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Sample records for ieee asia-pacific region

  1. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  2. Leptospirosis in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic infection that has been recognized for decades, but the problem of the disease has not been fully addressed, particularly in resource-poor, developing countries, where the major burden of the disease occurs. This paper presents an overview of the current situation of leptospirosis in the region. It describes the current trends in the epidemiology of leptospirosis, the existing surveillance systems, and presents the existing prevention and control programs in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Data on leptospirosis in each member country were sought from official national organizations, international public health organizations, online articles and the scientific literature. Papers were reviewed and relevant data were extracted. Results Leptospirosis is highly prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Infections in developed countries arise mainly from occupational exposure, travel to endemic areas, recreational activities, or importation of domestic and wild animals, whereas outbreaks in developing countries are most frequently related to normal daily activities, over-crowding, poor sanitation and climatic conditions. Conclusion In the Asia Pacific region, predominantly in developing countries, leptospirosis is largely a water-borne disease. Unless interventions to minimize exposure are aggressively implemented, the current global climate change will further aggravate the extent of the disease problem. Although trends indicate successful control of leptospirosis in some areas, there is no clear evidence that the disease has decreased in the last decade. The efficiency of surveillance systems and data collection varies significantly among the countries and areas within the region, leading to incomplete information in some instances. Thus, an accurate reflection of the true burden of the disease remains unknown. PMID:19732423

  3. Radio Spectrum Management in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzioumis, T.

    2004-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region comprises countries in ITU-R Region 3 from South and East Asia, Oceania and the Pacific islands, while excluding the Americas. Organizations in the Asia- Pacific region face special challenges in coping with the very diverse cultures and languages of the different nations. Telecommunications in each country are usually administered by a single National Communications Administration. These administrations participate in a number of regional umbrella organizations which promote cooperation in the development of communications in the Asia-Pacific. Those with relevance to radio astronomy are briefly oulined in this paper.

  4. Opportunistic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Monica A; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2012-01-01

    With more than half the world's population, many Asia-Pacific countries still lack resources for adequate infection control and diagnostics. Opportunistic invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have a significant impact on public health in the region, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The incidence of IFI in the Asia-Pacific region is increasing because of the expanded population of immunosuppressed patients resulting from advances in medical technology, such as treatments for cancer and transplantation, as well as the impact of human immunodeficiency virus. Even so, the epidemiology of IFIs is not well described in the Asia-Pacific region. Prevalence of some infections, such as mucormycosis, is particularly related to undiagnosed or untreated diabetes, which is likely to be a continuing problem with the epidemic of diabetes in the region. In addition, despite some effective treatment options, IFIs are associated with high morbidity and mortality. In an attempt to increase recognition of invasive mycoses in this large area, this paper reviews recent findings on the epidemiology of the most clinically significant opportunistic mould and yeast infections in the Asia-Pacific region, i.e., aspergillosis, mucormycosis, pythiosis, scedosporiosis, fusariosis, candidiasis, trichosporonosis, and cryptococcosis. PMID:21905945

  5. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ran Xu; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant primary liver cancer in many countries and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. The incidence of HCC is higher in men and in those over 40 years old. In the Asia-Pacific region, chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are the main etiological agents; in particular, chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is still the major cause in all Asia-Pacific countries except for Japan. Over the past two decades, the incidence of HCC has remained stable in countries in the region except for Singapore and Hong Kong, where the incidence for both sexes is currently decreasing. Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) is an important cause of HCC in Japan, representing 70% of HCCs. Over the past several decades, the prevalence of CHC has been increasing in many Asia-Pacific countries, including Australia, New Zealand, and India. Despite advancements in treatment, HCC is still an important health problem because of the associated substantial mortality. An effective surveillance program could offer early diagnosis and hence better treatment options. Antiviral treatment for both CHB and CHC is effective in reducing the incidence of HCC. PMID:27114433

  6. Epidemiology of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ran Xu; Seto, Wai-Kay; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2016-05-23

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the predominant primary liver cancer in many countries and is the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. The incidence of HCC is higher in men and in those over 40 years old. In the Asia-Pacific region, chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are the main etiological agents; in particular, chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is still the major cause in all Asia-Pacific countries except for Japan. Over the past two decades, the incidence of HCC has remained stable in countries in the region except for Singapore and Hong Kong, where the incidence for both sexes is currently decreasing. Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHC) is an important cause of HCC in Japan, representing 70% of HCCs. Over the past several decades, the prevalence of CHC has been increasing in many Asia-Pacific countries, including Australia, New Zealand, and India. Despite advancements in treatment, HCC is still an important health problem because of the associated substantial mortality. An effective surveillance program could offer early diagnosis and hence better treatment options. Antiviral treatment for both CHB and CHC is effective in reducing the incidence of HCC. PMID:27114433

  7. Radiocontrast media hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suh-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Whan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-04-01

    Radiocontrast media (RCM) is a major cause of drug hypersensitivity reactions as the medical application of RCM is increasing recently. RCM induced hypersensitivity reactions are considered as unpredictable type B reactions. Underlying mechanism of RCM induced hypersensitivity was previously regarded as nonimmunological mechanisms but recent studies suggest that immunological mechanisms could also be involved. As a result, the roles of skin tests and premedication are revisiting. As there has been no report that comprehensively summarized and analyzed the results of the studies on RCM hypersensitivity in the Asia Pacific region, we aimed to review the literatures on hypersensitivity reactions to RCM in terms of prevalence clinical manifestations, diagnostic approach, and preventive measures in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:24809018

  8. Progress in island health in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hokama, Tomiko; Binns, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region contains many islands, perhaps up to 100 000. The provision of public health and health care to small isolated groups poses particular challenges in the 21st century. The health of island populations has improved over the past 3 decades, but maintaining and improving current levels of health is made more difficult by emigration and the difficulty of maintaining communications. PMID:25475082

  9. Cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2010-01-01

    Cancer incidences as well as the most prevalent cancer types vary greatly across Asian countries since people have differing health behaviors as well as lifestyle factors related to cancer risk. Countries have varying systems of government organization, laws, resources, facilities, and management strategies for addressing the cancer burden. Examples such as Korea and Japan with existing national cancer control programs need to focus on early screening and detection and quality of screening methods. If screening and detection increase to cover more than 50% of the target population, survival rate increases and thus the number of cancer patients detected increases resulting in higher medical cost. Thus, expansion of cancer screening, in addition to smoking prevention, immunization increase, and diet control awareness, are needed for cancer prevention strategies. Countries such as Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Turkey need to begin organized efforts to reduce cancer deaths through state-wide cancer screening programs. Strategies focused on increasing survival among cancer patients are also needed. In addition, government organizations and law regulations need to be in place as the first step towards cancer prevention. For the countries such as Nepal, Pakistan, Mongolia, and Iraq which do not have any cancer-related organizations in place, the first step that is needed is to raise public awareness about cancer; a public awareness campaign is the number one priority and should begin immediately. The easiest and most feasible step at this point is dissemination of cancer education materials during school health education and physical health screening. This must be started immediately because we need to avoid the development of existing cancers where patients will need to seek specialized cancer treatment facilities that are non-existent in these regions. In addition, hospitals need to take a step further and start undergoing registration of cancer prevalence and

  10. Food crisis in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Katinka M; Easdown, Warwick J; Yang, Ray-yu; Keatinge, John Donough H

    2009-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region was on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of extreme poverty by 2015, but recent dramatic rises in the price of rice and other staples have pushed millions of people back into hunger and poverty. This indicates that the region's food supply system is more fragile and imbalanced than what was previously believed. Proximate causes of the rise in staple prices can be found in market forces such as export restrictions and rising energy prices but the ultimate causes are policies that have led to under-investment in agricultural research and emergency mitigation. Large numbers of people in the Asia-Pacific were already undernourished prior to the recent price rises, relying on monotonous diets dominated by a few staples. Pushed into reducing their dietary diversity even further, many more millions are now suffering from hunger and deteriorating health. The most fundamental food crisis in the Asia-Pacific is one of poor diets, and this affects the obese just as much as the undernourished. The solution lies in a food system that focuses on producing balanced diets, developing safe production practices, increasing food supplies by reducing losses, and investing in the research that make it all happen. Improving food systems is a fundamental community expectation and can be a matter of government survival, but if the urgency to improve food supplies overrides improving diets, the long-term impact on national health will be severe. Proactive policies, regional responses, and more integrated scientific approaches are needed. PMID:19965340

  11. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  12. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Virginia; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  13. Acute coronary syndrome in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mark Y; Du, Xin; Eccleston, David; Ma, Changsheng; Mohanan, Padinhare P; Ogita, Manabu; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Yan, Bryan P; Jeong, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    More than 4.2 billion inhabitants populate the Asia-Pacific region. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is now a major cause of death and disability in this region with in-hospital mortality typically exceeding 5%. Yet, the region still lacks consensus on the best approach to overcoming its specific challenges in reducing mortality from ACS. The Asia-Pacific Real world evIdenCe on Outcome and Treatment of ACS (APRICOT) project reviewed current published and unpublished registry data, unmet needs in ACS management and possible approaches towards improving ACS-related mortality in the region. There was striking heterogeneity in the use of invasive procedures, pharmacologic practice (hospitalization/post-discharge), and in short- and long-term clinical outcomes across healthcare systems; this heterogeneity was perceived to be far greater than in Western Europe or the United States. 'Benchmark' short-term clinical outcomes are preferred over long-term outcomes due to difficulties in follow-up, recording and maintenance of medication adherence in a geographically large and culturally diverse region. Key 'barriers' towards improving outcomes include patient education (pain awareness, consequences of missing medication and secondary prevention), geographical landscape (urban vs. metropolitan), limited long-term adherence to guideline-based management and widespread adoption of cost-based rather than value-based healthcare systems. Initiatives to overcome these barriers should include implementation of pre-hospital management strategies, toolkits to aid in-hospital treatment, greater community outreach with online patient/physician education and telemedicine, sustainable economic models to improve accessibility to effective pharmacotherapies and the acquisition of high-quality 'real-world' regional data to tailor secondary prevention initiatives that meet the unique needs of countries in this region. PMID:26476044

  14. Sustainability in Business Education in the Asia Pacific Region: A Snapshot of the Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik; Neal, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into business school education and learning in the Asia Pacific region. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was developed, and administered to business schools in the Asia Pacific region. In addition to measuring the number of…

  15. LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Kiani, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

  16. Rethinking the Mission of Internationalization of Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun Wing

    2012-01-01

    This article adopts the critical theory approach to reflect and analyse the impacts of globalization on the internationalization process of higher education in the Asia-Pacific region. It argues that globalization forces many of the higher education institutions in the region to follow global practices and ideologies of the Anglo-American paradigm…

  17. Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education in the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naeem, Malik A.; Peach, Neil W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how a consortium of universities in the Asia Pacific region are endeavouring to make a contribution to the implementation of education for sustainable development (ESD) through their participation with and the operation of the Promotion of Sustainability in Postgraduate Education and Research Net…

  18. Online Learning and Information Technology in the Asia-Pacific Region: Perspectives, Issues, and Divides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    This special issue presents articles contributed by academics from the Asia-Pacific region on perspectives and progress made in online learning and information technology (IT). The articles discuss online learning and IT efforts in South Korea, Hong Kong, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Australia, Guam, and New Zealand. (AEF)

  19. Continuing Professional Development in the Accounting Profession: Practices and Perceptions from the Asia Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lange, Paul; Jackling, Beverley; Suwardy, Themin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on research in the sociology of professions as a reference point, this study examines the practices and perceptions of professional accountants towards the requirements of IES7 on continuing professional development (CPD). Responses from 1310 accountants in the Asia Pacific region suggest while increasing globalisation has led to more…

  20. Ocular Pathology: Role of Emerging Viruses in the Asia-Pacific Region-A Review.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Ratnesh; Ranjan, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    The role of viral infections in ocular pathology varies greatly, involving all the components of the eye. Some viruses like herpes simplex, herpes zoster, adenovirus, enterovirus 70, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and cytomegalovirus are well-known for their role in ocular pathology. In recent years, emerging and resurging viral infections represent an important public health problem. The Asia-Pacific region has witnessed a number of pandemic and epidemic outbreaks caused by these viruses during the last 2 decades. The number of ocular complications being reported in patients of these viral infections has also increased significantly during this period. Ophthalmologists and physicians should be aware of ocular manifestations of newly emerging or resurging viral diseases. We conducted a review of the literature published during the last 20 years with the objectives of finding out outbreaks of emerging and reemerging viruses in the Asia-Pacific region and finding out any ocular involvement in these viral infections. An iterative search of the MEDLINE and the Google databases was made using the search terms emerging virus, ocular manifestations, ocular complications, Chikungunya, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis, West Nile fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Rift valley fever, Hantavirus, Henipavirus, Influenza virus, Enterovirus 71, and Asia-Pacific region, separately and with reported ocular involvement in combination. This review article discusses the epidemiology and the systemic and ocular manifestations of all emerging viral infections with reported ocular involvement in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:26107917

  1. Security of water, energy, and food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Fujii, M.; Shoji, J.; Baba, K.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F. P.; Delinom, R.

    2014-12-01

    Water, energy, and food are the most important and fundamental resources for human beings and society. Demands for these resources are escalating rapidly because of increases in populations and changes in lifestyles. Therefore intensive demand for those resources makes conflicts between resources. Securities of water, energy, and food are treated separately, however they should be considered as one integrated matter, because water-energy-food are connected and it makes nexus and tradeoff. Security in terms of self-production, diversity of alternatives, and variability are evaluated for water, energy and food for thirty two countries in the Asia-Pacific region. The water and energy nexus includes water consumption for the cooling of power plant systems, water use for hydro power generation, and energy consumption for water allocation and pumping. The water and food nexus consists of water consumption for agriculture and aquaculture. The energy and food nexus includes energy consumption for food production and biomass for energy. Analyses of 11 countries within the Asia- Pacific region show that energy consumption for fish is the largest among foods in Japan, Philippines, and Peru, while energy consumption for cereals is the largest among foods in Canada, US, Indonesia, and others. Water consumption for different types of food and energy are also analyzed, including nexus ratio to total water consumption. The water-energy-food nexus at a local level in the Asia Pacific region are examined by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature project "Human environmental security in Asia Pacific Ring of Fire". Themes including geothermal power plants for energy development and hot springs as water, shale gas for energy development and water consumption/contamination, aquaculture for food and water contamination are used to evaluate the water-energy-food nexus in the Asia-Pacific region.

  2. Progress in the health and nutrition of girls in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception 3 decades ago the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) has emphasized improving the health of disadvantaged and minority groups. In 1990, APACPH held a conference in Kathmandu with the theme, "The Girl Child in Asia: A Neglected Majority." Over the past 3 decades, the mortality rates for all children, particularly girls, have improved in our region. PMID:25452589

  3. Assistance Focus: Asia/Pacific Region; Clean Energy Solutions Center (CESC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-11

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center Ask an Expert service connects governments seeking policy information and advice with one of more than 30 global policy experts who can provide reliable and unbiased quick-response advice and information. The service is available at no cost to government agency representatives from any country and the technical institutes assisting them. This publication presents summaries of assistance provided to governments in the Asia/Pacific region, including the benefits of that assistance.

  4. Development of Crop Yield Estimation Method by Applying Seasonal Climate Prediction in Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y.; Lee, E.

    2015-12-01

    Under the influence of recent climate change, abnormal weather condition such as floods and droughts has issued frequently all over the world. The occurrence of abnormal weather in major crop production areas leads to soaring world grain prices because it influence the reduction of crop yield. Development of crop yield estimation method is important means to accommodate the global food crisis caused by abnormal weather. However, due to problems with the reliability of the seasonal climate prediction, application research on agricultural productivity has not been much progress yet. In this study, it is an object to develop long-term crop yield estimation method in major crop production countries worldwide using multi seasonal climate prediction data collected by APEC Climate Center. There are 6-month lead seasonal predictions produced by six state-of-the-art global coupled ocean-atmosphere models(MSC_CANCM3, MSC_CANCM4, NASA, NCEP, PNU, POAMA). First of all, we produce a customized climate data through temporal and spatial downscaling methods for use as a climatic input data to the global scale crop model. Next, we evaluate the uncertainty of climate prediction by applying multi seasonal climate prediction in the crop model. Because rice is the most important staple food crop in the Asia-Pacific region, we assess the reliability of the rice yields using seasonal climate prediction for main rice production countries. RMSE(Root Mean Squire Error) and TCC(Temporal Correlation Coefficient) analysis is performed in Asia-Pacific countries, major 14 rice production countries, to evaluate the reliability of the rice yield according to the climate prediction models. We compare the rice yield data obtained from FAOSTAT and estimated using the seasonal climate prediction data in Asia-Pacific countries. In addition, we show that the reliability of seasonal climate prediction according to the climate models in Asia-Pacific countries where rice cultivation is being carried out.

  5. Diabetes mellitus: perspective from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Cockram, C S

    2000-10-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the current situation in the Western Pacific Region as a prelude to the other articles in this supplememt. It emphasises that, while there is much diversity within this huge Region, there is a rising prevalence of diabetes throughout the Region from which few, if any, countries and areas are spared. This is strongly associated with the lifestyle changes which follow industralisation, mechanisation and massive urbanisation; for which evolutionary processes have left us metabolically ill-equipped. The current epidemic of diabetes is principally due to rises in Type 2 diabetes, although Type 1 diabetes prevalence rates are also rising. The Region already contains more than 30 million people with diabetes and the number is estimated to double by 2025. Diabetes prevalence rates already exceed 8% in 12 countries and areas within the Region. In the more impoverished parts of the Region the majority have little access to care and in all parts of the Region a substantial proportion remain undiagnosed. The increasing emergence of Type 2 diabetes in young adults and children gives particular cause for concern. There is an urgent need for targetted action at all levels within the Region. PMID:11024577

  6. Safety Results of Docetaxel-(Taxotere®)-Based Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer Patients of Asia-Pacific Region: Asia-Pacific Breast Initiative II

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Yau Tsz; Thuan, Tran Van; Chao, Tsu-Yi; Shen, Zhen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this registry was to collect patient characteristics and safety data from patients from the Asia-Pacific region with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy containing docetaxel (Taxotere®). Methods This registry was open-label, international, longitudinal, multicenter, and observational in design and included a prospective group of consecutive early breast cancer patients with an intermediate-to-high risk of recurrence being treated with various docetaxel-based (anthracycline and non-anthracycline) adjuvant chemotherapy regimens during 2009-2013 in real-world clinical settings. Results The analysis included 1,712 patients, 79% of whom received docetaxel-based, anthracycline-containing regimens, while 21% received non-anthracycline-containing regimens. Patients receiving adjuvant docetaxel-based chemotherapy were followed for 1.5 years. Chemotherapy-related adverse events (AEs) were reported by 76.2% of patients (anthracycline-containing vs. non-anthracycline-containing regimens: 76.8% vs. 74.1%). Serious AEs were reported in 12% of patients (12.3% vs. 10%). National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or higher neutropenia was reported in 20% of patients (21.6% vs. 13.9%), leukopenia in 7.4% of patients (5.4% vs. 14.8%), and vomiting in 1.6% of patients (1.8% vs. 0.6%). Treatment-related death was reported in 27 patients (1.6%), while only 3% of patients had a relapse. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratios increased after chemotherapy. A clinically insignificant reduction of 1.9% in left ventricular ejection fraction, from 66.43 to 64.53, was observed 1.5 years after therapy was completed. Conclusion The Asia-Pacific Breast initiative II registry identified a variety of important facts regarding patient population characteristics, disease epidemiology and treatment response for early breast cancer patients of the Asia-Pacific

  7. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  8. Roles of cancer registries in enhancing oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Soon, Swee-Sung; Lim, Hwee-Yong; Lopes, Gilberto; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Hu, Min; Ibrahim, Hishamshah Mohd; Jha, Anand; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Lee, Pak Wai; Macdonell, Diana; Sirachainan, Ekaphop; Wee, Hwee-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer registries help to establish and maintain cancer incidence reporting systems, serve as a resource for investigation of cancer and its causes, and provide information for planning and evaluation of preventive and control programs. However, their wider role in directly enhancing oncology drug access has not been fully explored. We examined the value of cancer registries in oncology drug access in the Asia-Pacific region on three levels: (1) specific registry variable types; (2) macroscopic strategies on the national level; and (3) a regional cancer registry network. Using literature search and proceedings from an expert forum, this paper covers recent cancer registry developments in eight economies in the Asia-Pacific region - Australia, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand - and the ways they can contribute to oncology drug access. Specific registry variables relating to demographics, tumor characteristics, initial treatment plans, prognostic markers, risk factors, and mortality help to anticipate drug needs, identify high-priority research area and design access programs. On a national level, linking registry data with clinical, drug safety, financial, or drug utilization databases allows analyses of associations between utilization and outcomes. Concurrent efforts should also be channeled into developing and implementing data integrity and stewardship policies, and providing clear avenues to make data available. Less mature registry systems can employ modeling techniques and ad-hoc surveys while increasing coverage. Beyond local settings, a cancer registry network for the Asia-Pacific region would offer cross-learning and research opportunities that can exert leverage through the experiences and capabilities of a highly diverse region. PMID:23725106

  9. 2013 Asia-Pacific Education Research Institutes Network (ERI-Net) Regional Study on Transversal Competencies in Education Policy & Practice (Phase I). Regional Synthesis Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoko, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an understanding of how transversal competencies are viewed, implemented, and adapted in education policy and curriculum across the Asia-Pacific region. The publication consolidates the results of ten country studies carried out in 2013-2014 in ten countries and economies of the Asia-Pacific region, including: Australia; China…

  10. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2011 survey results

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Azhari, HA; Voon, EO; Cheung, KY; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, NM; Bold, L; Win, UM; Srivastava, R; Meyer, J; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, M; Lee, JCL; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2012-01-01

    Background: Medical physicists are essential members of the radiation oncology team. Given the increasing complexity of radiotherapy delivery, it is important to ensure adequate training and staffing. The aim of the present study was to update a similar survey from 2008 and assess the situation of medical physicists in the large and diverse Asia Pacific region. Methods: Between March and July 2011, a survey on profession and practice of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region was performed. The survey was sent to senior physicists in 22 countries. Replies were received from countries that collectively represent more than half of the world’s population. The survey questions explored five areas: education, staffing, work patterns including research and teaching, resources available, and job satisfaction. Results and discussion: Compared to a data from a similar survey conducted three years ago, the number of medical physicists in participating countries increased by 29% on average. This increase is similar to the increase in the number of linear accelerators, showing that previously identified staff shortages have yet to be substantially addressed. This is also highlighted by the fact that most ROMPs are expected to work overtime often and without adequate compensation. While job satisfaction has stayed similar compared to the previous survey, expectations for education and training have increased somewhat. This is in line with a trend towards certification of ROMPs. Conclusion: As organisations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO) start to recognise medical physics as a profession, it is evident that despite some encouraging signs there is still a lot of work required towards establishing an adequately trained and resourced medical physics workforce in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:22970066

  11. Particularities of hydro lidar missions in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Kopilevich, Yuri; Park, Joong Yong; Kim, Minsu; Aitken, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    The Asia-Pacific ocean region is one of the areas where airborne lidar is a promising tool for depth measurement. The anticipated efficiency of a laser bathymetry survey of a coastal zone in the region varies with the optical characteristics of the water. Near-shore waters in open areas of several countries (Philippines, Indonesia, Taiwan, and the east coast of South Korea) may be described as Class II in the Jerlov 1 classification (turbid tropical-subtropical water), while water properties in internal seas are described as Classes 1 to 9 (coastal waters of increasing turbidity); the optical characteristics of the coastal waters of the East China Sea are beyond the Jerlov classification. In this paper, the applicability of the CZMIL (Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar) 2, 3 system developed by Optech is considered for lidar bathymetry in the Asia-Pacific region. The Optech CZMIL has several attributes that enable it to significantly improve seafloor detectability in shallow and, in particular, turbid waters, namely a high-energy laser, a short system response function, increased receiver sensitivity, and high point density. The system capability was tested in a relatively turbid area of the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. The maximal depth for bathymetry with the CZMIL system is estimated theoretically in various countries, accounting for the spatial and seasonal variability of the internal optical properties of near-shore water

  12. Panel discussion: Roles of space program in the Asia Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Tamiya

    1992-03-01

    A panel discussion on the subject 'Roles played by space development in Asia Pacific region' was held chaired by Space Activities Commission member and attended by the representatives of the participating countries, special attendance and observers. Opinions were expressed by each representative on three subjects, that is, social effects and benefits obtained by remote sensing data, observation data desired to augment the effect, and expectation for developed countries in space development. President of NASDA (National Space Development Agency of Japan) expressed his intension to promote international cooperation for the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1) verification program, utilization augmentation of Japanese earth observing satellites and human resource training and education. Deputy Director-General for Science and Technology Agency (STA) outlined ASCA (Association for Science Cooperation in Asia) seminar and STA fellowship in relation to human resource development. Chairman of the Japan International Space Year (ISY) Association cited the necessity of closer and extensive communication networks free from the existing commercial communication. Deputy-Minister for Posts and Telecommunications outlined the PARTNERS project (Post-operational utilization of the Engineering Test Satellite-5 (ETS-5)) for international cooperation in space activities in Asia Pacific region. President of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) outlined Japan's present status of and international cooperation in space science.

  13. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region: 2014 survey results.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Azhari, H A; Voon, E O; Cheung, K Y; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Han, Y; Ung, N M; TsedenIsh, Bolortuya; Win, U M; Srivastava, R; Marsh, S; Farrukh, S; Rodriguez, L; Kuo, Men; Baggarley, S; DilipKumara, A H; Lee, C C; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, X C; Ng, K H

    2015-09-01

    It was the aim of this work to assess and track the workload, working conditions and professional recognition of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) in the Asia Pacific region over time. In this third survey since 2008, a structured questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to 22 senior medical physicists representing 23 countries. As in previous surveys the questionnaire covered seven themes: 1 education, training and professional certification, 2 staffing, 3 typical tasks, 4 professional organisations, 5 resources, 6 research and teaching, and 7 job satisfaction. The response rate of 100% is a result of performing a survey through a network, which allows easy follow-up. The replies cover 4841 ROMPs in 23 countries. Compared to 2008, the number of medical physicists in many countries has doubled. However, the number of experienced ROMPs compared to the overall workforce is still small, especially in low and middle income countries. The increase in staff is matched by a similar increase in the number of treatment units over the years. Furthermore, the number of countries using complex techniques (IMRT, IGRT) or installing high end equipment (tomotherapy, robotic linear accelerators) is increasing. Overall, ROMPs still feel generally overworked and the professional recognition, while varying widely, appears to be improving only slightly. Radiation oncology medical physics practice has not changed significantly over the last 6 years in the Asia Pacific Region even if the number of physicists and the number and complexity of treatment techniques and technologies have increased dramatically. PMID:26346030

  14. Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yukiko; Bell, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    With the emphasis on faculty experiences and efforts to enhance higher learning in less-developed regions, "Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century: The Case of the Asia-Pacific Region" is a comprehensive study of teaching applications involving educational technology. The book encourages collaboration across geographical borders…

  15. [Current trends of NASH/NAFLD in Asia-Pacific region].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromasa

    2006-06-01

    In Japan, much attention has been paid to NASH and NAFLD for the past several years and the prevalence of this disease entity has been estimated, and NASH is thought to be present in 10% of those who have fatty liver diseases. Other points out the prevalence of NASH in Japan as 6 to 8 hundred thousand patients. The last two or three decades have seen the evolution of Western-style life of near complete inactivity, energy-dense food choices and liberal fiscal resources to obtain them and other means to avoid physical activity. Moreover, what is increasingly apparent is that NASH and NAFLD is not a Western disease and many population groups in the Asia-Pacific region are particularly prone to type 2 diabetes. Thus, it is not surprising that NASH has increasingly been diagnosed in several regions in Asia including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and India. PMID:16768103

  16. What is the meaning of palliative care in the Asia-Pacific region?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Margaret; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Griffiths, Debra; Poon, Edward; Chin, Jacqueline; Payne, Sheila; Nordin, Rusli

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the preliminary work required to understand cultural differences in palliative care in the United Kingdom and three countries in the Asia-Pacific region, in preparation for a cross-country study. The study is intended to address cultural understandings of palliative care, the role of the family in end of life care, what constitutes good care and the ethical issues in each country. Suggestions are then made to shape the scope of the study and to be considered as outcomes to improve care of the dying in these countries. It is anticipated that the method used to achieve consensus on cross-country palliative care issues will be both qualitative and quantitative. Identifying key priorities in the delivery and quality measures of palliative care will involve participants in focus groups, a Delphi survey and in the development of clinical indicators towards creating standards of palliative care common to the Asian Pacific region. PMID:20887501

  17. 137Cs and (239+240)Pu levels in the Asia-Pacific regional seas.

    PubMed

    Duran, E B; Povinec, P P; Fowler, S W; Airey, P L; Hong, G H

    2004-01-01

    137Cs and (239+240)Pu data in seawater, sediment and biota from the regional seas of Asia-Pacific extending from 50 degrees N to 60 degrees S latitude and 60 degrees E to 180 degrees E longitude based on the Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) are presented and discussed. 137Cs levels in surface seawater have been declining to its present median value of about 3 Bq/m3 due mainly to radioactive decay, transport processes, and the absence of new significant inputs. (239+240)Pu levels in surface seawater are much lower, with a median of about 6 mBq/m3. (239+240)Pu appears to be partly scavenged by particles and is therefore more readily transported down the water column. As with seawater, (239+240)Pu concentrations are lower than 137Cs in surface sediment. The median 137Cs concentration in surface sediment is 1.4 Bq/kg dry, while that of (239+240)Pu is only 0.2 Bq/kg dry. The vertical profiles of both 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in the sediment column of coastal areas are different from deep seas which can be attributed to the higher sedimentation rates and additional contribution of run-offs from terrestrial catchment areas in the coastal zone. Comparable data for biota are far less extensive than those for seawater and sediment. The median 137Cs concentration in fish (0.2 Bq/kg wet) is higher than in crustaceans (0.1 Bq/kg wet) or mollusks (0.1 Bq/kg wet). Benchmark values (as of 2001) for 137Cs and (239+240)Pu concentrations in seawater, sediment and biota are established to serve as reference values against which the impact of future anthropogenic inputs can be assessed. ASPAMARD represents one of the most comprehensive compilations of available data on 137Cs and (239+240)Pu in particular, and other anthropogenic as well as natural radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota from the Asia-Pacific regional seas. PMID:15245845

  18. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouret, Jean-Claud; Liew, Soo Chin; Gupta, Avijit

    2012-04-01

    Conference on Remote Sensing, Natural Hazards, and Environmental Change; Singapore, 28-29 July 2011 Natural hazards and anthropogenic environmental changes, both significant in the Asia-Pacific region, were the two themes of a conference organized by the National University of Singapore's Centre for Remote Imaging, Sensing and Processing (CRISP) and the Université Blaise Pascal's Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from 500 meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented. The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution (50 centimeters) has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change.

  19. A Food in Health Security (FIHS) platform in the Asia-Pacific Region: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Keatinge, John Donough H; Butler, Colin D; Friel, Sharon; McKay, John; Easdown, Warwick; Kuo, Ken N; Huang, Ching-jang; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yang, Ray-Yu; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chiu, Ya-Wen; Jaron, Dov; Krawinkel, Michael; Barlow, Snow; Walsh, Greg; Chiang, Tung-liang; Huang, Po-Chao; Li, Duo

    2009-01-01

    The advent of multiple global crises, especially those of climate change, economics, energy, water, food and health evident in 2008, is of considerable moment to those who are suffering their consequences and for those with responsibility and interest in the systems affected. A coalition of parties in the Asia Pacific Region who work in the food and health systems met in August, 2009 in Taiwan and instigated a Food in Health Security (FIHS) Network which might join with other like-minded networks in and beyond the region. Sustainable health has many dimensions, among which food and nutrition is often neglected; there is a wide spectrum of nutritionally-related disorders. Malnutrition remains the global concern for agricultural research and development scientists and linkage with the health sector is key to progress. The disconnect between agricultural and health sectors negatively impacts consumer nutrition and health. Ethical and equity affect food and health systems. Food and health security is attainable only when the underlying social inequities are addressed; it is an ethical issue as reflected in the UN Universal declaration of Human Rights which includes the right to food for health and well-being. Food and health security are part of the larger security agenda and merit corresponding attention. Policy recommendations with immediacy are greater investment in combined food and health research; an Asia Pacific security agenda which emphasizes planetary, human, health and food security as relevant to traditional defence security; and community and household security measures which include maternal literacy, communication technology and entrepreneurial opportunity. PMID:19965367

  20. External quality assessment of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics in the Asia Pacific region, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Li Ting; Squires, Raynal C; Tan, Li Kiang; Pok, Kwoon Yong; Yang, HuiTing; Liew, Christina; Shah, Aparna Singh; Aaskov, John; Abubakar, Sazaly; Hasabe, Futoshi; Ng, Lee Ching

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct an external quality assessment (EQA) of dengue and chikungunya diagnostics among national-level public health laboratories in the Asia Pacific region following the first round of EQA for dengue diagnostics in 2013. Methods Twenty-four national-level public health laboratories performed routine diagnostic assays on a proficiency testing panel consisting of two modules. Module A contained serum samples spiked with cultured dengue virus (DENV) or chikungunya virus (CHIKV) for the detection of nucleic acid and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen. Module B contained human serum samples for the detection of anti-DENV antibodies. Results Among 20 laboratories testing Module A, 17 (85%) correctly detected DENV RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR), 18 (90%) correctly determined serotype and 19 (95%) correctly identified CHIKV by RT–PCR. Ten of 15 (66.7%) laboratories performing NS1 antigen assays obtained the correct results. In Module B, 18/23 (78.3%) and 20/20 (100%) of laboratories correctly detected anti-DENV IgM and IgG, respectively. Detection of acute/recent DENV infection by both molecular (RT–PCR) and serological methods (IgM) was available in 19/24 (79.2%) participating laboratories. Discussion Accurate laboratory testing is a critical component of dengue and chikungunya surveillance and control. This second round of EQA reveals good proficiency in molecular and serological diagnostics of these diseases in the Asia Pacific region. Further comprehensive diagnostic testing, including testing for Zika virus, should comprise future iterations of the EQA. PMID:27508088

  1. Why Offer the International Baccalaureate Middle Years Programme? A Comparison between Schools in Asia-Pacific and Other Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Ewan; Lee, Moosung; Tang, Hayes; Chak Pong Tsui, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) has become a powerful educational brand by developing a reputation for combining progressive approaches with academic rigour. This can be identified by the growing number of schools adopting IB programmes globally and especially in the IB Asia-Pacific region. As part of this trend, the IB Middle Years Programme…

  2. Letter from Seoul: Correspondence from the International Arts Education Symposium and the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold; Schroeder-Yu, Gigi

    2006-01-01

    Arts educator Gigi Schroeder-Yu and Arnold Aprill arrived in Seoul, Korea to participate in the International Arts Education Symposium and in the Asia-Pacific Regional Conference that are part of the wind up for the pitch of the UNESCO World Conference on Arts Education to be held in Lisbon in March 2006. In this article, they reflect on their…

  3. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  4. How To Establish Effective Book Marketing and Distribution Systems in Asia/Pacific. Report of the Regional Training Course on Book Production in Asia/Pacific (Tokyo, Japan, September 21-October 9, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Cultural Centre for UNESCO, Tokyo (Japan).

    The participants in this 1994 regional training course examined the issue of book distribution and marketing. They focused on book marketing together with the development of distribution in order to prepare practical action plans for improvement. Twenty-three experts from 20 countries in Asia/Pacific and Africa analyzed problems, exchanged…

  5. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. PMID:26868904

  6. Central obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio as risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Asia Pacific populations. We undertook a pooled analysis involving six cohort studies (45 988 participants) and used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations of the four anthropometric indices with stroke and ischaemic heart disease by age, sex and region. During a mean follow-up of six years, 346 stroke and 601 ischaemic heart disease events (fatal and non-fatal) were documented. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in index was associated with an increase in risk of ischaemic heart disease of 17% (95% CI 7-27%) for body mass index, 27% (95% CI 14-40%) for waist circumference, 10% (95% CI 1-20%) for hip circumference, and 36% (95% CI 21-52%) for waist-hip ratio. There were no significant differences between age groups, sex, and region. None of the four anthropometric indices had a strong association with risk of stroke. These data indicate that measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are strongly associated with risk of ischaemic heart disease in this region. Therefore, we suggest that, along with calculation of body mass index, measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio should be undertaken routinely. PMID:16837418

  7. Changing Prevalence of Allergic Diseases in the Asia-Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ting Fan; Ko, Fanny W.S.

    2013-01-01

    Asia-Pacific is one of the most densely populated regions of the world and is experiencing rapid economic changes and urbanization. Environmental pollution is a significant problem associated with the rapid modernization of many cities in South Asia. It is not surprising that the prevalences of asthma and allergies are increasing rapidly, although the underlying reasons remain largely unknown. Many studies from this region have documented the changing prevalence of allergic diseases in various parts of the world. However, the methodologies used were neither standardized nor validated, making the results difficult to evaluate. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) has provided a global epidemiology map of asthma and allergic diseases, as well as the trend of changes in the prevalence of these diseases. Allergic sensitization is extremely common in many Asian communities. However, the prevalence of allergic diseases remains relatively rare. The rapid urbanization in the region, which increases environmental pollution and can affect the rural environment, will likely increase the prevalence of asthma and allergies in Asia. PMID:24003381

  8. Consensus of official position of IOF/ISCD FRAX initiatives in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Hsing; McCloskey, Eugene V; Lee, Joon Kiong; Itabashi, Akira; Prince, Richard; Yu, Wei; Li-Yu, Julie; Chionh, Siok Bee; Zhao, Yanling; Shin, Chan Soo; Gunawan, Tirtarahardja; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Chieng, Poon-Ung; Changlai, Sheng-Pin; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Jung-Fu; Tanner, S Bobo; Hans, Didier B; Kanis, John A; Chang, Yin-Fan; Sun, Zih-Jie; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX(®)) has been developed for the identification of individuals with high risk of fracture in whom treatment to prevent fractures would be appropriate. FRAX models are not yet available for all countries or ethnicities, but surrogate models can be used within regions with similar fracture risk. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) are nonprofit multidisciplinary international professional organizations. Their visions are to advance the awareness, education, prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. In November 2010, the IOF/ISCD FRAX initiative was held in Bucharest, bringing together international experts to review and create evidence-based official positions guiding clinicians for the practical use of FRAX. A consensus meeting of the Asia-Pacific (AP) Panel of the ISCD recently reviewed the most current Official Positions of the Joint Official Positions of ISCD and IOF on FRAX in view of the different population characteristics and health standards in the AP regions. The reviewed position statements included not only the key spectrum of positions but also unique concerns in AP regions. PMID:23916756

  9. Improved food availability for food security in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ray-Yu; Hanson, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Food security requires that all people can access sufficient food for a healthy life. Enough food is produced to feed the global population, but more than 1.02 billion people are malnourished. Malnutrition and chronic food insecurity are widespread in some countries of the Asia-Pacific region; as much as 20 to 60 percent of the region's population lacks sufficient food to meet their minimum energy requirement. Food security greatly depends on food availability, although this alone is not sufficient to secure satisfactory nutritional status. Food security at the national level requires an effective framework of food, health, and economic systems coupled with awareness and consideration of environmental conditions. To improve food availability and security in the short term, lower income countries should focus on increasing productivity in the food system to generate higher incomes for workers on-farm and off-farm in the food chain. Over the long term, sustainable and small-scale farming based on ecologically viable systems should be the emphasis for agricultural development. Nutrition and health sectors should help promote food-based approaches that lead to diversification of crops, balanced diets, and ultimately better health. PMID:19965357

  10. Climate Change, Extreme Weather Events, and Human Health Implications in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Hashim, Zailina

    2016-03-01

    The Asia Pacific region is regarded as the most disaster-prone area of the world. Since 2000, 1.2 billion people have been exposed to hydrometeorological hazards alone through 1215 disaster events. The impacts of climate change on meteorological phenomena and environmental consequences are well documented. However, the impacts on health are more elusive. Nevertheless, climate change is believed to alter weather patterns on the regional scale, giving rise to extreme weather events. The impacts from extreme weather events are definitely more acute and traumatic in nature, leading to deaths and injuries, as well as debilitating and fatal communicable diseases. Extreme weather events include heat waves, cold waves, floods, droughts, hurricanes, tropical cyclones, heavy rain, and snowfalls. Globally, within the 20-year period from 1993 to 2012, more than 530 000 people died as a direct result of almost 15 000 extreme weather events, with losses of more than US$2.5 trillion in purchasing power parity. PMID:26377857

  11. Current advances in ant venom proteins causing hypersensitivity reactions in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Srisong, Hathairat; Daduang, Sakda; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-01-01

    The main insects causing allergy reactions to stinging insect in humans are Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps, yellow jackets and hornets) and Formicidae (ants). Their venom stings are composed of various biologically active peptides and protein components, some of which can cause toxicity or anaphylaxis in humans. The protein venom demonstrate some common allergenic activity such as for fire ants and vespids, which have two common allergens that are phospholipase A1 (enzymatic activity) and antigen 5 with unknown biological activity. The common allergens seem to share some degree of immunological cross-reactivity, particularly when the sequence homology is above 70%. Therefore immunotherapeutic approaches targeting more than one specific species are of interest. Recent widespread increases of various ant species in many countries have resulted in higher number of reported about serious allergic reactions to stings. Most insect-allergy related cases have been reported for species from Solenopsis, Myrmecia and Pachycondyla genera, and their stings can often result in human fatalities. In addition, stinging ants can have serious health effects on livestock, agricultural damage adversely affecting the biodiversity of the region. This review discusses the impact of important ant species on human health in the Asia-Pacific region along with the molecular immunological aspects of the identified venoms and current status of diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:26641698

  12. Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, Alla; Nesterova, Olga; Tregubova, Valentina; Semal, Viktoriia; Derbentseva, Alla; Purtova, Lyudmila; Kostenkov, Nikolay; Tyurina, Elena; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    Soil health as a factor of ensuring food security (the case of the Asia-Pacific Region) Food security is a complex issue of both international and national levels. The food embargo on imported products has defined the preservation and regeneration of soils as a priority task in ensuring the food security of the Russian Federation. Soils are a finite, non-renewable resource and their preservation is extremely important for the national food security. Food production is the major function of soils; production of high-quality foods, rich in nutrients, is possible only in healthy soils. Therefore, a healthy and fertile soil is the most important factor in ensuring the food security and improved subsistence. By 2050, in order to meet the demand for food, the global agricultural production has to increase by 60%, and almost by 100% in the developing countries. In many countries and subregions of the Asia-Pacific Region, the population growth rates outrun the rates of food production. The possibilities of incorporating new lands into agricultural activities and providing their irrigation are also limited. In the context of expanding cooperation with the Asia-Pacific neighbors, Russia can make its contribution into improving the food security of the region. Russia has vast territories that could be used for crops farming; a substantial part of these lands have not been farmed yet. Hence, in the Russian Far East, production of grain crops can be increased by incorporating the unused territories into agricultural activities. Therefore, the Russian Far East is a unique site for creating a crops farming territory. And the preservation and regeneration of soils will provide for the production growth and ensure the food security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Feasibility of large-scale water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Peña-Arancibia, J. L.; Sardella, C. S. E.

    2012-04-01

    The Asian-Pacific region (including China, India and Pakistan) is home to 51% of the global population. It accounts for 53% of agricultural and 32% of domestic water use world wide. Due to the influence of Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean circulation patterns, the region experiences strong inter-annual variations in water availability and occurrence of drought, flood and severe weather. Some of the countries in the region have national water monitoring or forecasting systems, but they are typically of fairly narrow scope. We investigated the feasibility and utility of an integrated regional water monitoring and forecasting system for water resources, floods and drought. In particular, we assessed the quality of information that can be achieved by relying on internationally available data sources, including numerical weather prediction (NWP) and satellite observations of precipitation, soil moisture and vegetation. Combining these data sources with a large scale hydrological model, we produced monitoring and forecast information for selected retrospective case studies. The information was compared to that from national systems, both in terms of information content and system characteristics (e.g. scope, data sources, and information latency). While national systems typically have better access to national observation systems, they do not always make effective use of the available data, science and technology. The relatively slow changing nature of important Pacific and Indian Ocean circulation patterns adds meaningful seasonal forecast skill for some regions. Satellite and NWP precipitation estimates can add considerable value to the national gauge networks: as forecasts, as near-real time observations and as historic reference data. Satellite observations of soil moisture and vegetation are valuable for drought monitoring and underutilised. Overall, we identify several important opportunities for better water monitoring and forecasting in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. Challenges of the next decade for the Asia Pacific region: 2010 International Conference in Bioinformatics (InCoB 2010).

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Shoba; Schönbach, Christian; Nakai, Kenta; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia's oldest bioinformatics organisation formed in 1998, was organized as the 9th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), Sept. 26-28, 2010 in Tokyo, Japan. Initially, APBioNet created InCoB as forum to foster bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific region. Given the growing importance of interdisciplinary research, InCoB2010 included topics targeting scientists in the fields of genomic medicine, immunology and chemoinformatics, supporting translational research. Peer-reviewed manuscripts that were accepted for publication in this supplement, represent key areas of research interests that have emerged in our region. We also highlight some of the current challenges bioinformatics is facing in the Asia Pacific region and conclude our report with the announcement of APBioNet's 100 BioDatabases (BioDB100) initiative. BioDB100 will comply with the database criteria set out earlier in our proposal for Minimum Information about a Bioinformatics and Investigation (MIABi), setting the standards for biocuration and bioinformatics research, on which we will report at the next InCoB, Nov. 27 - Dec. 2, 2011 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. PMID:21143792

  15. Challenges of the next decade for the Asia Pacific region: 2010 International Conference in Bioinformatics (InCoB 2010)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 annual conference of the Asia Pacific Bioinformatics Network (APBioNet), Asia’s oldest bioinformatics organisation formed in 1998, was organized as the 9th International Conference on Bioinformatics (InCoB), Sept. 26-28, 2010 in Tokyo, Japan. Initially, APBioNet created InCoB as forum to foster bioinformatics in the Asia Pacific region. Given the growing importance of interdisciplinary research, InCoB2010 included topics targeting scientists in the fields of genomic medicine, immunology and chemoinformatics, supporting translational research. Peer-reviewed manuscripts that were accepted for publication in this supplement, represent key areas of research interests that have emerged in our region. We also highlight some of the current challenges bioinformatics is facing in the Asia Pacific region and conclude our report with the announcement of APBioNet’s 100 BioDatabases (BioDB100) initiative. BioDB100 will comply with the database criteria set out earlier in our proposal for Minimum Information about a Bioinformatics and Investigation (MIABi), setting the standards for biocuration and bioinformatics research, on which we will report at the next InCoB, Nov. 27 – Dec. 2, 2011 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. PMID:21143792

  16. Recommendations for the optimal care of patients with recent-onset psychosis in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tak Lam; Warden, Matthew; He, Yanling; Si, Tianmei; Kalyanasundaram, Seshadri; Thirunavukarasu, Manickam; Amir, Nurmiati; Hatim, Ahmad; Bautista, Tomas; Lee, Cheng; Emsley, Robin; Olivares, Jose; Yang, Yen Kuang; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Castle, David

    2016-06-01

    Providing optimal care to patients with recent-onset psychosis can improve outcomes and reduce relapse. However, there is a lack of consistency of the implementation of guidelines for such patients across the Asia-Pacific region. We determined a pragmatic set of recommendations for use on a day-to-day basis to help provide optimal care at this crucial stage of illness. The recommendations were developed over a series of meetings by an international faculty of 15 experts from the Asia-Pacific region, Europe, and South Africa. A structured search of the PubMed database was conducted. This was further developed based on the faculty's clinical experience and knowledge of the literature into 10 key aspects of optimal care for patients during the first five years of a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder, with particular relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. Several common principles emerged: adherence to antipsychotic medications is crucial; substance abuse, psychiatric and medical comorbidities should be addressed; psychosocial interventions play a pivotal role; and family members can play a vital role in overall patient care. By following these recommendations, clinicians may improve outcomes for patients with recent-onset psychosis. PMID:27062665

  17. Health systems and noncommunicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: a review of the published literature.

    PubMed

    Mannava, Priya; Abdullah, Asnawi; James, Chris; Dodd, Rebecca; Annear, Peter Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Addressing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in countries of the Asia-Pacific region requires well-functioning health systems. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, health systems are generally characterized by inadequate financial and human resources, unsuitable service delivery models, and weak information systems. The aims of this review were to identify (a) health systems interventions being implemented to deliver NCD programs and services and their outcomes and (b) the health systems bottlenecks impeding access to or delivery of these programs and services in LMICs of the Asia-Pacific region. A search of 4 databases for literature published between 1990 and 2010 retrieved 36 relevant studies. For each study, information on basic characteristics, type of health systems bottleneck/intervention, and outcome was extracted, and methodological quality appraised. Health systems interventions and bottlenecks were classified as per the World Health Organization health systems building blocks framework. The review identified interventions and bottlenecks in the building blocks of service delivery, health workforce, financing, health information systems, and medical products, vaccines, and technologies. Studies, however, were heterogeneous in methodologies used, and the overall quality was generally low. There are several gaps in the evidence base around NCDs in the Asia-Pacific region that require further investigation. PMID:24097936

  18. Non-communicable diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: Prevalence, risk factors and community-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Low, Wah-Yun; Lee, Yew-Kong; Samy, Alexander Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) lead to substantial mortality and morbidity worldwide. The most common NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. With the rapid increase in NCD-related deaths in Asia Pacific countries, NCDs are now the major cause of deaths and disease burden in the region. NCDs hamper achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). People in the low socio-economic group are most affected by NCDs as they have poor access to policies, legislations, regulations and healthcare services meant to combat NCDs. This results in loss of productivity by a decreasing labor force with implications at the macroeconomic level. The 3 major NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are CVDs, cancer and diabetes due to the increasing loss of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). The 4 major behavioral risk factors for NCDs are: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, inadequate physical activity and unhealthy diet. The underlying risk factors are urbanization, globalization, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and hypertension. Strategies to combat NCDs in the Asia Pacific region are as follows: population-based dietary salt reduction, health education, psychological interventions, i.e., cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational-interviewing, taxation and bans on tobacco-related advertisements, implementing smoke-free zones and surveillance by the World Health Organization. Control measures must focus on prevention and strengthening inter-sectorial collaboration. PMID:26159943

  19. New mechanism under International Flood Initiative toward robustness for flood management in the Asia Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, M.; Yoshitani, J.; Takeuchi, K.; Koike, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is likely to result in increases in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather events. It is imperative that a good understanding is developed of how climate change affects the events that are reflected in hydrological extremes such as floods and how practitioners in water resources management deal with them. Since there is still major uncertainty as to how the impact of climate change affect actual water resources management, it is important to build robustness into management schemes and communities. Flood management under such variety of uncertainty favors the flexible and adaptive implementation both in top-down and bottom-up approaches. The former uses projections of global or spatially downscaled models to drive resource models and project resource impacts. The latter utilizes policy or planning tools to identify what changes in climate would be most threatening to their long-range operations. Especially for the bottom-up approaches, it is essential to identify the gap between what should be done and what has not been achieved for disaster risks. Indicators or index are appropriate tools to measure such gaps, but they are still in progress to cover the whole world. The International Flood Initiative (IFI), initiated in January 2005 by UNESCO and WMO in close cooperation with UNU and ISDR, IAHS and IAHR, has promoted an integrated approach to flood management to take advantage of floods and use of flood plains while reducing the social, environmental and economic risks. Its secretariat is located in ICHARM. The initiative objective is to support national platforms to practice evidence-based disaster risk reduction through mobilizing scientific and research networks at national, regional and international levels. The initiative is now preparing for a new mechanism to facilitate the integrated approach for flood management on the ground regionally in the Asia Pacific (IFI-AP) through monitoring, assessment and capacity building.

  20. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  1. Medical physics aspects of cancer care in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Kron, T; Cheung, KY; Dai, J; Ravindran, P; Soejoko, D; Inamura, K; Song, JY; Bold, L; Srivastava, R; Rodriguez, L; Wong, TJ; Kumara, A; Lee, CC; Krisanachinda, A; Nguyen, XC; Ng, KH

    2008-01-01

    Medical physics plays an essential role in modern medicine. This is particularly evident in cancer care where medical physicists are involved in radiotherapy treatment planning and quality assurance as well as in imaging and radiation protection. Due to the large variety of tasks and interests, medical physics is often subdivided into specialties such as radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation oncology medical physics. However, even within their specialty, the role of radiation oncology medical physicists (ROMPs) is diverse and varies between different societies. Therefore, a questionnaire was sent to leading medical physicists in most countries/areas in the Asia/Pacific region to determine the education, role and status of medical physicists. Answers were received from 17 countries/areas representing nearly 2800 radiation oncology medical physicists. There was general agreement that medical physicists should have both academic (typically at MSc level) and clinical (typically at least 2 years) training. ROMPs spent most of their time working in radiotherapy treatment planning (average 17 hours per week); however radiation protection and engineering tasks were also common. Typically, only physicists in large centres are involved in research and teaching. Most respondents thought that the workload of physicists was high, with more than 500 patients per year per physicist, less than one ROMP per two oncologists being the norm, and on average, one megavoltage treatment unit per medical physicist. There was also a clear indication of increased complexity of technology in the region with many countries/areas reporting to have installed helical tomotherapy, IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy), IGRT (Image Guided Radiation Therapy), Gamma-knife and Cyber-knife units. This and the continued workload from brachytherapy will require growing expertise and numbers in the medical physics workforce. Addressing these needs will be an important challenge for the future

  2. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-11-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of 'at-risk' species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term 'rewilding' has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges-but outside historical ranges-are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as 'endangered' or 'critically endangered' by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific tropics remains

  3. Status of radiation protection in various interventional cardiology procedures in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Tsapaki, Virginia; Faruque Ghulam, Mohammed; Lim, Soo Teik; Ngo Minh, Hung; Nwe, Nwe; Sharma, Anil; Sim, Kui-Hian; Srimahachota, Suphot; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Objective Increasing use of interventional procedures in cardiology with unknown levels of radiation protection in many countries of Asia-Pacific region necessitates the need for status assessment. The study was part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project for achieving improved radiation protection in interventional cardiology (IC) in developing countries. Design The survey covers 18 cardiac catheterisation laboratories in seven countries (Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam). An important step was the creation of the ‘Asian network of Cardiologists in Radiation Protection’ and a newsletter. Data were collected on: radiation protection tools, number of IC laboratories, and annual number of various IC paediatric and adult procedures in the hospital and in the country. Patient radiation dose data were collected in terms of Kerma Area Product (KAP) and cumulative dose (CD). Results It is encouraging that protection devices for staff are largely used in the routine practice. Only 39% of the angiographic machines were equipped with a KAP meter. Operators' initial lack of awareness on radiation-protection optimisation improved significantly after participation in IAEA radiation-protection training. Only two out of five countries reporting patient percutaneous coronary intervention radiation-dose data were fully within the international guidance levels. Data from 51 patients who underwent multiple therapeutic procedures (median 2–3) indicated a total KAP reaching 995 Gy.cm2 (range 10.1–995) and CD 15.1 Gy (range 0.4–15.1), stressing the importance of dose monitoring and optimisation. Conclusions There is a need for interventional cardiology societies to play an active role in training actions and implementation of radiation protection. PMID:27325974

  4. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of ‘at-risk’ species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term ‘rewilding’ has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges—but outside historical ranges—are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as ‘endangered’ or ‘critically endangered’ by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian

  5. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on lung cancer mortality in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Huxley, R; Jamrozik, K; Lam, T H; Barzi, F; Ansary-Moghaddam, A; Jiang, C Q; Suh, I; Woodward, M

    2007-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is becoming increasingly common in Asia while quitting remains rare, in part because of a lack of knowledge about the risks of smoking. This study compared the risk of death from lung cancer associated with smoking habits in Australia and New Zealand and in Asia by using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration: 31 studies involving 480,125 individuals. Cox regression models were used. The hazard ratios for lung cancer mortality associated with current smoking were, for men, 2.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.99, 3.11) in Asia versus 9.87 (95% CI: 6.04, 16.12) in Australia and New Zealand; p for homogeneity <0.0001. For women, the corresponding estimates were 2.35 (95% CI: 1.29, 4.28) in Asia versus 19.33 (95% CI: 10.0, 37.3) in Australia and New Zealand; p for homogeneity <0.0001. Quitting was beneficial in both regions; the hazard ratios for former compared with current smokers were 0.69 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.92) in Asia and 0.30 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.41) in Australia and New Zealand. The lesser effect in Asia was partly explained by the fewer number of cigarettes smoked and the shorter duration of follow-up in Asian studies. These results suggest that tobacco control policies in Asia should not solely concentrate on preventing the uptake of smoking but also attend to cessation. PMID:17369610

  6. Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Graham, Stephen M; Grzemska, Malgorzata; Brands, Annemieke; Nguyen, Huong; Amini, James; Triasih, Rina; Talukder, Khurshid; Ahmed, Shakil; Amanullah, Farhana; Kumar, Blessina; Tufail, Pervaiz; Detjen, Anne; Marais, Ben; Hennig, Cornelia; Islam, Tauhid

    2015-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis in children and adolescents. There have been a number of recent important milestones achieved at the global level to address this previously neglected disease. There is now a need to increase activities and build partnerships at the regional and national levels in order to address the wide policy-practice gaps for implementation, and to take the key steps outlined in the Roadmap for Child Tuberculosis published in 2013. In this article, we provide the rationale and suggest strategies illustrated with examples to improve diagnosis, management, outcomes and prevention for children with tuberculosis in the Asia-Pacific region, with an emphasis on the need for greatly improved recording and reporting. Effective collaboration with community engagement between the child health sector, the National Tuberculosis control Programmes, community-based services and the communities themselves are essential. PMID:25809775

  7. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications. PMID:26245707

  8. Survey of Common Practices among Oculofacial Surgeons in the Asia-Pacific Region: Management of Orbital Floor Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Victor; Chiam, Nathalie; Sundar, Gangadhara

    2014-01-01

    A web-based anonymous survey was performed to assess common practices of oculofacial surgeons in the management of traumatic orbital floor blowout fractures. A questionnaire which contained questions on several controversial topics in the management of orbital floor fractures was sent out via e-mail to 131 oculofacial surgeons in 14 countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A total response rate of 58.3% was achieved from May to December 2012. The preferred time for surgical intervention was within 2 weeks for adult patients, porous polyethylene implant was the most popular choice, and most surgeons preferred the transconjunctival approach. Postoperatively, diplopia was the most commonly encountered complication and most oculofacial surgeons reviewed their patients regularly for up to 12 months. We report the results of the first survey of oculofacial surgeons within the Asia-Pacific region on the management of orbital floor blowout fractures. Compared with previous surveys (from year 2000 to 2004), the duration to surgical intervention was comparable but there was a contrasting change in preferred surgical approach and choice of orbital implant. PMID:25136408

  9. Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) in the Asia Pacific region (Round Table Forum).

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Bulgiba, Awang M; Sampatanukul, Pichet; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Chang, Peter; Tharyan, Prathap; Lin, Vivian; Wong, Yut Lin

    2013-01-01

    Clinical Epidemiology (CE) and Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) have become increasingly important in an era of rising costs, patient safety concerns and evidence-based health care. CE and EBM research in the Asia Pacific region have grown significantly. However, there are three main challenges such as linking evidence to practice and policy; developing a strong collaborative network; and a need for resources and technical expertise to produce evidence. The Cochrane Collaboration is a possible solution to resolve above challenges identified, particularly the challenge of transforming evidence to practice. In addition, training can be carried out to enhance technical expertise in the region and there is also the promising potential that collaborations could extend beyond systematic reviews. To improve the adoption of evidence-based health policy, selection of the best evidence for the right audience and focusing on the relevant issues through appropriate methodology are essential. Information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness needs to be highlighted for policy makers. The way forward to strengthen research and capacity building is to establish the Asia Pacific Consortium for CE and EBM. The consortium would help to create mutually rewarding scientific research and collaborations that will augur well for advances in CE and EBM. PMID:23624253

  10. A review of accessibility of administrative healthcare databases in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Milea, Dominique; Azmi, Soraya; Reginald, Praveen; Verpillat, Patrice; Francois, Clement

    2015-01-01

    Objective We describe and compare the availability and accessibility of administrative healthcare databases (AHDB) in several Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, China, Thailand, and Malaysia. Methods The study included hospital records, reimbursement databases, prescription databases, and data linkages. Databases were first identified through PubMed, Google Scholar, and the ISPOR database register. Database custodians were contacted. Six criteria were used to assess the databases and provided the basis for a tool to categorise databases into seven levels ranging from least accessible (Level 1) to most accessible (Level 7). We also categorised overall data accessibility for each country as high, medium, or low based on accessibility of databases as well as the number of academic articles published using the databases. Results Fifty-four administrative databases were identified. Only a limited number of databases allowed access to raw data and were at Level 7 [Medical Data Vision EBM Provider, Japan Medical Data Centre (JMDC) Claims database and Nihon-Chouzai Pharmacy Claims database in Japan, and Medicare, Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS), Centre for Health Record Linkage (CHeReL), HealthLinQ, Victorian Data Linkages (VDL), SA-NT DataLink in Australia]. At Levels 3–6 were several databases from Japan [Hamamatsu Medical University Database, Medi-Trend, Nihon University School of Medicine Clinical Data Warehouse (NUSM)], Australia [Western Australia Data Linkage (WADL)], Taiwan [National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)], South Korea [Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA)], and Malaysia [United Nations University (UNU)-Casemix]. Countries were categorised as having a high level of data accessibility (Australia, Taiwan, and Japan), medium level of accessibility (South Korea), or a low level of accessibility (Thailand, China, Malaysia, and Singapore). In some countries, data may be available but

  11. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  12. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-02-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  13. Ensuring Opportunities for the Professional Development of Teachers. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. Seminar Report (Hiroshima, Japan, September 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabata, Yoshinori, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    This is the second seminar report in the sixth cycle of the UNESCO-APEID (Asia-Pacific Program of Educational Innovation for Development) Program on Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. The seminar focused on ensuring opportunities for the professional development of teachers. Experts from 10…

  14. Renal Dysfunction during Tenofovir Use in a Regional Cohort of HIV-Infected Individuals in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Tanuma, Junko; Jiamsakul, Awachana; Makane, Abhimanyu; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ng, Oon Tek; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Nguyen, Kinh Van; Pham, Thuy Thanh; Lee, Man Po; Ditangco, Rossana; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Choi, Jun Yong; Wong, Wing Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Yunihastuti, Evy; Sim, Benedict LH; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Kantipong, Pacharee; Zhang, Fujie; Mustafa, Mahiran; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Pujari, Sanjay; Sohn, Annette H.

    2016-01-01

    Background In resource-limited settings, routine monitoring of renal function during antiretroviral therapy (ART) has not been recommended. However, concerns for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-related nephrotoxicity persist with increased use. Methods We investigated serum creatinine (S-Cr) monitoring rates before and during ART and the incidence and prevalence of renal dysfunction after starting TDF by using data from a regional cohort of HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific. Time to renal dysfunction was defined as time from TDF initiation to the decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to <60 ml/min/1.73m2 with >30% reduction from baseline using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation or the decision to stop TDF for reported TDF-nephrotoxicity. Predictors of S-Cr monitoring rates were assessed by Poisson regression and risk factors for developing renal dysfunction were assessed by Cox regression. Results Among 2,425 patients who received TDF, S-Cr monitoring rates increased from 1.01 to 1.84 per person per year after starting TDF (incidence rate ratio 1.68, 95%CI 1.62–1.74, p <0.001). Renal dysfunction on TDF occurred in 103 patients over 5,368 person-years of TDF use (4.2%; incidence 1.75 per 100 person-years). Risk factors for developing renal dysfunction included older age (>50 vs. ≤30, hazard ratio [HR] 5.39, 95%CI 2.52–11.50, p <0.001; and using PI-based regimen (HR 1.93, 95%CI 1.22–3.07, p = 0.005). Having an eGFR prior to TDF (pre-TDF eGFR) of ≥60 ml/min/1.73m2 showed a protective effect (HR 0.38, 95%CI, 0.17–0.85, p = 0.018). Conclusions Renal dysfunction on commencing TDF use was not common, however, older age, lower baseline eGFR and PI-based ART were associated with higher risk of renal dysfunction during TDF use in adult HIV-infected individuals in the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:27560968

  15. Distribution and transportability of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in the Asia-Pacific region using skipjack tuna as a bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Alaee, Mehran; Marvin, Chris; Muir, Derek C G; Macinnis, Gordia; Reiner, Eric; Crozier, Patrick; Furdui, Vasile I; Subramanian, Annamalai; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    The geographical distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was investigated through analysis of muscle tissue of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters of Asia-Pacific region (Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles, Brazil, Japan Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Indian Ocean and North Pacific Ocean). HBCD was detected in almost all samples analyzed (<0.1 to 45 ng/g lipid weight basis), indicating widespread presence of this compound in the marine environment. Elevated concentrations of HBCD were found in skipjack tuna from areas around Japan, which have the larger modern industrial/urban societies, and implicated these areas as primary regional sources. All three individual HBCD isomers (alpha-, gamma- and beta-HBCD) were detected in almost all samples; the percentage contribution of the alpha-isomer to total HBCD increased with increasing latitude. The estimated empirical 1/2 distance for alpha-HBCD was 8500 km, which is one of the highest atmospheric transportability among various halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs). PMID:16504358

  16. Assessment of the Contribution of BeiDou GEO, IGSO, and MEO Satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qile; Wang, Chen; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the US Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) and the European Galileo, the developing Chinese BeiDou satellite navigation system (BDS) consists of not only Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), but also Geostationary Orbit (GEO) as well as Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites. In this study, the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and PPP with Integer Ambiguity Resolution (IAR) are obtained. The contributions of these three different types of BDS satellites to PPP in Asia-Pacific region are assessed using data from selected 20 sites over more than four weeks. By using various PPP cases with different satellite combinations, in general, the largest contribution of BDS IGSO among the three kinds of BDS satellites to the reduction of convergence time and the improvement of positioning accuracy, particularly in the east direction, is identified. These PPP cases include static BDS only solutions and static/kinematic ambiguity-float and -fixed PPP with the combination of GPS and BDS. The statistical results demonstrate that the inclusion of BDS GEO and MEO satellites can improve the observation condition and result in better PPP performance as well. When combined with GPS, the contribution of BDS to the reduction of convergence time is, however, not as significant as that of GLONASS. As far as the positioning accuracy is concerned, GLONASS improves the accuracy in vertical component more than BDS does, whereas similar improvement in horizontal component can be achieved by inclusion of BDS IGSO and MEO as GLONASS. PMID:26633406

  17. OCLC in Asia Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Min-min

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and the changing Asia Pacific library scene under the broad headings of the three phases of technology innovation. Highlights include WorldCat and the OCLC shared cataloging system; resource sharing and interlibrary loan; enriching OCLC online catalog with Asian collections; and future outlooks.…

  18. Leadership Challenges in International Schools in the Asia Pacific Region: Evidence from Programme Implementation of the International Baccalaureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip; Walker, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last four decades, International Baccalaureate (IB) schools have become increasingly important in the global market of international education. This is especially evident in Asia Pacific, which has evidenced the fastest growth in IB schools, as well as international schools more generally, across the world over the last decade. Despite…

  19. Paradoxical Inscriptions of Global Subjects: Critical Discourse Analysis of International Schools' Websites in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamatea, Laurence; Hardy, Joy; Ninnes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Asia-Pacific international school web pages, and explores the expressed purposes of schooling, with regard to the kinds of students/subjects that the schools purport to produce. Using the concept of globalization as a "master" analytical frame, it is argued that despite claims to offering students unique…

  20. International Council of Ophthalmology: Refocusing Ophthalmic Education in the Asia-Pacific Region and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Golnik, Karl; Mayorga, Eduardo; Spivey, Bruce; Ritch, Robert; Gauthier, Tina-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) is a global organization with a regional focus. Working in partnership with supranational and ICO member societies, the ICO is building a "World Alliance for Sight" to improve access to the highest-quality eye care worldwide. Designed to preserve and restore vision on an international scale, the ICO initiative, "Refocusing Ophthalmic Education," enhances ophthalmic education of residents, subspecialists, medical students, and allied eye care personnel by redefining the most effective ways to teach and in creating beneficial educational opportunities. The "Teaching the Teachers" program helps ophthalmic educators incorporate more effective methods of training and continuing professional development to meet societal needs, achieved in part through regional courses for residency program directors; symposia, and keynote talks presented by ICO's World Ophthalmology Educational Colloquium, Conferences for Ophthalmic Educators, and ophthalmic surgical competency rubrics. Recognizing that standardized curricula are essential for consistent ophthalmic education, the ICO has developed a curricular framework whereby goals, expectations, knowledge base, competencies, and technical training are delineated. The ICO is defining worldwide models of team training and compiling best practice, which will include training-program accreditation to ensure improvement in the education of ophthalmologists. International Council of Ophthalmology Web-based teaching courses, a Webinar Network, and a technology blog further support information and communication technologies for teaching and learning. At the ICO's Center for Ophthalmic Educators (educators.icoph.org), trainers will find valuable teaching resources in multiple languages as well as ways to share ideas and collaborate with peers and other ophthalmic educators. PMID:26107594

  1. Application of surveillance programs for hepatocellular carcinoma in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Amarapurkar, Deepak; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2009-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a potential target for cancer surveillance (or screening) as it occurs in well-defined, at-risk populations and curative therapy is possible only for small tumors. Surveillance has been recommended by regional liver societies and is practiced widely, but its benefits are not clearly established. Hepatic ultrasonography with or without alpha fetoprotein (AFP) performed every 6 months is the preferred program. Surveillance of HCC has been well shown to detect small tumors for curative treatment, which may be translated to improved patient survival. However, most studies are limited by lead-time bias, length bias for early diagnosis of small HCC, different tumor growth rates and poor compliance with surveillance. Cost-effectiveness of surveillance programs depends on the rate of small HCC detected 'accidentally' (routine imaging) in a comparator group, annual incidence of HCC with various etiologies, patient age and the availability of liver transplantation. The incremental cost-effectiveness for 6-monthly AFP and ultrasound has been estimated from approximately $US 26,000-74,000/quality adjusted life years (QALY). All cirrhotic patients are therefore recommended for HCC surveillance unless the disease is too advanced for any curative treatment. As chronic hepatitis B can develop into HCC without going through liver cirrhosis, high-risk non-cirrhotic chronic hepatitis B patients are also recommended for HCC surveillance. In conclusion, HCC surveillance could be effective at reducing disease-specific mortality with acceptable cost-effectiveness among selected patient groups, provided it is a well-organized program. PMID:19383082

  2. The impacts of summer monsoons on the ozone budget of the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Fei, Dongdong; Wang, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone (O3) in the atmospheric boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific Ocean were investigated using model simulations (2001-2007) from the Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The simulated O3 and diagnostic precipitation are in good agreement with the observations. Model results suggest that the Asia-Pacific monsoon significantly influences the seasonal and inter-annual variations of ozone. The differences of anthropogenic emissions and zonal winds in meridional directions cause a pollutants' transition zone at approximately 20°-30°N. The onset of summer monsoons with a northward migration of the rain belt leads the transition zone to drift north, eventually causing a summer minimum of ozone to the north of 30°N. In years with an early onset of summer monsoons, strong inflows of clean oceanic air lead to low ozone at polluted oceanic sites near the continent, while strong outflows from the continent exist, resulting in high levels of O3 over remote portions of the Asia-Pacific Ocean. The reverse is true in years when the summer monsoon onset is late. PMID:25305325

  3. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  4. Thermal coal requirements and prospects for clean coal technologies in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final technical report, October 1994--September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the Cooperative Agreement (October 1994 to September 1997) was to provide general support and advice to the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) on the likely opportunities for U.S. coal trade and potential for U.S. Clean Coal Technologies in the Asia-Pacific Region. Over the three year Cooperative Agreement, assistance evolved toward greater emphasis on support for the U.S. Department of Energy`s role as chair of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation`s (APEC) Experts{close_quote} Group on Clean Fossil Energy. Responsibilities included assistance in arranging for all Technical Seminars, technical papers for these seminars and final editing, publishing and distribution of 500 copies of the proceedings. In addition, the East-West Center was called upon to host annual APEC Subcommittee Meetings, and periodic ad hoc planning meetings. The East-West Center played an active role in working with counterpart APEC and energy policy people throughout Asia, and advising the U.S. Department of Energy on options to enhance energy and Clean Coal Technology cooperation with various Asian nations, particularly People`s Republic of China (hereafter China) Towards the end of the Cooperative Agreement, increased emphasis was placed on the potential for gas fuels in Asian markets (natural gas, coalbed methane and gasification of coal).

  5. Teacher Education for the Effective Use of New Information Media in Schools. Innovation and Reform in Teacher Education for the 21st Century in the Asia-Pacific Region. 1997 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Shuichi, Ed.; Griek, Lyckle, Ed.

    The International Seminar on Teacher Education for the 21st Century in Hiroshima explores innovative strategies to enhance the quality of teacher education in the Asia-Pacific Region. The goal of the seminar is to identify problems and issues related to teacher competencies at rural as well as urban schools in the region; the focus of the 1997…

  6. Influenza vaccines: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates. PMID:24215381

  7. Patterns of polymorphism and divergence in the VP1 gene of enterovirus 71 circulating in the Asia-Pacific region between 1994 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Song; Zhao, Na; Pan, Hao; Wang, Cheng-Min; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Hong-Mei; He, Hong-Xuan; Liu, Dan; Amer, Said; Liu, She-Lan

    2013-11-01

    Enterovirus 71 has been implicated in several outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The present study aimed to achieve comprehensive evolutionary dynamic aspects of EV71 during 1994-2013, based on phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences. The results indicated that 4 genotypes, namely C4, C1, C2 and B4 are the predominant strains, especially in Southeast Asian countries. No common ancestor was shared in different countries. Fourteen sites of substitutions were detected in the VP1 gene sequences; including the most common sites related to neutralization at position V249I [47.1% (189/401)] and A289T [42.6% (171/401)]. However, the sites Q22H and Q22R associated with increased virulence were recognized only in 13.7% (55/401) and 18% (72/401), respectively. None of the above mutations seemed to become fixed because the ratio of Ka/Ks was greater than 1.0. Mutations K43E, A58T, S184T, and T240S could possibly change the spatial structure. Two mutations, G145E and T240S, could obviously affect the hydrophobicity of VP1 and thus alter the EV71 immunoreactivity. In conclusion, the VP1 gene of EV71 strains circulating in the Asia-Pacific region during 1994-2013, showed polymorphisms and divergence with very slow evolution rate, which may be one of the reasons for periodic outbreaks in this area. PMID:23933074

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphism and lifestyle-related diseases in the Asia-Pacific region: comparative study in Okinawa, Palau and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Y; Dever, G J; Otto, C T Y; Charupoonphol, P; Supannatas, S; Yanagisawa, Y; Sakuma, M; Hasegawa, K

    2003-01-01

    Genetic differences between Asians and Caucasians may be involved in the rapid increase in lifestyle-related diseases in the Asia-Pacific region that has coincided with Westernisation of diets in the region. In the present study, we assessed correlation between 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and chronic disease risk factors in age-matched and population-based groups in four Asian-Pacific locations: Okinawa, Palau and Thailand (two areas). The following allelic SNP profiles significantly differed (p<0.01) among the four populations, in both men and women: uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), uncoupling protein 3 promoter (UCP3p), leptin receptor (LEPR) exon 6, and angiotensinogen (AGTa-20c). Multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between SNPs and clinical data. For men, these associations were between beta3 adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p<0.01), UCP3p and total cholesterol (p<0.01), UCP2 and age (p<0.05), and AGTa-20c and age (p<0.01). For women, these associations were between LEPR exon 14 and body mass index (BMI) (p<0.05), UCP2 and systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), UCP3p and DBP (p<0.05), UCP2 and DBP (p<0.01), apolipoprotein E (ApoE)nd total cholesterol (p<0.01), beta3AR and triglyceride (p<0.05), AGTa-20c and triglyceride (p<0.05), and UCP2 and age (p<0.05). These results illustrate the interrelationships among SNPs and risk factors in the Asia-Pacific including China and Japan. PMID:18924534

  9. Capacity building and predictors of success for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Land, Sally; Zhou, Julian; Cunningham, Philip; Sohn, Annette H; Singtoroj, Thida; Katzenstein, David; Mann, Marita; Sayer, David; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    Background The TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) was developed as a quality assessment programme through expert education and training, for laboratories in the Asia-Pacific and Africa that perform HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) genotyping. We evaluated the programme performance and factors associated with high-quality HIVDR genotyping. Methods Laboratories used their standard protocols to test panels of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive plasma samples or electropherograms. Protocols were documented and performance was evaluated according to a newly developed scoring system, agreement with panel-specific consensus sequence, and detection of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) and mixtures of wild-type and resistant virus (mixtures). High-quality performance was defined as detection of ≥95% DRMs. Results Over 4.5 years, 23 participating laboratories in 13 countries tested 45 samples (30 HIV-1 subtype B; 15 non-B subtypes) in nine panels. Median detection of DRMs was 88–98% in plasma panels and 90–97% in electropherogram panels. Laboratories were supported to amend and improve their test outcomes as appropriate. Three laboratories that detected <80% DRMs in early panels demonstrated subsequent improvement. Sample complexity factors – number of DRMs (p<0.001) and number of DRMs as mixtures (p<0.001); and laboratory performance factors – detection of mixtures (p<0.001) and agreement with consensus sequence (p<0.001), were associated with high performance; sample format (plasma or electropherogram), subtype and genotyping protocol were not. Conclusion High-quality HIVDR genotyping was achieved in the TAQAS collaborative laboratory network. Sample complexity and detection of mixtures were associated with performance quality. Laboratories conducting HIVDR genotyping are encouraged to participate in quality assessment programmes. PMID:23845227

  10. The Emergence of Trans-Regional Educational Exchange Schemes (TREES) in Europe, North America, and the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how salient aspects of globalization, such as free trade zones, have led to emergence of trans-regional educational exchange schemes (TREES) in higher education. Discusses how these schemes are set apart from others by the proliferation of international university organizations that go beyond region and infiltrate other parts of the globe…

  11. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  12. Analysis of seasonal ozone budget and spring ozone latitudinal gradient variation in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xuewei; Zhu, Bin; Kang, Hanqing; Gao, Jinhui

    2014-09-01

    The ozone (O3) budget in the boundary layer of the Asia-Pacific region (AP) was studied from 2001 to 2007 using the output of Model of Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4). The model-simulated O3 data agree well with observed values. O3 budget analysis using the model output confirms that the dominant factor controlling seasonal variation of O3 differs by region. Photochemistry was found to play a critical role over Japan, the Korean Peninsula and Eastern China. Over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, advective flux was found to drive the seasonal variation of O3 concentrations. The large latitudinal gradient in O3 with a maximum of 52 ppbv over the marine boundary layer around 35°N during the spring was mainly due to chemistry; meanwhile, advection was found to weaken the gradient. The contribution of stratospheric O3 was ranked second (20%) to the local contribution (25%) in Japan and the Korean Peninsula near 35°N. The rate of O3 export from China's boundary layer was the highest (approximately 30%) in low latitudes and decreased with increasing latitude, while the contribution of North America and Europe increased with increasing latitude, from 10% in lower latitudes to 24% in higher latitudes.

  13. Securing health through food systems: an initiative of the nutrition consortium of the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan and Asia Pacific regional partners as a network.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Kuo, Ken N

    2009-01-01

    There are growing concerns about the health impacts of climate change with ecosystem degradation and global warming, finite reserves of non-renewable energy, water shortages in food-producing regions, limits to contemporary agriculture with its dependence on exhaustible petrochemical nitrogen and rock phosphate fertilizers, and failure of the global financial system. To date, health security has meant attention to safe environments especially water, sanitation and waste disposal; and access to health care and its affordability. Its dependency on food security (safety, sufficiency, sustainability, and satisfaction which requires diversity and quality) has been under-estimated because the current and imminent risks have increased and extended to more populations, because these may be less tractable and because the nature, extent and dynamics of nutritionally-related health are better appreciated. As a step towards more collaborative food and health systems, the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan has created an interdisciplinary Nutrition Consortium (NC) with research and policy agendas. The NC held a food in Health Security (FIHS) in the Asia Pacific region roundtable in conjunction with the World Vegetable Center based in Tainan, supported by the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan and the Australian Academies of Science and of Science Technology and Engineering, August 2-5th 2009 in Taiwan. A FIHS Network is being established to further the initiative. It should form part of the broader Human Security agenda. PMID:19965334

  14. Righting the mismatch between law, policy and the sexual and reproductive health needs of young people in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Godwin, John; Szabo, Gabrielle; Sass, Justine; Sauvarin, Josephine

    2014-11-01

    The context of sexual relations is changing in the Asia-Pacific. While the age of sexual debut remains the same, young people are generally marrying later and sex outside of marriage is increasing. The first systematic review of how laws and policies govern young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services was conducted in 2013. The study considered >400 national documents and held focus group discussions with >60 young people across three countries in the region. This paper examines the study findings in light of epidemiological data on young people's sexual behaviour and health, exposing a critical mismatch between the onset of sexual activity and laws and policies governing consent (to sex and medical treatment), and the restriction and orientation of services to married persons. An enabling legal and policy environment is an essential foundation for efforts to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health. This paper argues that international guidance and commitments (including the widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child) provide a framework for recognising young people's evolving capacity for independent decision-making, including in the realm of sexual and reproductive health. A number of countries in the region are using these frameworks to expand access to services, providing valuable examples for others to build on. PMID:25555771

  15. What Lessons to Take from Educational Reforms in Asia-Pacific Region? Factors That May Influence the Restructuring of Secondary Education in East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capelo, Ana; Pedrosa, Maria Arminda; Almeida, Patrícia Albergaria

    2013-01-01

    To better understand current curricular reforms in some Asia-Pacific countries that came out of conflict periods, documents and information posted on various national and international agency websites were analysed. In this paper we aimed to (i) present a brief description of the conditions under which new secondary education curricula are being…

  16. Assessment of Flood Risk and Future Change due to Climate Change in Asia-Pacific Region Based on MRI-GCM Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Y. J.; Takeuchi, K.; Fukami, K.; Magome, J.

    2012-04-01

    There is a worldwide concern about increasing flood risk in large river basins due to climate change. Changes in temperature, radiation, rainfall, soil moisture and CO2 concentrations all affect their watershed systems and land use, which then affect the water balances in the basins. Thus it is needed to develop effective global flood risk assessment methodologies. Although available climate models have limitations and do not have a resolution fine enough for accurate application at the river-basin level, the authors made an attempt to find a relationship between climate change and flood risk under extreme events. The purpose of this study was to estimate potential flood inundation areas (both future and present) and compare future changes with present simulations on a given hazard area in the Asia-pacific region. Flood simulation was derived from a global-scale study on a river basin in a continent, and flood risk for flood mapping was from a GIS analysis of a case study in the Asia-pacific region located between latitude 50N to 10S and longitude 50E to 145E. This paper presents a new methodology that is simple and practical to account for the possibility that a flood may be caused by one or more potential parameters. A flood hazard is characterized by inundation area, location (lowland around rivers), intensity (extreme values), frequency and probability (floods with the 50-year return period). This study suggested the potential and also general characteristics of global hazards with significant limitations of current models for continental-scale flood risk assessment by using the flood inundation depth (FID) based on Manning's steady, uniform flow resistance formula and an extreme scenario during 25-year simulations based on the BTOP model using precipitations from the MRI-GCM3.1S and 3.2S models for present-day (daily data from 1980 to 2004), near future (daily data from 2015 to 2039) and end-of-the-21st century (daily data from 2075 to 2099). This study found

  17. Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER) project and a next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takarada, S.

    2012-12-01

    The first Workshop of Asia-Pacific Region Global Earthquake and Volcanic Eruption Risk Management (G-EVER1) was held in Tsukuba, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan from February 23 to 24, 2012. The workshop focused on the formulation of strategies to reduce the risks of disasters worldwide caused by the occurrence of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. More than 150 participants attended the workshop. During the workshop, the G-EVER1 accord was approved by the participants. The Accord consists of 10 recommendations like enhancing collaboration, sharing of resources, and making information about the risks of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions freely available and understandable. The G-EVER Hub website (http://g-ever.org) was established to promote the exchange of information and knowledge among the Asia-Pacific countries. Several G-EVER Working Groups and Task Forces were proposed. One of the working groups was tasked to make the next-generation real-time volcano hazard assessment system. The next-generation volcano hazard assessment system is useful for volcanic eruption prediction, risk assessment, and evacuation at various eruption stages. The assessment system is planned to be developed based on volcanic eruption scenario datasets, volcanic eruption database, and numerical simulations. Defining volcanic eruption scenarios based on precursor phenomena leading up to major eruptions of active volcanoes is quite important for the future prediction of volcanic eruptions. Compiling volcanic eruption scenarios after a major eruption is also important. A high quality volcanic eruption database, which contains compilations of eruption dates, volumes, and styles, is important for the next-generation volcano hazard assessment system. The volcanic eruption database is developed based on past eruption results, which only represent a subset of possible future scenarios. Hence, different distributions from the previous deposits are mainly observed due to the differences in

  18. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    collaboration in dealing with the geohazards of the Russian Far East - Alaska region. Subduction within this segment of the Pacific Rim has produced 50% of the top 30 earthquakes recorded instrumentally worldwide, numerous Pacific-crossing tsunamis, and the largest ash eruption in almost 200 years. Recognizing that Russia and the United States need to develop a whole-region perspective of disaster risk, scientists and program managers from several Russian and U.S. government agencies met at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow in July to identify bilateral steps that would improve safety for communities of the Kuril-Kamchatka-Aleutian-Alaska region. Significantly, the meeting included disaster preparation and response agencies EMERCOM and FEMA. Participants proposed development of a standing committee to advocate and facilitate bilateral collaboration, expanded exchange of real-time monitoring data, development of a strategy for monitoring currently unmonitored sections of plate and micro-plate boundaries, and holding of an inclusive, all-stakeholders meeting in the U.S. next year.

  19. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    aspects of taxonomy, biology and ecology relevant to species-specific vector control. This research is particularly relevant to help unravel the complicated taxonomic status, ecology and epidemiology of the vectors of the Asia-Pacific region. All the occurrence data, predictive maps and EO-shape files generated during the production of these publications will be made available in the public domain. We hope that this will encourage data sharing to improve future iterations of the distribution maps. PMID:21612587

  20. Antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against Gram-positive pathogens collected in Europe, Latin America, and selected countries in the Asia-Pacific Region (2011).

    PubMed

    Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-04-01

    We report the results of the international daptomycin surveillance programs for Europe, Latin America, and selected Asia-Pacific nations. A total of 7948 consecutive Gram-positive organisms of clinical significance were collected in 2011 and susceptibility tested against daptomycin and various comparator agents by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. M07-A9. Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically; approved standard: ninth edition Wayne, PA: CLSI. 2012.; Cubicin Package Insert 2012. Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Lexington, MA. Available at http://www.cubicin.com/pdf/PrescribingInformation.pdf. Accessed January 1, 2012.) broth microdilution methods. The test medium was adjusted to contain physiological levels of calcium (50 mg/L) when testing daptomycin. Daptomycin exhibited potent activity against methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus overall and for each region (MIC(50/90), 0.25-0.5/0.5 μg/mL), with susceptibility rates at 100.0% in Latin America, Australia/New Zealand, and India, and at 99.9% in Europe. The daptomycin MIC(50/90) for coagulase-negative staphylococci was also at 0.25-0.5/0.5 μg/mL, and only 1 isolate was considered nonsusceptible with a MIC value at 2 μg/mL. Daptomycin was also highly active against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC(50/90), 1/1-2 μg/mL) and E. faecium (MIC(50/90), 2/2 μg/mL for both vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates). All enterococcal isolates were susceptible to daptomycin (MIC, ≤4 μg/mL) and tigecycline. Susceptibility to linezolid for E. faecalis was at 100.0%, while for E. faecium regional susceptibility rates were at 100.0% except in Europe (99.0%). Viridans group streptococci (MIC(50/90), 0.25/1 μg/mL) and β-haemolytic streptococci (MIC(50/90), ≤0.06/0.25 μg/mL) continue to be very susceptible to daptomycin. In summary, the results of this investigation document the high potency and

  1. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  2. Asia-Pacific consensus statements on Crohn's disease. Part 2: Management.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field. PMID:25819311

  3. Distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamases, AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections in the Asia-Pacific region: results of the study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Sheng, Wang-Huei; Badal, Robert E; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-07-01

    The increasing trend of β-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is a worldwide threat. Enterobacteriaceae isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAI) from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) collected in 2008 and 2009 from the Asia-Pacific region were investigated. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases was performed by multiplex PCR. A total of 699 Enterobacteriaceae isolates with positive genotypic results, included Escherichia coli (n = 443), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 187), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 45), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 9), Citrobacter freundii (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis (n = 3), Enterobacter aerogenes (n = 2), Morganella morganii (n = 2), and one each of Enterobacter asburiae, Proteus vulgaris, and Providencia rettgeri were analyzed. Nearly 20% of these β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were from community-associated IAI. CTX-M (588 isolates, including 428 [72.8%] with CTX-M-15) was the most common ESBL, followed by SHV (n = 59) and TEM (n = 4). CMY (n = 110, including 102 [92.7%] with CMY-2) was the most common AmpC β-lactamase, followed by DHA (n = 46) and ACT/MIR (n = 40). NDM (n = 65, including 62 [95.4%] with NDM-1) was the most common carbapenemase, followed by IMP (n = 7) and OXA (n = 7). Isolates from hospital-associated IAI had more complicated β-lactamase combinations than isolates from the community. Carbapenemases were all exclusively detected in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from India, except that IMP β-lactamases were also detected in Philippines and Australia. CTX-M β-lactamases were the predominant ESBLs produced by Enterobacteriaceae causing IAI in the Asia-Pacific region. Emergence of CTX-M-15-, CMY-2-, and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of major concern and highlights the need for further surveillance in this area. PMID:23587958

  4. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of pathogens causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: Results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART), 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Coombs, Geoffrey; Ling, Thomas; Balaji, V; Rodrigues, Camilla; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Kim, Min-Ja; Rajasekaram, Datin Ganeswrie; Mendoza, Myrna; Tan, Thean Yen; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ni, Yuxing; Weinman, Barry; Xu, Yingchun; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2016-04-01

    A total of 9599 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) were collected from 60 centres in 13 countries in the Asia-Pacific region from 2010-2013. These isolates comprised Enterobacteriaceae species (mainly Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae and Morganella morganii) and non-fermentative GNB species (predominantly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the agar dilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive breakpoints recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute in 2015. Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) amongst E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca isolates was determined by the double-disk synergy test. China, Vietnam, India, Thailand and the Philippines had the highest rates of GNB species producing ESBLs and the highest rates of cephalosporin resistance. ESBL production and hospital-acquired infection (isolates obtained ≥48h after admission) significantly compromised the susceptibility of isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and most β-lactams, with the exception of imipenem and ertapenem. However, >87% of ESBL-producing E. coli strains were susceptible to amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam, indicating that these antibiotics might be appropriate alternatives for treating UTIs due to ESBL-producing E. coli. Fluoroquinolones were shown to be inappropriate as empirical therapy for UTIs. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem in the Asia-Pacific region. Therefore, continuous monitoring of evolutionary trends in the susceptibility profiles of GNB causing UTIs in Asia is crucial. PMID:27005459

  5. Report of the first Asia-Pacific influenza summit, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI), Bangkok, 12-13 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On June 12-13, 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control, the First Asia-Pacific Influenza Summit. The objectives of the meeting were to review the current state of official influenza control policies in Asia-Pacific countries; identify, summarize and communicate influenza control strategies that have successfully increased vaccine uptake in the region; develop policy and advocacy approaches to improve influenza vaccine uptake in high-risk groups and healthcare workers in the region; and establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices for the control of influenza. In moving forward, the challenge for the region will be establishing collaborations able to effectively communicate risk and key messages about influenza vaccination. PMID:23809609

  6. Report of the first Asia-Pacific Forum on antiviral treatment of influenza, Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza, Bangkok, 14 June 2012.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Lance C; Smith, David W; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    On 14 June 2012, the Asia-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) convened the first Antiviral Forum jointly with the Influenza Foundation of Thailand and the Thailand Department of Disease Control. The goals of the meeting were to improve pandemic planning in the region from lessons learned during the 2009 pandemic, particularly with regard to the safety and efficacy of antiviral use; gain a better understanding of the therapeutic use of antivirals in seasonal influenza; review and analyse the official influenza control policies of Asia-Pacific countries and evidence gaps to support policy development; and to establish collaborative relationships to promote best practices in the use of antivirals for the treatment of influenza. The urgent need for education highlighting the importance of influenza and the benefits of antiviral drug use in the Asia-Pacific region was identified. PMID:23756551

  7. Targeting vivax malaria in the Asia Pacific: The Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vivax Working Group.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN) is a collaboration of 18 country partners committed to eliminating malaria from within their borders. Over the past 5 years, APMEN has helped to build the knowledge, tools and in-country technical expertise required to attain this goal. At its inaugural meeting in Brisbane in 2009, Plasmodium vivax infections were identified across the region as a common threat to this ambitious programme; the APMEN Vivax Working Group was established to tackle specifically this issue. The Working Group developed a four-stage strategy to identify knowledge gaps, build regional consensus on shared priorities, generate evidence and change practice to optimize malaria elimination activities. This case study describes the issues faced and the solutions found in developing this robust strategic partnership between national programmes and research partners within the Working Group. The success of the approach adopted by the group may facilitate similar applications in other regions seeking to deploy evidence-based policy and practice. PMID:26627892

  8. New Zealand Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report on New Zealand is one of a series of country studies intended to provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This report addresses significant changes occurring due to the reform, deregulation, and privatization of the economy in general and the energy sector in particular; provides the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation; petroleum and gas issues are highlighted, particularly the implications of foreign trade in oil and gas; provides the latest available statistics and insights to energy policy that are not generally available elsewhere.

  9. Asia Pacific Consensus Statements on Crohn's disease. Part 1: Definition, diagnosis, and epidemiology: (Asia Pacific Crohn's Disease Consensus--Part 1).

    PubMed

    Ooi, Choon Jin; Makharia, Govind K; Hilmi, Ida; Gibson, Peter R; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ahuja, Vineet; Ling, Khoon Lin; Lim, Wee Chian; Thia, Kelvin T; Wei, Shu-chen; Leung, Wai Keung; Koh, Poh Koon; Gearry, Richard B; Goh, Khean Lee; Ouyang, Qin; Sollano, Jose; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; de Silva, H Janaka; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Pisespongsa, Pises; Abu Hassan, Muhamad Radzi; Sung, Joseph; Hibi, Toshifumi; Boey, Christopher C M; Moran, Neil; Leong, Rupert W L

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research, and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region. The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of Crohn's disease. The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses, and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field. PMID:25819140

  10. India: Asia-Pacific energy series country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs of the East-West Center series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies provide an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. To the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics. Staff members have traveled extensively in-and at times have lived in-the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. Over the next few years these country studies can be updated and will provide a continuous, long-term source of energy sector analysis for the Asia-Pacific region. This India Asia-Pacific Energy Series Country Report is the follow-on to a study by Victor Lobo, Energy in India: The Oil Sector, which was published by the East-West Center in December 1989. The study focused on the petroleum industry, particularly refining, infrastructure, marketing and distribution, specifications of products, demand structure and pricing. This current study, must be seen as a supplement to our 1989 study and, as such, does not cover the petroleum sector in depth.

  11. CKD and Infectious Diseases in Asia Pacific: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jha, Vivekanand; Prasad, Narayan

    2016-07-01

    The exact number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Asia Pacific is uncertain. In numeric terms, the region is home to the largest population of patients with untreated chronic kidney failure. The climatic, geographic, social, cultural, economic, and environmental diversity within this region is higher than in any other part of the world. Large parts of the region face a climate-related burden of infectious diseases. Infections contribute to the development and progression of CKD and complicate the course of patients with pre-existing CKD (especially those on dialysis therapy or who are immunosuppressed), increase the cost of CKD care, and contribute to mortality and morbidity. Kidney involvement is a feature of several infectious diseases prevalent in Asia Pacific. Examples include malaria, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and C virus, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and Hantaan virus infections. The contribution of infection-associated acute kidney injury to the overall burden of CKD has not been evaluated systematically. Research is needed to quantify the impact of infections on kidney health by undertaking prospective studies. Nephrologists need to work with infectious disease research groups and government infection surveillance and control programs. PMID:26943982

  12. Sustainability in Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific: Developments, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Alexandra; Tilbury, Daniella; Corcoran, Peter Blaze; Abe, Osamu; Nomura, Ko

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the contributions of the Asia-Pacific region to leading practice in sustainability in higher education (HE), as prelude and orientation to this special issue collection from different countries and regions. Design/methodology/approach: This is a critical review that includes…

  13. Physical activity and obesity research in the Asia-Pacific: a review.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2012-05-01

    Obesity is a global health concern and has a great impact on countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for obesity, but physical activity levels are declining in much of this region. Increasing physical activity is a priority in many countries. Considerable research has been conducted on physical activity related to obesity in Western countries, but populations in the Asia-Pacific region differ in physical, psychological, social, and cultural ways that warrant local and regional research. The authors reviewed research conducted in the Asia-Pacific region that examined either the impact of physical activity interventions on obesity-related outcomes or the effect of behavior-change interventions on physical activity participation. The number of studies found was limited, and their samples and methods varied too much to draw conclusions. The authors recommend further research in the Asia-Pacific region using systematic protocols to permit sound conclusions to be drawn and promote informed action at local levels. PMID:22593220

  14. Emerging University Student Experiences of Learning Technologies across the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, B. F. D.; Higa, C.; Ellis, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred students across eight countries and eleven higher education institutions in the Asia Pacific Region participated in two courses on climate change and disaster management that were supported by learning technologies: a satellite-enabled video-conferencing system and a learning management system. Evaluation of the student experience…

  15. New Challenges for Higher Education: Global and Asia-Pacific Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Harman, Grant

    2009-01-01

    With rapid socio-economic changes, twenty-first century higher education is facing major challenges to its governance systems, curriculum, mission focus, external relations, research, and financing. A theoretical framework to analyze these post-massification challenges is suggested, with a focus on the Asia-Pacific region as well as global issues.…

  16. Noncardiac chest pain--an Asia-Pacific survey on the views of primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ting Kin; Lim, Paul Wah Yonn; Wong, Benjamin C Y

    2007-11-01

    Noncardiac chest pain (NCCP) is common and has a significant impact on health care. Primary care physicians (PCPs)' attitudes, clinical approach, preference of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, and comfort in managing patients with NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are not known. Consequently, we performed this survey in the Asia-Pacific region. The self-completed questionnaire was sent to PCPs in the Asia-Pacific region. A 28-item questionnaire contained questions on demographic information, characteristics of practice, preferences of diagnostic tests, referral patterns, treatment plans, and opinion on Helicobacter pylori and NCCP. A total of 108 (74%) PCPs returned the questionnaire. A mean of 18% of the patients were diagnosed with NCCP by PCPs in the past 6 months. Ninety-four percent of PCPs had treated NCCP patients in the last 6 months. Only 38% of the PCPs were comfortable in diagnosing NCCP but 85.2% believed that they should manage NCCP patients. PCPs in Malaysia and Philippines were more likely to refer patients to subspecialists. Fifty-seven and four-tenths percent of PCPs believed that H. pylori infection plays a role in the development of NCCP. The study demonstrates clearly that the understanding, diagnostic strategies, and treatment strategies of NCCP in the Asia-Pacific region are suboptimal and thus highlights the importance of educational and training programs tailored for PCPs in NCCP. PMID:17436083

  17. Integration of Technology Education in Basic and General Education Curriculum in Asia-Pacific Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, C. K.

    Despite the expansion of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nearly all Asia-Pacific countries during the past 10-15 years, many of the region's policymakers have called for greater and more effective integration of technical-vocational components in basic and general education curricula. The idea that technology education should…

  18. Shaping Education Policy Research in an Asia-Pacific Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Dong Wook; Lee, Ho Jun; Lee, Seung Ho; Wi, Eunjoo

    2014-01-01

    Globalization increasingly calls for comparing educational policies across countries. In this study, we assemble and analyze academic journal publications of the past decade in order to shape education policy research within an Asia-Pacific context. After examining Asia-Pacific research publication data from the Web of Science, we find a few…

  19. Nutrition and cardiovascular disease: an Asia Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Khor, G L

    1997-06-01

    Changes in the dietary intake patterns of countries in the Asia Pacific region are considered in relation to trends of cardiovascular disease mortality. Cardiovascular disease now constitutes the major cause of mortality in many of the countries of the region. The mortality rate for coronary heart disease (CHD) has been on the decline since the mid-1960s in countries such as Australia, New Zealand and Japan, while a decline in other countries, including Singapore and Hong Kong, appears to be occurring about two decades later after a delayed increase. In contrast, countries like Malaysia and China have had and continue an upward trend for CHD mortality. Nonetheless, the mortality rates due to CHD in New Zealand, Australia, Singapore followed by Hong Kong rank among the highest in the region. In China, Taiwan and Japan, death due to cerebrovascular disease remains a major cause of death, although the latter two countries have undergone a significant decline in stroke death rates since 1970. The intakes of fat from land animal products, fish and vegetable oils, depending on fatty acid patterns and, possibly other constituents, are candidate contributors to the different atherogenic and thrombotic effects. Countries which have a higher mortality from CHD tend to have a higher intake of energy from fat and proportion of fat from animal products. These fat intakes may operate to increase hypercholesterolemia and overweight in various countries. Again, intakes of other food items and constituents used in the region such as soybeans, dietary antioxidants in fruits, vegetables, seeds, cereals, nuts and tea and alcohol consumption are candidate cardio-protectants. The wide dietary scope of Asia Pacific populations, from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds, and at different levels of economic and technological development poses several analytic challenges and opportunities. Future research should improve the datasets and think laterally about pathogenesis and intervention

  20. CML treatment in Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Jootar, Saengsuree

    2012-04-01

    CML in Asia seems to affect the younger age group and more patients are in the high and intermediate Sokal risk group. Cytogenetic study and molecular testing are done mostly at diagnosis, but monitoring the response is limited due to the cost and accessibility. The treatment of chronic phase CML has changed dramatically within the last decade and imatinib has become the standard treatment for CP, CML. Since the cost of imatinib is quite high, most Asian patients cannot afford it. Patients in several countries get imatinib through Glivec International Patient Assistant Program. Patients who are intolerant or resistant to imatinib usually get the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), either nilotinib or dasatinib. The National Health Insurance covers all or most of the cost of imatinib in South Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Both nilotinib and dasatinib are partially or fully covered by national insurance in Australia, Japan, Singapore and Taiwan as the second-line therapy. TKIs treatment remains out of reach for many Asian CML patients, especially those in the rural areas and those who are not eligible for patient access programs or covered by the national insurance. The cytogenetic response to imatinib in Asian CML patients varies considerably, from as low as 24% to as high as 96%. The Asia CML Study Alliance was briefly presented. PMID:22507785

  1. The Physics-Astronomy-Mathematics Asia-Pacific Forum: a network for librarians and information specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, Jeanette; Koch, M. C.; Gomez, M. E.; Louis, C.; Corbin, B. G.

    Non-commercial astronomical publications have been freely distributed world wide to relevant institutions for more than a century. Astronomers have considered collaboration a very important aspect of their work and, to assist them, librarians have established a supportive international network. In 1988 the first Library and Information Services in Astronomy meeting was held in Washington, USA. From this meeting, a discussion list was established. Shortly afterwards, the lack of resources for astronomers in the former Eastern Block countries was realised and the twinning of libraries in this region with sister institutions in developed countries was introduced. These resources were not available for libraries in the Asia Pacific Region. The Physics Astronomy, Mathematics Division (PAM) of the Special Libraries Association, working with the Australian Library and Information Association founded the PAM-Asia Pacific Forum (PAM-APF) in 1998. This paper will discuss the aims of this network, the advantages offered by publishers to participating libraries, achievements so far and proposed developments.

  2. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  3. Pakistan: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdar, M.N.

    1992-03-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report summarizes the energy and economic situation in Pakistan.

  4. The Asia pacific cohort studies collaboration: a decade of achievements.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Mark; Huxley, Rachel; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Fang, Xianghua; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2012-12-01

    The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) was established in the late 1990s when there was a distinct shortfall in evidence of the importance of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Asia. With few exceptions, most notably from Japan, most of the published reports on cardiovascular disease in the last century were from Western countries, and there was uncertainty how far etiological associations found in the West could be assumed to prevail in the East. Against this background, APCSC was set up as a pooling project, combining individual participant data (about 600,000 subjects) from all available leading cohort studies (36 from Asia and 8 from Australasia) in the region, to fill the knowledge gaps. In the past 10 years, APCSC has published 50 peer-reviewed publications of original epidemiological research, primarily concerned with coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This work has established that Western risk factors generally act similarly in Asia and in Australasia, just as they do in other parts of the world. Consequently, strategies to reduce the prevalence of elevated blood pressure, obesity, and smoking are at least as important in Asia as elsewhere- and possibly more important when the vast size of Asia is considered. This article reviews the achievements of APCSC in the past decade, with an emphasis on coronary heart disease. PMID:25689943

  5. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven KW; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines. PMID:26844221

  6. Role of bilastine in the management of allergic rhinitis and urticaria: an Asia-Pacific consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Mösges, Ralph; Lee, Dennis Lip Yen; Abong, Jovilia; Siasoco, Bella; Chow, Steven Kw; Leong, Jern-Lin; Singh, Harvinder; Kuljit, S; Campomanes, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing globally, most particularly in middle- to low-income countries. This article examines the burden of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region, unmet clinical needs, and the potential role of bilastine in the management of these conditions. An International Advisory Group meeting was convened in association with the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology Annual Congress in November 2014, followed by a literature review, and consensus-based outcomes from the meeting and literature review are described. Regional estimates of the prevalence of allergic rhinitis range from 10% to 50%, while little is known regarding the burden of urticaria in the Asia-Pacific region. A survey of allergy patients in the region identified fast, complete, and long-lasting symptom relief as the medication attributes most important to patients. International treatment guidelines for allergic rhinitis and urticaria advocate the first-line use of second-generation, no-sedating H1-antihistamines, such as bilastine, over their first-generation counterparts and a range of these agents are available to Asia-Pacific patients. The newer agents possess many of the properties of an "ideal" antihistamine (once daily administration, rapid and complete symptom relief, limited potential for drug-drug interactions, minimal side effects). The burgeoning prevalence of allergic diseases in the Asia-Pacific region and the uncontrolled symptoms that these patients experience demand a new antihistamine that offers the highest number of positive features according to the international guidelines. PMID:26844221

  7. An overview of Korean patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and collaboration through the Asia Pacific MPS Network.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Sohn, Young Bae; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-08-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a constellation of disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in tissues and organs. This accumulation results in the deterioration and degeneration of multiple organs. This paper describes the general distribution of types of MPS in patients, their clinical characteristics and genotypes, the development of animal studies and preclinical studies, enzyme replacement therapy in South Korea, and the development of idursulfase beta and clinical trials on idursulfase beta in South Korea. In addition, this paper discusses academic collaboration among specialists in MPS care in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and South Korea, through an organization called the Asia-Pacific MPS Network (APMN). The Asia-Pacific MPS Registry, an electronic remote data entry system, has been developed by key doctors in the APMN. Rare diseases require international cooperation and collaboration to elucidate their mechanisms and carry out clinical trials; therefore, an organization such as the APMN is required. Furthermore, international collaboration among Asian countries and countries around the world will be of utmost importance in the future. PMID:25364648

  8. An overview of Korean patients with mucopolysaccharidosis and collaboration through the Asia Pacific MPS Network

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Yoon; Sohn, Young Bae; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) is a constellation of disorders characterized by the accumulation of mucopolysaccharides in tissues and organs. This accumulation results in the deterioration and degeneration of multiple organs. This paper describes the general distribution of types of MPS in patients, their clinical characteristics and genotypes, the development of animal studies and preclinical studies, enzyme replacement therapy in South Korea, and the development of idursulfase beta and clinical trials on idursulfase beta in South Korea. In addition, this paper discusses academic collaboration among specialists in MPS care in the Asia-Pacific region, which includes Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, and South Korea, through an organization called the Asia-Pacific MPS Network (APMN). The Asia-Pacific MPS Registry, an electronic remote data entry system, has been developed by key doctors in the APMN. Rare diseases require international cooperation and collaboration to elucidate their mechanisms and carry out clinical trials; therefore, an organization such as the APMN is required. Furthermore, international collaboration among Asian countries and countries around the world will be of utmost importance in the future. PMID:25364648

  9. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events. PMID:27441290

  10. New Zealand: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Keevill, H.D.

    1992-03-01

    The New Zealand energy sector has undergone significant changes in the past few years. Reform and deregulation came to New Zealand in large doses and at a rapid pace. Unlike Japan where deregulation was designed for a five-year phase-in period or even Australia where the government was fully geared up to handle deregulation, deregulation occurred in New Zealand almost with no phase-in period and very little planning. Under fast-paced Rogernomics,'' the energy sector was but one more element of the economy to be deregulated and/or privatized. While the New Zealand energy sector deregulation is generally believed to have been successful, there are still outstanding questions as to whether the original intent has been fully achieved. The fact that a competent energy bureaucracy was mostly lost in the process makes it even more difficult to find those with long enough institutional memories to untangle the agreements and understandings between the government and the private sector over the previous decade. As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Resources Programs at the East-West Center has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs and Energy Emergencies, have covered Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various counties. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics.

  11. More arms, less stability: Nuclear, chemical, and missile proliferation in the Asia-Pacific. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, A.

    1991-04-01

    In the wake of the Gulf War, the Bush Administration has reaffirmed its determination to seek controls over weapons of mass destruction in the Third World, in particular nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons (CBW); and over ballistic missiles, one possible delivery system for nuclear and CBW systems. Attention over the past eight months has naturally focused on the Middle East, but the Asia-Pacific region contains a number of countries which are alleged to have CW and BW programs. One country, North Korea, is far closer to manufacturing nuclear weapons than Iraq was.

  12. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: climate change, phosphorus, ozone and other environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two articles on challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on five mechanisms, which can be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios, described in the first paper, may become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. This article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements. PMID:19965353

  13. The Future Liver of the Asia Pacific: Fatter and Firmer from More Fructose and Fortune?

    PubMed Central

    Mahady, Suzanne E.; George, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region. PMID:25755484

  14. The future liver of the Asia pacific: fatter and firmer from more fructose and fortune?

    PubMed

    Mahady, Suzanne E; George, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    The Asia Pacific region is the most diverse and the most populous region in the world. Recent socioeconomic changes have resulted in an emerging epidemic of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Asian Pacific countries now approximates that seen in Western countries. This increase is fueled by rising obesity, partly due to adoption of Western style diets and exposure to compounds such as high fructose corn syrup that are not included in traditional diets. Furthermore, South Asian populations may be more genetically susceptible via the inheritance of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein 3 that increase insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Importantly, there remains a substantial lack of data on the incidence and natural history of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and subsequent complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma in Asian Pacific populations. This information gap prevents estimation of current and future disease burden and impedes efforts to lobby health policymakers to improve public health measures, as given the size of Asian Pacific populations, prevention rather than treatment of non-communicable diseases remains key. This review article addresses these issues and highlights research priorities for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease within the Asia Pacific region. PMID:25755484

  15. Health Professional Workforce Education in the Asia Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Jessica; Webb, Gillian; Coulston, Frances; Smart, Aidan; Remedios, Louisa

    2016-01-01

    . Significance for public health The Global Learning Partnership model aims to contribute to the capacity building of a health workforce that is capable of working effectively in cross cultural and interprofessional health care teams. A shared public health focused global placement has the potential to catalyse collaborative relationships between educational institutions in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27190976

  16. Food security in the Asia-Pacific: Malthus, limits and environmental challenges.

    PubMed

    Butler, Colin D

    2009-01-01

    This is the first of two articles on the steepening challenges which confront global agriculture, food security and hence nutrition and population health. The recent deterioration in global food security has caught most experts by surprise. While the Asia Pacific region as a whole has so far fared reasonably well, there should be no complacency about medium to long term food security in the region, whether or not food security improves in the near future. The first paper places this debate in the context of the long-standing arguments between Malthusianists and optimists. The apparent reversal of position in the last decade of two leading agricultural experts is discussed. Their recent writings reflect intensified Malthusian concerns curbed in their writings from the 1990s. The paper concludes that far more credence needs to be given to the pessimistic position in order to avoid it becoming reality. The second paper focusses on five interrelated challenges to future food security in the Asia Pacific. These may be conceptualised as pathways by which pessimistic Malthusian scenarios become manifest. The mechanisms are (1) climate change, (2) water scarcity, (3) tropospheric ozone pollution, (4) impending scarcity of phosphorus and conventional oil and (5) the possible interaction between future population displacement, conflict and poor governance. The article concludes that a sustainable improvement in food security requires a radical transformation in society's approach to the environment, population growth, agricultural research and the distribution of rights, opportunities and entitlements. PMID:19965351

  17. Children's exposure to food advertising on free-to-air television: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Bridget; Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Yang; He, Gengsheng; Li, Liangli; Zeng, Lingxia; Hadi, Hamam; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Hoe, Ng See; Noor, Mohd Ismail; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, Hyogyoo

    2016-03-01

    There is an established link between food promotions and children's food purchase and consumption. Children in developing countries may be more vulnerable to food promotions given the relative novelty of advertising in these markets. This study aimed to determine the scope of television food advertising to children across the Asia-Pacific to inform policies to restrict this marketing. Six sites were sampled, including from China, Indonesia, Malaysia and South Korea. At each site, 192 h of television were recorded (4 days, 16 h/day, three channels) from May to October 2012. Advertised foods were categorized as core/healthy, non-core/unhealthy or miscellaneous, and by product type. Twenty-seven percent of advertisements were for food/beverages, and the most frequently advertised product was sugar-sweetened drinks. Rates of non-core food advertising were highest during viewing times most popular with children, when between 3 (South Korea) and 15 (Indonesia) non-core food advertisements were broadcast each hour. Children in the Asia-Pacific are exposed to high volumes of unhealthy food/beverage television advertising. Different policy arrangements for food advertising are likely to contribute to regional variations in advertising patterns. Cities with the lowest advertising rates can be identified as exemplars of good policy practice. PMID:24997194

  18. Fourth Wes Fabb Oration Diversity of primary care in Asia Pacific: pathways to convergence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Asia Pacific is one of the 6 regions of the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca). It is a region with 16 full and 2 associate members coming from 14 countries. One of the main activities in the region is the regional conference highlighted by the Wes Fabb Oration. This Fourth Wes Fabb Oration has a historical perspective and three main parts: the results of a cross sectional survey done among member organizations and three countries not affiliated yet with Wonca which show Family Medicine as to status, practice, education and research; the regional initiatives and activities which indicate convergence; and, suggested action points which can further promote family medicine development, collaboration, and convergence. PMID:20346130

  19. Natural disasters and dialysis care in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gray, Nicholas A; Wolley, Martin; Liew, Adrian; Nakayama, Masaaki

    2015-12-01

    The impact of natural disasters on the provision of dialysis services has received increased attention in the last decade following Hurricane Katrina devastating New Orleans in 2005. The Asia-Pacific is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, tsunami, typhoons (also known as cyclones and hurricanes) or storms and flooding. These events can seriously interrupt provision of haemodialysis with adverse effects for patients including missed dialysis, increased hospitalization and post-traumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, haemodialysis patients may need to relocate and experience prolonged periods of displacement from family and social supports. In contrast to haemodialysis, most literature suggests peritoneal dialysis in a disaster situation is more easily managed and supported. It has become apparent that dialysis units and patients should be prepared for a disaster event and that appropriate planning will result in reduced confusion and adverse outcomes should a disaster occur. Numerous resources are now available to guide dialysis units, patients and staff in preparation for a possible disaster. This article will examine the disaster experiences of dialysis units in the Asia-Pacific, the impact on patients and staff, methods employed to manage during the disaster and suggested plans for reducing the impact of future disasters. PMID:26032113

  20. Child Survival and Development toward Health for All: roles and strategies for Asia-Pacific universities.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J S; Patrick, W

    1989-01-01

    Recently, discussion among academics and practitioners has focused on the potential roles, strategies, and functions of universities in the Asia-Pacific region in the next ten to fifteen years in the global initiative commonly referred to as the Child Survival and Development Revolution toward Health for All. (1) The purpose of this paper is to capture the practical key elements of recent discussions and to extend the current thinking into potentially useful guidelines or frameworks for universities of the region. Universities may then be better prepared to move forward in ways which promote the goals and interests of the Health For All movement and the well-being of particularly the world's children. PMID:2803842

  1. The Changing Face of Crises and Aid in the Asia-Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Burkle, Frederick M.; Hamon, David W.; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C.

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  2. The changing face of crises and aid in the Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Gursky, Elin A; Burkle, Frederick M; Hamon, David W; Walker, Peter; Benjamin, Georges C

    2014-01-01

    Both US foreign policy and global attention attest to the strategic, economic, and political importance of Asia. Yet, the region faces urgent challenges that must be addressed if it is to remain stable and prosperous. The densely populated countries of the Asia-Pacific are beleaguered by poverty, population displacement, decreasing access to potable water and adequate sanitation, and high rates of disease morbidity and mortality. New and reemerging diseases known to have originated in Asia over the past decades have spread globally by international trade, tourism, worker migration, and agricultural exportation. Unremitting naturally occurring and man-made disasters have strained Southeast Asia's already fragile disaster and public health response infrastructures and the essential services they provide (eg, surveillance, vaccination, maternal and child health, and mental health programs). Following disasters, governments often contract with the broader humanitarian community (eg, indigenous and international NGOs) and seek the assistance of militaries to provide essential services. Yet, their roles and capabilities in addressing acute and chronic health issues in the wake of complex disasters remain unclear. Current mechanisms of nation-state and outside organization interaction, including dissimilar operational platforms, may limit true partnership on behalf of the health security mission. Additionally, concerns regarding skill sets and the lack of standards-based training raise questions about the balance between developing internal response capabilities and professionalizing external, deployable resources. Both the mega-disasters that are forecast for the region and the global health security threats that are expected to emanate from them require an increased focus on improving the Asia-Pacific's emergency preparedness and response posture. PMID:25268048

  3. HIV and aging: insights from the Asia Pacific HIV Observational Database (APHOD)

    PubMed Central

    Han, N; Wright, ST; O'Connor, CC; Hoy, J; Ponnampalavanar, S; Grotowski, M; Zhao, HX; Kamarulzaman, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS in the ageing population (>50 years) is increasing. We aim to explore the relationship between older age and treatment outcomes in HIV-positive persons from the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) were included in the analysis. We used survival methods to assess the association between older age and all-cause mortality, as well as time-to treatment modification. We used regression analyses to evaluate changes in CD4 counts after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation and determined the odds of detectable viral load, up to 24 months of treatment. Results A total of 7142 patients were included in these analyses (60% TAHOD, 40% AHOD), of which, 25% were >50 years old. In multivariable analyses those aged >50 were at least twice as likely to die as those aged 30-39 years [HR (50-59 years): 2.27, 95% CI: 1.34-3.83; HR (>60years) 4.28, 95% CI: 2.42-7.55]. The effect of older age on CD4 count changes was insignificant (p-trend=0.06). The odds of detectable viral load after cART initiation decreased with age (p-trend=<0.0001). The effect of older age on time-to first treatment modification was insignificant (p-trend=0.21). We found no statistically significant differences in outcomes between AHOD and TAHOD participants for all endpoints examined. Conclusion The associations between older age and typical patient outcomes in HIV-positive patients from the Asia-Pacific region are similar in AHOD and TAHOD. Our data indicate that ‘age-effects’ traverse the resource-rich and resource-limited divide and indicate that future ageing-related findings might be applicable to each setting. PMID:25407085

  4. Best practice contact lens care: a review of the Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Deborah; Holden, Brien; Evans, Kylie; Ng, Venice; Cho, Pauline

    2009-03-01

    Contact lens hygiene has long been recognised as key to the prevention of contact-lens associated infection and inflammation. Microbial keratitis (MK) is the only serious and potentially sight-threatening contact lens adverse event. International studies including recent research in Asia Pacific show that MK is rare but, as the consequences can be severe, it is important to minimise the risk factors. Studies continue to show that one of the key risk factors is lens and lens case hygiene. Therefore, it is also useful to review the behaviour of our patients, to see how closely they follow the recommended hygiene practices. Recent studies in various regions have shown that patients' lens care habits do not meet a required standard. Patients can become complacent and thus non-compliant with lens care instructions. Furthermore, they do not understand the high risk of some behaviour and they are not hearing the practitioner when instructions and reminders are given. Further education is important to improve patient compliance and safety. The Asia Pacific Contact Lens Care Summit held in Singapore urged the industry and practitioners to restore the emphasis of proper lens care, including the 'rub and rinse' technique, and developed a new set of guidelines to help eye-care professionals educate their patients on the importance of proper contact lens care to avoid eye infections. The summit also presented the latest research on how to avoid corneal staining, another important element of contact lens care. This review provides a summary of the summit presentations and the science behind these guidelines. PMID:19278458

  5. A continuation of the Asia-Pacific Risk Index for natural disasters: extending the record for an updated analysis from 1900-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Daniell, Trevor; Daniell, Katherine; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, an Asia-Pacific risk index was created for the CECAR5 (Civil Engineering Conference for the Asia-Pacific Region) by Daniell et al. (2010a) for floods and earthquakes, using empirical and analytical risk data for direct as well as socio-economic community vulnerability. The socio-economic situation of countries can aggravate the physical risk of natural disaster impacts, as demonstrated by the impacts of earthquakes in Christchurch and Tohoku 2011; add to this a number of deadly typhoon (Haiyan 2013), cyclone (Yasi 2011), flood (Thailand 2011), bushfire and weather effects, and significant changes to the index in 2010 have been seen. At least 10,000 historical events have been recorded since 1900 across the Asia-Pacific region (western Pacific). The database for global socio-economic indicators was produced to allow comparison of countries in terms of their socio-economic situation for use in risk studies. In addition, a global damaging natural disasters database (CATDAT) has been created over the last 14 years to better understand the historical impact of natural disasters on the Asia-Pacific region as well as globally. Simplified hazard models have been used in conjunction with historical damage data added to human exposure. Post-flood and post-typhoon loss models have been produced this methodology. The relative country level rural and urban building inventories and historical building trends are used to define levels of vulnerability, exposure and hazard. From this, physical and community risk indices are derived for the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It was found that the vulnerabilities in communities of developing countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines can further intensify the impact from direct damages by many times, showing the increased need for earthquake and flood risk reduction policy. Trends based on HDI and other indicators within the fields of economy, poverty, demographics, governance and environment are also presented

  6. EGFR Mutation Testing Practices within the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Keith M.; Utomo, Ahmad; Rajadurai, Pathmanathan; Tran, Van Khanh; Du, Xiang; Chou, Teh-Ying; Enriquez, Ma. Luisa D.; Lee, Geon Kook; Iqbal, Jabed; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Chung, Jin-Haeng; Hagiwara, Koichi; Liang, Zhiyong; Normanno, Nicola; Park, Keunchil; Toyooka, Shinichi; Tsai, Chun-Ming; Waring, Paul; Zhang, Li; McCormack, Rose; Ratcliffe, Marianne; Itoh, Yohji; Sugeno, Masatoshi; Mok, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR mutation-positive non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients necessitates accurate, timely testing. Although EGFR mutation testing has been adopted by many laboratories in Asia, data are lacking on the proportion of NSCLC patients tested in each country, and the most commonly used testing methods. Methods: A retrospective survey of records from NSCLC patients tested for EGFR mutations during 2011 was conducted in 11 Asian Pacific countries at 40 sites that routinely performed EGFR mutation testing during that period. Patient records were used to complete an online questionnaire at each site. Results: Of the 22,193 NSCLC patient records surveyed, 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 31.2%–32.5%) were tested for EGFR mutations. The rate of EGFR mutation positivity was 39.6% among the 10,687 cases tested. The majority of samples were biopsy and/or cytology samples (71.4%). DNA sequencing was the most commonly used testing method accounting for 40% and 32.5% of tissue and cytology samples, respectively. A pathology report was available only to 60.0% of the sites, and 47.5% were not members of a Quality Assurance Scheme. Conclusions: In 2011, EGFR mutation testing practices varied widely across Asia. These data provide a reference platform from which to improve the molecular diagnosis of NSCLC, and EGFR mutation testing in particular, in Asia. PMID:25376513

  7. APTWG: 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J. Q.; Shi, Y. J.; Tamura, N.; Jhang, Hogun; Watanabe, T.-H.; Ding, X. T.

    2013-02-01

    This conference report summarizes the contributions to and discussions at the 2nd Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held in Chengdu, China, from 15 to 18 May 2012. The topics of the meeting were organized under five main headings: momentum transport, non-locality in transport, edge turbulence and L-H transition, three-dimensional effects on transport physics, and particle, momentum and heat pinches. It is found that lower hybrid wave and ion cyclotron wave induce co-current rotation while electron cyclotron wave induces counter-current rotation. A four-stage imaging for low (L) to high (H) confinement transition gradually emerges and a more detailed verification is urgently expected. The new edge-localized modes mitigation technique with supersonic molecular beam injection was approved to be effective to some extent on HL-2A and KSTAR. It is also found that low collisionality, trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient transition (or transition of higher to lower density and temperature gradients), fuelling and lithium coating are in favour of inward pinch of particles in tokamak plasmas.

  8. Preparing for introduction of a dengue vaccine: recommendations from the 1st Dengue v2V Asia-Pacific Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sai Kit; Burke, Donald; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chong, Chee Keong; Coudeville, Laurent; Farrar, Jeremy; Gubler, Duane; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hanna, Jeffrey; Lang, Jean; Lee, Han Lim; Leo, Yee Sin; Luong, Chan Quang; Mahoney, Richard; McBride, John; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge; Ng, Lee Ching; Nimmannitya, Suchitra; Ooi, Eng Eong; Shepard, Donald; Smit, Jaco; Teyssou, Rémy; Thomas, Laurent; Torresi, Joseph; Vasconcelos, Pedro; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoksan, Sutee

    2011-11-28

    Infection with dengue virus is a major public health problem in the Asia-Pacific region and throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Vaccination represents a major opportunity to control dengue and several candidate vaccines are in development. Experts in dengue and in vaccine introduction gathered for a two day meeting during which they examined the challenges inherent to the introduction of a dengue vaccine into the national immunisation programmes of countries of the Asia-Pacific. The aim was to develop a series of recommendations to reduce the delay between vaccine licensure and vaccine introduction. Major recommendations arising from the meeting included: ascertaining and publicising the full burden and cost of dengue; changing the perception of dengue in non-endemic countries to help generate global support for dengue vaccination; ensuring high quality active surveillance systems and diagnostics; and identifying sustainable sources of funding, both to support vaccine introduction and to maintain the vaccination programme. The attendees at the meeting were in agreement that with the introduction of an effective vaccine, dengue is a disease that could be controlled, and that in order to ensure a vaccine is introduced as rapidly as possible, there is a need to start preparing now. PMID:21864627

  9. Failure of gastroenterologists to apply intestinal ultrasound in inflammatory bowel disease in the Asia-Pacific: a need for action.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Anil Kumar; Friedman, Antony B; Maconi, Giovanni; Maaser, Christian; Kucharzik, Torsten; Watanabe, Mamoru; Gibson, Peter R

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal ultrasound (IUS) is a cheap, noninvasive, risk-free procedure that is significantly underutilized in the diagnosis and management of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Asia-Pacific region. More cost-effective methods of monitoring disease activity are required in light of the increasing global burden of IBD (especially in Asia), the advent of personalized medicine, and the rising cost of healthcare. IUS is a prime example of a technique that meets these needs. Its common clinical applications include assessing the activity and complications of IBD. In continental Europe, countries such as Germany and Italy use this imaging tool as the standard of care and have integrated it into management protocols. There are formal training programs in these countries to train gastroenterologists in IUS, and it is used in an outpatient setting during patient consultations. Barriers to its use in the Asia-Pacific region include lack of experience and research data, and there are few established centers with active training programs. These concerns can be addressed by investing more in IUS service provision and by increasing allocation of resources toward local research and training. Increased uptake of IUS will ultimately benefit patients with IBD. PMID:25529767

  10. Asia-Pacific Hematology Consortium Report on approach to multiple myeloma. Survey results from the 6th International Hematologic Malignancies Conference: Bridging the Gap 2015, Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin; Hou, Jian; Liu, Kai-Yan; Parmar, Simrit; De La Fuente, Adolfo; Andersson, Börje; Yan, ChenHua; Zhou, Daobin; Tan, Daryl; Ritchie, David; Wu, Deipei; Shpall, Elizabeth; Laport, Ginna G; Li, JianYong; Hu, Jiong; Zhang, Lian Sheng; Wang, Michael; Malhotra, Pankaj; Jiang, Qian; Qin, Yazhen; Wong, Raymond; Champlin, Richard; Issaragrisil, Surapol; Iyer, Swaminathan; Mathews, Vikram; Wang, Yu; Hu, Yu; Xiao, Zhijian; Shao, Zonghong; Rosengarten, Rafael; Steuernagle, Jon; Xiao, Jun Huang; Orlowski, Robert; Chim, Chor Sang

    2016-07-01

    The Asia-Pacific Hematology Consortium (APHCON), in partnership with MDRingTM, a mobile global physician education network, has initiated a detailed longitudinal study of physician knowledge and practice preferences in the Asia-Pacific sphere. The first dataset comes from a series of surveys answered by delegates at the APHCON Bridging The Gap (BTG) conference in Beijing in January, 2015. In this report we present our findings regarding diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). We aim to create a conduit for physicians in this region to share their experiences with the rest of the world, to identify areas of consensus and best practices, and to highlight opportunities for improvement in communication, education and patient care. PMID:26887657

  11. Practical approaches for self-monitoring of blood glucose: an Asia-Pacific perspective.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subhankar; Ji, Linong; Suwanwalaikorn, Sompongse; Yu, Neng-Chun; Tan, Eng Kiat

    2015-03-01

    Comprehensive glycemic control is necessary to improve outcomes and avoid complications in individuals with diabetes. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is a key enabler of glycemic assessment, providing real-time information that complements HbA1c monitoring and supports treatment optimization. However, SMBG is under-utilized by patients and physicians within the Asia-Pacific region, because of barriers such as the cost of monitoring supplies, lack of diabetes self-management skills, or concerns about the reliability of blood glucose readings. Practice recommendations in international and regional guidelines vary widely, and may not be detailed or specific enough to guide SMBG use effectively. This contributes to uncertainty among patients and physicians about how best to utilize this tool: when and how often to test, and what action(s) to take in response to high or low readings. In developing a practical SMBG regimen, the first step is to determine the recommended SMBG frequency and intensity needed to support the chosen treatment regimen. If there are practical obstacles to monitoring, such as affordability or access, physicians should identify the most important aspects of glycemic control to target for individual patients, and modify monitoring patterns accordingly. This consensus paper proposes a selection of structured, flexible SMBG patterns that can be tailored to the clinical, educational, behavioral, and financial requirements of individuals with diabetes. PMID:25629789

  12. Submicron aerosols during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. S.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30%-40% of industrial practices and 50% of vehicles in operation were limited in Beijing and its surroundings regions during the Beijing Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in 2014. Compared with values obtained prior to the APEC conference, the atmospheric concentration of submicron aerosol particles (PM1) decreased from 101 to 36.9 μg m-3, or 63%. Of all the inorganic species and black carbon present, the concentrations of nitrate to the total concentration of PM1 decreased the most in terms of both mass concentration, from 25.5 to 7.1 μg m-3, and relative contribution, from 21% to 14%. In addition, both sulfate and ammonium decreased substantially by 9.5 and 8.5 μg m-3, respectively. Accordingly, the relative contributions of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate to light extinction decreased by 10% and 5%, respectively, as a result of the pollution control measures implemented during that period. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle emissions were reduced significantly.

  13. Ninth Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology (APLAR) Congress, Beijing, China, 21-26 May, 2000.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, D

    2000-01-01

    The Congress covered the broad field of rheumatology, with participants from China, the Asia Pacific League of Associations of Rheumatology (APLAR) region and the rest of the world. The programme consisted of a mix of plenary lectures, concurrent symposia, workshops, free paper sessions and poster presentations. Basic sciences were well represented, with the general theme of inflammatory cytokines being of particular interest. One plenary lecture and a number of other presentations addressed the problem of atherosclerosis and rheumatic diseases. Diseases prominent in the region, such as Behcet's disease and Takayasu's disease, were represented with large series. Other areas of interest were musculoskeletal infections in HIV-positive patients and the management of spondyloarthritis. Although the use of the most recently developed drugs is restricted in the APLAR region because of cost factors, there were symposia on the latest pharmacological advances such as COX-2 technology, leflunomide and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. PMID:11219393

  14. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  15. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  16. Educational Psychology as an Evolving Discipline: Trends and Synthesis in Asia Pacific Education Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Dong-il; Koh, Hye-jung; Jo, Su-yeon; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Kim, Myeung-chan

    2014-01-01

    Educational psychology has seen rapid growth as an academic discipline in recent years. The current study reviewed research articles published in "Asia Pacific Education Review" ("APER"), a journal that has been gaining greater international recognition, to reveal recent trends in educational psychology research in Asia…

  17. An Analysis of Asia-Pacific Educational Technology Research Published Internationally in 2000-2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Insung; Yoo, Mina

    2014-01-01

    The past fourteen years have seen a significant rise in the percentage of Asia-Pacific papers on educational technology (ET) published internationally: from 13.7% in 2000 to 38.4% in 2013. This study seeks to identify the overall trends and gaps in this research. Of the 4,332 articles published in five selected international journals between 2000…

  18. Asia-Pacific University Network Formed to Integrate ESD and SD into Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabucanon, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    The United Nations University-Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS) has launched an initiative to build academic alliances among leading universities in the Asia-Pacific area to promote the sustainability paradigm in postgraduate education and research. The initiative, still in its formative stages, is called ProSPER.Net, which stands for…

  19. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  20. Snapshots of Primary and Secondary Education in Asia-Pacific. Educational Innovation for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John Dewar

    In responding to the emerging challenges to education in Asia and the Pacific in this new century, this Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) book series, "Educational Innovation for Development," is launched to reflect a knowledge base of rethinking on roles of education in development. The series intends to…

  1. Design and Usability of Digital Libraries: Case Studies in the Asia Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theng, Yin-Leng, Ed.; Foo, Schubert, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book showcases some of the best digital library practices from organizations in the Asia Pacific. Particular emphasis has been placed on the design, use and usability of digital libraries. Not only are digital libraries examined, but related technologies, the management of knowledge in digital libraries, and the associated usability and…

  2. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  3. The Asia Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Heath (APACPH) the first ten years, from 1984 to 1994.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M

    2005-01-01

    In January of 1984, five deans of schools of public health from Asia and the Pacific came together on the island of Kauai in Hawaii to formally establish the Consortium. The Consortium owes its cohesive strength through those first ten years of operation, to the dedicated faculty members in the fields of public health and community medicine whose overarching desire has been to seek representation of academic public health in the health decision making process affecting the positive promotion of health. By 1994 the Consortium found itself recognized on a world wide basis in the field of global health with what was described as having: "A great potential for extending the effectiveness of community and public health". "The author, a founding Dean feels that the Consortium's commitment is to shape rather than to await the future of health status improvement for the citizens of the Asia-Pacific region. PMID:16425648

  4. Mainstreaming climate adaptation in the Asia-Pacific: Role of networks and universities in promoting climate literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, F. H.; Yasuhara, K.; Tamura, M.; Tabayashi, Y.; Mimura, N.

    2011-12-01

    As the international climate regime continues to evolve, adaptation has emerged as a key component of responding to climate change. Due to limited scientific, financial, and institutional capacities, as well as perceived competition with multiple priorities, strategies for adaptive measures are not being implemented at the pace needed to address current and future climate risks. Adaptation networks, both global and in the Asia-Pacific region, have formed to overcome the lack of sufficient communication and collaboration among different stakeholders and domains of expertise. In this presentation, we discuss various efforts at Ibaraki University in Japan to integrate technical and social aspects of adaptation into a multidisciplinary effort, to foster synergies among various networks, to clarify the roles of developed and developing countries, and to develop a standard for assessing vulnerability and adaptability across various geographical contexts.

  5. Promoting mental health in Asia-Pacific: Systematic review focusing on Thailand and China.

    PubMed

    Moeller-Saxone, Kristen; Davis, Elise; Herrman, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Mental health is essential for functioning, general health, and quality of life in low and middle-income countries (LAMICs), as for high-income countries. This study aimed first to search in the English language peer-reviewed literature for reviews of mental health promotion interventions in the Asia-Pacific region. A global rapid review by Barry and colleagues indicated a paucity of publications on this topic in the peer-reviewed literature. The second aim of the study followed from this observation. Two systematic reviews of English language literature were conducted as case studies in two countries with known interest in mental health promotion, Thailand and China. The reviews covered publications in peer-reviewed journals and the "grey" literature. In Thailand, the review demonstrated: strong evidence for an empowerment program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers; a reduction in HIV-related stigma in a community-based program; and a coping program for adolescents. The second review concerned suicide prevention interventions in China. It found one relevant study, a WHO multi-site study of suicide prevention. We found surprisingly little evidence in either country of interventions focused on health equity or modifying the social determinants of mental health. We agree with Barry and colleagues that there is an urgent need to invest in the policy, practice, and research capacity for mental health promotion in LAMICs so that mental health promotion can be incorporated into the wider health promotion and global health development agenda. This includes the Global Action for Health Equity Network. Evidence-based interventions in parenting, schools, workplaces, and among older people can be initiated or adapted and evaluated in LAMIC settings. PMID:26202433

  6. Hypertension treatment in the Asia-Pacific: the role of and treatment strategies with nebivolol

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Abelardo, Nelson; Buranakitjaroen, Peera; Krittayaphong, Rungroj; Lim, Chin Hock; Park, Sung-Ha; Pham, Nguyen Vinh; Rogelio, Gregorio; Wong, Bernard; Low, Lip Ping

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disease, and hypertensive patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular events. The prevalence and socioeconomic burden of hypertension in the Asia-Pacific region are predicted to increase in the coming decades. Effective blood pressure lowering reduces overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients, yet doubt has been raised regarding the use of (mainly older generation) β-blockers as initial therapy in hypertension. Consequently, several international treatment guidelines do not recommend β-blockers for the treatment of hypertension. However, in contrast to first-generation and second-generation β-blockers, the third-generation, vasodilating β-blocker nebivolol has a considerably better metabolic, haemodynamic and side effect profile. In addition to providing effective blood pressure control similar to other β-blockers and drugs from other antihypertensive classes, nebivolol exerts a dual mechanism for increasing the bioavailability of the naturally occurring vasodilator nitric oxide. The clinical benefits and significance of enhancing nitric oxide levels in hypertensive patients have been shown in direct comparisons of nebivolol with other β-blockers. While β-blockers generally provide comparable blood pressure reductions, only nebivolol demonstrated enhanced vasodilation and blood flow by increasing the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and therefore increasing nitric oxide release from the endothelium. In contrast to other β-blockers, therefore, it has been suggested that nebivolol has beneficial effects in several hypertensive subgroups due to its vasodilating properties. Considering the existing data, it may be timely for treatment guidelines to recommend third-generation vasodilating β-blockers as a first-line option for the pharmacotherapy of hypertension. PMID:27326226

  7. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, M.; Endo, A.; Gurdak, J. J.; Allen, D. M.; Siringan, F.; Delinom, R.; Shoji, J.; Fujii, M.; Baba, K.

    2013-12-01

    -environmental security (minimize the risk) by choosing management structures and policies that optimize both the water-food-energy nexus in Asia-Pacific coastal regions. We define joint security approach as optimized policy. Optimal policies will develop joint security approaches for human-environmental security in the coastal region of the Ring of Fire, including stakeholders and decision-makers.

  8. The relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, and water resources in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Rafindadi, Abdulkadir Abdulrashid; Yusof, Zarinah; Zaman, Khalid; Kyophilavong, Phouphet; Akhmat, Ghulam

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, water resources, and natural resource rents in the panel of selected Asia-Pacific countries, over a period of 1975-2012. The study includes number of variables in the model for robust analysis. The results of cross-sectional analysis show that there is a significant relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water productivity in the individual countries of Asia-Pacific. However, the results of each country vary according to the time invariant shocks. For this purpose, the study employed the panel least square technique which includes the panel least square regression, panel fixed effect regression, and panel two-stage least square regression. In general, all the panel tests indicate that there is a significant and positive relationship between air pollution, energy consumption, and water resources in the region. The fossil fuel energy consumption has a major dominating impact on the changes in the air pollution in the region. PMID:24898296

  9. Asia-Pacific women's experiences of stillbirth: A metasynthesis of qualitative literature.

    PubMed

    Cheer, Karen

    2016-08-01

    Literature related to Asia-Pacific women's lived experiences of stillbirth was reviewed through metasynthesis of selected empirical studies. An overarching construct of "interconnectedness" between complex experiences influenced by cultural and systemic factors became apparent. Four experiential themes emerged: "acts of accusation," "rocky relationships," "entangled emotions," and "routines of reconciliation." These were influenced by two systemic factors: "contexts of culture" and "health care matters." Women's sociocultural experiences and their engagement with health care systems influenced how they managed and reconciled their loss. This study contributes to the literature on women's experiences of stillbirth, furthering theory creation and generating future research agendas. PMID:26280389

  10. Obesity and liver cancer mortality in Asia: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Batty, G David; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Chang, Charissa Y; Jee, Sun Ha; Jamrozik, Konrad; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Lam, Tai H; Woodward, Mark

    2009-12-01

    While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer mortality using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study members, 4 years of follow-up gave rise to 11,135 deaths from all causes, 420 of which were ascribed to liver cancer. BMI, whether categorised according to current guidelines for Asian groups or World Health Organisation recommendations, was not associated with liver cancer in any of our analyses. PMID:19900847

  11. Control of neglected tropical diseases in Asia Pacific: implications for health information priorities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poverty magnifies limitations posed by traditional biases and environmental risks. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Asia Pacific has a specific panorama of infectious diseases, which, in common with other endemic areas, have a tendency to emerge or re-emerge if not carefully monitored. Sustained control aiming at elimination requires strong emphasis on surveillance and response. Well-designed informatics platforms can improve support systems and strengthen control activities, as they rapidly locate high-risk areas and provide detailed, up-to-date information on the performance of ongoing control programmes. PMID:23849136

  12. Outwitting dengue threat and epidemics resurgence in Asia-Pacific countries: strengthening integrated dengue surveillance, monitoring and response systems.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Chen, Jun-Hu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Khater, Emad I M

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is still a substantial vector-borne viral disease threat and burden of public health importance worldwide. This situation is complicated by dengue virus unprecedented resurgence and persistence of varied serotypes in endemic-prone areas, and man-made and natural activities consequences that promote vector emergence, transmission dynamics and spread across the Asia-Pacific region. There is an urgent need to strengthen operational and contextual surveillance-response research in improving early detection of active reservoir detection, novel drug in case management and quality evidence-based response including the deployment of dengue mass vaccination. Moreover, sustained mapping and watching of dengue risk factors or determinants, performance and outcome indicators of control or elimination programs effectiveness in defining minimum effective data towards community knowledge-based decision-making policy and effective response packages is imperative. Moreover, implementation of a robust, integrated dengue early warning surveillance, monitoring and response systems metrics is required for evidence-based, timely and cost-effective contextual mitigation strategies, and innovative interventions. PMID:27233238

  13. Strategies of Action for Strengthening the Associated Schools Project in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting to Formulate Strategies of Action for National Co-ordinators of Unesco Associated Schools Project (Bangkok, Thailand, December 16-22, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Results of a regional meeting to assess the current situation of the Associated Schools Project and to develop strategies of action at the national level are presented in this report. Twelve observers from China and Thailand and 16 representatives from 10 countries participated in the meeting. Participating countries included Australia,…

  14. APTWG: The 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Ghim, Y.-C.; Sun, Y. W.; Gao, Z.; Inagaki, S.; Chen, W.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Z. X.

    2016-03-01

    This conference report gives a summary on the contributed papers and discussions presented at the 5th Asia-Pacific Transport Working Group Meeting held at Dalian, China from 9-12 June 2015. The main goal of the working group is to develop a predictive understanding of the basic mechanisms responsible for particle, momentum and energy transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The topics of the meeting in 2015 were organized under five main headings: (1) turbulence suppression and transport barrier formation, (2) effect of magnetic topology on MHD activity and transport, (3) non-diffusive contribution of momentum and particle transport, (4) non-local transport and turbulence spreading and coupling and (5) energetic particles and instability. The Young Researchers’ Forum which was held at this meeting is also described in this report.

  15. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  16. Active case detection for malaria elimination: a survey among Asia Pacific countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Moving from malaria control to elimination requires national malaria control programmes to implement strategies to detect both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases in the community. In order to do this, malaria elimination programmes follow up malaria cases reported by health facilities to carry out case investigations that will determine the origin of the infection, whether it has been imported or is due to local malaria transmission. If necessary, the malaria programme will also carry out active surveillance to find additional malaria cases in the locality to prevent further transmission. To understand current practices and share information on malaria elimination strategies, a survey specifically addressing country policies on case investigation and reactive case detection was carried out among fourteen countries of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network (APMEN). Methods A questionnaire was distributed to the malaria control programme managers amongst 14 countries in the Asia Pacific who have national or sub-national malaria elimination goals. Results Results indicate that there are a wide variety of case investigation and active case detection activities employed by the 13 countries that responded to the survey. All respondents report conducting case investigation as part of surveillance activities. More than half of these countries conduct investigations for each case. Over half aim to accomplish the investigation within one to two days of a case report. Programmes collect a broad array of demographic data during investigation procedures and definitions for imported cases are varied across respondents. Some countries report intra-national (from a different province or district) importation while others report only international importation (from a different country). Reactive case detection in respondent countries is defined as screening households within a pre-determined radius in order to identify other locally acquired infections, whether

  17. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view. PMID:27595972

  18. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma in Asia Pacific and the ARIA Update 2008

    PubMed Central

    Bunnag, Chaweewan; Khaltaev, Nikolai; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma are markedly increasing to epidemic proportions worldwide as societies adopt Western lifestyles. An estimated 300 million persons worldwide have asthma, about 50% of whom live in developing countries, and about 400 million people suffer from AR. AR has a marked impact on quality of life, socially, at school, and in the workplace and is a huge socioeconomic burden. Thus, there was clearly a need for a global evidence-based guideline not only for managing AR but also highlighting the interactions between the upper and lower airways including diagnosis, epidemiology, common risk factors, management, and prevention. The Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) document was first published in 2001 as a state-of-the-art document for the specialist, the general practitioner, and other health care professionals. Subsequent research and increasing knowledge have resulted in the ARIA 2008 update. The present review summarizes the ARIA update with particular emphasis on the current status of AR and asthma in Asia Pacific. PMID:23268481

  19. Chemical apportionment of aerosol optical properties during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tingting; Xu, Weiqi; Chen, Chen; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Zhao, Xiujuan; Du, Wei; Wang, Zifa; Sun, Yele

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the chemical and optical properties of aerosol particles during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China, using the highly time-resolved measurements by a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer and a cavity attenuated phase shift extinction monitor. The average (±σ) extinction coefficient (bext) and absorption coefficient (bap) were 186.5 (±184.5) M m-1 and 23.3 (±21.9) M m-1 during APEC, which were decreased by 63% and 56%, respectively, compared to those before APEC primarily due to strict emission controls. The aerosol composition and size distributions showed substantial changes during APEC; as a response, the mass scattering efficiency (MSE) of PM1 was decreased from 4.7 m2 g-1 to 3.5 m2 g-1. Comparatively, the average single-scattering albedo (SSA) remained relatively unchanged, illustrating the synchronous reductions of bext and bap during APEC. MSE and SSA were found to increase as function of the oxidation degree of organic aerosol (OA), indicating a change of aerosol optical properties during the aging processes. The empirical relationships between chemical composition and particle extinction were established using a multiple linear regression model. Our results showed the largest contribution of ammonium nitrate to particle extinction, accounting for 35.1% and 29.3% before and during APEC, respectively. This result highlights the important role of ammonium nitrate in the formation of severe haze pollution during this study period. We also observed very different optical properties of primary and secondary aerosol. Owing to emission controls in Beijing and surrounding regions and also partly the influences of meteorological changes, the average bext of secondary aerosol during APEC was decreased by 71% from 372.3 M m-1 to 108.5 M m-1, whereas that of primary aerosol mainly from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning emissions showed a smaller reduction from 136.7 M m-1 to 71.3 M m-1. As a result

  20. Aerosol composition, oxidative properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Summit study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-08-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidative properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA = sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosols (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary OA (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary OA (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation degrees during the aging

  1. Aerosol composition, oxidation properties, and sources in Beijing: results from the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W. Q.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, C.; Du, W.; Han, T. T.; Wang, Q. Q.; Fu, P. Q.; Wang, Z. F.; Zhao, X. J.; Zhou, L. B.; Ji, D. S.; Wang, P. C.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The mitigation of air pollution in megacities remains a great challenge because of the complex sources and formation mechanisms of aerosol particles. The 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing serves as a unique experiment to study the impacts of emission controls on aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation properties. Herein, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer was deployed in urban Beijing for real-time measurements of size-resolved non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species from 14 October to 12 November 2014, along with a range of collocated measurements. The average (±σ) PM1 was 41.6 (±38.9) μg m-3 during APEC, which was decreased by 53 % compared with that before APEC. The aerosol composition showed substantial changes owing to emission controls during APEC. Secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA: sulfate + nitrate + ammonium) showed significant reductions of 62-69 %, whereas organics presented much smaller decreases (35 %). The results from the positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) indicated that highly oxidized secondary organic aerosol (SOA) showed decreases similar to those of SIA during APEC. However, primary organic aerosol (POA) from cooking, traffic, and biomass-burning sources were comparable to those before APEC, indicating the presence of strong local source emissions. The oxidation properties showed corresponding changes in response to OA composition. The average oxygen-to-carbon level during APEC was 0.36 (±0.10), which is lower than the 0.43 (±0.13) measured before APEC, demonstrating a decrease in the OA oxidation degree. The changes in size distributions of primary and secondary species varied during APEC. SIA and SOA showed significant reductions in large accumulation modes with peak diameters shifting from ~ 650 to 400 nm during APEC, whereas those of POA remained relatively unchanged. The changes in aerosol composition, size distributions, and oxidation

  2. PREFACE: Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh; Okada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Toru; Okano, Ken

    2012-03-01

    AP-IRC Logo Scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs and policymakers gather at the first truly interdisciplinary conference held in Asia-Pacific http://www.apirc.jp/ The inaugural Asia-Pacific Interdisciplinary Research Conference 2011 (AP-IRC 2011) was held at Toyohashi University of Technology (Toyohashi Tech) on 17-18 November 2011. The conference is a forum for enhancing mutual understanding between scientists, engineers, policymakers and experts from a wide spectrum of pure and applied sciences, to resolve the daunting global issues facing mankind. The conference attracted approximately 300 participants including delegates from France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, USA and Vietnam. AP-IRC 2011 was chaired by Dr Yoshiyuki Sakaki, President of Toyohashi Tech, who opened the proceedings by stressing the importance of an interdisciplinary approach to research, to resolve global scientific and technical issues. Recalling his own experience as the leader of Japan's efforts in the Human Genome Project, Sakaki also encouraged participants to make an effort to try to understand the sometimes difficult concepts and terminology of other areas of research. The presentations at AP-IRC 2011 were divided into three focus sessions: innovative mechano-magneto-electronic systems, life sciences, and green science and technology. A total of 174 papers were presented over the two-day conference including eight by invited speakers. Highlights of AP-IRC 2011 included a first-hand account of the damage caused by the massive earthquake in March 2011 to experimental facilities at Tohoku University by Masayoshi Esashi; the fascinating world of bees and the inborn numerical competence of humans and animals by Hans J Gross; research on robots and cognition-enabled technical systems at Technische Universität München by Sandra Hirche; the history of events leading to the invention of the world's strongest NdFeB permanent magnet by Masato Sagawa

  3. Inequities in access to healthcare: analysis of national survey data across six Asia-Pacific countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that there is a link between inequitable access to healthcare and inequitable distribution of illness. A recent World Health Organization report stated that there is a need for research and policy to address the critical role of health services in reducing inequities and preventing future inequities. The aim of this manuscript is to highlight disparities and differences in terms of the factors that distinguish between poor and good access to healthcare across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods A population survey was undertaken in each country. This paper is a secondary analysis of these existing data. Data were collected in each country between 2009 and 2010. Four variables related to difficulties in access to healthcare (distance, appointment, waiting time, and cost) were analysed using binomial logistic regression to identify socio- and demographic predictors of inequity. Results Consistent across the findings, poor health and low income were identified as difficulties in access. Country specific indicators were also identified. For Thailand, the poorest level of access appears to be for respondents who work within the household whereas in Taiwan, part-time work is associated with difficulties in access. Within Hong Kong, results suggest that older (above 60) and retired individuals have the poorest access and within Australia, females and married individuals are the worst off. Conclusion Recognition of these inequities, from a policy perspective, is essential for health sector policy decision-making. Despite the differences in political and economic climate in the countries under analysis, our findings highlight patterns of inequity which require policy responses. Our data should be used as a means of deciding the most appropriate policy response for each country which includes, rather than excludes, socially marginalised population groups. These findings should be of

  4. Megacities in the Asia/Pacific Region: Focusing on Their Environmental Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukai, Gary; Kim, Pearl; Li, Alan; Chenette, Sara

    This curriculum unit explains that currently Asia has 9 of the world's 14 megacities (a city with a population of 10 million people or more) and that by the year 2015 there will be 27 megacities with 17 of them in Asia. The unit introduces students to several megacities in Asia and uses these cities as examples for understanding the ecological…

  5. Technologies for Education: Achievements and Future Initiatives in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachholz, Cedric; Meleisea, Ellie; Apikul, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) in recent years have resulted in changes to content and delivery of education services. For its ICT in Education Policy Project, UNESCO since 2003 has published several reports that raise awareness and prepare policymakers to develop their own national action plan for ICT in…

  6. Future Directions for Comparative Education Dialogue in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The broad goals of the World Council of Comparative Education Societies (WCCES) are: (1) to advance education for international understanding in the interests of peace, intercultural co-operation, mutual respect among peoples and observance of human rights; and (2) to improve education systems so that the right of all to education may be more…

  7. The Delivery System of Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the delivery system of environmental education at the tertiary level in relation to higher education attendance rate. Describes the characteristics of the delivery system in countries such as China, India, Australia, Japan, South Korea, and Indonesia. (Author/MM)

  8. Prospects of Research for Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Asia Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, Olga; Semal, , Viktoriia; Tregubova, Valentina; Derbentseva, Alla; Tyurina, Elena; Kravchenko, Alla; Glotova, Elena; Sergeeva, Olesya; Korshenko, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    One of the most essential tasks for the humankind is to create an effective system for recording greenhouse gases. Forecasting CO2 content changing in the atmosphere is impossible without up-to-date data from the entire global territory. Russia occupies the most part of the Eurasian continent and so it makes substantial contribution to the greenhouse gases emission. The creation of a modern system for recording the carbon emission on the Russian Federation territory is becoming the most crucial task for the national government. The Far East of Russia is a unique platform for establishing a network of base stations to record greenhouse gases. This is due to a very low level of anthropogenic impact in this area. So there is a possibility to obtain the unique data about the carbon emission in the "standard" landscapes of the APR zone characterizing continental, coastal and island ecosystems.

  9. Coal use and the environment in the Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental effects of the increased use of coal and the magnitude of these effects is discussed. The experience of Australia, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Phillipines, and the United States are compared. A variety of policy tools have been used to lessen the negative effects of coal use. These policies range from choice of technology, type of coal burned, or plant siting to emission controls, tax or subsidy policies and the setting of pollution standards. (JMT)

  10. Cancer control in the Asia Pacific region--the next lap.

    PubMed

    Desai, P B

    1996-02-01

    Cancer control in any part of the world has to be a multi-directional effort addressed in a holistic manner. The general impression that cancer control means only collation of epidemiological data and efforts at primary prevention needs to be redefined because preventive and educative oncology, though an important component of cancer control, can achieve long-term goals only after 20 years or more. Along with such long-term objectives, methodology needs to be developed which takes care of immediate and recent needs in early diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate basic research for the ultimate control and cure of cancer. A holistic approach to the cancer control effort will, therefore, need the combined skills of many different specialists. PMID:8979633

  11. Mongolia: Financing Education during Economic Transition. World Bank Discussion Papers 226. East Asia & Pacific Region Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Kin Bing

    This paper reviews the changing compositions of public expenditures on education in Mongolia during recent economic transitions. It also assesses the impact of economic transition in Mongolia. The study recommends three complementary strategies to provide a more stable resource base to finance education: (1) rationalize public expenditures on…

  12. Mathematical models of cervical cancer prevention in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Goldie, Sue J; Diaz, Mireia; Kim, Sun-Young; Levin, Carol E; Van Minh, Hoang; Kim, Jane J

    2008-08-19

    Using population-based and epidemiologic data for 25 countries in Asia (22 GAVI-Alliance eligible countries, Thailand, China and Japan), a model-based approach was used to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$/DALY averted) for vaccination of young adolescent girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18. Absolute reduction in lifetime cancer risk varied between countries, depending on incidence, proportion attributable to HPV-16 and -18, and population age-structure; for example, with 70% coverage, cancer reduction was 57% in Indonesia, whereas in Cambodia, it was 49%. Screening of women over age 30 three times per lifetime, after vaccinating them as pre-adolescents, is expected to provide an additional 20% to 30% mortality reduction. Of the 22 GAVI-Alliance eligible countries, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Indonesia account for 87% of the total DALYs averted. Assuming a cost per vaccinated girl of I$10 ($2 per dose), the cost per DALY averted is less than I$250 in 18 of 22 countries. Assuming a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25, the cost per DALY averted is I$1,360 in China compared with I$250 in Thailand, reflecting the greater number of girls that need to be vaccinated to prevent a death from cervical cancer in China. Vaccine price has an even greater effect on predicted affordability. For the 22 GAVI Alliance-eligible countries, vaccinating 5 consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage would cost over US $500 million versus almost US $1.3 billion at per dose costs of $2 and $5, respectively. Including China and Thailand would add US $251 million to US $1.4 billion at per dose prices of $2 and $12.25, respectively. In the countries we assessed, vaccination of young adolescent girls against HPV-16 and -18 could be very cost-effective if the cost per vaccinated girl is less than I$10-I$25; for it to be affordable, however, even with financing assistance, vaccine prices may need to be even lower. PMID:18945411

  13. Exploring Training Needs of Educational Program Evaluators in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsin-Ling; Altschuld, James W.; Lee, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Training is critical for the growth of the evaluation profession as more qualified and competent individuals will be required to meet the increased demand for evaluation. This paper deals with the training needs of professionals and is based on a part of a study on the status and challenges of educational program evaluation in the Asia-Pacific…

  14. Climate change and food security in the Asia-Pacific region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of earth’s carbon-based products, food, fiber, and some fuel, come from the terrestrial ecosystem. The earth’s thin mantel of soil is a major component of this ecosystem, which captures, stores, and releases water to vegetation, aquifers, streams, and lakes. It also provides a major portion of...

  15. Neo-Liberalism, Globalization, Language Policy and Practice Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majhanovich, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    By the beginning of the twenty-first century, the English language had become the de facto "lingua franca" of the modern world. It is the most popular second or foreign language studied, such that now there are more people who have learned English as a second language and speak it with some competence than there are native English…

  16. A report on 5th congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society, New Delhi, India, 6-9 March 2014

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The 5th Congress of Asia Pacific Pediatric Cardiac Society was held in New Delhi from 6-9 March 2014. This article describes the journey of preparing and hosting one of the largest international events in the specialty of Pediatric Cardiac Care ever held in India. A total of 938 delegates, including 400 from outside India, participated. The scientific program was inclusive keeping in mind the diverse background of delegates from the member nations. Large numbers of research papers were presented, mostly by fellows in training. PMID:25684899

  17. Applying artificial neural network to derive long-term foF2 trends in the Asia/Pacific sector from ionosonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xinan; Wan, Weixing; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Zhao, Biqiang

    2006-10-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) method is first used for deriving long-term trends of the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) at 19 ionospheric stations in the Asia/Pacific sector. It is found that the ANN method can eliminate the geomagnetic activity effect on foF2 more effectively than usual regression methods. Of the selected 19 stations, there are significant long-term trends corresponding to a confidence level ≥90% at 14 stations and 12 of these stations present negative trends. An average trend of -0.05% per year in the selected area can be obtained if the 12 stations with significant negative long-term trends be considered. No pronounced diurnal and latitudinal effects in trends and no uniform pattern of seasonal variation in most stations are detected. The long-term trends for low latitude and equatorial stations differ from other stations suggest that some special dynamical processes may take effects in the equatorial anomaly region. Many factors which can influence ionosphere, such as the greenhouse effect, solar and geomagnetic activity, and neutral background gas, might contribute to the trend.

  18. Education Standards for the 21st Century: Opening Statements of Ministers at the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Education Ministerial, August 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    While the member countries of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) have many differences in culture, history, and level of economic development, all APEC representatives who attended this ministerial agreed on the importance of establishing education standards and examination systems to meet the needs of their people in the 21st century.…

  19. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in 2012 from Asia-Pacific Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program.

    PubMed

    Biedenbach, Douglas J; Alm, Richard A; Lahiri, Sushmita D; Reiszner, Edina; Hoban, Daryl J; Sahm, Daniel F; Bouchillon, Samuel K; Ambler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline-fosamil, is an advanced-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This investigation provides in vitro susceptibility data for ceftaroline against 1,971 S. aureus isolates collected in 2012 from seven countries (26 centers) in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance and Evaluation (AWARE) program. Broth microdilution as recommended by the CLSI was used to determine susceptibility. In all, 62% of the isolates studied were MRSA, and the ceftaroline MIC90 for all S. aureus isolates was 2 μg/ml (interpretive criteria: susceptible, ≤1 μg/ml). The overall ceftaroline susceptibility rate for S. aureus was 86.9%, with 100% of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates and 78.8% of MRSA isolates susceptible to this agent. The highest percentages of ceftaroline-nonsusceptible MRSA isolates came from China (47.6%), all of which showed intermediate susceptibility, and Thailand (37.1%), where over half (52.8%) of isolates were resistant to ceftaroline (MIC, 4 μg/ml). Thirty-eight ceftaroline-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC values of 2 to 4 μg/ml) were selected for molecular characterization. Among the isolates analyzed, sequence type 5 (ST-5) was the most common sequence type encountered; however, all isolates analyzed from Thailand were ST-228. Penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) substitution patterns varied by country, but all isolates from Thailand had the Glu239Lys substitution, and 12 of these also carried an additional Glu447Lys substitution. Ceftaroline-fosamil is a useful addition to the antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat S. aureus infections. However, with the capability of this species to develop resistance to new agents, it is important to recognize and monitor regional differences in trends as they emerge. PMID:26503659

  20. In Vitro Activity of Ceftaroline against Staphylococcus aureus Isolated in 2012 from Asia-Pacific Countries as Part of the AWARE Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Biedenbach, Douglas J.; Alm, Richard A.; Lahiri, Sushmita D.; Reiszner, Edina; Hoban, Daryl J.; Bouchillon, Samuel K.; Ambler, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    Ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the prodrug ceftaroline-fosamil, is an advanced-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This investigation provides in vitro susceptibility data for ceftaroline against 1,971 S. aureus isolates collected in 2012 from seven countries (26 centers) in the Asia-Pacific region as part of the Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance and Evaluation (AWARE) program. Broth microdilution as recommended by the CLSI was used to determine susceptibility. In all, 62% of the isolates studied were MRSA, and the ceftaroline MIC90 for all S. aureus isolates was 2 μg/ml (interpretive criteria: susceptible, ≤1 μg/ml). The overall ceftaroline susceptibility rate for S. aureus was 86.9%, with 100% of methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates and 78.8% of MRSA isolates susceptible to this agent. The highest percentages of ceftaroline-nonsusceptible MRSA isolates came from China (47.6%), all of which showed intermediate susceptibility, and Thailand (37.1%), where over half (52.8%) of isolates were resistant to ceftaroline (MIC, 4 μg/ml). Thirty-eight ceftaroline-nonsusceptible isolates (MIC values of 2 to 4 μg/ml) were selected for molecular characterization. Among the isolates analyzed, sequence type 5 (ST-5) was the most common sequence type encountered; however, all isolates analyzed from Thailand were ST-228. Penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) substitution patterns varied by country, but all isolates from Thailand had the Glu239Lys substitution, and 12 of these also carried an additional Glu447Lys substitution. Ceftaroline-fosamil is a useful addition to the antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat S. aureus infections. However, with the capability of this species to develop resistance to new agents, it is important to recognize and monitor regional differences in trends as they emerge. PMID:26503659

  1. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014.

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N; Farrell, David J; Mendes, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:27353270

  2. Asia-Pacific mussel watch for emerging pollutants: Distribution of synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers in Asian and US coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Shinohara, Ryu-Ichi; Nakazawa, Yusuke; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S; Kim, Eun Young; Min, Byung-Yoon; We, Sung-Ug; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Prudente, Maricar; Frank, Donnell; Lauenstein, Gunnar; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-10-01

    We analyzed 68 green and blue mussels collected from Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam and the USA during 2003 and 2007, to elucidate the occurrence and widespread distributions of emerging pollutants, synthetic musks and benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. Synthetic musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from all countries, suggesting their ubiquitous contamination and widespread distribution. High concentrations of musks and BUVSs were detected in mussels from Japan and Korea, where the levels were comparable or greater than those of PCBs, DDTs and PBDEs. Significant correlations were found between the concentrations of HHCB and AHTN, and also between the concentrations of UV-327 and UV-328, which suggest similar sources and compositions of these compounds in commercial and industrial products. To our knowledge, this is the first study of large-scale monitoring of synthetic musks and BUVSs in Asia-Pacific coastal waters. PMID:22910332

  3. A Location-Based Duplex Scheme for Cost Effective Rural Broadband Connectivity Using IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Regional Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidoss, R.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.

    2014-08-01

    The search for a method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an active area of research in both academic and industrial communities. IEEE 802.22 is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio (CR) that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54-862 MHz). Time division duplex (TDD)-based WRAN cells have such advantages as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, these cells suffer from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent WRAN cells. In this paper, we evaluate the location-based duplex (LBD) scheme for eliminating the CTS interference. The proposed LBD system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating CTS interference by exploiting the advantages of both TDD and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. We also compare the performance of LBD systems with virtual cell concepts. Furthermore, our simulation results reveal that LBD-based systems outperform the virtual cell approach in terms of the low signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio requirement by mitigating the effects of CTS.

  4. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  5. Higher Education and the Asia-Pacific Century. Proceedings of the '88 PRAHE Seoul Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chul-hwan, Ed.; Lee, Wha-kuk, Ed.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Region Association for Higher Education (PRAHE) are presented, including 5 opening speeches, 6 plenary lectures, 7 invited lectures, and 13 general papers. Presentation topics include: higher education and societal change; educational exchange and the Pacific Rim; international cooperation through electronic media;…

  6. Reflections on the Bologna Process: The Making of an Asia Pacific Higher Education Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Brisbane Communiqué's goals and initiatives seem to follow the Bologna Process' normative path towards the creation of a common regional higher education space. However, comparing demography, socio-economics, student mobility, political economy framework and the initiatives undertaken by both the Brisbane Communiqué and the Bologna Process…

  7. Internationalization of MBA Programs in Asia-Pacific: Looking beyond Business Study Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teck-Meng, Tan; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Internationalization of the curriculum in the Nanyang University (Singapore) master's program in business administration (MBA) is described, highlighting its parallels with formation of government policy initiatives that encourage regional expansion of Singapore businesses. Lessons learned from the internationalization experiences of MBA programs…

  8. Asia/Pacific ethylene capacity to more than double by 2000

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    The tremendous growth of Asia`s petrochemical industry is expected to continue into the next century. This rapid expansion has redirected many Asian nations` energy resources to the petrochemical industry, according to an advisory report by Ronald E. Hagen of the East-West Center, Honolulu. Petrochemical producers throughout the region are planning to build a number of new, world-scale ethylene plants, and expand and upgrade existing facilities. Feedstocks used to produce ethylene include: ethane, LPG, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, and ethanol. Traditionally, usage of ethanol and kerosene in the region has been small, and gas oil usage is centered mainly in China. Information is listed and discussed for ethylene capacity through 2000 on a country-by-country basis, along with the feedstocks used by each plant.

  9. Data and Data Products for Climate Research: Web Services at the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCarlo, S.; Potemra, J. T.; Wang, K.

    2012-12-01

    The International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) at the University of Hawaii maintains a data center for climate studies called the Asia-Pacific Data-Research Center (APDRC). This data center was designed within a center of excellence in climate research with the intention of serving the needs of the research scientist. The APDRC provides easy access to a wide collection of climate data and data products for a wide variety of users. The data center maintains an archive of approximately 100 data sets including in-situ and remote data, as well as a range of model-based output. All data are available via on-line browsing tools such as a Live Access Server (LAS) and DChart, and direct binary access is available through OPeNDAP services. On-line tutorials on how to use these services are now available. Users can keep up-to-date with new data and product announcements via the APDRC facebook page. The main focus of the APDRC has been climate scientists, and the services are therefore streamlined to such users, both in the number and types of data served, but also in the way data are served. In addition, due to the integration of the APDRC within the IPRC, several value-added data products (see figure for an example using Argo floats) have been developed via a variety of research activities. The APDRC, therefore, has three main foci: 1. acquisition of climate-related data, 2. maintenance of integrated data servers, and 3. development and distribution of data products The APDRC can be found at http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu. The presentation will provide an overview along with specific examples of the data, data products and data services available at the APDRC.; APDRC product example: gridded field from Argo profiling floats

  10. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    PubMed

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks. PMID:24587201

  11. Optimizing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Allen, Diana; Gurdak, Jason

    2013-11-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on global water, energy, and food resources, presenting increased levels of trade-offs and conflicts among these resources and stakeholders. Because these resources are interconnected, policy development and resource management require careful consideration of the complex interconnections between nature and society. A balance between risk and resilience is critical for achieving human and environmental security, particularly in Asia's region within the "Ring of Fire," which is experiencing drastic social change alongside the huge potential risks and benefits associated with development. The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident and aftermath underscore the importance of developing policy and management options that maximize security and minimize risk within the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus.

  12. Optimizing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Allen, Diana; Gurdak, Jason

    2013-12-01

    Climate change and economic development are causing increased pressure on global water, energy, and food resources, presenting increased levels of trade-offs and conflicts among these resources and stakeholders. Because these resources are interconnected, policy development and resource management require careful consideration of the complex interconnections between nature and society. A balance between risk and resilience is critical for achieving human and environmental security, particularly in Asia, a region within the "Ring of Fire," which is experiencing drastic social change alongside the huge potential risks and benefits associated with development. The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident and aftermath underscore the importance of developing policy and management options that maximize security and minimize risk within the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus.

  13. Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis: an Asia-Pacific perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) to drugs which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. High risk drugs in Asia are similar to those reported worldwide. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-related risk alleles for carbamazepine and allopurinol SCAR are unique to Asians. Although prognostic scoring systems like the SCORTEN have been used for more than a decade, pitfalls and caveats need to be recognized, in particular in patients with multiple medical co-morbidities and systemic features in SJS/TEN. In centres without a tertiary Burns Centre, SJS/TEN patients can still be managed successfully in general and dermatology wards with well-executed supportive/nursing care. Controversy remains regarding the effectiveness of immunomodulation in reducing SJS/TEN morbidity, mortality and hastening re-epithelialization. Despite paucity of robust evidence, intravenous immunoglobulins and ciclosporin remain the most commonly used modalities worldwide. Acute and long-term ocular effects are an important source of morbidity for which emerging ophthalmic therapies appear promising. Quality of life issues have now become an important outcome in patients with SJS/TEN as they often impact survivors' future attitudes towards pharmacotherapy. Even though pharmacogenetic testing for high-risk drugs appears to be the panacea for preventing carbamazepine- and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN in ethnic Asians, many issues remain before health regulators in our region can conclusively determine whether testing should be made mandatory or highly recommended as standard of care. PMID:24260726

  14. The Asia-Pacific effects of a megatsunami along the Tonga Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    A megatsunami (M>9.0) along the Tonga Trench has far-reaching consequences for 4 major continents of the world, and exposure ranging from the cities of Sydney and Brisbane, the coastlines of Japan, Canada, USA, and along South America not to mention the Pacific Islands. Using the TSUDAT software of Geoscience Australia, relevant scenarios are selected for the location. Fault mechanics and the possible regime are also then examined to create the scenario. In this study, the effects of a megatsunami scenario are investigated including the run-up heights in coastal regions on these four continents in addition to other hazard effects. Global level DEM and bathymetry data is used to provide a first estimate of the exposed population, built infrastructure (capital stock) and GDP in the tsunami inundation area. The uncertainties of such a study are taken into account by adjusting the scenario via source mechanism, magnitude range and directivity effects. This is combined with basic vulnerability functions from historical tsunamis in order to give an exposed and estimated loss and cost of reconstruction across the Pacific rim. Notes as to the warning times, country preparation and evacuation plans for tsunamis are also made given long lead times in some cases.

  15. The MARCOPOLO Study of Ustekinumab Utilization and Efficacy in a Real-World Setting: Treatment of Patients with Plaque Psoriasis in Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Sang Woong; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Theng, Colin; Choon, Siew-Eng; Wiryadi, Benny E.; Pires, Antonio; Tan, Weihao

    2016-01-01

    Background Ustekinumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of chronic moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults. However, factors including efficacy, tolerability, ease of use, and cost burden may affect ustekinumab utilization. Noncompliance may, in turn, affect treatment response. Objective To evaluate ustekinumab utilization in the real-world setting in Asia-Pacific countries. Methods In this phase 4 observational study conducted in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, and Taiwan, adults with plaque psoriasis receiving ustekinumab were followed for up to 52 weeks. Study endpoints were the proportion of all patients using ustekinumab according to label-recommended intervals and the proportion of Korean patients who achieved a psoriasis area severity index 75 response at week 16. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events. Results Overall, 169 patients received ustekinumab (Korea, n=102; other countries, n=67). Just over half (56.2%) of patients used ustekinumab with the label-recommended interval from baseline to week 40; the proportion was higher in Korea (73.5%) than in other countries (29.9%), probably because ustekinumab was provided without charge for Korean patients up to week 40. Noncompliance increased after week 40 in Korea and from week 28 in other Asia-Pacific countries, with cost cited as the most common reason. At week 16, 56.9% of Korean patients achieved a Psoriasis Area Severity Index 75 response. Safety results were in line with those seen in previous studies. Conclusion More than half of all patients in Asia-Pacific countries used ustekinumab as per the label-recommended dose interval, but reimbursement variations between countries may have confounded overall results. PMID:27081271

  16. The Asia-Pacific Flexible Dose Study of Dapoxetine and Patient Satisfaction in Premature Ejaculation Therapy: The PASSION Study

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Sae Woong; Moon, Du Geon; Kongkanand, Apichat; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dapoxetine is a short-acting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine 30 and 60 mg as needed in Asia-Pacific men with PE. Methods The study was a prospective, 12-week, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of flexible-dose dapoxetine in men with PE diagnosed by a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool score of at least 11, a self-estimated intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) no longer than 2 minutes, and an International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain score of at least 21. Main Outcome Measures Percentage of subjects reporting their PE as at least “slightly better” using the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) question. Results Two hundred eighteen of 285 randomized subjects completed the study. The mean subject age was 45.9 years and 57.7% were Korean. Dosages 1 (30 mg), 2 (30 → 60 mg), and 3 (30 → 60 → 30 mg) were used in 141, 124, and 13 subjects, respectively. At study end, a PE CGIC rating of at least “slightly better” was reported by 77.3%, 92.8%, and 100% of subjects for dosages 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P = .49). At study end, a CGIC rating of “slightly better” was reported by 85.2% and 85.3% of subjects with lifelong PE and acquired PE, respectively (P = .50). At study end, a CGIC rating of “slightly better” was reported by 84.1% and 86.4% of subjects with an estimated baseline IELT no longer than and at least ≤1 minute, respectively (P = .16). The incidence of a CGIC rating of at least “slightly better” was lower in subjects reporting an adverse event of moderate or severe severity and in subjects who increased to and maintained a dapoxetine dose of 60 mg and higher in subjects older than 50 years and in subjects with a baseline estimated IELT of at least 1 minute. Conclusion In this study, flexible dosing of dapoxetine (30 and 60 mg) appeared effective in the

  17. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  18. Learning with Intangible Heritage for a Sustainable Future: Guidelines for Educators in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillai, Janet; Achilles, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The guide provides teacher educators and teachers with an understanding of the concept of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) and explains why ICH should be integrated into the curriculum in tandem with the principles and perspectives of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). This guide explains how the strategic incorporation of ICH elements…

  19. Coal investment and long-term supply and demand outlook for coal in the Asia-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1997-12-31

    The theme of this symposium to look ahead almost a quarter century to 2020 gives one the freedom to speculate more than usual in projections for coal. It is important to attempt to take a long term look into the future of coal and energy, so that one can begin to prepare for major changes on the horizon. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the crystal ball for making long term projections is accurate for 2020. Hopefully it can suggest plausible changes that have long term strategic importance to Asia`s coal sector. This paper presents the medium scenario of long term projects of coal production, consumption, imports and exports in Asia. The second part of the paper examines the two major changes in Asia that could be most important to the long term role of coal. These include: (1) the impact of strict environmental legislation on energy and technology choices in Asia, and (2) the increased role of the private sector in all aspects of coal in Asia.

  20. Dont Leave Me Hanging on the Anglophone: The Potential for Online Distance Higher Education in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade there have been many attempts to mount online distance higher education programs on a global scale, led by the e-learning industry and university companies and consortia, some with government support: e.g. Universitas 21 Global, Cardean University, Fathom, NYUOnline and the UKe-University. A primary commercial objective has been…

  1. Patient Characteristics and Treatment Outcome Associated with Protease Inhibitor (PI) use in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Sanjay; Srasuebkul, Preeyaporn; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Lim, Poh Lian; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Chuah, John; Kumar, Ritesh N; Chen, Yi-Ming A; Oka, Shinichi; Choi, Jun Yong; Lee, Man-Po; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lee, Christopher; Fujie, Zhang; Ditangco, Rosanna; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Sirisanthana, Thira; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Smith, Jeff; Law, Matthew G

    2009-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: Regimens containing protease inhibitors (PI) are less commonly used in developing countries due to high cost and less availability. We evaluated characteristics of patients initiating PI-based therapy according to previous antiretroviral (ARV) exposure; factors associated with initiating a PI-containing regimen using newer versus older PIs, and proportion of patients with detectable viral loads (VL) after initiating a PI-based regimen. METHODS: This analysis includes all patients who have initiated a PI-based regimen. ARV exposure was categorised: naïve (no previous ARV), 1st, 2nd, >/= 3rd switches; a switch was defined as starting or stopping any drug in a regimen. Newer PIs were defined as those approved by the US FDA after 1 January 2000. Detectable VL at 12 months was defined as VL >/= 400 copies/mL. Characteristics at PI initiation were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with initiating a newer PI and detectable VL at 12 months after PI initiation. RESULTS: 1106 patients initiated PI-based therapy; of these, 618 (56%) were naïve patients. Overall, 22% (176) of patients had detectable VL at 12 months following the PI initiation. Being from a high income country (vs. mid/low income, OR = 1.80, p = 0.034) were more likely to be associated with detectable VL. CONCLUSION: The use of PIs in this cohort is dictated by accessibility and affordability issues particularly for the newer PIs. Short-term virological outcomes following PI-therapy in our cohort were good, and were associated with CD4 count at time of initiation. PMID:20505782

  2. Novel Imaging Diagnosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Consensus from the 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bang-Bin; Murakami, Takamichi; Shih, Tiffany Ting-Fang; Sakamoto, Michiie; Matsui, Osamu; Choi, Byung-Ihn; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Lee, Jeong Min; Yang, Ren-jie; Zeng, Meng-Su; Chen, Ran-Chou; Liang, Ja-Der

    2015-01-01

    Current novel imaging techniques in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with the latest evidence in this field, was discussed at the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE) meeting held in Taipei, Taiwan, in July 2014. Based on their expertise in a specific area of research, the novel imaging group comprised 12 participants from Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and China and it included 10 abdominal radiologists, one hepatologist, and one pathologist. The expert participants discussed topics related to HCC imaging that were divided into four categories: (i) detection method, (ii) diagnostic method, (iii) evaluation method, and (iv) functional method. Consensus was reached on 10 statements; specific comments on each statement were provided to explain the rationale for the voting results and to suggest future research directions. PMID:26734577

  3. Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation of a Dispatcher-assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Trial in the Asia-Pacific (Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study Phase 2).

    PubMed

    Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Shin, Sang Do; Tanaka, Hideharu; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming; Nishiuchi, Tatsuya; Lee, Eui Jung; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Edwin Doctor, Nausheen; Khruekarnchana, Pairoj; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Wong, Kwanhathai Darin; Nakagawa, Takashi; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Lin, Chih-Hao; Goh, E-Shaun; Khunkhlai, Nalinas; Alsakaf, Omer Ahmed; Hisamuddin, Nik A B Rahman Nik; Bobrow, Bentley J; McNally, Bryan; Assam, Pryseley Nkouibert; Chan, Edwin S Y

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Survival outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Asia are poor (2-11%). Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rates are relatively low in Asia. Dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) has recently emerged as a potentially cost-effective intervention to increase bystander CPR and survival from OHCA. The Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study (PAROS), an Asia-Pacific cardiac arrest registry, was set up in 2009, with the aim of understanding OHCA as a disease in Asia and improving OHCA survival. The network has adopted DA-CPR as part of its strategy to improve OHCA survival. Objective. This article aims to describe the conceptualization, study design, potential benefits, and difficulties for implementation of DA-CPR trial in the Asia-Pacific. Methods. Two levels of intervention, basic and comprehensive, will be offered to PAROS participating sites. The basic level consists of implementation of a DA-CPR protocol and training program, while the comprehensive level consists of implementation of the basic level, with the addition of a dispatch quality measurement tool, quality improvement program, and community education program. Sites that are not able to implement the package will contribute control data. The primary outcome of the study is survival to hospital discharge or survival to 30 days post cardiac arrest. DA-CPR and bystander CPR are secondary outcomes. Conclusion. Implementation of DA-CPR requires concerted efforts by EMS leaders and supervisors, dispatchers, hospital stakeholders, policy makers, and the general public. The DA-CPR trial implemented by the PAROS sites, if successful, can serve as a model for other countries considering such an intervention in their EMS systems. PMID:25152997

  4. Narrow-band imaging and white-light endoscopy with optical magnification in the diagnosis of dysplasia in Barrett’s esophagus: results of the Asia-Pacific Barrett’s Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajvinder; Jayanna, Mahesh; Wong, Jennie; Lim, Lee Guan; Zhang, Jun; Lv, Jing; Liu, Dong; Lee, Yi-Chia; Han, Ming-Lun; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Banerjee, Rupa; Uedo, Noriya; Chan, Wah Kheong; Ho, Shiaw Hooi; Chen, Shi-yao; Bhatia, Shobna; Funasaka, Kohei; Ando, Takafumi; Wu, Justin; Lesmana, Cosmas; Tam, William; Wang, Wen-Lun; Chang, Chi-Yang; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Bestari, Muhammad Begawan; Yao, Kenshi; Chong, Vui Heng; Sharma, Prateek; Ho, Khek-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The advent and utility of new endoscopic imaging modalities for predicting the histology of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in real time with high accuracy appear promising and could potentially obviate the need to perform random biopsies where guidelines are poorly adhered to. We embarked on evaluating the performance characteristics of white-light endoscopy with magnification (WLE-z), narrow-band imaging with magnification (NBI-z) and a combination of both modalities. Design: This was a prospective online study with 28 endoscopists from 11 countries (Asia-Pacific region) participating as assessors. In total, 35 patients with BE were assessed using 150 slides from WLE-z and NBI-z randomly arranged using a simple classification with corresponding histology. The overall Accuracy (Acc), Sensitivity (Sn), Specificity (Sp), Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) of WLE-z, NBI-z and a combination of both were calculated. Results: The overall Acc for WLE-z and NBI-z images was 87.1 % and 88.7 %, respectively. When images from the two modalities were placed side by side, the Acc increased to 90.3 %. The Sn, Sp, PPV, and NPV of WLE-z were 48 %, 92 %, 45 %, and 93 % while with NBI-z, these improved to 89 %, 89 %, 56 %, and 98 %, respectively. When both imaging modalities were viewed together, they improved further to 93 %, 90 %, 61 %, and 99 %. Conclusion: The high NPV (99 %) when both WLE-z and NBI-z were used simultaneously indicates that areas with regular appearance that are diagnosed with confidence can effectively be left alone and not biopsied when performed at a skilled resourced center. This approach could potentially lead to a paradigm shift of how patients with BE are assessed. PMID:26134765

  5. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-07-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  6. Consensus for Radiotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma from The 5th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2014): Current Practice and Future Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee Chul; Yu, Jeong Il; Cheng, Jason Chia-Hsien; Zeng, Zhao Chong; Hong, Ji Hong; Wang, Michael Lian Chek; Kim, Mi Sook; Chi, Kwan Hwa; Liang, Po-Ching; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Lau, Wan-Yee; Han, Kwang Hyub; Chow, Pierce Kah-Hoe; Seong, Jinsil

    2016-01-01

    A consensus meeting to develop practice guidelines and to recommend future clinical trials for radiation therapy (RT), including external beam RT (EBRT), and selective internal RT (SIRT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was held at the 5th annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert consortium. Although there is no randomized phase III trial evidence, the efficacy and safety of RT in HCC has been shown by prospective and retrospective studies using modern RT techniques. Based on these results, the committee came to a consensus on the utility and efficacy of RT in the management of HCC according to each disease stage as follows: in early and intermediate stage HCC, if standard treatment is not compatible, RT, including EBRT and SIRT can be considered. In locally advanced stage HCC, combined EBRT with transarterial chemoembolization or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, and SIRT can be considered. In terminal stage HCC, EBRT can be considered for palliation of symptoms and reduction of morbidity caused by the primary tumor or its metastases. Despite the currently reported benefits of RT in HCC, the committee agreed that there is a compelling need for large prospective studies, including randomized phase III trial evidence evaluating the role of RT. Specifically studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of sequential combination of EBRT and SIRT are strongly recommended. PMID:27493892

  7. The mechanism of growth of the low-frequency East Asia-Pacific teleconnection and the triggering role of tropical intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zesheng

    2015-08-01

    The East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern is a well-known meridional teleconnection over East Asia during boreal summer. In this study, the mechanism for growth of the EAP on intraseasonal timescale is investigated through a vorticity budget. It is found that the beta-effect and high-frequency transient eddies have primary contributions to the growth of the low-frequency EAP. The former leads to a westward shift of disturbances associated with the low-frequency EAP and the latter favors an amplification of disturbances, respectively. The interaction between low-frequency disturbances and zonal flow has a damping effect by dragging disturbances eastward. The impact of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on the triggering of the low-frequency EAP is also examined in this study based on observational analysis and a linear model experiment. It is shown that an elongated anomalous convection band located in the vicinity of Philippines associated with the dominant mode of BSISO has a significant impact on the initiation of low-frequency EAP via Rossby wave propagation, whereas anomalous convection located over the North Indian Ocean has a limited impact. Based on the results of present study, the low-frequency EAP could be a self-sustained mode, and the BSISO plays a substantial role in triggering the low-frequency EAP.

  8. The mechanism of growth of the low-frequency East Asia-Pacific teleconnection and the triggering role of tropical intraseasonal oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiabao; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zesheng

    2016-06-01

    The East Asia-Pacific (EAP) pattern is a well-known meridional teleconnection over East Asia during boreal summer. In this study, the mechanism for growth of the EAP on intraseasonal timescale is investigated through a vorticity budget. It is found that the beta-effect and high-frequency transient eddies have primary contributions to the growth of the low-frequency EAP. The former leads to a westward shift of disturbances associated with the low-frequency EAP and the latter favors an amplification of disturbances, respectively. The interaction between low-frequency disturbances and zonal flow has a damping effect by dragging disturbances eastward. The impact of boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) on the triggering of the low-frequency EAP is also examined in this study based on observational analysis and a linear model experiment. It is shown that an elongated anomalous convection band located in the vicinity of Philippines associated with the dominant mode of BSISO has a significant impact on the initiation of low-frequency EAP via Rossby wave propagation, whereas anomalous convection located over the North Indian Ocean has a limited impact. Based on the results of present study, the low-frequency EAP could be a self-sustained mode, and the BSISO plays a substantial role in triggering the low-frequency EAP.

  9. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  10. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  11. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  12. Critical Values of Facet Joint Angulation and Tropism in the Development of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: An International, Large-Scale Multicenter Study by the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Samartzis, Dino; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Goss, Ben; Sham, Phoebe; Williams, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Study Design  An international, multicenter cross-sectional image-based study performed in 33 institutions in the Asia Pacific region. Objective  The study addressed the role of facet joint angulation and tropism in relation to L4–L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Methods  The study included 349 patients (63% females; mean age: 61.8 years) with single-level DS; 82 had no L4–L5 DS (group A) and 267 had L4–L5 DS (group B). Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized to assess facet joint angulations and tropism (i.e., asymmetry between facet joint angulations) between groups. Results  There was a statistically significant difference between group A (left mean: 46.1 degrees; right mean: 48.2 degrees) and group B (left mean: 55.4 degrees; right mean: 57.5 degrees) in relation to bilateral L4–L5 facet joint angulations (p < 0.001). The mean bilateral angulation difference was 7.4 and 9.6 degrees in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.025). A critical value of 58 degrees or greater significantly increased the likelihood of DS if unilateral (adjusted OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5; p = 0.021) or bilateral facets (adjusted OR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2.7 to 13.2; p < 0.001) were involved. Facet joint tropism was found to be relevant between 16 and 24 degrees angulation difference (adjusted OR: 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2 to 26.1; p = 0.027). Conclusions  In one of the largest studies assessing facet joint orientation in patients with DS, greater sagittal facet joint angulation was associated with L4-L5 DS, with a critical value of 58 degrees or greater increasing the likelihood of the condition for unilateral and bilateral facet joint involvement. Specific facet joint tropism categories were noted to be associated with DS. PMID:27433424

  13. PREFACE: 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) and 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Kaneko, Toshio; Sekine, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-06-01

    The 11th Asia-Pacific Conference on Plasma Science and Technology (APCPST-11) was held in Kyoto, Japan on 2-5 October 2012 with the 25th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-25). SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. APCPST and SPSM are jointly held biennially to survey the current status of low temperature and thermal plasma physics and chemistry for industrial applications. The whole area of plasma processing was covered from fundamentals to applications. Previous meetings were held in China, Japan, Korea, and Australia, attended by scientists from the Asia-Pacific and other countries. The joint conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 386 participants from 10 countries and 398 presentations, including 26 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that covered green innovation, life innovation, and technical reports from industry. This conference seeks to bring the plasma community together and to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues, the challenges ahead in the field of plasma research and applications among engineers and scientists in Asia, the Pacific Rim, as well as Europe. This volume presents 44 papers that were selected via a strict peer-review process from full papers submitted for the proceedings of the conference. The topics range from the basic physics and chemistry of plasma processing to a broad variety of materials processing and environmental applications. This volume offers an overview of recent

  14. Statistical coherence of primary schooling in IPUMS-International integrated population samples for China, India, Vietnam, and ten other Asia-Pacific countries1

    PubMed Central

    McCaa, Robert; Cleveland, Lara; Kelly-Hall, Patricia; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    IPUMS-International www.ipums.org/international disseminates harmonized census microdata for more than 80 countries at no cost, although access is restricted to bona-fide researchers and students who agree to the stringent conditions of use license. Currently over 270 samples are available, totalling more than 600 million person records. Each year 15–20 additional samples are released, as more countries cooperate with the IPUMS initiative and the integration of 2010 round census samples is completed. With so much microdata so readily available, questions of data quality naturally arise. This paper focusses on the concept of statistical coherence over time for a single concept, primary schooling completed. From an analysis of the percentage completing primary schooling by birth year for pairs of samples for thirteen Asia-Pacific countries, we find outstanding coherence for four—China, Mongolia, Vietnam, and Indonesia—with mean differences of less than 0.5 percentage points, regression coefficient (b) ranging from 0.93 to 1.07 and R2 =.99. For the thirteen countries as a group there is considerable variation overall with mean absolute difference as high as 16 percentage points, b ranging from 0.62–1.44 and R2=.65–.99. As a whole, statistical coherence of primary schooling is outstanding. Nonetheless, to make expert use of the harmonized microdata, researchers are cautioned to carefully study the IPUMS integrated metadata as well as the original source documentation. National Statistical Offices not currently cooperating or that have not yet entrusted 2010 round census microdata are invited to do so. PMID:26478685

  15. Identifying Vulnerable Populations Using a Social Determinants of Health Framework: Analysis of National Survey Data across Six Asia-Pacific Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Paul R.; Mamerow, Loreen; Meyer, Samantha B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO called for research on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping the social determinants of health (SDH). This paper analyses four key SDH (social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security) across six Asia-Pacific countries: Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. Methods Population surveys were undertaken using a validated instrument in 2009-10, with sample sizes around 1000 in each country. The four SDH were analysed using multivariate binomial logistic regression to identify socio-demographic predictors in each country. Results Low socio-economic security was associated with low income in all six study countries and with poor subjective health in Japan, South Korea and Thailand and with being married or cohabiting in Australia and Hong Kong. Low social cohesion was associated with low income in all countries and with undertaking household duties in South Korea, Thailand and Taiwan. Low social inclusion was associated with low income in Australia, South Korea and Taiwan and with poor subjective health in Australia, Japan and South Korea. Older people had lower social inclusion in Taiwan (50-59 years) and Hong Kong (retired), younger people in Japan and South Korea (20-29 years in both countries) and younger and middle-aged people in Australia. Low social empowerment was associated with low income in Australia, Thailand and Taiwan, with being aged 60 years or over in Australia, Hong Kong and South Korea, and over 50 years in Thailand. Conclusions This paper provides baseline measures for identifying where and how policy should be altered to improve the SDH. Furthermore, these data can be used for future policy evaluation to identify whether changes in policy have indeed improved the SDH, particularly for marginalised and vulnerable populations. PMID:24349417

  16. Relative impact of emissions controls and meteorology on air pollution mitigation associated with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuqin; Zhang, Yang; Schauer, James Jay; de Foy, Benjamin; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2016-11-15

    The Beijing government and its surrounding provinces implemented a series of measures to ensure haze-free skies during the 22(nd) Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) conference (November 10(th)-11(th), 2014). These measures included restrictions on traffic, construction, and industrial activity. Twelve hour measurements of the concentration and composition of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were performed for 5 consecutive months near the APEC conference site before (September 11(th)-November 2(nd), 2014), during (November 3(rd)-12(th), 2014) and after (November 13(th), 2014-January 31(st), 2015). The measurements are used in a positive matrix factorization model to determine the contributions from seven sources of PM2.5: secondary aerosols, traffic exhaust, industrial emission, road dust, soil dust, biomass burning and residual oil combustion. The source apportionment results are integrated with backward trajectory analysis using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) meteorological simulations, which determine the relative influence of new regulation and meteorology upon improved air quality during the APEC conference. Data show that controls are very effective, but meteorology must be taken into account to determine the actual influence of the controls on pollution reduction. The industry source control is the most effective for reducing concentrations, followed by secondary aerosol and biomass controls, while the least effective control is for the residual oil combustion source. The largest reductions in concentrations occur when air mass transport is from the west-northwest (Ulanqab). Secondary aerosol and traffic exhaust reductions are most significant for air mass transport from the north-northwest (Xilingele League) origin, and least significant for northeast transport (Chifeng via Tangshan conditions). The largest reductions of soil dust, biomass burning, and industrial source are distinctly seen for Ulanqab conditions and least distinct for

  17. Radiocarbon-derived source apportionment of fine carbonaceous aerosols before, during, and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwen; Mo, Yangzhi; Li, Jun; Liu, Di; Shen, Chengde; Ding, Ping; Jiang, Haoyu; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhang, Xiangyun; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-04-01

    The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit took place in Beijing, China, 5-11 November 2014, during which numerous measures were performed to control the air pollution, and consequently, the sky of Beijing was so clean that the public called it "APEC blue." The concentrations before, during, and after the APEC summit are 14.4 ± 6.81 µg C/m3, 6.66 ± 2.99 µg C/m3, and 32.3 ± 10.6 µg C/m3, respectively, for organic carbon (OC), and 2.27 ± 1.17 µg C/m3, 0.76 ± 0.52 µg C/m3, and 4.99 ± 1.74 µg C/m3, respectively, for elemental carbon (EC). We quantify the contributions of fossil and nonfossil sources to the OC and EC using radiocarbon. Results show that the contribution of nonfossil sources is 56 ± 1% (before APEC), 61 ± 1% (during APEC), and 48 ± 1% (after APEC), respectively, for OC, and 36 ± 4% (before APEC), 46 ± 1% (during APEC), and 33 ± 4% (after APEC), respectively, for EC. Comparing to the period before APEC, 70% and 60% of fossil EC and OC and 60% and 50% of nonfossil EC and OC are reduced, respectively, implying that the control on the nonfossil sources has considerable contribution to the good air quality in Beijing. Both EC and OC mass loadings during the APEC summit would have increased by 60% if the biomass-burning activities were not taken into account for control. In such a case, the atmospheric visibility would decrease 20% at least and the blue sky thereby would likely not have been visible during the summit.

  18. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-07-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44 %, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23 %, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced, followed by industrial manufacturing and solvent utilization. Reductions of these three sources were responsible for 50, 26, and 16 % of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, and contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were the most important

  19. Characterization of ambient volatile organic compounds and their sources in Beijing, before, during, and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation China 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Xie, S. D.; Zeng, L. M.; Li, L. Y.; Li, Y. Q.; Wu, R. R.

    2015-04-01

    Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using an online system, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID), in Beijing, China, before, during and after Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) China 2014, when stringent air quality control measures were implemented. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify the major VOC contributing sources and their temporal variations. The secondary organic aerosols potential (SOAP) approach was used to estimate variations of precursor source contributions to SOA formation. The average VOC mixing ratios during the three periods were 86.17, 48.28, and 72.97 ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 44%, and the mixing ratios of acetonitrile, halocarbons, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), aromatics, acetylene, alkanes, and alkenes decreased by approximately 65, 62, 54, 53, 37, 36, and 23%, respectively. The mixing ratios of all measured VOC species decreased during control, and the most affected species were chlorinated VOCs (chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, chlorobenzene). PMF analysis indicated eight major sources of ambient VOCs, and emissions from target control sources were clearly reduced during the control period. Contributions of vehicular exhaust were most reduced (19.65 ppbv, the contributions before the control period minus the values after the control period), followed by industrial manufacturing (10.29 ppbv) and solvent utilization (6.20 ppbv). Contributions of evaporated or liquid gasoline and industrial chemical feedstock were slightly reduced, with values of 2.85 and 0.35 ppbv, respectively. Contributions of secondary and long-lived species were relatively stable. Due to central heating, emissions from fuel combustion kept on increasing during the whole campaign; because of weak control of liquid petroleum gas (LPG), the highest emissions of LPG occurred in the control period. Vehicle-related sources were

  20. The Effect of Firm Strategy and Corporate Performance on Software Market Growth in Emerging Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Sharon A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of firm strategies and corporate performance on enterprise software market growth in emerging regions. The emerging regions of Asia Pacific, Eastern Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and Latin America, currently represent smaller overall markets for software vendors, but exhibit high growth…

  1. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action.

    PubMed

    De Grace, M; Ericson, D; Folz, H; Greene, W; Ho, K; Pearce, L

    2001-01-01

    Disaster medicine has come to the forefront and has become the focus of interest not only in the medical community, but also in the eyes of the public. The 5th APCDM was convened in Vancouver, Canada, 27-30 September 2000. It brought together over 300 delegates from 32 countries to share their experiences and thoughts regarding disaster events and how to effectively manage them. The conference was devoted to the task of establishing priorities and creating an Agenda for Action. From the discussions, key actions required were defined: COMMUNICATIONS: (1) Identify existing regional telehealth groups and gather lessons to be learned from them; (2) Form a telehealth advisory group to work with regional groups to compile telehealth initiatives, identify international protocols in telehealth already in existence, and solicit feedback before setting international standards; and (3) Increase corporate partnerships in the fields of telehealth and telecommunications, and invite corporations to send delegates to future APCDM meetings. This should be an initiative of the APCDM, the World Association of Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), or the European Society of Emergency Medicine. EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: (1) Formalize education in disaster medicine and management. The World Health Organization and WADEM should take a leadership role; (2) WADEM is requested to hold a conference with a focus on qualitative research; (3) WHO is requested to continue the provision of international research teams, but to advocate for the development of national disaster research infrastructure; (4) Make research findings and reports available on web sites of such organizations as WHO and PAHO; (5) Develop the translation of research for community utilization. The WHO and PAHO are organizations that are requested to consider this action; and (6) WADEM/APCDM are requested to focus future conferences on applied research. INFORMATION AND DATA: (1) Create an "Information and Data Clearinghouse

  2. Best Practices in Dengue Surveillance: A Report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Mark E.; Stone, Amy; Fitzsimons, David W.; Hanna, Jeffrey N.; Lam, Sai Kit; Vong, Sirenda; Guzman, Maria G.; Mendez-Galvan, Jorge F.; Halstead, Scott B.; Letson, G. William; Kuritsky, Joel; Mahoney, Richard; Margolis, Harold S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a virus infection that is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause severe disease especially in children. Dengue fever is a major problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Methodology/Principal Findings We invited dengue experts from around the world to attend meetings to discuss dengue surveillance. We reviewed literature, heard detailed reports on surveillance programs, and shared expert opinions. Results Presentations by 22 countries were heard during the 2.5 day meetings. We describe the best methods of surveillance in general, the stakeholders in dengue surveillance, and the steps from mosquito bite to reporting of a dengue case to explore how best to carry out dengue surveillance. We also provide details and a comparison of the dengue surveillance programs by the presenting countries. Conclusions/Significance The experts provided recommendations for achieving the best possible data from dengue surveillance accepting the realities of the real world (e.g., limited funding and staff). Their recommendations included: (1) Every dengue endemic country should make reporting of dengue cases to the government mandatory; (2) electronic reporting systems should be developed and used; (3) at minimum dengue surveillance data should include incidence, hospitalization rates, deaths by age group; (4) additional studies should be completed to check the sensitivity of the system; (5) laboratories should share expertise and data; (6) tests that identify dengue virus should be used in patients with fever for four days or less and antibody tests should be used after day 4 to diagnose dengue; and (7) early detection and prediction of dengue outbreaks should be goals for national surveillance systems. PMID:21103381

  3. Summaries of the Regional Conferences Held in Preparation for the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNEVOC Info, 1999

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, five regional conferences were held in preparation for the Second International Congress on Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). The Asia-Pacific regional conference focused on challenges of the 21st century, demands of the world of work, and changing patterns in the delivery of training programs. The European symposium covered five…

  4. Asia-Pacific energy database

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Statistical data is presented in graphic and tabular form on the petroleum market in Asia and Pacific nations. Seven major categories are reported: (1) primary energy production and consumption; (2) historical petroleum product demand and forecasts; (3) crude oil production and exports; (4) import dependence; (5) crude and product pricing assumptions; (6) market share of refined products by suppliers in selected countries; and (7) refining margins. Petroleum demand and forecasts and crude oil production and exports are reported by country. Historical data are presented from 1970 through 1996, and forecasts are made through 2010.

  5. Education for Humanistic, Ethical/Moral and Cultural Values: Final Report of a Regional Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    This report stems from a meeting of representatives of countries in the Asia Pacific region concerned with the development of strategies for strengthening content relating to humanistic, ethical, and cultural values in formal and non-formal education. The following countries were represented: Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,…

  6. Deparochializing Education: Globalization, Regionalization, and the Formation of an ASEAN Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Research on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has hitherto attracted scholarly attention and debate by both regional and international scholars working in area studies, such as international relations and Asia-Pacific/Southeast Asia studies. Confined to area studies, scholarly research on ASEAN is limiting because the parameters…

  7. The Varying Effects of Regional Organizations as Subjects of Globalization of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Roger; Robertson, Susan L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the noneconomic role of three regional international organizations--the European Union, the North American Free Trade Agreement, and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation. Describes differences in organizational structure and purpose, dimensions of organizational power, policies and intentions toward education, direct impact on national…

  8. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  9. Joint conference of iMEC 2015 (2nd International Manufacturing Engineering Conference & APCOMS 2015 (3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Manufacturing Systems)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The iMEC 2015 is the second International Manufacturing Engineering Conference organized by the Faculty of Manufacturing, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), held from 12-14th November 2015 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, with a theme "Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow". For the first time, iMEC is organized together with 3rd Asia- Pacific Conference on Manufacturing System (APCOMS 2015) which owned by Fakulti Teknologi Industri, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Indonesia. This is an extended collaboration between UMP and ITB to intensify knowledge sharing and experiences between higher learning institutions. This conference (iMEC & APCOMS 2015) is a platform for knowledge exchange and the growth of ideas, particularly in manufacturing engineering. The conference aims to bring researchers, academics, scientists, students, engineers and practitioners from around the world together to present their latest findings, ideas, developments and applications related to manufacturing engineering and other related research areas. With rapid advancements in manufacturing engineering, iMEC is an appropriate medium for the associated community to keep pace with the changes. In 2015, the conference theme is “Materials, Manufacturing and Systems for Tomorrow” which reflects the acceleration of knowledge and technology in global manufacturing. The papers in these proceedings are examples of the work presented at the conference. They represent the tip of the iceberg, as the conference attracted over 200 abstracts from Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom, Australia, India, Bangladesh, South Africa, Turkey and Morocco and 151 full papers were accepted in these proceedings. The conference was run in four parallel sessions with 160 presenters sharing their latest finding in the areas of manufacturing process, systems, advanced materials and automation. The first keynote presentation was given by Prof. B. S. Murthy (IIT, Madras) on "Nanomaterials with Exceptional

  10. Pharmacological and Safety Profile of Dexlansoprazole: A New Proton Pump Inhibitor – Implications for Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Asia Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Khean Lee; Choi, Myung Gyu; Hsu, Ping I; Chun, Hoon Jai; Mahachai, Varocha; Kachintorn, Udom; Leelakusolvong, Somchai; Kim, Nayoung; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Wong, Benjamin C Y; Wu, Justin; Chiu, Cheng Tang; Shetty, Vikram; Bocobo, Joseph C; Chan, Melchor M; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease is not as common in Asia as in western countries, the prevalence has increased substantially during the past decade. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is associated with considerable reductions in subjective well-being and work productivity, as well as increased healthcare use. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the most effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are limitations associated with these drugs in terms of partial and non-response. Dexlansoprazole is the first PPI with a dual delayed release formulation designed to provide 2 separate releases of medication to extend the duration of effective plasma drug concentration. Dexlansoprazole has been shown to be effective for healing of erosive esophagitis, and to improve subjective well-being by controlling 24-hour symptoms. Dexlansoprazole has also been shown to achieve good plasma concentration regardless of administration with food, providing flexible dosing. Studies in healthy volunteers showed no clinically important effects on exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel or clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition, with no dose adjustment of clopidogrel necessary when coprescribed. This review discusses the role of the new generation PPI, dexlansoprazole, in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia. PMID:26932927