Science.gov

Sample records for idiotypic immune networks

  1. Idiotypic immune networks in mobile-robot control.

    PubMed

    Whitbrook, Amanda M; Aickelin, Uwe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2007-12-01

    Jerne's idiotypic-network theory postulates that the immune response involves interantibody stimulation and suppression, as well as matching to antigens. The theory has proved the most popular artificial immune system (AIS) model for incorporation into behavior-based robotics, but guidelines for implementing idiotypic selection are scarce. Furthermore, the direct effects of employing the technique have not been demonstrated in the form of a comparison with nonidiotypic systems. This paper aims to address these issues. A method for integrating an idiotypic AIS network with a reinforcement-learning (RL)-based control system is described, and the mechanisms underlying antibody stimulation and suppression are explained in detail. Some hypotheses that account for the network advantage are put forward and tested using three systems with increasing idiotypic complexity. The basic RL, a simplified hybrid AIS-RL that implements idiotypic selection independently of derived concentration levels, and a full hybrid AIS-RL scheme are examined. The test bed takes the form of a simulated Pioneer robot that is required to navigate through maze worlds detecting and tracking door markers. PMID:18179075

  2. Stochastic dynamics for idiotypic immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena

    2010-12-01

    In this work we introduce and analyze the stochastic dynamics obeyed by a model of an immune network recently introduced by the authors. We develop Fokker-Planck equations for the single lymphocyte behavior and coarse grained Langevin schemes for the averaged clone behavior. After showing agreement with real systems (as a short path Jerne cascade), we suggest, both with analytical and numerical arguments, explanations for the generation of (metastable) memory cells, improvement of the secondary response (both in the quality and quantity) and bell shaped modulation against infections as a natural behavior. The whole emerges from the model without being postulated a-priori as it often occurs in second generation immune networks: so the aim of the work is to present some out-of-equilibrium features of this model and to highlight mechanisms which can replace a-priori assumptions in view of further detailed analysis in theoretical systemic immunology.

  3. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  4. Autoantibodies to Insulin Receptor Spontaneously Develop as Anti-Idiotypes in Mice Immunized with Insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shechter, Yoram; Maron, Ruth; Elias, Dana; Cohen, Irun R.

    1982-04-01

    Mice immunized with insulin developed antibodies to both insulin and the insulin receptor. The antibodies to insulin receptor displaced labeled insulin from insulin receptors and mimicked the actions of insulin in stimulating the oxidation of glucose and its incorporation into lipids, and in inhibiting lipolysis. The antibodies to insulin receptor could be blocked by or bound to the antibodies to insulin, and therefore were identified as anti-idiotypes. Thus, immunization against a hormone may activate spontaneously an idiotype-anti-idiotype network resulting in antibodies to the hormone receptor.

  5. Quasispecies dynamics on a network of interacting genotypes and idiotypes: applications to autoimmunity and immunodeficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Valmir C.; Donangelo, Raul; Souza, Sergio R.

    2016-06-01

    In spite of their many facets, the phenomena of autoimmunity and immunodeficiency seem to be related to each other through the subtle links connecting the mutation and action of retroviruses (viruses whose genetic material can find its way into that of the host’s cells and destroy them) to immune response and adaptation. In a previous work, we introduced a network model of how a set of interrelated genotypes (called a quasispecies, in the stationary state, representing for example a population of viruses) and a set of interrelated idiotypes (an idiotypic network, representing the immune system through its population of B and T cells) interact. That model, which does not cover the case of a retroviral quasispecies, is here extended by the addition of a further parameter (ν) to account for the action of retroviruses (i.e. the destruction of idiotypes by genotypes). We give simulation results within a suitable parameter niche, highlighting the issues of quasispecies survival and of the onset of autoimmunity through the appearance of the so-called pathogenic idiotypes (those that mimic some external pathogen). Our main findings refer to how ν and λ, a parameter describing the rate at which idiotypes get stimulated, relate to each other. While for ν >λ the quasispecies survives at the expense of weakening the immune system significantly or even destroying it, for ν <λ the fittest genotypes of the quasispecies become mimicked inside the immune system as pathogenic idiotypes. The latter is in agreement with the current understanding of the HIV quasispecies.

  6. Random Evolution of Idiotypic Networks: Dynamics and Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus; Behn, Ulrich

    The paper deals with modelling a subsystem of the immune system, the so-called idiotypic network (INW). INWs, conceived by N.K. Jerne in 1974, are functional networks of interacting antibodies and B cells. In principle, Jernes' framework provides solutions to many issues in immunology, such as immunological memory, mechanisms for antigen recognition and self/non-self discrimination. Explaining the interconnection between the elementary components, local dynamics, network formation and architecture, and possible modes of global system function appears to be an ideal playground of statistical mechanics. We present a simple cellular automaton model, based on a graph representation of the system. From a simplified description of idiotypic interactions, rules for the random evolution of networks of occupied and empty sites on these graphs are derived. In certain biologically relevant parameter ranges the resultant dynamics leads to stationary states. A stationary state is found to correspond to a specific pattern of network organization. It turns out that even these very simple rules give rise to a multitude of different kinds of patterns. We characterize these networks by classifying `static' and `dynamic' network-patterns. A type of `dynamic' network is found to display many features of real INWs.

  7. The idiotypic network in the regulation of autoimmunity: Theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Menshikov, Igor; Beduleva, Liubov; Frolov, Maksim; Abisheva, Nadezhda; Khramova, Tatyana; Stolyarova, Elena; Fomina, Kseniya

    2015-06-21

    The regulation of autoimmunity is a key issue in fundamental immunology. Despite outstanding achievements on this front, we currently have more questions than answers. The idea of an immune network as a regulatory mechanism is quite attractive, since it enables us to explain the selectivity (specificity), and moreover the clonality, of the regulation. Nevertheless it remains unclear how this mysterious network of immune cells is organized, how it operates, and how it exerts control over autoimmunity. This article presents an attempt to understand how the immune network functions and how it controls autoreactivity. We present a mathematical model of the immune network that is based on principles of immune network organization and function that we arrived at from a survey of the available literature. To test the principles on which the mathematical model is based, we studied the model and compared the different responses to antigen that it generated with the results obtained from experimental studies of immune response. The modeled kinetics of idiotype and anti-idiotype in response to the administration of antigen are in good agreement with the experimental kinetics of idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies. To obtain evidence of the existence of idiotypic mechanisms for regulating autoimmunity, we studied a mathematical model containing autoclones and compared the model results with data from experimental studies in a model of autoimmune hemolytic anemia in mice. Because the results from the theoretical and the experimental studies coincide, there is justification to conclude that autoreactive lymphocytes are normal components of the immune network within which they are regulated. We discuss a possible molecular/cellular mechanism for negative control of autoreactive cells as affected by anti-idiotypic antibodies. PMID:25445185

  8. Analysis and modulation of the immune response of mice to acetylcholine receptor by anti-idiotypes.

    PubMed

    Souroujon, M C; Barchan, D; Fuchs, S

    1985-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes were raised in mice against three well-characterized anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) monoclonal antibodies (mcAbs), as well as against polyclonal mouse anti-AChR antibodies. In binding experiments, the anti-idiotypic antibodies inhibited the binding of AChR only to the immunizing idiotype. However, a less restricted specificity was found in in vivo experiments. Mice producing anti-idiotypes were challenged with AChR and the idiotypic composition of their anti-AChR response was analysed using specific rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies. It was found that preimmunization with a certain idiotype leads to the preferential suppression of this particular idiotype in the polyclonal response to AChR. However, preimmunization with either polyclonal or monoclonal anti-AChR antibodies resulted in a reduction of the overall anti-Torpedo AChR and anti-muscle AChR titers. This reduction was greater than would be expected from the representation of each of the respective idiotypes in the polyclonal anti-AChR serum, and may imply that in addition to the immunizing idiotype other anti-AChR idiotypes are also suppressed. Our results suggest that anti-idiotypes may have a potential for the modulation of the autoimmune response directed against AChR in myasthenia. PMID:3874156

  9. Antigen Receptor-Intrinsic Non-Self: The Key to Understanding Regulatory Lymphocyte-Mediated Idiotypic Control of Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The clone-specific or idiotypic characters of B as well as T cell antigen receptors (BCRs/TCRs) are associated with (1) the third-complementarity-determining regions (CDR3s) that are created during V(D)J recombination (they scarcely occur in antibody light chains) and (2) BCR idiotopes created by somatic hypermutations (SHMs) during immune responses. Therefore, BCR/TCR idiotypic sites are antigen receptor-intrinsic Non-Self (AgR-iNS) portions that fulfill two tasks: serving as a crucial component of the epitope-binding paratope and serving as target sites for anti-idiotypic BCR/TCR paratopes of other anti-Non-Self clones that are contained in both normal repertoires. The antigen-induced immune response is thus directed not only toward the environmental stimulus but also against the AgR-iNS portions of the directly and further activated clones that form a subsiding idiotypic cascade. These idiotypic chain reactions form a completely integrated idiotypic control circuit among B and T cells which contains all regulatory T and B cells. However, this circuit cannot be viewed as a network of fixed interacting nodes but rather uses the genetic Self as reference. Hence, AgR-iNS offers a mechanistic understanding of regulatory lymphocyte-mediated idiotypic control of adaptive immune responses and reconciles clonal selection and idiotypic network theories hitherto believed to be incompatible. PMID:27480901

  10. Randomly evolving idiotypic networks: Structural properties and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtchen, Holger; Thüne, Mario; Behn, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    We consider a minimalistic dynamic model of the idiotypic network of B lymphocytes. A network node represents a population of B lymphocytes of the same specificity (idiotype), which is encoded by a bit string. The links of the network connect nodes with complementary and nearly complementary bit strings, allowing for a few mismatches. A node is occupied if a lymphocyte clone of the corresponding idiotype exists; otherwise it is empty. There is a continuous influx of new B lymphocytes of random idiotype from the bone marrow. B lymphocytes are stimulated by cross-linking their receptors with complementary structures. If there are too many complementary structures, steric hindrance prevents cross-linking. Stimulated cells proliferate and secrete antibodies of the same idiotype as their receptors; unstimulated lymphocytes die. Depending on few parameters, the autonomous system evolves randomly towards patterns of highly organized architecture, where the nodes can be classified into groups according to their statistical properties. We observe and describe analytically the building principles of these patterns, which make it possible to calculate number and size of the node groups and the number of links between them. The architecture of all patterns observed so far in simulations can be explained this way. A tool for real-time pattern identification is proposed.

  11. On the genesis of the idiotypic network theory.

    PubMed

    Civello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The idiotypic network theory (INT) was conceived by the Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne in 1973/1974. It proposes an overall view of the immune system as a network of lymphocytes and antibodies. The paper tries to offer a reconstruction of the genesis of the theory, now generally discarded and of mostly historical interest, first of all, by taking into account the context in which Jerne's theoretical proposal was advanced. It is argued the theory challenged, in a sense, the supremacy of the clonal selection theory (CST), this being regarded as the predominant paradigm in the immunological scenario. As CST found shortcomings in explaining certain phenomena, anomalies, one could view INT as a competing paradigm claiming to be able to make sense of such phenomena in its own conceptual framework. After a summary outline of the historical background and some relevant terminological elucidations, a narrative of the various phases of elaboration of the theory is proposed, up to its official public presentation. PMID:23207664

  12. Anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry

    SciTech Connect

    Linthicum, D.S.; Farid, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a review of new methods and results in anti-idiotypes, receptors, and molecular mimicry. It begins with a discussion of the theoretical background of the anti-idiotypic network, it's role in the regulation of immune response, and the physical characteristics of anti-idiotypic antibodies. It then goes on to explore many applications in such areas as insulin action, thyroid cell function, the neurosciences, cardiology, virology, pharmacology, and reproduction.

  13. Idiotype vaccines for lymphoma: Potential factors predicting the induction of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Inoges, Susana; de Cerio, Ascension Lopez-Diaz; Villanueva, Helena; Pastor, Fernando; Soria, Elena; Bendandi, Maurizio

    2011-06-10

    Over the last two decades, lymphoma idiotype vaccines have been the first human cancer vaccines to show striking evidence of biological and clinical efficacy on the one hand, as well as clinical benefit on the other. More recently, however, three large-scale, independent, randomized clinical trials on idiotypic vaccination have failed to achieve their main clinical endpoints for reasons likely to depend more on flaws in each clinical trial's study design than on each vaccination strategy per se. Independently of these considerations, a major hurdle for the development of this substantially innocuous and yet potentially very effective type of treatment has been the fact that, even to date, no factors ascertainable before vaccination have been prospectively singled out as predictors of subsequently vaccine-induced, idiotype-specific immune as well as clinical responses. The aim of this review article is precisely to analyze what has been and what could be done in this respect in order to give a greater chance of success to future trials aimed at regulatory approval of idiotype vaccines. PMID:21773074

  14. IgM anti-idiotypes that block anti-HLA antibodies: naturally occurring or immune antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Urlacher, A; Tongio, M M; Pasquali, J L

    1991-01-01

    Using dithiothreitol (DTT) technique, IgM anti-HLA anti-idiotypic antibodies were detected in a multiparous multitransfused woman. These antibodies were able to inhibit the binding of specific IgG anti-HLA antibodies on their corresponding antigen. The recognized determinants were cross-reactive determinants since they were partially found on anti-HLA antibodies from unrelated individuals. By studying the patient's sera over a period of 2 years, no IgM-IgG switch was observed but the presence of these antibodies was stable in time, despite the disappearance of the idiotypes (anti-HLA antibodies). However, when looking at the patient's earlier serum, it was shown that these IgM anti-idiotypic antibodies were absent from the first available serum. Thus, these anti-idiotypic antibodies seem to behave both like natural and immune antibodies. The incidence of such antibodies in pretransplant patients is discussed. PMID:1703054

  15. Human EBV-transformed lymphocytes of patients with Schistosoma japonicum infection secrete idiotypically related immunoregulatory antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kresina, T F; Cheever, L W; Chireau, M; Johnson, J; Ramirez, B; Peters, P; Olds, G R

    1992-12-01

    Lymphocytes derived from the peripheral blood of individuals infected with Schistosoma japonica were transformed in vitro with Ebstein-Barr virus (EBV). Serological characterization of antibody molecules revealed both antigen reactive (idiotypic) and anti-idiotypic transformants. One idiotypic EBV transformant, LO2C2, describes a major cross-reactive idiotype associated with anti-antigen binding molecules. Other antibody populations expressing idiotypic cross-reactivity were derived from separate individuals showing shared idiotypy in S. japonicum field study populations in the Republic of Philippines. Both idiotypic and anti-idiotypic molecules suppressed parasite antigen-driven blastogenesis of heterologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The data show a serologically related immunoregulatory immune network in patients in the Republic of the Philippines which is serologically distinct from idiotypy expressed in other selected S. japonicum endemic areas in the Far East. PMID:1333380

  16. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-12-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a /sup 125/I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals.

  17. The Significance of a Common Idiotype (1F7) on Antibodies against Human Immune Deficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Sybille; Parsons, Matthew S.; Kohler, Heinz; Grant, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we trace the concept and potential functional role of regulatory idiotypes in the immune response to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). A major idiotype involved in these viral infections is recognized and defined by a murine monoclonal antibody (1F7). Antibodies expressing the idiotype defined by 1F7 are dominant in HIV-1 infection and are also found on many broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. This regulatory idiotypic axis offers opportunities for exploitation in vaccine development for HIV-1, HCV, and other chronic viral infections. PMID:26904499

  18. Self-tolerance in a minimal model of the idiotypic network.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Robert; Werner, Benjamin; Behn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of self-tolerance in the frame of a minimalistic model of the idiotypic network. A node of this network represents a population of B-lymphocytes of the same idiotype, which is encoded by a bit string. The links of the network connect nodes with (nearly) complementary strings. The population of a node survives if the number of occupied neighbors is not too small and not too large. There is an influx of lymphocytes with random idiotype from the bone marrow. Previous investigations have shown that this system evolves toward highly organized architectures, where the nodes can be classified into groups according to their statistical properties. The building principles of these architectures can be analytically described and the statistical results of simulations agree very well with results of a modular mean-field theory. In this paper, we present simulation results for the case that one or several nodes, playing the role of self, are permanently occupied. These self nodes influence their linked neighbors, the autoreactive clones, but are themselves not affected by idiotypic interactions. We observe that the group structure of the architecture is very similar to the case without self antigen, but organized such that the neighbors of the self are only weakly occupied, thus providing self-tolerance. We also treat this situation in mean-field theory, which give results in good agreement with data from simulation. The model supports the view that autoreactive clones, which naturally occur also in healthy organisms are controlled by anti-idiotypic interactions, and could be helpful to understand network aspects of autoimmune disorders. PMID:24653720

  19. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B–B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  20. Evidence from the anti-idiotypic network that the acetylcholine receptor is a rabies virus receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Hanham, C A; Zhao, F; Tignor, G H

    1993-01-01

    We have developed idiotype-anti-idiotype monoclonal antibodies that provide evidence for rabies virus binding to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Hybridoma cell lines 7.12 and 7.25 resulted after fusion of NS-1 myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with rabies virus strain CVS. Antibody 7.12 reacted with viral glycoprotein and neutralized virus infectivity in vivo. It also neutralized infectivity in vitro when PC12 cells, which express neuronal AChR, but not CER cells or neuroblastoma cells (clone N18), which have no AChR, were used. Antibody 7.25 reacted with nucleocapsid protein. Anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody B9 was produced from fusion of NS-1 cells with spleen cells from a mouse immunized with 7.12 Fab. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoprecipitation, B9 reacted with 7.12, polyclonal rabies virus immune dog serum, and purified AChR. The binding of B9 to 7.12 and immune dog serum was inhibited by AChR. B9 also inhibited the binding of 7.12 to rabies virus both in vitro and in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed that B9 reacted at neuromuscular junctions of mouse tissue. B9 also reacted in indirect immunofluorescence with distinct neurons in mouse and monkey brain tissue as well as with PC12 cells. B9 staining of neuronal elements in brain tissue of rabies virus-infected mice was greatly reduced. Rabies virus inhibited the binding of B9 to PC12 cells. Mice immunized with B9 developed low-titer rabies virus-neutralizing antibody. These mice were protected from lethal intramuscular rabies virus challenge. In contrast, anti-idiotypic antibody raised against nucleocapsid antibody 7.25 did not react with AChR. Images PMID:7677960

  1. Anti-idiotypic immunization provides protection against lethal endotoxaemia in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, J J; Maassen, K; van Emst, L; Weers, P M; Harmsen, M; Benaissa-Trouw, B J; Oosterlaken, T A; Kraaijeveld, C A; Verhoef, J

    1993-01-01

    Against lipid A (the conserved moiety of lipopolysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria) neutralizing IgM monoclonal antibodies (mAb) 8-2 and 26-20 anti-idiotypic (Ab2) mAb were produced: Ab2 mAb KM-04 (IgG1) against mAb 8-2, and Ab2 mAb PW-1 (IgG2a) and PW-2 (IgG1) against mAb 26-20. The binding of Ab2 mAb KM-04 to 8-2 (Ab1) was strongly inhibited by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extract from either Salmonella minnesota R595 (Re LPS) or Escherichia coli J5 (Rc LPS), whereas the binding of Ab2 mAb PW-1 and PW-2 to 26-20 (Ab1) was only marginally inhibited by both Re LPS and Rc LPS. The results indicated that Ab2 mAb KM-04 recognizes a lipid A-binding site related idiotope on mAb 8-2 and therefore KM-04 might bear the internal image of a neutralization determining epitope of lipid A. Consequently Ab2 KM-04 might induce antibodies to lipid A. Indeed anti-idiotypic immunization of syngeneic BALB/c mice with Ab2 mAb KM-04 resulted in development of lipid A-binding anti-anti-idiotypic (Ab3) antibodies in serum. Similar immunizations with Ab2 mAb PW-1 and PW-2 were unsuccessful. However, induction of lipid A-binding Ab3 by mAb KM-04 proved to be genetically restricted to BALB/c mice. DBA/2 mice, Swiss mice and rabbits did not develop lipid A-binding antibodies upon immunization with mAb KM-04. In protection experiments, it was shown that BALB/c mice vaccinated with mAb KM-04 showed significantly enhanced survival from challenge with either rough (Re) LPS from Salmonella minnesota or smooth LPS from E. coli 0111:B4 when compared to BALB/c mice immunized with a non-relevant Ab2 mAb. The results suggest that mAb KM-04 constitutes a non-internal image vaccine to the lethal effect of lipid A in BALB/c mice. Furthermore an Ab3 mAb was prepared against Ab2 mAb KM-04 that showed reactivity with Re LPS. This Ab3 mAb, designated LE-21 (IgG2a) protected mice against an otherwise lethal challenge of Re LPS. PMID:8406595

  2. Idiotype-anti-idiotype regulation. I. Immunization with a levan-binding myeloma protein leads to the appearance of auto-anti-(anti-idiotype) antibodies and to the activation of silent clones

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized multiple times with ABPC48 (A48 or Ab1), a BALB/c bacterial levan (BL)-binding myeloma proteins, produce anti-Ab1 antibodies (Ab2). Immunization with only tow doses of AB1 often leads to the production of anti (antiA48) (Ab3) as does immunization with hemocyanin conjugates of Ab2. Finally, immunization with hemocyanin conjugates of Abf3 leads to the production of anti- (anti-[anti-A48]) (Ab4). Normal BALB/c mice immunized with BL produce an anti BL antibody response containing no detectable Ab1 idiotype (Id)-bearing molecules. Mice producing Ab3 express substantial amounts of Ab1 Id in their anti- BL response whereas mice producing Ab2 and Ab4 show a generalized inhibition in their anti BL response. These results indicate that states of immunity within an idiotypic chain may have marked effect on antibody responses to the antigen (i.e., BL) which is the putative initiator of the chain. Strikingly, the chain itself has an interesting feature. That is, Ab3 and Ab1 share a cross-reactive Id in that both are bound by Ab4 and Ab2. We propose a model of Id-anti-Id systems to explain this unexpected result. This is based on the concept of regulatory idiotopes on Ab1 molecules which initiate Ab2 (anti- idiotope) responses. In contrast, Ab2 molecules generally fail to initiate anti-Ab2 Id responses eigher because any individual idiotope is present at very low concentration or because Ab2 molecules tend to lack regulatory idiotopes. Thus, Ab2 molecules immunize syngeneic animals because they interact with cells bearing Ab1 like regulatory idiotopes. Thus, Ab3 will share regulatory idiotopes with Ab1. Ab4 and Ab2 will share the ability to bind the Ab1-like regulatory idiotope. PMID:7252415

  3. Single peptide and anti-idiotype based immunizations can broaden the antibody response against the variable V3 domain of HIV-1 in mice.

    PubMed

    Boudet, F; Keller, H; Kieny, M P; Thèze, J

    1995-05-01

    The third variable (V3) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) external envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a major target of neutralizing antibodies in infected persons and in experimental immunized animals. Given the high degree of sequence variability of V3, the humoral response toward this region is very type-specific. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of a single peptide and an anti-idiotypic antibody to broaden the anti-V3 antibody specificity in BALB/c mice. We show that a synthetic peptide derived from the V3 determinant of HIV-1 MN isolate (V3MN), when used as an immunogen, was able to induce an antibody response to multiple (up to six) HIV-1 strains. The extent of this cross-reactivity, which tended to enlarge as the injections increased, appeared to be inversely correlated with the binding affinity to V3MN peptide. These data thus present evidence that, despite its great sequence heterogeneity, the V3 loop encompasses conserved amino-acid positions and/or stretches which may be less immunogenic than their variable counterparts. We additionally demonstrate that a rabbit anti-idiotype (Ab2), recognizing a binding site related idiotype on a V3-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab1), could mount a broadened humoral response (Ab3) in mice. Unlike nominal antibody Ab1 which strictly reacted with the European HIV-1 LAI isolate, elicited Ab3 recognized the two divergent HIV-1 strains SF2 and 1286, originating respectively from North America and Central Africa, in addition to LAI. The reasons accounting for this Ab2-induced enlargement of the V3 antibody response are discussed. Our findings suggest that single peptide and anti-idiotype based immunizations may provide viable approaches to overcome, at least in part, HIV epitope variability. PMID:7783749

  4. The promise of the anti-idiotype concept

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Bejatohlah; Pashov, Anastas; Saha, Somdutta; Murali, Ramachandran; Kohler, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    A basic tenet of antibody-based immunity is their specificity to antigenic determinates from foreign pathogen products to abnormal cellular components such as in cancer. However, an antibody has the potential to bind to more than one determinate, be it an antigen or another antibody. These observations led to the idiotype network theory (INT) to explain immune regulation, which has wax and waned in enthusiasm over the years. A truer measure of the impact of the INT is in terms of the ideas that now form the mainstay of immunological research and whose roots are spawned from the promise of the anti-idiotype concept. Among the applications of the INT is understanding the structural implications of the antibody-mediated network that has the potential for innovation in terms of rational design of reagents with biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications that underlies concepts of reverse immunology which is highlighted herein. PMID:23267437

  5. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG{sub 3}k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG{sub 3}k antibody that blocked the binding of ({sup 3}H)naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form.

  6. Immunization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2002-03-01

    Complex networks such as the sexual partnership web or the Internet often show a high degree of redundancy and heterogeneity in their connectivity properties. This peculiar connectivity provides an ideal environment for the spreading of infective agents. Here we show that the random uniform immunization of individuals does not lead to the eradication of infections in all complex networks. Namely, networks with scale-free properties do not acquire global immunity from major epidemic outbreaks even in the presence of unrealistically high densities of randomly immunized individuals. The absence of any critical immunization threshold is due to the unbounded connectivity fluctuations of scale-free networks. Successful immunization strategies can be developed only by taking into account the inhomogeneous connectivity properties of scale-free networks. In particular, targeted immunization schemes, based on the nodes' connectivity hierarchy, sharply lower the network's vulnerability to epidemic attacks.

  7. Suppression of collagen induced arthritis by idiotype coupled lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler-Anderson, C.; Gurish, M.F.; Robinson, M.E.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1986-03-01

    Studies were initiated to evaluate the regulatory influence of idiotype (Id) networks in an experimental auto-immune disease. Collagen induced arthritis is an animal model of polyarthritis induced in susceptible mice by immunization with collagen II (CII). A humoral immune response to CII appears to be critical for the development of diseases. If subpopulations of the anti-CII abs, important for the induction of arthritis, could be identified and manipulated through the presence of a major Id, it should be possible to decrease arthritis incidence by suppressing the production of these Ids. Specifically purified anti-CII abs from arthritic DBA/1 mice were coupled to syngeneic spleen cells and administered IV prior to intradermal immunization with CII. By day 34 after 1/sup 0/ immunization, 100% of control mice and 50% of treated mice had developed arthritis. Suppression of the Id population administered to the treated group was confirmed by RIA. Sera from individual mice were tested as inhibitors of binding of /sup 125/I-labelled polyclonal DBA/1 anti-CII to a rabbit anti-Id directed against polyclonal anti-CII isolated from the sera of arthritic mice. Mean percentage of inhibition of binding of /sup 125/I-Id to rabbit anti-Id by sera from non-arthritic treated mice was found to be significantly lower than that observed in the arthritic control group (p = .045), but did not correlate with total anti-CII ab titers.

  8. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous {sup 125}I-F(ab{prime}){sub 2} (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab{prime}){sub 2} derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab{prime}){sub 2} of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against {sup 125}I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations.

  9. Parallel processing in immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Bartolucci, Silvia; Galluzzi, Andrea; Guerra, Francesco; Moauro, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we adopt a statistical-mechanics approach to investigate basic, systemic features exhibited by adaptive immune systems. The lymphocyte network made by B cells and T cells is modeled by a bipartite spin glass, where, following biological prescriptions, links connecting B cells and T cells are sparse. Interestingly, the dilution performed on links is shown to make the system able to orchestrate parallel strategies to fight several pathogens at the same time; this multitasking capability constitutes a remarkable, key property of immune systems as multiple antigens are always present within the host. We also define the stochastic process ruling the temporal evolution of lymphocyte activity and show its relaxation toward an equilibrium measure allowing statistical-mechanics investigations. Analytical results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations and signal-to-noise outcomes showing overall excellent agreement. Finally, within our model, a rationale for the experimentally well-evidenced correlation between lymphocytosis and autoimmunity is achieved; this sheds further light on the systemic features exhibited by immune networks.

  10. Anti-idiotype vaccine against cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, M; Chatterjee, S K; Foon, K A

    2000-09-15

    Immunization with anti-idiotype (Id) antibodies represents a novel new approach to active immunotherapy. Extensive studies in animal tumor models have demonstrated the efficacy of anti-Id vaccines in preventing tumor growth and curing mice with established tumor. We have developed and characterized several murine monoclonal anti-Id antibodies (Ab2) which mimic distinct human tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and can be used as surrogate antigens for triggering active anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients. Encouraging results have been obtained in recent clinical trials. In this article, we will review the existing literature and summarize our own findings showing the potential of this approach for various human cancers. We will also discuss where anti-Id vaccines may perform better than traditional antigen vaccines. PMID:10996628

  11. Monoclonal approach to investigate whether the idiotypic network plays a role in the formation of Graves' autoantibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (LE4) specific for a thyrotropin (TSH) epitope shared by beta subunits of bovine (b), ovine (o), and human (h) TSH was obtained by immunization of mice with mixtures of purified bTSH and hTSH. LE4 also bound the beta subunits of bovine, ovine, and human lutropin (LH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) but not the beta subunits of porcine LH and TSH. Preliminary studies with deglycosylated (dg) bTSH and dg-hCG indicated that part of the epitope may be carbohydrate. Preincubation of LE4 with (/sup 125/I)bTSH inhibited the binding of the hormone to TSH receptor of bovine thyroid membranes in a dose-dependent manner. LE4 also inhibited TSH-induced mitogenesis of FRTL-5 cells. We conclude that LE4 binds to a site on the bTSH molecule that participates in high affinity binding of hormone to TSH receptor.

  12. Model IgG Monoclonal Autoantibody–Anti-Idiotype Pair for Dissecting the Humoral Immune Response to Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shang-Hung; Johns, Michael; Boyle, Joseph J.; McConnell, Ellen; Kirkham, Paul A.; Bicknell, Colin; Zahoor-ul-Hassan Dogar, M.; Edwards, Robert J.; Gale-Grant, Oliver; Khamis, Ramzi; Ramkhelawon, Kurrun V.V.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence implicates IgG autoantibodies against oxidized forms of low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic arterial disease. However, insufficient knowledge of their structure and function is a key gap. Using an elderly LDL receptor-deficient atherosclerotic mouse, we isolated a novel IgG3k against oxLDL (designated MAb LO1). LO1 reacts with copper-oxidized LDL, but minimally with native LDL. Further analysis showed that MAb LO1 also reacts in vitro with malondialdehyde-conjugated LDL (MDA-LDL), a known key epitope in copper-oxidized LDL preparations. By screening a phage library expressing single chain variable region antibodies (scFv), we selected an anti-idiotype scFv (designated H3) that neutralizes MAb LO1 binding to MDA-LDL. Amino acid substitutions between H3 and an irrelevant control scFv C12 showed that residues in the H3 CDRH2, CDRH3, and CDRL2 are all critical for MAb LO1 binding, consistent with a conformational epitope on H3 involving both heavy and light chains. Comparison of amino acids in H3 CDRH2 and CDRL2 with apoB, the major LDL protein, showed homologous sequences, suggesting H3 has structural similarities to the MAb LO1 binding site on MDA-LDL. Immunocytochemical staining showed that MAb LO1 binds epitopes in mouse and human atherosclerotic lesions. The MAb LO1-H3 combination therefore provides a very promising model for analyzing the structure and function of an individual IgG autoantibody in relation to atherosclerosis. PMID:22509912

  13. Immunity of multiplex networks via acquaintance vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Da-Wei; Wang, Lin; Sun, Gui-Quan; Jin, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    How to find the effective approach of immunizing a population is one open question in the research of complex systems. Up to now, there have been a great number of works focusing on the efficiency of various immunization strategies. However, the majority of these existing achievements are limited to isolated networks, how immunization affects disease spreading in multiplex networks seems to need further exploration. In this letter, we explore the impact of the acquaintance immunization in multiplex networks, where two kinds of immunization strategies, multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization and layer node-based acquaintance immunization, are proposed. With the generating function method, our theoretical framework is able to accurately calculate the critical immunization threshold which is one of the most important indexes to predict the epidemic regime. Moreover, we further uncover that, with the increment of degree correlation between network layers, the immunization threshold declines for multiplex node-based acquaintance immunization, but slowly increases for layer node-based acquaintance immunization.

  14. Generation of Anti-Idiotype scFv for Pharmacokinetic Measurement in Lymphoma Patients Treated with Chimera Anti-CD22 Antibody SM03

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qi; Wong, Pui-Fan; Lee, Susanna S. T.; Leung, Shui-On; Cheung, Wing-Tai; Wang, Jun-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies of therapeutic antibodies require highly specific reagents to examine their immune responses, bio-distributions, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics in patients. Selective antigen-mimicking anti-idiotype antibody facilitates the assessment of therapeutic antibody in the detection, quantitation and characterization of antibody immune responses. Using mouse specific degenerate primer pairs and splenocytic RNA, we generated an idiotype antibody-immunized phage-displayed scFv library in which an anti-idiotype antibody against the therapeutic chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03 was isolated. The anti-idiotype scFv recognized the idiotype of anti-CD22 antibody and inhibited binding of SM03 to CD22 on Raji cell surface. The anti-idiotype scFv was subsequently classified as Ab2γ type. Moreover, our results also demonstrated firstly that the anti-idiotype scFv could be used for pharmacokinetic measurement of circulating residual antibody in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03. Of important, the present approach could be easily adopted to generate anti-idiotype antibodies for therapeutic antibodies targeting membrane proteins, saving the cost and time for producing a soluble antigen. PMID:24816427

  15. Idiotypes of monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies produced in autoimmune B/W mice are expressed in normal mice.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, L; Tron, F; Lety, M A; Bach, J F

    1986-01-01

    An anti-idiotypic antiserum was prepared in a rabbit immunized against a pool of six monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies generated in B/W mice. This antiserum detected idiotypic determinants in four of the six monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies but also in the serum of several non autoimmune strains (BALB/c, NZB X BALB/c) F1 hybrids & CBA/LH). The antiserum also reacted, but only to a weak degree, with B/W mouse sera. These results indicate that some idiotypes of anti-DNA antibodies produced by autoimmune B/W mice are present in normal mouse sera. PMID:3486065

  16. Network of immune-neuroendocrine interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Besedovsky, H; Sorkin, E

    1977-01-01

    In order to bring the self-regulated immune system into conformity with other body systems its functioning within the context of an immune-neuroendocrine network is proposed. This hypothesis is based on the existence of afferent--efferent pathways between immune and neuroendocrine structures. Major endocrine responses occur as a consequence of antigenic stimulation and changes in the electrical activity of the hypothalamus also take place; both of these alterations are temporally related to the immune response itself. This endocrine response has meaningful implications for immunoregulation and for immunospecificity. During ontogeny, there is also evidence for the operations of a complex network between the endocrine and immune system, a bidirectional interrelationship that may well affect each developmental stage of both functions. As sequels the functioning of the immune system and the outcome of this interrelation could be decisive in lymphoid cell homeostasis, self-tolerance, and could also have significant implications for pathology. PMID:849642

  17. US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network: Prioritization & Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network represents a broad community plan to begin to systematically address the immunological reagent gap for the US veterinary immunology research community including for the following groups: ruminants (concentrating on cattle), swine, poultry (primarily chickens)...

  18. Phage idiotype vaccination: first phase I/II clinical trial in patients with multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma is characterized by clonal expansion of B cells producing monoclonal immunoglobulins or fragments thereof, which can be detected in the serum and/or urine and are ideal target antigens for patient-specific immunotherapies. Methods Using phage particles as immunological carriers, we employed a novel chemically linked idiotype vaccine in a clinical phase I/II trial including 15 patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Vaccines composed of purified paraproteins linked to phage were manufactured successfully for each patient. Patients received six intradermal immunizations with phage idiotype vaccines in three different dose groups. Results Phage idiotype was well tolerated by all study participants. A subset of patients (80% in the middle dose group) displayed a clinical response indicated by decrease or stabilization of paraprotein levels. Patients exhibiting a clinical response to phage vaccines also raised idiotype-specific immunoglobulins. Induction of a cellular immune response was demonstrated by a cytotoxicity assay and delayed type hypersensitivity tests. Conclusion We present a simple, time- and cost-efficient phage idiotype vaccination strategy, which represents a safe and feasible patient-specific therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma and produced promising anti-tumor activity in a subset of patients. PMID:24885819

  19. Preparation of humanized ovarian carcinoma anti-idiotypic minibody.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaohong; Cui, Heng; Feng, Jie; Li, Yi; Liu, Bei; Cao, Shanjin; Cheng, Yexia; Qian, Henian

    2003-04-01

    Murine anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6B11 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen OC166-9 is used as a vaccine for the induction of an anti-tumoral immunity in experiments of in vitro and in vivo animal model with ovarian carcinoma. In this article, we have humanized 6B11 anti-idiotypic minibody using overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA recombinant technique, prokaryotic expression vector was produced by genetic fusion of 6B11V(L)-V(H) to human IgG1 hinge and CH3 region. Transformed E. coli BL21(DE3) were propagated and induced by isopropyl-beta D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed that a protein band with molecular weight of 50kD appeared as the expected size after transformation. Molecular weight of 100 kDa may be examined by electrophoresis in nondenaturing systems. The fusion protein was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA), inhibition ELISA tests and Western blot, respectively. The humanized anti-idiotype minibody showed capacity of bivalent binding to ovarian cancer MAb COC166-9 and goat anti-human immunoglobulin IgG1. It is useful reagents for clinical use. PMID:12831536

  20. Network representations of immune system complexity.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Germain, Ronald N; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multiscale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular, and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single-cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning, and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather nonlinear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multiscale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels, while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating 'omics' and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular- and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  1. Network representations of immune system complexity

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Naeha; Torabi-Parizi, Parizad; Gottschalk, Rachel A.; Germain, Ronald N.; Dutta, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian immune system is a dynamic multi-scale system composed of a hierarchically organized set of molecular, cellular and organismal networks that act in concert to promote effective host defense. These networks range from those involving gene regulatory and protein-protein interactions underlying intracellular signaling pathways and single cell responses to increasingly complex networks of in vivo cellular interaction, positioning and migration that determine the overall immune response of an organism. Immunity is thus not the product of simple signaling events but rather non-linear behaviors arising from dynamic, feedback-regulated interactions among many components. One of the major goals of systems immunology is to quantitatively measure these complex multi-scale spatial and temporal interactions, permitting development of computational models that can be used to predict responses to perturbation. Recent technological advances permit collection of comprehensive datasets at multiple molecular and cellular levels while advances in network biology support representation of the relationships of components at each level as physical or functional interaction networks. The latter facilitate effective visualization of patterns and recognition of emergent properties arising from the many interactions of genes, molecules, and cells of the immune system. We illustrate the power of integrating ‘omics’ and network modeling approaches for unbiased reconstruction of signaling and transcriptional networks with a focus on applications involving the innate immune system. We further discuss future possibilities for reconstruction of increasingly complex cellular and organism-level networks and development of sophisticated computational tools for prediction of emergent immune behavior arising from the concerted action of these networks. PMID:25625853

  2. Neutralisation of factor VIII inhibitors by anti-idiotypes isolated from phage-displayed libraries.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Brettschneider, Kerstin; Kahle, Jörg; Orlowski, Aleksander; Becker-Peters, Karin; Stichel, Diana; Schulze, Jörg; Braner, Markus; Tampé, Robert; Schwabe, Dirk; Königs, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Following replacement therapy with coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), up to 30 % of haemophilia A patients develop FVIII-specific inhibitory antibodies (FVIII inhibitors). Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is not always successful, resulting in a need for alternative treatments for FVIII inhibitor-positive patients. As tolerance induction in the course of ITI appears to involve the formation of anti-idiotypes specific for anti-FVIII antibodies, such anti-idiotypes might be used to restore haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with FVIII inhibitors. We isolated anti-idiotypic antibody fragments (scFvs) binding to murine FVIII inhibitors 2-76 and 2-77 from phage-displayed libraries. FVIII inhibitor/anti-idiotype interactions were very specific as no cross-reactivity with other FVIII inhibitors or isotype controls was observed. ScFvs blocked binding of FVIII inhibitors to FVIII and neutralised their cognate inhibitors in vitro and a monoclonal mouse model. In addition, scFv JkH5 specific for FVIII inhibitor 2-76 stained 2-76-producing hybridoma cells. JkH5 residues R52 and Y226, located in complementary determining regions, were identified as crucial for the JkH5/2-76 interaction using JkH5 alanine mutants. SPR spectroscopy revealed that JkH5 interacts with FVIII inhibitor 2-76 with nanomolar affinity. Thus, FVIII inhibitor-specific, high-affinity anti-idiotypes can be isolated from phage-displayed libraries and neutralise their respective inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that anti-idiotypic scFvs might be utilised to specifically target inhibitor-specific B cells. Hence, a pool of anti-idiotypes could enable the reestablishment of haemostasis in the presence of FVIII inhibitors in patients or even allow the depletion of inhibitors by targeting inhibitor-specific B cell populations. PMID:27009573

  3. Genetics of the. cap alpha. 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    SciTech Connect

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice.

  4. Individual and meta-immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Kenett, Dror Y.; Dar, Gittit; Madi, Asaf; Merbl, Yifat; Quintana, Francisco J.; Tauber, Alfred I.; Cohen, Irun R.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2013-04-01

    Networks can be found everywhere—in technology, in nature and in our bodies. In this paper we present how antigen networks can be used as a model to study network interaction and architecture. Utilizing antigen microarray data of the reactivity of hundreds of antibodies of sera of ten mothers and their newborns, we reconstruct networks, either isotype specific (IgM or IgG) or person specific—mothers or newborns—and investigate the network properties. Such an approach makes it possible to decipher fundamental information regarding the personal immune network state and its unique characteristics. In the current paper we demonstrate how we are successful in studying the interaction between two dependent networks, the maternal IgG repertoire and the one of the offspring, using the concept of meta-network provides essential information regarding the biological phenomenon of cross placental transfer. Such an approach is useful in the study of coupled networks in variety of scientific fields.

  5. Anti-idiotypic antibody to an anti-alprenolol monoclonal antibody: promotion of ligand binding to the idiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Sawutz, G.; Homcy, C.J.

    1986-03-01

    The authors previously described the production of four monoclonal antibodies to the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist alprenolol. One of these antibodies, 5B7 (IgG/sub 2a/k), was used to generate polyclonal anti-idiotypic antisera in rabbits. In contrast to the predicted results, the anti-idiotypic antisera (R-9) promoted (/sup 125/I)-CYP binding to the monoclonal antibody 5B7. In the presence of R-9 antisera (1:300 dilution), the binding affinity improved with the dissociation constant decreasing 100-fold from 10nM to 0.1nM. This effect could not be reproduced with pre-immune, rabbit anti-mouse, or antiidiotypic antisera generated to monoclonal antibodies of different specificity. Furthermore, R-9 alone did not bind ligand. The R-9 IgG fraction was isolated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography then adsorbed to a 5B7-immunoaffinity resin and eluted with 0.5 M NaCl. This yielded a fraction with enhanced binding activity. F(ab) fragments of 5B7 and R-9 produced the same effect indicating that polyvalency was not necessary for the enhanced ligand binding. Finally, the ligand alprenolol promoted the binding of (/sup 125/I)-5B7 to %-9 as assessed by fractionating the resulting soluble complex by size exclusion chromatography on a TSK-3000 HPLC column. These results demonstrate that anti-idiotypic antibodies can be generated which will promote the binding of antigen to the original idiotype.

  6. Enhancing robustness and immunization in geographical networks

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Liang; Yang Kongqing; Yang Lei

    2007-03-15

    We find that different geographical structures of networks lead to varied percolation thresholds, although these networks may have similar abstract topological structures. Thus, strategies for enhancing robustness and immunization of a geographical network are proposed. Using the generating function formalism, we obtain an explicit form of the percolation threshold q{sub c} for networks containing arbitrary order cycles. For three-cycles, the dependence of q{sub c} on the clustering coefficients is ascertained. The analysis substantiates the validity of the strategies with analytical evidence.

  7. Production, isolation, and characterization of rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against human antithyrotrophin receptor antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J R; Lukes, Y G; Burman, K D

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that anti-idiotypic antibodies can be developed in vivo through animal immunization with idiotype, and that these antibodies can be isolated from other anti-immunoglobulin antibodies by affinity purification. These techniques have relied on large amounts of idiotype, which were produced either by hyperimmunization or by monoclonal antibodies, to serve as the affinity adsorbent. In the present study, we produced anti-idiotypic antibodies to human anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies by first injecting rabbits with (TSH receptor purified) IgG from Graves' patients. The resulting antiserum was then adsorbed with Sepharose-coupled TSH in an attempt to specifically bind and isolate the anti-idiotype. The antibody obtained from this process was shown to bind specifically to TSH receptor-binding antibodies from Graves' patients, and this binding could be inhibited by 56% with the addition of 10(-4) M TSH but not by HCG (10(-2) M). The anti-idiotype also bound to TSH, and this binding could be specifically inhibited by receptor-purified Graves' IgG (60% inhibition at 10 micrograms/ml IgG), but not by IgG from normal subjects (no inhibition at 50 micrograms/ml IgG). In a TSH receptor binding assay, the anti-idiotype could inhibit TSH receptor binding in Graves' sera at a 1,000-fold lower concentration than could anti-kappa/lambda antiserum; the anti-idiotypic antiserum also inhibited in vitro TSH-mediated adenylate cyclase stimulation at an IgG concentration of 5 micrograms/ml, while heterologous anti-TSH antisera and normal IgG at similar concentrations had no effect. Finally, despite being generated against a single patient's TSH receptor binding antibody, the anti-idiotype was able to block TSH receptor binding in the serum of six other Graves' patients, thus suggesting that there may be conformational conservation in the antigen that is recognized by different individuals' TSH receptor-binding immunoglobulins. PMID

  8. On the maternal transmission of immunity: a 'molecular attention' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W

    1995-01-01

    Maternally-derived antibodies can provide passive protection to their offspring. More subtle phenomena associated with maternal antibodies concern their influence in shaping the immune repertoire and priming the neonatal immune response. These phenomena suggest that maternal antibodies play a role in the education of the neonatal immune system. The educational effects are thought to be mediated by idiotypic interactions among antibodies and B cells in the context of an idiotypic network. This paper proposes that maternal antibodies trigger localized idiotypic network activity that serves to amplify and translate information concerning the molecular shapes of potential antigens. The triggering molecular signals are contained in the binding regions of the antibody molecules. These antibodies form complexes and are taken up by antigen presenting cells or retained by follicular dendritic cells and thereby incorporated into more traditional cellular immune memory mechanisms. This mechanism for maternal transmission of immunity is termed the molecular attention hypothesis and is contrasted to the dynamic memory hypothesis. Experiments are proposed that may help indicate which models are more appropriate and will further our understanding of these intriguing natural phenomena. Finally, analogies are drawn to attention in neural systems. PMID:7727708

  9. Production of mouse monoclonal antibodies for the analysis of idiotypes in serum of patients with chronic lymphatic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    de Rie, M A; van Heemstra, D J; Huijgens, P C; Zeijlemaker, W P; Out, T A; Melief, C J; von dem Borne, A E

    1988-01-01

    In this report a simple procedure for the production of murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against the idiotype of malignant B cells is described. Mice were immunized with lymphoid cells from patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). After fusion of the spleen cells, hybridoma supernatants were screened for anti-idiotypic MoAb in ELISA with immunoglobulins obtained from tumour-cell lysates, xenohybridomas and patients' sera. The anti-idiotypic MoAb were used to study tumour cells and serum immunoglobulins (Ig) from four different patients with B-CLL. It was found that the serum IgM and IgD in one patient shared the same idiotype. Evidence is presented that IgG-secreting cell populations are not restricted to lambda-Ig-light chain-expressing B-CLL cells. With the help of anti-idiotype MoAb accurate measurements of total and idiotype-positive serum immunoglobulin levels during chemotherapy were possible. PMID:3257881

  10. Vaccines for lymphomas: idiotype vaccines and beyond.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Levy, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Therapeutic vaccines for lymphomas have been developed to induce active and long-lasting immune responses against lymphoma capable of eradicating the tumor. Most of these vaccines use the tumor B cell idiotype (the unique variable region of the surface immunoglobulin) as a tumor-specific antigen. The first human clinical trial for lymphoma vaccine was initiated 20 years ago. Along with several other phase I/II trials, it showed encouraging results which supported the initiation of three phase III trials. The results of these trials have recently been released (although not published yet) which failed to demonstrate a prolongation in progression-free survival following chemotherapy. Despite this disappointing result, a number of observations have accumulated over the years that suggest some clinical efficacy of lymphoma vaccines. Several strategies are being developed to improve these results that include optimization of antigen delivery and presentation as well as enhancement of anti-tumor T cell function. This review describes the clinical development of lymphoma vaccines and delineates advances, problems and prospects towards integration of this strategy in the therapeutic armamentarium for lymphoma. PMID:18951668

  11. Production of anti-idiotype antibodies for deoxynivalenol and their evaluation with three immunoassay platforms.

    PubMed

    Maragos, C M

    2014-05-01

    Immunoassays for deoxynivalenol (DON) that involve binding to DON-specific antibodies have been widely developed. In such assays, the responses of samples are generally compared with calibration curves generated by using DON in competition with labeled reagents such as enzymatic or fluorescent conjugates of the toxin. However, materials that mimic the toxin can also be used, provided that they compete effectively with the labeled reagents for the DON-specific antibodies. Examples include certain types of anti-idiotype antibodies, obtained by the immunization of animals with toxin-specific antibodies. In the present work, anti-idiotype antibodies were developed which mimicked DON in the ability to bind to a DON-specific monoclonal antibody (Mab). Fab fragments of the Mab (Ab1) were used to immunize rabbits. Sera were screened by competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (CD-ELISA) for the presence of anti-idiotype antibodies (Ab2). In order to determine the most effective screening format and also the potential efficacy in various forms of biosensors, the sera were further evaluated in biolayer interferometry (BLI) and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) formats. All three formats were used to demonstrate the presence of anti-idiotypes capable of binding to the paratope of the DON antibody (subtypes Ab2β or Ab2γ). Such materials have the potential to replace DON as calibrants in immunoassays for this toxin. PMID:24526340

  12. Immune System Network and Cancer Vaccine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianca, Carlo; Pennisi, Marzio; Motta, Santo; Ragusa, Maria Alessandra

    2011-09-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of the immune system response to cancer disease, and specifically with the treatment of the mammary carcinoma in presence of an immunoprevenction vaccine. The innate action of the immune system network, the external stimulus represented by repeated vaccine administrations and the competition with cancer are described by an ordinary differential equations-based model. The mathematical model is able to depict preclinical experiments on transgenic mice. The results are of great interest both in the applied and theoretical sciences.

  13. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Leo, O; Hiernaux, J; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ antibodies in BALB/c mice. These studies led to an apparent paradox, whose understanding will provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of the immune system. We suggest that clones secreting CRIA-like Igs in BALB/c mice are "somatic variants" that could arise from gene conversion events. PMID:6576348

  14. Induction of a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in mice by a common human anti-DNA idiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlovic, S.; Brocke, S.; Meshorer, A.; Mozes, E. ); Shoenfeld, Y.; Bakimer, R. ); Ben-Bassat, M. )

    1988-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered to be the quintessential autoimmune disease. It has not been possible to induce SLE in animal models by DNA immunization or by challenge with anti-DNA antibodies. The authors report a murine model of SLE-like disease induced by immunization of C3H.SW female mice with a common human monoclonal anti-DNA idiotype (16/6 idiotype). Following a booster injection with the 16/6 idiotype, high levels of murine anti-16/6 and anti-anti-16/6 antibodies (associated with anti-DNA activity) were detected in the sera of the immunized mice. Elevated titers of autoantibodies reacting with DNA, poly(I), poly(dT), ribonucleoprotein, autoantigens (Sm, SS-A (Ro), and SS-B (La)), and cardiolipin were noted. The serological findings were associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia, proteinuria, immune complex deposition in the glomerular mesangium, and sclerosis of the glomeruli. The immune complexes in the kidneys were shown to contain the 16/6 idiotype. This experimental SLE-like model may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SLE.

  15. An improved acquaintance immunization strategy for complex network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wang, Dongyi

    2015-11-21

    The acquaintance immunization strategy is a common strategy to suppress epidemic on complex network which achieves a seemingly perfect balance between cost and effectiveness compared with other canonical immunization strategies. However, the acquaintance immunization strategy fails to take the time-varying factor and local information of nodes into consideration, which limits its effectiveness in some specific network topology. Our improved immunization strategy is based on a new mathematical model Network Structure Index (NSI), which digs deep to measure the connection property and surrounding influence of a node's neighbor nodes to better determine the importance of nodes during immunization. Both mathematical derivation and the simulation program tested on various network topology support our idea that this improved acquaintance immunization strategy protects more nodes from infection and immunizes important nodes more efficiently than the original strategies. As to say, our strategy has more adaptability and achieves a more reasonable balanced point between cost and effectiveness. PMID:26300068

  16. Immune networks: multitasking capabilities near saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Annibale, A.; Barra, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Tantari, D.

    2013-10-01

    Pattern-diluted associative networks were recently introduced as models for the immune system, with nodes representing T-lymphocytes and stored patterns representing signalling protocols between T- and B-lymphocytes. It was shown earlier that in the regime of extreme pattern dilution, a system with NT T-lymphocytes can manage a number N_B={ {O}}(N_T^\\delta ) of B-lymphocytes simultaneously, with δ < 1. Here we study this model in the extensive load regime NB = αNT, with a high degree of pattern dilution, in agreement with immunological findings. We use graph theory and statistical mechanical analysis based on replica methods to show that in the finite-connectivity regime, where each T-lymphocyte interacts with a finite number of B-lymphocytes as NT → ∞, the T-lymphocytes can coordinate effective immune responses to an extensive number of distinct antigen invasions in parallel. As α increases, the system eventually undergoes a second order transition to a phase with clonal cross-talk interference, where the system’s performance degrades gracefully. Mathematically, the model is equivalent to a spin system on a finitely connected graph with many short loops, so one would expect the available analytical methods, which all assume locally tree-like graphs, to fail. Yet it turns out to be solvable. Our results are supported by numerical simulations.

  17. Decline in Titers of Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to Autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab) Precedes Development of GAD65Ab and Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena Elding; Jönsson, Ida; Lernmark, Åke; Ivarsson, Sten; Radtke, Jared R.; Hampe, Christiane S.

    2013-01-01

    The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D)-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab) in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02). We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014). Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: −0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003), suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2) individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: −0.005) compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001) (p = 0.0016). We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D. PMID

  18. Generation of anti-idiotype antibodies for application in clinical immunotherapy laboratory analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanqi; Panousis, Con; Smyth, Fiona E; Murphy, Roger; Wirth, Veronika; Cartwright, Glenn; Johns, Terrance G; Scott, Andrew M

    2003-08-01

    The chimeric monoclonal antibody ch806 specifically targets the tumor-associated mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (de 2-7EGFR or EGFRVIII) and is currently under investigation for its potential use in cancer therapy. The humanised monoclonal antibody hu3S193 specifically targets the Lewis Y epithelial antigen and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas. To assist the clinical evaluation of ch806 and hu3S193, laboratory assays are required to monitor their serum pharmacokinetics and quantitate any immune responses to the antibodies. Mice immunized with ch806 or hu3S193 were used to generate hybridomas producing antibodies with specific binding to ch806 or hu3S193 and competitive for antigen binding. These anti-idiotype antibodies (designated Ludwig Melbourne Hybridomas, LMH) were investigated as reagents suitable for use as positive controls for HAHA or HACA analyses and for measuring hu3S193 or ch806 in human serum. Anti-idiotypes with the ability to concurrently bind two target antibody molecules were identified, which enabled the development of highly reproducible, sensitive, specific ELISA assays for determining serum concentrations of hu3S193 and ch806 with a 3 ng/mL limit of quantitation using LMH-3 and LMH-12, respectively. BIAcore analyses determined high apparent binding affinity for both idiotypes: LMH-3 binding immobilized hu3S193, Ka = 4.76 x 10(8) M(-1); LMH-12 binding immobilised ch806, Ka = 1.74 x 10(9) M(-1). Establishment of HAHA or HACA analysis of sera samples using BIAcore was possible using LMH-3 and LMH-12 as positive controls for quantitation of immune responses to hu3S193 or ch806 in patient sera. These anti-idiotypes could also be used to study the penetrance and binding of ch806 or hu3S193 to tumor cells through immunohistochemical analysis of tumor biopsies. The generation of anti-idiotype antibodies capable of concurrently binding a target antibody on each variable

  19. The immune network in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Marone, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    The immune system plays critical roles in tumor prevention, but also in its initiation and progression. Tumors are subjected to immunosurveillance, but cancer cells generate an immunosuppressive microenvironment that favors their escape from immune-mediated elimination. During chronic inflammation, immune cells can contribute to the formation and progression of tumors by producing mitogenic, prosurvival, proangiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. Thyroid cancer is the most frequent type of endocrine neoplasia and is the most rapidly increasing cancer in the US. In this review, we discuss recent findings on how different immune cells and mediators can contribute to thyroid cancer development and progression. PMID:27471646

  20. Swine Toolkit Progress for US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (http://www.umass.edu/vetimm/) was established to address the lack of immunological reagents for veterinary species. Within this context, plans are underway to produce sets of reagents needed to evaluate immune changes during disease and following vaccination...

  1. U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagents Network: Progress with poultry immune reagents development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease research is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for veterinary animal species. In 2006, U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (VIRN) Consortium (www.vetimm.org) was developed to develop immune reagents against ma...

  2. Epidemic spreading and immunization in node-activity networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Chen, Shufang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the epidemic spreading in node-activity networks, where an individual participates in social networks with a certain rate h. There are two cases for h: the state-independent case and the state-dependent case. We investigate the epidemic threshold as a function of h compared to the static network. Our results suggest the epidemic threshold cannot be exactly predicted by using the analysis approach in the static network. In addition, we further propose a local information-based immunization protocol on node-activity networks. Simulation analysis shows that the immunization can not only eliminate the infectious disease, but also change the epidemic threshold via increasing the immunization parameter.

  3. Anti-idiotype antibody vaccine therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, Malaya; Chatterjee, Sunil K; Foon, Kenneth A

    2002-12-01

    The use of anti-idiotype (Id) antibodies as vaccines to stimulate antitumour immunity is one of several promising immunologic approaches to the therapy of cancer. Extensive studies in animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of anti-Id vaccines in preventing tumour growth and curing mice with established tumours. A number of monoclonal anti-Id antibodies that mimic distinct human tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) have been developed and tested in the clinic, and demonstrate encouraging results. In general, the antigen mimicry by anti-Id antibodies has reflected structural homology in the majority of the cases, and amino acid sequence homology in a few of them. The greatest challenge of immunotherapy by means of anti-Id vaccines is to identify the optimal anti-Id antibody that will function as a true surrogate antigen for a TAA system, and ideally will generate both humoral and cellular immune responses. Although several clinical studies have shown enhanced survival of patients receiving anti-Id vaccines, the efficacy of these vaccines will depend on the results of several randomised Phase III clinical trials that are currently planned or ongoing. PMID:12517266

  4. Differential protein network analysis of the immune cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Trevor; Hovig, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen) completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks. PMID:25309909

  5. A biologically inspired immunization strategy for network epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Deng, Yong; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Well-known immunization strategies, based on degree centrality, betweenness centrality, or closeness centrality, either neglect the structural significance of a node or require global information about the network. We propose a biologically inspired immunization strategy that circumvents both of these problems by considering the number of links of a focal node and the way the neighbors are connected among themselves. The strategy thus measures the dependence of the neighbors on the focal node, identifying the ability of this node to spread the disease. Nodes with the highest ability in the network are the first to be immunized. To test the performance of our method, we conduct numerical simulations on several computer-generated and empirical networks, using the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The results show that the proposed strategy largely outperforms the existing well-known strategies. PMID:27113785

  6. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH)3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice. PMID:22108317

  7. Immunization strategy for epidemic spreading on multilayer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buono, C.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    In many real-world complex systems, individuals have many kinds of interactions among them, suggesting that it is necessary to consider a layered-structure framework to model systems such as social interactions. This structure can be captured by multilayer networks and can have major effects on the spreading of process that occurs over them, such as epidemics. In this letter we study a targeted immunization strategy for epidemic spreading over a multilayer network. We apply the strategy in one of the layers and study its effect in all layers of the network disregarding degree-degree correlation among layers. We found that the targeted strategy is not as efficient as in isolated networks, due to the fact that in order to stop the spreading of the disease it is necessary to immunize more than 80% of the individuals. However, the size of the epidemic is drastically reduced in the layer where the immunization strategy is applied compared to the case with no mitigation strategy. Thus, the immunization strategy has a major effect on the layer were it is applied, but does not efficiently protect the individuals of other layers.

  8. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  9. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-08-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a "template" for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex "information processing networks" in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance. PMID:26092524

  10. Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements

    PubMed Central

    Ladjemi, Maha Z.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), researchers have tried to develop immune-based anti-cancer therapies. Thanks to their specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offer the major advantage to induce fewer side effects than those caused by non-specific conventional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy). Passive immunotherapy by means of mAbs or cytokines has proved efficacy in oncology and validated the use of immune-based agents as part of anti-cancer treatment options. The next step was to try to induce an active immune protection aiming to boost own’s host immune defense against TAAs. Cancer vaccines are thus developed to specifically induce active immune protection targeting only tumor cells while preserving normal tissues from a non-specific toxicity. But, as most of TAAs are self antigens, an immune tolerance against them exists representing a barrier to effective vaccination against these oncoproteins. One promising approach to break this immune tolerance consists in the use of anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) mAbs, so called Ab2, as antigen surrogates. This vaccination strategy allows also immunization against non-proteic antigens (such as carbohydrates). In some clinical studies, anti-Id cancer vaccines indeed induced efficient humoral and/or cellular immune responses associated with clinical benefit. This review article will focus on recent achievements of anti-Id mAbs use as cancer vaccines in solid tumors. PMID:23133825

  11. Immune allied genetic algorithm for Bayesian network structure learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qin; Lin, Feng; Sun, Wei; Chang, KC

    2012-06-01

    Bayesian network (BN) structure learning is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we present an improved approach to enhance efficiency of BN structure learning. To avoid premature convergence in traditional single-group genetic algorithm (GA), we propose an immune allied genetic algorithm (IAGA) in which the multiple-population and allied strategy are introduced. Moreover, in the algorithm, we apply prior knowledge by injecting immune operator to individuals which can effectively prevent degeneration. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, we present some experimental results.

  12. Targeting lymphoma with precision using semisynthetic anti-idiotype peptibodies.

    PubMed

    Torchia, James; Weiskopf, Kipp; Levy, Ronald

    2016-05-10

    B-cell lymphomas express a functionally active and truly tumor-specific cell-surface product, the variable region of the B-cell receptor (BCR), otherwise known as idiotype. The tumor idiotype differs, however, from patient to patient, making it a technical challenge to exploit for therapy. We have developed a method of targeting idiotype by using a semisynthetic personalized therapeutic that is more practical to produce on a patient-by-patient basis than monoclonal antibodies. In this method, a small peptide with affinity for a tumor idiotype is identified by screening a library, chemically synthesized, and then affixed to the amino terminus of a premade IgG Fc protein. We demonstrate that the resultant semisynthetic anti-idiotype peptibodies kill tumor cells in vitro with specificity, trigger tumor cell phagocytosis by macrophages, and efficiently clear human lymphoma in a murine xenograft model. This method could be used to target tumor with true precision on a personalized basis. PMID:27114517

  13. Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy-chain single-domain antibody for the aflatoxin immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Majkova, Zuzana; Bever, Candace R S; Kim, Hee Joo; Zhang, Qi; Dechant, Julie E; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. Single-domain antibodies from camlid heavy-chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability, and ease in expression, are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an antiaflatoxin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1C11. Three anti-idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay toward aflatoxin as a coating antigen. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHH antibodies shows an IC50 of 0.16 ng/mL toward aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity toward aflatoxin B2, G1, and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4%, and 37.7%, respectively. The VHH-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the analysis of peanuts, corn, and rice, which are the predominant commodities regularly contaminated by aflatoxins. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.89) was found between the data obtained from the conventional ELISA and the ELISA based on a VHH coating antigen for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts and feedstuff. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate, the absence of standard aflatoxin and organic solvents in the synthesis procedures, and the reproducibility of the VHH antibody makes it an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. PMID:23965250

  14. Single-chain anti-idiotypic antibody retains its specificity to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP5.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Gang; Li, Qiongyi; Du, Yongkun; Du, Taofeng; Mu, Yang; Xiao, Shuqi; Zhao, Qin; Wang, Chengbao; Sun, Yani; Xu, Xingang; Zhang, Gaiping; Hsu, Walter H; Cai, Xuehui; Zhou, En-Min

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (Mab2-5G2) raised against idiotypic antibodies to membrane glycoprotein GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) of Mab2-5G2 were cloned and connected with a (Gly4Ser)3 linker. The recombinant scFv gene was cloned into the pEasy-E1 vector and expressed in E. coli as inclusion bodies. The expressed scFv-His proteins renatured in a pH and urea gradient buffer retained the same immunological properties as that of Mab2-5G2. Renatured scFv-His protein retained the same characteristics as that of Mab2-5G2 by recognizing and binding to Marc-145 cells. Furthermore, renatured scFv-His along with Mab2-5G2 were used to immunize rabbits to produce anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3) that neutralized PRRSV infection of Marc-145 cells. These results demonstrated that the expressed scFv-His protein possessed the same characteristics of Mab2-5G2 and will be suitable for future investigations of Mab2-5G2 antibody structure and its ability to interact with potential PRRSV cellular receptor as well as immunological properties against PRRSV infection. PMID:25448704

  15. Immunization against the Spread of Rumors in Homogenous Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Since most rumors are harmful, how to control the spread of such rumors is important. In this paper, we studied the process of "immunization" against rumors by modeling the process of rumor spreading and changing the termination mechanism for the spread of rumors to make the model more realistic. We derived mean-field equations to describe the dynamics of the rumor spread. By carrying out steady-state analysis, we derived the spreading threshold value that must be exceeded for the rumor to spread. We further discuss a possible strategy for immunization against rumors and obtain an immunization threshold value that represents the minimum level required to stop the rumor from spreading. Numerical simulations revealed that the average degree of the network and parameters of transformation probability significantly influence the spread of rumors. More importantly, the simulations revealed that immunizing a higher proportion of individuals is not necessarily better because of the waste of resources and the generation of unnecessary information. So the optimal immunization rate should be the immunization threshold. PMID:25933430

  16. Immunization against the Spread of Rumors in Homogenous Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Laijun; Wang, Jiajia; Huang, Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Since most rumors are harmful, how to control the spread of such rumors is important. In this paper, we studied the process of "immunization" against rumors by modeling the process of rumor spreading and changing the termination mechanism for the spread of rumors to make the model more realistic. We derived mean-field equations to describe the dynamics of the rumor spread. By carrying out steady-state analysis, we derived the spreading threshold value that must be exceeded for the rumor to spread. We further discuss a possible strategy for immunization against rumors and obtain an immunization threshold value that represents the minimum level required to stop the rumor from spreading. Numerical simulations revealed that the average degree of the network and parameters of transformation probability significantly influence the spread of rumors. More importantly, the simulations revealed that immunizing a higher proportion of individuals is not necessarily better because of the waste of resources and the generation of unnecessary information. So the optimal immunization rate should be the immunization threshold. PMID:25933430

  17. Anti-idiotypic antibodies induce neutralizing antibodies to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Srikumaran, S; Onisk, D V; Borca, M V; Nataraj, C; Zamb, T J

    1990-01-01

    A neutralizing murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) of the IgG2a isotype (MM-113), specific for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein gIV, was used to develop anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) in a calf. The bovine anti-Id were isolated from the serum of the immunized calf by affinity chromatography on an MM-113-Sepharose column, followed by repeated adsorption on a murine IgG2a column. The anti-Id thus obtained specifically reacted with MM-113, but not with isotype-matched controls. They also inhibited the binding of MM-113 to BHV-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mice immunized with the anti-Id produced neutralizing antibodies to BHV-1. The anti-Id bound to cells permissive to BHV-1 in a cell-binding radioimmunoassay (RIA). PMID:2165998

  18. The immune system as a self-centered network of lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Santori, Fabio R.

    2015-01-01

    This essay makes a brief historical and comparative review of selective and network theories of the immune system which is presented as a chemical sensory system with immune and non-immune functions. The ontogeny of immune networks is the result of both positive and negative selection of lymphocytes to self-epitopes that serve as a “template” for the recognition of foreign antigens. The development of immune networks progresses from single individual clones in early ontogeny into complex “information processing networks” in which lymphocytes are linked to inhibitory and stimulatory immune cells. The results of these regulatory interactions modulate immune responses and tolerance. PMID:26092524

  19. Network immunization under limited budget using graph spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahedi, R.; Khansari, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm that minimizes the worst expected growth of an epidemic by reducing the size of the largest connected component (LCC) of the underlying contact network. The proposed algorithm is applicable to any level of available resources and, despite the greedy approaches of most immunization strategies, selects nodes simultaneously. In each iteration, the proposed method partitions the LCC into two groups. These are the best candidates for communities in that component, and the available resources are sufficient to separate them. Using Laplacian spectral partitioning, the proposed method performs community detection inference with a time complexity that rivals that of the best previous methods. Experiments show that our method outperforms targeted immunization approaches in both real and synthetic networks.

  20. Epidemic spreading and immunization strategy in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Zuzek, Lucila G.; Buono, Camila; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2015-09-01

    A more connected world has brought major consequences such as facilitate the spread of diseases all over the world to quickly become epidemics, reason why researchers are concentrated in modeling the propagation of epidemics and outbreaks in multilayer networks. In this networks all nodes interact in different layers with different type of links. However, in many scenarios such as in the society, a multiplex network framework is not completely suitable since not all individuals participate in all layers. In this paper, we use a partially overlapped, multiplex network where only a fraction of the individuals are shared by the layers. We develop a mitigation strategy for stopping a disease propagation, considering the Susceptible-Infected- Recover model, in a system consisted by two layers. We consider a random immunization in one of the layers and study the effect of the overlapping fraction in both, the propagation of the disease and the immunization strategy. Using branching theory, we study this scenario theoretically and via simulations and find a lower epidemic threshold than in the case without strategy.

  1. Dissemination strategy for immunizing scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, Alexandre O.; Barbosa, Valmir C.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the problem of distributing a vaccine for immunizing a scale-free network against a given virus or worm. We introduce a method, based on vaccine dissemination, that seems to reflect more accurately what is expected to occur in real-world networks. Also, since the dissemination is performed using only local information, the method can be easily employed in practice. Using a random-graph framework, we analyze our method both mathematically and by means of simulations. We demonstrate its efficacy regarding the trade-off between the expected number of nodes that receive the vaccine and the network’s resulting vulnerability to develop an epidemic as the virus or worm attempts to infect one of its nodes. For some scenarios, the method is seen to render the network practically invulnerable to attacks while requiring only a small fraction of the nodes to receive the vaccine.

  2. Monoclonal anti-idiotypes induce neutralizing antibodies to enterovirus 70 conformational epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, J A; Hamel, J; Brodeur, B R

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the prototype enterovirus 70 (EV-70) strain J670/71 were generated and characterized in order to produce anti-idiotypic MAbs (MAb2s) for use as surrogate immunogens. Western immunoblot and radioimmunoprecipitation assays suggested that all the MAbs recognize conformational epitopes on the virion surface. An EV-70-neutralizing antibody, MAb/ev-12 (MAb1), was selected for the production of MAb2s. Five MAb2s were selected for their capacities to inhibit the interaction of MAb/ev-12 with EV-70 in dot immunobinding inhibition and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, these five MAb2s inhibited virus neutralization mediated by MAb/ev-12, suggesting that they recognize paratope-associated idiotopes. In competition enzyme immunosorbent assays, none of the five MAb2s recognized other neutralizing and nonneutralizing EV-70-specific MAbs, demonstrating that the MAb2s were specific for private idiotopes. Immunization with each of the MAb2s was carried out for the production of anti-anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab3). All five MAb2s induced an immune response. Moreover, results suggested that they share idiotopes, since MAb2-MAb/ev-12 binding could be inhibited by homologous as well as heterologous Ab3s. Ab3 sera were shown to possess antibodies capable of immunoprecipitating 35S-labeled viral proteins in the same manner as MAb/ev-12. Nine of 15 mice immunized with MAb2s demonstrated Ab3 neutralizing activity specific for the prototype EV-70 strain, J670/71. The potential application of MAb2s to serve as surrogate immunogens for conformational epitopes is substantiated by the results presented in this report. Images PMID:1382141

  3. Responsive immunization and intervention for infectious diseases in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Zhang, Haifeng; Zeng, Guanghong

    2014-06-01

    By using the microscopic Markov-chain approximation approach, we investigate the epidemic spreading and the responsive immunization in social networks. It is assumed that individual vaccination behavior depends on the local information of an epidemic. Our results suggest that the responsive immunization has negligible impact on the epidemic threshold and the critical value of initial epidemic outbreak, but it can effectively inhibit the outbreak of epidemic. We also analyze the influence of the intervention on the disease dynamics, where the vaccination is available only to those individuals whose number of neighbors is greater than a certain value. Simulation analysis implies that the intervention strategy can effectively reduce the vaccine use under the epidemic control.

  4. Immunization and epidemic threshold of an SIS model in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Fu, Xinchu

    2016-02-01

    We propose an improved mean-field model to investigate immunization strategies of an SIS model in complex networks. Unlike the traditional mean-field approach, the improved model utilizes the degree information of before and after the immunization. The epidemic threshold of degree-correlated networks can be obtained by linear stability analysis. For degree-uncorrelated networks, the model is reduced to the SIS epidemic model in networks after removing the immunized nodes. Compared to the previous results of random and targeted immunization schemes on degree-uncorrelated networks, we find that the infectious disease has a lower epidemic threshold.

  5. Abagovomab: an anti-idiotypic CA-125 targeted immunotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grisham, Rachel N; Berek, Jonathan; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Sabbatini, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies. Most patients present with advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. Although many have a good initial response to surgical debulking and platinum-based chemotherapy, relapse is common, with the eventual development of chemotherapy resistance. Innovative treatments are needed in the remission setting to prolong the disease-free interval or prevent recurrence. Abagovomab is a murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (molecular wieght: 165–175 kDa) that functionally imitates the tumor-associated antigen, CA-125. It has been shown to be well tolerated and to induce a sustained immune response in initial Phase I and II clinical trials. An ongoing, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, Phase III trial (MIMOSA) completed its double-blind period in December 2010 and will compare abagovomab maintenance therapy to placebo, which will definitively determine the efficacy of this immunotherapeutic approach in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:21322756

  6. Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C. V.; Traylor-Knowles, N.

    2012-01-01

    Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions, improve current prediction tools and aid conservation efforts. PMID:22896649

  7. Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C V; Traylor-Knowles, N

    2012-10-22

    Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions, improve current prediction tools and aid conservation efforts. PMID:22896649

  8. Effects of immunity on global oscillations in epidemic spreading in small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ke; Hua, Da-yin

    2010-08-01

    Considering a decay of an individual immunity, we investigated a susceptible-infectedrefractory-susceptible (SIRS) model in Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-word networks. It is found that when an individual immunity does not change or decays slowly in an immune period, the system can exhibit a transition from a stationary state to a large amplitude sustained oscillation. When the immunity decays rapidly in the immune period, the transition disappears and there is no oscillation. Furthermore, based on the spatio-temporal evolution patterns, it is disclosed that a long immunity period takes an important role in the emergence of the global oscillation in small world networks.

  9. Immune networks: multi-tasking capabilities at medium load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, E.; Annibale, A.; Barra, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Tantari, D.

    2013-08-01

    Associative network models featuring multi-tasking properties have been introduced recently and studied in the low-load regime, where the number P of simultaneously retrievable patterns scales with the number N of nodes as P ˜ log N. In addition to their relevance in artificial intelligence, these models are increasingly important in immunology, where stored patterns represent strategies to fight pathogens and nodes represent lymphocyte clones. They allow us to understand the crucial ability of the immune system to respond simultaneously to multiple distinct antigen invasions. Here we develop further the statistical mechanical analysis of such systems, by studying the medium-load regime, P ˜ Nδ with δ ∈ (0, 1]. We derive three main results. First, we reveal the nontrivial architecture of these networks: they exhibit a high degree of modularity and clustering, which is linked to their retrieval abilities. Second, by solving the model we demonstrate for δ < 1 the existence of large regions in the phase diagram where the network can retrieve all stored patterns simultaneously. Finally, in the high-load regime δ = 1 we find that the system behaves as a spin-glass, suggesting that finite-connectivity frameworks are required to achieve effective retrieval.

  10. Optimization strategies with resource scarcity: From immunization of networks to the traveling salesman problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellingeri, Michele; Agliari, Elena; Cassi, Davide

    2015-10-01

    The best strategy to immunize a complex network is usually evaluated in terms of the percolation threshold, i.e. the number of vaccine doses which make the largest connected cluster (LCC) vanish. The strategy inducing the minimum percolation threshold represents the optimal way to immunize the network. Here we show that the efficacy of the immunization strategies can change during the immunization process. This means that, if the number of doses is limited, the best strategy is not necessarily the one leading to the smallest percolation threshold. This outcome should warn about the adoption of global measures in order to evaluate the best immunization strategy.

  11. Reconfiguration of the immune system network during food limitation in the caterpillar Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A; Davies, Gillian; Easy, Russell; Kovalko, Ilya; Turnbull, Kurtis F

    2016-03-01

    Dwindling resources might be expected to induce a gradual decline in immune function. However, food limitation has complex and seemingly paradoxical effects on the immune system. Examining these changes from an immune system network perspective may help illuminate the purpose of these fluctuations. We found that food limitation lowered long-term (i.e. lipid) and short-term (i.e. sugars) energy stores in the caterpillar Manduca sexta. Food limitation also: altered immune gene expression, changed the activity of key immune enzymes, depressed the concentration of a major antioxidant (glutathione), reduced resistance to oxidative stress, reduced resistance to bacteria (Gram-positive and -negative bacteria) but appeared to have less effect on resistance to a fungus. These results provide evidence that food limitation led to a restructuring of the immune system network. In severely food-limited caterpillars, some immune functions were enhanced. As resources dwindled within the caterpillar, the immune response shifted its emphasis away from inducible immune defenses (i.e. those responses that are activated during an immune challenge) and increased emphasis on constitutive defenses (i.e. immune components that are produced consistently). We also found changes suggesting that the activation threshold for some immune responses (e.g. phenoloxidase) was lowered. Changes in the configuration of the immune system network will lead to different immunological strengths and vulnerabilities for the organism. PMID:26747906

  12. Immunological signaling networks: Integrating the body's immune response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immune system’s role is to eliminate disease from the host. Immune cells are primarily responsible for eliminating pathogens or cancerous cells. In addition, immune cells regulate the immune response affecting the types of cells that are activated or suppressed. The following discussion is an...

  13. Characterization of a purified nicotinic receptor from rat brain by using idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Abood, L.G.; Langone, J.J.; Bjercke, R.; Lu, X.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-09-01

    The availability of an anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody has made it possible to further establish the nature of the nicotine recognition proteins purified from rat brain by affinity chromatography and to provide a highly sensitive assay for determining (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding to the purified material. An enantiomeric analogue of nicotine. (-)-6-hydroxymethylnicotine, was used to prepare the affinity column. In addition, with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, it was confirmed that the recognition site for nicotine resides on a protein complex composed of two components with molecular masses of 62 and 57 kDa. It was also demonstrated that the same two proteins could be purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody. With the use of the anti-nicotine antibody to measure (/sup 3/H)nicotine binding, the purified material was shown to bind 250 pmol/mg of protein. By utilizing a procedure in which the purified receptor protein was conjugated to membranes by disulfide bonds, a binding activity of 80 pmol/mg was obtained. With the availability of sterospecific monoclonal antibodies to (-)-nicotine as well as monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies derived when the anti-nicotine antibodies were used as immunogens, additional procedures became available for the further characterization of the purified nicotine receptor and examining its (-)-(/sup 3/H)nicotine-binding characteristics.

  14. Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies are present in intravenous immunoglobulin and are produced in mice following its administration.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, David A; Klaver, Andrea C; Coffey, Mary P

    2015-06-01

    The effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products were recently examined in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although encouraging results were obtained in pilot studies, later trials produced negative results. The rationale for these studies was that IVIG contains antibodies to amyloid-beta (Aβ). However, if Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies (antibodies which bind to anti-Aβ antibodies) are present in IVIG or induced by its administration, these antibodies could potentially reduce its neuroprotective effects in AD. The objective of this study was to determine if IVIG contained such antibodies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) measured specific binding of IVIG Gamunex to purified human anti-Aβ IgG. The mean concentration of its Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies in four experiments was 1.85 μg/mL (18.5 μg/g IgG; range = 1.82-1.89 μg/mL [18.2-18.9 μg/g IgG]), and their mean percentage of specific binding was 72.2% (range = 68.3-75.3%). We then performed ELISAs to determine if antibodies to purified human anti-Aβ were produced in C57BL/6 mice injected with the IVIG product Gammagard in an earlier study. After subtracting the expected immune response to normal human immunoglobulins, the median concentrations of these antibodies were 15.6 ng/mL (range = 1.2-108.2 ng/mL) in pre-treatment sera and 2419.4 ng/mL (range = 327.4-8478.4 ng/mL) in post-treatment sera. These results indicate that specific Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies are detectable in IVIG and may be induced in mice by its administration. The presence of Aβ anti-idiotypic antibodies in IVIG products might decrease neuroprotective effects of their anti-Aβ antibodies in AD. PMID:25392130

  15. Influence of dynamic immunization on epidemic spreading in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Fu, Xinchu; Jin, Zhen; Small, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a new dynamic immunization method based on the static immunization algorithm and study the relationship between dynamic and static immunization. By nodes to be immunized according to static immunization strategies, we build a connection between dynamic and static immunization. Using theoretical arguments and computational simulation we show that dynamic immunization (from a finite vaccine reservoir) is not sufficient to prevent epidemic outbreak, nor does it significantly change the asymptotic prevalence. Nonetheless, we do find that less total vaccine is required to implement this strategy. To help understand this better, we examine the extent and distribution of dynamic immunization required to achieve this reduced vaccine demand. Our results suggest that it is not necessary to increase the immunization rate when the infection rate is relatively small.

  16. From network-to-antibody robustness in a bio-inspired immune system.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Leon, Jose A; Acosta, Gerardo G; Mayosky, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural robustness at antibody and immune network level is discussed. The robustness of the immune response that drives an autonomous mobile robot is examined with two computational experiments in the autonomous mobile robots trajectory generation context in unknown environments. The immune response is met based on the immune network metaphor for different low-level behaviours coordination. These behaviours are activated when a robot sense the appropriate conditions in the environment in relation to the network current state. Results are obtained over a case study in computer simulation as well as in laboratory experiments with a Khepera II microrobot. In this work, we develop a set of tests where such an immune response is externally perturbed at network or low-level behavioural modules to analyse the robust capacity of the system to unexpected perturbations. Emergence of robust behaviour and high-level immune response relates to the coupling between behavioural modules that are selectively engaged with the environment based on immune response. Experimental evidence leads discussions on a dynamical systems perspective of behavioural robustness in artificial immune systems that goes beyond the isolated immune network response. PMID:21315135

  17. Epidemic outbreak for an SIS model in multiplex networks with immunization.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingchu; Lou, Yijun; Zhu, Wenfang

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of understanding epidemic spreading in a general multiplex network and designing optimal immunization strategies, a mathematical model based on multiple degree is built to analyze the threshold condition for epidemic outbreak. Two kinds of strategies, the multiplex node-based immunization and the layer node-based immunization, are examined. Theoretical results show that the general framework proposed here can illustrate the effect of diverse correlations and immunizations on the outbreak condition in multiplex networks. Under a set of conditions on uncorrelated coefficients, the specific epidemic thresholds are shown to be only dependent on the respective degree distribution in each layer. PMID:27105863

  18. An effective immunization strategy for airborne epidemics in modular and hierarchical social contact network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhichao; Ge, Yuanzheng; Luo, Lei; Duan, Hong; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2015-12-01

    Social contact between individuals is the chief factor for airborne epidemic transmission among the crowd. Social contact networks, which describe the contact relationships among individuals, always exhibit overlapping qualities of communities, hierarchical structure and spatial-correlated. We find that traditional global targeted immunization strategy would lose its superiority in controlling the epidemic propagation in the social contact networks with modular and hierarchical structure. Therefore, we propose a hierarchical targeted immunization strategy to settle this problem. In this novel strategy, importance of the hierarchical structure is considered. Transmission control experiments of influenza H1N1 are carried out based on a modular and hierarchical network model. Results obtained indicate that hierarchical structure of the network is more critical than the degrees of the immunized targets and the modular network layer is the most important for the epidemic propagation control. Finally, the efficacy and stability of this novel immunization strategy have been validated as well.

  19. Sensitive detection of idiotypic platelet-reactive alloantibodies by an electrical protein chip.

    PubMed

    Quiel, Annett; Jürgen, Britta; Greinacher, Andreas; Lassen, Susan; Wörl, Ralf; Witt, Sabine; Schweder, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To prevent and treat immune-mediated platelet disorders (e.g. neonatal allo-immune thrombocytopenia and platelet transfusion refractoriness) the causative idiotypic platelet-reactive antibodies have to be detected with high sensitivity and specificity. The "Monoclonal Antibody Immobilization Platelet Assay" (MAIPA) is the diagnostic gold standard for immunotyping sera with respect to alloantibodies against human platelet antigens (HPA). However, it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this work, an automated protein chip assay (enzyme-linked sandwich immunoassay) based on interdigitated gold microelectrodes in combination with an electrical read-out system was developed and optimized. For this purpose, specific capture antibodies were immobilized on the gold electrodes. The binding of the target is detected via an enzyme-labeled detection antibody by a redox-recycling process that corresponds to the amount of bound target molecule. With this electrical chip assay it is possible to detect antibodies against HPA-1a, HPA-5b and HLA with high sensitivity and specificity in less than half the duration of the MAIPA protocol with similar intra- and interassay variance. PMID:22572157

  20. Yeast killer toxin-like candidacidal Ab6 antibodies elicited through the manipulation of the idiotypic cascade.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Beninati, Concetta; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Sperindè, Martina; Lo Passo, Carla; Pernice, Ida; Domina, Maria; Arigò, Milena; Papasergi, Salvatore; Mancuso, Giuseppe; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A mouse anti-anti-anti-idiotypic (Id) IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb K20, Ab4), functionally mimicking a Wyckerhamomyces anomalus (Pichia anomala) killer toxin (KT) characterized by fungicidal activity against yeasts presenting specific cell wall receptors (KTR) mainly constituted by β-1,3-glucan, was produced from animals presenting anti-KT Abs (Ab3) following immunization with a rat IgM anti-Id KT-like mAb (mAb K10, Ab2). MAb K10 was produced by immunization with a KT-neutralizing mAb (mAb KT4, Ab1) bearing the internal image of KTR. MAb K20, likewise mAb K10, proved to be fungicidal in vitro against KT-sensitive Candida albicans cells, an activity neutralized by mAb KT4, and was capable of binding to β-1,3-glucan. MAb K20 and mAb K10 competed with each other and with KT for binding to C. albicans KTR. MAb K20 was used to identify peptide mimics of KTR by the selection of phage clones from random peptide phage display libraries. Using this strategy, four peptides (TK 1-4) were selected and used as immunogen in mice in the form of either keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) conjugates or peptide-encoding minigenes. Peptide and DNA immunization could induce serum Abs characterized by candidacidal activity, which was inhibited by laminarin, a soluble β-1,3-glucan, but not by pustulan, a β-1,6-glucan. These findings show that the idiotypic cascade can not only overcome the barrier of animal species but also the nature of immunogens and the type of technology adopted. PMID:25162681

  1. Demonstration of anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against IgM rheumatoid factor in the serum of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, W K; Barnett, E V

    1989-01-01

    We have identified the presence of anti-idiotypic activity against IgMRF in the sera of RA patients. Only patients seropositive for IgMRF had significant levels of anti-idiotypic activity, while seronegative patients and normal volunteers did not. When this anti-idiotypic activity was affinity-purified from a single RA patient, two separate binding activities were identified. IgG antibodies were pepsin-digested to F(ab')2 fragments before affinity-purification to remove the Fc portion capable of binding to IgMRF. Anti-idiotypic F(ab')2 fragments of IgG were eluted from an IgMRF-Sepharose 4B column. These F(ab')2 bound preferentially to IgMRF bearing an idiotype recognized by the anti-idiotypic murine monoclonal 17.109. A second anti-idiotypic F(ab')2 was affinity purified using rabbit anti-human Fc antibody bound to Sepharose 4B. These eluted antibodies behaved as the internal image of IgG, binding five out of seven IgMRF's tested. The binding of both anti-idiotypic F(ab')2 was inhibited with human IgG. The presence of both IgMRF and anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against it in the sera of RA patients suggests that anti-idiotypic antibodies alone are not capable of inhibiting the production of rheumatoid factor. PMID:2702773

  2. Internal-image anti-idiotype HIV-1gp120 antibody in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive individuals with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed Central

    Karpatkin, S; Nardi, M A; Kouri, Y H

    1992-01-01

    Anti-CD4 antibody was found in 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-seropositive thrombocytopenic patients compared with 5% of nonthrombocytopenic seropositive patients (chi 2 = 21.7, P less than 0.001) and was shown by the following observations to contain internal-image anti-idiotype antibody (Ab2) directed against the antibody (Ab1) to gp120, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein that binds to CD4: (i) affinity-purified anti-CD4 (Ab2) bound to affinity-purified anti-HIV-1gp120 (Ab1) on solid-phase radioimmunoassay, and binding could be blocked by recombinant CD4 (rCD4) as well as recombinant gp120 (rgp120); (ii) F(ab')2 fragments of Ab1 inhibited the binding of Ab2 to rCD4; (iii) Ab2 inhibited the binding of Ab1 to HIV-1 beads; (iv) Ab2 inhibited the binding of Ab1 to gp120 on immunoblot; (v) Ab2 bound to the CD4 receptor on a CD4-bearing T-cell line, H9; (vi) Ab3 (anti-rgp120) could be produced in vivo by immunizing mice with Ab2, and binding of Ab3 to rgp120 could be blocked with rCD4; and (vii) three different Ab2 preparations bound to two different homologous Ab1 preparations. Ab1 or Ab2 alone did not bind to platelets, whereas the idiotype-anti-idiotype complex did bind to platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Binding of the internal-image complex was 10-fold greater than that of a non-internal-image Ab1-Ab2 complex composed of anti-HIV-1gp120 and anti-anti-HIV-1gp120. Thus, patients with HIV-1 thrombocytopenia contain internal-image idiotype-anti-idiotype complexes that could be affecting CD4 cell number or function, inhibiting HIV-1 binding to CD4 cells or contributing to HIV-1 thrombocytopenia. Images PMID:1741404

  3. Revealing shared and distinct gene network organization in Arabidopsis immune responses by integrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaobao; Jiang, Zhenhong; Peng, You-Liang; Zhang, Ziding

    2015-03-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) are two main plant immune responses to counter pathogen invasion. Genome-wide gene network organizing principles leading to quantitative differences between PTI and ETI have remained elusive. We combined an advanced machine learning method and modular network analysis to systematically characterize the organizing principles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PTI and ETI at three network resolutions. At the single network node/edge level, we ranked genes and gene interactions based on their ability to distinguish immune response from normal growth and successfully identified many immune-related genes associated with PTI and ETI. Topological analysis revealed that the top-ranked gene interactions tend to link network modules. At the subnetwork level, we identified a subnetwork shared by PTI and ETI encompassing 1,159 genes and 1,289 interactions. This subnetwork is enriched in interactions linking network modules and is also a hotspot of attack by pathogen effectors. The subnetwork likely represents a core component in the coordination of multiple biological processes to favor defense over development. Finally, we constructed modular network models for PTI and ETI to explain the quantitative differences in the global network architecture. Our results indicate that the defense modules in ETI are organized into relatively independent structures, explaining the robustness of ETI to genetic mutations and effector attacks. Taken together, the multiscale comparisons of PTI and ETI provide a systems biology perspective on plant immunity and emphasize coordination among network modules to establish a robust immune response. PMID:25614062

  4. Revealing Shared and Distinct Gene Network Organization in Arabidopsis Immune Responses by Integrative Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaobao; Jiang, Zhenhong; Peng, You-Liang; Zhang, Ziding

    2015-01-01

    Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) are two main plant immune responses to counter pathogen invasion. Genome-wide gene network organizing principles leading to quantitative differences between PTI and ETI have remained elusive. We combined an advanced machine learning method and modular network analysis to systematically characterize the organizing principles of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PTI and ETI at three network resolutions. At the single network node/edge level, we ranked genes and gene interactions based on their ability to distinguish immune response from normal growth and successfully identified many immune-related genes associated with PTI and ETI. Topological analysis revealed that the top-ranked gene interactions tend to link network modules. At the subnetwork level, we identified a subnetwork shared by PTI and ETI encompassing 1,159 genes and 1,289 interactions. This subnetwork is enriched in interactions linking network modules and is also a hotspot of attack by pathogen effectors. The subnetwork likely represents a core component in the coordination of multiple biological processes to favor defense over development. Finally, we constructed modular network models for PTI and ETI to explain the quantitative differences in the global network architecture. Our results indicate that the defense modules in ETI are organized into relatively independent structures, explaining the robustness of ETI to genetic mutations and effector attacks. Taken together, the multiscale comparisons of PTI and ETI provide a systems biology perspective on plant immunity and emphasize coordination among network modules to establish a robust immune response. PMID:25614062

  5. Security framework for networked storage system based on artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianzhong; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Chengfeng; Zhan, Ling

    2007-11-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical framework for the networked storage system addressing the storage security. The immune system is an adaptive learning system, which can recognize, classify and eliminate 'non-self' such as foreign pathogens. Thus, we introduced the artificial immune technique to the storage security research, and proposed a full theoretical framework for storage security system. Under this framework, it is possible to carry out the quantitative evaluation for the storage security system using modeling language of artificial immune system (AIS), and the evaluation can offer security consideration for the deployment of networked storage system. Meanwhile, it is potential to obtain the active defense technique suitable for networked storage system via exploring the principle of AIS and achieve a highly secure storage system with immune characteristic.

  6. Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library. PMID:25910884

  7. Alterations of idiotypic profiles: The cellular basis of T15 dominance in BALB/c mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wemhoff, G.A.; Quintans, J. )

    1987-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (PC) is a component of cell walls and membranes from a variety of widely distributed microorganisms. It is highly immunogenic in mice and most murine strains have circulating anti-PC antibodies which are known to confer protection against certain bacterial infections. BALB/c mice offer a striking example of a high responsiveness to PC, a propensity to generate PC-binding myelomas, and a great restriction of idiotype expression in anti-PC antibodies; in fact, most BALB/c anti-PC IgM antibodies express the T15 idiotype marker. Although it has been suspected that T15 dominance is somewhat related to the continuous antigenic load presented by microorganismal flora found in conventional mice, a complete experimental account of how antigenic selection brings about such extreme idiotypic dominance is not yet available. In the studies presented below, we investigated the role played by the host environment, T cells, and antigen in affecting the generation of the anti-PC T15 idiotype profile in lethally irradiated adoptive hosts reconstituted with syngeneic neonatal liver cells. The results presented herein indicate that the transfer of mature carrier-primed T cells with neonatal liver cells does not influence the generation of the T15 idiotype profile. We also demonstrated that anti-T15 idiotype suppressed mice, used as lethally irradiated hosts of immature immunocompetent cells, allow an increased rate of reconstitution of the anti-PC response when compared to nonsuppressed hosts. Since the administration of a T15+ anti-PC antibody inhibits both reconstitution and idiotype expansion, we conclude that T15+ B cells do not self-promote themselves. In contrast, we observed that exposure of adoptive hosts to PC antigens can enhance the anti-PC response and alter the idiotypic profile in favor of T15-bearing clones.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-09-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone. PMID:6350169

  9. Cytotoxic effect of anti-idiotype antibody-chlorambucil conjugates against human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tung, E; Goust, J M; Chen, W Y; Kang, S S; Wang, I Y; Wang, A C

    1983-01-01

    The secreted IgMs of two human lymphoblastoid cell lines, RPMI-6410 and RPMI-8392, were purified. Antisera against these two IgMs were raised in rabbits and made idiotypically specific to the respective antigens through various absorption procedures. By immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay techniques, the purified anti-idiotype antibodies were found to react also with the membrane Igs of the respective cell lines, but not with those of other cell lines. The purified anti-idiotype antibodies were then coupled with Chlorambucil to form antibody-drug conjugates, whose effectiveness in the in-vitro killing of target cells was evaluated by a chromium-release cytotoxicity assay. The results showed that these anti-idiotype antibody-Chlorambucil conjugates were specifically cytotoxic to lymphoblastoid cells that bore membrane Igs carrying the respective idiotypic determinant(s). Furthermore, the conjugates were far more effective in causing cytolysis to the target cells than either Chlorambucil or the anti-idiotype antibodies alone. PMID:6350169

  10. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A ... That Shot? en español Las vacunas Why Are Vaccinations Important? Measles, mumps, and whooping cough may seem ...

  11. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  12. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  13. Cellular networks controlling Th2 polarization in allergy and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kool, Mirjam; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the development of Th1 (type 1 T helper cells), Th17 and Treg (regulatory T cells), little is known of the mechanisms governing Th2 development, which is important for immunity to helminths and for us to understand the pathogenesis of allergy. A picture is emerging in which mucosal epithelial cells instruct dendritic cells to promote Th2 responses in the absence of IL-12 (interleukin 12) production and provide instruction through thymic stromal lymphopoieitin (TSLP) or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). At the same time, allergens, helminths and chemical adjuvants elicit the response of innate immune cells like basophils, which provide more polarizing cytokines and IL-4 and reinforce Th2 immunity. This unique communication between cells will only be fully appreciated if we study Th2 immunity in vivo and in a tissue-specific context, and can only be fully understood if we compare several models of Th2 immune response induction. PMID:22403589

  14. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-05-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors.

  15. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met(5)]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met(5)]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors. PMID:27193598

  16. The simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster Crassostrea gigas mediates complex functions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Sun, Ying; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Hou, Zhanhui; Gao, Dahai; Gao, Qiang; Song, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) regulatory network is a complex system, which plays an indispensable role in the immunity of the host. In the present study, the bioinformatical analysis of the transcriptomic data from oyster Crassostrea gigas and further biological validation revealed that oyster TNF (CgTNF-1 CGI_10018786) could activate the transcription factors NF-κB and HSF (heat shock transcription factor) through MAPK signaling pathway, and then regulate apoptosis, redox reaction, neuro-regulation and protein folding in oyster haemocytes. The activated immune cells then released neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, norepinephrine and [Met5]-enkephalin to regulate the immune response by arising the expression of three TNF (CGI_10005109, CGI_10005110 and CGI_10006440) and translocating two NF-κB (Cgp65, CGI_10018142 and CgRel, CGI_10021567) between the cytoplasm and nuclei of haemocytes. Neurotransmitters exhibited the immunomodulation effects by influencing apoptosis and phagocytosis of oyster haemocytes. Acetylcholine and norepinephrine could down-regulate the immune response, while [Met5]-enkephalin up-regulate the immune response. These results suggested that the simple neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network in oyster might be activated by oyster TNF and then regulate the immune response by virtue of neurotransmitters, cytokines and transcription factors. PMID:27193598

  17. Reverse engineering biological networks :applications in immune responses to bio-toxins.

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, Anthony A.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, Edward Victor; Slepoy, Alexander; Zhang, Zhaoduo; May, Elebeoba Eni; Martin, Shawn Bryan; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel

    2005-12-01

    Our aim is to determine the network of events, or the regulatory network, that defines an immune response to a bio-toxin. As a model system, we are studying T cell regulatory network triggered through tyrosine kinase receptor activation using a combination of pathway stimulation and time-series microarray experiments. Our approach is composed of five steps (1) microarray experiments and data error analysis, (2) data clustering, (3) data smoothing and discretization, (4) network reverse engineering, and (5) network dynamics analysis and fingerprint identification. The technological outcome of this study is a suite of experimental protocols and computational tools that reverse engineer regulatory networks provided gene expression data. The practical biological outcome of this work is an immune response fingerprint in terms of gene expression levels. Inferring regulatory networks from microarray data is a new field of investigation that is no more than five years old. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt that integrates experiments, error analyses, data clustering, inference, and network analysis to solve a practical problem. Our systematic approach of counting, enumeration, and sampling networks matching experimental data is new to the field of network reverse engineering. The resulting mathematical analyses and computational tools lead to new results on their own and should be useful to others who analyze and infer networks.

  18. Inflammatory networks and immune surveillance of pancreatic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vonderheide, Robert H.; Bayne, Lauren J.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated inflammation plays an important role in restraining anti-tumor immunity, particularly in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) for which a massive infiltration of immunosuppressive leukocytes into the tumor stroma is an early and consistent event in oncogenesis. This pathophysiology is in contrast to many other solid tumors for which infiltration of effector T cells is often prominent, associated with improved clinical outcomes, and mechanistically contributes to tumor immunoediting that ultimately can mediate immune escape. In PDA, increasing evidence suggests that the ras oncogene drives an inflammatory program that establishes immune privilege in the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, PDA cells might remain intrinsically sensitive to T cell killing because they have never been exposed to T cell selective pressure in vivo. In support of this hypothesis, recent studies demonstrate that derailing immune suppressive pathways in the PDA microenvironment, such as tumor derived GM-CSF, facilitates T-cell mediated tumor rejection. These findings carry major implications for the development of novel, combination immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:23422836

  19. MicroRNA-mediated networks underlie immune response regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Tsung; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2014-09-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy with low death rate but increased incidence and recurrence in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with diverse regulatory capacities in eukaryotes and have been frequently implied in human cancer. Despite current progress, however, a panoramic overview concerning miRNA regulatory networks in PTC is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the expression datasets of PTC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal and demonstrate for the first time that immune responses are significantly enriched and under specific regulation in the direct miRNA-target network among distinctive PTC variants to different extents. Additionally, considering the unconventional properties of miRNAs, we explore the protein-coding competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and the modulatory networks in PTC and unexpectedly disclose concerted regulation of immune responses from these networks. Interestingly, miRNAs from these conventional and unconventional networks share general similarities and differences but tend to be disparate as regulatory activities increase, coordinately tuning the immune responses that in part account for PTC tumor biology. Together, our systematic results uncover the intensive regulation of immune responses underlain by miRNA-mediated networks in PTC, opening up new avenues in the management of thyroid cancer.

  20. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of acquired immune response

    PubMed Central

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS which we call Adaptive Immune Response Simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system which responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner which is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate acquired immune system, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices. PMID:26391084

  1. Enhanced antigen-antibody binding affinity mediated by an anti-idiotypic antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Sawutz, D.G.; Koury, R.; Homcy, C.J.

    1987-08-25

    The authors previously described the production of four monoclonal antibodies to the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor antagonist alprenolol. One of these antibodies, 5B7 (IgG/sub 2a/, kappa), was used to raise anti-idiotypic antisera in rabbits. In contrast to the expected results, one of the anti-idiotypic antisera (R9) promotes (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopinodolol (ICYP) binding to antibody 5B7. In the presence of R9, the dissociation constant decreases 100-fold from 20 to 0.3 nM. This increase in binding affinity of antibody 5B7 for ICYP is not observed in the presence of preimmune, rabbit anti-mouse or anti-idiotypic antisera generated to a monoclonal antibody of a different specificity. Furthermore, R9 in the absence of 5B7 does not bind ICYP. The F(ab) fragments of 5B7 and T9 behaved in a similar manner, and the soluble complex responsible for the high-affinity interaction with ICYP can be identified by gel filtration chromatography. The elution position of the complex is consistent with a 5B7 F(ab)-R9 F(ab) dimer, indicating that polyvalency is not responsible for the enhanced ligand binding. Kinetic analysis of ICYP-5B7 binding revealed that the rate of ICYP dissociation from 5B7 in the presence of R9 is approximately 100 times slower than in the absence of R9, consistent with the 100-fold change in binding affinity of 5B7 for ICYP. The available data best fit a model in which an anti-idiotypic antibody binds at or near the binding site of the idiotype participating in the formation of a hybrid ligand binding site. This would allow increased contact of the ligand with the idiotype-anti-idiotype complex and result in an enhanced affinity of the ligand interaction.

  2. [Effect of forest therapy on the human psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network].

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2011-09-01

    Traditional thinking considered the nervous system, endocrine system and immune system to be independent of each other. However, it is now widely accepted that these systems interact through the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network. The nervous system affects the endocrine and immune systems by releasing neurotransmitters through the hypothalamus in the hypothalamic-pituitary portal circulation. The endocrine system affects the nervous and immune systems by secreting hormones and the immune system feeds back to the nervous and endocrine systems via cytokines. Forest therapy reduces sympathetic nervous activity, increases parasympathetic nervous activity, and regulates the balance of autonomic nerves. As a result, forest therapy decreases blood pressure and heart rate and has a relaxing effect. Forest therapy affects psychological responses via the brain and nervous system thereby decreasing the scores for anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion, and increasing the score for vigor in the POMS test. Forest therapy acts on the endocrine system to reduce stress hormone levels such as urinary adrenaline, urinary noradrenaline, salivary cortisol, and blood cortisol levels and shows a relaxing effect. Forest therapy also acts directly and indirectly on the immune system to promote NK activity by increasing the number of NK cells and intracellular levels of anticancer proteins such as perforin, granulysin and granzymes. Taken together, forest therapy brings various effects on human health via the psycho-neuro-endocrino-immune network. PMID:21996762

  3. Automata network theories in immunology: their utility and their underdetermination.

    PubMed

    Atlan, H

    1989-01-01

    Small networks of threshold automata are used to model complex interactions between populations of regulatory cells (helpers and suppressors, antigen specific and anti-idiotypic) which participate in the immune response. The models, being discrete and semiquantitative, are well adapted to the situation of incomplete information often encountered in vivo. However, the dynamics of many different network structures usually end up in the same attractor set. Thus, many different theories are equivalent in their explicative power for the same facts. This property, known as underdetermination of the theories by the facts, is given a quantitative estimate. It appears that such an underdetermination, as a kind of irreducible complexity, can be expected in many in vivo biological processes, even when the number of interacting and functionally coupled elements is relatively small. PMID:2924021

  4. Increasing Influenza and Pneumococcal Immunization Rates in a Nursing Home Network

    PubMed Central

    Nace, David A.; Perera, Subashan; Handler, Steven M.; Muder, Robert; Hoffman, Erika L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Rationale Influenza and pneumonia remain serious health concerns for long-term care (LTC) residents. Vaccination of LTC residents and health care workers are reasonable preventive strategies, although most facilities fall short of Healthy People 2010 goals. Improving immunization rates across multiple LTC facilities remains an elusive challenge. This quality improvement study sought to improve immunization rates across 6 LTC facilities and identify persistent barriers to better performance. Methods In 2002, 6 facilities associated with the University of Pittsburgh Institute on Aging established a quality improvement network addressing immunization rates. The facilities were provided with a written educational toolkit and shared information through an e-mail distribution list. To help determine optimal program structure in future years, 3 of the facilities participated in a single half-day collaborative training session. Change in immunization rates from baseline to year 2 were compared between those participating in the collaborative training and those not participating. Barriers to improved performance were sought from all groups through focus group analysis. Results Facilities participating in the single collaborative training program improved immunization rates modestly, whereas facilities not participating in the collaborative training saw decreases in immunization rates. Staff turnover was cited as a significant barrier to improved performance. Discussion It may be possible to improve immunization rates in LTC facilities, at least modestly, using a collaborative training process. Staff turnover may be an important barrier to improved LTC immunization rates. PMID:21450182

  5. IMMUNOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IDIOTYPES OF MOUSE MYELOMA PROTEINS WITH SPECIFICITY FOR LEVAN OR DEXTRAN

    PubMed Central

    Weigert, Martin; Raschke, William C.; Carson, Dennis; Cohn, Melvin

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals solely with idiotypic determinants, the configurations of which are modified when the antibody bearing them interacts with its ligand. This phenomenon is measured as an inhibition of the reaction between anti-idiotype and idiotype. Two points are made: (a) The assay for ligand-modifiable determinants can be used to determine the "size" of the combining site. This is illustrated here with the anti-α(1 → 6) dextran mouse myeloma immunoglobulin W3129. Whether the interaction between a homologous series of α(1 → 6) oligosaccharide ligands and the combining site of W3129 is measured by inhibition of precipitation with α(1 → 6) dextran (4) or of binding of W3129 to anti-W3129 idiotype, the finding is the same. The order of inhibition is isomaltohexaose = isomaltopentaose >> isomaltotetraose > isomaltotriose >>> isomaltose. The combining site is optimally complementary to isomaltopentaose. (b) Cross-idiotypic specificity is closely correlated with cross-combining specificity; the converse is not true. This is illustrated here with three groups of mouse myeloma immunoglobulin, each specific for α(1 → 3) dextran, α(1 →6) dextran, β(2 → 1) or β(2 → 6) levan. If a given anti-idiotypic serum cross-reacted with several myeloma proteins, they always had similar combining specificity. Thus the three proteins, J558, MOPC 104E, and UPC 102, which cross-react with anti-J558 have combining specificity for α(1 → 3) dextran; cross-reacting W3082, UPC 61, and Y5476 have specificity for levan; and cross-reacting W3129 and W3434 have specificity for α(1 → 6) dextran. This extends previous studies with proteins specific for phosphorylcholine (7) or γ-globulin (8). As expected, the converse is not true, for proteins may have combining specificity for α(1 → 6) dextran e.g. QUPC 52, or levan e.g. J606, UPC 10 and yet not carry the above-mentioned reference idiotypes. The correlation between cross-idiotypic and combining specificity breaks down

  6. Immune Cells and Molecular Networks in Experimentally Induced Pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Renard, E; Gaudin, A; Bienvenu, G; Amiaud, J; Farges, J C; Cuturi, M C; Moreau, A; Alliot-Licht, B

    2016-02-01

    Dental pulp is a dynamic tissue able to resist external irritation during tooth decay by using immunocompetent cells involved in innate and adaptive responses. To better understand the immune response of pulp toward gram-negative bacteria, we analyzed biological mediators and immunocompetent cells in rat incisor pulp experimentally inflamed by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline solution (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS]). Untreated teeth were used as control. Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, chemokine ligands, growth factors, and enzymes were evaluated at the transcript level, and the recruitment of the different leukocytes in pulp was measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis after 3 h, 9 h, and 3 d post-PBS or post-LPS treatment. After 3 d, injured rat incisors showed pulp wound healing and production of reparative dentin in both LPS and PBS conditions, testifying to the reversible pulpitis status of this model. IL6, IL1-β, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, MMP9, and iNOS gene expression were significantly upregulated after 3 h of LPS stimulation as compared with PBS. The immunoregulatory cytokine IL10 was also upregulated after 3 h, suggesting that LPS stimulates not only inflammation but also immunoregulation. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis revealed a significant, rapid, and transient increase in leukocyte levels 9 h after PBS and LPS stimulation. The quantity of dendritic cells was significantly upregulated with LPS versus PBS. Interestingly, we identified a myeloid-derived suppressor cell-enriched cell population in noninjured rodent incisor dental pulp. The percentage of this population, known to regulate immune response, was higher 9 h after inflammation triggered with PBS and LPS as compared with the control. Taken together, these data offer a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of dental pulp immunity that may be elicited by gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26472753

  7. Neutrophil Priming by Cigarette Smoke Condensate and a Tobacco Anti-Idiotypic Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, Susan M.; Kuhnmuench, John R.; Becker, Carl G.

    2000-01-01

    A polyphenol-rich reagent, referred to as CSC, was isolated from cigarette smoke condensate and shown to prime purified human neutrophils. A mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody directed against the polyphenol-reactive determinants on a rabbit polyclonal anti-tobacco glycoprotein antibody was generated and shown to also prime neutrophils. After priming by CSC or tobacco anti-idiotypic antibody, there was a 2.5-fold to threefold increase in CD11b/18 expression and doubling of the number of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine receptors on the cells. The primed cells showed a twofold increase, compared with unprimed cells, in production of superoxide and release of neutrophil elastase after stimulation with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Neutrophils in peripheral blood of cigarette smokers have been shown to be primed and more responsive to activating agents. The priming effects attributed to whole cigarette smoke have been demonstrated in these studies using purified neutrophils and CSC or tobacco anti-idiotypic antibody. These studies are a first step in testing the hypothesis that the inflammatory process contributing to progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in ex-smokers may be driven, in part, by tobacco anti-idiotypic antibodies. This hypothesis is novel and carries with it the implication of a heretofore unrecognized autoimmune component in the disease process manifested through production of anti-idiotypic antibodies with tobacco-like activity. PMID:11073832

  8. Mechanisms of tumour cell escape encountered in treating lymphocytic leukaemia with anti-idiotypic antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, J.; Abdul-Ahad, A. K.; Hamblin, T. J.; Stevenson, F. K.; Stevenson, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Four patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia were treated by one or more infusions of polyclonal antibody specific for the immunoglobulin idiotype expressed on their leukaemic cells. The antibody was in the form of IgG from sheep antiserum. Three of the 4 cases showed a significant fall in blood lymphocyte count. On one occasion most of the residual circulating lymphocytes were apparently dead. However on all occasions the cell counts rebounded to near pre-infusion levels within one week. Viable lymphocytes recovered from the blood after infusion always showed evidence of antigenic modulation: a diminished level of surface idiotype in a patched distribution, with an accompanying refractoriness to lysis by anti-idiotype plus complement. When cultured in vitro blood lymphocytes from three of the four patients revealed an appreciable export of idiotypic Ig. These 3 patients showed plasma levels of idiotypic Ig up to 400 micrograms ml-1, reduced by plasma exchange prior to infusion. The fourth patient had a level of less than 4 micrograms ml-1, and was the only one in whom free antibody could be found in the plasma after infusion. These cases demonstrate two major factors which thwart antibody attack on leukaemic cells--extracellular antigen and antigenic modulation--as well as problems relating to sparseness of surface antigen, recruitment of effectors, and exhaustion of effectors. PMID:6722005

  9. Trail networks formed by populations of immune cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Kwon, Tae Goo; Park, Jin-sung; Lee, Kyoung J.

    2014-02-01

    Populations of biological cells that communicate with each other can organize themselves to generate large-scale patterns. Examples can be found in diverse systems, ranging from developing embryos, cardiac tissues, chemotaxing ameba and swirling bacteria. The similarity, often shared by the patterns, suggests the existence of some general governing principle. On the other hand, rich diversity and system-specific properties are exhibited, depending on the type of involved cells and the nature of their interactions. The study on the similarity and the diversity constitutes a rapidly growing field of research. Here, we introduce a new class of self-organized patterns of cell populations that we term as ‘cellular trail networks’. They were observed with populations of rat microglia, the immune cells of the brain and the experimental evidence suggested that haptotaxis is the key element responsible for them. The essential features of the observed patterns are well captured by the mathematical model cells that actively crawl and interact with each other through a decomposing but non-diffusing chemical attractant laid down by the cells. Our finding suggests an unusual mechanism of socially cooperative long-range signaling for the crawling immune cells.

  10. Swine Toolkit Plans and Progress for the US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (http://www.umass.edu/vetimm/) was established to address the lack of immunological reagents specific for ruminant, porcine, poultry, equine and aquaculture species and accordingly has set a minimum goal of 20 reagents per species group. Current plans are to...

  11. A statistical mechanics approach to autopoietic immune networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Adriano; Agliari, Elena

    2010-07-01

    In this work we aim to bridge theoretical immunology and disordered statistical mechanics. We introduce a model for the behavior of B-cells which naturally merges the clonal selection theory and the autopoietic network theory as a whole. From the analysis of its features we recover several basic phenomena such as low-dose tolerance, dynamical memory of antigens and self/non-self discrimination.

  12. Maleimide conjugation markedly enhances the immunogenicity of both human and murine idiotype-KLH vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kafi, Kamran; Betting, David J.; Yamada, Reiko E.; Bacica, Michael; Steward, Kristopher K.; Timmerman, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The collection of epitopes present within the variable regions of the tumor-specific clonal immunoglobulin expressed by B cell lymphomas (idiotype, Id) can serve as a target for active immunotherapy. Traditionally, tumor-derived Id protein is chemically-conjugated to the immunogenic foreign carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using glutaraldehyde to serve as a therapeutic vaccine. While this approach offered promising results for some patients treated in early clinical trials, glutaraldehyde Id-KLH vaccines have failed to induce immune and clinical responses in many vaccinated subjects. We recently described an alternative conjugation method employing maleimide-sulfhydryl chemistry that significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Id-KLH vaccines in three different murine B cell lymphoma models, with protection mediated by either CD8+ T cells or antibodies. We now define in detail the methods and parameters critical for enhancing the in vivo immunogenicity of human as well as murine Id-KLH conjugate vaccines. Optimal conditions for Id sulfhydryl pre-reduction were determined, and maleimide Id-KLH conjugates maintained stability and potency even after prolonged storage. Field flow fractionation analysis of Id-KLH particle size revealed that maleimide conjugates were far more uniform in size than glutaraldehyde conjugates. Under increasingly stringent conditions, maleimide Id-KLH vaccines maintained superior efficacy over glutaraldehyde Id-KLH in treating established, disseminated murine lymphoma. More importantly, human maleimide Id-KLH conjugates were consistently superior to glutaraldehyde Id-KLH conjugates in inducing Id-specific antibody and T cell responses. The described methods should be easily adaptable to the production of clinical grade vaccines for human trials in B cell malignancies. PMID:19046770

  13. Maleimide conjugation markedly enhances the immunogenicity of both human and murine idiotype-KLH vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Kamran; Betting, David J; Yamada, Reiko E; Bacica, Michael; Steward, Kristopher K; Timmerman, John M

    2009-01-01

    The collection of epitopes present within the variable regions of the tumor-specific clonal immunoglobulin expressed by B cell lymphomas (idiotype, Id) can serve as a target for active immunotherapy. Traditionally, tumor-derived Id protein is chemically conjugated to the immunogenic foreign carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using glutaraldehyde to serve as a therapeutic vaccine. While this approach offered promising results for some patients treated in early clinical trials, glutaraldehyde Id-KLH vaccines have failed to induce immune and clinical responses in many vaccinated subjects. We recently described an alternative conjugation method employing maleimide-sulfhydryl chemistry that significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Id-KLH vaccines in three different murine B cell lymphoma models, with protection mediated by either CD8(+) T cells or antibodies. We now define in detail the methods and parameters critical for enhancing the in vivo immunogenicity of human as well as murine Id-KLH conjugate vaccines. Optimal conditions for Id sulfhydryl pre-reduction were determined, and maleimide Id-KLH conjugates maintained stability and potency even after prolonged storage. Field flow fractionation analysis of Id-KLH particle size revealed that maleimide conjugates were far more uniform in size than glutaraldehyde conjugates. Under increasingly stringent conditions, maleimide Id-KLH vaccines maintained superior efficacy over glutaraldehyde Id-KLH in treating established, disseminated murine lymphoma. More importantly, human maleimide Id-KLH conjugates were consistently superior to glutaraldehyde Id-KLH conjugates in inducing Id-specific antibody and T cell responses. The described methods should be easily adaptable to the production of clinical grade vaccines for human trials in B cell malignancies. PMID:19046770

  14. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of adaptive immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information-processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS that we call an adaptive immune response simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system that responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner that is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate AIS, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices.

  15. Characterization of the human immune cell network at the gingival barrier

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Moutsopoulos, Niki M.

    2015-01-01

    The oral mucosa is a barrier site constantly exposed to rich and diverse commensal microbial communities, yet little is known of the immune cell network maintaining immune homeostasis at this interface. We have performed a detailed characterization of the immune cell subsets of the oral cavity in a large cohort of healthy subjects. We focused our characterization on the gingival interface, a particularly vulnerable mucosal site, with thin epithelial lining and constant exposure to the tooth adherent biofilm. In health, we find a predominance of T cells, minimal B cells, a large presence of granulocytes/neutrophils, a sophisticated network of professional antigen presenting cells (APC) and a small population of innate lymphoid cells (ILC) policing the gingival barrier. We further characterize cellular subtypes in health and interrogate shifts in immune cell populations in the common oral inflammatory disease periodontitis. In disease we document an increase in neutrophils and an up regulation of IL-17 responses. We identify the main source of IL-17 in health and periodontitis within the CD4+ T cell compartment. Collectively our studies provide a first view of the landscape of physiologic oral immunity and serve as a baseline for the characterization of local immunopathology. PMID:26732676

  16. Viral immune modulators perturb the human molecular network by common and unique strategies.

    PubMed

    Pichlmair, Andreas; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Alvisi, Gualtiero; Mulhern, Orla; Sacco, Roberto; Habjan, Matthias; Binder, Marco; Stefanovic, Adrijana; Eberle, Carol-Ann; Goncalves, Adriana; Bürckstümmer, Tilmann; Müller, André C; Fauster, Astrid; Holze, Cathleen; Lindsten, Kristina; Goodbourn, Stephen; Kochs, Georg; Weber, Friedemann; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Bowie, Andrew G; Bennett, Keiryn L; Colinge, Jacques; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2012-07-26

    Viruses must enter host cells to replicate, assemble and propagate. Because of the restricted size of their genomes, viruses have had to evolve efficient ways of exploiting host cell processes to promote their own life cycles and also to escape host immune defence mechanisms. Many viral open reading frames (viORFs) with immune-modulating functions essential for productive viral growth have been identified across a range of viral classes. However, there has been no comprehensive study to identify the host factors with which these viORFs interact for a global perspective of viral perturbation strategies. Here we show that different viral perturbation patterns of the host molecular defence network can be deduced from a mass-spectrometry-based host-factor survey in a defined human cellular system by using 70 innate immune-modulating viORFs from 30 viral species. The 579 host proteins targeted by the viORFs mapped to an unexpectedly large number of signalling pathways and cellular processes, suggesting yet unknown mechanisms of antiviral immunity. We further experimentally verified the targets heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase, the WNK (with-no-lysine) kinase family and USP19 (ubiquitin-specific peptidase 19) as vulnerable nodes in the host cellular defence system. Evaluation of the impact of viral immune modulators on the host molecular network revealed perturbation strategies used by individual viruses and by viral classes. Our data are also valuable for the design of broad and specific antiviral therapies. PMID:22810585

  17. Characterization of the human immune cell network at the gingival barrier.

    PubMed

    Dutzan, N; Konkel, J E; Greenwell-Wild, T; Moutsopoulos, N M

    2016-09-01

    The oral mucosa is a barrier site constantly exposed to rich and diverse commensal microbial communities, yet little is known of the immune cell network maintaining immune homeostasis at this interface. We have performed a detailed characterization of the immune cell subsets of the oral cavity in a large cohort of healthy subjects. We focused our characterization on the gingival interface, a particularly vulnerable mucosal site, with thin epithelial lining and constant exposure to the tooth adherent biofilm. In health, we find a predominance of T cells, minimal B cells, a large presence of granulocytes/neutrophils, a sophisticated network of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and a small population of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) policing the gingival barrier. We further characterize cellular subtypes in health and interrogate shifts in immune cell populations in the common oral inflammatory disease periodontitis. In disease, we document an increase in neutrophils and an upregulation of interleukin-17 (IL-17) responses. We identify the main source of IL-17 in health and Periodontitis within the CD4(+) T-cell compartment. Collectively, our studies provide a first view of the landscape of physiologic oral immunity and serve as a baseline for the characterization of local immunopathology. PMID:26732676

  18. Local immunization program for susceptible-infected-recovered network epidemic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Lou, Yijun

    2016-02-01

    The immunization strategies through contact tracing on the susceptible-infected-recovered framework in social networks are modelled to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of information-based vaccination programs with particular focus on the scenario where individuals belonging to a specific set can get vaccinated due to the vaccine shortages and other economic or humanity constraints. By using the block heterogeneous mean-field approach, a series of discrete-time dynamical models is formulated and the condition for epidemic outbreaks can be established which is shown to be not only dependent on the network structure but also closely related to the immunization control parameters. Results show that increasing the immunization strength can effectively raise the epidemic threshold, which is different from the predictions obtained through the susceptible-infected-susceptible network framework, where epidemic threshold is independent of the vaccination strength. Furthermore, a significant decrease of vaccine use to control the infectious disease is observed for the local vaccination strategy, which shows the promising applications of the local immunization programs to disease control while calls for accurate local information during the process of disease outbreak.

  19. Spatial and functional heterogeneities shape collective behavior of tumor-immune networks.

    PubMed

    Wells, Daniel K; Chuang, Yishan; Knapp, Louis M; Brockmann, Dirk; Kath, William L; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-04-01

    Tumor growth involves a dynamic interplay between cancer cells and host cells, which collectively form a tumor microenvironmental network that either suppresses or promotes tumor growth under different conditions. The transition from tumor suppression to tumor promotion is mediated by a tumor-induced shift in the local immune state, and despite the clinical challenge this shift poses, little is known about how such dysfunctional immune states are initiated. Clinical and experimental observations have indicated that differences in both the composition and spatial distribution of different cell types and/or signaling molecules within the tumor microenvironment can strongly impact tumor pathogenesis and ultimately patient prognosis. How such "functional" and "spatial" heterogeneities confer such effects, however, is not known. To investigate these phenomena at a level currently inaccessible by direct observation, we developed a computational model of a nascent metastatic tumor capturing salient features of known tumor-immune interactions that faithfully recapitulates key features of existing experimental observations. Surprisingly, over a wide range of model formulations, we observed that heterogeneity in both spatial organization and cell phenotype drove the emergence of immunosuppressive network states. We determined that this observation is general and robust to parameter choice by developing a systems-level sensitivity analysis technique, and we extended this analysis to generate other parameter-independent, experimentally testable hypotheses. Lastly, we leveraged this model as an in silico test bed to evaluate potential strategies for engineering cell-based therapies to overcome tumor associated immune dysfunction and thereby identified modes of immune modulation predicted to be most effective. Collectively, this work establishes a new integrated framework for investigating and modulating tumor-immune networks and provides insights into how such interactions may

  20. Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Christopher A; Jong, Elaine C

    2016-03-01

    Vaccinations are a cornerstone of the pretravel consultation. The pretravel provider should assess a traveler's past medical history, planned itinerary, activities, mode of travel, and duration of stay and make appropriate vaccine recommendations. Given that domestic vaccine-preventable illnesses are more common in international travelers than are exotic or low-income nation-associated vaccine-preventable illnesses, clinicians should first ensure that travelers are current regarding routine immunizations. Additional immunizations may be indicated in some travelers. Familiarity with geographic distribution and seasonality of infectious diseases is essential. Clinicians should be cognizant of which vaccines are live, as there exist contraindications for live vaccines. PMID:26900111

  1. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  2. Analysis and optimization of cross-immunity epidemic model on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Yin-Hua; Feng, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    There are various infectious diseases in real world, and these diseases often spread on a network of population and compete for the limited hosts. Cross-immunity is an important disease competing pattern, which has attracted the attention of many researchers. In this paper, we discovered an important conclusion for two cross-immunity epidemics on a network. When the infectious ability of the second epidemic takes a fixed value, the infectious ability of the first epidemic has an optimal value which minimizes the sum of the infection sizes of the two epidemics. We also proposed a simple mathematical analysis method for the infection size of the second epidemic using the cavity method. The proposed method and conclusion are verified by simulation results. Minor inaccuracies of the existing mathematical methods for the infection size of the second epidemic are also found and discussed in experiments, which have not been noticed in existing research.

  3. A radial basis function neural network based on artificial immune systems for remote sensing image classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qin; Zhong, Yanfei

    2008-12-01

    The radial basis function (RBF) neural network is a powerful method for remote sensing image classification. It has a simple architecture and the learning algorithm corresponds to the solution of a linear regression problem, resulting in a fast training process. The main drawback of this strategy is the requirement of an efficient algorithm to determine the number, position, and dispersion of the RBF. Traditional methods to determine the centers are: randomly choose input vectors from the training data set; vectors obtained from unsupervised clustering algorithms, such as k-means, applied to the input data. These conduce that traditional RBF neural network is sensitive to the center initialization. In this paper, the artificial immune network (aiNet) model, a new computational intelligence based on artificial immune networks (AIN), is applied to obtain appropriate centers for remote sensing image classification. In the aiNet-RBF algorihtm, each input pattern corresonds to an antigenic stimulus, while each RBF candidate center is considered to be an element, or cell, of the immune network model. The steps are as follows: A set of candidate centers is initialized at random, where the initial number of candidates and their positions is not crucial to the performance. Then, the clonal selection principle will control which candidates will be selected and how they will be upadated. Note that the clonal selection principle will be responsible for how the centers will represent the training data set. Finally, the immune network will identify and eliminate or suppress self-recognizing individuals to control the number of candidate centers. After the above learning phase, the aiNet network centers represent internal images of the inuput patterns presented to it. The algorithm output is taken to be the matrix of memory cells' coordinates that represent the final centers to be adopted by the RBF network. The stopping criterion of the proposed algorithm is given by a pre

  4. An artificial immune system approach with secondary response for misbehavior detection in mobile ad hoc networks.

    PubMed

    Sarafijanović, Slavisa; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2005-09-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, nodes act both as terminals and information relays, and they participate in a common routing protocol, such as dynamic source routing (DSR). The network is vulnerable to routing misbehavior, due to faulty or malicious nodes. Misbehavior detection systems aim at removing this vulnerability. In this paper, we investigate the use of an artificial immune system (AIS) to detect node misbehavior in a mobile ad hoc network using DSR. The system is inspired by the natural immune system (IS) of vertebrates. Our goal is to build a system that, like its natural counterpart, automatically learns, and detects new misbehavior. We describe our solution for the classification task of the AIS; it employs negative selection and clonal selection, the algorithms for learning and adaptation used by the natural IS. We define how we map the natural IS concepts such as self, antigen, and antibody to a mobile ad hoc network and give the resulting algorithm for classifying nodes as misbehaving. We implemented the system in the network simulator Glomosim; we present detection results and discuss how the system parameters affect the performance of primary and secondary response. Further steps will extend the design by using an analogy to the innate system, danger signal, and memory cells. PMID:16252818

  5. Potentially pathogenic immune cells and networks in apparently healthy lacrimal glands.

    PubMed

    Mircheff, Austin K; Wang, Yanru; Ding, Chuanqing; Warren, Dwight W; Schechter, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    Lacrimal glands of people over 40 years old frequently contain lymphocytic infiltrates. Relationships between histopathological presentation and physiological dysfunction are not straightforward. Data from rabbit studies have suggested that at least two immune cell networks form in healthy lacrimal glands, one responding to environmental dryness, the other to high temperatures. New findings indicate that mRNAs for several chemokines and cytokines are expressed primarily in epithelial cells; certain others are expressed in both epithelial cells and immune cells. Transcript abundances vary substantially across glands from animals that have experienced the same conditions, allowing for correlation analyses, which detect clusters that map to various cell types and to networks of coordinately functioning cells. A core network--expressing mRNAs including IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-10--expands adaptively with exposure to dryness, suppressing IFN-γ, but potentially causing physiological dysfunction. High temperature elicits concurrent increases of mRNAs for prolactin (PRL), CCL21, and IL-18. PRL is associated with crosstalk to IFN-γ, BAFF, and IL-4. The core network reacts to the resulting PRL-BAFF-IL-4 network, creating a profile reminiscent of Sjögren's disease. In a warmer, moderately dry setting, PRL-associated increases of IFN-γ are associated with suppression of IL-10 and augmentations of IL-1α and IL-17, creating a profile reminiscent of severe chronic inflammation. PMID:25557346

  6. Uncovering the liver's role in immunity through RNA co-expression networks.

    PubMed

    Harrall, Kylie K; Kechris, Katerina J; Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L; Hines, Lisa M; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Pravenec, Michal; Printz, Morton; Saba, Laura M

    2016-10-01

    Gene co-expression analysis has proven to be a powerful tool for ascertaining the organization of gene products into networks that are important for organ function. An organ, such as the liver, engages in a multitude of functions important for the survival of humans, rats, and other animals; these liver functions include energy metabolism, metabolism of xenobiotics, immune system function, and hormonal homeostasis. With the availability of organ-specific transcriptomes, we can now examine the role of RNA transcripts (both protein-coding and non-coding) in these functions. A systems genetic approach for identifying and characterizing liver gene networks within a recombinant inbred panel of rats was used to identify genetically regulated transcriptional networks (modules). For these modules, biological consensus was found between functional enrichment analysis and publicly available phenotypic quantitative trait loci (QTL). In particular, the biological function of two liver modules could be linked to immune response. The eigengene QTLs for these co-expression modules were located at genomic regions coincident with highly significant phenotypic QTLs; these phenotypes were related to rheumatoid arthritis, food preference, and basal corticosterone levels in rats. Our analysis illustrates that genetically and biologically driven RNA-based networks, such as the ones identified as part of this research, provide insight into the genetic influences on organ functions. These networks can pinpoint phenotypes that manifest through the interaction of many organs/tissues and can identify unannotated or under-annotated RNA transcripts that play a role in these phenotypes. PMID:27401171

  7. Cellular Neural Network Models of Growth and Immune of Effector Cells Response to Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yongmei; Min, Lequan

    Four reaction-diffusion cellular neural network (R-D CNN) models are set up based on the differential equation models for the growths of effector cells and cancer cells, and the model of the immune response to cancer proposed by Allison et al. The CNN models have different reaction-diffusion coefficients and coupling parameters. The R-D CNN models may provide possible quantitative interpretations, and are good in agreement with the in vitro experiment data reported by Allison et al.

  8. Idiotypic sensitization in utero of children born to mothers with schistosomiasis or Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Eloi-Santos, S M; Novato-Silva, E; Maselli, V M; Gazzinelli, G; Colley, D G; Correa-Oliveira, R

    1989-01-01

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMC) of neonates born of mothers with Chagas' disease or schistosomiasis exhibited strong proliferative responses against idiotypes expressed on antibodies with specificity for Trypanosoma cruzi or Schistosoma mansoni antigens, respectively. These immunoaffinity-purified preparations were stimulatory if they were prepared from pools of patients' sera or from the mother's own serum, taken early during her pregnancy. These CBMC did not respond to normal immunoglobulin, and CBMC of neonates born of uninfected mothers did not respond to antibodies against either T. cruzi or S. mansoni, or normal immunoglobulin preparations. We propose that in utero exposure of a fetus to some idiotypes expressed on placentally transferred antibodies induces anti-Id T lymphocyte sensitization, which we detect as a proliferative response by CBMC exposed to immunoaffinity-purified antibodies expressing the relevant idiotypes. This is the first experimental evidence that children born of mothers with chronic infections undergo natural in utero idiotypic manipulations and are born possessing cellular anti-Id reactivity. PMID:2503542

  9. Development of an ELISA using anti-idiotypic antibody for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Bulashev, Aitbay K; Borovikov, Sergey N; Serikova, Shynar S; Suranshiev, Zhanbolat A; Kiyan, Vladimir S; Eskendirova, Saule Z

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody specific for an epitope of cretory-secretory antigen protein of Opisthorchis felineus (Rivolta, 1884) (Trematoda: Opisthorchiidae) with a molecular weight of 28 kDa was used in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immobilisation of liver fluke specific antigen to the solid phase. Examination of human sera by this ELISA compared with commercial assays demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody epitope is located within this significant parasite protein. Anti-idiotypic antibody specific for the paratope of this monoclonal antibody was obtained by a hybridoma technique. Mimicking an epitope of excretory-secretory antigen of O. felineus, it had the capacity to bind specific antibody and elicit an antibody response. The value of anti-idiotypic antibody as a substitute for the liver fluke antigen was tested by ELISA using serum samples of infected dogs. Anti-idiotypic antibody proved to be of value in both an indirect-ELISA and a competitive-ELISA for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis. Mature trematodes were isolated from all infected animals. The faecal egg counts were negative in dogs with a relatively small number of parasites, despite finding antibodies in serum by ELISA. Substitution of parasite antigen with anti-idiotype avoids the use of experimental animals and also reduces time-consuming steps of antigen preparation. PMID:27507639

  10. Influence of helper T cells on the expression of a murine intrastrain crossreactive idiotype.

    PubMed Central

    Hathcock, K S; Gurish, M F; Nisonoff, A; Conger, J D; Hodes, R J

    1986-01-01

    The requirement for idiotype-specific helper T (Th) cells in the generation of a major intrastrain crossreactive idiotype was investigated. This idiotype, designated CRIA, is associated with a large proportion of anti-p-azobenzenearsonate (anti-Ar) antibodies in A/J mice. Secondary in vitro responses were studied. Using carrier-primed heterogeneous Th-cell populations, it was found that CRIA expression is determined by the mouse strain that provides the responding B cells and is independent of the strain of the Th cells functioning in vitro. Thus, A/J or A.BY (Ighe) B-plus-accessory-cell populations, primed in vivo to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-Ar (KLH-Ar), generated CRIA-dominant responses in vitro in the presence of KLH-Ar regardless of whether the KLH-primed Th cells were derived from CRIA+ strains (A/J or A.BY, Ighe) or CRIA- strains (B10.A or C57BL/10, Ighb). Further, when major histocompatibility complex-restricted, KLH-specific Th-cell clones were used, the CRIA dominance of the Ar-specific responses was again determined by the strain providing B plus accessory cells. Similar levels of expression of CRIA in Ar-specific antibodies were generated in the presence of heterogeneous or cloned Th cells. The results suggest that there is no absolute requirement for idiotype-specific Th cells in generating an Ar-specific secondary antibody response in vitro. PMID:2934739

  11. Mapping a Dynamic Innate Immunity Protein Interaction Network Regulating Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Berman, Michael; Kong, Young-Yun; Dorf, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY To systematically investigate innate immune signaling networks regulating production of type I interferon, we analyzed protein complexes formed after microbial recognition. Fifty-eight baits were associated with 260 interacting proteins forming a human innate immunity interactome for type I interferon (HI5) of 401 unique interactions; 21% of interactions were modulated by RNA, DNA, or LPS. Overexpression and depletion analyses identified 22 unique genes that regulated NF-κB and ISRE reporter activity, viral replication, or virus-induced interferon production. Detailed mechanistic analysis defined a role for mind bomb (MIB) E3 ligases in K63-linked ubiquitination of TBK1, a kinase that phosphorylates IRF transcription factors controlling interferon production. Mib genes selectively controlled responses to cytosolic RNA. MIB deficiency reduced antiviral activity, establishing the role of MIB proteins as positive regulators of antiviral responses. The HI5 provides a dynamic physical and regulatory network that serves as a resource for mechanistic analysis of innate immune signaling. PMID:21903422

  12. A Stochastic Model for CD4+ T Cell Proliferation and Dissemination Network in Primary Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Boianelli, Alessandro; Pettini, Elena; Prota, Gennaro; Medaglini, Donata; Vicino, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The study of the initial phase of the adaptive immune response after first antigen encounter provides essential information on the magnitude and quality of the immune response. This phase is characterized by proliferation and dissemination of T cells in the lymphoid organs. Modeling and identifying the key features of this phenomenon may provide a useful tool for the analysis and prediction of the effects of immunization. This knowledge can be effectively exploited in vaccinology, where it is of interest to evaluate and compare the responses to different vaccine formulations. The objective of this paper is to construct a stochastic model based on branching process theory, for the dissemination network of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. The devised model is validated on in vivo animal experimental data. The model presented has been applied to the vaccine immunization context making references to simple proliferation laws that take into account division, death and quiescence, but it can also be applied to any context where it is of interest to study the dynamic evolution of a population. PMID:26301680

  13. Identification of a human neonatal immune-metabolic network associated with bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Claire L; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Craigon, Marie; Ross, Alan; Khondoker, Mizanur R; France, Rebecca; Ivens, Alasdair; Lynn, David J; Orme, Judith; Jackson, Allan; Lacaze, Paul; Flanagan, Katie L; Stenson, Benjamin J; Ghazal, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how human neonates respond to infection remains incomplete. Here, a system-level investigation of neonatal systemic responses to infection shows a surprisingly strong but unbalanced homeostatic immune response; developing an elevated set-point of myeloid regulatory signalling and sugar-lipid metabolism with concomitant inhibition of lymphoid responses. Innate immune-negative feedback opposes innate immune activation while suppression of T-cell co-stimulation is coincident with selective upregulation of CD85 co-inhibitory pathways. By deriving modules of co-expressed RNAs, we identify a limited set of networks associated with bacterial infection that exhibit high levels of inter-patient variability. Whereas, by integrating immune and metabolic pathways, we infer a patient-invariant 52-gene-classifier that predicts bacterial infection with high accuracy using a new independent patient population. This is further shown to have predictive value in identifying infection in suspected cases with blood culture-negative tests. Our results lay the foundation for future translation of host pathways in advancing diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies for neonatal sepsis. PMID:25120092

  14. Immunodynamics: a cancer immunotherapy trials network review of immune monitoring in immuno-oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Tumeh, Paul C; Benson, Don; Bhardwaj, Nina; Brody, Joshua; Formenti, Silvia; Fox, Bernard A; Galon, Jerome; June, Carl H; Kalos, Michael; Kirsch, Ilan; Kleen, Thomas; Kroemer, Guido; Lanier, Lewis; Levy, Ron; Lyerly, H Kim; Maecker, Holden; Marabelle, Aurelien; Melenhorst, Jos; Miller, Jeffrey; Melero, Ignacio; Odunsi, Kunle; Palucka, Karolina; Peoples, George; Ribas, Antoni; Robins, Harlan; Robinson, William; Serafini, Tito; Sondel, Paul; Vivier, Eric; Weber, Jeff; Wolchok, Jedd; Zitvogel, Laurence; Disis, Mary L; Cheever, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapies in addition to anti-CTLA-4 solidifies immunotherapy as a modality to add to the anticancer arsenal. Despite raising the bar of clinical efficacy, immunologically targeted agents raise new challenges to conventional drug development paradigms by highlighting the limited relevance of assessing standard pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Specifically, systemic and intratumoral immune effects have not consistently correlated with standard relationships between systemic dose, toxicity, and efficacy for cytotoxic therapies. Hence, PK and PD paradigms remain inadequate to guide the selection of doses and schedules, both starting and recommended Phase 2 for immunotherapies. The promise of harnessing the immune response against cancer must also be considered in light of unique and potentially serious toxicities. Refining immune endpoints to better inform clinical trial design represents a high priority challenge. The Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network investigators review the immunodynamic effects of specific classes of immunotherapeutic agents to focus immune assessment modalities and sites, both systemic and importantly intratumoral, which are critical to the success of the rapidly growing field of immuno-oncology. PMID:26981245

  15. Chemokines and Heart Disease: A Network Connecting Cardiovascular Biology to Immune and Autonomic Nervous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dusi, Veronica; Ghidoni, Alice; Ravera, Alice; De Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Calvillo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Among the chemokines discovered to date, nineteen are presently considered to be relevant in heart disease and are involved in all stages of cardiovascular response to injury. Chemokines are interesting as biomarkers to predict risk of cardiovascular events in apparently healthy people and as possible therapeutic targets. Moreover, they could have a role as mediators of crosstalk between immune and cardiovascular system, since they seem to act as a “working-network” in deep linkage with the autonomic nervous system. In this paper we will describe the single chemokines more involved in heart diseases; then we will present a comprehensive perspective of them as a complex network connecting the cardiovascular system to both the immune and the autonomic nervous systems. Finally, some recent evidences indicating chemokines as a possible new tool to predict cardiovascular risk will be described. PMID:27242392

  16. The immune tolerance network: a new paradigm for developing tolerance-inducing therapies.

    PubMed

    Rotrosen, Daniel; Matthews, Jeff B; Bluestone, Jeffrey A

    2002-07-01

    Immune tolerance therapies are designed to reprogram immune cells in a highly specific fashion to eliminate pathogenic responses while preserving protective immunity. A concept that has tantalized immunologists for decades, the development of tolerance-inducing therapies, would revolutionize the management of a wide range of chronic and often debilitating diseases by obviating the need for lifelong immunosuppressive regimens. The advances of the past decade have provided a more detailed understanding of the molecular events associated with T-cell recognition and activation. Building on these advances, immunologists have demonstrated the feasibility of various tolerance-inducing approaches in small- and large-animal models of autoimmunity, allergy, and transplant graft rejection. Unprecedented opportunities to test these approaches in a variety of human diseases have now emerged. To capitalize on these advances, the National Institutes of Health recently established the Immune Tolerance Network (ITN), an international consortium of more than 70 basic and clinical immunologists dedicated to the evaluation of novel tolerance-inducing therapies and associated studies of immunologic mechanisms. By using a unique interactive approach to accelerate the development of clinical tolerance therapies, the ITN is partnering with the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to examine innovative tolerogenic approaches in a range of allergic and autoimmune diseases and to prevent graft rejection after transplantation. Two years since its inception, the ITN now has approximately 2 dozen clinical trials or tolerance assays studies ongoing or in later stages of protocol development. This report summarizes the rationale for emphasizing clinical research on immune tolerance and highlights the progress of the ITN. PMID:12110811

  17. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody-based cancer vaccine induces apoptosis and antiangiogenic effect in a metastatic lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Y; Gonzalez, A; Lopez, A; Perez, R; Vazquez, A M; Montero, E

    2009-07-01

    Anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1E10 was generated by immunizing BALB/c mice with an Ab1 mAb which recognizes NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides and some tumor antigens. 1E10 mAb induces therapeutic effects in a primary breast carcinoma and a melanoma model. However, the tumor immunity mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we show that aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 mAb immunization induced anti-metastatic effect in the 3LL-D122 Lewis Lung carcinoma, a poorly immunogenic and highly metastatic model in C57BL/6 mice. The therapeutic effect was associated to the increment of T cells infiltrating metastases, the reduction of new blood vessels formation and the increase of apoptotic tumor cells in lung nodules. Interestingly, active immunization does not induce measurable antibodies to the 1E10 mAb, the NeuGc-GM3 or tumor cells, which may suggest a different mechanism which has to be elucidated. These findings may support the relevance of this target for cancer biotherapy. PMID:19066887

  18. Adaptive dynamic networks as models for the immune system and autocatalytic sets

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.D.; Kauffman, S.A.; Packard, N.H.; Perelson, A.S.

    1986-04-01

    A general class of network models is described that can be used to present complex adaptive systems. These models have two purposes: On a practical level they are closely based on real biological phenomena, and are intended to model detailed aspects of them. On a more general level, however, they provide a framework to address broader questions concerning evolution, pattern recognition, and other properties of living systems. This paper concentrates on the more general level, illustrating the basic concepts with two examples, a model of the immune system and a model for the spontaneous emergence of autocatalytic sets in a chemically reactive polymer soup. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Shared idiotypes and restricted immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain genes characterize murine autoantibodies of various specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Monestier, M; Manheimer-Lory, A; Bellon, B; Painter, C; Dang, H; Talal, N; Zanetti, M; Schwartz, R; Pisetsky, D; Kuppers, R

    1986-01-01

    The study of the Ig variable region heavy chain (VH) genes used to encode antibodies specific for self-epitopes from murine hybridomas showed that three VH families are primarily utilized: VH J558, the largest family, and VH QPC52 and VH 7183, the families most proximal to the Ig joining region heavy chain genes. These monoclonal autoantibodies express cross-reactive idiotopes shared by rheumatoid factors and antibodies specific for Sm. The expression of these idiotypes is independent of major histocompatibility complex and Ig constant region heavy chain haplotypes, self-antigen specificity, and even the VH gene family utilized. Though the experiments described here are limited to murine autoantibodies, similarities exist between murine and human autoimmune diseases. Studies that aim to investigate the relationship between VH gene expression and the presence of cross-reactive idiotypes among human autoantibodies should enable us to better understand the mechanisms of autoimmunity and self-tolerance. Images PMID:2427543

  20. CDR molecular localization of possible anti-idiotypic anti-DNA antibodies in normal subjects, patients with SLE, and SLE first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Williams, R W; Malone, C C; Silvestris, F

    1995-07-01

    Patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with disease worsening or severe flares frequently show very low levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-F(ab')2 antibody. Anti-F(ab')2 antibody probably represents a polyclonal collection of generic anti-idiotypic antibodies involved in immune homeostasis. We synthesized the entire variable regions of the heavy and light chains (VH and VL) of two monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies, V88 and 2A4, as overlapping 7-mers on small polypropylene pins and tested these linear segments of anti-DNA V-regions for reactivity against serum samples from 10 normal subjects with high serum IgG anti-F(ab')2, 11 normal subjects with low anti-F(ab')2, 5 patients with SLE with active uncontrolled disease, 3 patients with SLE in remission, and 8 unaffected normal first-degree SLE relatives. VH and VL regions of a human monoclonal IgG anti-rabies antibody were also tested as a control. Concordant IgG antibody reacting with the same complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) was arbitrarily scored as indicative of the presence of anti-idiotypic antibody in test serum samples. Among normal subjects with either high or low serum anti-F(ab')2 levels, 10% to 21% showed strong concordant anti-CDR reactions with either the monoclonal anti-DNA or the control monoclonal anti-rabies V-region sequences. However, all patients with active SLE showed no detectable anti-CDR-reactive antibody. Patients with SLE in remission often showed return of strong concordant anti-CDR antibody. Normal unaffected SLE relatives also showed high levels of anti-CDR reactivity for both monoclonal anti-DNA and anti-rabies antibody sequences. PMID:7602233

  1. Prevalence of 13 autoantibodies and of the 16/6 and related pathogenic idiotypes in 465 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and their relationship with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, G M; Drenkard, C; Villa, A R; Slor, H; Shafrir, S; Bakimer, R; Shoenfeld, Y; Alarcón-Segovia, D

    1997-01-01

    With a cross sectional study of 465 consecutive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients tested for 13 autoantibodies (Aab) and two idiotypes we determined the prevalence of Aab according to disease activity, both general and at particular organ systems. Seventy seven percent of SLE sera had at least one Aab and 56% had it at high titres. Pathogenic idiotypes had a prevalence of less than 10% and 166 sera had Aab to 5 or more antigens and 9 sera had Aab against all 13 antigens tested. Patients with active disease had increased prevalence of Aab to DNP, ssDNA, ENA, mitochondria and histones when considered at 5 s.d. above the mean of normal controls. The higher positivity of Aab in patients with active disease was confirmed in logistic regression analysis adjusted by age, disease duration, and intensity of treatment. A trend was observed of increased prevalence and titres of Aab from inactive disease without treatment, to inactive disease but still being treated, to active disease. Only 22% of patients with active disease had no Aab and the higher the number of Aab the higher the frequency of active disease. Patients with active arthritis, and to a lesser degree those with active mucocutaneous involvement, had higher prevalence and titres of most autoantibodies than patients with disease activity at other organ systems. Active renal disease associated only with anti-dsDNA, whereas active CNS disease associated with anti-mitochondrial Aab. Our findings support the vision of SLE as an immune dysregulation leading to polyclonal B cell activation with resulting production of multiple Aab. Their profiles seem influenced by genetical, hormonal and environmental factors and, in turn, they contribute to the clinical picture in each patient. Disease activity influences the presence of some, but not all, Aab and some of them may remain present in some patients, even in remission. PMID:9229360

  2. Vaccinomics, adversomics, and the immune response network theory: Individualized vaccinology in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    Poland, Gregory A.; Kennedy, Richard B.; McKinney, Brett A.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Lambert, Nathaniel D.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Oberg, Ann L.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines, like drugs and medical procedures, are increasingly amenable to individualization or personalization, often based on novel data resulting from high throughput “omics” technologies. As a result of these technologies, 21st century vaccinology will increasingly see the abandonment of a “one size fits all” approach to vaccine dosing and delivery, as well as the abandonment of the empiric “isolate–inactivate–inject” paradigm for vaccine development. In this review, we discuss the immune response network theory and its application to the new field of vaccinomics and adversomics, and illustrate how vaccinomics can lead to new vaccine candidates, new understandings of how vaccines stimulate immune responses, new biomarkers for vaccine response, and facilitate the understanding of what genetic and other factors might be responsible for rare side effects due to vaccines. Perhaps most exciting will be the ability, at a systems biology level, to integrate increasingly complex high throughput data into descriptive and predictive equations for immune responses to vaccines. Herein, we discuss the above with a view toward the future of vaccinology. PMID:23755893

  3. Learning Effective Connectivity Network Structure from fMRI Data Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ji, Junzhong; Liu, Jinduo; Liang, Peipeng; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Many approaches have been designed to extract brain effective connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, few of them can effectively identify the connectivity network structure due to different defects. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed to infer the effective connectivity between different brain regions by combining artificial immune algorithm (AIA) with the Bayes net method, named as AIAEC. In the proposed algorithm, a brain effective connectivity network is mapped onto an antibody, and four immune operators are employed to perform the optimization process of antibodies, including clonal selection operator, crossover operator, mutation operator and suppression operator, and finally gets an antibody with the highest K2 score as the solution. AIAEC is then tested on Smith's simulated datasets, and the effect of the different factors on AIAEC is evaluated, including the node number, session length, as well as the other potential confounding factors of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. It was revealed that, as contrast to other existing methods, AIAEC got the best performance on the majority of the datasets. It was also found that AIAEC could attain a relative better solution under the influence of many factors, although AIAEC was differently affected by the aforementioned factors. AIAEC is thus demonstrated to be an effective method for detecting the brain effective connectivity. PMID:27045295

  4. Learning Effective Connectivity Network Structure from fMRI Data Based on Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Junzhong; Liu, Jinduo; Liang, Peipeng; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Many approaches have been designed to extract brain effective connectivity from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. However, few of them can effectively identify the connectivity network structure due to different defects. In this paper, a new algorithm is developed to infer the effective connectivity between different brain regions by combining artificial immune algorithm (AIA) with the Bayes net method, named as AIAEC. In the proposed algorithm, a brain effective connectivity network is mapped onto an antibody, and four immune operators are employed to perform the optimization process of antibodies, including clonal selection operator, crossover operator, mutation operator and suppression operator, and finally gets an antibody with the highest K2 score as the solution. AIAEC is then tested on Smith’s simulated datasets, and the effect of the different factors on AIAEC is evaluated, including the node number, session length, as well as the other potential confounding factors of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. It was revealed that, as contrast to other existing methods, AIAEC got the best performance on the majority of the datasets. It was also found that AIAEC could attain a relative better solution under the influence of many factors, although AIAEC was differently affected by the aforementioned factors. AIAEC is thus demonstrated to be an effective method for detecting the brain effective connectivity. PMID:27045295

  5. The Signaling Networks of the Herpesvirus Entry Mediator (TNFRSF14) in Immune Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Marcos; Cheung, Timothy C.; Ware, Carl F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) (TNFRSF14) regulates T-cell immune responses by activating both inflammatory and inhibitory signaling pathways. HVEM acts as both a receptor for the canonical TNF-related ligands, LIGHT [lymphotoxin-like, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D for HVEM, a receptor expressed on T lymphocytes] and lymphotoxin-α, and as a ligand for the immunoglobulin superfamily proteins BTLA (B and T lymphocyte attenuator) and CD160, a feature distinguishing HVEM from other immune regulatory molecules. The ability of HVEM to interact with multiple ligands in distinct configurations creates a functionally diverse set of intrinsic and bidirectional signaling pathways that control both inflammatory and inhibitory responses. The HVEM system is integrated into the larger LTβR and TNFR network through extensive shared ligand and receptor usage. Experimental mouse models and human diseases indicate that dysregulation of HVEM network may contribute to autoimmune pathogenesis, making it an attractive target for drug intervention. PMID:22017438

  6. Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Danger Theory-Based Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  7. Securing mobile ad hoc networks using danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm.

    PubMed

    Abdelhaq, Maha; Alsaqour, Raed; Abdelhaq, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a set of mobile, decentralized, and self-organizing nodes that are used in special cases, such as in the military. MANET properties render the environment of this network vulnerable to different types of attacks, including black hole, wormhole and flooding-based attacks. Flooding-based attacks are one of the most dangerous attacks that aim to consume all network resources and thus paralyze the functionality of the whole network. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the capability of a danger theory-based artificial immune algorithm called the mobile dendritic cell algorithm (MDCA) to detect flooding-based attacks in MANETs. The MDCA applies the dendritic cell algorithm (DCA) to secure the MANET with additional improvements. The MDCA is tested and validated using Qualnet v7.1 simulation tool. This work also introduces a new simulation module for a flooding attack called the resource consumption attack (RCA) using Qualnet v7.1. The results highlight the high efficiency of the MDCA in detecting RCAs in MANETs. PMID:25946001

  8. Citrinin detection using phage-displayed anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody for antigen mimicry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Tang, Xiao

    2015-06-15

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) can mimic antigen molecules and can thus offer an alternative to conventional antigens in immunoassays. In this study, citrinin (CIT) was chosen as a target analyte, and an anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody (VHH) was selected from a naïve alpaca VHHs library to serve as a surrogate for CIT hapten. The phage-displayed VHH was used as a signal-amplification carrier to develop an indirect competitive phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) for the sensitive detection of CIT. The half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of P-ELISA was 10.9 μg/kg, which was 9-fold better than that of conventional ELISA (IC50=102.1 μg/kg). Results on P-ELISA analysis of naturally contaminated samples were also consistent with those obtained by conventional ELISA. In conclusion, the proposed P-ELISA demonstrates the potential use of phage-displayed anti-idiotypic VHH as surrogate for small molecules and signal-amplification carrier to improve assay performance for more sensitive analyte detection in food safety monitoring. PMID:25660863

  9. Immune response to racotumomab in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Sampor, C.; Guthmann, M. D.; Scursoni, A.; Cacciavillano, W.; Torbidoni, A.; Galluzzo, L.; Camarero, S.; Lopez, J.; de Dávila, M. T. G.; Fainboim, L.; Chantada, G. L.

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy targeting ganglioside antigens is a powerful tool for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma. However, only treatment with anti-GD2 antibodies has been used in clinical practice and other options may be pursued. We report the use of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype vaccine against N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (NeuGc)- containing gangliosides, eliciting an immune response in a child with relapsed neuroblastoma expressing the NeuGcGM3 ganglioside. PMID:23267436

  10. Network Intrusion Detection Based on a General Regression Neural Network Optimized by an Improved Artificial Immune Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianfa; Peng, Dahao; Li, Zhuping; Zhao, Li; Ling, Huanzhang

    2015-01-01

    To effectively and accurately detect and classify network intrusion data, this paper introduces a general regression neural network (GRNN) based on the artificial immune algorithm with elitist strategies (AIAE). The elitist archive and elitist crossover were combined with the artificial immune algorithm (AIA) to produce the AIAE-GRNN algorithm, with the aim of improving its adaptivity and accuracy. In this paper, the mean square errors (MSEs) were considered the affinity function. The AIAE was used to optimize the smooth factors of the GRNN; then, the optimal smooth factor was solved and substituted into the trained GRNN. Thus, the intrusive data were classified. The paper selected a GRNN that was separately optimized using a genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and fuzzy C-mean clustering (FCM) to enable a comparison of these approaches. As shown in the results, the AIAE-GRNN achieves a higher classification accuracy than PSO-GRNN, but the running time of AIAE-GRNN is long, which was proved first. FCM and GA-GRNN were eliminated because of their deficiencies in terms of accuracy and convergence. To improve the running speed, the paper adopted principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the dimensions of the intrusive data. With the reduction in dimensionality, the PCA-AIAE-GRNN decreases in accuracy less and has better convergence than the PCA-PSO-GRNN, and the running speed of the PCA-AIAE-GRNN was relatively improved. The experimental results show that the AIAE-GRNN has a higher robustness and accuracy than the other algorithms considered and can thus be used to classify the intrusive data. PMID:25807466

  11. Generation and Characterization of a Human/Mouse Chimeric GD2-Mimicking Anti-Idiotype Antibody Ganglidiximab for Active Immunotherapy against Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Eger, Christin; Siebert, Nikolai; Seidel, Diana; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Brandt, Sven; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lode, Holger N

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with proteins mimicking GD2 that is highly expressed on neuroblastoma (NB) cells is a promising strategy in treatment of NB, a pediatric malignancy with poor prognosis. We previously showed efficacy of ganglidiomab in vivo, a murine anti-idiotype (anti-Id) IgG1. In order to tailor immune responses to variable regions, we generated a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id antibody (Ab) ganglidiximab by replacing murine constant fragments with corresponding human IgG1 regions. DNA sequences encoding for variable regions of heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) were synthesized by RT-PCR from total RNA of ganglidiomab-producing hybridoma cells and further ligated into mammalian expression plasmids with coding sequences for constant regions of human IgG1 heavy and light chains, respectively. We established a stable production cell line using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with two expression plasmids driving the expression of either ganglidiximab heavy or light chain. After purification from supernatants, anti-idiotypic characteristics of ganglidiximab were demonstrated. Binding of ganglidiximab to anti-GD2 Abs of the 14.18 family as well as to NK-92tr cells expressing a GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (scFv(ch14.18)-zeta) was shown using standard ELISA and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Ganglidiximab binding affinities to anti-GD2 Abs were further determined by surface plasmon resonance technique. Moreover, binding of anti-GD2 Abs to the nominal antigen GD2 as well as GD2-specific Ab-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, CDC) was competitively inhibited by ganglidiximab. Finally, ganglidiximab was successfully used as a protein vaccine in vivo to induce a GD2-specific humoral immune response. In summary, we report generation and characterization of a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id Ab ganglidiximab for active immunotherapy against NB. This Ab may be useful to tailor immune responses to the paratope regions mimicking GD2 overexpressed in NB

  12. Generation and Characterization of a Human/Mouse Chimeric GD2-Mimicking Anti-Idiotype Antibody Ganglidiximab for Active Immunotherapy against Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Christin; Siebert, Nikolai; Seidel, Diana; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Brandt, Sven; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lode, Holger N.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with proteins mimicking GD2 that is highly expressed on neuroblastoma (NB) cells is a promising strategy in treatment of NB, a pediatric malignancy with poor prognosis. We previously showed efficacy of ganglidiomab in vivo, a murine anti-idiotype (anti-Id) IgG1. In order to tailor immune responses to variable regions, we generated a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id antibody (Ab) ganglidiximab by replacing murine constant fragments with corresponding human IgG1 regions. DNA sequences encoding for variable regions of heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) were synthesized by RT-PCR from total RNA of ganglidiomab-producing hybridoma cells and further ligated into mammalian expression plasmids with coding sequences for constant regions of human IgG1 heavy and light chains, respectively. We established a stable production cell line using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with two expression plasmids driving the expression of either ganglidiximab heavy or light chain. After purification from supernatants, anti-idiotypic characteristics of ganglidiximab were demonstrated. Binding of ganglidiximab to anti-GD2 Abs of the 14.18 family as well as to NK-92tr cells expressing a GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (scFv(ch14.18)-zeta) was shown using standard ELISA and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Ganglidiximab binding affinities to anti-GD2 Abs were further determined by surface plasmon resonance technique. Moreover, binding of anti-GD2 Abs to the nominal antigen GD2 as well as GD2-specific Ab-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, CDC) was competitively inhibited by ganglidiximab. Finally, ganglidiximab was successfully used as a protein vaccine in vivo to induce a GD2-specific humoral immune response. In summary, we report generation and characterization of a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id Ab ganglidiximab for active immunotherapy against NB. This Ab may be useful to tailor immune responses to the paratope regions mimicking GD2 overexpressed in NB

  13. Spectral characteristics of fluorescence and circular dichroism of aflatoxin B1 reaction with its anti-idiotypic antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aiping; Yang, Hongxiu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite and sensitive methods for its analysis have been developed. In our lab, a number of works have been carried out, including exploitation of detection methods and production of anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) against Fab fragment of anti-AFB1 antibody (Ab1). In this paper, Ab2 was generated upon the immunization of mice with F(ab')2 fragment, which was specific to AFB1 and obtained by pepsin digestion of Ab1. The characteristics of Ab2 was primarily investigated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), which indicated that Ab2, might bear an internal image of antigen AFB1 and was able to combine to F(ab')2 in competition with AFB1, and the concentration of Ab2 to cause 50% inhibition of binding (IC50) was 131.8 μg/mL. In addition, fluorescence and circular dichroism studies were designed to explore the mutual relationship among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2. The fluorescence spectroscopy implied that both AFB1 and Ab2 act as a quencher upon F(ab')2, and the Ab2 could compete with AFB1 when both of Ab2 and AFB1 reacted with F(ab')2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum suggested that both the binding of Ab2 and AFB1 on F(ab')2 brought secondary conformation change of F(ab')2, especially in the changes of α helix and β sheet. The research performed would provide unique insight into the comprehension of interaction among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2 as well as offer structural information for substitution researches of toxic antigen like AFB1.

  14. Genetic associations with micronutrient levels identified in immune and gastrointestinal networks.

    PubMed

    Morine, Melissa J; Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; Wise, Carolyn; Teitel, Candee; Pence, Lisa; Williams, Anna; Ning, Baitang; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly; Champagne, Catherine; Turner, Jerome; Shelby, Beatrice; Bogle, Margaret; Beger, Richard D; Priami, Corrado; Kaput, Jim

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of vitamins and clarification of their role in preventing frank essential nutrient deficiencies occurred in the early 1900s. Much vitamin research has understandably focused on public health and the effects of single nutrients to alleviate acute conditions. The physiological processes for maintaining health, however, are complex systems that depend upon interactions between multiple nutrients, environmental factors, and genetic makeup. To analyze the relationship between these factors and nutritional health, data were obtained from an observational, community-based participatory research program of children and teens (age 6-14) enrolled in a summer day camp in the Delta region of Arkansas. Assessments of erythrocyte S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and 6 organic micronutrients (retinol, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3, pyridoxal, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamin E), and 1,129 plasma proteins were performed at 3 time points in each of 2 years. Genetic makeup was analyzed with 1 M SNP genotyping arrays, and nutrient status was assessed with 24-h dietary intake questionnaires. A pattern of metabolites (met_PC1) that included the ratio of erythrocyte SAM/SAH, Hcy, and 5 vitamins were identified by principal component analysis. Met_PC1 levels were significantly associated with (1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms, (2) levels of plasma proteins, and (3) multilocus genotypes coding for gastrointestinal and immune functions, as identified in a global network of metabolic/protein-protein interactions. Subsequent mining of data from curated pathway, network, and genome-wide association studies identified genetic and functional relationships that may be explained by gene-nutrient interactions. The systems nutrition strategy described here has thus associated a multivariate metabolite pattern in blood with genes involved in immune and gastrointestinal functions. PMID:24879315

  15. Positive Network Assortativity of Influenza Vaccination at a High School: Implications for Outbreak Risk and Herd Immunity

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianping; Cao, Guohong; Rainey, Jeanette J.; Gao, Hongjiang; Uzicanin, Amra; Salathé, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Schools are known to play a significant role in the spread of influenza. High vaccination coverage can reduce infectious disease spread within schools and the wider community through vaccine-induced immunity in vaccinated individuals and through the indirect effects afforded by herd immunity. In general, herd immunity is greatest when vaccination coverage is highest, but clusters of unvaccinated individuals can reduce herd immunity. Here, we empirically assess the extent of such clustering by measuring whether vaccinated individuals are randomly distributed or demonstrate positive assortativity across a United States high school contact network. Using computational models based on these empirical measurements, we further assess the impact of assortativity on influenza disease dynamics. We found that the contact network was positively assortative with respect to influenza vaccination: unvaccinated individuals tended to be in contact more often with other unvaccinated individuals than with vaccinated individuals, and these effects were most pronounced when we analyzed contact data collected over multiple days. Of note, unvaccinated males contributed substantially more than unvaccinated females towards the measured positive vaccination assortativity. Influenza simulation models using a positively assortative network resulted in larger average outbreak size, and outbreaks were more likely, compared to an otherwise identical network where vaccinated individuals were not clustered. These findings highlight the importance of understanding and addressing heterogeneities in seasonal influenza vaccine uptake for prevention of large, protracted school-based outbreaks of influenza, in addition to continued efforts to increase overall vaccine coverage. PMID:24505274

  16. Dynamic cross-talk between tumor and immune cells in orchestrating the immunosuppressive network at the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Croci, Diego O; Zacarías Fluck, Mariano F; Rico, María J; Matar, Pablo; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Scharovsky, O Graciela

    2007-11-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that a dynamic cross-talk between tumors and the immune system can regulate tumor growth and metastasis. Increased understanding of the biochemical nature of tumor antigens and the molecular mechanisms responsible for innate and adaptive immune cell activation has revolutionized the fields of tumor immunology and immunotherapy. Both the protective effects of the immune system against tumor cells (immunosurveillance) and the evasion of tumor cells from immune attack (tumor-immune escape) have led to the concept of cancer immunoediting, a proposal which infers that a bidirectional interaction between tumor and inflammatory/regulatory cells is ultimately responsible for orchestrating the immunosuppressive network at the tumor site. In this context, a major challenge is the potentiation or redirection of tumor antigen-specific immune responses. The success in reaching this goal is highly dependent on an improved understanding of the interactions and mechanisms operating during the different phases of the cancer immunoediting process. In this review, we discuss the multiple defense and counterattack strategies that tumors have devised in order to evade immune attack and to thwart the effectiveness of several immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:17571260

  17. Idiotypes of murine monoclonal antibodies to clotting factor VIII:C

    SciTech Connect

    Pechet, L.; Tiarks, C.Y.; Ghalili, K.; Humphreys, R.E.

    1986-03-05

    The authors goal is to study idiotypic immunoregulation of inhibitors to clotting factor VIII:C. To this end, they used monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against VIII:C: Synbiotics, C7F7, and C5, directed against epitopes on the C terminal fragment of VIII:C; C2, C6, C8 directed against epitopes on the N terminal fragment of VIII:C; C10, directed against a non-functional epitope; IB3, Chemicon and Hybritech, to undetermined epitopes. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against C7F7, C8, Synbiotics and Hybritech were produced in rabbits. Competitive radioimmunoassays (RIA) tested cross-reactivity between each immunogen and the other MoAbs. Synbiotics cross-reacted with Chemicon and IB3, indicating they were directed against the same epitope on the C terminal fragment of VIII:C. They did not cross-react with Hybritech, C7F7, C2, C5, C6, C8, or C10. C7F7 showed no cross-reactivities. C8 cross-reacted with C6 but not with C2, C5, C10, C7F7, Synbiotics, or Hybritech. Hybritech did not did not cross-react with any of the other MoAbs. In conclusion, with four anti-idiotypic antibodies and ten MoAbs to VIII:C, they defined at least five functional epitopes and one non-functional epitope on the factor VIII:C molecule to which inhibitors may develop: C2, C6-C8 (N terminal), C7F7, C5, Synbiotics (C terminal), Hybritech (undetermined epitope) and C10 (non-functional).

  18. Involvement of Immune Cell Network in Aortic Valve Stenosis: Communication between Valvular Interstitial Cells and Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a heart disease prevalent in the elderly characterized by valvular calcification, fibrosis, and inflammation, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Previously, aortic valve stenosis was thought to be caused by chronic passive and degenerative changes associated with aging. However, recent studies have demonstrated that atherosclerotic processes and inflammation can induce valvular calcification and bone deposition, leading to valvular stenosis. In particular, the most abundant cell type in cardiac valves, valvular interstitial cells, can differentiate into myofibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells, leading to valvular calcification and stenosis. Differentiation of valvular interstitial cells can be trigged by inflammatory stimuli from several immune cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and mast cells. This review indicates that crosstalk between immune cells and valvular interstitial cells plays an important role in the development of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:26937229

  19. Gene Networks Specific for Innate Immunity Define Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breen, Michael S.; Maihofer, Adam X.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Tylee, Daniel S.; Chandler, Sharon D.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Risbrough, Victoria B.; Baker, Dewleen G.; O’Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Woelk, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular factors involved in the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remain poorly understood. Previous transcriptomic studies investigating the mechanisms of PTSD apply targeted approaches to identify individual genes under a cross-sectional framework lack a holistic view of the behaviours and properties of these genes at the system-level. Here we sought to apply an unsupervised gene-network based approach to a prospective experimental design using whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq gene expression from peripheral blood leukocytes of U.S. Marines (N=188), obtained both pre- and post-deployment to conflict zones. We identified discrete groups of co-regulated genes (i.e., co-expression modules) and tested them for association to PTSD. We identified one module at both pre- and post-deployment containing putative causal signatures for PTSD development displaying an over-expression of genes enriched for functions of innate-immune response and interferon signalling (Type-I and Type-II). Importantly, these results were replicated in a second non-overlapping independent dataset of U.S. Marines (N=96), further outlining the role of innate immune and interferon signalling genes within co-expression modules to explain at least part of the causal pathophysiology for PTSD development. A second module, consequential of trauma exposure, contained PTSD resiliency signatures and an over-expression of genes involved in hemostasis and wound responsiveness suggesting that chronic levels of stress impair proper wound healing during/after exposure to the battlefield while highlighting the role of the hemostatic system as a clinical indicator of chronic-based stress. These findings provide novel insights for early preventative measures and advanced PTSD detection, which may lead to interventions that delay or perhaps abrogate the development of PTSD. PMID:25754082

  20. Analysis of schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma genetic network with corresponding modularity and pathways: novel insights to the immune system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenic patients show lower incidences of cancer, implicating schizophrenia may be a protective factor against cancer. To study the genetic correlation between the two diseases, a specific PPI network was constructed with candidate genes of both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. The network, designated schizophrenia-hepatocellular carcinoma network (SHCN), was analysed and cliques were identified as potential functional modules or complexes. The findings were compared with information from pathway databases such as KEGG, Reactome, PID and ConsensusPathDB. Results The functions of mediator genes from SHCN show immune system and cell cycle regulation have important roles in the eitology mechanism of schizophrenia. For example, the over-expressing schizophrenia candidate genes, SIRPB1, SYK and LCK, are responsible for signal transduction in cytokine production; immune responses involving IL-2 and TREM-1/DAP12 pathways are relevant for the etiology mechanism of schizophrenia. Novel treatments were proposed by searching the target genes of FDA approved drugs with genes in potential protein complexes and pathways. It was found that Vitamin A, retinoid acid and a few other immune response agents modulated by RARA and LCK genes may be potential treatments for both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions This is the first study showing specific mediator genes in the SHCN which may suppress tumors. We also show that the schizophrenic protein interactions and modulation with cancer implicates the importance of immune system for etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:24564241

  1. Alteration of transcriptional networks in the entorhinal cortex after maternal immune activation and adolescent cannabinoid exposure.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Sharon L; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Walker, Frederick Rohan; Cairns, Murray J

    2016-08-01

    Maternal immune activation (MIA) and adolescent cannabinoid exposure (ACE) have both been identified as major environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We examined the effects of these two risk factors alone, and in combination, on gene expression during late adolescence. Pregnant rats were exposed to the viral infection mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day (GD) 15. Adolescent offspring received daily injections of the cannabinoid HU210 for 14days starting on postnatal day (PND) 35. Gene expression was examined in the left entorhinal cortex (EC) using mRNA microarrays. We found prenatal treatment with poly I:C alone, or HU210 alone, produced relatively minor changes in gene expression. However, following combined treatments, offspring displayed significant changes in transcription. This dramatic and persistent alteration of transcriptional networks enriched with genes involved in neurotransmission, cellular signalling and schizophrenia, was associated with a corresponding perturbation in the expression of small non-coding microRNA (miRNA). These results suggest that a combination of environmental exposures during development leads to significant genomic remodeling that disrupts maturation of the EC and its associated circuitry with important implications as the potential antecedents of memory and learning deficits in schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26923065

  2. Infection propagator approach to compute epidemic thresholds on temporal networks: impact of immunity and of limited temporal resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdano, Eugenio; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2015-12-01

    The epidemic threshold of a spreading process indicates the condition for the occurrence of the wide spreading regime, thus representing a predictor of the network vulnerability to the epidemic. Such threshold depends on the natural history of the disease and on the pattern of contacts of the network with its time variation. Based on the theoretical framework introduced in [E. Valdano, L. Ferreri, C. Poletto, V. Colizza, Phys. Rev. X 5, 21005 (2015)] for a susceptible-infectious-susceptible model, we formulate here an infection propagator approach to compute the epidemic threshold accounting for more realistic effects regarding a varying force of infection per contact, the presence of immunity, and a limited time resolution of the temporal network. We apply the approach to two temporal network models and an empirical dataset of school contacts. We find that permanent or temporary immunity do not affect the estimation of the epidemic threshold through the infection propagator approach. Comparisons with numerical results show the good agreement of the analytical predictions. Aggregating the temporal network rapidly deteriorates the predictions, except for slow diseases once the heterogeneity of the links is preserved. Weight-topology correlations are found to be the critical factor to be preserved to improve accuracy in the prediction.

  3. Regulation of Immune Response by Autogenous Antibody against Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kluskens, L.; Köhler, H.

    1974-01-01

    BALB/c mice repeatedly immunized with Pneumococcus R36A vaccine produce antibodies to phosphorylcholine having the TEPC-15 myeloma idiotype (murine IgA myeloma protein that binds phosphorylcholine). The plaque-forming cell response to phosphorylcholine shows a decrease with repeated immunizations. In contrast, spleen cells from multiply immunized mice responded better in vitro than spleen cells from nonimmunized mice. The serum of animals immunized four or five times agglutinates TEPC-15-coated sheep erythrocytes. Inhibition of hemagglutination shows that the agglutinating activity is directed against the TEPC-15 idiotype. Sera from these mice, when added to cultures of normal spleen cells, specifically suppress the response to phosphorylcholine. The suppressive activity in the serum can be removed by solid absorption with TEPC-15. Evidently, repeated immunization with antigen induces two kinds of antibody responses: one directed against antigen and the other directed against the antibody to the antigen. It is proposed that this “auto” antibody against receptor is involved in the regulation of the immune response. PMID:4140517

  4. Immunity factor contributes to altered brain functional networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Neuroimaging-genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Bai, Feng; Shi, Yongmei; Yuan, Yonggui; Xie, Chunming; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-08-01

    Clusterin (CLU) is recognized as a secreted protein that is related to the processes of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The effects of the risk variant of the C allele at the rs11136000 locus of the CLU gene are associated with variations in the brain structure and function. However, the relationship of the CLU-C allele to architectural disruptions in resting-state networks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects (i.e., individuals with elevated risk of AD) remains relatively unknown. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and an imaging genetic approach, this study investigated whether individual brain functional networks, i.e., the default mode network (DMN) and the task-positive network, were modulated by the CLU-C allele (rs11136000) in 50 elderly participants, including 26 aMCI subjects and 24 healthy controls. CLU-by-aMCI interactions were associated with the information-bridging regions between resting-state networks rather than with the DMN itself, especially in cortical midline regions. Interestingly, the complex communications between resting-state networks were enhanced in aMCI subjects with the CLU rs11136000 CC genotype and were modulated by the degree of memory impairment, suggesting a reconstructed balance of the resting-state networks in these individuals with an elevated risk of AD. The neuroimaging-genetic evidence indicates that immunity factors may contribute to alterations in brain functional networks in aMCI. These findings add to the evidence that the CLU gene may represent a potential therapeutic target for slowing disease progression in AD. PMID:26899953

  5. Transcription-inhibition and RNA-binding domains of influenza A virus matrix protein mapped with anti-idiotypic antibodies and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Z P; Baylor, N W; Wagner, R R

    1989-01-01

    We have undertaken by biochemical and immunological experiments to locate the region of the matrix (M1) protein responsible for down-regulating endogenous transcription of A/WSN/33 influenza virus. A more refined map of the antigenic determinants of the M1 protein was obtained by binding of epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to chemically cleaved fragments. Epitope 2-specific MAb 289/4 and MAb 7E5 reverse transcription inhibition by M1 protein and react with a 4-kilodalton cyanogen bromide fragment extending from amino acid Gly-129 to Gln-164. Anti-idiotype serum immunoglobulin G prepared in rabbits immunized with MAb 289/4 or MAb 7E5 mimicked the action of M1 protein by inhibiting transcription in vitro of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein cores. This transcription-inhibition activity of anti-MAb 7E5 immunoglobulin G and anti-MAb 289/4 immunoglobulin G could be reversed by MAb 7E5 and MAb 289/4 or could be removed by MAb 7E5-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Transcription of influenza virus ribonucleoprotein was inhibited by one of three synthetic oligopeptides, a nonodecapeptide SP3 with an amino acid sequence corresponding to Pro-90 through Thr-108 of the M1 protein. Of all the structural proteins of influenza virus, only NP and M1 showed strong affinity for binding viral RNA or other extraneous RNAs. The 4-kilodalton cyanogen bromide peptide (Gly-129 to Gln-164), exhibited marked affinity for viral RNA, the binding of which was blocked by epitope 2-specific MAb 7E5 but not by MAbs directed to three other epitopes. Viral RNA also bound strongly to the nonodecapeptide SP3 and rather less well to anti-idiotype anti-MAb 7E5; these latter viral RNA-binding reactions were only slightly blocked by preincubation of anti-MAb 7E5 or SP3 with MAb 7E5. These experiments suggest the presence of at least two RNA-binding sites, which also serve as transcription-inhibition sites, centered around amino acid sequences 80 through 109 (epitope 4?) and 129 through 164

  6. Presence of a 16/6 related human anti-DNA common idiotype (SA1) in the anticardiolipin antibodies of patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, G M; Alarcón-Segovia, D; Villa, A R; Cabral, A R; Shoenfeld, Y

    1991-10-01

    Patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) have few or no autoantibodies, other than the antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) that could be natural autoantibodies encoded by germline genes. Some of the autoantibodies marked by the human anti-DNA common idiotype 16/6 have been found to be encoded by unmutated germline genes. Hence, we tested the sera of 19 patients with PAPS for the presence of the 16/6 idiotype which has also been found to be expressed on antibodies that bind cardiolipin. For this we used an ELISA method with antiserum against the SA1 idiotype which recognizes the 16/6. Five of our patients had the idiotype in at least one serum. Among the patients there was one with a variant of PAPS with hemolytic anemia and an IgM antibody to phosphatidylcholine that is akin to the natural autoantibody of normal mice encoded by germline genes VH11 and VH12. Inhibition studies with ssDNA, dsDNA and cardiolipin revealed that all 3 antigens decreased the serum levels of the SA1 idiotype despite absence of detectable anti-DNA antibodies by other methods. Our findings suggest that within the B cell clones that produce aPL in patients with PAPS there are some that produce immunoglobulins bearing 16/6 related idiotypes. This could indicate that some of the aPL present in patients with PAPS derive from natural autoantibody producing cell clones. PMID:1765979

  7. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies in Patients with Different Clinical Forms of Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A. R.; Gesztesi, J.-L.; del Negro, G. M. B.; Benard, G.; Sato, J.; Santos, M. V. B.; Abrahão, T. B.; Lopes, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Patients with PCM show a wide spectrum of clinical and pathological manifestations depending on both host and pathogen factors. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized: the acute or juvenile form and the chronic or adult form. The major antigenic component of the parasite is a glycoprotein of 43 kDa (gp43). All patient sera present antibodies against gp43 (anti-gp43) and, as demonstrated before by our group, spontaneous anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (Ab2) can be detected in patient sera with high titers of anti-gp43. Since it has been postulated that anti-Id antibodies may have a modulating function, we decided to purify and characterize anti-Id antibodies in this system. The possible correlation of Ab2 titers with different clinical forms of disease was also verified. Results showed that purified human anti-Id antibodies (human Ab2) recognized specifically the idiotype of some murine monoclonal anti-gp43 (17c and 3e) but not others (40.d7, 27a, and 8a). Spontaneous anti-Id antibodies were found in all clinical forms of disease. The majority of patients (88%, n = 8) with the acute form of PCM had high titers of Ab2. However, among patients with the multifocal chronic form of the disease, only 29% (n = 14) had high titers of Ab2; 70% (n = 10) of patients with the unifocal chronic form had low titers of Ab2. A correlation between Ab2 titers and anti-gp43 titers was observed before and during antimycotic treatment. Our results suggest that titers of anti-Id antibodies correlate with the severity of PCM in humans. PMID:10702489

  8. Anti-idiotypic nanobody: A strategy for development of sensitive and green immunoassay for Fumonisin B₁.

    PubMed

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Qiu, Yulou; Ji, Yanwei; Wang, Xianxian

    2015-10-01

    Nanobodies that are small and thermally stable, as well as have high expression level, are leading alternative to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. These antibodies have the advantage of replacing mycotoxins and their conjugates for immunoassays. In this work, anti-fumonisin B1 (FB1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning from a naïve alpaca nanobody (Nb) phage display library. After three cycles of panning, one anti-idiotypic nanobody (Ab2β Nb) was isolated and subjected to a Nb-ELISA for the detection of FB1. Surface plasmon resonance was used to analyze the reaction kinetics between the Ab2β Nb and anti-FB1 mAb. The developed assay showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.95±0.12 ng/mL, a limit of detection of 0.15 ng/mL, a linear range of 0.27-5.92 ng/mL, and a low cross-reactivity toward FB2 of 4.93%. The sensitivity was enhanced approximately 20-fold compared with that of the chemosynthetic FB1-BSA conjugates. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) measured for Ab2β Nb: anti-FB1 mAb was 164.6 nM. The assay was compared with conventional ELISA (the commercial ELISA kit), and the results indicated the reliability of Ab2β Nb replacing the antigen-carrier protein conjugates. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate is an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. PMID:26078175

  9. Neuro-Endocrine Networks Controlling Immune System in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; De Rosa, Veronica; Marone, Gianni; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems have long been considered as compartments that perform separate and different functions. However, recent clinical, epidemiological, and experimental data have suggested that the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), might involve factors, hormones, and neural mediators that link the immune and nervous system. These molecules are members of the same superfamily, which allow the mutual and bi-directional neural–immune interaction. More recently, the discovery of leptin, one of the most abundant adipocyte-derived hormones that control food intake and metabolism, has suggested that nutritional/metabolic status, acting at central level, can control immune self-tolerance, since it promotes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Here, we summarize the most recent advances and the key players linking the central nervous system, immune tolerance, and the metabolic status. Understanding this coordinated interaction may pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches to increase host defense and suppress immune-mediated disorders. PMID:24778633

  10. Anti-idiotypic VHH phage display-mediated immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive determination of mycotoxin zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianxian; He, Qinghua; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Shu, Mei; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yanping; Wang, Wei; Cao, Dongmei

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay is frequently used to analyze mycotoxin contamination. However, the introduction of mycotoxins or their conjugates in conventional immunoassay threatens the safety of individuals and the environment. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) can be used as alternative compounds to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies, which work as non-toxic surrogate reagents in immunoassay. In this work, anti-zearalenone (ZEN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning anti-idiotypic VHH from a naïve alpaca VHH phage display library. After four panning cycles, one anti-idiotypic VHH phage clone (Z1) was isolated and the Z1 based phage ELISA for ZEN showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.25±0.02ng/mL, a linear range of 0.11-0.55ng/mL, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08ng/mL. Furthermore, the phage particles of Z1 were also applied to immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR), which supplied both the detection antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates. Compared with that of phage ELISA, the LOD of Z1 based PD-IPCR was 12-fold improved, with a detection limit of 6.5pg/mL and a linear range of 0.01-100ng/mL. The proposed method was then validated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed the reliability of PD-IPCR for the determination of ZEN in cereal samples. The use of anti-idiotypic VHH phage as non-toxic surrogate and signal-amplification function of PCR make it a promising method for actual ZEN analysis in cereals. PMID:26592626

  11. Preferential expression of the systemic lupus erythematosus-associated idiotype 8.12 in sera containing monoclonal immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Livneh, A; Preud'Homme, J L; Solomon, A; Diamond, B

    1987-12-01

    The 8.12 idiotype defines a population of anti-DNA antibodies present in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. As part of our studies to elucidate the genetic origin and structural features of anti-DNA antibodies, we examined monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)-containing sera from 706 patients for expression of the 8.12 idiotype. We found 41 such sera to have significant 8.12 reactivity (greater than 4 SD above the mean of normal controls) and demonstrated that in 24 of these sera (8 IgM, 14 IgG, and 2 IgA) this reactivity could be localized to the monoclonal protein. In addition, 12 of the 8.12-reactive monoclonal Ig (11 IgG and 1 IgA) bind dsDNA. In the other 17 sera, the 8.12 reactivity could be attributed to polyclonal antibody. These findings provide further evidence that the serum monoclonal Ig frequently express the antigenic and idiotypic reactivities of autoantibodies. Furthermore, these data support the contention that anti-DNA specificity may result from somatic diversification of germ-line Ig gene sequences. PMID:3119715

  12. Analysis and Simulation of the Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Based on Parallel Immune Optimization in Cognitive Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Huixin, Wu; Duo, Mo; He, Li

    2014-01-01

    Spectrum allocation is one of the key issues to improve spectrum efficiency and has become the hot topic in the research of cognitive wireless network. This paper discusses the real-time feature and efficiency of dynamic spectrum allocation and presents a new spectrum allocation algorithm based on the master-slave parallel immune optimization model. The algorithm designs a new encoding scheme for the antibody based on the demand for convergence rate and population diversity. For improving the calculating efficiency, the antibody affinity in the population is calculated in multiple computing nodes at the same time. Simulation results show that the algorithm reduces the total spectrum allocation time and can achieve higher network profits. Compared with traditional serial algorithms, the algorithm proposed in this paper has better speedup ratio and parallel efficiency. PMID:25254255

  13. Multi-granularity immunization strategy based on SIRS model in scale-free network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nian, Fuzhong; Wang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a new immunization strategy was established to prevent the epidemic spreading based on the principle of "Multi-granularity" and "Pre-warning Mechanism", which send different pre-warning signal with the risk rank of the susceptible node to be infected. The pre-warning means there is a higher risk that the susceptible node is more likely to be infected. The multi-granularity means the susceptible node is linked with multi-infected nodes. In our model, the effect of the different situation of the multi-granularity immunizations is compared and different spreading rates are adopted to describe the epidemic behavior of nodes. In addition the threshold value of epidemic outbreak is investigated, which makes the result more convincing. The theoretical analysis and the simulations indicate that the proposed immunization strategy is effective and it is also economic and feasible.

  14. CD40L induces functional tunneling nanotube networks exclusively in dendritic cells programmed by mediators of type-1 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zaccard, Colleen R.; Watkins, Simon C.; Kalinski, Pawel; Fecek, Ronald J.; Yates, Aarika L.; Salter, Russell D.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Mailliard, Robbie B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of dendritic cells (DC) to mediate CD4+ T cell help for cellular immunity is guided by instructive signals received during DC maturation, and the resulting pattern of DC responsiveness to the Th signal, CD40L. Furthermore, the professional transfer of antigenic information from migratory DC to lymph node-residing DC is critical for the effective induction of cellular immune responses. Here we report that, in addition to their enhanced IL-12p70 producing capacity, human DC matured in the presence of inflammatory mediators of type-1 immunity (DC1) are uniquely programmed to form networks of tunneling nanotube-like structures in response to CD40L-expressing Th cells or recombinant CD40L. This immunologic process of DC ‘reticulation’ facilitates intercellular trafficking of endosome-associated vesicles and Ag, but also pathogens such HIV-1, and is regulated by the opposing roles of IFN-γ and IL-4. The initiation of DC reticulation represents a novel helper function of CD40L and a superior mechanism of intercellular communication possessed by DC1, as well as a target for exploitation by pathogens to enhance direct cell-to-cell spread. PMID:25548234

  15. Network Signatures of IgG Immune Repertoires in Hepatitis B Associated Chronic Infection and Vaccination Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ya-Hui; Kuan, Hui-Chung; Hsieh, T. C.; Ma, K. H.; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chao, Anne; Liu, Hong-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The repertoire of IgG antibody responses to infection and vaccination varies depending on the characteristics of the immunogen and the ability of the host to mount a protective immune response. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are marked by persistent infection and immune tolerance to vaccination. This disease offers a unique opportunity to discover key repertoire signatures during infection and in response to vaccination. Complementarity determining region 3 of an antibody heavy chain (CDR-H3) has a major impact on the antigenic specificity of an antibody. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the CDR-H3 sequences in paired siblings of 4 families in which only one member of each pair had chronic HBV infection. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 weeks after HBV vaccination. The analysis revealed a huge network of sequence-related CDR-H3 clones found almost exclusively among carriers. In contrast, vaccination induced significant increases of CDR-H3 cluster diversities among siblings without hepatitis B. Several vaccination-associated clone clusters were identified. Similar findings of vaccination-associated clone networks were observed in healthy adults receiving HBV boosters. These strategies can be used to identify signatures of other infectious diseases and accelerate discoveries of antibody sequences with important biomedical implications. PMID:27222149

  16. Network Signatures of IgG Immune Repertoires in Hepatitis B Associated Chronic Infection and Vaccination Responses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Hui; Kuan, Hui-Chung; Hsieh, T C; Ma, K H; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Tsai, Shih-Feng; Chao, Anne; Liu, Hong-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    The repertoire of IgG antibody responses to infection and vaccination varies depending on the characteristics of the immunogen and the ability of the host to mount a protective immune response. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are marked by persistent infection and immune tolerance to vaccination. This disease offers a unique opportunity to discover key repertoire signatures during infection and in response to vaccination. Complementarity determining region 3 of an antibody heavy chain (CDR-H3) has a major impact on the antigenic specificity of an antibody. We used next-generation sequencing to characterize the CDR-H3 sequences in paired siblings of 4 families in which only one member of each pair had chronic HBV infection. Blood samples were obtained before and 2 weeks after HBV vaccination. The analysis revealed a huge network of sequence-related CDR-H3 clones found almost exclusively among carriers. In contrast, vaccination induced significant increases of CDR-H3 cluster diversities among siblings without hepatitis B. Several vaccination-associated clone clusters were identified. Similar findings of vaccination-associated clone networks were observed in healthy adults receiving HBV boosters. These strategies can be used to identify signatures of other infectious diseases and accelerate discoveries of antibody sequences with important biomedical implications. PMID:27222149

  17. Mathematical modeling of the circadian dynamics of the neuroendocrine-immune network in experimentally induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rao, R; DuBois, D; Almon, R; Jusko, W J; Androulakis, I P

    2016-08-01

    The circadian dynamics of important neuroendocrine-immune mediators have been implicated in progression of rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology, both clinically as well as in animal models. We present a mathematical model that describes the circadian interactions between mediators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the proinflammatory cytokines. Model predictions demonstrate that chronically elevated cytokine expression results in the development of adrenal insufficiency and circadian variability in paw edema. Notably, our model also predicts that an increase in mean secretion of corticosterone (CST) after the induction of the disease is accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of the CST oscillation. Furthermore, alterations in the phase of circadian oscillation of both cytokines and HPA axis mediators are observed. Therefore, by incorporating the circadian interactions between the neuroendocrine-immune mediators, our model is able to simulate important features of rheumatoid arthritis pathophysiology. PMID:27221115

  18. Immune System and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  19. Network, degeneracy and bow tie. Integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Tieri, Paolo; Grignolio, Andrea; Zaikin, Alexey; Mishto, Michele; Remondini, Daniel; Castellani, Gastone C; Franceschi, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

  20. Network, degeneracy and bow tie. Integrating paradigms and architectures to grasp the complexity of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the network paradigm, an application of graph theory to biology, has proven to be a powerful approach to gaining insights into biological complexity, and has catalyzed the advancement of systems biology. In this perspective and focusing on the immune system, we propose here a more comprehensive view to go beyond the concept of network. We start from the concept of degeneracy, one of the most prominent characteristic of biological complexity, defined as the ability of structurally different elements to perform the same function, and we show that degeneracy is highly intertwined with another recently-proposed organizational principle, i.e. 'bow tie architecture'. The simultaneous consideration of concepts such as degeneracy, bow tie architecture and network results in a powerful new interpretative tool that takes into account the constructive role of noise (stochastic fluctuations) and is able to grasp the major characteristics of biological complexity, i.e. the capacity to turn an apparently chaotic and highly dynamic set of signals into functional information. PMID:20701759

  1. Enhancing artificial bee colony algorithm with self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators for global optimization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  2. Enhancing Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Self-Adaptive Searching Strategy and Artificial Immune Network Operators for Global Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tinggui; Xiao, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, inspired by the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees, was proposed by Karaboga. It has been shown to be superior to some conventional intelligent algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial colony optimization (ACO), and particle swarm optimization (PSO). However, the ABC still has some limitations. For example, ABC can easily get trapped in the local optimum when handing in functions that have a narrow curving valley, a high eccentric ellipse, or complex multimodal functions. As a result, we proposed an enhanced ABC algorithm called EABC by introducing self-adaptive searching strategy and artificial immune network operators to improve the exploitation and exploration. The simulation results tested on a suite of unimodal or multimodal benchmark functions illustrate that the EABC algorithm outperforms ACO, PSO, and the basic ABC in most of the experiments. PMID:24772023

  3. The endocrine-immune network during taeniosis by Taenia solium: The role of the pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma; Escobedo, Galileo; Carrero, Julio Cesar; Nava-Castro, Karen E; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that sex hormones play an important role during Taenia solium infection; however, to our knowledge no studies exist concerning the immune response following complete or lobe-specific removal of the pituitary gland during T. solium infection. Thus, the aim of this work was to analyze in hamsters, the effects of lack of pituitary hormones on the duodenal immune response, and their impact on T. solium establishment and development. Thus, in order to achieve this goal, we perform anterior pituitary lobectomy (AL, n = 9), neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL, n = 9) and total hypophysectomy (HYPOX, n = 8), and related to the gut establishment and growth of T. solium, hematoxylin-eosin staining of duodenal tissue and immunofluorescence of duodenal cytokine expression and compared these results to the control intact (n = 8) and control infected group (n = 8). Our results indicate that 15 days post-infection, HYPOX reduces the number and size of intestinally recovered T. solium adults. Using semiquantitative immunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of duodenal IFN-γ and IL-12 Th1 cytokines was mildly expressed in the infected controls, in contrast with the high level of expression of these cytokines in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, the duodenum of HYPOX animals showed an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-6, when compared to control hamsters. Histological analysis of duodenal mucosa from HYPOX hamsters revealed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria and related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that lobe-specific pituitary hormones affect differentially the T. solium development and the gut immune response. PMID:26481692

  4. An immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm for routing recovery of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yifan; Ding, Yongsheng; Hao, Kuangrong; Ren, Lihong; Han, Hua

    2014-03-01

    The growth of mobile handheld devices promotes sink mobility in an increasing number of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) applications. The movement of the sink may lead to the breakage of existing routes of WSNs, thus the routing recovery problem is a critical challenge. In order to maintain the available route from each source node to the sink, we propose an immune orthogonal learning particle swarm optimisation algorithm (IOLPSOA) to provide fast routing recovery from path failure due to the sink movement, and construct the efficient alternative path to repair the route. Due to its efficient bio-heuristic routing recovery mechanism in the algorithm, the orthogonal learning strategy can guide particles to fly on better directions by constructing a much promising and efficient exemplar, and the immune mechanism can maintain the diversity of the particles. We discuss the implementation of the IOLPSOA-based routing protocol and present the performance evaluation through several simulation experiments. The results demonstrate that the IOLPSOA-based protocol outperforms the other three protocols, which can efficiently repair the routing topology changed by the sink movement, reduce the communication overhead and prolong the lifetime of WSNs with mobile sink.

  5. CD45, CD148, and Lyp/Pep: Critical Phosphatases Regulating Src Family Kinase Signaling Networks in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hermiston, Michelle L.; Zikherman, Julie; Zhu, Jing W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Reciprocal regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases is central to normal immune cell function. Disruption of the equilibrium between protein tyrosine kinase and phosphatase activity can result in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, or malignancy. Src family kinases play a central role in both immune cell function and disease due to their proximal position in numerous signal transduction cascades including those emanating from integrin, T and B cell antigen receptors, Fc, growth factor, and cytokine receptors. Given that tight regulation of Src family kinase activity is critical for appropriate responses to stimulation of these various signaling pathways, it is perhaps not surprising that multiple protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in their regulation. Here, we focus on the role of three phosphatases, CD45, CD148, and LYP/PEP, which are critical regulators of src family kinase activity in hematopoietic cells. We review our current understanding of their structures, expression, functions in different hematopoietic cell subsets, regulation, and putative roles in disease. Finally, we discuss remaining questions that must be addressed if we are to have a clearer understanding of the coordinated regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling networks in hematopoietic cells and how they could potentially be manipulated therapeutically in disease. PMID:19290935

  6. Transcriptional networks associated with the immune system are disrupted by organochlorine pesticides in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) ovary.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Feswick, April; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-08-01

    were altered by p, p' DDE, MXC, and flutamide. Interestingly, immune-related gene networks were suppressed by all three chemicals. The data suggest that p, p' DDE and flutamide affected more genes in common with each other than either chemical with MXC, consistent with studies suggesting that p, p' DDE is a more potent anti-androgen than MXC. These data demonstrate that reproductive health was not affected by these specific dietary treatments, but rather the immune system, which may be a significant target of organochlorine pesticides. The interaction between the reproductive and immune systems should be considered in future studies on these legacy and persistent pesticides. PMID:27391359

  7. A genome-wide CRISPR screen in primary immune cells to dissect regulatory networks

    PubMed Central

    Parnas, Oren; Jovanovic, Marko; Eisenhaure, Thomas M.; Herbst, Rebecca H.; Dixit, Atray; Ye, Chun Jimmie; Przybylski, Dariusz; Platt, Randall J.; Tirosh, Itay; Sanjana, Neville E.; Shalem, Ophir; Satija, Rahul; Raychowdhury, Raktima; Mertins, Philipp; Carr, Steven A.; Zhang, Feng; Hacohen, Nir; Regev, Aviv

    2015-01-01

    Finding the components of cellular circuits and determining their functions systematically remains a major challenge in mammalian cells. Here, we introduced genome-wide pooled CRISPR-Cas9 libraries into dendritic cells (DCs) to identify genes that control the induction of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a key process in the host response to pathogens, mediated by the Tlr4 pathway. We found many of the known regulators of Tlr4 signaling, as well as dozens of previously unknown candidates that we validated. By measuring protein markers and mRNA profiles in DCs that are deficient in the known or candidate genes, we classified the genes into three functional modules with distinct effects on the canonical responses to LPS, and highlighted functions for the PAF complex and oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Our findings uncover new facets of innate immune circuits in primary cells, and provide a genetic approach for dissection of mammalian cell circuits. PMID:26189680

  8. A Conserved Circular Network of Coregulated Lipids Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Köberlin, Marielle S.; Snijder, Berend; Heinz, Leonhard X.; Baumann, Christoph L.; Fauster, Astrid; Vladimer, Gregory I.; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Superti-Furga, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Lipid composition affects the biophysical properties of membranes that provide a platform for receptor-mediated cellular signaling. To study the regulatory role of membrane lipid composition, we combined genetic perturbations of sphingolipid metabolism with the quantification of diverse steps in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and mass spectrometry-based lipidomics. Membrane lipid composition was broadly affected by these perturbations, revealing a circular network of coregulated sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids. This evolutionarily conserved network architecture simultaneously reflected membrane lipid metabolism, subcellular localization, and adaptation mechanisms. Integration of the diverse TLR-induced inflammatory phenotypes with changes in lipid abundance assigned distinct functional roles to individual lipid species organized across the network. This functional annotation accurately predicted the inflammatory response of cells derived from patients suffering from lipid storage disorders, based solely on their altered membrane lipid composition. The analytical strategy described here empowers the understanding of higher-level organization of membrane lipid function in diverse biological systems. PMID:26095250

  9. Targeted DNA vaccines for enhanced induction of idiotype-specific B and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksen, Agnete B.; Sandlie, Inger; Bogen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Idiotypes (Id) are antigenic determinants localized in variable (V) regions of Ig. Id-specific T and B cells (antibodies) play a role in immunotherapy of Id+ tumors. However, vaccine strategies that enhance Id-specific responses are needed. Methods: Id+ single-chain fragment variable (scFv) from multiple myelomas and B cell lymphomas were prepared in a fusion format that bivalently target surface molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC-specific targeting units were either scFv from APC-specific mAb (anti-MHC II, anti-CD40) or chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES). Homodimeric Id-vaccines were injected intramuscularly or intradermally as plasmids in mice, combined with electroporation. Results: (i) Transfected cells secreted plasmid-encoded Id+ fusion proteins to extracellular fluid followed by binding of vaccine molecules to APC. (ii) Targeted vaccine molecules increased Id-specific B and T cell responses. (iii) Bivalency and xenogeneic sequences both contributed to enhanced responses. (iv) Targeted Id DNA vaccines induced tumor resistance against challenges with Id+ tumors. (v) Human MIP-1α targeting units enhanced Id-specific responses in mice, due to a cross reaction with murine chemokine receptors. Thus, targeted vaccines designed for humans can be quality tested in mice. (vi) Human Id+ scFv from four multiple myeloma patients were inserted into the vaccine format and were successfully tested in mice. (vii) Human MIP-1α vaccine proteins enhanced human T cell responses in vitro. (viii) A hypothetical model for how the APC-targeted vaccine molecules enhance Id-specific T and B cells is presented. Conclusion: Targeted DNA Id-vaccines show promising results in preclinical studies, paving the way for testing in patients. PMID:23115759

  10. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  11. Clonal frequency analysis of B cells producing pathogenic anti-DNA antibody-associated idiotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Shibata, S; Sasaki, T; Hatakeyama, A; Munakata, Y; Hirabayashi, Y; Yoshinaga, K

    1992-06-01

    In order to identify the mechanism responsible for autoantibody production in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), B cell repertoires associated with anti-DNA idiotypes were explored by a limiting dilution analysis using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation methods and ELISA spot assays. The frequencies of B cell clones producing antibodies to DNA and to conventional antigens, tetanus toxoid, dinitrophenyl, or keyhole limpet hemocyanin were higher in active SLE compared to those in inactive SLE and in normal subjects. In addition, there was a disproportionate increase in anti-DNA antibody- and anti-DNA idiotype (Id)-producing clones at the precursor cell levels as well as at the mature cell level. On the other hand, numbers of anti-Id clones against anti-DNA-Id, termed 0-81 Id, were markedly increased at inactive stages of the disease but not at active stages. These were confirmed by serial studies in some patients with SLE. These results support a two-step mechanism for autoantibody production, in which initial polyclonal activation is followed by an antigen-driven process, and indicate an alteration of the precursor B cell repertoire in SLE, which may also associate with a preferential expansion of anti-DNA clones. PMID:1320474

  12. A Small-molecule Screen Yields Idiotype-specific Blockers of Neuromyelitis Optica Immunoglobulin G Binding to Aquaporin-4*

    PubMed Central

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Anderson, Marc O.; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Zhang, Hua; Tan, Joseph; Lam, Chiwah; Bennett, Jeffrey L.; Verkman, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by binding of anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoantibodies (NMO-IgG) to AQP4 on astrocytes. A screen was developed to identify inhibitors of NMO-IgG-dependent, complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Screening of 50,000 synthetic small molecules was done using CHO cells expressing human AQP4 and a human NMO recombinant monoclonal antibody (rAb-53). The screen yielded pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles that blocked rAb-53 binding to AQP4 and prevented cytotoxicity in cell culture and spinal cord slice models of NMO. Structure-activity analysis of 82 analogs yielded a blocker with IC50 ∼ 6 μm. Analysis of the blocker mechanism indicated idiotype specificity, as (i) pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles did not prevent AQP4 binding or cytotoxicity of other NMO-IgGs, and (ii) surface plasmon resonance showed specific rAb-53 binding. Antibody structure modeling and docking suggested a putative binding site near the complementarity-determining regions. Small molecules with idiotype-specific antibody targeting may be useful as research tools and therapeutics. PMID:22989877

  13. The Lymphotoxin Network: Orchestrating a Type I Interferon Response to Optimize Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Browning, Jeffrey L.; Ware, Carl F.

    2014-01-01

    The Lymphotoxin (LT) pathway is best known for its role in orchestrating the development and homeostasis lymph nodes and Peyer's patch through the regulation of homeostatic chemokines. More recently an appreciation of the LT! R pathway in the production of Type I interferons (IFN-I) during homeostasis and infection has emerged. LT! R signaling is essential in differentiating stromal cells and macrophages in lymphoid organs to rapidly produce IFN-I in response to virus infections independently of the conventional TLR signaling systems. In addition, LT! R signaling is required to produce homeostatic levels of IFN-I from dendritic cells in order to effectively cross-prime a CD8+ T cell response to protein antigen. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of LT! R signaling in mice has a profound positive impact on a number of autoimmune disease models, although it remains unclear if this efficacy is linked to IFN-I production during chronic inflammation. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of how the “Lymphotoxin Network” is linked to the IFN-I response and its impact on the immune system. PMID:24698108

  14. Cremophor EL as an adjuvant affecting immunoglobulin class switch in the immune response to the thymus-independent antigen alpha(1- greater than 3) dextran B 1355 S.

    PubMed

    Austrup, F; Kucharzik, T; Kölsch, E

    1991-08-01

    The humoral immune response to the so-called thymus independent antigen dextran B 1355 S in conventionally raised BALB/c mice consists solely of IgM antibodies. Expression of IgG anti-Dex antibodies in these mice is prevented by pre- or perinatally activated idiotype-specific T-suppressor lymphocytes. IgG B-memory cells nevertheless develop during the course of immunization, but are arrested in an anergic state. In the presence of Cremophor EL the induction of this anergic state is inhibited and the immune response shifts fully to an IgG anti-Dex response. PMID:1717371

  15. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. PMID:27397556

  16. Comparative genomic analyses reveal a vast, novel network of nucleotide-centric systems in biological conflicts, immunity and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Zhang, Dapeng; Schäffer, Daniel E.; Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Aravind, L.

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic di- and linear oligo-nucleotide signals activate defenses against invasive nucleic acids in animal immunity; however, their evolutionary antecedents are poorly understood. Using comparative genomics, sequence and structure analysis, we uncovered a vast network of systems defined by conserved prokaryotic gene-neighborhoods, which encode enzymes generating such nucleotides or alternatively processing them to yield potential signaling molecules. The nucleotide-generating enzymes include several clades of the DNA-polymerase β-like superfamily (including Vibrio cholerae DncV), a minimal version of the CRISPR polymerase and DisA-like cyclic-di-AMP synthetases. Nucleotide-binding/processing domains include TIR domains and members of a superfamily prototyped by Smf/DprA proteins and base (cytokinin)-releasing LOG enzymes. They are combined in conserved gene-neighborhoods with genes for a plethora of protein superfamilies, which we predict to function as nucleotide-sensors and effectors targeting nucleic acids, proteins or membranes (pore-forming agents). These systems are sometimes combined with other biological conflict-systems such as restriction-modification and CRISPR/Cas. Interestingly, several are coupled in mutually exclusive neighborhoods with either a prokaryotic ubiquitin-system or a HORMA domain-PCH2-like AAA+ ATPase dyad. The latter are potential precursors of equivalent proteins in eukaryotic chromosome dynamics. Further, components from these nucleotide-centric systems have been utilized in several other systems including a novel diversity-generating system with a reverse transcriptase. We also found the Smf/DprA/LOG domain from these systems to be recruited as a predicted nucleotide-binding domain in eukaryotic TRPM channels. These findings point to evolutionary and mechanistic links, which bring together CRISPR/Cas, animal interferon-induced immunity, and several other systems that combine nucleic-acid-sensing and nucleotide-dependent signaling

  17. Bisphenol A Disrupts HNF4α-Regulated Gene Networks Linking to Prostate Preneoplasia and Immune Disruption in Noble Rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Hung-Ming; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Chen, Jing; Medvedovic, Mario; Tam, Neville Ngai Chung

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of humans to bisphenol A (BPA) is widespread and continuous. The effects of protracted exposure to BPA on the adult prostate have not been studied. We subjected Noble rats to 32 weeks of BPA (low or high dose) or 17β-estradiol (E2) in conjunction with T replenishment. T treatment alone or untreated groups were used as controls. Circulating T levels were maintained within the physiological range in all treatment groups, whereas the levels of free BPA were elevated in the groups treated with T+low BPA (1.06 ± 0.05 ng/mL, P < .05) and T+high BPA (10.37 ± 0.43 ng/mL, P < .01) when compared with those in both controls (0.1 ± 0.05 ng/mL). Prostatic hyperplasia, low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and marked infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells into the PIN epithelium (P < .05) were observed in the lateral prostates (LPs) of T+low/high BPA-treated rats. In contrast, only hyperplasia and high-grade PIN, but no aberrant immune responses, were found in the T+E2-treated LPs. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis in LPs identified differential changes between T+BPA vs T+E2 treatment. Expression of multiple genes in the regulatory network controlled by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α was perturbed by the T+BPA but not by the T+E2 exposure. Collectively these findings suggest that the adult rat prostate, under a physiologically relevant T environment, is susceptible to BPA-induced transcriptomic reprogramming, immune disruption, and aberrant growth dysregulation in a manner distinct from those caused by E2. They are more relevant to our recent report of higher urinary levels BPA found in patients with prostate cancer than those with benign disease. PMID:26496021

  18. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" Immunity) Vaccines can prevent outbreaks of disease and save ... disease is contained. This is known as "community immunity." In the illustration below, the top box depicts ...

  19. Improving immunization strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Liljeros, Fredrik; Argyrakis, Panos; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo

    2007-04-01

    We introduce an immunization method where the percentage of required vaccinations for immunity are close to the optimal value of a targeted immunization scheme of highest degree nodes. Our strategy retains the advantage of being purely local, without the need for knowledge on the global network structure or identification of the highest degree nodes. The method consists of selecting a random node and asking for a neighbor that has more links than himself or more than a given threshold and immunizing him. We compare this method to other efficient strategies on three real social networks and on a scale-free network model and find it to be significantly more effective.

  20. Immunostimulatory Oligodeoxynucleotides Containing the CpG Motif are Effective as Immune Adjuvants in Tumor Antigen Immunization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, George J.; Liu, Hsin-Ming; Wooldridge, James E.; Dahle, Christopher E.; Krieg, Arthur M.

    1997-09-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the immune response are allowing for the logical design of new approaches to cancer immunization. One area of interest is the development of new immune adjuvants. Immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides containing the CpG motif (CpG ODN) can induce production of a wide variety of cytokines and activate B cells, monocytes, dendritic cells, and NK cells. Using the 38C13 B cell lymphoma model, we assessed whether CpG ODN can function as immune adjuvants in tumor antigen immunization. The idiotype served as the tumor antigen. Select CpG ODN were as effective as complete Freund's adjuvant at inducing an antigen-specific antibody response but were associated with less toxicity. These CpG ODN induced a higher titer of antigen-specific IgG2a than did complete Freund's adjuvant, suggesting an enhanced TH1 response. Mice immunized with CpG ODN as an adjuvant were protected from tumor challenge to a degree similar to that seen in mice immunized with complete Freund's adjuvant. We conclude that CpG ODN are effective as immune adjuvants and are attractive as part of a tumor immunization strategy.

  1. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions. PMID:27185415

  2. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions. PMID:27185415

  3. A systems biology pipeline identifies new immune and disease related molecular signatures and networks in human cells during microgravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sayak; Saha, Rohini; Palanisamy, Anbarasi; Ghosh, Madhurima; Biswas, Anupriya; Roy, Saheli; Pal, Arijit; Sarkar, Kathakali; Bagh, Sangram

    2016-05-01

    Microgravity is a prominent health hazard for astronauts, yet we understand little about its effect at the molecular systems level. In this study, we have integrated a set of systems-biology tools and databases and have analysed more than 8000 molecular pathways on published global gene expression datasets of human cells in microgravity. Hundreds of new pathways have been identified with statistical confidence for each dataset and despite the difference in cell types and experiments, around 100 of the new pathways are appeared common across the datasets. They are related to reduced inflammation, autoimmunity, diabetes and asthma. We have identified downregulation of NfκB pathway via Notch1 signalling as new pathway for reduced immunity in microgravity. Induction of few cancer types including liver cancer and leukaemia and increased drug response to cancer in microgravity are also found. Increase in olfactory signal transduction is also identified. Genes, based on their expression pattern, are clustered and mathematically stable clusters are identified. The network mapping of genes within a cluster indicates the plausible functional connections in microgravity. This pipeline gives a new systems level picture of human cells under microgravity, generates testable hypothesis and may help estimating risk and developing medicine for space missions.

  4. Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected coexpression database, reveals cell type-specific gene networks in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbon, Alexis; Dinh, Viet H.; Mikami, Norihisa; Kitagawa, Yohko; Teraguchi, Shunsuke; Ohkura, Naganari; Sakaguchi, Shimon

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput gene expression data are one of the primary resources for exploring complex intracellular dynamics in modern biology. The integration of large amounts of public data may allow us to examine general dynamical relationships between regulators and target genes. However, obstacles for such analyses are study-specific biases or batch effects in the original data. Here we present Immuno-Navigator, a batch-corrected gene expression and coexpression database for 24 cell types of the mouse immune system. We systematically removed batch effects from the underlying gene expression data and showed that this removal considerably improved the consistency between inferred correlations and prior knowledge. The data revealed widespread cell type-specific correlation of expression. Integrated analysis tools allow users to use this correlation of expression for the generation of hypotheses about biological networks and candidate regulators in specific cell types. We show several applications of Immuno-Navigator as examples. In one application we successfully predicted known regulators of importance in naturally occurring Treg cells from their expression correlation with a set of Treg-specific genes. For one high-scoring gene, integrin β8 (Itgb8), we confirmed an association between Itgb8 expression in forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)-positive T cells and Treg-specific epigenetic remodeling. Our results also suggest that the regulation of Treg-specific genes within Treg cells is relatively independent of Foxp3 expression, supporting recent results pointing to a Foxp3-independent component in the development of Treg cells. PMID:27078110

  5. Staphylococcus aureus infection induces protein A–mediated immune evasion in humans

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Noel T.; Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Huang, Min; Dulac, John; Henry Dunand, Carole; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Kaur, Kaval; Andrews, Sarah F.; Huang, Yunping; DeDent, Andrea; Frank, Karen M.; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Schneewind, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection commonly results in chronic or recurrent disease, suggesting that humoral memory responses are hampered. Understanding how S. aureus subverts the immune response is critical for the rescue of host natural humoral immunity and vaccine development. S. aureus expresses the virulence factor Protein A (SpA) on all clinical isolates, and SpA has been shown in mice to expand and ablate variable heavy 3 (VH3) idiotype B cells. The effects of SpA during natural infection, however, have not been addressed. Acutely activated B cells, or plasmablasts (PBs), were analyzed to dissect the ongoing immune response to infection through the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The B cells that were activated by infection had a highly limited response. When screened against multiple S. aureus antigens, only high-affinity binding to SpA was observed. Consistently, PBs underwent affinity maturation, but their B cell receptors demonstrated significant bias toward the VH3 idiotype. These data suggest that the superantigenic activity of SpA leads to immunodominance, limiting host responses to other S. aureus virulence factors that would be necessary for protection and memory formation. PMID:25348152

  6. Staphylococcus aureus infection induces protein A-mediated immune evasion in humans.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Noel T; Kim, Hwan Keun; Falugi, Fabiana; Huang, Min; Dulac, John; Henry Dunand, Carole; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Kaur, Kaval; Andrews, Sarah F; Huang, Yunping; DeDent, Andrea; Frank, Karen M; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Schneewind, Olaf; Wilson, Patrick C

    2014-11-17

    Staphylococcus aureus bacterial infection commonly results in chronic or recurrent disease, suggesting that humoral memory responses are hampered. Understanding how S. aureus subverts the immune response is critical for the rescue of host natural humoral immunity and vaccine development. S. aureus expresses the virulence factor Protein A (SpA) on all clinical isolates, and SpA has been shown in mice to expand and ablate variable heavy 3 (VH3) idiotype B cells. The effects of SpA during natural infection, however, have not been addressed. Acutely activated B cells, or plasmablasts (PBs), were analyzed to dissect the ongoing immune response to infection through the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The B cells that were activated by infection had a highly limited response. When screened against multiple S. aureus antigens, only high-affinity binding to SpA was observed. Consistently, PBs underwent affinity maturation, but their B cell receptors demonstrated significant bias toward the VH3 idiotype. These data suggest that the superantigenic activity of SpA leads to immunodominance, limiting host responses to other S. aureus virulence factors that would be necessary for protection and memory formation. PMID:25348152

  7. Acquisition of an anti-idiotypic cytotoxic T lymphocyte repertoire in B cell-transferred or tetraparental bone marrow chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Bitoh, S.; Fujimoto, S.

    1987-10-01

    In previous studies we showed that major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for the cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of MOPC-104E myeloma protein could only be induced in BALB/c or BAB-14 mice which have the ability to produce the CRI, but not in C.AL-20 or C.B-20 mice which have no ability to produce the CRI. The strong correlation between CRI-specific CTL responder strains and CRI producers supports the idea that the VH gene products are intrinsic primary antigenic stimuli for the generation of the anti-idiotypic CTL. To investigate the role of B lymphocytes in the selection of T lymphocyte repertoire, the purified B cells of CRI producer strains were repeatedly injected into anti-CRI CTL nonresponder neonatal mice. CRI-specific CTL activity was successfully induced in the CRI nonproducer mice only when they were exposed to CRI producer strain B lymphocytes from neonatal life. When the CTL nonresponder adult mice received CRI producer B lymphocytes, the nonresponder phenotype was not changed into the responder phenotype. Inducibility of CRI-specific CTL was also analyzed in tetraparental bone marrow chimeras. When CRI nonproducer bone marrow cells repopulated along with CRI producer bone marrow cells, the anti-CRI CTL of CRI nonproducer origin were generated. Adaptive differentiation of haplotype preference was also observed. When these observations are taken collectively, we see that the anti-idiotypic T lymphocyte repertoire is not a genetically determined one, but rather that the repertoire of T lymphocytes strongly depends on the postnatal selection process through the intrinsic idiotypic repertoire of B lymphocytes, i.e., internal images.

  8. Phage displayed peptides and anti-idiotype antibodies recognised by a monoclonal antibody directed against a diagnostic antigen of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bengurić, D R; Dungu, B; Thiaucourt, F; du Plessis, D H

    2001-07-26

    A monoclonal antibody (Mab 4.52) raised against Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) cell lysate was used as a template to obtain substitute antigens recognised by its paratope. Two approaches were investigated: a 17-mer random peptide library displayed on the surface of a filamentous phage was screened by panning on the immobilised Mab 4.52 and anti-idiotype antibodies were generated by immunising a chicken with the F(ab')(2) fragments of the antibody. Analysis of the peptide sequences displayed by the isolated phages identified two peptides. Both contained two cysteine residues and had identical or similar amino acids in positions 5 (P), 8 (I/L) and 13 (L). The fusion phages were also recognised by Mab 4.52 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and binding was shown by surface plasmon resonance. One of the peptides was a markedly better inhibitor (67%) of the binding of Mab 4.52 to its original antigen than the other (20%) at 1mg/ml. After absorption, to remove isotypic and allotypic reactivities, the anti-idiotype IgY was specifically recognised by Mab 4.52 in ELISA and was able to inhibit its binding to the original antigen, whereas anti-idiotype antibodies raised against a bluetongue virus-specific antibody had no effect. In spite of unequivocal binding of the anti-idiotype antibodies and the fusion phages to the paratope of Mab 4.52, goat antisera appeared not to react with either of the surrogate antigens. In contrast, the test sera bound to the original antigen suggesting that Mab 4.52 does not recognise exactly the same antigenic site as antibodies in the goat antisera. PMID:11376960

  9. The Integration of Epistasis Network and Functional Interactions in a GWAS Implicates RXR Pathway Genes in the Immune Response to Smallpox Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Brett A.; Lareau, Caleb; Oberg, Ann L.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Although many diseases and traits show large heritability, few genetic variants have been found to strongly separate phenotype groups by genotype. Complex regulatory networks of variants and expression of multiple genes lead to small individual-variant effects and difficulty replicating the effect of any single variant in an affected pathway. Interaction network modeling of GWAS identifies effects ignored by univariate models, but population differences may still cause specific genes to not replicate. Integrative network models may help detect indirect effects of variants in the underlying biological pathway. In this study, we used gene-level functional interaction information from the Integrative Multi-species Prediction (IMP) tool to reveal important genes associated with a complex phenotype through evidence from epistasis networks and pathway enrichment. We test this method for augmenting variant-based network analyses with functional interactions by applying it to a smallpox vaccine immune response GWAS. The integrative analysis spotlights the role of genes related to retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), which has been implicated in a previous epistasis network analysis of smallpox vaccine. PMID:27513748

  10. The Integration of Epistasis Network and Functional Interactions in a GWAS Implicates RXR Pathway Genes in the Immune Response to Smallpox Vaccine.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brett A; Lareau, Caleb; Oberg, Ann L; Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Poland, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Although many diseases and traits show large heritability, few genetic variants have been found to strongly separate phenotype groups by genotype. Complex regulatory networks of variants and expression of multiple genes lead to small individual-variant effects and difficulty replicating the effect of any single variant in an affected pathway. Interaction network modeling of GWAS identifies effects ignored by univariate models, but population differences may still cause specific genes to not replicate. Integrative network models may help detect indirect effects of variants in the underlying biological pathway. In this study, we used gene-level functional interaction information from the Integrative Multi-species Prediction (IMP) tool to reveal important genes associated with a complex phenotype through evidence from epistasis networks and pathway enrichment. We test this method for augmenting variant-based network analyses with functional interactions by applying it to a smallpox vaccine immune response GWAS. The integrative analysis spotlights the role of genes related to retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), which has been implicated in a previous epistasis network analysis of smallpox vaccine. PMID:27513748

  11. Expression in systemic lupus erythematosus of an idiotype common to DNA-binding and nonbinding monoclonal antibodies produced by normal human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, E; Massicotte, H; Bell, D A

    1989-01-01

    Rabbit antiserum raised against a normal-derived monoclonal anti-DNA antibody KIM 4.6.3 (IgM lambda) was used for idiotype analyses. This anti-serum (anti-4.6.3 ID) was rendered specific for KIM 4.6.3 idiotype (4.6.3 ID) by absorption with normal human IgM and IgG. The specificity of anti-4.6.3 was shown by its ability to bind to KIM 4.6.3 antibody but not to normal human IgM and IgG, by inhibition of anti-4.6.3 ID reactivity with KIM 4.6.3 antibody by the homologous monoclonal antibody and by the ability of anti-4.6.3 ID to inhibit the binding of single stranded DNA with KIM 4.6.3 antibody. The 4.6.3 ID was found to be commonly expressed since it was detected among 33% (10/30) DNA and 32% (23/72) non-DNA-reactive monoclonal antibodies that were obtained from five different unrelated normal individuals. The binding to ssDNA of the majority of idiotype positive anti-DNA antibodies however was not blocked by anti-4.6.3 ID suggesting that among these other monoclonal antibodies its expression is outside of the antigen binding site. The 4.6.3 ID, which was present among some normal-derived monoclonal IgM molecules was also found at a high frequency (90%) in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but only at a low frequency (24%) and concentration in normal sera. The level of 4.6.3 ID in SLE did not correlate with serum IgM and IgG nor with anti-DNA antibody concentrations. Idiotypic relatedness between SLE serum antibodies and monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies of normals implies the existence of a cross-reactive idiotype family and implies that a conserved common gene or closely related genes exist in the germ line encoding these 4.6.3 ID positive antibodies some of which are not exclusively associated with nucleic acid reactivity. The expression of these germ line genes in vivo thus distinguishes SLE from normals. PMID:2493481

  12. Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... could put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  13. Characterization of anti-idiotypic antibodies and their use as probes for determination of shared idiotopes expressed on murine and human IgE anti-rye I antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Mourad, W; Pelletier, G; Hébert, J

    1988-01-01

    This study describes the production and characterization of rabbit anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-ID Abs) against three idiotypes of three mAbs with different specificities. The anti-ID Abs were rendered idiotype specific by appropriate adsorption. Binding of labelled mAb to homologous anti-ID Ab bound to a polystyrene matrix was completely inhibited when the same mAb was added. In contrast, addition of other mAbs sharing the same isotype and the same light chain but with different specificity did not affect the binding reaction. Each anti-ID Ab inhibited completely and selectively the reaction between the allergen and the homologous mAb idiotype. Labelled rye I binding to a given polystyrene-bound mAb idiotype was completely blocked if the relevant anti-ID Ab was used as an inhibitor. Murine polyclonal anti-rye I antisera inhibited the reaction between all three mAbs and the antigens, as well as the reaction between all three mAb idiotypes and their homologous anti-ID Abs. On another hand, goat polyclonal anti-rye I antisera only inhibited the reaction between the mAbs and the antigens. These results suggest that the anti-ID Abs produced are directed against idiotopes located within the paratopes and such idiotopes are shared by murine monoclonal and polyclonal Abs. Human rye I-specific IgE and murine anti-rye I mAbs could share common idiotopes, since human IgE binding to the antigen was inhibited by the anti-ID Abs. These observations imply structural similarity in the V gene coding for the variable region of the antibody of two different species. PMID:3258278

  14. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Inna; Craven, Mark; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap) was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8), UL41 (VHS), UL53 (gK), UL54 (ICP27), UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22), US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence. PMID:26962864

  15. Quantitative Trait Locus Based Virulence Determinant Mapping of the HSV-1 Genome in Murine Ocular Infection: Genes Involved in Viral Regulatory and Innate Immune Networks Contribute to Virulence.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Aaron W; Lee, Kyubin; Larsen, Inna; Craven, Mark; Brandt, Curtis R

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 causes mucocutaneous lesions, and is the leading cause of infectious blindness in the United States. Animal studies have shown that the severity of HSV-1 ocular disease is influenced by three main factors; innate immunity, host immune response and viral strain. We previously showed that mixed infection with two avirulent HSV-1 strains (OD4 and CJ994) resulted in recombinants that exhibit a range of disease phenotypes from severe to avirulent, suggesting epistatic interactions were involved. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of HSV-1 ocular virulence determinants and to identify virulence associated SNPs. Blepharitis and stromal keratitis quantitative scores were characterized for 40 OD4:CJ994 recombinants. Viral titers in the eye were also measured. Virulence quantitative trait locus mapping (vQTLmap) was performed using the Lasso, Random Forest, and Ridge regression methods to identify significant phenotypically meaningful regions for each ocular disease parameter. The most predictive Ridge regression model identified several phenotypically meaningful SNPs for blepharitis and stromal keratitis. Notably, phenotypically meaningful nonsynonymous variations were detected in the UL24, UL29 (ICP8), UL41 (VHS), UL53 (gK), UL54 (ICP27), UL56, ICP4, US1 (ICP22), US3 and gG genes. Network analysis revealed that many of these variations were in HSV-1 regulatory networks and viral genes that affect innate immunity. Several genes previously implicated in virulence were identified, validating this approach, while other genes were novel. Several novel polymorphisms were also identified in these genes. This approach provides a framework that will be useful for identifying virulence genes in other pathogenic viruses, as well as epistatic effects that affect HSV-1 ocular virulence. PMID:26962864

  16. Relationship of the CD5 B cell to human tonsillar lymphocytes that express autoantibody-associated cross-reactive idiotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Kipps, T J; Duffy, S F

    1991-01-01

    We examined human tonsillar B cells for expression of autoantibody heavy-chain or kappa light-chain cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs), respectively defined by murine MAbs G6 or 17.109. We find 17.109 or G6 each specifically binds a subpopulation of B cells, respectively reacting with 3.8 +/- 3% (mean +/- SD) or 2.0 +/- 1.2% of all tonsillar lymphocytes. Cells reactive with both 17.109 and G6 comprise only 0.4 +/- 0.3% of tonsillar lymphocytes. Although each tested specimen had 17.109-positive cells, 2 of 19 tonsils (11%) did not have any G6-reactive cells. We find that CRI-positive cells and CD5 B cells both co-express slgD but fail to bind peanut agglutinin or MAbs specific for CD10, indicating that both cell types reside in the mantle zones of secondary B cell follicles. However, less than half of the B cells bearing one or both of these CRIs express detectable levels of CD5. Nevertheless, we find that G6-reactive lymphocytes constitute a multiclonal population of cells that express homologous heavy chain variable region genes, each rearranged to one of several distinct and apparently nonmutated D and JH gene segments. Collectively, these studies indicate that expression of nondiversified autoantibody-encoding variable region genes may not be an exclusive property of B cells that bear detectable levels of the CD5 surface antigen. PMID:1710233

  17. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Jorge L; Batista, Noyde; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Lima, Mayté; González, Joaquín; García, Robin; Zarza, Yohanka; López, María V; Rodríguez, Myriam; Loys, Jorge L; Montejo, Narciso; Aguirre, Frank; Macías, Amparo; Vázquez, Ana M

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20-24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration. PMID:22295231

  18. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Jorge L.; Batista, Noyde; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Lima, Mayté; González, Joaquín; García, Robin; Zarza, Yohanka; López, María V.; Rodríguez, Myriam; Loys, Jorge L.; Montejo, Narciso; Aguirre, Frank; Macías, Amparo; Vázquez, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20–24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration. PMID:22295231

  19. Development of a Novel, Anti-idiotypic Monoclonal Anti-prolactin Antibody That Mimics the Physiological Functions of Prolactin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Dian-Cai; Wang, Shen-Tian; Li, Ming-Long

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we prepared a panel of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to ovine prolactin (oPRL) by the hybridoma technique. Among these antibodies, one anti-idotypic antibody (designated B7) was chosen for further characterization by a series of experiments. We first demonstrated that B7 behaved as a typical Ab2β based on a series of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Subsequently, the results of a competitive receptor-binding assay confirmed that B7 could specifically bind to the prolactin receptor (PRLR) expressed on target cells. Finally, we examined its biological activities in CHO-PRLR and Nb2 cells and observed that B7 could activate Janus kinase 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription signalling in CHO-PRLR and Nb2 cells and induce BaF3 proliferation. The present study suggests that i) B7 can serve as a PRLR agonist or PRL mimic and has potential applications in regulating mammary gland development, milk production and maintenance of lactation in domestic animals and ii) B7 may be a biological reagent that can be used to explore the mechanism of PRLR-mediated intracellular signalling. PMID:26949959

  20. CD4+ T cell–dependent and –independent cytokine-chemokine network changes in the immune responses of HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Kelly B.; Szeto, Gregory L.; Alter, Galit; Irvine, Darrell J.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    A vital defect in the immune systems of HIV-infected individuals is the loss of CD4+ T cells, resulting in impaired immune responses. We hypothesized that there were CD4+ T cell–dependent and –independent alterations in the immune responses of HIV-1+ individuals. To test this, we analyzed the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations from HIV+ donors, healthy donors, and healthy donors with CD4+ T cells experimentally depleted. Multivariate analyses of 16 cytokines and chemokines at 6 and 72 hours after three stimuli (antibody-coated beads to stimulate T cells and R848 or LPS to stimulate innate immune cells) enabled integrative analysis of secreted profiles. Two major effects in HIV+ PBMCs were not reproduced upon depleting CD4+ T cell in healthy PBMCs: (i) HIV+ PBMCs maintained T cell–associated secreted profiles after T cell stimulation; (ii) HIV+ PBMCs showed impaired IFN-γ secretion early after innate stimulation. These changes arose from hyperactive T cells and debilitated natural killer (NK) cell, respectively. Modeling and experiments showed that early IFN-γ secretion predicted later differences in secreted profiles in vitro. This effect was recapitulated in healthy PBMCs by blocking the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) receptor. Thus, we identified a critical deficiency in NK cell responses of HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4+ T cell depletion, which directs secreted profiles. Our findings illustrate a broad approach for identifying key disease-associated nodes in a multicellular, multivariate signaling network. PMID:26486173

  1. CD4+ T cell-dependent and CD4+ T cell-independent cytokine-chemokine network changes in the immune responses of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kelly B; Szeto, Gregory L; Alter, Galit; Irvine, Darrell J; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

    2015-10-20

    A vital defect in the immune systems of HIV-infected individuals is the loss of CD4(+) T cells, resulting in impaired immune responses. We hypothesized that there were CD4(+) T cell-dependent and CD4(+) T cell-independent alterations in the immune responses of HIV-1(+) individuals. To test this, we analyzed the secretion of cytokines and chemokines from stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) populations from HIV(+) donors, healthy donors, and healthy donors with CD4(+) T cells experimentally depleted. Multivariate analyses of 16 cytokines and chemokines at 6 and 72 hours after three stimuli (antibody-coated beads to stimulate T cells and R848 or lipopolysaccharide to stimulate innate immune cells) enabled integrative analysis of secreted profiles. Two major effects in HIV(+) PBMCs were not reproduced upon depletion of CD4(+) T cells in healthy PBMCs: (i) HIV(+) PBMCs maintained T cell-associated secreted profiles after T cell stimulation; (ii) HIV(+) PBMCs showed impaired interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion early after innate stimulation. These changes arose from hyperactive T cells and debilitated natural killer (NK) cell, respectively. Modeling and experiments showed that early IFN-γ secretion predicted later differences in secreted profiles in vitro. This effect was recapitulated in healthy PBMCs by blocking the IFN-γ receptor. Thus, we identified a critical deficiency in NK cell responses of HIV-infected individuals, independent of CD4(+) T cell depletion, which directs secreted profiles. Our findings illustrate a broad approach for identifying key disease-associated nodes in a multicellular, multivariate signaling network. PMID:26486173

  2. Immune Restoration

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow cells immune to HIV infection. Letting the immune system repair itself: CD4 counts have increased for many ... have taken ART. Some scientists believe that the immune system might be able to heal and repair itself ...

  3. Immune response

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... cells. T cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. This type of immunity becomes deficient in persons with HIV, the virus ... blood. B lymphocytes provide the body with humoral immunity as they circulate in the fluids in search ...

  4. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  5. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  6. Endocannabinoids and immune regulation☆

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rupal; Mousawy, Khalida; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoid pharmacology has made important advances in recent years after the discovery of the cannabinoid receptors. These discoveries have added to our understanding of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoid signaling along with exploring the various pathways of their biosynthesis, molecular structure, inactivation, and anatomical distribution of their receptors throughout the body. The endocannabinoid system is involved in immunoregulation and neuroprotection. In this article, we have reviewed the possible mechanisms of the regulation of the immune response by endocannabinoids which include modulation of immune response in different cell types, effect on cytokine network, induction of apoptosis in immune cells and downregulation of innate and adaptive immune response. Studies from our laboratory have suggested that administration of endocannabinoids or use of inhibitors of enzymes that breakdown the endocannabinoids, leads to immunosuppression and recovery from immune-mediated injury to organs such as the liver. Thus, manipulation of endocannabinoids in vivo may constitute a novel treatment modality against inflammatory disorders. PMID:19428268

  7. 1H NMR-Based Profiling Reveals Differential Immune-Metabolic Networks during Influenza Virus Infection in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Milner, J. Justin; Wang, Jue; Sheridan, Patricia A.; Ebbels, Tim; Beck, Melinda A.; Saric, Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    Obese individuals are at greater risk for death from influenza virus infection. Paralleling human evidence, obese mice are also more susceptible to influenza infection mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms driving greater influenza severity in the obese remain unclear. Metabolic profiling has been utilized in infectious disease models to enhance prognostic or diagnostic methods, and to gain insight into disease pathogenesis by providing a more global picture of dynamic infection responses. Herein, metabolic profiling was used to develop a deeper understanding of the complex processes contributing to impaired influenza protection in obese mice and to facilitate generation of new explanatory hypotheses. Diet-induced obese and lean mice were infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/34. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolic profiling of urine, feces, lung, liver, mesenteric white adipose tissue, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum revealed distinct metabolic signatures in infected obese mice, including perturbations in nucleotide, vitamin, ketone body, amino acid, carbohydrate, choline and lipid metabolic pathways. Further, metabolic data was integrated with immune analyses to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of potential immune-metabolic interactions. Of interest, uncovered metabolic signatures in urine and feces allowed for discrimination of infection status in both lean and obese mice at an early influenza time point, which holds prognostic and diagnostic implications for this methodology. These results confirm that obesity causes distinct metabolic perturbations during influenza infection and provide a basis for generation of new hypotheses and use of this methodology in detection of putative biomarkers and metabolic patterns to predict influenza infection outcome. PMID:24844920

  8. Integrated Immune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarnece

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the program to replace several recent studies about astronaut immune systems with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling. The study will address lack of in-flight data to determine the inflight status of immune systems, physiological stress, viral immunity, to determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, and to determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  9. Diversity in Compartmental Dynamics of Gene Regulatory Networks: The Immune Response in Primary Influenza A Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hilchey, Shannon P.; Thakar, Juilee; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Welle, Stephen L.; Henn, Alicia D.; Wu, Hulin; Zand, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to study transcriptional profiles post influenza infection typically rely on tissue sampling from one or two sites at a few time points, such as spleen and lung in murine models. In this study, we infected female C57/BL6 mice intranasally with mouse-adapted H3N2/Hong Kong/X31 avian influenza A virus, and then analyzed the gene expression profiles in four different compartments (blood, lung, mediastinal lymph nodes, and spleen) over 11 consecutive days post infection. These data were analyzed by an advanced statistical procedure based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) modeling. Vastly different lists of significant genes were identified by the same statistical procedure in each compartment. Only 11 of them are significant in all four compartments. We classified significant genes in each compartment into co-expressed modules based on temporal expression patterns. We then performed functional enrichment analysis on these co-expression modules and identified significant pathway and functional motifs. Finally, we used an ODE based model to reconstruct gene regulatory network (GRN) for each compartment and studied their network properties. PMID:26413862

  10. Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, George R.; Petitto, Karen R.; McLaughlin, Don

    2001-01-01

    Describes the connectivity features and options of modern campus communication and information system networks, including signal transmission (wire-based and wireless), signal switching, convergence of networks, and network assessment variables, to enable campus leaders to make sound future-oriented decisions. (EV)