigritoxin', is implicated to an extent that remains to be precisely determined in the toxicity of V. nigripulchritudo. PMID:23739050

  14. An interactive resource to identify cancer genetic and lineage dependencies targeted by small molecules

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Amrita; Bodycombe, Nicole E.; Cheah, Jaime H.; Price, Edmund V.; Liu, Ke; Schaefer, Giannina I.; Ebright, Richard Y.; Stewart, Michelle L.; Ito, Daisuke; Wang, Stephanie; Bracha, Abigail L.; Liefeld, Ted; Wawer, Mathias; Gilbert, Joshua C.; Wilson, Andrew J.; Stransky, Nicolas; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Dancik, Vlado; Barretina, Jordi; Garraway, Levi A.; Hon, C. Suk-Yee; Munoz, Benito; Bittker, Joshua A.; Stockwell, Brent R.; Khabele, Dineo; Stern, Andrew M.; Clemons, Paul A.; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Schreiber, Stuart L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The high rate of clinical response to protein kinase-targeting drugs matched to cancer patients with specific genomic alterations has prompted efforts to use cancer cell-line (CCL) profiling to identify additional biomarkers of small-molecule sensitivities. We have quantitatively measured the sensitivity of 242 genomically characterized CCLs to an Informer Set of 354 small molecules that target many nodes in cell circuitry, uncovering protein dependencies that: 1) associate with specific cancer-genomic alterations and 2) can be targeted by small molecules. We have created the Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (www.broadinstitute.org/ctrp) to enable users to correlate genetic features to sensitivity in individual lineages and control for confounding factors of CCL profiling. We report a candidate dependency, associating activating mutations in the oncogene β-catenin with sensitivity to the Bcl2-family antagonist, navitoclax. The resource can be used to develop novel therapeutic hypotheses and accelerate discovery of drugs matched to patients by their cancer genotype and lineage. PMID:23993102

  15. Identifying neuronal lineages of Drosophila by sequence analysis of axon tracts.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Arganda, Ignacio; Pereanu, Wayne; Schindelin, Johannes; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-06-01

    The Drosophila brain is formed by an invariant set of lineages, each of which is derived from a unique neural stem cell (neuroblast) and forms a genetic and structural unit of the brain. The task of reconstructing brain circuitry at the level of individual neurons can be made significantly easier by assigning neurons to their respective lineages. In this article we address the automation of neuron and lineage identification. We focused on the Drosophila brain lineages at the larval stage when they form easily recognizable secondary axon tracts (SATs) that were previously partially characterized. We now generated an annotated digital database containing all lineage tracts reconstructed from five registered wild-type brains, at higher resolution and including some that were previously not characterized. We developed a method for SAT structural comparisons based on a dynamic programming approach akin to nucleotide sequence alignment and a machine learning classifier trained on the annotated database of reference SATs. We quantified the stereotypy of SATs by measuring the residual variability of aligned wild-type SATs. Next, we used our method for the identification of SATs within wild-type larval brains, and found it highly accurate (93-99%). The method proved highly robust for the identification of lineages in mutant brains and in brains that differed in developmental time or labeling. We describe for the first time an algorithm that quantifies neuronal projection stereotypy in the Drosophila brain and use the algorithm for automatic neuron and lineage recognition. PMID:20519528

  16. Identifying neuronal lineages of Drosophila by sequence analysis of axon tracts

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Albert; Saalfeld, Stephan; Arganda, Ignacio; Pereanu, Wayne; Schindelin, Johannes; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The Drosophila brain is formed by an invariant set of lineages, each of which is derived from a unique neural stem cell (neuroblast) and forms a genetic and structural unit of the brain. The task of reconstructing brain circuitry at the level of individual neurons can be made significantly easier by assigning neurons to their respective lineages. In this paper we address the automatization of neuron and lineage identification. We focused on the Drosophila brain lineages at the larval stage when they form easily recognizable secondary axon tracts (SATs) that were previously partially characterized. We now generated an annotated digital database containing all lineage tracts reconstructed from five registered wild-type brains, at higher resolution and including some that were previously not characterized. We developed a method for SAT structural comparisons based on a dynamic programming approach akin to nucleotide sequence alignment, and a machine learning classifier trained on the annotated database of reference SATs. We quantified the stereotypy of SATs by measuring the residual variability of aligned wild-type SATs. Next, we employed our method for the identification of SATs within wild-type larval brains, and found it highly accurate (93–99 %). The method proved highly robust for the identification of lineages in mutant brains, and in brains that differed in developmental time or labeling. We describe for the first time an algorithm that quantifies neuronal projection stereotypy in the Drosophila brain, and use the algorithm for automatic neuron and lineage recognition. PMID:20519528

  17. SNP markers identify widely distributed clonal lineages of Phytophthora colocasiae in Vietnam, Hawaii and Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sandesh; Hu, Jian; Fryxell, Rebecca Trout; Mudge, Joann; Lamour, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta) is an important food crop, and taro leaf blight caused by Phytophthora colocasiae can significantly affect production. Our objectives were to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for P. colocasiae and characterize populations in Hawaii (HI), Vietnam (VN) and Hainan Island, China (HIC). In total, 379 isolates were analyzed for mating type and multilocus SNP profiles including 214 from HI, 97 from VN and 68 from HIC. A total of 1152 single nucleotide variant (SNV) sites were identified via restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing of two field isolates. Genotyping with 27 SNPs revealed 41 multilocus SNP genotypes grouped into seven clonal lineages containing 2-232 members. Three clonal lineages were shared among countries. In addition, five SNP markers had a low incidence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) during asexual laboratory growth. For HI and VN, >95% of isolates were the A2 mating type. On HIC, isolates within single clonal lineages had A1, A2 and A0 (neuter) isolates. The implications for the wide dispersal of clonal lineages are discussed. PMID:24895424

  18. Candidate adaptive genes associated with lineage divergence: identifying SNPs via next-generation targeted resequencing in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus).

    PubMed

    Powell, John H; Amish, Stephen J; Haynes, Gwilym D; Luikart, Gordon; Latch, Emily K

    2016-09-01

    Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) are an excellent nonmodel species for empirically testing hypotheses in landscape and population genomics due to their large population sizes (low genetic drift), relatively continuous distribution, diversity of occupied habitats and phenotypic variation. Because few genomic resources are currently available for this species, we used exon data from a cattle (Bos taurus) reference genome to direct targeted resequencing of 5935 genes in mule deer. We sequenced approximately 3.75 Mbp at minimum 20X coverage in each of the seven mule deer, identifying 23 204 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within, or adjacent to, 6886 exons in 3559 genes. We found 91 SNP loci (from 69 genes) with putatively fixed allele frequency differences between the two major lineages of mule deer (mule deer and black-tailed deer), and our estimate of mean genetic divergence (genome-wide FST  = 0.123) between these lineages was consistent with previous findings using microsatellite loci. We detected an over-representation of gamete generation and amino acid transport genes among the genes with SNPs exhibiting potentially fixed allele frequency differences between lineages. This targeted resequencing approach using exon capture techniques has identified a suite of loci that can be used in future research to investigate the genomic basis of adaptation and differentiation between black-tailed deer and mule deer. This study also highlights techniques (and an exon capture array) that will facilitate population genomic research in other cervids and nonmodel organisms. PMID:27438092

  19. Identifying lineage effects when controlling for population structure improves power in bacterial association studies.

    PubMed

    Earle, Sarah G; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Charlesworth, Jane; Stoesser, Nicole; Gordon, N Claire; Walker, Timothy M; Spencer, Chris C A; Iqbal, Zamin; Clifton, David A; Hopkins, Katie L; Woodford, Neil; Smith, E Grace; Ismail, Nazir; Llewelyn, Martin J; Peto, Tim E; Crook, Derrick W; McVean, Gil; Walker, A Sarah; Wilson, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria pose unique challenges for genome-wide association studies because of strong structuring into distinct strains and substantial linkage disequilibrium across the genome(1,2). Although methods developed for human studies can correct for strain structure(3,4), this risks considerable loss-of-power because genetic differences between strains often contribute substantial phenotypic variability(5). Here, we propose a new method that captures lineage-level associations even when locus-specific associations cannot be fine-mapped. We demonstrate its ability to detect genes and genetic variants underlying resistance to 17 antimicrobials in 3,144 isolates from four taxonomically diverse clonal and recombining bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Strong selection, recombination and penetrance confer high power to recover known antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and reveal a candidate association between the outer membrane porin nmpC and cefazolin resistance in E. coli. Hence, our method pinpoints locus-specific effects where possible and boosts power by detecting lineage-level differences when fine-mapping is intractable. PMID:27572646

  20. Brain transcriptomic analysis in paper wasps identifies genes associated with behaviour across social insect lineages

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Amy L.; Varala, Kranthi; Henshaw, Michael T.; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Hudson, Matthew E.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2010-01-01

    Comparative sociogenomics has the potential to provide important insights into how social behaviour evolved. We examined brain gene expression profiles of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus and compared the results with a growing base of brain gene expression information for the advanced eusocial honeybee, Apis mellifera. We studied four female wasp groups that show variation in foraging/provisioning behaviour and reproductive status, using our newly developed microarray representing approximately 3248 P. metricus genes based on sequences generated from high-throughput pyrosequencing. We found differences in the expression of approximately 389 genes across the four groups. Pathways known from Drosophila melanogaster to be related to lipid metabolism, heat and stress response, and various forms of solitary behaviour were associated with behavioural differences among wasps. Forty-five per cent of differentially expressed transcripts showed significant associations with foraging/provisioning status, and 14 per cent with reproductive status. By comparing these two gene lists with lists of genes previously shown to be differentially expressed in association with honeybee division of labour, we found a significant overlap of genes associated with foraging/provisioning, but not reproduction, across the two species. These results suggest common molecular roots for foraging division of labour in two independently evolved social insect species and the possibility of more lineage-specific roots of reproductive behaviour. We explore the implications of these findings for the idea that there is a conserved ‘genetic toolkit’ for division of labour across multiple lineages. PMID:20236980

  1. Historical Biogeography and Diversification of Truffles in the Tuberaceae and Their Newly Identified Southern Hemisphere Sister Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E.; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A.; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R.; Domínguez, Laura S.; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H.; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M.; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae – the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (∼156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  2. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified southern hemisphere sister lineage.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Gregory; Smith, Matthew E; Nowak, Michael; Healy, Rosanne A; Guevara, Gonzalo; Cázares, Efren; Kinoshita, Akihiko; Nouhra, Eduardo R; Domínguez, Laura S; Tedersoo, Leho; Murat, Claude; Wang, Yun; Moreno, Baldomero Arroyo; Pfister, Donald H; Nara, Kazuhide; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Trappe, James M; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2013-01-01

    Truffles have evolved from epigeous (aboveground) ancestors in nearly every major lineage of fleshy fungi. Because accelerated rates of morphological evolution accompany the transition to the truffle form, closely related epigeous ancestors remain unknown for most truffle lineages. This is the case for the quintessential truffle genus Tuber, which includes species with socio-economic importance and esteemed culinary attributes. Ecologically, Tuber spp. form obligate mycorrhizal symbioses with diverse species of plant hosts including pines, oaks, poplars, orchids, and commercially important trees such as hazelnut and pecan. Unfortunately, limited geographic sampling and inconclusive phylogenetic relationships have obscured our understanding of their origin, biogeography, and diversification. To address this problem, we present a global sampling of Tuberaceae based on DNA sequence data from four loci for phylogenetic inference and molecular dating. Our well-resolved Tuberaceae phylogeny shows high levels of regional and continental endemism. We also identify a previously unknown epigeous member of the Tuberaceae--the South American cup-fungus Nothojafnea thaxteri (E.K. Cash) Gamundí. Phylogenetic resolution was further improved through the inclusion of a previously unrecognized Southern hemisphere sister group of the Tuberaceae. This morphologically diverse assemblage of species includes truffle (e.g. Gymnohydnotrya spp.) and non-truffle forms that are endemic to Australia and South America. Southern hemisphere taxa appear to have diverged more recently than the Northern hemisphere lineages. Our analysis of the Tuberaceae suggests that Tuber evolved from an epigeous ancestor. Molecular dating estimates Tuberaceae divergence in the late Jurassic (~156 million years ago), with subsequent radiations in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. Intra-continental diversification, limited long-distance dispersal, and ecological adaptations help to explain patterns of truffle

  3. Emergence of a New Lineage of Dengue Virus Type 2 Identified in Travelers Entering Western Australia from Indonesia, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Timo; McCarthy, Suzi; Chidlow, Glenys; Luang-Suarkia, Dagwin; Holmes, Edward C.; Smith, David W.; Imrie, Allison

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) transmission is ubiquitous throughout the tropics. More than 70% of the current global dengue disease burden is borne by people who live in the Asia-Pacific region. We sequenced the E gene of DENV isolated from travellers entering Western Australia between 2010–2012, most of whom visited Indonesia, and identified a diverse array of DENV1-4, including multiple co-circulating viral lineages. Most viruses were closely related to lineages known to have circulated in Indonesia for some time, indicating that this geographic region serves as a major hub for dengue genetic diversity. Most notably, we identified a new lineage of DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype) that emerged in Bali in 2011–2012. The spread of this lineage should clearly be monitored. Surveillance of symptomatic returned travellers provides important and timely information on circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes, and can reveal the herald wave of dengue and other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25635775

  4. DNA barcodes successfully identified Macaronesian Lotus (Leguminosae) species within early diverged lineages of Cape Verde and mainland Africa.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Dario I; Santos-Guerra, Arnoldo; Oliva-Tejera, Felicia; Jaen-Molina, Ruth; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Marrero-Rodríguez, Aguedo; Cronk, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    Plant DNA barcoding currently relies on the application of a two-locus combination, matK + rbcL. Despite the universality of these two gene regions across plants, it is suspected that this combination might not have sufficient variation to discriminate closely related species. In this study, we tested the performance of this two-locus plant barcode along with the additional plastid regions trnH-psbA, rpoC1 and rpoB and the nuclear region internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) in a group of 38 species of Lotus from the Macaronesian region. The group has radiated into the five archipelagos within this region from mid-Miocene to early Pleistocene, and thus provides both early divergent and recent radiations that pose a particularly difficult challenge for barcoding. The group also has 10 species considered under different levels of conservation concern. We found different levels of species discrimination depending on the age of the lineages. We obtained 100 % of the species identification from mainland Africa and Cape Verde when all six regions were combined. These lineages radiated >4.5 Mya; however, in the most recent radiations from the end of the Pliocene to the mid-Pleistocene (3.5-1.5 Mya), only 30 % of the species were identified. Of the regions examined, the intergenic region trnH-psbA was the most variable and had the greatest discriminatory power (18 %) of the plastid regions when analysed alone. The nrITS region was the best region when analysed alone with a discriminatory power of 26 % of the species. Overall, we identified 52 % of the species and 30 % of the endangered or threatened species within this group when all six regions were combined. Our results are consistent with those of other studies that indicate that additional approaches to barcoding will be needed in recently evolved groups, such as the inclusion of faster evolving regions from the nuclear genome. PMID:25147310

  5. Systems and Trans-System Level Analysis Identifies Conserved Iron Deficiency Responses in the Plant Lineage[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Urzica, Eugen I.; Casero, David; Yamasaki, Hiroaki; Hsieh, Scott I.; Adler, Lital N.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Blaby-Haas, Crysten E.; Clarke, Steven G.; Loo, Joseph A.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed the iron nutrition-responsive transcriptome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using RNA-Seq methodology. Presumed primary targets were identified in comparisons between visually asymptomatic iron-deficient versus iron-replete cells. This includes the known components of high-affinity iron uptake as well as candidates for distributive iron transport in C. reinhardtii. Comparison of growth-inhibited iron-limited versus iron-replete cells revealed changes in the expression of genes in chloroplastic oxidative stress response pathways, among hundreds of other genes. The output from the transcriptome was validated at multiple levels: by quantitative RT-PCR for assessing the data analysis pipeline, by quantitative proteomics for assessing the impact of changes in RNA abundance on the proteome, and by cross-species comparison for identifying conserved or universal response pathways. In addition, we assessed the functional importance of three target genes, VITAMIN C 2 (VTC2), MONODEHYDROASCORBATE REDUCTASE 1 (MDAR1), and CONSERVED IN THE GREEN LINEAGE AND DIATOMS 27 (CGLD27), by biochemistry or reverse genetics. VTC2 and MDAR1, which are key enzymes in de novo ascorbate synthesis and ascorbate recycling, respectively, are likely responsible for the 10-fold increase in ascorbate content of iron-limited cells. CGLD27/At5g67370 is a highly conserved, presumed chloroplast-localized pioneer protein and is important for growth of Arabidopsis thaliana in low iron. PMID:23043051

  6. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies three distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) within the European marine environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, M.; Cunningham, C.O.; Melvin, W.T.; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    A ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay (RPA) has been used to detect nucleotide sequence variation within the nucleoprotein gene of 39 viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of European marine origin. The classification of VHSV isolates based on RPA cleavage patterns permitted the identification of ten distinct groups of viruses based on differences at the molecular level. The nucleotide sequence of representatives of each of these groupings was determined and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. This revealed grouping of the European marine isolates of VHSV into three genotypes circulating within distinct geographic areas. A fourth genotype was identified comprising isolates originating from North America. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that VHSV isolates recovered from wild caught fish around the British Isles were genetically related to isolates responsible for losses in farmed turbot. Furthermore, a relationship between naturally occurring marine isolates and VHSV isolates causing mortality among rainbow trout in continental Europe was demonstrated. Analysis of the nucleoprotein gene identifies distinct lineages of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus within the European marine environment. Virus Res. 63, 35-44. Available from: 

  7. Integrative Genomic Analyses Identify BRF2 as a Novel Lineage-Specific Oncogene in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, William W.; Chari, Raj; Coe, Bradley P.; Thu, Kelsie L.; Garnis, Cathie; Malloff, Chad A.; Campbell, Jennifer; Williams, Ariane C.; Hwang, Dorothy; Zhu, Chang-Qi; Buys, Timon P. H.; Yee, John; English, John C.; MacAulay, Calum; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditionally, non-small cell lung cancer is treated as a single disease entity in terms of systemic therapy. Emerging evidence suggests the major subtypes—adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC)—respond differently to therapy. Identification of the molecular differences between these tumor types will have a significant impact in designing novel therapies that can improve the treatment outcome. Methods and Findings We used an integrative genomics approach, combing high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray profiles, to compare AC and SqCC tumors in order to uncover alterations at the DNA level, with corresponding gene transcription changes, which are selected for during development of lung cancer subtypes. Through the analysis of multiple independent cohorts of clinical tumor samples (>330), normal lung tissues and bronchial epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushing in smokers without lung cancer, we identified the overexpression of BRF2, a gene on Chromosome 8p12, which is specific for development of SqCC of lung. Genetic activation of BRF2, which encodes a RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription initiation factor, was found to be associated with increased expression of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that are involved in processes essential for cell growth, such as RNA splicing. Ectopic expression of BRF2 in human bronchial epithelial cells induced a transformed phenotype and demonstrates downstream oncogenic effects, whereas RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown suppressed growth and colony formation of SqCC cells overexpressing BRF2, but not AC cells. Frequent activation of BRF2 in >35% preinvasive bronchial carcinoma in situ, as well as in dysplastic lesions, provides evidence that BRF2 expression is an early event in cancer development of this cell lineage. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that the focal amplification of a gene in Chromosome 8p12, plays

  8. PCR-RFLP Markers Identify Three Lineages of the North American and European Populations of Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of Sudden Oak Death, has a wide host range and is found in the northern hemisphere. It is thought to be introduced to North America and Europe, but its origin is unknown. It has three major clonal lineages and two mating types. Sexual reproduction can only occur when ...

  9. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Sievert, Stefan M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to (1) genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and (2) genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria. PMID:24678308

  10. Sequence Analysis of 96 Genomic Regions Identifies Distinct Evolutionary Lineages within CC156, the Largest Streptococcus pneumoniae Clonal Complex in the MLST Database

    PubMed Central

    Moschioni, Monica; Lo Sapio, Morena; Crisafulli, Giovanni; Torricelli, Giulia; Guidotti, Silvia; Muzzi, Alessandro; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Donati, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is based on the sequence of seven housekeeping gene fragments. The analysis of MLST allelic profiles by eBURST allows the grouping of genetically related strains into Clonal Complexes (CCs) including those genotypes with a common descent from a predicted ancestor. However, the increasing use of MLST to characterize S. pneumoniae strains has led to the identification of a large number of new Sequence Types (STs) causing the merger of formerly distinct lineages into larger CCs. An example of this is the CC156, displaying a high level of complexity and including strains with allelic profiles differing in all seven of the MLST loci, capsular type and the presence of the Pilus Islet-1 (PI-1). Detailed analysis of the CC156 indicates that the identification of new STs, such as ST4945, induced the merging of formerly distinct clonal complexes. In order to discriminate the strain diversity within CC156, a recently developed typing schema, 96-MLST, was used to analyse 66 strains representative of 41 different STs. Analysis of allelic profiles by hierarchical clustering and a minimum spanning tree identified ten genetically distinct evolutionary lineages. Similar results were obtained by phylogenetic analysis on the concatenated sequences with different methods. The identified lineages are homogenous in capsular type and PI-1 presence. ST4945 strains were unequivocally assigned to one of the lineages. In conclusion, the identification of new STs through an exhaustive analysis of pneumococcal strains from various laboratories has highlighted that potentially unrelated subgroups can be grouped into a single CC by eBURST. The analysis of additional loci, such as those included in the 96-MLST schema, will be necessary to accurately discriminate the clonal evolution of the pneumococcal population. PMID:23593373

  11. A genome-scale in vivo loss-of-function screen identifies Phf6 as a lineage-specific regulator of leukemia cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Corbin E.; Lawton, Lee N.; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; Pritchard, Justin R.; Joughin, Brian A.; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Fenouille, Nina; Zuber, Johannes; Williams, Richard T.; Young, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a genome-scale shRNA screen for modulators of B-cell leukemia progression in vivo. Results from this work revealed dramatic distinctions between the relative effects of shRNAs on the growth of tumor cells in culture versus in their native microenvironment. Specifically, we identified many “context-specific” regulators of leukemia development. These included the gene encoding the zinc finger protein Phf6. While inactivating mutations in PHF6 are commonly observed in human myeloid and T-cell malignancies, we found that Phf6 suppression in B-cell malignancies impairs tumor progression. Thus, Phf6 is a “lineage-specific” cancer gene that plays opposing roles in developmentally distinct hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25737277

  12. Monitoring mixed lineage leukemia expression may help identify patients with mixed lineage leukemia--rearranged acute leukemia who are at high risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Yu; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Dai-Hong; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Chang, Ying-Jun; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the expression of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene for predicting the relapse of patients with MLL-rearranged acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the levels of MLL transcripts in bone marrow (BM) specimens were monitored serially by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) at predetermined time points in 40 patients with MLL-rearranged AL who were treated with allo-HSCT. These patients were followed for a median of 24.5 months (range, 8 to 60 months). A total of 236 BM samples were collected and analyzed. Of these, 230 were monitored concurrently for minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry (FCM) for leukemia-associated aberrant immune phenotypes and by RQ-PCR for the expression of the Wilms tumor (WT1) gene. The 3-year cumulative incidence of relapse in patients who experienced MLL-positive patients (MLL > .0000%) (n = 9) after HSCT was 93.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87% to 100%) compared with 12.5% (95% CI, 5.6% to 19.4%) for MLL-negative patients (n = 31) (P < .001). For these 2 patient groups, the 3-year overall survival (OS) was 12.5% (95% CI, .8% to 24.2%) and 77.8% (95% CI, 68.4% to 87.2%) (P < .001), respectively, and the 3-year leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 0% and 72.2% (95% CI, 61.1% to 83.3%), respectively (P < .001). MLL positivity was associated with a higher rate of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 18.643; 95% CI, 3.449 to 57.025; P = .001), lower LFS (HR, 7.267; 95% CI, 2.038 to 25.916; P = .002), and lower OS (HR, 8.259; 95% CI, 2.109 to 32.336; P = .002), as determined by Cox multivariate analysis. The expression of the MLL gene had a higher specificity and sensitivity than WT1 or MRD monitored by FCM for predicting the relapse of the patients with MLL + AL. Our results suggest that monitoring the expression of the MLL gene may help to identify patients with MLL + AL who are at high risk of relapse after allo-HSCT and may

  13. TfoX-Based Genetic Mapping Identifies Vibrio fischeri Strain-Level Differences and Reveals a Common Lineage of Laboratory Strains

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John F.; Gyllborg, Mattias C.; Kocher, Acadia A.; Markey, Laura E. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strain variation exists in natural populations of bacteria and can be generated experimentally through directed or random mutation. The advent of rapid and cost-efficient whole-genome sequencing has facilitated strain-level genotyping. Even with modern tools, however, it often remains a challenge to map specific traits to individual genetic loci, especially for traits that cannot be selected under culture conditions (e.g., colonization level or pathogenicity). Using a combination of classical and modern approaches, we analyzed strain-level variation in Vibrio fischeri and identified the basis by which some strains lack the ability to utilize glycerol as a carbon source. We proceeded to reconstruct the lineage of the commonly used V. fischeri laboratory strains. Compared to the wild-type ES114 strain, we identify in ES114-L a 9.9-kb deletion with endpoints in tadB2 and glpF; restoration of the missing portion of glpF restores the wild-type phenotype. The widely used strains ESR1, JRM100, and JRM200 contain the same deletion, and ES114-L is likely a previously unrecognized intermediate strain in the construction of many ES114 derivatives. ES114-L does not exhibit a defect in competitive squid colonization but ESR1 does, demonstrating that glycerol utilization is not required for early squid colonization. Our genetic mapping approach capitalizes on the recently discovered chitin-based transformation pathway, which is conserved in the Vibrionaceae; therefore, the specific approach used is likely to be useful for mapping genetic traits in other Vibrio species. PMID:25561715

  14. Hematopoietic Lineage Diversification, Simplified.

    PubMed

    Drissen, Roy; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complex process that requires a high degree of transcriptional diversification during lineage commitment and differentiation. de Graaf et al. (2016) have now generated a comprehensive gene expression dataset that allows cell-type-specific genes as well as associated transcription factor expression patterns to be readily identified. PMID:27494670

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Sidra E. G.; Esteves, Leonardo S.; Gomes, Harrison M.; Almeida da Silva, Pedro; Perdigão, João; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; McNerney, Ruth; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Rastogi, Nalin; Unis, Gisela; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.

    2015-01-01

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers. PMID:26400784

  16. T-Cell Lineage Determination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Bell, J. Jeremiah; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Summary T cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow but complete their development in the thymus. HSCs give rise to a variety of non-renewing hematopoietic progenitors, among which a rare subset migrates to the thymus via the bloodstream. The earliest T-cell progenitors identified in the thymus are not T-lineage restricted but possess the ability to give rise to cells of many different lineages. Alternative lineage potentials are gradually lost as progenitors progress towards later developmental stages. Here, we review the early developmental events that might be involved in T-cell lineage fate determination, including the properties of possible thymus settling progenitors, their homing into the thymus, and their T-cell lineage specification and commitment. PMID:20969581

  17. Sequence variation of block III segment identifies three distinct lineages within Eggplant mottled dwarf virus isolates from Italy, Spain and Greece.

    PubMed

    Parrella, G; Greco, B

    2016-03-01

    Partial polymerase (L) gene sequences of 919 nts, including the conserved segments pre-motif A and motif A of block III, of 20 Eggplant mottled dwarf virus (EMDV) isolates were generated, and trimmed sequences of 889 nts, based on the length of available sequences of other isolates, were used to determine phylogenetic relationships. Phylogenetic reconstructions revealed two divergent lineages, designated as genetic group A (Italian isolates) and group B, with the latter further divided into subgroups BI (Greek isolates) and BII (Spanish isolates). No evidence of recombination signals among sequences was detected, whereas analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio indicated strong purifying selection, with codons under negative selection uniformly distributed along the sequences. An RT-PCR-RFLP method able to discriminate EMDV isolates of the two main genetic groups was proposed. PMID:26982474

  18. Phylogenetic and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analyses Identify Nonpathogenic Xanthomonas arboricola Lineages Lacking the Canonical Type III Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Essakhi, Salwa; Cesbron, Sophie; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Bonneau, Sophie; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola is conventionally known as a taxon of plant-pathogenic bacteria that includes seven pathovars. This study showed that X. arboricola also encompasses nonpathogenic bacteria that cause no apparent disease symptoms on their hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the X. arboricola population structure associated with walnut, including nonpathogenic strains, in order to gain a better understanding of the role of nonpathogenic xanthomonads in walnut microbiota. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed on a collection of 100 X. arboricola strains, including 27 nonpathogenic strains isolated from walnut. Nonpathogenic strains grouped outside clusters defined by pathovars and formed separate genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) conducted on a collection of X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut showed that nonpathogenic strains clustered separately from clonal complexes containing Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis strains. Some nonpathogenic strains of X. arboricola did not contain the canonical type III secretion system (T3SS) and harbored only one to three type III effector (T3E) genes. In the nonpathogenic strains CFBP 7640 and CFBP 7653, neither T3SS genes nor any of the analyzed T3E genes were detected. This finding raises a question about the origin of nonpathogenic strains and the evolution of plant pathogenicity in X. arboricola. T3E genes that were not detected in any nonpathogenic isolates studied represent excellent candidates to be those responsible for pathogenicity in X. arboricola. PMID:26048944

  19. Analysis of the Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrum of Staphylococcus aureus Identifies Mutations That Allow Differentiation of the Main Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Josten, Michaele; Reif, Marion; Szekat, Christiane; Al-Sabti, Nahed; Roemer, Terry; Sparbier, Katrin; Kostrzewa, Markus; Rohde, Holger; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2013-01-01

    Nosocomial infections involving epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are a serious problem in many countries. In order to analyze outbreaks, the infectious isolates have to be typed; however, most molecular methods are expensive or labor-intensive. Here, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) of cell extracts for the molecular characterization of S. aureus strains. The peak patterns of 401 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains, including clinical and laboratory strains, were analyzed. Database searches indicated the peptides that were represented by the corresponding peaks in the spectra. The identities of the peptides were confirmed by the sequencing of mutants, the expression of antisense RNA fragments that resulted in the knockdown of the peptide of interest and the concomitant loss of the signal, or tandem MALDI-TOF MS (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). It was shown that the signals derive mainly from stress proteins and ribosomal proteins. Peak shifts that differentiate the main S. aureus clonal complexes CC5, CC22, CC8, CC45, CC30, and CC1 correlate to point mutations in the respective genes. Retrospective typing of an MRSA outbreak showed that it is possible to differentiate unrelated MSSA, MRSA, and borderline resistant S. aureus (BORSA) strains isolated from health care workers. In conclusion, this method allows for the detection of the epidemic lineages of S. aureus during species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. PMID:23554199

  20. Discovery of a relict lineage and monotypic family of passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    Alström, Per; Hooper, Daniel M.; Liu, Yang; Olsson, Urban; Mohan, Dhananjai; Gelang, Magnus; Le Manh, Hung; Zhao, Jian; Lei, Fumin; Price, Trevor D.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of one of the most comprehensive datasets to date of the largest passerine bird clade, Passerida, identified 10 primary well-supported lineages corresponding to Sylvioidea, Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea, Passeroidea, the ‘bombycillids’ (here proposed to be recognized as Bombycilloidea), Paridae/Remizidae (proposed to be recognized as Paroidea), Stenostiridae, Hyliotidae, Regulidae (proposed to be recognized as Reguloidea) and spotted wren-babbler Spelaeornis formosus. The latter was found on a single branch in a strongly supported clade with Muscicapoidea, Certhioidea and Bombycilloidea, although the relationships among these were unresolved. We conclude that the spotted wren-babbler represents a relict basal lineage within Passerida with no close extant relatives, and we support the already used name Elachura formosa and propose the new family name Elachuridae for this single species. PMID:24598108

  1. Differential expression of miR-17~92 identifies BCL2 as a therapeutic target in BCR-ABL-positive B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Scherr, M; Elder, A; Battmer, K; Barzan, D; Bomken, S; Ricke-Hoch, M; Schröder, A; Venturini, L; Blair, H J; Vormoor, J; Ottmann, O; Ganser, A; Pich, A; Hilfiker-Kleiner, D; Heidenreich, O; Eder, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains a high-risk disease, necessitating the development of novel treatment strategies. As the known oncomir, miR-17~92, is regulated by BCR-ABL fusion in chronic myeloid leukaemia, we investigated its role in BCR-ABL translocated ALL. miR-17~92-encoded miRNAs were significantly less abundant in BCR-ABL-positive as compared to -negative ALL-cells and overexpression of miR-17~19b triggered apoptosis in a BCR-ABL-dependent manner. Stable isotope labelling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) identified several apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl2 as potential targets of miR-17~19b. We validated Bcl2 as a direct target of this miRNA cluster in mice and humans, and, similar to miR-17~19b overexpression, Bcl2-specific RNAi strongly induced apoptosis in BCR-ABL-positive cells. Furthermore, BCR-ABL-positive human ALL cell lines were more sensitive to pharmacological BCL2 inhibition than negative ones. Finally, in a xenograft model using patient-derived leukaemic blasts, real-time, in vivo imaging confirmed pharmacological inhibition of BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in BCR-ABL-positive ALL. These data demonstrate the role of miR-17~92 in regulation of apoptosis, and identify BCL2 as a therapeutic target of particular relevance in BCR-ABL-positive ALL. PMID:24280866

  2. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Omoto, Jaison J.; Wong, Darren C.; Nguyen, Joseph D.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  3. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Omoto, Jaison J; Wong, Darren C; Nguyen, Joseph D; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  4. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  5. Colponemids represent multiple ancient alveolate lineages.

    PubMed

    Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mikhailov, Kirill V; Simdyanov, Timur G; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-12-16

    The alveolates comprise three well-studied protist lineages of significant environmental, medical, and economical importance: apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium), dinoflagellates (e.g., Symbiodinium), and ciliates (e.g., Tetrahymena). These major lineages have evolved distinct and unusual characteristics, the origins of which have proved to be difficult evolutionary puzzles. Mitochondrial genomes are a prime example: all three groups depart from canonical form and content, but in different ways. Reconstructing such ancient transitions is difficult without deep-branching lineages that retain ancestral characteristics. Here we describe two such lineages and how they illuminate the ancestral state of alveolate mitochondrial genomes. We established five clonal cultures of colponemids, predatory alveolates without cultured representatives and molecular data. Colponemids represent at least two independent lineages at the phylum level in multilocus phylogenetic analysis; one sister to apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and the other at a deeper position. A genome survey from one strain showed that ancestral state of the mitochondrial genomes in the three major alveolate lineages consisted of an unusual linear chromosome with telomeres and a substantially larger gene set than known alveolates. Colponemid sequences also identified several environmental lineages as colponemids, altogether suggesting an untapped potential for understanding the origin and evolution of apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. PMID:24316202

  6. An Inducible Retroviral Expression System for Tandem Affinity Purification Mass-Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Identifies Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-like Protein (MLKL) as an Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) Client.

    PubMed

    Bigenzahn, Johannes W; Fauster, Astrid; Rebsamen, Manuele; Kandasamy, Richard K; Scorzoni, Stefania; Vladimer, Gregory I; Müller, André C; Gstaiger, Matthias; Zuber, Johannes; Bennett, Keiryn L; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2016-03-01

    Tandem affinity purification-mass spectrometry (TAP-MS) is a popular strategy for the identification of protein-protein interactions, characterization of protein complexes, and entire networks. Its employment in cellular settings best fitting the relevant physiology is limited by convenient expression vector systems. We developed an easy-to-handle, inducible, dually selectable retroviral expression vector allowing dose- and time-dependent control of bait proteins bearing the efficient streptavidin-hemagglutinin (SH)-tag at their N- or C termini. Concomitant expression of a reporter fluorophore allows to monitor bait-expressing cells by flow cytometry or microscopy and enables high-throughput phenotypic assays. We used the system to successfully characterize the interactome of the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) Gly12Asp (G12D) mutant and exploited the advantage of reporter fluorophore expression by tracking cytokine-independent cell growth using flow cytometry. Moreover, we tested the feasibility of studying cytotoxicity-mediating proteins with the vector system on the cell death-inducing mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) Ser358Asp (S358D) mutant. Interaction proteomics analysis of MLKL Ser358Asp (S358D) identified heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a high-confidence interacting protein. Further phenotypic characterization established MLKL as a novel HSP90 client. In summary, this novel inducible expression system enables SH-tag-based interaction studies in the cell line proficient for the respective phenotypic or signaling context and constitutes a valuable tool for experimental approaches requiring inducible or traceable protein expression. PMID:26933192

  7. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype B' that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region. PMID:26196131

  8. Genetic Characterization of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form (CRF74_01B) Identified among Intravenous Drug Users in Malaysia: Recombination History and Phylogenetic Linkage with Previously Defined Recombinant Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hui Ting; Chow, Wei Zhen; Takebe, Yutaka; Chook, Jack Bee; Chan, Kok Gan; Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Koh, Clayton; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Tee, Kok Keng

    2015-01-01

    In many parts of Southeast Asia, the HIV-1 epidemic has been driven by the sharing of needles and equipment among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Over the last few decades, many studies have proven time and again that the diversity of HIV-1 epidemics can often be linked to the route of infection transmission. That said, the diversity and complexity of HIV-1 molecular epidemics in the region have been increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to the high tendency of the viral RNA to recombine. This scenario was exemplified by the discovery of numerous circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), especially in Thailand and Malaysia. In this study, we characterized a novel CRF designated CRF74_01B, which was identified in six epidemiologically unlinked IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The near-full length genomes were composed of CRF01_AE and subtype B', with eight breakpoints dispersed in the gag-pol and nef regions. Remarkably, this CRF shared four and two recombination hotspots with the previously described CRF33_01B and the less prevalent CRF53_01B, respectively. Genealogy-based Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CRF74_01B genomic regions showed that it is closely related to both CRF33_01B and CRF53_01B. This observation suggests that CRF74_01B was probably a direct descendent from specific lineages of CRF33_01B, CRF53_01B and subtype Bʹ that could have emerged in the mid-1990s. Additionally, it illustrated the active recombination processes between prevalent HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in Malaysia. In summary, we report a novel HIV-1 genotype designated CRF74_01B among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The characterization of the novel CRF74_01B is of considerable significance towards the understanding of the genetic diversity and population dynamics of HIV-1 circulating in the region. PMID:26196131

  9. Direct somatic lineage conversion.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-10-19

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  10. Listeria monocytogenes lineages: Genomics, evolution, ecology, and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Renato H; den Bakker, Henk C; Wiedmann, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Listeria monocytogenes consists of at least 4 evolutionary lineages (I, II, III, and IV) with different but overlapping ecological niches. Most L. monocytogenes isolates seem to belong to lineages I and II, which harbor the serotypes more commonly associated with human clinical cases, including serotype 1/2a (lineage II) and serotypes 1/2b and 4b (lineage I). Lineage II strains are common in foods, seem to be widespread in the natural and farm environments, and are also commonly isolated from animal listeriosis cases and sporadic human clinical cases. Most human listeriosis outbreaks are associated with lineage I isolates though. In addition, a number of studies indicate that, in many countries, lineage I strains are overrepresented among human isolates, as compared to lineage II strains. Lineage III and IV strains on the other hand are rare and predominantly isolated from animal sources. The apparent differences in the distribution of strains representing the L. monocytogenes lineages has lead to a number of studies aimed at identifying phenotypic differences among the different lineages. Interestingly, lineage II isolates seem to carry more plasmids than lineage I isolates and these plasmids often confer resistance to toxic metals and possibly other compounds that may be found in the environment. Moreover, lineage II isolates seem to be more resistant to bacteriocins than lineage I isolates, which probably confers an advantage in environments where bacteriocin-producing organisms are abundant. A large number of lineage II isolates and strains have been shown to be virulence-attenuated due to premature stop codon mutations in inlA and mutations in prfA. A subset of lineage I isolates carry a listeriolysin S hemolysin, which is not present in isolates belonging to lineages II, III, or IV. While lineage II isolates also show higher recombination rates than lineage I isolates, possibly facilitating adaptation of lineage II strains to diverse environments, lineage I

  11. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  12. Pliocene-Pleistocene lineage diversifications in the Eastern Indigo Snake (Drymarchon couperi) in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Krysko, Kenneth L; Nuñez, Leroy P; Lippi, Catherine A; Smith, Daniel J; Granatosky, Michael C

    2016-05-01

    Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon; with five currently recognized species) occur from northern Argentina, northward to the United States in southern Texas and eastward in disjunct populations in Florida and Georgia. Based on this known allopatry and a difference in supralabial morphology the two United States taxa previously considered as subspecies within D. corais (Boie 1827), the Western Indigo Snake, D. melanurus erebennus (Cope 1860), and Eastern Indigo Snake, D. couperi (Holbrook 1842), are currently recognized as separate species. Drymarchon couperi is a Federally-designated Threatened species by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service under the Endangered Species Act, and currently being incorporated into a translocation program. This, combined with its disjunct distribution makes it a prime candidate for studying speciation and genetic divergence. In this study, we (1) test the hypothesis that D. m. erebennus and D. couperi are distinct lineages by analyzing 2411 base pairs (bp) of two mitochondrial (mtDNA) loci and one single copy nuclear (scnDNA) locus; (2) estimate the timing of speciation using a relaxed phylogenetics method to determine if Milankovitch cycles during the Pleistocene might have had an influence on lineage diversifications; (3) examine historical population demography to determine if identified lineages have undergone population declines, expansions, or remained stable during the most recent Milankovitch cycles; and (4) use this information to assist in an effective and scientifically sound translocation program. Our molecular data support the initial hypothesis that D. melanurus and D. couperi should be recognized as distinct species, but further illustrate that D. couperi is split into two distinct genetic lineages that correspond to historical biogeography and sea level changes in peninsular Florida. These two well-supported genetic lineages (herein termed Atlantic and Gulf lineages) illustrate a common biogeographic distributional break

  13. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    PubMed

    Timme, Ruth E; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R; Delwiche, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum") as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1) the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2) the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae. PMID:22253761

  14. Broad Phylogenomic Sampling and the Sister Lineage of Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Timme, Ruth E.; Bachvaroff, Tsvetan R.; Delwiche, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that ‘stoneworts,’ or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as “pond scum”) as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1) the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2) the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae. PMID:22253761

  15. Modern Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exhibit Lineage-Specific Patterns of Growth and Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rajesh; Lenders, Laura; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary in virulence. Strains that have caused outbreaks in the United States and United Kingdom have been shown to subvert the innate immune response as a potential immune evasion mechanism. There is, however, little information available as to whether these patterns of immune subversion are features of individual strains or characteristic of broad clonal lineages of M. tuberculosis. Methods Strains from two major modern lineages (lineage 2 [East-Asian] and lineage 4 [Euro-American]) circulating in the Western Cape in South Africa as well as a comparator modern lineage (lineage 3 [CAS/Delhi]) were identified. We assessed two virulence associated characteristics: mycobacterial growth (in liquid broth and monocyte derived macrophages) and early pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Results In liquid culture, Lineage 4 strains grew more rapidly and reached higher plateau levels than other strains (lineage 4 vs. lineage 2 p = 0.0024; lineage 4 vs. lineage 3 p = 0.0005). Lineage 3 strains were characterized by low and early plateau levels, while lineage 2 strains showed an intermediate growth phenotype. In monocyte-derived macrophages, lineage 2 strains grew faster than lineage 3 strains (p<0.01) with lineage 4 strains having an intermediate phenotype. Lineage 2 strains induced the lowest levels of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-12p40 as compared to other lineages (lineage 2: median TNF 362 pg/ml, IL-12p40 91 pg/ml; lineage 3: median TNF 1818 pg/ml, IL-12p40 123 pg/ml; lineage 4: median TNF 1207 pg/ml, IL-12p40 205 pg/ml;). In contrast, lineage 4 strains induced high levels of IL-12p40 and intermediate level of TNF. Lineage 3 strains induced high levels of TNF and intermediate levels of IL-12p40. Conclusions Strains of M. tuberculosis from the three major modern strain lineages possess distinct patterns of growth and cytokine induction. Rapid growth and immune subversion may be key characteristics to the success of

  16. Neuroblast lineage identification and lineage-specific Hox gene action during postembryonic development of the subesophageal ganglion in the Drosophila central brain.

    PubMed

    Kuert, Philipp A; Hartenstein, Volker; Bello, Bruno C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Reichert, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    The central brain of Drosophila consists of the supraesophageal ganglion (SPG) and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG), both of which are generated by neural stem cell-like neuroblasts during embryonic and postembryonic development. Considerable information has been obtained on postembryonic development of the neuroblasts and their lineages in the SPG. In contrast, very little is known about neuroblasts, neural lineages, or any other aspect of the postembryonic development in the SEG. Here we characterize the neuroanatomy of the larval SEG in terms of tracts, commissures, and other landmark features as compared to a thoracic ganglion. We then use clonal MARCM labeling to identify all adult-specific neuroblast lineages in the late larval SEG and find a surprisingly small number of neuroblast lineages, 13 paired and one unpaired. The Hox genes Dfd, Scr, and Antp are expressed in a lineage-specific manner in these lineages during postembryonic development. Hox gene loss-of-function causes lineage-specific defects in axonal targeting and reduction in neural cell numbers. Moreover, it results in the formation of novel ectopic neuroblast lineages. Apoptosis block also results in ectopic lineages suggesting that Hox genes are required for lineage-specific termination of proliferation through programmed cell death. Taken together, our findings show that postembryonic development in the SEG is mediated by a surprisingly small set of identified lineages and requires lineage-specific Hox gene action to ensure the correct formation of adult-specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. PMID:24713419

  17. Lineage delimitation and description of nine new species of bush frogs (Anura: Raorchestes, Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Dinesh, K P; Prabhu, Mrugank V; Shanker, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are distributed mainly in the Western Ghats Escarpment of Peninsular India. The inventory of species in this genus is incomplete and there is ambiguity in the systematic status of species recognized by morphological criteria. To address the dual problem of taxon sampling and systematic uncertainty in bush frogs, we used a large-scale spatial sampling design, explicitly incorporating the geographic and ecological heterogeneity of the Western Ghats. We then used a hierarchical multi-criteria approach by combining mitochondrial phylogeny, genetic distance, geographic range, morphology and advertisement call to delimit bush frog lineages. Our analyses revealed the existence of a large number of new lineages with varying levels of genetic divergence. Here, we provide diagnoses and descriptions for nine lineages that exhibit divergence across multiple axes. The discovery of new lineages that exhibit high divergence across wide ranges of elevation and across the major massifs highlights the large gaps in historical sampling. These discoveries underscore the significance of addressing inadequate knowledge of species distribution, namely the "Wallacean shortfall", in addressing the problem of taxon sampling and unknown diversity in tropical hotspots. A biogeographically informed sampling and analytical approach was critical in detecting and delineating lineages in a consistent manner across the genus. Through increased taxon sampling, we were also able to discern a number of well-supported sub-clades that were either unresolved or absent in earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and identify a number of shallow divergent lineages which require further examination for assessment of their taxonomic status.  PMID:25544534

  18. Development of molecular markers and preliminary investigation of the population structure and mating system in one lineage of black morel (Morchella elata) in the Pacific Northwestern USA.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccia, Deborah; Douhan, Greg W; Douhan, LeAnn; Peever, Tobin L; Carris, Lori M; Kerrigan, Julia L

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of LSU/ITS sequence data revealed two distinct lineages among 44 morphologically similar fruiting bodies of natural black morels (Morchella elata group) sampled at three non-burn locations in the St Joe and Kanisku National Forests in northern Idaho. Most of the sampled isolates (n = 34) represented a dominant LSU/ITS haplotype present at all three sites and identical to the Mel-12 phylogenetic lineage (GU551425) identified in a previous study. Variation at 1-3 nucleotide sites was detected among a small number of isolates (n = 6) within this well supported clade (94%). Four isolates sampled from a single location were in a well supported clade (97%) distinct from the dominant haplotypes and may represent a previously un-sampled, cryptic phylogenetic species. Species-specific SNP and SCAR markers were developed for Mel-12 lineage isolates by cloning and sequencing AFLP amplicons, and segregation of AFLP markers were studied from single ascospore isolates from individual fruiting bodies. Based on the segregation of AFLP markers within single fruiting bodies, split decomposition analyses of two SCAR markers, and population genetic analyses of SNP, SCAR, and AFLP markers, it appears that members of the Morchella sp. Mel-12 phylogenetic lineage are heterothallic and outcross in nature similar to yellow morels. This is the first set of locus-specific molecular markers that has been developed for any Morchella species, to our knowledge. These markers will prove to be valuable tools to study mating system, gene flow and genetic structure of black morels at various spatial scales with field-collected fruiting bodies and eliminate the need to culture samples in vitro. PMID:21642339

  19. Differential protein network analysis of the immune cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Trevor; Hovig, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen) completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks. PMID:25309909

  20. Ancestral reconstruction of tick lineages.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-01

    Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413

  1. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-26

    In order to maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here, we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. Furthermore, we show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  2. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    To maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. We further show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a new function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  3. Lineage fusion in Galápagos giant tortoises.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael A; Hyseni, Chaz; Edwards, Danielle L; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Ciofi, Claudio; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2014-11-01

    Although many classic radiations on islands are thought to be the result of repeated lineage splitting, the role of past fusion is rarely known because during these events, purebreds are rapidly replaced by a swarm of admixed individuals. Here, we capture lineage fusion in action in a Galápagos giant tortoise species, Chelonoidis becki, from Wolf Volcano (Isabela Island). The long generation time of Galápagos tortoises and dense sampling (841 individuals) of genetic and demographic data were integral in detecting and characterizing this phenomenon. In C. becki, we identified two genetically distinct, morphologically cryptic lineages. Historical reconstructions show that they colonized Wolf Volcano from Santiago Island in two temporally separated events, the first estimated to have occurred ~199 000 years ago. Following arrival of the second wave of colonists, both lineages coexisted for approximately ~53 000 years. Within that time, they began fusing back together, as microsatellite data reveal widespread introgressive hybridization. Interestingly, greater mate selectivity seems to be exhibited by purebred females of one of the lineages. Forward-in-time simulations predict rapid extinction of the early arriving lineage. This study provides a rare example of reticulate evolution in action and underscores the power of population genetics for understanding the past, present and future consequences of evolutionary phenomena associated with lineage fusion. PMID:25223395

  4. Genetic Mosaics and the Germ Line Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Mark E.; Friedman, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic mosaics provide information about cellular lineages that is otherwise difficult to obtain, especially in humans. De novo mutations act as cell markers, allowing the tracing of developmental trajectories of all descendants of the cell in which the new mutation arises. De novo mutations may arise at any time during development but are relatively rare. They have usually been observed through medical ascertainment, when the mutation causes unusual clinical signs or symptoms. Mutational events can include aneuploidies, large chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, or point mutations. In this review we focus primarily on the analysis of point mutations and their utility in addressing questions of germ line versus somatic lineages. Genetic mosaics demonstrate that the germ line and soma diverge early in development, since there are many examples of combined somatic and germ line mosaicism for de novo mutations. The occurrence of simultaneous mosaicism in both the germ line and soma also shows that the germ line is not strictly clonal but arises from at least two, and possibly multiple, cells in the embryo with different ancestries. Whole genome or exome DNA sequencing technologies promise to expand the range of studies of genetic mosaics, as de novo mutations can now be identified through sequencing alone in the absence of a medical ascertainment. These technologies have been used to study mutation patterns in nuclear families and in monozygotic twins, and in animal model developmental studies, but not yet for extensive cell lineage studies in humans. PMID:25898403

  5. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to the elasticity typical of tissues [1]. In serum only media, soft matrices that mimic brain appear neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II activity blocks all elasticity directed lineage specification, which indicates that the cytoskeleton pulls on matrix through adhesive attachments. Results have significant implications for `therapeutic' stem cells and have motivated development of a proteomic-scale method to identify mechano-responsive protein structures [2] as well as deeper physical studies of matrix physics [3] and growth factor pathways [4]. [4pt] [1] A. Engler, et al. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell (2006).[0pt] [2] C.P. Johnson, et al. Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (2007).[0pt] [3] A.E.X. Brown, et al. Multiscale mechanics of fibrin polymer: Gel stretching with protein unfolding and loss of water. Science (2009).[0pt] [4] D.E. Discher, et al. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (2009).

  6. Lineages of varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Duncan J

    2009-04-01

    Relationships among varicella-zoster virus (VZV; Human herpesvirus 3) genome sequences were examined to evaluate descent of strains, structures of lineages and incidence of recombination events. Eighteen complete, published genome sequences were aligned and 494 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) extracted, each as two alleles. At 281 SNPs, a single sequence differed from all the others. Distributions of the remaining 213 SNPs indicated that the sequences fell into five groups, which coincided with previously recognized phylogenetic groupings, termed E1, E2, J, M1 and M2. The 213-SNP set was divisible into 104 SNPs that were specific to a single group, and 109 cross-group SNPs that defined relationships among groups. This last set was evaluated by criteria of continuities in relationships between groups and breaks in such patterns, to identify crossover points and ascribe them to lineages. For the 99 cross-group SNPs in the genome's long unique region, it was seen that the E2 and M2 groups were almost completely distinct in their SNP alleles, and the E1 group was derived from a recombinant of E2 and M2. A valid phylogenetic tree could thus be constructed for the four E2 and two M2 strains. There was no substantive evidence for recombination within the E2 group or the E1 group (ten strains). The J and M1 groups each contained only one strain, and both were interpreted as having substantial distinct histories plus possible recombinant elements from the E2 and M2 lineages. The view of VZV recombination and phylogeny reached represents a major clarification of deep relationships among VZV lineages. PMID:19264671

  7. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development. PMID:26779601

  8. Cardiac Cell Lineages that Form the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Meilhac, Sigolène M.; Lescroart, Fabienne; Blanpain, Cédric; Buckingham, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial cells ensure the contractility of the heart, which also depends on other mesodermal cell types for its function. Embryological experiments had identified the sources of cardiac precursor cells. With the advent of genetic engineering, novel tools have been used to reconstruct the lineage tree of cardiac cells that contribute to different parts of the heart, map the development of cardiac regions, and characterize their genetic signature. Such knowledge is of fundamental importance for our understanding of cardiogenesis and also for the diagnosis and treatment of heart malformations. PMID:25183852

  9. Identification of human erythroid lineage-committed progenitors.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuo; Akashi, Koichi; Weissman, Irving L

    2016-05-01

    Elucidating the developmental pathway leading to erythrocytes and being able to isolate their progenitors is crucial to understanding and treating disorders of red cell imbalance such as anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera. Endoglin (CD105) is a key marker for purifying mouse erythroid lineage-committed progenitors (EPs) from bone marrow. Herein, we show that human EPs can also be isolated from adult bone marrow. We identified three subfractions that possessed different expression patterns of CD105 and CD71 within the previously defined human megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (hMEP; Lineage-CD34(+)CD38(+)IL-3Rα(-)CD45RA(-)) population. Both CD71(-)CD105(-) and CD71(+)CD105(-) MEPs, at least in vitro, retained bipotency for the megakaryocyte (MegK) and erythrocyte (E) lineages, although the latter sub-population had a differentiation potential skewed toward the E-lineage. Notably, the differentiation output of the CD71(+)CD105(+) subset of cells within the MEP population was completely restricted to the E-lineage with the loss of MegK potential; thus, we termed CD71(+)CD105(-) MEPs and CD71(+)CD105(+) cells as E-biased MEPs (E-MEPs) and EPs, respectively. These previously unclassified populations may facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing human erythroid development and serve as potential therapeutic targets in disorders of the erythroid lineage. PMID:27263782

  10. Co-circulation of Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus Asian lineage IV with Lineage II in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Woma, T Y; Adombi, C M; Yu, D; Qasim, A M M; Sabi, A A; Maurice, N A; Olaiya, O D; Loitsch, A; Bailey, D; Shamaki, D; Dundon, W G; Quan, M

    2016-06-01

    Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR), a major small ruminant transboundary animal disease, is endemic in Nigeria. Strains of the causal agent, peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV), have been differentiated into four genetically distinct lineages based on the partial sequence of the virus nucleoprotein (N) or fusion (F) genes. Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus strains that were identified initially in Africa were grouped into lineages I, II and III and viruses from Asia were classified as lineage IV and referred to as the Asian lineage. Many recent reports indicate that the Asian lineage is now also present in Africa. With this in mind, this study was conducted to reassess the epidemiology of PPRV in Nigeria. A total of 140 clinical samples from 16 sheep and 63 goats with symptoms suggestive of PPR were collected from different states of Nigeria during a four-year period (2010-2013). They were analysed by the amplification of fragments of the N gene. Results for 33 (42%) animals were positive. The phylogenetic analysis of the N gene sequences with those available in GenBank showed that viruses that were detected belong to both lineage II and IV. Based on an analysis of the N gene sequences, the lineage IV isolates grouped into two clades, one being predominant in the north-eastern part of the country and the other found primarily in the southern regions of the country. This study reports the presence of PPRV Asian lineage IV in Nigeria for the first time. PMID:26095085

  11. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis reveals the monophyly of a recircumscribed papilionoid legume tribe Diocleae with well-supported generic relationships.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci; Pastore, José Floriano B; Cardoso, Domingos; Snak, Cristiane; de C Lima, Ana Luísa; Gagnon, Edeline; Vatanparast, Mohammad; Holland, Ailsa E; Egan, Ashley N

    2015-09-01

    Deciphering the phylogenetic relationships within the species-rich Millettioid clade has persisted as one of the major challenges in the systematics and evolutionary history of papilionoid legumes (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae). Historically, the predominantly neotropical lianas of subtribe Diocleinae in the Millettioid legumes have been taxonomically tangled together with the largely heterogeneous tribe Phaseoleae. This work presents a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear and chloroplast markers and includes all genera ever referred to Diocleae except for the monospecific Philippine Luzonia, resolving several key generic relationships within the Millettioid legumes. The first of two separate analyses includes 310 matK accessions and strongly supports the reestablishment of tribe Diocleae as a branch of the Millettioid clade. This work sheds greater light on the higher-level phylogeny of Diocleae and allows the recognition of three major lineages: the Canavalia, Dioclea, and Galactia clades. The second set of phylogenetic analyses utilized nuclear (ITS/5.8S and ETS) and plastid (matK and trnT-Y) DNA sequences to reveal (i) the monophyly of Canavalia and Cleobulia; (ii) the monophyly of Bionia with the exclusion of Bionia bella; (iii) the paraphyly of Dioclea with respect to Cleobulia, Cymbosema, and Macropsychanthus; (iv) the paraphyly of Cratylia with respect to the broadly polyphyletic Camptosema; and (v) the polyphyly of Galactia with species scattered widely across the tree. PMID:25934529

  12. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  13. Hemosporidian parasites in forest birds from Venezuela: genetic lineage analyses.

    PubMed

    Mijares, Alfredo; Rosales, Romel; Silva-Iturriza, Adriana

    2012-09-01

    Avian hemosporidian parasites of the genera Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon are transmitted by different dipteran vectors. In the present work, we looked for the presence of these parasites in 47 birds from 12 families, which were sampled in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuelo, located at the Henri Pittier National Park, Venezuela. The presence of the parasites was evidenced by amplification of a region of 471 bp of their cytochrome b gene. This region of the marker presents enough polymorphism to identify most of the mitochondrial lineages. Therefore, the obtained amplicons were sequenced, not only to identify the genus of the parasites sampled, but also to analyze their genetic diversity in the study area. The overall parasite prevalence was low (11%). We reported, for the first time, Plasmodium in birds of the species Formicarius analis and Chamaeza campanisona (Formicariidae) and Haemoproteus in Geotrygon linearis (Columbidae). A phylogenetic tree was generated using the Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and Leucocytozoon sequences obtained in this study, together with representative sequences from previous studies. The highest genetic diversities between the two Haemoproteus lineages (11.70%) and among the three Plasmodium lineages (7.86%) found in this study are also similar to those found when lineages reported in the literature were used. These results indicate that in the migratory corridor Paso de Portachuleo, representative parasite lineages are found, making this location an attractive location for future studies. PMID:23050478

  14. A unique lineage gives rise to the meibomian gland

    PubMed Central

    Fischesser, Katy; Lunn, Matthew O.; Kao, Winston W-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the lineage that contributes to the morphogenesis of the meibomian gland. Methods To examine which cell lineage gives rise to the meibomian gland, the expression of Pax6 as well as that of various cytokeratin markers, including keratin 14 (Krt14), Krt15, Krt4, and Krt10, was examined with immunofluorescent staining of C57BL/6J mouse eyelids from P2 to P11 pups and adult mice. Results Pax6 was localized to the cytoplasm within the acinar region of the meibomian glands during morphogenesis but was absent in the fully developed gland. Keratin 14 was expressed throughout the gland at all stages whereas keratin 15 was absent at all stages. Keratin 4, a marker of mucosal lineage, was present throughout the gland and was colocalized with keratin 10 (epidermal lineage marker) in the developing duct at P4. This colocalization region decreased as the gland developed becoming restricted to the central duct near the opening to the acini in the fully developed gland. Conclusions We identified a unique cell lineage that expresses markers characteristic of mucosal and epidermal epithelia during meibomian gland morphogenesis. This unique group of cells was located in the central duct with a concentration near the ductule orifice. The expression of these cells reduced during meibomian gland morphogenesis and may play a role in the development and homeostasis of the gland. PMID:26957900

  15. New Genetic Lineage of Tula Hantavirus in Microtus arvalis obscurus in Eastern Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Genomic sequences of Tula (TULV) hantavirus were recovered from tissue samples of European common voles Microtus arvalis (subspecies obscurus) captured in Kazakhstan, Central Asia. Phylogenetic analysis of the S genomic segment of Kazakh TULV strains showed that they form distinct, well supported genetic lineage and share a more ancient common ancestor with two Russian lineages of TULV. The deduced sequence of the nucleocapsid (N) protein of Kazakh TULV strains carried specific amino acid signature: T274Q276T281. The Microtus arvalis group includes several sibling species and/or subspecies in Eurasia, indicating recent and ongoing evolutionary radiation. Our data on TULV lineages in Central Asia, the region not studied for hantaviruses earlier, highlight the diversity of both Microtus host and the virus and also their co-evolution. PMID:19440462

  16. Genetic diversity and lineage dynamic of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Simmons, Cameron; Gavotte, Laurent; Viari, Alain; Ong, Sivuth; Chantha, Ngan; Lennon, Niall J; Birren, Bruce W; Vong, Sirenda; Farrar, Jeremy J; Henn, Matthew R; Deubel, Vincent; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In Cambodia, dengue virus (DENV) was first isolated in 1963 and has become endemic with peak epidemic during raining season. Since 2000, the Dengue National Control Program has reported from 10,000 to 40,000 cases per year with fatality rates ranging from 0.7 to 1.7. All four dengue serotypes are found circulating in Cambodia with alternative predominance of serotypes DENV-2 and DENV-3. The DENV-1 represents from 5% to 20% of all circulating viruses, depending upon the year. In this work, 79 clinical strains of DENV-1 were isolated between 2000 and 2009 and their genome fully sequenced. Four distinct lineages with different dynamics were identified. The main evolutionary drive was negative selective pressure but each lineage was characterized by the presence of specific mutations acquired through evolution. Coexistence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurred over the 10-year period. Lineages 1, 2 and 3 were all detected since 2000-2002 and disappeared in 2003, 2004-2005 and 2007, respectively. Lineages 1 and 2 displayed different dynamics. Lineage 1 was very diverse whereas lineage 2 was very homogeneous. Lineage 4 which derived from lineage 3 in 2003 remained the only one at the end of the sampling period in 2008-2009 owing to a selective sweep. The lineages dynamic of DENV-1 viruses and consequences for molecular epidemiology are discussed. PMID:21757030

  17. Systems Genetic Analysis of Osteoblast-Lineage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Gina; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz; Kang, Hyun M.; Eskin, Eleazar; Dombret, Carlos; De Backer, Olivier; Lusis, Aldons J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    The osteoblast-lineage consists of cells at various stages of maturation that are essential for skeletal development, growth, and maintenance. Over the past decade, many of the signaling cascades that regulate this lineage have been elucidated; however, little is known of the networks that coordinate, modulate, and transmit these signals. Here, we identify a gene network specific to the osteoblast-lineage through the reconstruction of a bone co-expression network using microarray profiles collected on 96 Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) inbred strains. Of the 21 modules that comprised the bone network, module 9 (M9) contained genes that were highly correlated with prototypical osteoblast maker genes and were more highly expressed in osteoblasts relative to other bone cells. In addition, the M9 contained many of the key genes that define the osteoblast-lineage, which together suggested that it was specific to this lineage. To use the M9 to identify novel osteoblast genes and highlight its biological relevance, we knocked-down the expression of its two most connected “hub” genes, Maged1 and Pard6g. Their perturbation altered both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated the mice deficient in Maged1 had decreased bone mineral density (BMD). It was also discovered that a local expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) regulating the Wnt signaling antagonist Sfrp1 was a key driver of the M9. We also show that the M9 is associated with BMD in the HMDP and is enriched for genes implicated in the regulation of human BMD through genome-wide association studies. In conclusion, we have identified a physiologically relevant gene network and used it to discover novel genes and regulatory mechanisms involved in the function of osteoblast-lineage cells. Our results highlight the power of harnessing natural genetic variation to generate co-expression networks that can be used to gain insight into the function of specific cell-types. PMID

  18. Cytoskeleton-based forecasting of stem cell lineage fates

    PubMed Central

    Treiser, Matthew D.; Yang, Eric H.; Gordonov, Simon; Cohen, Daniel M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kohn, Joachim; Chen, Christopher S.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells that adopt distinct lineages cannot be distinguished based on traditional cell shape. This study reports that higher-order variations in cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that occur within hours of stimulation forecast the lineage commitment fates of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The unique approach captures numerous early (24 h), quantitative features of actin fluororeporter shapes, intensities, textures, and spatial distributions (collectively termed morphometric descriptors). The large number of descriptors are reduced into “combinations” through which distinct subpopulations of cells featuring unique combinations are identified. We demonstrate that hMSCs cultured on fibronectin-treated glass substrates under environments permissive to bone lineage induction could be readily discerned within the first 24 h from those cultured in basal- or fat-inductive conditions by such cytoskeletal feature groupings. We extend the utility of this approach to forecast osteogenic stem cell lineage fates across a series of synthetic polymeric materials of diverse physicochemical properties. Within the first 24 h following stem cell seeding, we could successfully “profile” the substrate responsiveness prospectively in terms of the degree of bone versus nonbone predisposition. The morphometric methodology also provided insights into how substrates may modulate the pace of osteogenic lineage specification. Cells on glass substrates deficient in fibronectin showed a similar divergence of lineage fates, but delayed beyond 48 h. In summary, this high-content imaging and single cell modeling approach offers a framework to elucidate and manipulate determinants of stem cell behaviors, as well as to screen stem cell lineage modulating materials and environments. PMID:20080726

  19. Polynesian mitochondrial DNAs reveal three deep maternal lineage clusters.

    PubMed

    Lum, J K; Rickards, O; Ching, C; Cann, R L

    1994-08-01

    The 4000-year-old human population expansion into Remote Oceania has been studied from a variety of genetic perspectives. Here, we report the discovery that Polynesians, traditionally considered to be a single cohesive linguistic and cultural unit, exhibit at least three distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) groups that probably shared a common maternal ancestor more than 85,000 years ago. The major lineage groups were first identified by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial region V deletion marker, known to be present at high frequency in Polynesian populations. Sequence analysis of mtDNA hypervariable control regions reveals a surprising number of lineages in Polynesia. We also note high sequence divergence between lineage groups deleted and not deleted in region V. Major group I lineages are common in Remote Oceania and include about 95% of the Native Hawaiian, 90% of the Samoan, and 100% of the Tongan donors in our sample. They contain the region V deletion and generally share three control region transition substitutions. This group also contains non-Polynesian individuals, such as Indonesians, Native Americans, Micronesians, Malaysians, Japanese, and Chinese. The group I Polynesians differ by 4.4% in sequence identity from major lineage group II Polynesians, who do not have the region V deletion and who share among themselves four distinct single-base substitutions. Group II individuals are seen at low frequency (< 10%) in Hawaii, Samoa, and the Cook Islands and may represent the predominant maternal lineage group of Papuan Melanesia. Major lineage group III, not found in Hawaii, tentatively links Samoa to Indonesia. Our observation of deep maternal genetic branches in Polynesia today confirms the notion that during the colonization of the Pacific, mainland Asian immigrants mixed with Melanesian peoples already inhabiting Near Oceania and carried a complex assortment of maternal genotypes derived from two distinct geographic sources to isolated island

  20. E protein transcription factors are required for the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mason, Mary Elizabeth; Zhao, Xudong; Kappes, Dietmar; Lasorella, Anna; Iavarone, Antonio; Zhuang, Yuan

    2012-03-23

    The double-positive (DP) to single-positive (SP) transition during T cell development is initiated by downregulation of the E protein transcription factors HEB and E2A. Here, we have demonstrated that in addition to regulating the onset of this transition, HEB and E2A also play a separate role in CD4(+) lineage choice. Deletion of HEB and E2A in DP thymocytes specifically blocked the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells. Furthermore, deletion of the E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3 allowed CD4(+) T cell development but blocked CD8(+) lineage development. Analysis of the CD4(+) lineage transcriptional regulators ThPOK and Gata3 placed HEB and E2A upstream of CD4(+) lineage specification. These studies identify an important role for E proteins in the activation of CD4(+) lineage differentiation as thymocytes undergo the DP to SP transition. PMID:22425249

  1. DLGP: A database for lineage-conserved and lineage-specific gene pairs in animal and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng

    2016-01-15

    The conservation of gene organization in the genome with lineage-specificity is an invaluable resource to decipher their potential functionality with diverse selective constraints, especially in higher animals and plants. Gene pairs appear to be the minimal structure for such kind of gene clusters that tend to reside in their preferred locations, representing the distinctive genomic characteristics in single species or a given lineage. Despite gene families having been investigated in a widespread manner, the definition of gene pair families in various taxa still lacks adequate attention. To address this issue, we report DLGP (http://lcgbase.big.ac.cn/DLGP/) that stores the pre-calculated lineage-based gene pairs in currently available 134 animal and plant genomes and inspect them under the same analytical framework, bringing out a set of innovational features. First, the taxonomy or lineage has been classified into four levels such as Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order. It adopts all-to-all comparison strategy to identify the possible conserved gene pairs in all species for each gene pair in certain species and reckon those that are conserved in over a significant proportion of species in a given lineage (e.g. Primates, Diptera or Poales) as the lineage-conserved gene pairs. Furthermore, it predicts the lineage-specific gene pairs by retaining the above-mentioned lineage-conserved gene pairs that are not conserved in any other lineages. Second, it carries out pairwise comparison for the gene pairs between two compared species and creates the table including all the conserved gene pairs and the image elucidating the conservation degree of gene pairs in chromosomal level. Third, it supplies gene order browser to extend gene pairs to gene clusters, allowing users to view the evolution dynamics in the gene context in an intuitive manner. This database will be able to facilitate the particular comparison between animals and plants, between vertebrates and arthropods, and

  2. Mitochondrial evolution across lineages of the vampire barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus.

    PubMed

    Wares, John P

    2015-02-01

    Eight whole mitochondrial genomes from the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus, with one from the northern lineage and seven from the divergent southern lineage, are presented. The annotated and aligned data were analyzed for signals of non-neutral evolution. Overall, these data are consistent with purifying selection operating on the protein-coding regions of the mitochondrion. However, a notable region of nonsynonymous substitution at the 3' end of the ND2 gene region, along with unusual site frequency spectra in two other gene regions, was identified. PMID:24047186

  3. New native South American Y chromosome lineages.

    PubMed

    Jota, Marilza S; Lacerda, Daniela R; Sandoval, José R; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Ohasi, Dominique; Santos-Júnior, José E; Acosta, Oscar; Cuellar, Cinthia; Revollo, Susana; Paz-Y-Miño, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Vallejo, Gustavo A; Schurr, Theodore G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Pena, Sergio Dj; Ayub, Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Santos, Fabrício R

    2016-07-01

    Many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-recombining region of the human Y chromosome have been described in the last decade. High-coverage sequencing has helped to characterize new SNPs, which has in turn increased the level of detail in paternal phylogenies. However, these paternal lineages still provide insufficient information on population history and demography, especially for Native Americans. The present study aimed to identify informative paternal sublineages derived from the main founder lineage of the Americas-haplogroup Q-L54-in a sample of 1841 native South Americans. For this purpose, we used a Y-chromosomal genotyping multiplex platform and conventional genotyping methods to validate 34 new SNPs that were identified in the present study by sequencing, together with many Y-SNPs previously described in the literature. We updated the haplogroup Q phylogeny and identified two new Q-M3 and three new Q-L54*(xM3) sublineages defined by five informative SNPs, designated SA04, SA05, SA02, SA03 and SA29. Within the Q-M3, sublineage Q-SA04 was mostly found in individuals from ethnic groups belonging to the Tukanoan linguistic family in the northwest Amazon, whereas sublineage Q-SA05 was found in Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon ethnic groups. Within Q-L54*, the derived sublineages Q-SA03 and Q-SA02 were exclusively found among Coyaima individuals (Cariban linguistic family) from Colombia, while Q-SA29 was found only in Maxacali individuals (Jean linguistic family) from southeast Brazil. Furthermore, we validated the usefulness of several published SNPs among indigenous South Americans. This new Y chromosome haplogroup Q phylogeny offers an informative paternal genealogy to investigate the pre-Columbian history of South America.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 31 March 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2016.26. PMID:27030145

  4. Lineage of origin in rhabdomyosarcoma informs pharmacological response

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Jinu; Nuñez-Álvarez, Yaiza; Hettmer, Simone; Carrió, Elvira; Chen, Hung-I Harry; Nishijo, Koichi; Huang, Elaine T.; Prajapati, Suresh I.; Walker, Robert L.; Davis, Sean; Rebeles, Jennifer; Wiebush, Hunter; McCleish, Amanda T.; Hampton, Sheila T.; Bjornson, Christopher R.R.; Brack, Andrew S.; Wagers, Amy J.; Rando, Thomas A.; Capecchi, Mario R.; Marini, Frank C.; Ehler, Benjamin R.; Zarzabal, Lee Ann; Goros, Martin W.; Michalek, Joel E.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Langenau, David M.; LeGallo, Robin D.; Mansoor, Atiya; Chen, Yidong; Suelves, Mònica; Rubin, Brian P.; Keller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Lineage or cell of origin of cancers is often unknown and thus is not a consideration in therapeutic approaches. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is an aggressive childhood cancer for which the cell of origin remains debated. We used conditional genetic mouse models of aRMS to activate the pathognomonic Pax3:Foxo1 fusion oncogene and inactivate p53 in several stages of prenatal and postnatal muscle development. We reveal that lineage of origin significantly influences tumor histomorphology and sensitivity to targeted therapeutics. Furthermore, we uncovered differential transcriptional regulation of the Pax3:Foxo1 locus by tumor lineage of origin, which led us to identify the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat as a pharmacological agent for the potential conversion of Pax3:Foxo1-positive aRMS to a state akin to fusion-negative RMS through direct transcriptional suppression of Pax3:Foxo1. PMID:25030697

  5. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crous, Pedro W.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.; Rheeder, John; Marasas, Walter F.O.; Philips, Alan J.L.; Alves, Artur; Burgess, Treena; Barber, Paul; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

    2006-01-01

    Botryosphaeria is a species-rich genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, commonly associated with dieback and cankers of woody plants. As many as 18 anamorph genera have been associated with Botryosphaeria, most of which have been reduced to synonymy under Diplodia (conidia mostly ovoid, pigmented, thick-walled), or Fusicoccum (conidia mostly fusoid, hyaline, thin-walled). However, there are numerous conidial anamorphs having morphological characteristics intermediate between Diplodia and Fusicoccum, and there are several records of species outside the Botryosphaeriaceae that have anamorphs apparently typical of Botryosphaeria s.str. Recent studies have also linked Botryosphaeria to species with pigmented, septate ascospores, and Dothiorella anamorphs, or Fusicoccum anamorphs with Dichomera synanamorphs. The aim of this study was to employ DNA sequence data of the 28S rDNA to resolve apparent lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae. From these data, 12 clades are recognised. Two of these lineages clustered outside the Botryosphaeriaceae, namely Diplodia-like anamorphs occurring on maize, which are best accommodated in Stenocarpella (Diaporthales), as well as an unresolved clade including species of Camarosporium/Microdiplodia. We recognise 10 lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae, including an unresolved clade (Diplodia/Lasiodiplodia/Tiarosporella), Botryosphaeria s.str. (Fusicoccum anamorphs), Macrophomina, Neoscytalidium gen. nov., Dothidotthia (Dothiorella anamorphs), Neofusicoccum gen. nov. (Botryosphaeria-like teleomorphs, Dichomera-like synanamorphs), Pseudofusicoccum gen. nov., Saccharata (Fusicoccum- and Diplodia-like synanamorphs), “Botryosphaeria” quercuum (Diplodia-like anamorph), and Guignardia (Phyllosticta anamorphs). Separate teleomorph and anamorph names are not provided for newly introduced genera, even where both morphs are known. The taxonomy of some clades and isolates (e.g. B. mamane) remains unresolved due to the absence of ex

  6. The melanocyte lineage in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Richard L.; Jackson, Ian J.; Patton, E. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes. Melanocytes have an apparently simple aetiology, differentiating from the neural crest and migrating through the developing embryo to specific locations within the skin and hair follicles, and to other sites in the body. The study of pigmentation mutations in the mouse provided the initial key to identifying the genes and proteins involved in melanocyte development. In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches. This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma. PMID:25670789

  7. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution.

    PubMed

    Earl, Joshua P; de Vries, Stefan P W; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P; Hermans, Peter W M; Hill, Darryl J; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I; Hu, Fen Z; Bootsma, Hester J; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial speciesMoraxella catarrhalishas been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages-the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains aresui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  8. Cross-protective immune responses between genotypically distinct lineages of infectious laryngotracheitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Markham, Philip F; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Legione, Alistair R; Shil, Niraj K; Quinteros, José A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Browning, Glenn F; Hartley, Carol A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2014-03-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies have identified different genotypic lineages of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), and these lineages can recombine in the field. The emergence of virulent recombinant field strains of ILTV by natural recombination between commercial vaccines belonging to different genotypic lineages has been reported recently. Despite the use of attenuated ILTV vaccines, these recombinant viruses were able to spread and cause disease in commercial poultry flocks, raising the question of whether the different lineages of ILTV can induce cross-protective immune responses. This study examined the capacity of the Australian-origin A20 ILTV vaccine to protect against challenge with the class 8 ILTV recombinant virus, the genome of which is predominantly derived from a heterologous genotypic lineage. Following challenge, birds vaccinated via eyedrop were protected from clinical signs of disease and pathological changes in the tracheal mucosa, although they were not completely protected from viral infection or replication. In contrast, the challenge virus induced severe clinical signs and tracheal pathology in unvaccinated birds. This is the first study to examine the ability of a vaccine from the Australian lineage to protect against challenge with a virus from a heterologous lineage. These results suggest that the two distinct genotypic lineages of ILTV can both induce cross-protection, indicating that current commercial vaccines are still likely to assist in control of ILTV in the poultry industry, in spite of the emergence of novel recombinants derived from different genotypic lineages. PMID:24758128

  9. Identification of six Trypanosoma cruzi lineages by sequence-characterised amplified region markers.

    PubMed

    Brisse, S; Dujardin, J C; Tibayrenc, M

    2000-11-01

    Six discrete phylogenetic lineages were recently identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, on the basis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) characterisation. The objective of the present study was to develop specific PCR-based markers for the identification of each of the six lineages. Eighty-seven T. cruzi stocks representative of all the lineages were characterised by RAPD with three primers, resulting in the identification of three fragments that were specifically amplified in the given sets of lineages. After cloning and sequencing these fragments, three pairs of sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed. After PCR amplification using the SCAR primers, the initial polymorphism was retained either as the presence or absence of amplification, or as size variation between the PCR products. Although most PCR products, taken individually, were distributed across several lineages, the combination of the three SCAR markers resulted in characteristic patterns that were distinct in the six lineages. Furthermore, T. cruzi lineages were distinguished from Trypanosoma rangeli, T. cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi-like organisms. The excellent correspondence of these new PCR markers with the phylogenetic lineages, allied with their sensitivity, makes them reliable tools for lineage identification and strain characterisation in T. cruzi. The approach described here could be generalised to any species of microorganism harbouring clear-cut phylogenetic subdivisions. PMID:11087920

  10. Theory and Practice of Lineage Tracing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    Lineage tracing is a method that delineates all progeny produced by a single cell or a group of cells. The possibility of performing lineage tracing initiated the field of Developmental Biology and continues to revolutionize Stem Cell Biology. Here, I introduce the principles behind a successful lineage-tracing experiment. In addition, I summarize and compare different methods for conducting lineage tracing and provide examples of how these strategies can be implemented to answer fundamental questions in development and regeneration. The advantages and limitations of each method are also discussed. PMID:26284340

  11. Simultaneous analysis of five molecular markers provides a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis for the living bony-tongue fishes (Osteoglossomorpha: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Sullivan, John P

    2004-10-01

    Fishes of the Superorder Osteoglossomorpha (the "bonytongues") constitute a morphologically heterogeneous group of basal teleosts, including highly derived subgroups such as African electric fishes, the African butterfly fish, and Old World knifefishes. Lack of consensus among hypotheses of osteoglossomorph relationships advanced during the past 30 years may be due in part to the difficulty of identifying shared derived characters among the morphologically differentiated extant families of this group. In this study, we present a novel phylogenetic hypothesis for this group, based on the analysis of more than 4000 characters from five molecular markers (the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S and 16S rRNA genes, and the nuclear genes RAG2 and MLL). Our taxonomic sampling includes one representative of each extant non-mormyrid osteoglossomorph genus, one representative for the monophyletic family Mormyridae, and four outgroup taxa within the basal Teleostei. Maximum parsimony analysis of combined and equally weighted characters from the five molecular markers and Bayesian analysis provide a single, well-supported, hypothesis of osteoglossomorph interrelationships and show the group to be monophyletic. The tree topology is the following: (Hiodon alosoides, (Pantodon buchholzi, (((Osteoglossum bicirrhosum, Scleropages sp.), (Arapaima gigas, Heterotis niloticus)), ((Gymnarchus niloticus, Ivindomyrus opdenboschi), ((Notopterus notopterus, Chitala ornata), (Xenomystus nigri, Papyrocranus afer)))))). We compare our results with previously published phylogenetic hypotheses based on morpho-anatomical data. Additionally, we explore the consequences of the long terminal branch length for the taxon Pantodon buchholzi in our phylogenetic reconstruction and we use the obtained phylogenetic tree to reconstruct the evolutionary history of electroreception in the Notopteroidei. PMID:15324846

  12. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Joshua P.; de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P.; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Hill, Darryl J.; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I.; Hu, Fen Z.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalis has been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages—the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains are sui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  13. When Family History Matters: The Importance of Lineage Analyses and Fate Maps for Explaining Animal Development.

    PubMed

    Klein, Steven L; Moody, Sally A

    2016-01-01

    Initial interest in understanding how the fertilized egg becomes a multicellular animal suggested two possible answers: either the embryo came from preformed components or it arose through epigenetic processes. Extensive research during the past few decades has identified aspects of development that depend on preformed elements, such as cytoplasmic components and a cell's lineage; it also has identified aspects that depend on epigenetic processes, such as cell interactions and morphogen gradients. These advances have depended on understanding embryonic cell lineage and cell fate. This essay explains how lineage analysis and fate mapping have contributed to our current understanding of embryonic development. PMID:26969974

  14. Species delimitation under the general lineage concept: An empirical example using wild North American hops (cannabaceae: Humulus lupulus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an emerging consensus that the intent of most species concepts is to identify evolutionarily-distinct lineages. However, the criteria used to identify lineages differ between concepts depending on the perceived importance of various attributes of evolving populations. We have applied tests ...

  15. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    PubMed

    Merker, Matthias; Blin, Camille; Mona, Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Lecher, Sophie; Willery, Eve; Blum, Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Mokrousov, Igor; Aleksic, Eman; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Antierens, Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Ballif, Marie; Barletta, Francesca; Beck, Hans Peter; Barry, Clifton E; Bonnet, Maryline; Borroni, Emanuele; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Cirillo, Daniela; Cox, Helen; Crowe, Suzanne; Crudu, Valeriu; Diel, Roland; Drobniewski, Francis; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Gagneux, Sébastien; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hanekom, Madeleine; Hoffner, Sven; Jiao, Wei-wei; Kalon, Stobdan; Kohl, Thomas A; Kontsevaya, Irina; Lillebæk, Troels; Maeda, Shinji; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Rasmussen, Michael; Rastogi, Nalin; Samper, Sofia; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Savic, Branislava; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Shen, Adong; Sng, Li-Hwei; Stakenas, Petras; Toit, Kadri; Varaine, Francis; Vukovic, Dragana; Wahl, Céline; Warren, Robin; Supply, Philip; Niemann, Stefan; Wirth, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage. PMID:25599400

  16. Genetic and epigenetic variation in the lineage specification of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Aaron; van der Veeken, Joris; Plitas, George; Rich, Stephen S; Concannon, Patrick; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress autoimmunity and other inflammatory states, are characterized by a distinct set of genetic elements controlling their gene expression. However, the extent of genetic and associated epigenetic variation in the Treg cell lineage and its possible relation to disease states in humans remain unknown. We explored evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements and natural human inter-individual epigenetic variation in Treg cells to identify the core transcriptional control program of lineage specification. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in core lineage-specific enhancers revealed disease associations, which were further corroborated by high-resolution genotyping to fine map causal polymorphisms in lineage-specific enhancers. Our findings suggest that a small set of regulatory elements specify the Treg lineage and that genetic variation in Treg cell-specific enhancers may alter Treg cell function contributing to polygenic disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07571.001 PMID:26510014

  17. Induction of Pluripotency in Mouse Somatic Cells with Lineage Specifiers

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Wu, Chen; Wu, Yetao; Li, Zhiyuan; Shao, Sida; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Xing; Yang, Huan; Shen, Lijun; Zuo, Xiaohan; Yang, Weifeng; Shi, Yan; Chi, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hongquan; Gao, Ge; Shu, Youmin; Yuan, Kehu; He, Weiwu; Tang, Chao; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Hongkui

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reprogramming factors that induce pluripotency have been identified primarily from embryonic stem cell (ESC)-enriched, pluripotency-associated factors. Here we report that during mouse somatic cell reprogramming, pluripotency can be induced with lineage specifiers that are pluripotency rivals to suppress ESC identity, most of which are not enriched in ESCs. We found that OCT4 and SOX2, the core regulators of pluripotency, can be replaced by lineage specifiers that are involved in mesendodermal (ME) specification and in ectodermal (ECT) specification, respectively. OCT4 and its substitutes attenuated the elevated expression of a group of ECT genes whereas SOX2 and its substitutes curtailed a group of ME genes during reprogramming. Surprisingly, the two counteracting lineage specifiers can synergistically induce pluripotency in the absence of both OCT4 and SOX2. Our study suggests a “seesaw model,” in which a balance that is established using pluripotency factors and/or counteracting lineage specifiers can facilitate reprogramming. PMID:23706735

  18. Lineage analysis by microsatellite loci deep sequencing in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tao; He, Xionglei; Xing, Ke

    2016-05-01

    Lineage analysis is the identification of all the progeny of a single progenitor cell, and has become particularly useful for studying developmental processes and cancer biology. Here, we propose a novel and effective method for lineage analysis that combines sequence capture and next-generation sequencing technology. Genome-wide mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellite loci in eight samples from two mice were identified and used to construct phylogenetic trees based on somatic indel mutations at these loci, which were unique enough to distinguish and parse samples from different mice into different groups along the lineage tree. For example, biopsies from the liver and stomach, which originate from the endoderm, were located in the same clade, while samples in kidney, which originate from the mesoderm, were located in another clade. Yet, tissue with a common developmental origin may still contain cells of a mixed ancestry. This genome-wide approach thus provides a non-invasive lineage analysis method based on mutations that accumulate in the genomes of opaque multicellular organism somatic cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 387-391, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26932355

  19. Chromosomal Inversions between Human and Chimpanzee Lineages Caused by Retrotransposons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungnam; Han, Kyudong; Meyer, Thomas J.; Kim, Heui-Soo; Batzer, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) and Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements comprising 21% and 11% of the human genome, respectively. Since the divergence of human and chimpanzee lineages, these elements have vigorously created chromosomal rearrangements causing genomic difference between humans and chimpanzees by either increasing or decreasing the size of genome. Here, we report an exotic mechanism, retrotransposon recombination-mediated inversion (RRMI), that usually does not alter the amount of genomic material present. Through the comparison of the human and chimpanzee draft genome sequences, we identified 252 inversions whose respective inversion junctions can clearly be characterized. Our results suggest that L1 and Alu elements cause chromosomal inversions by either forming a secondary structure or providing a fragile site for double-strand breaks. The detailed analysis of the inversion breakpoints showed that L1 and Alu elements are responsible for at least 44% of the 252 inversion loci between human and chimpanzee lineages, including 49 RRMI loci. Among them, three RRMI loci inverted exonic regions in known genes, which implicates this mechanism in generating the genomic and phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee lineages. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of mobile element bases inversion breakpoints between human and chimpanzee lineages, and highlights their role in primate genome evolution. PMID:19112500

  20. Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Peletto, Simone; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Modesto, Paola; Rezza, Giovanni; Platonov, Alexander E; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2013-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in Uganda. In Europe WNV was sporadically detected until 1996, since then the virus has been regularly isolated from birds and mosquitoes and caused several outbreaks in horses and humans. Phylogenetic analysis showed two main different WNV lineages. The lineage 1 is widespread and segregates into different subclades (1a-c). WNV-1a includes numerous strains from Africa, America, and Eurasia. The spatio-temporal history of WNV-1a in Europe was recently described, identifying two main routes of dispersion, one in Eastern and the second in Western Europe. The West Nile lineage 2 (WNV-2) is mainly present in sub-Saharan Africa but has been recently emerged in Eastern and Western European countries. In this study we reconstruct the phylogeny of WNV-2 on a spatio-temporal scale in order to estimate the time of origin and patterns of geographical dispersal of the different isolates, particularly in Europe. Phylogeography findings obtained from E and NS5 gene analyses suggest that there were at least two separate introductions of WNV-2 from the African continent dated back approximately to the year 1999 (Central Europe) and 2000 (Russia), respectively. The epidemiological implications and clinical consequences of lineage 1 and 2 cocirculation deserve further investigations. PMID:23542457

  1. Microarray based comparison of two Escherichia coli O157:H7 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Scot E; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified the potential for the existence of two separate lineages of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Clinical isolates tended to cluster primarily within one of these two lineages. To determine if there are virulence related genes differentially expressed between the two lineages we chose to utilize microarray technology to perform an initial screening. Results Using a 610 gene microarray, designed against the E. coli O157 EDL 933 transcriptome, targeting primarily virulence systems, we chose 3 representative Lineage I isolates (LI groups mostly clinical isolates) and 3 representative Lineage II isolates (LII groups mostly bovine isolates). Using standard dye swap experimental designs, statistically different expression (P < 0.05) of 73 genes between the two lineages was revealed. Result highlights indicate that under in vitro anaerobic growth conditions, there is up-regulation of stx2b, ureD, curli (csgAFEG), and stress related genes (hslJ, cspG, ibpB, ibpA) in Lineage I, which may contribute to enhanced virulence or transmission potential. Lineage II exhibits significant up-regulation of type III secretion apparatus, LPS, and flagella related transcripts. Conclusion These results give insight into comparative regulation of virulence genes as well as providing directions for future research. Ultimately, evaluating the expression of key virulence factors among different E. coli O157 isolates has inherent value and the interpretation of such expression data will continue to evolve as our understanding of virulence, pathogenesis and transmission improves. PMID:16539702

  2. Origins, admixture and founder lineages in European Roma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Mendizabal, Isabel; Harmant, Christine; de Pablo, Rosario; Ioana, Mihai; Angelicheva, Dora; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Makukh, Halyna; Netea, Mihai G; Pamjav, Horolma; Zalán, Andrea; Tournev, Ivailo; Marushiakova, Elena; Popov, Vesselin; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Kalaydjieva, Luba; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David

    2016-06-01

    The Roma, also known as 'Gypsies', represent the largest and the most widespread ethnic minority of Europe. There is increasing evidence, based on linguistic, anthropological and genetic data, to suggest that they originated from the Indian subcontinent, with subsequent bottlenecks and undetermined gene flow from/to hosting populations during their diaspora. Further support comes from the presence of Indian uniparentally inherited lineages, such as mitochondrial DNA M and Y-chromosome H haplogroups, in a significant number of Roma individuals. However, the limited resolution of most genetic studies so far, together with the restriction of the samples used, have prevented the detection of other non-Indian founder lineages that might have been present in the proto-Roma population. We performed a high-resolution study of the uniparental genomes of 753 Roma and 984 non-Roma hosting European individuals. Roma groups show lower genetic diversity and high heterogeneity compared with non-Roma samples as a result of lower effective population size and extensive drift, consistent with a series of bottlenecks during their diaspora. We found a set of founder lineages, present in the Roma and virtually absent in the non-Roma, for the maternal (H7, J1b3, J1c1, M18, M35b, M5a1, U3, and X2d) and paternal (I-P259, J-M92, and J-M67) genomes. This lineage classification allows us to identify extensive gene flow from non-Roma to Roma groups, whereas the opposite pattern, although not negligible, is substantially lower (up to 6.3%). Finally, the exact haplotype matching analysis of both uniparental lineages consistently points to a Northwestern origin of the proto-Roma population within the Indian subcontinent. PMID:26374132

  3. The horseradish peroxidase technique for cell lineage studies.

    PubMed

    Peralta, M; Denaro, F J

    2003-12-01

    The identification of cell lineage for a given cell type of a particular tissue is an important step in understanding how this process contributes to histogenesis. The importance in understanding cell lineage has relevance for both theoretical and practical reasons. For example, delineating and identifying histogenic principals is required to advance stem cell research and tissue regeneration. To document cell lineage in a given experimental preparation, a number of techniques have been developed. This typically requires the injection of a tracer compound into a founder cell. As this cell produces progeny, the tracer is passed on to the daughter cells. By detecting the tracer in the progeny or daughter cells the investigator can determine which cells originated from the cell that was originally injected with the tracer. By using such an approach it is possible to trace the developmental path from the first cells of the embryo to the specialized cells making the tissue of the adult. A number of tracer compounds have been used with good results in lineage tracing. One of these tracer compounds is horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Several variations of the technique are available depending on what species are studied or what histological requirements are made by the study. A basic technique that can be adapted to individual needs is presented. Included in this protocol on lineage tracing are the procedures for injection, fixation, and the microscope evaluation of labelled cells in the Helobdella triseralis embryo. A brief discussion of the technique will note its advantages and disadvantages. Examples of labelled cell preparations are given to illustrate the technique. PMID:14984012

  4. AFLP markers resolve intra-specific relationships and infer genetic structure among lineages of the canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor.

    PubMed

    Klymus, Katy E; Carl Gerhardt, H

    2012-11-01

    The canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor, is a wide-ranging hylid found from southwestern US into southern Mexico. Recent studies have shown this species to have a complex evolutionary history, with several phylogeographically distinct lineages, a probable cryptic species, and multiple episodes of mitochondrial introgression with the sister group, the H. eximia complex. We aimed to use genome wide AFLP markers to better resolve relationships within this group. As in other studies, our inferred phylogeny not only provides evidence for repeated mitochondrial introgression between H. arenicolor lineages and H. eximia/H. wrightorum, but it also affords more resolution within the main H. arenicolor clade than was previously achieved with sequence data. However, as with a previous study, the placement of a lineage of H. arenicolor whose distribution is centered in the Balsas Basin of Mexico remains poorly resolved, perhaps due to past hybridization with the H. eximia complex. Furthermore, the AFLP data set shows no differentiation among lineages from the Grand Canyon and Colorado Plateau despite their large mitochondrial sequence divergence. Finally, our results infer a well-supported sister relationship between this combined Colorado Plateau/Grand Canyon lineage and the Sonoran Desert lineage, a relationship that strongly contradicts conclusions drawn from the mtDNA evidence. Our study provides a basis for further behavioral and ecological speciation studies of this system and highlights the importance of multi-taxon (species) sampling in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. PMID:22898531

  5. Nucleotide sequences provide evidence of genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Carlos A.; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2001-01-01

    Simple phylogenetic tests were applied to a large data set of nucleotide sequences from two nuclear genes and a region of the mitochondrial genome of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' disease. Incongruent gene genealogies manifest genetic exchange among distantly related lineages of T. cruzi. Two widely distributed isoenzyme types of T. cruzi are hybrids, their genetic composition being the likely result of genetic exchange between two distantly related lineages. The data show that the reference strain for the T. cruzi genome project (CL Brener) is a hybrid. Well-supported gene genealogies show that mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences from T. cruzi cluster, respectively, in three or four distinct clades that do not fully correspond to the two previously defined major lineages of T. cruzi. There is clear genetic differentiation among the major groups of sequences, but genetic diversity within each major group is low. We estimate that the major extant lineages of T. cruzi have diverged during the Miocene or early Pliocene (3–16 million years ago). PMID:11416213

  6. Is It Easy to Be Urban? Convergent Success in Urban Habitats among Lineages of a Widespread Native Ant

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Sean B.; Booth, Warren; Dunn, Robert R.; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.; Silverman, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The most rapidly expanding habitat globally is the urban habitat, yet the origin and life histories of the populations of native species that inhabit this habitat remain poorly understood. We use DNA barcoding of the COI gene in the widespread native pest ant Tapinoma sessile to test two hypotheses regarding the origin of urban populations and traits associated with their success. First, we determine if urban samples of T. sessile have a single origin from natural populations by looking at patterns of haplotype clustering from across their range. Second, we examine whether polygynous colony structure – a trait associated with invasion success – is correlated with urban environments, by studying the lineage dependence of colony structure. Our phylogenetic analysis of 49 samples identified four well supported geographic clades. Within clades, Kimura-2 parameter pairwise genetic distances revealed <2.3% variation; however, between clade genetic distances were 7.5–10.0%, suggesting the possibility of the presence of cryptic species. Our results indicate that T. sessile has successfully colonized urban environments multiple times. Additionally, polygynous colony structure is a highly plastic trait across habitat, clade, and haplotype. In short, T. sessile has colonized urban habitats repeatedly and appears to do so using life history strategies already present in more natural populations. Whether similar results hold for other species found in urban habitats has scarcely begun to be considered. PMID:20169204

  7. A Rapid Genetic Assay for the Identification of the Most Common Pocillopora damicornis Genetic Lineages on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Torda, Gergely; Schmidt-Roach, Sebastian; Peplow, Lesa M.; Lundgren, Petra; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus, 1758; Scleractinia, Pocilloporidae) has recently been found to comprise at least five distinct genetic lineages in Eastern Australia, some of which likely represent cryptic species. Due to similar and plastic gross morphology of these lineages, field identification is often difficult. Here we present a quick, cost effective genetic assay as well as three novel microsatellite markers that distinguish the two most common lineages found on the Great Barrier Reef. The assay is based on PCR amplification of two regions within the mitochondrial putative control region, which show consistent and easily identifiable fragment size differences for the two genetic lineages after Alu1 restriction enzyme digestion of the amplicons. PMID:23505507

  8. Cryptic Lineages of the Genus Escherichia▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Seth T.; Alm, Elizabeth W.; Gordon, David M.; Ram, Jeffrey L.; Toranzos, Gary A.; Tiedje, James M.; Whittam, Thomas S.

    2009-01-01

    Extended multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis of atypical Escherichia isolates was used to identify five novel phylogenetic clades (CI to CV) among isolates from environmental, human, and animal sources. Analysis of individual housekeeping loci showed that E. coli and its sister clade, CI, remain largely indistinguishable and represent nascent evolutionary lineages. Conversely, clades of similar age (CIII and CIV) were found to be phylogenetically distinct. When all Escherichia lineages (named and unnamed) were evaluated, we found evidence that Escherichia fergusonii has evolved at an accelerated rate compared to E. coli, CI, CIII, CIV, and CV, suggesting that this species is younger than estimated by the molecular clock method. Although the five novel clades were phylogenetically distinct, we were unable to identify a discriminating biochemical marker for all but one of them (CIII) with traditional phenotypic profiling. CIII had a statistically different phenotype from E. coli that resulted from the loss of sucrose and sorbitol fermentation and lysine utilization. The lack of phenotypic distinction has likely hindered the ability to differentiate these clades from typical E. coli, and so their ecological significance and importance for applied and clinical microbiology are yet to be determined. However, our sampling suggests that CIII, CIV, and CV represent environmentally adapted Escherichia lineages that may be more abundant outside the host gastrointestinal tract. PMID:19700542

  9. Identification and lineage genotyping of South American trypanosomes using fluorescent fragment length barcoding.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, P B; Lewis, M D; Cruickshank, C; Gaunt, M W; Yeo, M; Llewellyn, M S; Valente, S A; Maia da Silva, F; Stevens, J R; Miles, M A; Teixeira, M M G

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli are human-infective blood parasites, largely restricted to Central and South America. They also infect a wide range of wild and domestic mammals and are transmitted by a numerous species of triatomine bugs. There are significant overlaps in the host and geographical ranges of both species. The two species consist of a number of distinct phylogenetic lineages. A range of PCR-based techniques have been developed to differentiate between these species and to assign their isolates into lineages. However, the existence of at least six and five lineages within T. cruzi and T. rangeli, respectively, makes identification of the full range of isolates difficult and time consuming. Here we have applied fluorescent fragment length barcoding (FFLB) to the problem of identifying and genotyping T. cruzi, T. rangeli and other South American trypanosomes. This technique discriminates species on the basis of length polymorphism of regions of the rDNA locus. FFLB was able to differentiate many trypanosome species known from South American mammals: T. cruzi cruzi, T. cruzi marinkellei, T. dionisii-like, T. evansi, T. lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri and T. vivax. Furthermore, all five T. rangeli lineages and many T. cruzi lineages could be identified, except the hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI that could not be distinguished from lineages III and II respectively. This method also allowed identification of mixed infections of T. cruzi and T. rangeli lineages in naturally infected triatomine bugs. The ability of FFLB to genotype multiple lineages of T. cruzi and T. rangeli together with other trypanosome species, using the same primer sets is an advantage over other currently available techniques. Overall, these results demonstrate that FFLB is a useful method for species diagnosis, genotyping and understanding the epidemiology of American trypanosomes. PMID:21029792

  10. K-Pg events facilitated lineage transitions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Procheş, Serban; Polgar, Gianluca; Marshall, David J

    2014-06-01

    We use dated phylogenetic trees for tetrapod vertebrates to identify lineages that shifted between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in terms of feeding or development, and to assess the timing of such events. Both stem and crown lineage ages indicate a peak in transition events in correspondence with the K-Pg mass extinction. This meets the prediction that changes in competitive pressure and resource availability following mass extinction events should facilitate such transitions. PMID:24919699

  11. Massive lineage replacements and cryptic outbreaks of Salmonella Typhi in eastern and southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    A new large-scale study reports the whole-genome sequences of nearly 2,000 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) strains collected from 63 countries. A recent and dominant multidrug-resistant (MDR) lineage originating from South Asia, which is supplanting a bulk of ancestral drug-sensitive strains, is identified; the success of this lineage is likely driven by plasmid acquisitions and the chromosomal integration of resistance-conferring genes. PMID:26018894

  12. Lineage Selection and the Maintenance of Sex

    PubMed Central

    de Vienne, Damien M.; Giraud, Tatiana; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's “The origin of species”. Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex. PMID:23825582

  13. Physiological ecology and functional traits of North American native and Eurasian introduced Phragmites australis lineages

    PubMed Central

    Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Brisson, Jacques; Hazelton, Eric L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological ecology and plant functional traits are often used to explain plant invasion. To gain a better understanding of how traits influence invasion, studies usually compare the invasive plant to a native congener, but there are few conspecific examples in the literature. In North America, the presence of native and introduced genetic lineages of the common reed, Phragmites australis, presents a unique example to evaluate how traits influence plant invasion. We reviewed the literature on functional traits of P. australis lineages in North America, specifically contrasting lineages present on the Atlantic Coast. We focused on differences in physiology between the lineage introduced from Eurasia and the lineage native to North America, specifically seeking to identify the causes underlying the recent expansion of the introduced lineage. Our goals were to better understand which traits may confer invasiveness, provide predictions of how these lineages may respond to interspecific competition or imminent global change, and provide guidance for future research. We reviewed published studies and articles in press, and conducted personal communications with appropriate researchers and managers to develop a comparative dataset. We compared the native and introduced lineages and focused on plant physiological ecology and functional traits. Under both stressful and favourable conditions, our review showed that introduced P. australis consistently exhibited greater ramet density, height and biomass, higher and more plastic relative growth rate, nitrogen productivity and specific leaf area, higher mass specific nitrogen uptake rates, as well as greater phenotypic plasticity compared with the native lineage. We suggest that ecophysiological and other plant functional traits elucidate potential mechanisms for the introduced lineage's invasiveness under current and predicted global change conditions. However, our review identified a disconnect between field surveys

  14. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region. PMID:26705238

  15. Cartilage on the Move: Cartilage Lineage Tracing During Tadpole Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerney, Ryan R.; Brittain, Alison L.; Hall, Brian K.; Buchholz, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The reorganization of cranial cartilages during tadpole metamorphosis is a set of complex processes. The fates of larval cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes) and sources of adult chondrocytes are largely unknown. Individual larval cranial cartilages may either degenerate or remodel, while many adult cartilages appear to form de novo during metamorphosis. Determining the extent to which adult chondrocytes/cartilages are derived from larval chondrocytes during metamorphosis requires new techniques in chondrocyte lineage tracing. We have developed two transgenic systems to label cartilage cells throughout the body with fluorescent proteins. One system strongly labels early tadpole cartilages only. The other system inducibly labels forming cartilages at any developmental stage. We examined cartilages of the skull (viscero- and neurocranium), and identified larval cartilages that either resorb or remodel into adult cartilages. Our data show that the adult otic capsules, tecti anterius and posterius, hyale, and portions of Meckel’s cartilage are derived from larval chondrocytes. Our data also suggest that most adult cartilages form de novo, though we cannot rule out the potential for extreme larval chondrocyte proliferation or de- and re-differentiation, which could dilute our fluorescent protein signal. The transgenic lineage tracing strategies developed here are the first examples of inducible, skeleton-specific, lineage tracing in Xenopus. PMID:23036161

  16. Beyond clines: lineages and haplotype blocks in hybrid zones.

    PubMed

    Sedghifar, Alisa; Brandvain, Yaniv; Ralph, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones formed between recently diverged populations offer an opportunity to study the mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation and the process of speciation. Here, we use a combination of analytical theory and explicit forward simulations to describe how selection against hybrid genotypes impacts patterns of introgression across genomic and geographic space. By describing how lineages move across the hybrid zone, in a model without coalescence, we add to modern understanding of how clines form and how parental haplotypes are broken up during introgression. Working with lineages makes it easy to see that clines form in about 1/s generations, where s is the strength of selection against hybrids, and linked clines persist over a genomic scale of 1/T, where T is the age, in generations, of the hybrid zone. Locally disadvantageous alleles tend to exist as small families, whose lineages trace back to the side from which they originated at speed s dispersal distances per generation. The lengths of continuous tracts of ancestry provide an additional source of information: blocks of ancestry surrounding incompatibilities can be substantially longer than the genomewide average block length at the same spatial location, an observation that might be used to identify candidate targets of selection. PMID:27148805

  17. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  18. Origins of adult pigmentation: diversity in pigment stem cell lineages and implications for pattern evolution

    PubMed Central

    Spiewak, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Teleosts comprise about half of all vertebrate species and exhibit an extraordinary diversity of adult pigment patterns that function in shoaling, camouflage and mate choice and have played important roles in speciation. Here, we review recent studies that have identified several distinct neural crest lineages, with distinct genetic requirements, that give rise to adult pigment cells in fishes. These lineages include post-embryonic, peripheral nerve associated stem cells that generate black melanophores and iridescent iridophores, cells derived directly from embryonic neural crest cells that generate yellow-orange xanthophores, and bipotent stem cells that generate both melanophores and xanthophores. This complexity in adult chromatophore lineages has implications for our understanding of adult traits, melanoma, and the evolutionary diversification of pigment cell lineages and patterns. PMID:25421288

  19. Genomic Analysis of the Evolution and Global Spread of Hyper-invasive Meningococcal Lineage 5

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Odile B.; Bray, James E.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Caugant, Dominique A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The predominant model for bacterial pandemics is the emergence of a virulent variant that diversifies as it spreads in human populations. We investigated a 40-year meningococcal disease pandemic caused by the hyper-invasive ET-5/ST-32 complex. Methods A global collection of Neisseria meningitidis isolates dating from 1969 to 2008 was whole genome sequenced (WGS) and analysed using a gene-by-gene approach at http://pubmlst.org/neisseria. Findings Analysis of WGS data identified a ‘Lineage 5 pan genome’ of 1940 genes, 1752 (92%) of which were present in all isolates (Lineage 5 ‘core genome’). Genetic diversity, which was mostly generated by horizontal gene transfer, was unevenly distributed in the genome; however, genealogical analysis of diverse and conserved core genes, accessory genes, and antigen encoding genes, robustly identified a star phylogeny with a number of sub-lineages. Most European and American isolates belonged to one of two closely related sub-lineages, which had diversified before the identification of the pandemic in the 1970s. A third, genetically more diverse sub-lineage, was associated with Asian isolates. Several isolates had acquired DNA from the related gonococcus. Interpretation These data were inconsistent with a single point of origin followed by pandemic spread, rather suggesting that the sub-lineages had diversified and spread by asymptomatic transmission, with multiple distinct strains causing localised hyperendemic outbreaks. PMID:25984558

  20. Recovering mitochondrial DNA lineages of extinct Amerindian nations in extant homopatric Brazilian populations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Brazilian Amerindians have experienced a drastic population decrease in the past 500 years. Indeed, many native groups from eastern Brazil have vanished. However, their mitochondrial mtDNA haplotypes, still persist in Brazilians, at least 50 million of whom carry Amerindian mitochondrial lineages. Our objective was to test whether, by analyzing extant rural populations from regions anciently occupied by specific Amerindian groups, we could identify potentially authentic mitochondrial lineages, a strategy we have named 'homopatric targeting'. Results We studied 173 individuals from Queixadinha, a small village located in a territory previously occupied by the now extinct Botocudo Amerindian nation. Pedigree analysis revealed 74 unrelated matrilineages, which were screened for Amerindian mtDNA lineages by restriction fragment length polymorphism. A cosmopolitan control group was composed of 100 individuals from surrounding cities. All Amerindian lineages identified had their hypervariable segment HVSI sequenced, yielding 13 Amerindian haplotypes in Queixadinha, nine of which were not present in available databanks or in the literature. Among these haplotypes, there was a significant excess of haplogroup C (70%) and absence of haplogroup A lineages, which were the most common in the control group. The novelty of the haplotypes and the excess of the C haplogroup suggested that we might indeed have identified Botocudo lineages. To validate our strategy, we studied teeth extracted from 14 ancient skulls of Botocudo Amerindians from the collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. We recovered mtDNA sequences from all the teeth, identifying only six different haplotypes (a low haplotypic diversity of 0.8352 ± 0.0617), one of which was present among the lineages observed in the extant individuals studied. Conclusions These findings validate the technique of homopatric targeting as a useful new strategy to study the peopling and colonization of the New

  1. Vanishing native American dog lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dogs were an important element in many native American cultures at the time Europeans arrived. Although previous ancient DNA studies revealed the existence of unique native American mitochondrial sequences, these have not been found in modern dogs, mainly purebred, studied so far. Results We identified many previously undescribed mitochondrial control region sequences in 400 dogs from rural and isolated areas as well as street dogs from across the Americas. However, sequences of native American origin proved to be exceedingly rare, and we estimate that the native population contributed only a minor fraction of the gene pool that constitutes the modern population. Conclusions The high number of previously unidentified haplotypes in our sample suggests that a lot of unsampled genetic variation exists in non-breed dogs. Our results also suggest that the arrival of European colonists to the Americas may have led to an extensive replacement of the native American dog population by the dogs of the invaders. PMID:21418639

  2. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren C.; Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period neuroblast generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the “projection envelope” of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones, Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  3. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones.

    PubMed

    Wong, Darren C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period, neuroblasts generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the "projection envelope" of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones. Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper, Lovick et al., 2013), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  4. Genome Evolution and Innovation across the Four Major Lineages of Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Zeng, Qiandong; Chen, Yuan; Voelz, Kerstin; Heitman, Joseph; May, Robin C.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen of humans, causing pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy hosts. To characterize genomic variation among the four major lineages of C. gattii (VGI, -II, -III, and -IV), we generated, annotated, and compared 16 de novo genome assemblies, including the first for the rarely isolated lineages VGIII and VGIV. By identifying syntenic regions across assemblies, we found 15 structural rearrangements, which were almost exclusive to the VGI-III-IV lineages. Using synteny to inform orthology prediction, we identified a core set of 87% of C. gattii genes present as single copies in all four lineages. Remarkably, 737 genes are variably inherited across lineages and are overrepresented for response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial import, and metal binding and transport. Specifically, VGI has an expanded set of iron-binding genes thought to be important to the virulence of Cryptococcus, while VGII has expansions in the stress-related heat shock proteins relative to the other lineages. We also characterized genes uniquely absent in each lineage, including a copper transporter absent from VGIV, which influences Cryptococcus survival during pulmonary infection and the onset of meningoencephalitis. Through inclusion of population-level data for an additional 37 isolates, we identified a new transcontinental clonal group that we name VGIIx, mitochondrial recombination between VGII and VGIII, and positive selection of multidrug transporters and the iron-sulfur protein aconitase along multiple branches of the phylogenetic tree. Our results suggest that gene expansion or contraction and positive selection have introduced substantial variation with links to mechanisms of pathogenicity across this species complex. PMID:26330512

  5. Diversity rankings among bacterial lineages in soil.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Noha H; Elshahed, Mostafa S

    2009-03-01

    We used rarefaction curve analysis and diversity ordering-based approaches to rank the 11 most frequently encountered bacterial lineages in soil according to diversity in 5 previously reported 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from agricultural, undisturbed tall grass prairie and forest soils (n=26,140, 28 328, 31 818, 13 001 and 53 533). The Planctomycetes, Firmicutes and the delta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the most diverse lineages in all data sets, whereas the Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes and beta-Proteobacteria were consistently ranked among the least diverse. On the other hand, the rankings of alpha-Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi varied widely in different soil clone libraries. In general, lineages exhibiting largest differences in diversity rankings also exhibited the largest difference in relative abundance in the data sets examined. Within these lineages, a positive correlation between relative abundance and diversity was observed within the Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi, and a negative diversity-abundance correlation was observed within the Bacteroidetes. The ecological and evolutionary implications of these results are discussed. PMID:18987677

  6. Towards One Generic Name for Monophyletic Lineages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the integration of asexually reproducing fungi into meaningful phylogenies, the need to use the same generic name for a monophyletic lineage has become urgent. At present Article 59 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) requires the use of a sexual state name for sexually r...

  7. Multiple emergences of genetically diverse amphibian-infecting chytrids include a globalized hypervirulent recombinant lineage

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Weinert, Lucy A.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Balloux, Francois; Clare, Frances; Bosch, Jaime; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Weldon, Che; du Preez, Louis H.; Anderson, Lucy; Pond, Sergei L. Kosakovsky; Shahar-Golan, Revital; Henk, Daniel A.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2011-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a globally ubiquitous fungal infection that has emerged to become a primary driver of amphibian biodiversity loss. Despite widespread effort to understand the emergence of this panzootic, the origins of the infection, its patterns of global spread, and principle mode of evolution remain largely unknown. Using comparative population genomics, we discovered three deeply diverged lineages of Bd associated with amphibians. Two of these lineages were found in multiple continents and are associated with known introductions by the amphibian trade. We found that isolates belonging to one clade, the global panzootic lineage (BdGPL) have emerged across at least five continents during the 20th century and are associated with the onset of epizootics in North America, Central America, the Caribbean, Australia, and Europe. The two newly identified divergent lineages, Cape lineage (BdCAPE) and Swiss lineage (BdCH), were found to differ in morphological traits when compared against one another and BdGPL, and we show that BdGPL is hypervirulent. BdGPL uniquely bears the hallmarks of genomic recombination, manifested as extensive intergenomic phylogenetic conflict and patchily distributed heterozygosity. We postulate that contact between previously genetically isolated allopatric populations of Bd may have allowed recombination to occur, resulting in the generation, spread, and invasion of the hypervirulent BdGPL leading to contemporary disease-driven losses in amphibian biodiversity. PMID:22065772

  8. Evolving lineages of Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates based on ITS1 rDNA.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2003-07-01

    Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates have been shown to be a diverse group of endosymbionts that associate mutualistically with many kinds of coral reef dwellers, including cnidarians, molluscs, and protists. A high number of genetically ITS types of symbionts have been reported to date. However, whether these recently identified Symbiodinium ITS types indeed represent independent evolutionary lineages is still unsettled. Here I tested the null hypothesis that certain group of symbionts sampled from different geographical locations are derived from a single evolutionary lineage using a nested clade analysis (NCA). I analyzed a total of 174 ITS1 sequences from GenBank and pooled them into 74 ITS1 distinct haplotypes. Using these haplotypes, the statistical parsimony criterion produced 23 independent network trees, each one corresponding to a genetically independent evolving lineage. Some of these lineages revealed certain degree of specificity with some host groups at least at the phylum level. Within the previously described 28S-rDNA phylotype A, five ITS1 lineages were resolved. Phylotypes B and C resolved each in two ITS1 lineages. The highest ITS1 symbiont diversity was observed within the phylotype F, in which 11 lineages were resolved. Moreover, most of these lineages were associated uniquely with protist hosts from the group of foraminiferans. Here it is suggested that this high genetic diversity of endosymbionts associated with foraminiferans is linked with the evolution of soritacean foraminifera, which seems to have been driven by endosymbiosis. Lastly, the absence of genetic recombination presented in this study, suggest a lack of hybridisation at least among the major 28S-rDNA phylotypes within Symbiodinium-like dinoflagellates. This supports highly the idea that these phylotypes are indeed independent evolutionary units, which should be considered at least as different species. Whether they belong to the same genus or to different higher taxa still needs

  9. Avian Hemosporidian Parasite Lineages in Four Species of Free-ranging Migratory Waterbirds from Mongolia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Tracie A; Gilbert, Martin; Neabore, Scott; Hollinger, Charlotte; Tomaszewicz, Ania; Newton, Alisa; Chang, Tylis; McAloose, Denise

    2016-07-01

    Avian hemosporidian parasites have been detected in Asia, but little information is known about the hemosporidian parasite lineages that circulate in waterbirds that migrate along the East Asian and Central Asian migratory flyways to breed in Mongolia. To gather baseline data on hemosporidian parasite presence in Mongolian waterbirds, 151 blood-spot samples (81 hatch year [HY] and 70 after hatch year [AHY]) from Bar-headed Goose (Anser indicus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea), Great Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax carbo ), and Mongolian Gull (Larus mongolicus) were screened for three genera of apicomplexan parasites, Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, using nested PCR. Of these, 17 samples (11%, 95% confidence interval: 7.1-17.4%), representing all four species, were positive. We identified 10 species (six Plasmodium, one Haemoproteus, and three Leucocytozoon) through mitochondrial DNA sequencing of the cytochrome b gene and BLAST analysis. One lineage shared 100% nucleotide identity to a hemosporidian parasite lineage that has been previously identified as Plasmodium relictum (SGS1). Six lineages were found in AHY birds and five in HY birds, the latter confirming that infection with some of the identified hemosporidian parasites occurred on the breeding grounds. Our data provide important baseline information on hemosporidian parasite lineages found in AHY waterbirds that breed and migrate through Mongolia as well as in HY offspring. PMID:27243330

  10. Endemic or introduced? Phylogeography of Asparagopsis (Florideophyceae) in Australia reveals multiple introductions and a new mitochondrial lineage.

    PubMed

    Andreakis, Nikos; Costello, Paul; Zanolla, Marianela; Saunders, Gary W; Mata, Leonardo

    2016-02-01

    The red seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis embodies five cryptic mitochondrial lineages (lineage 1-5) introduced worldwide as a consequence of human mediated transport and climate change. We compared globally collected mitochondrial cox2-3 intergenic spacer sequences with sequences produced from multiple Australian locations and South Korea to identify Asparagopsis lineages and to reveal cryptic introductions. We report A. taxiformis lineage 4 from Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australia, and the highly invasive Indo-Pacific Mediterranean lineage 2 from South Korea and Lord Howe Island, Australia. Phylogeographic analysis showed a clear haplotype and geographic separation between western Australian and Great Barrier Reef (GBR) isolates belonging to the recently described lineage 5. The same lineage, however, was characterized by a substantial genetic and geographic break between the majority of Australian specimens and Asparagopsis collections from South Solitary Island, Southern GBR, Lord Howe Island, Kermadec Islands, Norfolk Island, New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The disjunct geographic distribution and sequence divergence between these two groups supports the recognition of a sixth cryptic A. taxiformis mitochondrial lineage. As climatic changes accelerate the relocation of biota and offer novel niches for colonization, periodic surveys for early detection of cryptic invasive seaweeds will be critical in determining whether eradication or effective containment of the aliens are feasible. PMID:26987096

  11. Widespread Occurrence of Secondary Lipid Biosynthesis Potential in Microbial Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Shulse, Christine N.; Allen, Eric E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial production of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), is constrained to a narrow subset of marine γ-proteobacteria. The genes responsible for de novo bacterial PUFA biosynthesis, designated pfaEABCD, encode large, multi-domain protein complexes akin to type I iterative fatty acid and polyketide synthases, herein referred to as “Pfa synthases”. In addition to the archetypal Pfa synthase gene products from marine bacteria, we have identified homologous type I FAS/PKS gene clusters in diverse microbial lineages spanning 45 genera representing 10 phyla, presumed to be involved in long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. In total, 20 distinct types of gene clusters were identified. Collectively, we propose the designation of “secondary lipids” to describe these biosynthetic pathways and products, a proposition consistent with the “secondary metabolite” vernacular. Phylogenomic analysis reveals a high degree of functional conservation within distinct biosynthetic pathways. Incongruence between secondary lipid synthase functional clades and taxonomic group membership combined with the lack of orthologous gene clusters in closely related strains suggests horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the dissemination of specialized lipid biosynthetic activities across disparate microbial lineages. PMID:21629834

  12. Nephric lineage specification by Pax2 and Pax8.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Maxime; Souabni, Abdallah; Mandler, Markus; Neubüser, Annette; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2002-11-15

    The mammalian kidney develops in three successive steps from the initial pronephros via the mesonephros to the adult metanephros. Although the nephric lineage is specified during pronephros induction, no single regulator, including the transcription factor Pax2 or Pax8, has yet been identified to control this initial phase of kidney development. In this paper, we demonstrate that mouse embryos lacking both Pax2 and Pax8 are unable to form the pronephros or any later nephric structures. In these double-mutant embryos, the intermediate mesoderm does not undergo the mesenchymal-epithelial transitions required for nephric duct formation, fails to initiate the kidney-specific expression of Lim1 and c-Ret, and is lost by apoptosis 1 d after failed pronephric induction. Conversely, retroviral misexpression of Pax2 was sufficient to induce ectopic nephric structures in the intermediate mesoderm and genital ridge of chick embryos. Together, these data identify Pax2 and Pax8 as critical regulators that specify the nephric lineage. PMID:12435636

  13. Telonemia, a new protist phylum with affinity to chromist lineages.

    PubMed

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, K; Eikrem, W; Klaveness, D; Vaulot, D; Minge, M A; Le Gall, F; Romari, K; Throndsen, J; Botnen, A; Massana, R; Thomsen, H A; Jakobsen, K S

    2006-07-22

    Recent molecular investigations of marine samples taken from different environments, including tropical, temperate and polar areas, as well as deep thermal vents, have revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of protists, some of them forming deep-branching clades within important lineages, such as the alveolates and heterokonts. Using the same approach on coastal samples, we have identified a novel group of protist small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences that do not correspond to any phylogenetic group previously identified. Comparison with other sequences obtained from cultures of heterotrophic protists showed that the environmental sequences grouped together with Telonema, a genus known since 1913 but of uncertain taxonomic affinity. Phylogenetic analyses using four genes (SSU, Hsp90, alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin), and accounting for gamma- and covarion-distributed substitution rates, revealed Telonema as a distinct group of species branching off close to chromist lineages. Consistent with these gene trees, Telonema possesses ultrastructures revealing both the distinctness of the group and the evolutionary affinity to chromist groups. Altogether, the data suggest that Telonema constitutes a new eukaryotic phylum, here defined as Telonemia, possibly representing a key clade for the understanding of the early evolution of bikont protist groups, such as the proposed chromalveolate supergroup. PMID:16790418

  14. Telonemia, a new protist phylum with affinity to chromist lineages

    PubMed Central

    Shalchian-Tabrizi, K; Eikrem, W; Klaveness, D; Vaulot, D; Minge, M.A; Le Gall, F; Romari, K; Throndsen, J; Botnen, A; Massana, R; Thomsen, H.A; Jakobsen, K.S

    2006-01-01

    Recent molecular investigations of marine samples taken from different environments, including tropical, temperate and polar areas, as well as deep thermal vents, have revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of protists, some of them forming deep-branching clades within important lineages, such as the alveolates and heterokonts. Using the same approach on coastal samples, we have identified a novel group of protist small subunit (SSU) rDNA sequences that do not correspond to any phylogenetic group previously identified. Comparison with other sequences obtained from cultures of heterotrophic protists showed that the environmental sequences grouped together with Telonema, a genus known since 1913 but of uncertain taxonomic affinity. Phylogenetic analyses using four genes (SSU, Hsp90, alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin), and accounting for gamma- and covarion-distributed substitution rates, revealed Telonema as a distinct group of species branching off close to chromist lineages. Consistent with these gene trees, Telonema possesses ultrastructures revealing both the distinctness of the group and the evolutionary affinity to chromist groups. Altogether, the data suggest that Telonema constitutes a new eukaryotic phylum, here defined as Telonemia, possibly representing a key clade for the understanding of the early evolution of bikont protist groups, such as the proposed chromalveolate supergroup. PMID:16790418

  15. The potential for gene flow in a dependent lineage system of a harvester ant: fair meiosis in the F1 generation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Meghan M; Wheeler, Diana E; Yang, Kimberly; Anderson, Kirk E

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the potential for gene flow in a dependent lineage (DL) system of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex. Each DL system is composed of 2 reproductively isolated lineages that are locked in an obligate mutualism. The genetic components that produce the worker phenotype are acquired by hybridizing with the partner lineage. In the mating flight, queens of both lineages mate with multiple males from each lineage. During colony growth and reproduction, eggs fertilized by partner-lineage sperm produce F(1) hybrid workers with interlineage genomes, whereas eggs fertilized by same-lineage sperm result in the development of new queens with intralineage genomes. New males are typically produced from unfertilized eggs laid by the pure-lineage queen but in her absence may be produced by interlineage F(1) workers. We investigated the potential for interlineage gene flow in this system using 2 classes of lineage-specific nuclear markers to identify hybrid genome combinations. We confirmed the production of viable interlineage F(1) reproductive females in field colonies, the occurrence of which is associated with the relative frequencies of each lineage in the population: interlineage F(1) queens occurred only in the rare lineage of the population with dramatically skewed lineage frequencies. In laboratory colonies, we detected fair meiosis in interlineage F(1) workers leading to the production of viable and haploid interlineage F(2) males. We conclude that the genomes of each lineage recombine freely, suggesting that extrinsic postzygotic selection maintains the integrity of each lineage genome. We compare our findings with those of the H1/H2 DL system. PMID:20022894

  16. A nonclassical MHC class I U lineage locus in zebrafish with a null haplotypic variant

    PubMed Central

    Dirscherl, Hayley; Yoder, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Three sequence lineages of MHC class I genes have been described in zebrafish (Danio rerio): U, Z, and L. The U lineage genes encoded on zebrafish chromosome 19 are predicted to provide the classical function of antigen presentation. This MHC class I locus displays significant haplotypic variation and is the only MHC class I locus in zebrafish that shares conserved synteny with the core mammalian MHC. Here we describe two MHC class I U lineage genes, mhc1ula and mhc1uma, that map to chromosome 22. Unlike the U lineage proteins encoded on chromosome 19, Ula and Uma likely play a nonclassical role as they lack conservation of key peptide binding residues, display limited polymorphic variation, and exhibit tissue-specific expression. We also describe a null haplotype at this chromosome 22 locus in which the mhc1ula and mhc1uma genes are absent due to a ∼30 kb deletion with no other MHC class I sequences present. Functional and non-functional transcripts of mhc1ula and mhc1uma were identified; however, mhc1uma transcripts were often not amplified or amplified at low levels from individuals possessing an apparently bona fide gene. These distinct U lineage genes may be restricted to the superorder Ostariophysi as similar sequences only could be identified from the blind cavefish (Astyanyx mexicanus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). PMID:26254596

  17. A nonclassical MHC class I U lineage locus in zebrafish with a null haplotypic variant.

    PubMed

    Dirscherl, Hayley; Yoder, Jeffrey A

    2015-09-01

    Three sequence lineages of MHC class I genes have been described in zebrafish (Danio rerio): U, Z, and L. The U lineage genes encoded on zebrafish chromosome 19 are predicted to provide the classical function of antigen presentation. This MHC class I locus displays significant haplotypic variation and is the only MHC class I locus in zebrafish that shares conserved synteny with the core mammalian MHC. Here, we describe two MHC class I U lineage genes, mhc1ula and mhc1uma, that map to chromosome 22. Unlike the U lineage proteins encoded on chromosome 19, Ula and Uma likely play a nonclassical role as they lack conservation of key peptide binding residues, display limited polymorphic variation, and exhibit tissue-specific expression. We also describe a null haplotype at this chromosome 22 locus in which the mhc1ula and mhc1uma genes are absent due to a ~30 kb deletion with no other MHC class I sequences present. Functional and non-functional transcripts of mhc1ula and mhc1uma were identified; however, mhc1uma transcripts were often not amplified or amplified at low levels from individuals possessing an apparently bona fide gene. These distinct U lineage genes may be restricted to the superorder Ostariophysi as similar sequences only could be identified from the blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), goldfish (Carassius auratus), and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). PMID:26254596

  18. Lineage-Specific Conserved Noncoding Sequences of Plant Genomes: Their Possible Role in Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Kryukov, Kirill; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) have found that CNSs are enriched significantly in regulatory sequence elements. We conducted whole-genome analysis on plant CNSs to identify lineage-specific CNSs in eudicots, monocots, angiosperms, and vascular plants based on the premise that lineage-specific CNSs define lineage-specific characters and functions in groups of organisms. We identified 27 eudicot, 204 monocot, 6,536 grass, 19 angiosperm, and 2 vascular plant lineage-specific CNSs (lengths range from 16 to 1,517 bp) that presumably originated in their respective common ancestors. A stronger constraint on the CNSs located in the untranslated regions was observed. The CNSs were often flanked by genes involved in transcription regulation. A drop of A+T content near the border of CNSs was observed and CNS regions showed a higher nucleosome occupancy probability. These CNSs are candidate regulatory elements, which are expected to define lineage-specific features of various plant groups. PMID:25364802

  19. Ancestral relationships of the major eukaryotic lineages.

    PubMed

    Sogin, M L; Morrison, H G; Hinkle, G; Silberman, J D

    1996-03-01

    Molecular systematics has revolutionized our understanding of microbial evolution. Phylogenetic frameworks relating all organisms in this biosphere can be inferred from comparisons of slowly evolving molecules such as the small and large subunit ribosomal RNAs. Unlike today's text book standard, the "Five Kingdoms" (plants, animals, fungi, protists and bacteria), molecular studies define three primary lines of descent (Eukaryotes, Eubacteria, and Archaebacteria). Within the Eukaryotes, the "higher" kingdoms (Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia) are joined by at least two novel complex evolutionary assemblages, the "Alveolates" (ciliates, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans) and the "Stramenopiles" (diatoms, oomycetes, labyrinthulids, brown algae and chrysophytes). The separation of these eukaryotic groups (described as the eukaryotic "crown") occurred approximately 10(9) years ago and was preceded by a succession of earlier diverging protist lineages, some as ancient as the separation of the prokaryotic domains. The molecular phylogenies suggest that multiple endosymbiotic events introduced plastids into discrete eukaryotic lineages. PMID:9019131

  20. Launching the T-Lineage Developmental Programme

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Moore, Jonathan E.; Yui, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Preface Multipotent blood progenitor cells enter the thymus and begin a protracted differentiation process in which they gradually acquire T-cell characteristics while shedding their legacy of developmental plasticity. Notch signalling and basic helix-loop-helix E-protein transcription factors collaborate repeatedly to trigger and sustain this process throughout the period leading up to T-cell lineage commitment. Nevertheless, the process is discontinuous with separately regulated steps that demand roles for additional collaborating factors. This review discusses new evidence on the coordination of specification and commitment in the early T-cell pathway; effects of microenvironmental signals; the inheritance of stem-cell regulatory factors; and the ensemble of transcription factors that modulate the effects of Notch and E proteins, to distinguish individual stages and to polarize T-lineage fate determination. PMID:18097446

  1. Genome sequesnce of lineage III Listeria monocytogenes strain HCC23

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 98% of reported human listeriosis cases are caused by Listeria monocytogenes serotypes within lineages I and II. Serotypes within lineage III (4a and 4c) are commonly isolated from environmental and food specimens. We report the first complete genome sequence of a lineage III isolate, HCC2...

  2. Phylogenomics of the Zygomycete lineages: Exploring phylogeny and genome evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Zygomycete lineages mark the major transition from zoosporic life histories of the common ancestors of Fungi and the earliest diverging chytrid lineages (Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota). Genome comparisons from these lineages may reveal gene content changes that reflect the transition to...

  3. Environmental biology of the marine Roseobacter lineage.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Döbler, Irene; Biebl, Hanno

    2006-01-01

    The Roseobacter lineage is a phylogenetically coherent, physiologically heterogeneous group of alpha-Proteobacteria comprising up to 25% of marine microbial communities, especially in coastal and polar oceans, and it is the only lineage in which cultivated bacteria are closely related to environmental clones. Currently 41 subclusters are described, covering all major marine ecological niches (seawater, algal blooms, microbial mats, sediments, sea ice, marine invertebrates). Members of the Roseobacter lineage play an important role for the global carbon and sulfur cycle and the climate, since they have the trait of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, oxidize the greenhouse gas carbon monoxide, and produce the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide through the degradation of algal osmolytes. Production of bioactive metabolites and quorum-sensing-regulated control of gene expression mediate their success in complex communities. Studies of representative isolates in culture, whole-genome sequencing, e.g., of Silicibacter pomeroyi, and the analysis of marine metagenome libraries have started to reveal the environmental biology of this important marine group. PMID:16719716

  4. Lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Connor, Alicia L; Kelley, Philip M; Tempero, Richard M

    2016-03-01

    Postnatal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis presumably requires precise regulatory processes to properly assemble proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The specific mechanisms that regulate the assembly of LECs during new lymphatic vessel synthesis are unclear. Dynamic endothelial shuffling and rearrangement has been proposed as a mechanism of blood vessel growth. We developed genetic lineage-tracing strategies using an inductive transgenic technology to track the fate of entire tandem dimer tomato-positive (tdT) lymphatic vessels or small, in some cases clonal, populations of LECs. We coupled this platform with a suture-induced mouse model of corneal lymphangiogenesis and used different analytic microscopy techniques including serial live imaging to study the spatial properties of proliferating tdT(+) LEC progenies. LEC precursors and their progeny expanded from the corneal limbal lymphatic vessel and were assembled contiguously to comprise a subunit within a new lymphatic vessel. VE-cadherin blockade induced morphologic abnormalities in newly synthesized lymphatic vessels, but did not disrupt the tdT(+) lymphatic endothelial lineage assembly. Analysis of this static and dynamic data based largely on direct in vivo observations supports a model of lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26658452

  5. Lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Alicia L.; Kelley, Philip M.; Tempero, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Post natal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis presumably requires precise regulatory processes to properly assemble proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The specific mechanisms that regulate the assembly of LECs during new lymphatic vessel synthesis are unclear. Dynamic endothelial shuffling and rearrangement has been proposed as a mechanism of blood vessel growth. We developed genetic lineage tracing strategies using an inductive transgenic technology to track the fate of entire tandem dimer tomato positive (tdT) lymphatic vessels or small, in some cases clonal, populations of LECs. We coupled this platform with a suture induced mouse model of corneal lymphangiogenesis and used different analytic microscopy techniques including serial live imaging to study the spatial properties of proliferating tdT+ LEC progenies. LEC precursors and their progeny expanded from the corneal limbal lymphatic vessel and were assembled contiguously to comprise a subunit within a new lymphatic vessel. VE-cadherin blockade induced morphologic abnormalities in newly synthesized lymphatic vessels, but did not disrupt the tdT+ lymphatic endothelial lineage assembly. Analysis of this static and dynamic data based largely on direct in vivo observations supports a model of lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26658452

  6. Ecological and genetic divergence between two lineages of Middle American túngara frogs Physalaemus (= Engystomops) pustulosus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    distribution gap. Niche conservatism possibly contributes to preventing movements across the gap and gene flow between both groups. Genetic and ecological data indicate that there is the potential for ecological divergence in allopatry between lineages. In this context we discuss whether the Northern and Southern lineages should be recognized as separate species, and we conclude that further studies of pre- and post-zygotic isolation are needed for a final assessment. Identified population clusters should motivate future behavioral and ecological research regarding within-species biodiversity and speciation mechanisms. PMID:20482771

  7. Spectral sensitivity of cone photoreceptors and opsin expression in two colour-divergent lineages of the lizard Ctenophorus decresii.

    PubMed

    Yewers, Madeleine S; McLean, Claire A; Moussalli, Adnan; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Bennett, Andrew T D; Knott, Ben

    2015-05-15

    Intraspecific differences in sensory perception are rarely reported but may occur when a species range extends across varying sensory environments, or there is coevolution between the sensory system and a varying signal. Examples in colour vision and colour signals are rare in terrestrial systems. The tawny dragon lizard Ctenophorus decresii is a promising candidate for such intraspecific variation, because the species comprises two geographically and genetically distinct lineages in which throat colour (a social signal used in intra- and inter-specific interactions) is locally adapted to the habitat and differs between lineages. Male lizards from the southern lineage have UV-blue throats, whereas males from the northern lineage are polymorphic with four discrete throat colours that all show minimal UV reflectance. Here, we determine the cone photoreceptor spectral sensitivities and opsin expression of the two lineages, to test whether they differ, particularly in the UV wavelengths. Using microspectrophotometry on retinal cone photoreceptors, we identified a long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) visual pigment, a 'short' and 'long' medium-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) pigment and a short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) pigment, all of which did not differ in λmax between lineages. Through transcriptome analysis of opsin genes we found that both lineages express four cone opsin genes, including the SWS1 opsin with peak sensitivity in the UV range, and that amino acid sequences did not differ between lineages with the exception of a single leucine to valine substitution in the RH2 opsin. Counts of yellow and transparent oil droplets associated with LWS+MWS and SWS+UVS cones, respectively, showed no difference in relative cone proportions between lineages. Therefore, contrary to predictions, we find no evidence of differences between lineages in single cone photoreceptor spectral sensitivity or opsin expression. However, we confirm the presence of four single cone classes

  8. Molecular phylodynamic analysis indicates lineage displacement occurred in Chinese rabies epidemics between 1949 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Guo, Zhen-Yang; Li, Hao; Lang, Shu-Lin; Yin, Cui-Ping; Han, Na; Fang, Wei; Adams, James; Song, Miao; Liang, Guo-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Rabies remains a serious problem in China with three epidemics since 1949 and the country in the midst of the third epidemic. Significantly, the control of each outbreak has been followed by a rapid reemergence of the disease. In 2005, the government implemented a rabies national surveillance program that included the collection and screening of almost 8,000 samples. In this work, we analyzed a Chinese dataset comprising 320 glycoprotein sequences covering 23 provinces and eight species, spanning the second and third epidemics. Specifically, we investigated whether the three epidemics are associated with a single reemerging lineage or a different lineage was responsible for each epidemic. Consistent with previous results, phylogenetic analysis identified six lineages, China I to VI. Analysis of the geographical composition of these lineages revealed they are consistent with human case data and reflect the gradual emergence of China I in the third epidemic. Initially, China I was restricted to south China and China II was dominant. However, as the epidemic began to spread into new areas, China I began to emerge, whereas China II remained confined to south China. By the latter part of the surveillance period, almost all isolates were China I and contributions from the remaining lineages were minimal. The prevalence of China II in the early stages of the third epidemic and its established presence in wildlife suggests that it too replaced a previously dominant lineage during the second epidemic. This lineage replacement may be a consequence of control programs that were dominated by dog culling efforts as the primary control method in the first two epidemics. This had the effect of reducing dominant strains to levels comparable with other localized background stains. Our results indicate the importance of effective control strategies for long term control of the disease. PMID:23875035

  9. Pan-Genome Analysis of Brazilian Lineage A Amoebal Mimiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Felipe L.; Bajrai, Leena; Abrahao, Jonatas S.; Kroon, Erna G.; Dornas, Fabio P.; Andrade, Kétyllen R.; Boratto, Paulo V. M.; Pilotto, Mariana R.; Robert, Catherine; Benamar, Samia; La Scola, Bernard; Colson, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Since the recent discovery of Samba virus, the first representative of the family Mimiviridae from Brazil, prospecting for mimiviruses has been conducted in different environmental conditions in Brazil. Recently, we isolated using Acanthamoeba sp. three new mimiviruses, all of lineage A of amoebal mimiviruses: Kroon virus from urban lake water; Amazonia virus from the Brazilian Amazon river; and Oyster virus from farmed oysters. The aims of this work were to sequence and analyze the genome of these new Brazilian mimiviruses (mimi-BR) and update the analysis of the Samba virus genome. The genomes of Samba virus, Amazonia virus and Oyster virus were 97%–99% similar, whereas Kroon virus had a low similarity (90%–91%) with other mimi-BR. A total of 3877 proteins encoded by mimi-BR were grouped into 974 orthologous clusters. In addition, we identified three new ORFans in the Kroon virus genome. Additional work is needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of mimiviruses from Brazil, including if and why among amoebal mimiviruses those of lineage A predominate in the Brazilian environment. PMID:26131958

  10. Transferable vancomycin resistance in a community-associated MRSA lineage.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Flávia; Diaz, Lorena; Wollam, Aye; Panesso, Diana; Zhou, Yanjiao; Rincon, Sandra; Narechania, Apurva; Xing, Galen; Di Gioia, Thais S R; Doi, André; Tran, Truc T; Reyes, Jinnethe; Munita, Jose M; Carvajal, Lina P; Hernandez-Roldan, Alejandra; Brandão, Denise; van der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Murray, Barbara E; Planet, Paul J; Weinstock, George M; Arias, Cesar A

    2014-04-17

    We report the case of a patient from Brazil with a bloodstream infection caused by a strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that was susceptible to vancomycin (designated BR-VSSA) but that acquired the vanA gene cluster during antibiotic therapy and became resistant to vancomycin (designated BR-VRSA). Both strains belong to the sequence type (ST) 8 community-associated genetic lineage that carries the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type IVa and the S. aureus protein A gene (spa) type t292 and are phylogenetically related to MRSA lineage USA300. A conjugative plasmid of 55,706 bp (pBRZ01) carrying the vanA cluster was identified and readily transferred to other staphylococci. The pBRZ01 plasmid harbors DNA sequences that are typical of the plasmid-associated replication genes rep24 or rep21 described in community-associated MRSA strains from Australia (pWBG745). The presence and dissemination of community-associated MRSA containing vanA could become a serious public health concern. PMID:24738669

  11. Anterior dental evolution in the Australopithecus anamensis-afarensis lineage.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol V; Plavcan, J Michael; Manthi, Fredrick K

    2010-10-27

    Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest known species of the Australopithecus-human clade and is the likely ancestor of Australopithecus afarensis. Investigating possible selective pressures underlying these changes is key to understanding the patterns of selection shaping the origins and early evolution of the Australopithecus-human clade. During the course of the Au. anamensis-afarensis lineage, significant changes appear to occur particularly in the anterior dentition, but also in jaw structure and molar form, suggesting selection for altered diet and/or food processing. Specifically, canine tooth crown height does not change, but maxillary canines and P(3)s become shorter mesiodistally, canine tooth crowns become more symmetrical in profile and P(3)s less unicuspid. Canine roots diminish in size and dimorphism, especially relative to the size of the postcanine teeth. Molar crowns become higher. Tooth rows become more divergent and symphyseal form changes. Dietary change involving anterior dental use is also suggested by less intense anterior tooth wear in Au. afarensis. These dental changes signal selection for altered dietary behaviour and explain some differences in craniofacial form between these taxa. These data identify Au. anamensis not just as a more primitive version of Au. afarensis, but as a dynamic member of an evolving lineage leading to Au. afarensis, and raise intriguing questions about what other evolutionary changes occurred during the early evolution of the Australopithecus-human clade, and what characterized the origins of the group. PMID:20855307

  12. Pan-Genome Analysis of Brazilian Lineage A Amoebal Mimiviruses.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe L; Bajrai, Leena; Abrahao, Jonatas S; Kroon, Erna G; Dornas, Fabio P; Andrade, Kétyllen R; Boratto, Paulo V M; Pilotto, Mariana R; Robert, Catherine; Benamar, Samia; Scola, Bernard La; Colson, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Since the recent discovery of Samba virus, the first representative of the family Mimiviridae from Brazil, prospecting for mimiviruses has been conducted in different environmental conditions in Brazil. Recently, we isolated using Acanthamoeba sp. three new mimiviruses, all of lineage A of amoebal mimiviruses: Kroon virus from urban lake water; Amazonia virus from the Brazilian Amazon river; and Oyster virus from farmed oysters. The aims of this work were to sequence and analyze the genome of these new Brazilian mimiviruses (mimi-BR) and update the analysis of the Samba virus genome. The genomes of Samba virus, Amazonia virus and Oyster virus were 97%-99% similar, whereas Kroon virus had a low similarity (90%-91%) with other mimi-BR. A total of 3877 proteins encoded by mimi-BR were grouped into 974 orthologous clusters. In addition, we identified three new ORFans in the Kroon virus genome. Additional work is needed to expand our knowledge of the diversity of mimiviruses from Brazil, including if and why among amoebal mimiviruses those of lineage A predominate in the Brazilian environment. PMID:26131958

  13. Anterior dental evolution in the Australopithecus anamensis–afarensis lineage

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Carol V.; Plavcan, J. Michael; Manthi, Fredrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest known species of the Australopithecus–human clade and is the likely ancestor of Australopithecus afarensis. Investigating possible selective pressures underlying these changes is key to understanding the patterns of selection shaping the origins and early evolution of the Australopithecus–human clade. During the course of the Au. anamensis–afarensis lineage, significant changes appear to occur particularly in the anterior dentition, but also in jaw structure and molar form, suggesting selection for altered diet and/or food processing. Specifically, canine tooth crown height does not change, but maxillary canines and P3s become shorter mesiodistally, canine tooth crowns become more symmetrical in profile and P3s less unicuspid. Canine roots diminish in size and dimorphism, especially relative to the size of the postcanine teeth. Molar crowns become higher. Tooth rows become more divergent and symphyseal form changes. Dietary change involving anterior dental use is also suggested by less intense anterior tooth wear in Au. afarensis. These dental changes signal selection for altered dietary behaviour and explain some differences in craniofacial form between these taxa. These data identify Au. anamensis not just as a more primitive version of Au. afarensis, but as a dynamic member of an evolving lineage leading to Au. afarensis, and raise intriguing questions about what other evolutionary changes occurred during the early evolution of the Australopithecus–human clade, and what characterized the origins of the group. PMID:20855307

  14. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR. PMID:22673688

  15. Identifying biochemical phenotypic differences between cryptic species

    PubMed Central

    Liebeke, Manuel; Bruford, Michael W.; Donnelly, Robert K.; Ebbels, Timothy M. D.; Hao, Jie; Kille, Peter; Lahive, Elma; Madison, Rachael M.; Morgan, A. John; Pinto-Juma, Gabriela A.; Spurgeon, David J.; Svendsen, Claus; Bundy, Jacob G.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods can distinguish divergent evolutionary lineages in what previously appeared to be single species, but it is not always clear what functional differences exist between such cryptic species. We used a metabolomic approach to profile biochemical phenotype (metabotype) differences between two putative cryptic species of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. There were no straightforward metabolite biomarkers of lineage, i.e. no metabolites that were always at higher concentration in one lineage. Multivariate methods, however, identified a small number of metabolites that together helped distinguish the lineages, including uncommon metabolites such as Nε-trimethyllysine, which is not usually found at high concentrations. This approach could be useful for characterizing functional trait differences, especially as it is applicable to essentially any species group, irrespective of its genome sequencing status. PMID:25252836

  16. Assessment of cell lineages and cell death in blastocysts by immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Sabine; Chazaud, Claire

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade it has been shown that most mammalian blastocysts consisted of three cell lineages. Immunofluorescence with multiple antibodies enables to identify each cell type allowing an easy detection of eventual defects. It is complementary to RT-PCR experiments as this technique allows to look at cell position and to analyze and count the proportions between the different cell types. Thus after any kind of embryo manipulation such as nuclear transfer (NT), the analysis of the three cell lineages by immunofluorescence will provide criteria for good or poor development. PMID:25287346

  17. Bazooka mediates secondary axon morphology in Drosophila brain lineages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In the Drosophila brain, neural lineages project bundled axon tracts into a central neuropile. Each lineage exhibits a stereotypical branching pattern and trajectory, which distinguish it from other lineages. In this study, we used a multilineage approach to explore the neural function of the Par-complex member Par3/Bazooka in vivo. Drosophila bazooka is expressed in post-mitotic neurons of the larval brain and localizes within neurons in a lineage-dependent manner. The fact that multiple GAL4 drivers have been mapped to several lineages of the Drosophila brain enables investigation of the role of Bazooka from larval to adult stages Bazooka loss-of-function (LOF) clones had abnormal morphologies, including aberrant pathway choice of ventral projection neurons in the BAla1 lineage, ectopic branching in the DALv2 and BAmv1 lineages, and excess BLD5 lineage axon projections in the optic medulla. Exogenous expression of Bazooka protein in BAla1 neurons rescued defective guidance, supporting an intrinsic requirement for Bazooka in the post-mitotic neuron. Elimination of the Par-complex member Par6 recapitulated Bazooka phenotypes in some but not all lineages, suggesting that the Par complex functions in a lineage-dependent manner, and that Bazooka may act independently in some lineages. Importantly, this study highlights the potential of using a multilineage approach when studying gene function during neural development in Drosophila. PMID:21524279

  18. Bazooka mediates secondary axon morphology in Drosophila brain lineages.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Shana R; Hartenstein, Volker

    2011-01-01

    In the Drosophila brain, neural lineages project bundled axon tracts into a central neuropile. Each lineage exhibits a stereotypical branching pattern and trajectory, which distinguish it from other lineages. In this study, we used a multilineage approach to explore the neural function of the Par-complex member Par3/Bazooka in vivo. Drosophila bazooka is expressed in post-mitotic neurons of the larval brain and localizes within neurons in a lineage-dependent manner. The fact that multiple GAL4 drivers have been mapped to several lineages of the Drosophila brain enables investigation of the role of Bazooka from larval to adult stages Bazooka loss-of-function (LOF) clones had abnormal morphologies, including aberrant pathway choice of ventral projection neurons in the BAla1 lineage, ectopic branching in the DALv2 and BAmv1 lineages, and excess BLD5 lineage axon projections in the optic medulla. Exogenous expression of Bazooka protein in BAla1 neurons rescued defective guidance, supporting an intrinsic requirement for Bazooka in the post-mitotic neuron. Elimination of the Par-complex member Par6 recapitulated Bazooka phenotypes in some but not all lineages, suggesting that the Par complex functions in a lineage-dependent manner, and that Bazooka may act independently in some lineages. Importantly, this study highlights the potential of using a multilineage approach when studying gene function during neural development in Drosophila. PMID:21524279

  19. Loss of tumorigenic potential upon transdifferentiation from keratinocytic into melanocytic lineage.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbach, Sabrina; Novak, Daniel; Bernhardt, Mathias; Larribere, Lionel; Boukamp, Petra; Umansky, Viktor; Utikal, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Lineage-specific transcription factors determine the cell fate during development. Direct conversion of several cell types into other lineages has been achieved by the overexpression of specific transcription factors. Even cancer cells have been demonstrated to be amenable to transdifferentiation. Here, we identified a distinct set of transcription factors, which are sufficient to transform cells of the keratinocytic lineage to melanocyte-like cells. Melanocyte marker expression was induced and melanosome formation was observed in non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT) and tumorigenic squamous cell carcinoma (MET-4) cells. Moreover, reduced proliferation, cell metabolism, invasion and migration were measured in vitro in transdifferentiated MT-MET-4 cells. A loss of tumorigenic potential of squamous cell carcinoma cells could be due to the upregulation of the melanocyte differentiation associated gene IL-24. Our data show that cells from the keratinocytic lineage can be transdifferented into the melanocytic lineage and provide a proof of principle for a potential new therapeutic strategy. PMID:27387763

  20. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A; Blobel, Gerd A; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

  1. Derivation of lung mesenchymal lineages from the fetal mesothelium requires hedgehog signaling for mesothelial cell entry

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Radhika; Ai, Xingbin; Fine, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mesothelial progenitors contribute to mesenchymal lineages of developing organs. To what extent the overlying mesothelium contributes to lung development remains unknown. To rigorously address this question, we employed Wt1CreERT2/+ mice for high-fidelity lineage tracing after confirming that Cre recombinase was mesothelial specific and faithfully recapitulated endogenous Wilms’ tumor 1 (Wt1) gene expression. We visualized WT1+ mesothelial cell entry into the lung by live imaging and identified their progenies in subpopulations of bronchial smooth muscle cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and desmin+ fibroblasts by lineage tagging. Derivation of these lineages was only observed with Cre recombinase activation during early lung development. Using loss-of-function assays in organ cultures, and targeted mesothelial-restricted hedgehog loss-of-function mice, we demonstrated that mesothelial cell movement into the lung requires the direct action of hedgehog signaling. By contrast, hedgehog signaling was not required for fetal mesothelial heart entry. These findings further support a paradigm wherein the mesothelium is a source of progenitors for mesenchymal lineages during organogenesis and indicate that signals controlling mesothelial cell entry are organ specific. PMID:24130328

  2. Loss of tumorigenic potential upon transdifferentiation from keratinocytic into melanocytic lineage

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Sabrina; Novak, Daniel; Bernhardt, Mathias; Larribere, Lionel; Boukamp, Petra; Umansky, Viktor; Utikal, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Lineage-specific transcription factors determine the cell fate during development. Direct conversion of several cell types into other lineages has been achieved by the overexpression of specific transcription factors. Even cancer cells have been demonstrated to be amenable to transdifferentiation. Here, we identified a distinct set of transcription factors, which are sufficient to transform cells of the keratinocytic lineage to melanocyte-like cells. Melanocyte marker expression was induced and melanosome formation was observed in non-tumorigenic keratinocytes (HaCaT) and tumorigenic squamous cell carcinoma (MET-4) cells. Moreover, reduced proliferation, cell metabolism, invasion and migration were measured in vitro in transdifferentiated MT-MET-4 cells. A loss of tumorigenic potential of squamous cell carcinoma cells could be due to the upregulation of the melanocyte differentiation associated gene IL-24. Our data show that cells from the keratinocytic lineage can be transdifferented into the melanocytic lineage and provide a proof of principle for a potential new therapeutic strategy. PMID:27387763

  3. Maternal and paternal lineages in cross-breeding bovine species. Has wisent a hybrid origin?

    PubMed

    Verkaar, Edward L C; Nijman, Isaäc J; Beeke, Maurice; Hanekamp, Eline; Lenstra, Johannes A

    2004-07-01

    The tribe Bovini comprises cattle and cattle-like species. Reconstructions of their phylogeny have so far been incomplete and have yielded conflicting conclusions about the relationship of American bison and wisent (European bison). We have compared the sequences of three mitochondrial and two Y-chromosomal DNA segments. Mitochondrial DNA indicates that four distinct maternal lineages diverged after an early split-off of the buffalo species, leading to (1) taurine cattle and zebu, (2) wisent, (3) American bison and yak, and (4) banteng, gaur, and gayal, respectively. At a higher level, lineages (1) and (2) and lineages (3) and (4) are probably associated. In contrast, Y-chromosomal sequences indicate a close association of American and European bison, which is in agreement with their morphological similarity, complete fertility of hybrid offspring, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints of nuclear DNA. One explanation for the anomalous divergence of the mitochondrial DNA from the two bison species is lineage sorting, which implies that two distinct mitochondrial lineages coexisted in the bison-yak branch until the recent divergence of American bison and wisent. Alternatively, the wisent may have emerged by species hybridization initiated by introgression of bison bulls in another ancestral species. This "transpatric" mode of species formation would be consistent with the recent appearance of the wisent in the fossil record without clearly identifiable ancestors. PMID:14739241

  4. Phylogenetic and genomic diversity in isolates from the globally distributed Acinetobacter baumannii ST25 lineage

    PubMed Central

    Sahl, Jason W.; Del Franco, Mariateresa; Pournaras, Spyros; Colman, Rebecca E.; Karah, Nabil; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a globally distributed nosocomial pathogen that has gained interest due to its resistance to most currently used antimicrobials. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and phylogenetics has begun to reveal the global genetic diversity of this pathogen. The evolution of A. baumannii has largely been defined by recombination, punctuated by the emergence and proliferation of defined clonal lineages. In this study we sequenced seven genomes from the sequence type (ST)25 lineage and compared them to 12 ST25 genomes deposited in public databases. A recombination analysis identified multiple genomic regions that are homoplasious in the ST25 phylogeny, indicating active or historical recombination. Genes associated with antimicrobial resistance were differentially distributed between ST25 genomes, which matched our laboratory-based antimicrobial susceptibility typing. Differences were also observed in biofilm formation between ST25 isolates, which were demonstrated to produce significantly more extensive biofilm than an isolate from the ST1 clonal lineage. These results demonstrate that within A. baumannii, even a fairly recently derived monophyletic lineage can still exhibit significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity. These results have implications for associating outbreaks with sequence typing as well as understanding mechanisms behind the global propagation of successful A. baumannii lineages. PMID:26462752

  5. Establishment of trophectoderm and inner cell mass lineages in the mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Marikawa, Yusuke; Alarcón, Vernadeth B.

    2010-01-01

    The first cell lineage specification in mouse embryo development is the formation of trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst. This article is to review and discuss the current knowledge on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this particular event. Several transcription factors have been identified as the critical regulators of the formation or maintenance of the two cell lineages. The establishment of TE manifests as the formation of epithelium, and is dependent on many structural and regulatory components that are commonly found and that function in many epithelial tissues. Distinct epithelial features start to emerge at the late 8-cell stage, but the fates of blastomeres are not fixed as TE or ICM until around 32-cell stage. The location of blastomeres at this stage, i.e., external or internal of the embryo, in effect defines the commitment towards the TE or ICM lineage, respectively. Some studies implicate the presence of a developmental bias among blastomeres at 2- or 4-cell stage, although it is unlikely to play a decisive role in the establishment of TE and ICM. The unique mode of cell lineage specification in the mouse embryo is further discussed in comparison with the formation of initial cell lineages, namely the three germ layers, in non-mammalian embryos. PMID:19479991

  6. CRX Is a Diagnostic Marker of Retinal and Pineal Lineage Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Maire, Cecile L.; Idbaih, Ahmed; Geffers, Lars; Correll, Mick; Holton, Kristina; Quackenbush, John; Ligon, Keith L.

    2009-01-01

    Background CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78). The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors. Conclusions/Significance These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma. PMID:19936203

  7. SWI/SNF complex prevents lineage reversion and induces temporal patterning in neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Elif; Burkard, Thomas R; Jiang, Yanrui; Saini, Nidhi; Homem, Catarina C F; Reichert, Heinrich; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2014-03-13

    Members of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer, but how they suppress tumorigenesis is currently unclear. Here, we use Drosophila neuroblasts to demonstrate that the SWI/SNF component Osa (ARID1) prevents tumorigenesis by ensuring correct lineage progression in stem cell lineages. We show that Osa induces a transcriptional program in the transit-amplifying population that initiates temporal patterning, limits self-renewal, and prevents dedifferentiation. We identify the Prdm protein Hamlet as a key component of this program. Hamlet is directly induced by Osa and regulates the progression of progenitors through distinct transcriptional states to limit the number of transit-amplifying divisions. Our data provide a mechanistic explanation for the widespread tumor suppressor activity of SWI/SNF. Because the Hamlet homologs Evi1 and Prdm16 are frequently mutated in cancer, this mechanism could well be conserved in human stem cell lineages. PAPERCLIP: PMID:24630726

  8. A Role for RE-1-Silencing Transcription Factor in Embryonic Stem Cells Cardiac Lineage Specification.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Irene; Marcy, Guillaume; Chen, Jiaxuan; Divakar, Ushashree; Kumar, Vibhor; John-Sanchez, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehran; Buckley, Noel J; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    During development, lineage specification is controlled by several signaling pathways involving various transcription factors (TFs). Here, we studied the RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and identified an important role of this TF in cardiac differentiation. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to model development, we found that REST knockout cells lost the ability to differentiate into the cardiac lineage. Detailed analysis of specific lineage markers expression showed selective downregulation of endoderm markers in REST-null cells, thus contributing to a loss of cardiogenic signals. REST regulates cardiac differentiation of ESCs by negatively regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and positively regulating the cardiogenic TF Gata4. We propose here a new role for REST in cell fate specification besides its well-known repressive role of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26864965

  9. Epigenetic priming of enhancers predicts developmental competence of hESC-derived endodermal lineage intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Allen; Yue, Feng; Li, Yan; Xie, Ruiyu; Harper, Thomas; Patel, Nisha A.; Muth, Kayla; Palmer, Jeffrey; Qiu, Yunjiang; Wang, Jinzhao; Lam, Dieter K.; Raum, Jeffrey C.; Stoffers, Doris A.; Ren, Bing; Sander, Maike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Embryonic development relies on the capacity of progenitor cells to appropriately respond to inductive cues; a cellular property known as developmental competence. Here we report that epigenetic priming of enhancers signifies developmental competence during endodermal lineage diversification. Chromatin mapping during pancreatic and hepatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells revealed the en masse acquisition of a poised chromatin state at enhancers specific to endoderm-derived cell lineages in gut tube intermediates. Experimentally, the acquisition of this poised enhancer state predicts the ability of endodermal intermediates to respond to inductive signals. Furthermore, these enhancers are first recognized by the pioneer transcription factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 when competence is acquired, while subsequent recruitment of lineage-inductive transcription factors, such as PDX1, leads to enhancer and target gene activation. Together, our results identify the acquisition of a poised chromatin state at enhancers as a mechanism by which progenitor cells acquire developmental competence. PMID:25842977

  10. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell–specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte–specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte–specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell–regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell–specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  11. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte-specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte-specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell-regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell-specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  12. Global Phylogenomic Analysis of Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae Reveals a Deep-Branching Classic Lineage That Is Distinct from Multiple Sporadic Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Hilty, Markus; Wüthrich, Daniel; Salter, Susannah J.; Engel, Hansjürg; Campbell, Samuel; Sá-Leão, Raquel; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Hermans, Peter; Sadowy, Ewa; Turner, Paul; Chewapreecha, Claire; Diggle, Mathew; Pluschke, Gerd; McGee, Lesley; Köseoğlu Eser, Özgen; Low, Donald E.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi; Endimiani, Andrea; Küffer, Marianne; Dupasquier, Mélanie; Beaudoing, Emmanuel; Weber, Johann; Bruggmann, Rémy; Hanage, William P.; Parkhill, Julian; Hathaway, Lucy J.; Mühlemann, Kathrin; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). However, nonencapsulated S. pneumoniae (non-Ec-Sp) have also been isolated globally, mainly in carriage studies. It is unknown if non-Ec-Sp evolve sporadically, if they have high antibiotic nonsusceptiblity rates and a unique, specific gene content. Here, whole-genome sequencing of 131 non-Ec-Sp isolates sourced from 17 different locations around the world was performed. Results revealed a deep-branching classic lineage that is distinct from multiple sporadic lineages. The sporadic lineages clustered with a previously sequenced, global collection of encapsulated S. pneumoniae (Ec-Sp) isolates while the classic lineage is comprised mainly of the frequently identified multilocus sequences types (STs) ST344 (n = 39) and ST448 (n = 40). All ST344 and nine ST448 isolates had high nonsusceptiblity rates to β-lactams and other antimicrobials. Analysis of the accessory genome reveals that the classic non-Ec-Sp contained an increased number of mobile elements, than Ec-Sp and sporadic non-Ec-Sp. Performing adherence assays to human epithelial cells for selected classic and sporadic non-Ec-Sp revealed that the presence of a integrative conjugative element (ICE) results in increased adherence to human epithelial cells (P = 0.005). In contrast, sporadic non-Ec-Sp lacking the ICE had greater growth in vitro possibly resulting in improved fitness. In conclusion, non-Ec-Sp isolates from the classic lineage have evolved separately. They have spread globally, are well adapted to nasopharyngeal carriage and are able to coexist with Ec-Sp. Due to continued use of PCV, non-Ec-Sp may become more prevalent. PMID:25480686

  13. Cryptic clonal lineages and genetic diversity in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Kagayaki; Nakamura-Shiokawa, Yuka; Bando, Etsuko; Li, Ya-Juan; Boroń, Alicja; Khan, Md Mukhlesur Rahman; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2008-02-01

    In the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, the asexual lineage, which produces unreduced clonal diploid eggs, has been identified. Among 833 specimens collected from 54 localities in Japan and two localities in China, 82 candidates of other lineage(s) of cryptic clones were screened by examining RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism)-PCR haplotypes in the control region of mtDNA. This analysis was performed because triploid loaches arise from the accidental incorporation of the sperm nucleus into unreduced diploid eggs of a clone. The categorization of members belonging to three newly identified lineages (clones 2-4) and the previously identified clonal lineage (clone 1) was verified by evaluating the genetic identity between two or more individuals from each clonal lineage based on RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA)-PCR and multilocus DNA fingerprints. We detected 75 haplotypes by observing the nucleotide status at variable sites from the control region of mtDNA. Phylogenic trees constructed from such sequences showed two highly diversified clades, A and B, that were beyond the level common for interspecific genetic differentiation. That result suggests that M. anguillicaudatus in Japan is not a single species entity. Two clone-specific mtDNA sequences were included in clade A, and the loaches with such sequences may be the maternal origin of the clones. PMID:17578669

  14. Molecular phylogeny of Percomorpha resolves Trichonotus as the sister lineage to Gobioidei (Teleostei: Gobiiformes) and confirms the polyphyly of Trachinoidei.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Christine E; Satoh, Takashi P; Katayama, Eri; Harrington, Richard C; Eytan, Ron I; Near, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    The percomorph fish clade Gobiiformes is a worldwide, tropical and temperate radiation with species occupying nearly all aquatic, and some semi-terrestrial, habitats. Early molecular phylogenetic studies led to the discovery of Gobiiformes, which contains Gobioidei, the gobies and sleepers, and a clade (Apogonoidei) consisting of Apogonidae and Kurtus, the cardinalfishes and nurseryfishes. Gobioidei is consistently resolved as monophyletic in molecular studies, and includes eight families whose members range from waterfall climbing stream gobies to several prominent lineages inhabiting coral reefs. The sister taxon to Gobioidei is also reliably resolved as Apogonoidei. Despite the consistent support for gobiiform monophyly in molecular studies, it is not known if percomorph lineages unsampled in molecular phylogenetic studies are closely related to Gobioidei or Apogonoidei. Here we assemble a large dataset of DNA sequence from ten protein-coding genes, sampling widely across Acanthomorpha and Percomorpha, including Gobioidei, Apogonidae, and Kurtus, along with representatives of all twelve families comprising the former Trachinoidei. The phylogenies inferred from the nuclear gene sequences show that Trachinoidei is polyphyletic, with constituent lineages spread widely among several major percomorph clades. Most notably, the sanddivers (Trichonotus) are resolved as the sister lineage of Gobioidei. This study clarifies the phylogenetic relationships of lineages previously classified in Trachinoidei, identifies Trichonotus as the sister lineage of gobies, provides a molecular phylogeny of the major lineages of Gobioidei, and offers suggested changes to percomorph classification. PMID:26265255

  15. Two myogenic lineages within the developing somite.

    PubMed

    Ordahl, C P; Le Douarin, N M

    1992-02-01

    It is well known that the muscles of the vertebrate body are derived from the somite. Precursor cells within the somite proper form the back or axial muscles while other precursor cells migrate away from the somite to populate the muscle of the limbs and ventral body wall. Although both types of muscle are generally thought of as arising from a common progenitor population, the myotome, recent evidence points to developmental differences in these two groups of muscles which may reflect different developmental lineages. To test the lineage hypothesis, we used microsurgery and the chick-quail nucleolar marker system to follow the developmental fate of the lateral and medial halves of somites at the wing level. The results showed that the structures of the mature somite (myotome and sclerotome) are derived virtually exclusively from cells residing in the medial half of the newly formed somite. On the other hand, virtually all of the cells residing in the lateral half of the newly formed somite are destined to leave the somite proper and populate the limb muscle and, probably, other somite-derived mesenchymal structures in the limb and ventral body wall. Switch-graft experiments show that the two halves of newly formed somites are largely interchangeable demonstrating that their ultimate developmental fate is position-dependent and that it becomes fixed as a result of extrinsic influences which act during later stages of somitogenesis. We conclude that at least two distinct myogenic lineages exist in the somite; one giving rise to the muscles of the back and the other giving rise to the limb musculature. PMID:1591996

  16. Phenotypic Convergence in Genetically Distinct Lineages of a Rhinolophus Species Complex (Mammalia, Chiroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David S.; Babiker, Hassan; Bastian, Anna; Kearney, Teresa; van Eeden, Rowen; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypes of distantly related species may converge through adaptation to similar habitats and/or because they share biological constraints that limit the phenotypic variants produced. A common theme in bats is the sympatric occurrence of cryptic species that are convergent in morphology but divergent in echolocation frequency, suggesting that echolocation may facilitate niche partitioning, reducing competition. If so, allopatric populations freed from competition, could converge in both morphology and echolocation provided they occupy similar niches or share biological constraints. We investigated the evolutionary history of a widely distributed African horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus darlingi, in the context of phenotypic convergence. We used phylogenetic inference to identify and date lineage divergence together with phenotypic comparisons and ecological niche modelling to identify morphological and geographical correlates of those lineages. Our results indicate that R. darlingi is paraphyletic, the eastern and western parts of its distribution forming two distinct non-sister lineages that diverged ~9.7 Mya. We retain R. darlingi for the eastern lineage and argue that the western lineage, currently the sub-species R. d. damarensis, should be elevated to full species status. R. damarensis comprises two lineages that diverged ~5 Mya. Our findings concur with patterns of divergence of other co-distributed taxa which are associated with increased regional aridification between 7-5 Mya suggesting possible vicariant evolution. The morphology and echolocation calls of R. darlingi and R. damarensis are convergent despite occupying different biomes. This suggests that adaptation to similar habitats is not responsible for the convergence. Furthermore, R. darlingi forms part of a clade comprising species that are bigger and echolocate at lower frequencies than R. darlingi, suggesting that biological constraints are unlikely to have influenced the convergence. Instead, the

  17. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Barr, Kelly R.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We explored lineage diversification within desert-dwelling fauna. Our goals were (1) to determine whether phylogenetic lineages and population expansions were consistent with younger Pleistocene climate fluctuation hypotheses or much older events predicted by pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypotheses, (2) to assess concordance in spatial patterns of genetic divergence and diversity among species and (3) to identify regional evolutionary hotspots of divergence and diversity and assess their conservation status. Location: Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran Deserts, USA. Methods: We analysed previously published gene sequence data for twelve species. We used Bayesian gene tree methods to estimate lineages and divergence times. Within each lineage, we tested for population expansion and age of expansion using coalescent approaches. We mapped interpopulation genetic divergence and intra-population genetic diversity in a GIS to identify hotspots of highest genetic divergence and diversity and to assess whether protected lands overlapped with evolutionary hotspots. Results: In seven of the 12 species, lineage divergence substantially predated the Pleistocene. Historical population expansion was found in eight species, but expansion events postdated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in only four. For all species assessed, six hotspots of high genetic divergence and diversity were concentrated in the Colorado Desert, along the Colorado River and in the Mojave/Sonoran ecotone. At least some proportion of the land within each recovered hotspot was categorized as protected, yet four of the six also overlapped with major areas of human development. Main conclusions: Most of the species studied here diversified into distinct Mojave and Sonoran lineages prior to the LGM – supporting older diversification hypotheses. Several evolutionary hotspots were recovered but are not strategically paired with areas of protected land. Long-term preservation of species-level biodiversity would

  18. Direct lineage reprogramming to neural cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Janghwan; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; Ding, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Recently we have witnessed an array of studies on direct reprogramming that describe induced inter conversion of mature cell types from higher organisms including human. While these studies reveal an unexpected level of plasticity of differentiated somatic cells, they also provide unprecedented opportunities to develop regenerative therapies for many debilitating disorders and model these ‘diseases-in-a-dish’ for studying their pathophysiology. Here we review the current state of the art in direct lineage reprogramming to neural cells, and discuss the challenges that need to be addressed toward achieving the full potential of this exciting new technology. PMID:22652035

  19. Chromatin Dynamics in Lineage Commitment and Cellular Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Shchuka, Virlana M.; Malek-Gilani, Nakisa; Singh, Gurdeep; Langroudi, Lida; Dhaliwal, Navroop K.; Moorthy, Sakthi D.; Davidson, Scott; Macpherson, Neil N.; Mitchell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic structural properties of chromatin play an essential role in defining cell identity and function. Transcription factors and chromatin modifiers establish and maintain cell states through alteration of DNA accessibility and histone modifications. This activity is focused at both gene-proximal promoter regions and distally located regulatory elements. In the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, distal elements are localized in close physical proximity to the gene-proximal regulatory sequences through the formation of chromatin loops. These looping features in the genome are highly dynamic as embryonic stem cells differentiate and commit to specific lineages, and throughout reprogramming as differentiated cells reacquire pluripotency. Identifying these functional distal regulatory regions in the genome provides insight into the regulatory processes governing early mammalian development and guidance for improving the protocols that generate induced pluripotent cells. PMID:26193323

  20. Chromatin Dynamics in Lineage Commitment and Cellular Reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Shchuka, Virlana M; Malek-Gilani, Nakisa; Singh, Gurdeep; Langroudi, Lida; Dhaliwal, Navroop K; Moorthy, Sakthi D; Davidson, Scott; Macpherson, Neil N; Mitchell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic structural properties of chromatin play an essential role in defining cell identity and function. Transcription factors and chromatin modifiers establish and maintain cell states through alteration of DNA accessibility and histone modifications. This activity is focused at both gene-proximal promoter regions and distally located regulatory elements. In the three-dimensional space of the nucleus, distal elements are localized in close physical proximity to the gene-proximal regulatory sequences through the formation of chromatin loops. These looping features in the genome are highly dynamic as embryonic stem cells differentiate and commit to specific lineages, and throughout reprogramming as differentiated cells reacquire pluripotency. Identifying these functional distal regulatory regions in the genome provides insight into the regulatory processes governing early mammalian development and guidance for improving the protocols that generate induced pluripotent cells. PMID:26193323

  1. Identification of a T lineage committed progenitor in adult blood

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Andreas; von Boehmer, Harald

    2007-01-01

    With help of a hCD25 reporter controlled by Ptcra regulatory elements T cell precursors were identified in peripheral blood. Sca-1+, IL-7Rα+, Flt3− precursors that were c-kitlo and Thy-1hi generated T lineage cells when cultured on OP9-DL1 stromal cells and upon transfer into Rag−/−γc−/− mice. No B cells were generated in vivo and only few in vitro. The circulating T cell progenitors (CTP) were found at the same frequency in Foxn1nu/nu thymus deficient mice and wt mice indicating that they were pre- rather than post-thymic, consistent with the observation that inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo did reduce the frequency of intrathymic ETP, but not CTP. Thus, extrathymic T cell commitment is Notch-independent even in adult mice. PMID:17222572

  2. Genealogical lineage sorting leads to significant, but incorrect Bayesian multilocus inference of population structure

    PubMed Central

    OROZCO-terWENGEL, PABLO; CORANDER, JUKKA; SCHLÖTTERER, CHRISTIAN

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, the use of molecular markers has revolutionized biology and led to the foundation of a new research discipline—phylogeography. Of particular interest has been the inference of population structure and biogeography. While initial studies focused on mtDNA as a molecular marker, it has become apparent that selection and genealogical lineage sorting could lead to erroneous inferences. As it is not clear to what extent these forces affect a given marker, it has become common practice to use the combined evidence from a set of molecular markers as an attempt to recover the signals that approximate the true underlying demography. Typically, the number of markers used is determined by either budget constraints or by statistical power required to recognize significant population differentiation. Using microsatellite markers from Drosophila and humans, we show that even large numbers of loci (>50) can frequently result in statistically well-supported, but incorrect inference of population structure using the software baps. Most importantly, genomic features, such as chromosomal location, variability of the markers, or recombination rate, cannot explain this observation. Instead, it can be attributed to sampling variation among loci with different realizations of the stochastic lineage sorting. This phenomenon is particularly pronounced for low levels of population differentiation. Our results have important implications for ongoing studies of population differentiation, as we unambiguously demonstrate that statistical significance of population structure inferred from a random set of genetic markers cannot necessarily be taken as evidence for a reliable demographic inference. PMID:21244537

  3. Lineage Range Estimation Method Reveals Fine-Scale Endemism Linked to Pleistocene Stability in Australian Rainforest Herpetofauna

    PubMed Central

    Rosauer, Dan F.; Catullo, Renee A.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moussalli, Adnan; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Areas of suitable habitat for species and communities have arisen, shifted, and disappeared with Pleistocene climate cycles, and through this shifting landscape, current biodiversity has found paths to the present. Evolutionary refugia, areas of relative habitat stability in this shifting landscape, support persistence of lineages through time, and are thus crucial to the accumulation and maintenance of biodiversity. Areas of endemism are indicative of refugial areas where diversity has persisted, and endemism of intraspecific lineages in particular is strongly associated with late-Pleistocene habitat stability. However, it remains a challenge to consistently estimate the geographic ranges of intraspecific lineages and thus infer phylogeographic endemism, because spatial sampling for genetic analyses is typically sparse relative to species records. We present a novel technique to model the geographic distribution of intraspecific lineages, which is informed by the ecological niche of a species and known locations of its constituent lineages. Our approach allows for the effects of isolation by unsuitable habitat, and captures uncertainty in the extent of lineage ranges. Applying this method to the arc of rainforest areas spanning 3500 km in eastern Australia, we estimated lineage endemism for 53 species of rainforest dependent herpetofauna with available phylogeographic data. We related endemism to the stability of rainforest habitat over the past 120,000 years and identified distinct concentrations of lineage endemism that can be considered putative refugia. These areas of lineage endemism are strongly related to historical stability of rainforest habitat, after controlling for the effects of current environment. In fact, a dynamic stability model that allows movement to track suitable habitat over time was the most important factor in explaining current patterns of endemism. The techniques presented here provide an objective, practical method for estimating

  4. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  5. Conditional Lineage Ablation to Model Human Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Paul; Morley, Gregory; Huang, Qian; Fischer, Avi; Seiler, Stephanie; Horner, James W.; Factor, Stephen; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Jalife, Jose; Fishman, Glenn I.

    1998-09-01

    Cell loss contributes to the pathogenesis of many inherited and acquired human diseases. We have developed a system to conditionally ablate cells of any lineage and developmental stage in the mouse by regulated expression of the diphtheria toxin A (DTA) gene by using tetracycline-responsive promoters. As an example of this approach, we targeted expression of DTA to the hearts of adult mice to model structural abnormalities commonly observed in human cardiomyopathies. Induction of DTA expression resulted in cell loss, fibrosis, and chamber dilatation. As in many human cardiomyopathies, transgenic mice developed spontaneous arrhythmias in vivo, and programmed electrical stimulation of isolated-perfused transgenic hearts demonstrated a strikingly high incidence of spontaneous and inducible ventricular tachycardia. Affected mice showed marked perturbations of cardiac gap junction channel expression and localization, including a subset with disorganized epicardial activation patterns as revealed by optical action potential mapping. These studies provide important insights into mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis and suggest that conditional lineage ablation may have wide applicability for studies of disease pathogenesis.

  6. Lineage and clonal development of gastric glands.

    PubMed

    Nomura, S; Esumi, H; Job, C; Tan, S S

    1998-12-01

    Individual gastric glands of the stomach are composed of cells of different phenotypes. These are derived from multipotent progenitor stem cells located at the isthmus region of the gland. Previous cell lineage analyses suggest that gastric glands, as in the colon and small intestine, are invariably monoclonal by adult stages. However, little is known about the ontogenetic progression of glandular clonality in the stomach. To examine this issue, we employed an in situ cell lineage marker in female mice heterozygous for an X-linked transgene. We found that stomach glands commence development as polyclonal units, but by adulthood (6 weeks), the majority progressed to monoclonal units. Our analysis suggests that at least three progenitor cells are required to initiate the development of individual gastric glands if they are analyzed just after birth. Hence, unlike the colon and small intestine, stomachs showed a significant fraction (10-25%) of polyclonal glands at adult stages. We suggest that these glands persist from polyclonal glands present in the embryonic stomach and hypothesize that they represent a subpopulation of glands with larger numbers of self-renewing stem cells. PMID:9851847

  7. The Hippo transducer TAZ interacts with the SWI/SNF complex to regulate breast epithelial lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Skibinski, Adam; Breindel, Jerrica L.; Prat, Aleix; Galván, Patricia; Smith, Elizabeth; Rolfs, Andreas; Gupta, Piyush B.; LaBaer, Joshua; Kuperwasser, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Lineage-committed cells of many tissues exhibit substantial plasticity in contexts such as wound healing and tumorigenesis, but the regulation of this process is not well understood. Here, we identified the Hippo transducer WWTR1/TAZ in a screen of transcription factors able to prompt lineage switching of mammary epithelial cells. Forced expression of TAZ in luminal cells induces them to adopt basal characteristics, and depletion of TAZ in basal/myoepithelial cells leads to luminal differentiation. In human and mouse tissues, TAZ is active only in basal cells and is critical for basal cell maintenance during homeostasis. Accordingly, loss of TAZ affects mammary gland development, leading to an imbalance of luminal and basal populations as well as branching defects. Mechanistically, TAZ interacts with components of the SWI/SNF complex to modulate lineage-specific gene expression. Collectively, these findings uncover a new role for Hippo signaling in the determination of lineage identity through recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:24613358

  8. Short Communication: Reassessing the Origin of the HIV-1 CRF02_AG Lineages Circulating in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Delatorre, Edson; Velasco-De-Castro, Carlos A; Pilotto, José H; Couto-Fernandez, José Carlos; Bello, Gonzalo; Morgado, Mariza G

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 CRF02_AG is responsible for at least 8% of the HIV-1 infections worldwide and is distributed mainly in West Africa. CRF02_AG has recently been reported in countries where it is not native, including Brazil. In a previous study including 10 CRF02_AG Brazilian samples, we found at least four independent introductions and two autochthonous transmission networks of this clade in Brazil. As more CRF02_AG samples have been identified in Brazil, we performed a new phylogeographic analysis using a larger dataset than before. A total of 20 Brazilian (18 from Rio de Janeiro and two from São Paulo) and 1,485 African HIV-1 CRF02_AG pol sequences were analyzed using maximum likelihood (ML). The ML tree showed that the Brazilian sequences were distributed in five different lineages. The Bayesian phylogeographic analysis of the Brazilian and their most closely related African sequences (n = 212) placed the origin of all Brazilian lineages in West Africa, probably Ghana, Senegal, and Nigeria. Two monophyletic clades were identified, comprising only sequences from Rio de Janeiro, and their date of origin was estimated at around 1985 (95% highest posterior density: 1979-1992). These results support the existence of at least five independent introductions of the CRF02_AG lineage from West Africa into Brazil and further indicate that at least two of these lineages have been locally disseminated in the Rio de Janeiro state over the past 30 years. PMID:26353079

  9. Movement of a Hybrid Zone Between Lineages of the Australian Glass Shrimp (Paratya australiensis).

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jeremy D; Schmidt, Daniel J; Hughes, Jane M

    2016-09-01

    In 1993, a population of freshwater glass shrimp (Paratya australiensis) was translocated from Kilcoy Creek to Branch Creek in the Conondale Range, Queensland. Subsequent genetic analysis revealed that the translocated and resident shrimp belonged to different mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages that were capable of hybridizing. Monitoring of the pools along Branch Creek up until 2002 suggested that the translocated lineage had an advantage in upstream pools and the resident lineage dominated downstream. Differential temperature tolerance and hybridization barriers such as hybrid inviability and mate selection were factors proposed to explain hybrid zone structure. The major objective of this study was to combine nuclear and mtDNA markers to identify the structure of the hybrid zone in 2013 and identify any changes that had occurred since 2002. Specifically, we used genetic data to test for evidence of hybrid zone movement and used the inbreeding coefficient (F IS) to investigate whether mating was random in the contact zone where hybridization barriers could be present. The results revealed that the hybrid zone center has shifted 510 m downstream since 2002. Increased rainfall in the region since 2010 could have facilitated this. Secondly, mating appears significantly nonrandom in the pools where both lineages occur, supporting the existence of partial hybridization barriers. This study reveals a complex and dynamic hybrid zone and exemplifies why multiple temporal studies are necessary to understand hybrid zone structure. PMID:27225934

  10. The genetic architecture of hybridisation between two lineages of greenshell mussels

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, J P A; Wei, K-J

    2015-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach has identified sigmoidal genetic clines on the east and west coasts in central New Zealand where low-density ecological interactions occur between northern and southern lineages of the endemic greenshell mussel, Perna canaliculus. The sigmoidal clines indicate the existence of a mussel hybrid zone in a region of genetic discontinuities for many continuously distributed coastal taxa, in particular marine invertebrates. Examination of the genetic architecture of the hybrid zone revealed the differential contribution of individual microsatellite loci and/or alleles to defining the zone of interaction and no evidence of increased allelic richness or heterozygosity inside versus outside the hybrid zone. Genomics cline analysis identified one locus in particular (Pcan1–27) as being different from neutral expectations, thereby contributing to lineage differentiation. Estimates of contemporary gene flow revealed very high levels of within-lineage self-recruitment and a hybrid zone composed mostly (~85%) of northern immigrants. Broad scale interpretation of these results is consistent with a zone of genetic interaction that was generated between 0.3 and 1.3 million years before present at a time of pronounced global sea-level change. At that time, the continuous distribution of the greenshell mussel was split into northern and southern groups, which differentiated to become distinct lineages, and which have subsequently been reunited (secondary contact) resulting in the generation of the hybrid zone at ~42°S. PMID:25424842

  11. Reconstructing lineage hierarchies of the distal lung epithelium using single-cell RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Treutlein, Barbara; Brownfield, Doug G; Wu, Angela R; Neff, Norma F; Mantalas, Gary L; Espinoza, F Hernan; Desai, Tushar J; Krasnow, Mark A; Quake, Stephen R

    2014-05-15

    The mammalian lung is a highly branched network in which the distal regions of the bronchial tree transform during development into a densely packed honeycomb of alveolar air sacs that mediate gas exchange. Although this transformation has been studied by marker expression analysis and fate-mapping, the mechanisms that control the progression of lung progenitors along distinct lineages into mature alveolar cell types are still incompletely known, in part because of the limited number of lineage markers and the effects of ensemble averaging in conventional transcriptome analysis experiments on cell populations. Here we show that single-cell transcriptome analysis circumvents these problems and enables direct measurement of the various cell types and hierarchies in the developing lung. We used microfluidic single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on 198 individual cells at four different stages encompassing alveolar differentiation to measure the transcriptional states which define the developmental and cellular hierarchy of the distal mouse lung epithelium. We empirically classified cells into distinct groups by using an unbiased genome-wide approach that did not require a priori knowledge of the underlying cell types or the previous purification of cell populations. The results confirmed the basic outlines of the classical model of epithelial cell-type diversity in the distal lung and led to the discovery of many previously unknown cell-type markers, including transcriptional regulators that discriminate between the different populations. We reconstructed the molecular steps during maturation of bipotential progenitors along both alveolar lineages and elucidated the full life cycle of the alveolar type 2 cell lineage. This single-cell genomics approach is applicable to any developing or mature tissue to robustly delineate molecularly distinct cell types, define progenitors and lineage hierarchies, and identify lineage-specific regulatory factors. PMID:24739965

  12. Feedback, Lineages and Self-Organizing Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Calof, Anne L.; Lowengrub, John S.; Lander, Arthur D.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback regulation of cell lineage progression plays an important role in tissue size homeostasis, but whether such feedback also plays an important role in tissue morphogenesis has yet to be explored. Here we use mathematical modeling to show that a particular feedback architecture in which both positive and negative diffusible signals act on stem and/or progenitor cells leads to the appearance of bistable or bi-modal growth behaviors, ultrasensitivity to external growth cues, local growth-driven budding, self-sustaining elongation, and the triggering of self-organization in the form of lamellar fingers. Such behaviors arise not through regulation of cell cycle speeds, but through the control of stem or progenitor self-renewal. Even though the spatial patterns that arise in this setting are the result of interactions between diffusible factors with antagonistic effects, morphogenesis is not the consequence of Turing-type instabilities. PMID:26989903

  13. Cell lineage in mammalian craniofacial mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshiyuki; Vivatbutsiri, Philaiporn; Morriss-Kay, Gillian; Saga, Yumiko; Iseki, Sachiko

    2008-01-01

    We have analysed the contributions of neural crest and mesoderm to mammalian craniofacial mesenchyme and its derivatives by cell lineage tracing experiments in mouse embryos, using the permanent genetic markers Wnt1-cre for neural crest and Mesp1-cre for mesoderm, combined with the Rosa26 reporter. At the end of neural crest cell migration (E9.5) the two patterns are reciprocal, with a mutual boundary just posterior to the eye. Mesodermal cells expressing endothelial markers (angioblasts) are found not to respect this boundary; they are associated with the migrating neural crest from the 5-somite stage, and by E9.5 they form a pre-endothelial meshwork throughout the cranial mesenchyme. Mesodermal cells of the myogenic lineage also migrate with neural crest cells, as the branchial arches form. By E17.5 the neural crest-mesoderm boundary in the subectodermal mesenchyme becomes out of register with that of the underlying skeletogenic layer, which is between the frontal and parietal bones. At E13.5 the primordia of these bones lie basolateral to the brain, extending towards the vertex of the skull during the following 4-5 days. We used DiI labelling of the bone primordia in ex-utero E13.5 embryos to distinguish between two possibilities for the origin of the frontal and parietal bones: (1) recruitment from adjacent connective tissue or (2) proliferation of the original primordia. The results clearly demonstrated that the bone primordia extend vertically by intrinsic growth, without detectable recruitment of adjacent mesenchymal cells. PMID:18617001

  14. Lineage determinants in early endocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Sebastian; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced from a dynamic epithelium in a process that, as in any developing organ, is driven by interacting programs of spatiotemporally regulated intercellular signals and autonomous gene regulatory networks. These algorithms work to push progenitors and their transitional intermediates through a series of railroad-station-like switching decisions to regulate flux along specific differentiation tracks. Extensive research on pancreas organogenesis over the last 20 years, greatly spurred by the potential to restore functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients by transplantation therapy, is advancing our knowledge of how endocrine lineage bias is established and allocation is promoted. The field is working towards the goal of generating a detailed blueprint of how heterogeneous cell populations interact and respond to each other, and other influences such as the extracellular matrix, to move into progressively refined and mature cell states. Here, we highlight how signaling codes and transcriptional networks might determine endocrine lineage within a complex and dynamic architecture, based largely on studies in the mouse. The process begins with the designation of multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) to pancreatic buds that subsequently move through a newly proposed period involving epithelial plexus formation-remodeling, and ends with formation of clustered endocrine islets connected to the vascular and peripheral nervous systems. Developing this knowledge base, and increasing the emphasis on direct comparisons between mouse and human, will yield a more complete and focused picture of pancreas development, and thereby inform β-cell-directed differentiation from human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC, iPSC). Additionally, a deeper understanding may provide surprising therapeutic angles by defining conditions that allow the controllable reprogramming of endodermal or pancreatic cell populations. PMID:22728667

  15. The Korarchaeota: Archaeal orphans representing an ancestral lineage of life

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, James G.; Kunin, Victor; Anderson, Iain; Barry, Kerrie; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Hedlund, Brian; Hugenholtz, Phil; Kyrpides, Nikos; Graham, David; Keller, Martin; Wanner, Gerhard; Richardson, Paul; Stetter, Karl O.

    2007-05-01

    Based on conserved cellular properties, all life on Earth can be grouped into different phyla which belong to the primary domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. However, tracing back their evolutionary relationships has been impeded by horizontal gene transfer and gene loss. Within the Archaea, the kingdoms Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota exhibit a profound divergence. In order to elucidate the evolution of these two major kingdoms, representatives of more deeply diverged lineages would be required. Based on their environmental small subunit ribosomal (ss RNA) sequences, the Korarchaeota had been originally suggested to have an ancestral relationship to all known Archaea although this assessment has been refuted. Here we describe the cultivation and initial characterization of the first member of the Korarchaeota, highly unusual, ultrathin filamentous cells about 0.16 {micro}m in diameter. A complete genome sequence obtained from enrichment cultures revealed an unprecedented combination of signature genes which were thought to be characteristic of either the Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, or Eukarya. Cell division appears to be mediated through a FtsZ-dependent mechanism which is highly conserved throughout the Bacteria and Euryarchaeota. An rpb8 subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was identified which is absent from other Archaea and has been described as a eukaryotic signature gene. In addition, the representative organism possesses a ribosome structure typical for members of the Crenarchaeota. Based on its gene complement, this lineage likely diverged near the separation of the two major kingdoms of Archaea. Further investigations of these unique organisms may shed additional light onto the evolution of extant life.

  16. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  17. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypic Lineage Distribution in Chile and Neighboring Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a disease of high importance to global public health. Studies into the population structure of MTB have become vital to monitoring possible outbreaks and also to develop strategies regarding disease control. Although Chile has a low incidence of MTB, the current rates of migration have the potential to change this scenario. We collected and analyzed a total of 458 M. tuberculosis isolates (1 isolate per patient) originating from all 15 regions of Chile. The isolates were genotyped using the spoligotyping method and the data obtained were analyzed and compared with the SITVIT2 database. A total of 169 different patterns were identified, of which, 119 patterns (408 strains) corresponded to Spoligotype International Types (SITs) and 50 patterns corresponded to orphan strains. The most abundantly represented SITs/lineages were: SIT53/T1 (11.57%), SIT33/LAM3 (9.6%), SIT42/LAM9 (9.39%), SIT50/H3 (5.9%), SIT37/T3 (5%); analysis of the spoligotyping minimum spanning tree as well as spoligoforest were suggestive of a recent expansion of SIT42, SIT50 and SIT37; all of which potentially evolved from SIT53. The most abundantly represented lineages were LAM (40.6%), T (34.1%) and Haarlem (13.5%). LAM was more prevalent in the Santiago (43.6%) and Concepción (44.1%) isolates, rather than the Iquique (29.4%) strains. The proportion of X lineage was appreciably higher in Iquique and Concepción (11.7% in both) as compared to Santiago (1.6%). Global analysis of MTB lineage distribution in Chile versus neighboring countries showed that evolutionary recent lineages (LAM, T and Haarlem) accounted together for 88.2% of isolates in Chile, a pattern which mirrored MTB lineage distribution in neighboring countries (n = 7378 isolates recorded in SITVIT2 database for Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; and published studies), highlighting epidemiological advantage of Euro-American lineages in this region

  18. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypic Lineage Distribution in Chile and Neighboring Countries.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a disease of high importance to global public health. Studies into the population structure of MTB have become vital to monitoring possible outbreaks and also to develop strategies regarding disease control. Although Chile has a low incidence of MTB, the current rates of migration have the potential to change this scenario. We collected and analyzed a total of 458 M. tuberculosis isolates (1 isolate per patient) originating from all 15 regions of Chile. The isolates were genotyped using the spoligotyping method and the data obtained were analyzed and compared with the SITVIT2 database. A total of 169 different patterns were identified, of which, 119 patterns (408 strains) corresponded to Spoligotype International Types (SITs) and 50 patterns corresponded to orphan strains. The most abundantly represented SITs/lineages were: SIT53/T1 (11.57%), SIT33/LAM3 (9.6%), SIT42/LAM9 (9.39%), SIT50/H3 (5.9%), SIT37/T3 (5%); analysis of the spoligotyping minimum spanning tree as well as spoligoforest were suggestive of a recent expansion of SIT42, SIT50 and SIT37; all of which potentially evolved from SIT53. The most abundantly represented lineages were LAM (40.6%), T (34.1%) and Haarlem (13.5%). LAM was more prevalent in the Santiago (43.6%) and Concepción (44.1%) isolates, rather than the Iquique (29.4%) strains. The proportion of X lineage was appreciably higher in Iquique and Concepción (11.7% in both) as compared to Santiago (1.6%). Global analysis of MTB lineage distribution in Chile versus neighboring countries showed that evolutionary recent lineages (LAM, T and Haarlem) accounted together for 88.2% of isolates in Chile, a pattern which mirrored MTB lineage distribution in neighboring countries (n = 7378 isolates recorded in SITVIT2 database for Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; and published studies), highlighting epidemiological advantage of Euro-American lineages in this region

  19. Localization, concentration, and transmission efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in four asexual lineages of Pentalonia aphids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  20. Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shizu; Greenwell, April M.; Bressan, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. PMID:23435241

  1. A genomic investigation of the putative contact zone between divergent Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) lineages: chromosomal patterns of genetic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Manthey, Joseph D; Robbins, Mark B; Moyle, Robert G

    2016-02-01

    Sky islands, or montane forest separated by different lowland habitats, are highly fragmented regions that potentially limit gene flow between isolated populations. In the sky islands of the Madrean Archipelago (Arizona, USA), various taxa display different phylogeographic patterns, from unrestricted gene flow among sky islands to complex patterns with multiple distinct lineages. Using genomic-level approaches allows the investigation of differential patterns of gene flow, selection, and genetic differentiation among chromosomes and specific genomic regions between sky island populations. Here, we used thousands of SNPs to investigate the putative contact zone of divergent Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) lineages in the Madrean Archipelago sky islands. We found the two lineages to be completely allopatric (during the breeding season) with a lack of hybridization and gene flow between lineages and no genetic structure among sky islands within lineages. Additionally, the two lineages inhabit different climatic and ecosystem conditions and have many local primary song dialects in the southern Arizona mountain ranges. We identified a positive relationship between genetic differentiation and chromosome size, but the sex chromosome (Z) was not found to be an outlier. Differential patterns of genetic differentiation per chromosome may be explained by genetic drift--possibly in conjunction with non-random mating and non-random gene flow--due to variance in recombination rates among chromosomes. PMID:26794151

  2. Phenotypic differences among three clonal lineages of Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three major clonal lineages of Phytophthora ramorum present in North America and Europe named NA1, NA2, and EU1. Twenty-three isolates representing all three lineages were evaluated for phenotype including (i) aggressiveness on detached Rhododendron leaves and (ii) growth rate at minimum, ...

  3. Cranial size variation and lineage diversity in early Pleistocene Homo.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremiah E

    2014-03-01

    A recent article in this journal concluded that a sample of early Pleistocene hominin crania assigned to genus Homo exhibits a pattern of size variation that is time dependent, with specimens from different time periods being more different from each other, on average, than are specimens from the same time period. The authors of this study argued that such a pattern is not consistent with the presence of multiple lineages within the sample, but rather supports the hypothesis that the fossils represent an anagenetically evolving lineage (i.e., an evolutionary species). However, the multiple-lineage models considered in that study do not reflect the multiple-species alternatives that have been proposed for early Pleistocene Homo. Using simulated data sets, I show that fossil assemblages that contain multiple lineages can exhibit the time-dependent pattern of variation specified for the single-lineage model under certain conditions, particularly when temporal overlap among fossil specimens attributed to the lineages is limited. These results do not reject the single-lineage hypothesis, but they do indicate that rejection of multiple lineages in the early Pleistocene Homo fossil record is premature, and that other sources of variation, such as differences in cranial shape, should be considered. PMID:24588348

  4. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rene C; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-05-21

    Adult stem cells occur in niches that balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, stem cells outside their niche often display fate flexibility. Here we show that super-enhancers underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult stem cells in vivo. Using hair follicle as a model, we map the global chromatin domains of hair follicle stem cells and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters ('epicentres') of transcription factor binding sites undergo remodelling upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicentres, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, hair follicle stem cells dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicentres, enabling their genes to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of hair follicle stem cell super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense transcription-factor-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  5. New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Sedano, Raul; Chasar, Anthony C; Chaves, Jaime A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Whitaker, Alexis; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-08-01

    The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428 birds from 19 species (representing nine families) and identified 133 infections of avian haemosporidia (31%), including lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon. We document a higher prevalence of haemosporidia at higher elevations and lower temperatures, as well as an overall high diversity of lineages in the northern Andes, including the first sequences of haemosporidians reported in hummingbirds (31 sequences found in 11 species within the family Trochilidae). Double infections were distinguished using PHASE, which enables the separation of distinct parasite lineages. Results suggest that the ecological heterogeneity of the northern Andes that has given rise to a rich diversity of avian hosts may also be particularly conducive to parasite diversification and specialization. PMID:25469161

  6. Pioneer factors govern super-enhancer dynamics in stem cell plasticity and lineage choice

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Rene C.; Yang, Hanseul; Rockowitz, Shira; Larsen, Samantha B.; Nikolova, Maria; Oristian, Daniel S.; Polak, Lisa; Kadaja, Meelis; Asare, Amma; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) reside in niches which balance self-renewal with lineage selection and progression during tissue homeostasis. Following injury, culture or transplantation, SCs outside their niche often display fate flexibility1-4. Here we show that super-enhancers5 underlie the identity, lineage commitment and plasticity of adult SCs in vivo. Using hair follicle (HF) as model, we map the global chromatin domains of HFSCs and their committed progenitors in their native microenvironments. We show that super-enhancers and their dense clusters (‘epicenters’) of transcription factor (TF) binding sites change upon lineage progression. New fate is acquired by decommissioning old and establishing new super-enhancers and/or epicenters, an auto-regulatory process that abates one master regulator subset while enhancing another. We further show that when outside their niche, either in vitro or in wound-repair, HFSCs dynamically remodel super-enhancers in response to changes in their microenvironment. Intriguingly, some key super-enhancers shift epicenters, enabling them to remain active and maintain a transitional state in an ever-changing transcriptional landscape. Finally, we identify SOX9 as a crucial chromatin rheostat of HFSC super-enhancers, and provide functional evidence that super-enhancers are dynamic, dense TF-binding platforms which are acutely sensitive to pioneer master regulators whose levels define not only spatial and temporal features of lineage-status, but also stemness, plasticity in transitional states and differentiation. PMID:25799994

  7. New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Sedano, Raul; Chasar, Anthony C; Chaves, Jaime A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Whitaker, Alexis; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428 birds from 19 species (representing nine families) and identified 133 infections of avian haemosporidia (31%), including lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon. We document a higher prevalence of haemosporidia at higher elevations and lower temperatures, as well as an overall high diversity of lineages in the northern Andes, including the first sequences of haemosporidians reported in hummingbirds (31 sequences found in 11 species within the family Trochilidae). Double infections were distinguished using PHASE, which enables the separation of distinct parasite lineages. Results suggest that the ecological heterogeneity of the northern Andes that has given rise to a rich diversity of avian hosts may also be particularly conducive to parasite diversification and specialization. PMID:25469161

  8. The coalescence of intrahost HIV lineages under symmetric CTL attack.

    PubMed

    Leviyang, Sivan

    2012-08-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are immune system cells that are thought to play an important role in controlling HIV infection. We develop a stochastic ODE model of HIV-CTL interaction that extends current deterministic ODE models. Based on this stochastic model, we consider the effect of CTL attack on intrahost HIV lineages assuming that CTLs attack several epitopes with equal strength. In this setting, we introduce a limiting version of our stochastic ODE under which we show that the coalescence of HIV lineages can be described through Poisson-Dirichlet distributions. Through numerical experiments, we show that our results under the limiting stochastic ODE accurately reflect HIV lineages under CTL attack when the HIV population size is on the low end of its hypothesized range. Current techniques of HIV lineage construction depend on the Kingman coalescent. Our results give an explicit connection between CTL attack and HIV lineages. PMID:22644341

  9. Reproductive isolation between phylogeographic lineages scales with divergence

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sonal; Moritz, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies frequently reveal multiple morphologically cryptic lineages within species. What is not yet clear is whether such lineages represent nascent species or evolutionary ephemera. To address this question, we compare five contact zones, each of which occurs between ecomorphologically cryptic lineages of skinks from the rainforests of the Australian Wet Tropics. Although the contacts probably formed concurrently in response to Holocene expansion from glacial refugia, we estimate that the divergence times (τ) of the lineage pairs range from 3.1 to 11.5 Ma. Multi-locus analyses of the contact zones yielded estimates of reproductive isolation that are tightly correlated with divergence time and, for lineages with older divergence times (τ > 5 Myr), substantial. These results show that phylogeographic splits of increasing depth represent stages along the speciation continuum, even in the absence of overt change in ecologically relevant morphology. PMID:24107536

  10. A portrait of the C4 photosynthetic family on the 50th anniversary of its discovery: species number, evolutionary lineages, and Hall of Fame.

    PubMed

    Sage, Rowan F

    2016-07-01

    Fifty years ago, the C4 photosynthetic pathway was first characterized. In the subsequent five decades, much has been learned about C4 plants, such that it is now possible to place nearly all C4 species into their respective evolutionary lineages. Sixty-one independent lineages of C4 photosynthesis are identified, with additional, ancillary C4 origins possible in 12 of these principal lineages. The lineages produced ~8100 C4 species (5044 grasses, 1322 sedges, and 1777 eudicots). Using midpoints of stem and crown node dates in their respective phylogenies, the oldest and most speciose C4 lineage is the grass lineage Chloridoideae, estimated to be near 30 million years old. Most C4 lineages are estimated to be younger than 15 million years. Older C4 lineages tend to be more speciose, while those younger than 7 million years have <43 species each. To further highlight C4 photosynthesis for a 50th anniversary snapshot, a Hall of Fame comprised of the 40 most significant C4 species is presented. Over the next 50 years, preservation of the Earth's C4 diversity is a concern, largely because of habitat loss due to elevated CO2 effects, invasive species, and expanded agricultural activities. Ironically, some members of the C4 Hall of Fame are leading threats to the natural C4 flora due to their association with human activities on landscapes where most C4 plants occur. PMID:27053721

  11. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  12. Pluripotency Factors on Their Lineage Move

    PubMed Central

    Weidgang, Clair E.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Kleger, Alexander; Mueller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are characterised by continuous self-renewal while maintaining the potential to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. Regulatory networks of maintaining pluripotency have been described in great detail and, similarly, there is great knowledge on key players that regulate their differentiation. Interestingly, pluripotency has various shades with distinct developmental potential, an observation that coined the term of a ground state of pluripotency. A precise interplay of signalling axes regulates ground state conditions and acts in concert with a combination of key transcription factors. The balance between these transcription factors greatly influences the integrity of the pluripotency network and latest research suggests that minute changes in their expression can strengthen but also collapse the network. Moreover, recent studies reveal different facets of these core factors in balancing a controlled and directed exit from pluripotency. Thereby, subsets of pluripotency-maintaining factors have been shown to adopt new roles during lineage specification and have been globally defined towards neuroectodermal and mesendodermal sets of embryonic stem cell genes. However, detailed underlying insights into how these transcription factors orchestrate cell fate decisions remain largely elusive. Our group and others unravelled complex interactions in the regulation of this controlled exit. Herein, we summarise recent findings and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. PMID:26770212

  13. Lineage management for on-demand data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Brodzik, M.; Billingsley, B. W.

    2009-12-01

    Most data consumers would agree that data should be easily available, and welcome the ability to subset, reformat, and reproject archived data before they retrieve the data for local use. Although these features in a data delivery system potentially enhance the interdisciplinary or collaborative use of the data, they also raise concerns for the archive providing those data. The Searchlight project at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) has successfully dealt with many of the technical issues surrounding the dynamic delivery of user-defined data subsets. These data manipulation accomplishments only solve part of the dynamic data delivery problem: We now need to associate accurate provenance and processing information with the customized data product. The user needs the provenance and history in order to make accurate judgements regarding the appropriate use of the data. Our User Support team may need that provenance and history in order to provide a level of service similar to that available for our documented, archived data sets. This presentation will examine the Searchlight team's response to the emerging issue of handling lineage information associated with dynamically generated data products.

  14. Micromere lineages in the glossiphoniid leech Helobdella

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Francoise Z.; Kang, Dongmin; Ramirez-Weber, Felipe-Andres; Bissen, Shirley T.; Weisblat, David A.

    2002-01-01

    In leech embryos, segmental mesoderm and ectoderm arise from teloblasts by lineages that are already relatively well characterized. Here, we present data concerning the early divisions and the definitive fate maps of the micromeres, a group of 25 small cells that arise during the modified spiral cleavage in leech (Helobdella robusta) and contribute to most of the nonsegmental tissues of the adult. Three noteworthy results of this work are as follows. (1) The c"' and dm' clones (3d and 3c in traditional nomenclature) give rise to a hitherto undescribed network of fibers that run from one end of the embryo to the other. (2) The clones of micromeres b" and b"' (2b and 3b in traditional nomenclature) die in normal development; the b" clone can be rescued to assume the normal c" fate if micromere c" or its clone are ablated in early development. (3) Two qualitative differences in micromere fates are seen between H. robusta (Sacramento) and another Helobdella sp. (Galt). First, in Helobdella sp. (Galt), the clone of micromere b" does not normally die, and contributes a subset of the cells arising exclusively from c" in H. robusta (Sacramento). Second, in Helobdella sp. (Galt), micromere c"' makes no definitive contribution, whereas micromere dm' gives rise to cells equivalent to those arising from c"' and dm' in H. robusta (Sacramento).

  15. Flow-cytometric method for simultaneous analysis of mouse lung epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Singer, Benjamin D; Mock, Jason R; D'Alessio, Franco R; Aggarwal, Neil R; Mandke, Pooja; Johnston, Laura; Damarla, Mahendra

    2016-05-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool capable of simultaneously analyzing multiple parameters on a cell-by-cell basis. Lung tissue preparation for flow cytometry requires creation of a single-cell suspension, which often employs enzymatic and mechanical dissociation techniques. These practices may damage cells and cause cell death that is unrelated to the experimental conditions under study. We tested methods of lung tissue dissociation and sought to minimize cell death in the epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic lineage cellular compartments. A protocol that involved flushing the pulmonary circulation and inflating the lung with Dispase, a bacillus-derived neutral metalloprotease, at the time of tissue harvest followed by mincing, digestion in a DNase and collagenase solution, and filtration before staining with fluorescent reagents concurrently maximized viable yields of epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic lineage cells compared with a standard method that did not use enzymes at the time of tissue harvest. Flow cytometry identified each population-epithelial (CD326(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)), endothelial (CD326(-)CD31(+)CD45(-)), and hematopoietic lineage (CD326(-)CD31(-)CD45(+))-and measured cellular viability by 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) staining. The Dispase method permitted discrimination of epithelial vs. endothelial cell death in a systemic lipopolysaccharide model of increased pulmonary vascular permeability. We conclude that application of a dissociative enzyme solution directly to the cellular compartments of interest at the time of tissue harvest maximized viable cellular yields of those compartments. Investigators could employ this dissociation method to simultaneously harvest epithelial, endothelial, and hematopoietic lineage and other lineage-negative cells for flow-cytometric analysis. PMID:26944088

  16. Implications of Differential Age Distribution of Disease-Associated Meningococcal Lineages for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Caroline L.; Ramsay, Mary E.; Chandra, Manosree; Jolley, Keith A.; van der Ende, Arie; Carion, Françoise; Berthelsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Steen; Harðardóttir, Hjördís; Vazquez, Julio A.; Murphy, Karen; Toropainen, Maija; Caniça, Manuela; Ferreira, Eugenia; Diggle, Mathew; Edwards, Giles F.; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Stefanelli, Paola; Kriz, Paula; Gray, Steve J.; Fox, Andrew J.; Jacobsson, Susanne; Claus, Heike; Vogel, Ulrich; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Heuberger, Sigrid; Caugant, Dominique A.; Frosch, Matthias; Maiden, Martin C. J.

    2014-01-01

    New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account for most disease, and these lineages are associated with particular antigens, including vaccine candidates. A collection of 4,048 representative meningococcal disease isolates from 18 European countries, collected over a 3-year period, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Age data were available for 3,147 isolates. The proportions of hyperinvasive lineages, identified as particular clonal complexes (ccs) by MLST, differed among age groups. Subjects <1 year of age experienced lower risk of sequence type 11 (ST-11) cc, ST-32 cc, and ST-269 cc disease and higher risk of disease due to unassigned STs, 1- to 4-year-olds experienced lower risk of ST-11 cc and ST-32 cc disease, 5- to 14-year-olds were less likely to experience ST-11 cc and ST-269 cc disease, and ≥25-year-olds were more likely to experience disease due to less common ccs and unassigned STs. Younger and older subjects were vulnerable to a more diverse set of genotypes, indicating the more clonal nature of genotypes affecting adolescents and young adults. Knowledge of temporal and spatial diversity and the dynamics of meningococcal populations is essential for disease control by vaccines, as coverage is lineage specific. The nonrandom age distribution of hyperinvasive lineages has consequences for the design and implementation of vaccines, as different variants, or perhaps targets, may be required for different age groups. PMID:24695776

  17. Revised timeline and distribution of the earliest diverged human maternal lineages in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eva K F; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Petersen, Desiree C; Beeson, Karen; Bornman, Riana M S; Smith, Andrew B; Hayes, Vanessa M

    2015-01-01

    The oldest extant human maternal lineages include mitochondrial haplogroups L0d and L0k found in the southern African click-speaking forager peoples broadly classified as Khoesan. Profiling these early mitochondrial lineages allows for better understanding of modern human evolution. In this study, we profile 77 new early-diverged complete mitochondrial genomes and sub-classify another 105 L0d/L0k individuals from southern Africa. We use this data to refine basal phylogenetic divergence, coalescence times and Khoesan prehistory. Our results confirm L0d as the earliest diverged lineage (∼172 kya, 95%CI: 149-199 kya), followed by L0k (∼159 kya, 95%CI: 136-183 kya) and a new lineage we name L0g (∼94 kya, 95%CI: 72-116 kya). We identify two new L0d1 subclades we name L0d1d and L0d1c4/L0d1e, and estimate L0d2 and L0d1 divergence at ∼93 kya (95%CI:76-112 kya). We concur the earliest emerging L0d1'2 sublineage L0d1b (∼49 kya, 95%CI:37-58 kya) is widely distributed across southern Africa. Concomitantly, we find the most recent sublineage L0d2a (∼17 kya, 95%CI:10-27 kya) to be equally common. While we agree that lineages L0d1c and L0k1a are restricted to contemporary inland Khoesan populations, our observed predominance of L0d2a and L0d1a in non-Khoesan populations suggests a once independent coastal Khoesan prehistory. The distribution of early-diverged human maternal lineages within contemporary southern Africans suggests a rich history of human existence prior to any archaeological evidence of migration into the region. For the first time, we provide a genetic-based evidence for significant modern human evolution in southern Africa at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum at between ∼21-17 kya, coinciding with the emergence of major lineages L0d1a, L0d2b, L0d2d and L0d2a. PMID:25807545

  18. Revised Timeline and Distribution of the Earliest Diverged Human Maternal Lineages in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Eva K. F.; Hardie, Rae-Anne; Petersen, Desiree C.; Beeson, Karen; Bornman, Riana M. S.; Smith, Andrew B.; Hayes, Vanessa M.

    2015-01-01

    The oldest extant human maternal lineages include mitochondrial haplogroups L0d and L0k found in the southern African click-speaking forager peoples broadly classified as Khoesan. Profiling these early mitochondrial lineages allows for better understanding of modern human evolution. In this study, we profile 77 new early-diverged complete mitochondrial genomes and sub-classify another 105 L0d/L0k individuals from southern Africa. We use this data to refine basal phylogenetic divergence, coalescence times and Khoesan prehistory. Our results confirm L0d as the earliest diverged lineage (∼172 kya, 95%CI: 149–199 kya), followed by L0k (∼159 kya, 95%CI: 136–183 kya) and a new lineage we name L0g (∼94 kya, 95%CI: 72–116 kya). We identify two new L0d1 subclades we name L0d1d and L0d1c4/L0d1e, and estimate L0d2 and L0d1 divergence at ∼93 kya (95%CI:76–112 kya). We concur the earliest emerging L0d1’2 sublineage L0d1b (∼49 kya, 95%CI:37–58 kya) is widely distributed across southern Africa. Concomitantly, we find the most recent sublineage L0d2a (∼17 kya, 95%CI:10–27 kya) to be equally common. While we agree that lineages L0d1c and L0k1a are restricted to contemporary inland Khoesan populations, our observed predominance of L0d2a and L0d1a in non-Khoesan populations suggests a once independent coastal Khoesan prehistory. The distribution of early-diverged human maternal lineages within contemporary southern Africans suggests a rich history of human existence prior to any archaeological evidence of migration into the region. For the first time, we provide a genetic-based evidence for significant modern human evolution in southern Africa at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum at between ∼21–17 kya, coinciding with the emergence of major lineages L0d1a, L0d2b, L0d2d and L0d2a. PMID:25807545

  19. Genomic epidemiology of age-associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothea M C; Lucidarme, Jay; Gray, Stephen J; Newbold, Lynne S; Ure, Roisin; Brehony, Carina; Harrison, Odile B; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Bratcher, Holly B; Parkhill, Julian; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a worldwide health issue that is potentially preventable with vaccination. In view of its sporadic nature and the high diversity of Neisseria meningitidis, epidemiological surveillance incorporating detailed isolate characterisation is crucial for effective control and understanding the evolving epidemiology of IMD. The Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL) exploits whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for this purpose and presents data on a comprehensive and coherent IMD isolate collection from England and Wales via the internet. We assessed the contribution of these data to investigating IMD epidemiology. Methods WGS data were obtained for all 899 IMD isolates available for England and Wales in epidemiological years 2010–11 and 2011–12. The data had been annotated at 1720 loci, analysed, and disseminated online. Information was also available on meningococcal population structure and vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK) antigen variants, which enabled the investigation of IMD-associated genotypes over time and by patients' age groups. Population genomic analyses were done with a hierarchical gene-by-gene approach. Findings The methods used by MRF-MGL efficiently characterised IMD isolates and information was provided in plain language. At least 20 meningococcal lineages were identified, three of which (hyperinvasive clonal complexes 41/44 [lineage 3], 269 [lineage 2], and 23 [lineage 23]) were responsible for 528 (59%) of IMD isolates. Lineages were highly diverse and showed evidence of extensive recombination. Specific lineages were associated with IMD in particular age groups, with notable diversity in the youngest and oldest individuals. The increased incidence of IMD from 1984 to 2010 in England and Wales was due to successive and concurrent epidemics of different lineages. Genetically, 74% of isolates were characterised as encoding group B capsules

  20. Phylogenetic plant community structure along elevation is lineage specific

    PubMed Central

    Ndiribe, Charlotte; Pellissier, Loïc; Antonelli, Silvia; Dubuis, Anne; Pottier, Julien; Vittoz, Pascal; Guisan, Antoine; Salamin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The trend of closely related taxa to retain similar environmental preferences mediated by inherited traits suggests that several patterns observed at the community scale originate from longer evolutionary processes. While the effects of phylogenetic relatedness have been previously studied within a single genus or family, lineage-specific effects on the ecological processes governing community assembly have rarely been studied for entire communities or flora. Here, we measured how community phylogenetic structure varies across a wide elevation gradient for plant lineages represented by 35 families, using a co-occurrence index and net relatedness index (NRI). We propose a framework that analyses each lineage separately and reveals the trend of ecological assembly at tree nodes. We found prevailing phylogenetic clustering for more ancient nodes and overdispersion in more recent tree nodes. Closely related species may thus rapidly evolve new environmental tolerances to radiate into distinct communities, while older lineages likely retain inherent environmental tolerances to occupy communities in similar environments, either through efficient dispersal mechanisms or the exclusion of older lineages with more divergent environmental tolerances. Our study illustrates the importance of disentangling the patterns of community assembly among lineages to better interpret the ecological role of traits. It also sheds light on studies reporting absence of phylogenetic signal, and opens new perspectives on the analysis of niche and trait conservatism across lineages. PMID:24455126

  1. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  2. A Six Nuclear Gene Phylogeny of Citrus (Rutaceae) Taking into Account Hybridization and Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Keremane, Manjunath L.; Lee, Richard F.; Maureira-Butler, Ivan J.; Roose, Mikeal L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genus Citrus (Rutaceae) comprises many important cultivated species that generally hybridize easily. Phylogenetic study of a group showing extensive hybridization is challenging. Since the genus Citrus has diverged recently (4–12 Ma), incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms is also likely to cause discrepancies among genes in phylogenetic inferences. Incongruence of gene trees is observed and it is essential to unravel the processes that cause inconsistencies in order to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the species. Methodology and Principal Findings (1) We generated phylogenetic trees using haplotype sequences of six low copy nuclear genes. (2) Published simple sequence repeat data were re-analyzed to study population structure and the results were compared with the phylogenetic trees constructed using sequence data and coalescence simulations. (3) To distinguish between hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting, we developed and utilized a coalescence simulation approach. In other studies, species trees have been inferred despite the possibility of hybridization having occurred and used to generate null distributions of the effect of lineage sorting alone (by coalescent simulation). Since this is problematic, we instead generate these distributions directly from observed gene trees. Of the six trees generated, we used the most resolved three to detect hybrids. We found that 11 of 33 samples appear to be affected by historical hybridization. Analysis of the remaining three genes supported the conclusions from the hybrid detection test. Conclusions We have identified or confirmed probable hybrid origins for several Citrus cultivars using three different approaches–gene phylogenies, population structure analysis and coalescence simulation. Hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting were identified primarily based on differences among gene phylogenies with reference to null expectations via coalescence simulations. We

  3. Stat3 inhibition in neural lineage cells.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Tomohiro; Mack, Laura; Delis, Natalia; Brill, Boris; Groner, Bernd

    2012-06-01

    Abstract Deregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is attracting attentions in neurological disorders of elderly populations, e.g., Stat3 is inactivated in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, whereas it is often constitutively activated in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), correlating with poor prognosis. Stat3-inhibiting drugs have been intensively developed for chemotherapy based on the fact that GBM, in many cases, are "addicted" to Stat3 activation. Stat3 inhibitors, however, potentially have unfavorable side effects on postmitotic neurons, normal permanent residents in the central nervous system. It is, therefore, of great importance to address detailed cellular responses of neural lineage cells including normal neurons, astrocytes, and neuronal/glial cancer cell lines to several classes of Stat3 inhibitors focusing on their effective concentrations. Here, we picked up five human and mouse cancer cell lines (Neuro-2a and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell lines and Tu-9648, U-87MG, and U-373MG glioblastoma cell lines) and treated with various Stat3 inhibitors. Among them, Stattic, FLLL31, and resveratrol potently suppressed P-Stat3 and cell viability in all the tested cell lines. Stat3 knockdown or expression of dominant-negative Stat3 further sensitized cells to the inhibitors. Expression of familial AD-related mutant amyloid precursor protein sensitized neuronal cells, not glial cells, to Stat3 inhibitors by reducing P-Stat3 levels. Primary neurons and astrocytes also responded to Stat3 inhibitors with similar sensitivities to those observed in cancer cell lines. Thus, Stat3 inhibitors should be carefully targeted to GBM cells to avoid potential neurotoxicity leading to AD-like neuropsychiatric dysfunctions. PMID:25436682

  4. Tiny worms from a mighty continent: high diversity and new phylogenetic lineages of African monogeneans.

    PubMed

    Přikrylová, Iva; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Janssens, Steven B; Billeter, Paul A; Huyse, Tine

    2013-04-01

    The family Gyrodactylidae contains one of the most significant radiations of platyhelminth fish parasites. The so-called hyperviviparity is very rare in the animal kingdom, and the rapid generation time can lead to an explosive population growth, which can cause massive losses in farmed fish. Here we present the first molecular phylogeny including all-but-one African genera, inferred from ITS and 18S rDNA sequences. The validity of nominal genera is discussed in relation to the systematic value of morphological characters traditionally used for generic identification. New complete 18S rDNA sequences of 18 gyrodactylid species of eight genera together with ITS rDNA gene sequences of eight species representing seven genera were generated and complemented with GenBank sequences. The maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses pointed to a paraphyletic nature of African Gyrodactylus species. They formed well-supported clades possibly indicating speciation within host taxa: (1) parasites of cichlids (Cichlidae); (2) parasites of catfishes (Siluriformes), consisting of a lineage infecting mochokids and one infecting clariids. Macrogyrodactylus spp. firmly clustered into a monophyletic group. We found that Swingleus and Fundulotrema are very closely related and clearly cluster within Gyrodactylus. This supports earlier claims as to the paraphyly of the nominal genus Gyrodactylus as it is currently defined, and necessitates a revision of Swingleus and Fundulotrema. Molecular dating estimates confirmed a relatively young, certainly post-Gondwanan, origin of gyrodactylid lineages. Building on the previously suggested South-American origin of viviparous gyrodactylids, the dataset suggests subsequent intercontinental dispersal to Africa and from there repeated colonisation of the Holarctic. Even though the African continent has been heavily under sampled, the present diversity is far greater than in the intensively studied European fauna, probably because of the high endemicity

  5. Human Staphylococcus aureus lineages among Zoological Park residents in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Drougka, E.; Foka, A.; Posantzis, D.; Giormezis, N.; Anastassiou, E.D.; Petinaki, E.; Spiliopoulou, I.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a part of the microbiota flora in many animal species. The clonal spread of S. aureus among animals and personnel in a Zoological Park was investigated. Samples were collected from colonized and infected sites among 32 mammals, 11 birds and eight humans. The genes mecA, mecC, lukF/lukS-PV (encoding Panton-Valentine leukocidin, PVL) and tst (toxic shock syndrome toxin-1) were investigated by PCR. Clones were defined by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST), spa type and Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Seven S. aureus isolates were recovered from four animals and one from an employee. All were mecA, mecC and tst–negative, whereas, one carried the PVL genes and was isolated from an infected Squirrel monkey. Clonal analysis revealed the occurrence of seven STs, eight PFGE and five spa types including ones of human origin. Even though a variety of genotypes were identified among S. aureus strains colonizing zoo park residents, our results indicate that colonization with human lineages has indeed occurred. PMID:26623381

  6. Three divergent lineages within an Australian marsupial (Petrogale penicillata) suggest multiple major refugia for mesic taxa in southeast Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hazlitt, Stephanie L; Goldizen, Anne W; Nicholls, James A; Eldridge, Mark D B

    2014-01-01

    Mesic southeastern Australia represents the continent's ancestral biome and is highly biodiverse, yet its phylogeographic history remains poorly understood. Here, we examine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and microsatellite diversity in the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata;n = 279 from 31 sites), to assess historic evolutionary and biogeographic processes in southeastern Australia. Our results (mtDNA, microsatellites) confirmed three geographically discrete and genetically divergent lineages within brush-tailed rock-wallabies, whose divergence appears to date to the mid-Pleistocene. These three lineages had been hypothesized previously but data were limited. While the Northern and Central lineages were separated by a known biogeographic barrier (Hunter Valley), the boundary between the Central and Southern lineages was not. We propose that during particularly cool glacial cycles, the high peaks of the Great Dividing Range and the narrow adjacent coastal plain resulted in a more significant north–south barrier for mesic taxa in southeastern Australia than has been previously appreciated. Similarly, located phylogeographic breaks in codistributed species highlight the importance of these regions in shaping the distribution of biodiversity in southeastern Australia and suggest the existence of three major refuge areas during the Pleistocene. Substructuring within the northern lineage also suggests the occurrence of multiple local refugia during some glacial cycles. Within the three major lineages, most brush-tailed rock-wallaby populations were locally highly structured, indicating limited dispersal by both sexes. The three identified lineages represent evolutionarily significant units and should be managed to maximize the retention of genetic diversity within this threatened species. PMID:24772286

  7. Molecular characterization of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) isolated in Argentina indicates a regional lineage.

    PubMed

    Vera, F; Craig, M I; Olivera, V; Rojas, F; König, G; Pereda, A; Vagnozzi, A

    2015-08-01

    In Argentina, classical vaccines are used to control infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); however, outbreaks of IBDV are frequently observed. This could be due to failures in the vaccination programs or to the emergence of new strains, which would be able to break through the protection given by vaccines. Hence, genetic characterization of the viruses responsible for the outbreaks that occurred in recent years is crucial for the evaluation of the control programs and the understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBDV. In this study, we characterized 51 field samples collected in Argentina (previously identified as IBDV positive) through the analysis of previously identified apomorphic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of regVP2 showed that 42 samples formed a unique cluster (Argentinean lineage), seven samples were typical classical strains (one of them was a vaccine strain), and two belonged to the very virulent lineage (vvIBDV). Interestingly, when the analysis was performed on the regVP1 sequences, the field samples segregated similarly to regVP2; thus, we observed no evidence of a reassortment event in the Argentinean samples. Amino acid sequence analysis of regVP2 showed a particular pattern of residues in the Argentinean lineage, particularly the presence of T272, P289 and F296, which had not been reported before as signature sequences for any IBDV phenotype. Notably, the residue S254, characteristic of the antigenic variant, was not present in any of the Argentinean samples. PMID:26026955

  8. Incipient speciation with biased gene flow between two lineages of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox).

    PubMed

    Schield, Drew R; Card, Daren C; Adams, Richard H; Jezkova, Tereza; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Proctor, F Nicole; Spencer, Carol L; Herrmann, Hans-Werner; Mackessy, Stephen P; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-02-01

    We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 151 individuals to estimate population genetic structure across the range of the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox), a widely distributed North American pit viper. We also tested hypotheses of population structure using double-digest restriction site associated DNA (ddRADseq) data, incorporating thousands of nuclear genome-wide SNPs from 42 individuals. We found strong mitochondrial support for a deep divergence between eastern and western C. atrox populations, and subsequent intermixing of these populations in the Inter-Pecos region of the United States and Mexico. Our nuclear RADseq data also identify these two distinct lineages of C. atrox, and provide evidence for nuclear admixture of eastern and western alleles across a broad geographic region. We identified contrasting patterns of mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across this genetic fusion zone that indicate partially restricted patterns of gene flow, which may be due to either pre- or post-zygotic isolating mechanisms. The failure of these two lineages to maintain complete genetic isolation, and evidence for partially-restricted gene flow, imply that these lineages were in the early stages of speciation prior to secondary contact. PMID:25534232

  9. Data defining markers of human neural stem cell lineage potential.

    PubMed

    Oikari, Lotta E; Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Griffiths, Lyn R; Haupt, Larisa M

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells, however, NPCs are considered to be more lineage-restricted with a reduced self-renewing capacity. We present data comparing the expression of 21 markers encompassing pluripotency, self-renewal (NSC) as well as neuronal and glial (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) lineage specification and 28 extracellular proteoglycan (PG) genes and their regulatory enzymes between embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived human NSCs (hNSC H9 cells, Thermo Fisher) and human cortex-derived normal human NPCs (nhNPCs, Lonza). The data demonstrates expression differences of multiple lineage and proteoglycan-associated genes between hNSC H9 cells and nhNPCs. Data interpretation of markers and proteoglycans defining NSC and neural cell lineage characterisation can be found in "Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as novel markers of human neural stem cell fate determination" (Oikari et al. 2015) [1]. PMID:26958640

  10. Data defining markers of human neural stem cell lineage potential

    PubMed Central

    Oikari, Lotta E.; Okolicsanyi, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Haupt, Larisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells, however, NPCs are considered to be more lineage-restricted with a reduced self-renewing capacity. We present data comparing the expression of 21 markers encompassing pluripotency, self-renewal (NSC) as well as neuronal and glial (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) lineage specification and 28 extracellular proteoglycan (PG) genes and their regulatory enzymes between embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived human NSCs (hNSC H9 cells, Thermo Fisher) and human cortex-derived normal human NPCs (nhNPCs, Lonza). The data demonstrates expression differences of multiple lineage and proteoglycan-associated genes between hNSC H9 cells and nhNPCs. Data interpretation of markers and proteoglycans defining NSC and neural cell lineage characterisation can be found in “Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as novel markers of human neural stem cell fate determination” (Oikari et al. 2015) [1]. PMID:26958640

  11. Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis based on Population Structure of Prevalent Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Prerak T.; den Bakker, Henk C.; Mikoleit, Matthew; Tolar, Beth; Trees, Eija; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Frye, Jonathan G.; Porwollik, Steffen; Weimer, Bart C.; Wiedmann, Martin; Weinstock, George M.; Fields, Patricia I.; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis is one of the most commonly reported causes of human salmonellosis. Its low genetic diversity, measured by fingerprinting methods, has made subtyping a challenge. We used whole-genome sequencing to characterize 125 S. enterica Enteritidis and 3 S. enterica serotype Nitra strains. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were filtered to identify 4,887 reliable loci that distinguished all isolates from each other. Our whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism typing approach was robust for S. enterica Enteritidis subtyping with combined data for different strains from 2 different sequencing platforms. Five major genetic lineages were recognized, which revealed possible patterns of geographic and epidemiologic distribution. Analyses on the population dynamics and evolutionary history estimated that major lineages emerged during the 17th–18th centuries and diversified during the 1920s and 1950s. PMID:25147968

  12. The mitochondrial genomes of three lineages of Asian yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Wei; Zhang, Dandan; Wen, Ping; Zhu, Xinping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of three lineages (N, TW and S) of Mauremys mutica are determined in this study. The total lengths of the mitogenomes were 16,758 bp for N, 16 500bp for TW, and 16 494bp for S. The nucleotide composition was 26.3-27% for T, 26.2-26.8% for C, and 33.8-33.9% for A. The genomes encoded 37 genes typically found in other vertebrates. Three CSBs were identified, and the CSB1 were variable. A long tandem repeats of (TTATTATA) 30 were found in the control region of N mitogenome, but none in TW and S lineage. These sequences would be useful for the phylogenetic and conservation studies of Asian endangered turtles. PMID:26061338

  13. Virulence Evolution Within the Ug99 Lineage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race TTKSK (syn. Ug99) of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, recognized for possessing virulence to the stem rust resistance gene Sr31, was first identified in Uganda in 1998. Since then, TTKSK has been identified in Kenya in 2005 and Yemen in 2006. In addition to virulence to Sr31, race TTKSK was ...

  14. We'll Support You Ever More!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gora, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author discusses public reaction generated by the Times Higher Education (THE) World University Rankings. He argues that it is not simply that the methodologies adopted by the main rankers -- Times Higher Education (THE), QS and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University -- are diverse and open to the usual interpretation, but there…

  15. Rate variation of DNA sequence evolution in the Drosophila lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Takano, T S

    1998-01-01

    Rate constancy of DNA sequence evolution was examined for three species of Drosophila, using two samples: the published sequences of eight genes from regions of the normal recombination rates and new data of the four AS-C (ac, sc, l'sc and ase) and ci genes. The AS-C and ci genes were chosen because these genes are located in the regions of very reduced recombination in Drosophila melanogaster and their locations remain unchanged throughout the entire lineages involved, yielding less effect of ancestral polymorphism in the study of rate constancy. The synonymous substitution pattern of the three lineages was found to be erratic in both samples. The dispersion index for replacement substitution was relatively high for the per, G6pd and ac genes. A significant heterogeneity was found in the number of synonymous substitutions in the three lineages between the two samples of genes with different recombination rates. This is partly due to a lack of the lineage effect in the D. melanogaster and Drosophila simulans lineages in the AS-C and ci genes in contrast to Akashi's observation of genes in regions of normal recombination. The higher codon bias in Drosophila yakuba as compared with D. melanogaster and D. simulans was observed in the four AS-C genes, which suggests change(s) in action of natural selection involved in codon usage on these genes. Fluctuating selection intensity may also be responsible for the observed locus-lineage interaction effects in synonymous substitution. PMID:9611206

  16. Two Hemocyte Lineages Exist in Silkworm Larval Hematopoietic Organ

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Yuichi; Kanamori, Yasushi; Kiuchi, Makoto; Kamimura, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    Background Insects have multiple hemocyte morphotypes with different functions as do vertebrates, however, their hematopoietic lineages are largely unexplored with the exception of Drosophila melanogaster. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the hematopoietic lineage of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, we investigated in vivo and in vitro differentiation of hemocyte precursors in the hematopoietic organ (HPO) into the four mature hemocyte subsets, namely, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherulocytes. Five days after implantation of enzymatically-dispersed HPO cells from a GFP-expressing transgenic line into the hemocoel of normal larvae, differentiation into plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids, but not spherulocytes, was observed. When the HPO cells were cultured in vitro, plasmatocytes appeared rapidly, and oenocytoids possessing prophenol oxidase activity appeared several days later. HPO cells were also able to differentiate into a small number of granulocytes, but not into spherulocytes. When functionally mature plasmatocytes were cultured in vitro, oenocytoids were observed 10 days later. These results suggest that the hemocyte precursors in HPO first differentiate into plasmatocytes, which further change into oenocytoids. Conclusions/Significance From these results, we propose that B. mori hemocytes can be divided into two major lineages, a granulocyte lineage and a plasmatocyte-oenocytoid lineage. The origins of the spherulocytes could not be determined in this study. We construct a model for the hematopoietic lineages at the larval stage of B. mori. PMID:20676370

  17. Phylogenomics at the tips: inferring lineages and their demographic history in a tropical lizard, Carlia amax.

    PubMed

    Potter, Sally; Bragg, Jason G; Peter, Benjamin M; Bi, Ke; Moritz, Craig

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing approaches offer opportunities to better understand the evolutionary processes driving diversification, particularly in nonmodel organisms. In particular, the 100-1000's of loci that can now be sequenced are providing unprecedented power in population, speciation and phylogenetic studies. Here, we apply an exon capture approach to generate >99% complete sequence and SNP data across >2000 loci from a tropical skink, Carlia amax, and exploit these data to identify divergent lineages and infer their relationships and demographic histories. This is especially relevant to low-dispersal tropical taxa that often have cryptic diversity and spatially dynamic histories. For C. amax, clustering of nuclear SNPs and coalescent-based species delimitation analyses identify four divergent lineages, one fewer than predicted based on geographically coherent mtDNA clades (>9.4% sequence divergence). Three of these lineages are widespread and parapatric on the mainland, whereas the most divergent is restricted to islands off the northeast Northern Territory. Tests for population expansion reject an equilibrium isolation-by-distance model for two of the three widespread lineages and infer refugial expansion sources in the relatively mesic northeast Top End and northwest Kimberley. The latter is already recognized as a hotspot of endemism, but our results also suggest that a stronger focus on the northeast Top End, and adjacent islands is warranted. More generally, our results show how genome-reduction methods such as exon capture can yield insights into the pattern and dynamics of biodiversity across complex landscapes with as yet poorly understood biogeographic history and how exon data can link between population and phylogenetic questions. PMID:26818481

  18. Phylogenetics and Differentiation of Salmonella Newport Lineages by Whole Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Guojie; Meng, Jianghong; Strain, Errol; Stones, Robert; Pettengill, James; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Brown, Eric; Allard, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Newport has ranked in the top three Salmonella serotypes associated with foodborne outbreaks from 1995 to 2011 in the United States. In the current study, we selected 26 S. Newport strains isolated from diverse sources and geographic locations and then conducted 454 shotgun pyrosequencing procedures to obtain 16–24 × coverage of high quality draft genomes for each strain. Comparative genomic analysis of 28 S. Newport strains (including 2 reference genomes) and 15 outgroup genomes identified more than 140,000 informative SNPs. A resulting phylogenetic tree consisted of four sublineages and indicated that S. Newport had a clear geographic structure. Strains from Asia were divergent from those from the Americas. Our findings demonstrated that analysis using whole genome sequencing data resulted in a more accurate picture of phylogeny compared to that using single genes or small sets of genes. We selected loci around the mutS gene of S. Newport to differentiate distinct lineages, including those between invH and mutS genes at the 3′ end of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 (SPI-1), ste fimbrial operon, and Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated-proteins (cas). These genes in the outgroup genomes held high similarity with either S. Newport Lineage II or III at the same loci. S. Newport Lineages II and III have different evolutionary histories in this region and our data demonstrated genetic flow and homologous recombination events around mutS. The findings suggested that S. Newport Lineages II and III diverged early in the serotype evolution and have evolved largely independently. Moreover, we identified genes that could delineate sublineages within the phylogenetic tree and that could be used as potential biomarkers for trace-back investigations during outbreaks. Thus, whole genome sequencing data enabled us to better understand the genetic background of pathogenicity and evolutionary history of S. Newport and

  19. Maturation and Diversity of the VRC01-Antibody Lineage over 15 Years of Chronic HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Zhenhai; Schramm, Chaim A; Joyce, M Gordon; Kwon, Young Do; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Zhang, Baoshan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Longo, Nancy S; Lynch, Rebecca M; Saunders, Kevin O; Soto, Cinque; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Bailer, Robert T; Louder, Mark K; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2015-04-23

    HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies develop in most HIV-1-infected individuals, although highly effective antibodies are generally observed only after years of chronic infection. Here, we characterize the rate of maturation and extent of diversity for the lineage that produced the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 through longitudinal sampling of peripheral B cell transcripts over 15 years and co-crystal structures of lineage members. Next-generation sequencing identified VRC01-lineage transcripts, which encompassed diverse antibodies organized into distinct phylogenetic clades. Prevalent clades maintained characteristic features of antigen recognition, though each evolved binding loops and disulfides that formed distinct recognition surfaces. Over the course of the study period, VRC01-lineage clades showed continuous evolution, with rates of ∼2 substitutions per 100 nucleotides per year, comparable to that of HIV-1 evolution. This high rate of antibody evolution provides a mechanism by which antibody lineages can achieve extraordinary diversity and, over years of chronic infection, develop effective HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25865483

  20. Tracing the Evolution of Lineage-Specific Transcription Factor Binding Sites in a Birth-Death Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cis-regulatory element composition that result in novel patterns of gene expression are thought to be a major contributor to the evolution of lineage-specific traits. Although transcription factor binding events show substantial variation across species, most computational approaches to study regulatory elements focus primarily upon highly conserved sites, and rely heavily upon multiple sequence alignments. However, sequence conservation based approaches have limited ability to detect lineage-specific elements that could contribute to species-specific traits. In this paper, we describe a novel framework that utilizes a birth-death model to trace the evolution of lineage-specific binding sites without relying on detailed base-by-base cross-species alignments. Our model was applied to analyze the evolution of binding sites based on the ChIP-seq data for six transcription factors (GATA1, SOX2, CTCF, MYC, MAX, ETS1) along the lineage toward human after human-mouse common ancestor. We estimate that a substantial fraction of binding sites (∼58–79% for each factor) in humans have origins since the divergence with mouse. Over 15% of all binding sites are unique to hominids. Such elements are often enriched near genes associated with specific pathways, and harbor more common SNPs than older binding sites in the human genome. These results support the ability of our method to identify lineage-specific regulatory elements and help understand their roles in shaping variation in gene regulation across species. PMID:25144359

  1. Mathematical modeling reveals differential effects of erythropoietin on proliferation and lineage commitment of human hematopoietic progenitors in early erythroid culture

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Daniel; Carter, Deborah; Homer, Martin; Marucci, Lucia; Gampel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Erythropoietin is essential for the production of mature erythroid cells, promoting both proliferation and survival. Whether erythropoietin and other cytokines can influence lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is of significant interest. To study lineage restriction of the common myeloid progenitor to the megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor of peripheral blood CD34+ cells, we have shown that the cell surface protein CD36 identifies the earliest lineage restricted megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor. Using this marker and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester to track cell divisions in vitro, we have developed a mathematical model that accurately predicts population dynamics of erythroid culture. Parameters derived from the modeling of cultures without added erythropoietin indicate that the rate of lineage restriction is not affected by erythropoietin. By contrast, megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor proliferation is sensitive to erythropoietin from the time that CD36 first appears at the cell surface. These results shed new light on the role of erythropoietin in erythropoiesis and provide a powerful tool for further study of hematopoietic progenitor lineage restriction and erythropoiesis. PMID:26589912

  2. Mathematical modeling reveals differential effects of erythropoietin on proliferation and lineage commitment of human hematopoietic progenitors in early erythroid culture.

    PubMed

    Ward, Daniel; Carter, Deborah; Homer, Martin; Marucci, Lucia; Gampel, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Erythropoietin is essential for the production of mature erythroid cells, promoting both proliferation and survival. Whether erythropoietin and other cytokines can influence lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is of significant interest. To study lineage restriction of the common myeloid progenitor to the megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor of peripheral blood CD34(+) cells, we have shown that the cell surface protein CD36 identifies the earliest lineage restricted megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor. Using this marker and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester to track cell divisions in vitro, we have developed a mathematical model that accurately predicts population dynamics of erythroid culture. Parameters derived from the modeling of cultures without added erythropoietin indicate that the rate of lineage restriction is not affected by erythropoietin. By contrast, megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitor proliferation is sensitive to erythropoietin from the time that CD36 first appears at the cell surface. These results shed new light on the role of erythropoietin in erythropoiesis and provide a powerful tool for further study of hematopoietic progenitor lineage restriction and erythropoiesis. PMID:26589912

  3. Osteoblast Lineage Cells Play an Essential Role in Periodontal Bone Loss Through Activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Pacios, Sandra; Xiao, Wenmei; Mattos, Marcelo; Lim, Jason; Tarapore, Rohinton S.; Alsadun, Sarah; Yu, Bo; Wang, Cun-Yu; Graves, Dana T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens stimulate periodontitis, the most common osteolytic disease in humans and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Previous studies identified leukocytes and their products as key factors in this process. We demonstrate for the first time that osteoblast lineage cells play a critical role in periodontal disease. Oral infection stimulated nuclear localization of NF-κB in osteoblasts and osteocytes in the periodontium of wild type but not transgenic mice that expressed a lineage specific dominant negative mutant of IKK (IKK-DN) in osteoblast lineage cells. Wild-type mice were also susceptible to bacteria induced periodontal bone loss but transgenic mice were not. The lack of bone loss in the experimental group was linked to reduced RANKL expression by osteoblast lineage cells that led to diminished osteoclast mediated bone resorption and greater coupled new bone formation. The results demonstrate that osteoblast lineage cells are key contributors to periodontal bone loss through an NF-κB mediated mechanism. PMID:26666569

  4. Notch Stimulates Both Self-Renewal and Lineage Plasticity in a Subset of Murine CD9High Committed Megakaryocytic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Chaabouni, Azza; Chazaud, Bénédicte; Morlé, François

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at reinvestigating the controversial contribution of Notch signaling to megakaryocytic lineage development. For that purpose, we combined colony assays and single cells progeny analyses of purified megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors (MEP) after short-term cultures on recombinant Notch ligand rDLL1. We showed that Notch activation stimulated the SCF-dependent and preferential amplification of Kit+ erythroid and bipotent progenitors while favoring commitment towards the erythroid at the expense of megakaryocytic lineage. Interestingly, we also identified a CD9High MEP subset that spontaneously generated almost exclusively megakaryocytic progeny mainly composed of single megakaryocytes. We showed that Notch activation decreased the extent of polyploidization and maturation of megakaryocytes, increased the size of megakaryocytic colonies and surprisingly restored the generation of erythroid and mixed colonies by this CD9High MEP subset. Importantly, the size increase of megakaryocytic colonies occurred at the expense of the production of single megakaryocytes and the restoration of colonies of alternative lineages occurred at the expense of the whole megakaryocytic progeny. Altogether, these results indicate that Notch activation is able to extend the number of divisions of MK-committed CD9High MEPs before terminal maturation while allowing a fraction of them to generate alternative lineages. This unexpected plasticity of MK-committed progenitors revealed upon Notch activation helps to better understand the functional promiscuity between megakaryocytic lineage and hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:27089435

  5. Hematopoietic expression of oncogenic BRAF promotes aberrant growth of monocyte-lineage cells resistant to PLX4720

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Dankort, David; Kang, Jing; Giblett, Susan; Pritchard, Catrin A.; McMahon, Martin; Leavitt, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutational activation of BRAF leading to expression of the BRAFV600E oncoprotein was recently identified in a high percentage of specific hematopoietic neoplasms in monocyte/histiocyte and mature B-cell lineages. Although BRAFV600E is a driver oncoprotein and pharmacological target in solid tumors such as melanoma, lung and thyroid cancer, it remains unknown whether BRAFV600E is an appropriate therapeutic target in hematopoietic neoplasms. To address this critical question, we generated a mouse model expressing inducible BRAFV600E in the hematopoietic system, and evaluated the efficacy of pathway-targeted therapeutics against primary hematopoietic cells. In this model, BRAFV600E expression conferred cytokine-independent growth to monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors leading to aberrant in vivo and in vitro monocyte/macrophage expansion. Furthermore, transplantation of BRAFV600E-expressing bone marrow cells promoted an in vivo pathology most notable for monocytosis in hematopoietic tissues and visceral organs. In vitro analysis revealed that MEK inhibition, but not RAF inhibition, effectively suppressed cytokine-independent clonal growth of monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors. However, combined RAF and PI3K inhibition effectively inhibited cytokine-independent colony formation, suggesting autocrine PI3K pathway activation. Taken together, these results provide evidence that constitutively activated BRAFV600E drives aberrant proliferation of monocyte-lineage cells. This study supports the development of pathway-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of BRAFV600E-expressing hematopoietic neoplasms in the monocyte/histiocyte lineage. PMID:24152792

  6. Exploring Massive Incomplete Lineage Sorting in Arctoids (Laurasiatheria, Carnivora).

    PubMed

    Doronina, Liliya; Churakov, Gennady; Shi, Jingjing; Brosius, Jürgen; Baertsch, Robert; Clawson, Hiram; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    Freed from the competition of large raptors, Paleocene carnivores could expand their newly acquired habitats in search of prey. Such changing conditions might have led to their successful distribution and rapid radiation. Today, molecular evolutionary biologists are faced, however, with the consequences of such accelerated adaptive radiations, because they led to sequential speciation more rapidly than phylogenetic markers could be fixed. The repercussions being that current genealogies based on such markers are incongruent with species trees.Our aim was to explore such conflicting phylogenetic zones of evolution during the early arctoid radiation, especially to distinguish diagnostic from misleading phylogenetic signals, and to examine other carnivore-related speciation events. We applied a combination of high-throughput computational strategies to screen carnivore and related genomes in silico for randomly inserted retroposed elements that we then used to identify inconsistent phylogenetic patterns in the Arctoidea group, which is well known for phylogenetic discordances.Our combined retrophylogenomic and in vitro wet lab approach detected hundreds of carnivore-specific insertions, many of them confirming well-established splits or identifying and solving conflicting species distributions. Our systematic genome-wide screens for Long INterspersed Elements detected homoplasy-free markers with insertion-specific truncation points that we used to distinguish phylogenetically informative markers from conflicting signals. The results were independently confirmed by phylogenetic diagnostic Short INterspersed Elements. As statistical analysis ruled out ancestral hybridization, these doubly verified but still conflicting patterns were statistically determined to be genomic remnants from a time of ancestral incomplete lineage sorting that especially accompanied large parts of Arctoidea evolution. PMID:26337548

  7. De Novo Genes Arise at a Slow but Steady Rate along the Primate Lineage and Have Been Subject to Incomplete Lineage Sorting.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Daniele; McLysaght, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    De novo protein-coding gene origination is increasingly recognized as an important evolutionary mechanism. However, there remains a large amount of uncertainty regarding the frequency of these events and the mechanisms and speed of gene establishment. Here, we describe a rigorous search for cases of de novo gene origination in the great apes. We analyzed annotated proteomes as well as full genomic DNA and transcriptional and translational evidence. It is notable that results vary between database updates due to the fluctuating annotation of these genes. Nonetheless we identified 35 de novo genes: 16 human-specific; 5 human and chimpanzee specific; and 14 that originated prior to the divergence of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla and are found in all three genomes. The taxonomically restricted distribution of these genes cannot be explained by loss in other lineages. Each gene is supported by an open reading frame-creating mutation that occurred within the primate lineage, and which is not polymorphic in any species. Similarly to previous studies we find that the de novo genes identified are short and frequently located near pre-existing genes. Also, they may be associated with Alu elements and prior transcription and RNA-splicing at the locus. Additionally, we report the first case of apparent independent lineage sorting of a de novo gene. The gene is present in human and gorilla, whereas chimpanzee has the ancestral noncoding sequence. This indicates a long period of polymorphism prior to fixation and thus supports a model where de novo genes may, at least initially, have a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27056411

  8. De Novo Genes Arise at a Slow but Steady Rate along the Primate Lineage and Have Been Subject to Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Guerzoni, Daniele; McLysaght, Aoife

    2016-01-01

    De novo protein-coding gene origination is increasingly recognized as an important evolutionary mechanism. However, there remains a large amount of uncertainty regarding the frequency of these events and the mechanisms and speed of gene establishment. Here, we describe a rigorous search for cases of de novo gene origination in the great apes. We analyzed annotated proteomes as well as full genomic DNA and transcriptional and translational evidence. It is notable that results vary between database updates due to the fluctuating annotation of these genes. Nonetheless we identified 35 de novo genes: 16 human-specific; 5 human and chimpanzee specific; and 14 that originated prior to the divergence of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla and are found in all three genomes. The taxonomically restricted distribution of these genes cannot be explained by loss in other lineages. Each gene is supported by an open reading frame-creating mutation that occurred within the primate lineage, and which is not polymorphic in any species. Similarly to previous studies we find that the de novo genes identified are short and frequently located near pre-existing genes. Also, they may be associated with Alu elements and prior transcription and RNA-splicing at the locus. Additionally, we report the first case of apparent independent lineage sorting of a de novo gene. The gene is present in human and gorilla, whereas chimpanzee has the ancestral noncoding sequence. This indicates a long period of polymorphism prior to fixation and thus supports a model where de novo genes may, at least initially, have a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27056411

  9. Avian Plasmodium lineages found in spot surveys of mosquitoes from 2007 to 2010 at Sakata wetland, Japan: do dominant lineages persist for multiple years?

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tsuda, Y

    2012-11-01

    The ecology and geographical distribution of disease vectors are major determinants of spatial and temporal variations in the transmission dynamics of vector-borne pathogens. However, there are limited studies on the ecology of vectors that contribute to the natural transmission of most vector-borne pathogens. Avian Plasmodium parasites are multihost mosquito-borne pathogens transmitted by multiple mosquito species, which might regulate the diversity and persistence of these parasites. From 2007 to 2010, we conducted entomological surveys at Sakata wetland in central Japan, to investigate temporal variation in mosquito occurrence and prevalence of avian Plasmodium lineages in the mosquito populations. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method was used to detect Plasmodium parasites and identify the blood sources of mosquitoes. Culex inatomii and C. pipiens pallens represented 60.0% and 34.8% of 11 mosquito species collected, respectively. Our results showed that the two dominant mosquito species most likely serve as principal vectors of avian Plasmodium parasites during June, which coincides with the breeding season of bird species nesting in the wetland reed beds. Fourteen animal species were identified as blood sources of mosquitoes, with the oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) being the commonest blood source. Although there was significant temporal variation in the occurrence of mosquitoes and prevalence of Plasmodium lineages in the mosquitoes, the dominant Plasmodium lineages shared by the two dominant mosquito species were consistently found at the same time during transmission seasons. Because vector competence cannot be confirmed solely by PCR approaches, experimental demonstration is required to provide definitive evidence of transmission suggested in this study. PMID:23036191

  10. Development of Peptide-Based Lineage-Specific Serology for Chronic Chagas Disease: Geographical and Clinical Distribution of Epitope Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Falconar, Andrew K.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Costales, Jaime A.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Lewis, Michael D.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Tran, Trang T.; Ramirez, Juan-David; Guhl, Felipe; Carrasco, Hernan J.; Diosque, Patricio; Garcia, Lineth; Litvinov, Sergey V.; Miles, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health issue in Latin America. Genetically diverse, the species is sub-divided into six lineages, known as TcI–TcVI, which have disparate geographical and ecological distributions. TcII, TcV, and TcVI are associated with severe human disease in the Southern Cone countries, whereas TcI is associated with cardiomyopathy north of the Amazon. T. cruzi persists as a chronic infection, with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal symptoms developing years or decades after initial infection. Identifying an individual's history of T. cruzi lineage infection directly by genotyping of the parasite is complicated by the low parasitaemia and sequestration in the host tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings We have applied here serology against lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface antigen TSSA, as an indirect approach to allow identification of infecting lineage. Chagasic sera from chronic patients from a range of endemic countries were tested by ELISA against synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific TSSA epitopes bound to avidin-coated ELISA plates via a biotin labelled polyethylene glycol-glycine spacer to increase rotation and ensure each amino acid side chain could freely interact with their antibodies. 79/113 (70%) of samples from Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina recognised the TSSA epitope common to lineages TcII/TcV/TcVI. Comparison with clinical information showed that a higher proportion of Brazilian TSSApep-II/V/VI responders had ECG abnormalities than non-responders (38% vs 17%; p<0.0001). Among northern chagasic sera 4/20 (20%) from Ecuador reacted with this peptide; 1/12 Venezuelan and 1/34 Colombian samples reacted with TSSApep-IV. In addition, a proposed TcI-specific epitope, described elsewhere, was demonstrated here to be highly conserved across lineages and therefore not applicable to lineage-specific serology. Conclusions