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Sample records for ieee pervasive computing

  1. Pervasive Computing Middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiele, Gregor; Handte, Marcus; Becker, Christian

    Pervasive computing envisions applications that provide intuitive, seamless and distraction-free task support for their users. To do this, the applications combine and leverage the distinct functionality of a number of devices. Many of these devices are invisibly integrated into the environment. The devices are equipped with various sensors that enable them to perceive the state of the physical world. By means of wireless communication, the devices can share their perceptions and they can combine them to accurate and expressive models of their surroundings. The resulting models enable applications to reason about past, present and future states of their context and empower them to behave according to the expectations of the user.

  2. Tailored Security and Safety for Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blass, Erik-Oliver; Zitterbart, Martina

    Pervasive computing makes high demands on security: devices are seriously resource-restricted, communication takes place spontaneously, and adversaries might control some of the devices. We claim that 1.) today’s research, studying traditional security properties for pervasive computing, leads to inefficient, expensive, and unnecessary strong and unwanted security solutions. Instead, security solutions tailored to the demands of a user, the scenario, or the expected adversary are more promising. 2.) Today’s research for security in pervasive computing makes naive, inefficient, and unrealistic assumptions regarding safety properties, in particular the quality of basic communication. Therefore, future security research has to consider safety characteristics and has to jointly investigate security and safety for efficient, tailored solutions.

  3. Pervasive Collaboratorive Computing Environment Jabber Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-05-15

    PCCE Project background: Our experience in building distributed collaboratories has shown us that there is a growing need for simple, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to stay in touch and work together. Towards this goal we are developing a Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) within which participants can rendezvous and interact with each other. The PCCE aims to support continuous or ad hoc collaboration, target daily tasks and base connectivity, be easy to use and installmore » across multiple platforms, leverage off of existing components when possible, use standards-based components, and leverage off of Grid services (e.g., security and directory services). A key concept for this work is "incremental trust", which allows the system's "trust" of a given user to change dynamically. PCCE Jabber client software: This leverages Jabber. an open Instant Messaging (IM) protocol and the related Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards "XMPP" and "XMPP-IM" to allow collaborating parties to chat either one-on-one or in "chat rooms". Standard Jabber clients will work within this framework, but the software will also include extensions to a (multi-platform) GUI client (Gaim) for X.509-based security, search, and incremental trust. This software also includes Web interfaces for managing user registration to a Jabber server. PCCE Jabber server software: Extensions to the code, database, and configuration files for the dominant open-source Jabber server, "jabberd". Extensions for search, X.509 security, and incremental trust. Note that the jabberd software is not included as part of this software.« less

  4. Pervasive Collaboratorive Computing Environment Jabber Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason

    2004-05-15

    PCCE Project background: Our experience in building distributed collaboratories has shown us that there is a growing need for simple, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to stay in touch and work together. Towards this goal we are developing a Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) within which participants can rendezvous and interact with each other. The PCCE aims to support continuous or ad hoc collaboration, target daily tasks and base connectivity, be easy to use and install across multiple platforms, leverage off of existing components when possible, use standards-based components, and leverage off of Grid services (e.g., security and directory services). A key concept for this work is "incremental trust", which allows the system's "trust" of a given user to change dynamically. PCCE Jabber client software: This leverages Jabber. an open Instant Messaging (IM) protocol and the related Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards "XMPP" and "XMPP-IM" to allow collaborating parties to chat either one-on-one or in "chat rooms". Standard Jabber clients will work within this framework, but the software will also include extensions to a (multi-platform) GUI client (Gaim) for X.509-based security, search, and incremental trust. This software also includes Web interfaces for managing user registration to a Jabber server. PCCE Jabber server software: Extensions to the code, database, and configuration files for the dominant open-source Jabber server, "jabberd". Extensions for search, X.509 security, and incremental trust. Note that the jabberd software is not included as part of this software.

  5. The Implications of Pervasive Computing on Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, R.

    Mark Weiser's late-1980s vision of an age of calm technology with pervasive computing disappearing into the fabric of the world [1] has been tempered by an industry-driven vision with more of a feel of conspicuous consumption. In the modified version, everyone carries around consumer electronics to provide natural, seamless interactions both with other people and with the information world, particularly for eCommerce, but still through a pervasive computing fabric.

  6. Building Efficient Wireless Infrastructures for Pervasive Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive computing is an emerging concept that thoroughly brings computing devices and the consequent technology into people's daily life and activities. Most of these computing devices are very small, sometimes even "invisible", and often embedded into the objects surrounding people. In addition, these devices usually are not isolated, but…

  7. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  8. Students Develop Real-World Web and Pervasive Computing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tappert, Charles C.

    In the academic year 2001-2002, Pace University (New York) Computer Science and Information Systems (CSIS) students developed real-world Web and pervasive computing systems for actual customers. This paper describes the general use of team projects in CSIS at Pace University, the real-world projects from this academic year, the benefits of…

  9. Pervasive Computing and Communication Technologies for U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young C.

    2014-01-01

    The development of digital information transfer, storage and communication methods influences a significant effect on education. The assimilation of pervasive computing and communication technologies marks another great step forward, with Ubiquitous Learning (U-learning) emerging for next generation learners. In the evolutionary view the 5G (or…

  10. Towards pervasive computing in health care – A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Orwat, Carsten; Graefe, Andreas; Faulwasser, Timm

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolving concepts of pervasive computing, ubiquitous computing and ambient intelligence are increasingly influencing health care and medicine. Summarizing published research, this literature review provides an overview of recent developments and implementations of pervasive computing systems in health care. It also highlights some of the experiences reported in deployment processes. Methods There is no clear definition of pervasive computing in the current literature. Thus specific inclusion criteria for selecting articles about relevant systems were developed. Searches were conducted in four scientific databases alongside manual journal searches for the period of 2002 to 2006. Articles included present prototypes, case studies and pilot studies, clinical trials and systems that are already in routine use. Results The searches identified 69 articles describing 67 different systems. In a quantitative analysis, these systems were categorized into project status, health care settings, user groups, improvement aims, and systems features (i.e., component types, data gathering, data transmission, systems functions). The focus is on the types of systems implemented, their frequency of occurrence and their characteristics. Qualitative analyses were performed of deployment issues, such as organizational and personnel issues, privacy and security issues, and financial issues. This paper provides a comprehensive access to the literature of the emerging field by addressing specific topics of application settings, systems features, and deployment experiences. Conclusion Both an overview and an analysis of the literature on a broad and heterogeneous range of systems are provided. Most systems are described in their prototype stages. Deployment issues, such as implications on organization or personnel, privacy concerns, or financial issues are mentioned rarely, though their solution is regarded as decisive in transferring promising systems to a stage of regular

  11. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  12. Volcano Monitoring: A Case Study in Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Nina; Anusuya-Rangappa, Lohith; Shirazi, Behrooz A.; Song, Wenzhan; Huang, Renjie; Tran, Daniel; Chien, Steve; Lahusen, Rick

    Recent advances in wireless sensor network technology have provided robust and reliable solutions for sophisticated pervasive computing applications such as inhospitable terrain environmental monitoring. We present a case study for developing a real-time pervasive computing system, called OASIS for optimized autonomous space in situ sensor-web, which combines ground assets (a sensor network) and space assets (NASA’s earth observing (EO-1) satellite) to monitor volcanic activities at Mount St. Helens. OASIS’s primary goals are: to integrate complementary space and in situ ground sensors into an interactive and autonomous sensorweb, to optimize power and communication resource management of the sensorweb and to provide mechanisms for seamless and scalable fusion of future space and in situ components. The OASIS in situ ground sensor network development addresses issues related to power management, bandwidth management, quality of service management, topology and routing management, and test-bed design. The space segment development consists of EO-1 architectural enhancements, feedback of EO-1 data into the in situ component, command and control integration, data ingestion and dissemination and field demonstrations.

  13. Collaborative editing within the pervasive collaborative computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Marcia; Agarwal, Deb

    2003-09-11

    Scientific collaborations are established for a wide variety of tasks for which several communication modes are necessary, including messaging, file-sharing, and collaborative editing. In this position paper, we describe our work on the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) which aims to facilitate scientific collaboration within widely distributed environments. The PCCE provides a persistent space in which collaborators can locate each other, exchange messages synchronously and asynchronously and archive conversations. Our current interest is in exploring research and development of shared editing systems with the goal of integrating this technology into the PCCE. We hope to inspire discussion of technology solutions for an integrated approach to synchronous and asynchronous communication and collaborative editing.

  14. The Socio-Economic Impact of Pervasive Computing - Intelligent Spaces and the Organisation of Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, M. H.; Ellis, R.; Potter, J. M. M.; Holm, D. A. M.; Venousiou, R.

    This chapter is based on work carriedout for the Eurescom project PI302 - PROFIT (Potential Profit Opportunities in the Future Ambient Intelligence World). The vision driving iSpaces is described in many different ways, e.g. ubiquitous computing [1], pervasive computing [2], ambient intelligence [3]. Based largely on expected developments in information and communications technology, it has three main aspects: pervasive communications;

  15. Smart Classroom: Bringing Pervasive Computing into Distance Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuanchun; Qin, Weijun; Suo, Yue; Xiao, Xin

    In recent years, distance learning has increasingly become one of themost important applications on the internet and is being discussed and studied by various universities, institutes and companies. The Web/Internet provides relatively easy ways to publish hyper-linked multimedia content for more audiences. Yet, we find that most of the courseware are simply shifted from textbook to HTML files. However, in ost cases the teacher's live instruction is very important for catching the attention and interest of the students. That's why Real-Time Interactive Virtual Classroom (RTIVC) always plays an indispensable role in distance learning, where teachers nd students located in different places can take part in the class synchronously through certain multimedia communication systems and obtain real-time and mediarich interactions using Pervasive Computing technologies [1]. The Classroom 2000 project [2] at GIT has been devoted to the automated capturing of the classroom experience. Likewise, the Smart Classroom project [3] at our institute is focused on Tele-education. Most currently deployed real-time Tele-education systems are desktop-based, in which the teacher's experience is totally different from teaching in a real classroom.

  16. Computer Controlled Test Systems. Introduction. A Course Based on the IEEE 488 Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Eric J.

    An introductory course in computer automated tests and measurement systems based on the International Test Instrument-Computer Interface Standard, the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)-488, is presented in this study guide. This course is designed to: (1) introduce the electronics engineering technician to the functional…

  17. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on computers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on array processors and supercomputers. Topics considered at the conference included fault-tolerant systolic arrays, computer architecture, systolic processing, algorithms, performance, sorting, monitoring, parallel processing, speech recognition, vector processing, VLSI, image processing, and data-flow processing.

  18. Proceedings of the fifth IEEE international symposium on high performance distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report contains papers from the Fifth IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing. Some of the areas covered are: collaboration tools (multimedia track); applications; distributed and parallel programming; metacomputing track; multimedia applications; tools and practice; networks for distributed applications; multimedia networks; languages and algorithms; networks of workstations; metacomputing track - invited papers; quality of service; distributed shared memory; networks and protocols; I/O systems and storage; wide-area distributed systems; communications - design and architecture; and parallel systems.

  19. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  20. Software Aspects of IEEE Floating-Point Computations for Numerical Applications in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Floating-point computations are at the heart of much of the computing done in high energy physics. The correctness, speed and accuracy of these computations are of paramount importance. The lack of any of these characteristics can mean the difference between new, exciting physics and an embarrassing correction. This talk will examine practical aspects of IEEE 754-2008 floating-point arithmetic as encountered in HEP applications. After describing the basic features of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, the presentation will cover: common hardware implementations (SSE, x87) techniques for improving the accuracy of summation, multiplication and data interchange compiler options for gcc and icc affecting floating-point operations hazards to be avoided About the speaker Jeffrey M Arnold is a Senior Software Engineer in the Intel Compiler and Languages group at Intel Corporation. He has been part of the Digital->Compaq->Intel compiler organization for nearly 20 years; part of that time, he worked on both low- and high-level math libraries. Prior to that, he was in the VMS Engineering organization at Digital Equipment Corporation. In the late 1980s, Jeff spent 2½ years at CERN as part of the CERN/Digital Joint Project. In 2008, he returned to CERN to spent 10 weeks working with CERN/openlab. Since that time, he has returned to CERN multiple times to teach at openlab workshops and consult with various LHC experiments. Jeff received his Ph.D. in physics from Case Western Reserve University.

  1. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  4. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  5. Maintaining Privacy in Pervasive Computing - Enabling Acceptance of Sensor-based Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soppera, A.; Burbridge, T.

    During the 1980s, Mark Weiser [1] predicted a world in which computing was so pervasive that devices embedded in the environment could sense their relationship to us and to each other. These tiny ubiquitous devices would continually feed information from the physical world into the information world. Twenty years ago, this vision was the exclusive territory of academic computer scientists and science fiction writers. Today this subject has become of interest to business, government, and society. Governmental authorities exercise their power through the networked environment. Credit card databases maintain our credit history and decide whether we are allowed to rent a house or obtain a loan. Mobile telephones can locate us in real time so that we do not miss calls. Within another 10 years, all sorts of devices will be connected through the network. Our fridge, our food, together with our health information, may all be networked for the purpose of maintaining diet and well-being. The Internet will move from being an infrastructure to connect computers, to being an infrastructure to connect everything [2, 3].

  6. Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society conference on computer vision and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on image processing and pattern recognition. Topics considered at the conference included stereovision, vision applications, parallel processing, algorithms, artificial intelligence, structure from motion, three-dimensional shape representation, array processors, industrial vision systems, computer architecture, homogeneous multiprocessors, shape from texture, and optimal likelihood generators for edge detection under Gaussian additive noise.

  7. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  8. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer’s Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Bayard E.; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals’ health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients’ and caregivers’ ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies. PMID:26113819

  9. Pervasive Computing Technologies to Continuously Assess Alzheimer's Disease Progression and Intervention Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Bayard E; Austin, Daniel; Seelye, Adriana; Petersen, Johanna; Yeargers, Jonathan; Riley, Thomas; Sharma, Nicole; Mattek, Nora; Wild, Katherine; Dodge, Hiroko; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, assessment of functional and cognitive status of individuals with dementia occurs in brief clinic visits during which time clinicians extract a snapshot of recent changes in individuals' health. Conventionally, this is done using various clinical assessment tools applied at the point of care and relies on patients' and caregivers' ability to accurately recall daily activity and trends in personal health. These practices suffer from the infrequency and generally short durations of visits. Since 2004, researchers at the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology (ORCATECH) at the Oregon Health and Science University have been working on developing technologies to transform this model. ORCATECH researchers have developed a system of continuous in-home monitoring using pervasive computing technologies that make it possible to more accurately track activities and behaviors and measure relevant intra-individual changes. We have installed a system of strategically placed sensors in over 480 homes and have been collecting data for up to 8 years. Using this continuous in-home monitoring system, ORCATECH researchers have collected data on multiple behaviors such as gait and mobility, sleep and activity patterns, medication adherence, and computer use. Patterns of intra-individual variation detected in each of these areas are used to predict outcomes such as low mood, loneliness, and cognitive function. These methods have the potential to improve the quality of patient health data and in turn patient care especially related to cognitive decline. Furthermore, the continuous real-world nature of the data may improve the efficiency and ecological validity of clinical intervention studies. PMID:26113819

  10. Pervasive Knowledge, Social Networks, and Cloud Computing: E-Learning 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshari, Muhammad; Alas, Yabit; Guan, Lim Sei

    2015-01-01

    Embedding Web 2.0 in learning processes has extended learning from traditional based learning-centred to a collaborative based learning-centred institution that emphasises learning anywhere and anytime. While deploying Semantic Web into e-learning offers a broader spectrum of pervasive knowledge acquisition to enrich users' experience in learning.…

  11. Pervasive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  12. Proceedings of the IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on image processing, pattern recognition, and robotic vision. Topics considered at the conference included expert systems, artificial intelligence, knowledge bases, computerized simulation, computer architecture, vision models and texture, algorithms, parallel algorithms, data processing, circuit theory, array processors, and distributed data processing, and data-flow processing.

  13. Proceedings of the 1984 IEEE Computer Society workshop on visual languages

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on programming languages for image processing. Topics considered at the conference included algorithms, satellite pictures, a stereo vision method , a robot vision language, computer graphics, data base technology, remote sensing, man-machine systems, interactive display devices, natural language, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, expert systems, and the nature of visual languages.

  14. The IEEE eighteenth international symposium on fault-tolerant computing (Digest of Papers)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on fault detection and computers. Topics include: software failure behavior, fault tolerant distributed programs, parallel simulation of faults, concurrent built-in self-test techniques, fault-tolerant parallel processor architectures, probabilistic fault diagnosis, fault tolerances in hypercube processors and cellular automation modeling.

  15. Pervasive brain monitoring and data sharing based on multi-tier distributed computing and linked data technology

    PubMed Central

    Zao, John K.; Gan, Tchin-Tze; You, Chun-Kai; Chung, Cheng-En; Wang, Yu-Te; Rodríguez Méndez, Sergio José; Mullen, Tim; Yu, Chieh; Kothe, Christian; Hsiao, Ching-Teng; Chu, San-Liang; Shieh, Ce-Kuen; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    EEG-based Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are facing basic challenges in real-world applications. The technical difficulties in developing truly wearable BCI systems that are capable of making reliable real-time prediction of users' cognitive states in dynamic real-life situations may seem almost insurmountable at times. Fortunately, recent advances in miniature sensors, wireless communication and distributed computing technologies offered promising ways to bridge these chasms. In this paper, we report an attempt to develop a pervasive on-line EEG-BCI system using state-of-art technologies including multi-tier Fog and Cloud Computing, semantic Linked Data search, and adaptive prediction/classification models. To verify our approach, we implement a pilot system by employing wireless dry-electrode EEG headsets and MEMS motion sensors as the front-end devices, Android mobile phones as the personal user interfaces, compact personal computers as the near-end Fog Servers and the computer clusters hosted by the Taiwan National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC) as the far-end Cloud Servers. We succeeded in conducting synchronous multi-modal global data streaming in March and then running a multi-player on-line EEG-BCI game in September, 2013. We are currently working with the ARL Translational Neuroscience Branch to use our system in real-life personal stress monitoring and the UCSD Movement Disorder Center to conduct in-home Parkinson's disease patient monitoring experiments. We shall proceed to develop the necessary BCI ontology and introduce automatic semantic annotation and progressive model refinement capability to our system. PMID:24917804

  16. Distributed Pervasive Worlds: The Case of Exergames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Sedano, Carolina Islas

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive worlds are computing environments where a virtual world converges with the physical world through context-aware technologies such as sensors. In pervasive worlds, technology is distributed among entities that may be distributed geographically. We explore the concept, possibilities, and challenges of distributed pervasive worlds in a case…

  17. Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenros, Jaakko; Waern, Annika; Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Studying pervasive games is inherently difficult and different from studying computer or board games. This article builds upon the experiences of staging and studying several playful pervasive technology prototypes. It discusses the challenges and pitfalls of evaluating pervasive game prototypes and charts methods that have proven useful in…

  18. A Framework for Safe Composition of Heterogeneous SOA Services in a Pervasive Computing Environment with Resource Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes Alamo, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Service Oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm, defines services as software artifacts whose implementations are separated from their specifications. Application developers rely on services to simplify the design, reduce the development time and cost. Within the SOC paradigm, different Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) have been developed.…

  19. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  20. Pervasive Adaptation in Car Crowds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferscha, Alois; Riener, Andreas

    Advances in the miniaturization and embedding of electronics for microcomputing, communication and sensor/actuator systems, have fertilized the pervasion of technology into literally everything. Pervasive computing technology is particularly flourishing in the automotive domain, exceling the “smart car”, embodying intelligent control mechanics, intelligent driver assistance, safety and comfort systems, navigation, tolling, fleet management and car-to-car interaction systems, as one of the outstanding success stories of pervasive computing. This paper raises the issue of the socio-technical phenomena emerging from the reciprocal interrelationship between drivers and smart cars, particularly in car crowds. A driver-vehicle co-model (DVC-model) is proposed, expressing the complex interactions between the human driver and the in-car and on-car technologies. Both explicit (steering, shifting, overtaking), as well as implicit (body posture, respiration) interactions are considered, and related to the drivers vital state (attentive, fatigue, distracted, aggressive). DVC-models are considered as building blocks in large scale simulation experiments, aiming to analyze and understand adaptation phenomena rooted in the feed-back loops among individual driver behavior and car crowds.

  1. Memorias Conferencia Internacional IEEE Mexico 1971, Sobre Sistemas, Redes Y Computadoras. Volumen I and Volumen II. (Proceedings of International Conference of IEEE Concerning Systems, Networks, and Computers. Volume I and Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concheiro, A. Alonso, Ed.; And Others

    The following papers in English from this international conference may be of particular interest to those in the field of education. T. Nakahara, A. Tsukamota, and M. Matsumoto describe a computer-aided design technique for an economical urban cable television system. W. D. Wasson and R. K. Chitkara outline a recognition scheme based on analysis…

  2. Children with pervasive refusal.

    PubMed Central

    Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M

    1991-01-01

    Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:1863102

  3. Pervasive refusal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Barry; Beverley, David

    2012-04-01

    We report here on a case of severe pervasive refusal syndrome. This is of interest for three reasons. Firstly, most reported cases are adolescent girls; our case is regarding an adolescent boy. Secondly, he was successfully treated at home and thirdly, the serology showed an apparent infective pre-cursor to the illness with evidence of possible autoimmune serology. A 14-year old boy deteriorated from a picture where diagnosed CFS/ME developed into Pervasive Refusal Syndrome. This included the inability to move or speak, with closed eyes, multiple tics, facial grimacing, heightened sensitivity to noise (hyperacusis) and touch (hyperaesthesia), and inability or unwillingness to eat anything except small amounts of sloppy food. Successful rehabilitation is reported. Finally the issue of nomenclature is discussed, raising the question whether Pervasive Refusal Syndrome would be better renamed in a way that does not imply that the condition is always volitional and oppositional, as this can distract focus away from an alliance between family and clinicians. PMID:21733931

  4. Pervasive media violence.

    PubMed

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

  5. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  6. A Conceptual Framework and Principles for Trusted Pervasive Health

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, Bernd Gerhard; Seppälä, Antto Veikko; Sorvari, Hannu Olavi; Nykänen, Pirkko Anneli

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitous computing technology, sensor networks, wireless communication and the latest developments of the Internet have enabled the rise of a new concept—pervasive health—which takes place in an open, unsecure, and highly dynamic environment (ie, in the information space). To be successful, pervasive health requires implementable principles for privacy and trustworthiness. Objective This research has two interconnected objectives. The first is to define pervasive health as a system and to understand its trust and privacy challenges. The second goal is to build a conceptual model for pervasive health and use it to develop principles and polices which can make pervasive health trustworthy. Methods In this study, a five-step system analysis method is used. Pervasive health is defined using a metaphor of digital bubbles. A conceptual framework model focused on trustworthiness and privacy is then developed for pervasive health. On that model, principles and rules for trusted information management in pervasive health are defined. Results In the first phase of this study, a new definition of pervasive health was created. Using this model, differences between pervasive health and health care are stated. Reviewed publications demonstrate that the widely used principles of predefined and static trust cannot guarantee trustworthiness and privacy in pervasive health. Instead, such an environment requires personal dynamic and context-aware policies, awareness, and transparency. A conceptual framework model focused on information processing in pervasive health is developed. Using features of pervasive health and relations from the framework model, new principles for trusted pervasive health have been developed. The principles propose that personal health data should be under control of the data subject. The person shall have the right to verify the level of trust of any system which collects or processes his or her health information. Principles require that

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CYBERNETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Craig R. RIeger; David H. Scheidt; William D. Smart

    2014-11-01

    MODERN societies depend on complex and critical infrastructures for energy, transportation, sustenance, medical care, emergency response, communications security. As computers, automation, and information technology (IT) have advanced, these technologies have been exploited to enhance the efficiency of operating the processes that make up these infrastructures

  8. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  9. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This conference covers the following areas: computational plasma physics; vacuum electronic; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; plasma, electron, and ion sources; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; space plasmas; plasma processing; ball lightning/spherical plasma configurations; plasma processing; fast wave devices; magnetic fusion; basic phenomena in partially ionized plasma; dense plasma focus; plasma diagnostics; basic phenomena in weakly ionized gases; fast opening switches; MHD; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense ion and electron beams; laser-produced plasmas; microwave plasma interactions; EM and ETH launchers; solid state plasmas and switches; intense beam microwaves; and plasmas for lighting. Separate abstracts were prepared for 416 papers in this conference.

  10. Automated Data Handling And Instrument Control Using Low-Cost Desktop Computers And An IEEE 488 Compatible Version Of The ODETA V.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leunen, J. A. J.; Dreessen, J.

    1984-05-01

    The result of a measurement of the modulation transfer function is only useful as long as it is accompanied by a complete description of all relevant measuring conditions involved. For this reason it is necessary to file a full description of the relevant measuring conditions together with the results. In earlier times some of our results were rendered useless because some of the relevant measuring conditions were accidentally not written down and were forgotten. This was mainly due to the lack of concensus about which measuring conditions had to be filed together with the result of a measurement. One way to secure uniform and complete archiving of measuring conditions and results is to automate the data handling. An attendent advantage of automation of data handling is that it does away with the time-consuming correction of rough measuring results. The automation of the data handling was accomplished with rather cheap desktop computers, which were powerfull enough, however, to allow us to automate the measurement as well. After automation of the data handling we started with automatic collection of rough measurement data. Step by step we extended the automation by letting the desktop computer control more and more of the measuring set-up. At present the desktop computer controls all the electrical and most of the mechanical measuring conditions. Further it controls and reads the MTF measuring instrument. Focussing and orientation optimization can be fully automatic, semi-automatic or completely manual. MTF measuring results can be collected automatically but they can also be typed in by hand. Due to the automation we are able to implement proper archival of measuring results together with all necessary measuring conditions. The improved measuring efficiency made it possible to increase the number of routine measurements done in the same time period by an order of magnitude. To our surprise the measuring accuracy also improved by a factor of two. This was due to

  11. Pervasive Home Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, P.; Limb, R.; Payne, R.

    An increasing number of computers and other equipment, such as games consoles and multimedia appliances for the home, have networking capability. The rapid growth of broadband in the home is also fuelling the demand for people to network their homes. In the near future we will see a number of market sectors trying to 'own' the home by providing gateways either from the traditional ISP or from games and other service providers. The consumer is bombarded with attractive advertising to acquire the latest technological advances, but is left with a plethora of different appliances, which have a bewildering range of requirements and features in terms of networking, user interface, and higher-level communications protocols. In many cases, these are proprietary, preventing interworking. Such technical and usability anarchy confuses the consumer and could ultimately suppress market adoption.

  12. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  13. No Pervasive Computing Without Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. G.; Azvine, B.

    It is interesting to think about the technologies that have become part of our everyday lives and compare their invention and development with those that have fallen by the wayside. Examples of failed technologies such as electrical cars and satellite mobile telephones are not uncommon, but more interestingly numerous other technologies such as instant messaging, text messaging, and b2c eCommerce have moved through the cycle of initial rejection, adoptionby a new user community, and adaptation to its needs, despite the early scepticism of many users and commentators.

  14. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    converted engineering units) and health statistics produced by each intelligent element. The handling of configuration, calibration and health information is automated by using the TEDS in combination with other electronic data sheets extensions to convey health parameters. By integrating the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface with ISHM technologies, each element within a complex system becomes a highly flexible computation engine capable of self-validation and performing other measures of the quality of information it is producing.

  15. On Designing a Pervasive Mobile Learning Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Teemu H.; Vinni, Mikko; Sedano, Carolina Islas; Joy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the features, design and architecture of the Myst pervasive game platform that has been applied in creating pervasive mobile learning games in various contexts such as science festivals and museums in Finland. Based on our experiences with the development, we draw a set of design principles for creating successfully a…

  16. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  17. Extending the IEEE-LTSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voskamp, Jorg; Hambach, Sybille

    An Internet-based course management system has been under development at the Fraunhofer-Institute for Computer Graphics Rostock (Germany) for the past 5 years. It is used by experts for distributing their courses via the Internet and by students for learning with the material distributed. The "Course Management System for WWW--CMS-W3" supports…

  18. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  19. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  20. IEEE conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The following topics were covered in this meeting: basic plasma phenomena and plasma waves; plasma diagnostics; space plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave plasma interactions; plasma focus; ultrafast Z-pinches; plasma processing; electrical gas discharges; fast opening switches; magnetohydrodynamics; electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers; x-ray lasers; computational plasma science; solid state plasmas and switches; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; vacuum electronics; plasmas for lighting; gaseous electronics; and ball lightning and other spherical plasmas. Separate abstracts were prepared for 278 papers of this conference.

  1. Performance of the Sleep-Mode Mechanism of the New IEEE 802.16m Proposal for Correlated Downlink Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Turck, Koen; de Vuyst, Stijn; Fiems, Dieter; Wittevrongel, Sabine; Bruneel, Herwig

    There is a considerable interest nowadays in making wireless telecommunication more energy-efficient. The sleep-mode mechanism in WiMAX (IEEE 802.16e) is one of such energy saving measures. Recently, Samsung proposed some modifications on the sleep-mode mechanism, scheduled to appear in the forthcoming IEEE 802.16m standard, aimed at minimizing the signaling overhead. In this work, we present a performance analysis of this proposal and clarify the differences with the standard mechanism included in IEEE 802.16e. We also propose some special algorithms aimed at reducing the computational complexity of the analysis.

  2. Challenges in Securing the Interface Between the Cloud and Pervasive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lagesse, Brent J

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing presents an opportunity for pervasive systems to leverage computational and storage resources to accomplish tasks that would not normally be possible on such resource-constrained devices. Cloud computing can enable hardware designers to build lighter systems that last longer and are more mobile. Despite the advantages cloud computing offers to the designers of pervasive systems, there are some limitations of leveraging cloud computing that must be addressed. We take the position that cloud-based pervasive system must be secured holistically and discuss ways this might be accomplished. In this paper, we discuss a pervasive system utilizing cloud computing resources and issues that must be addressed in such a system. In this system, the user's mobile device cannot always have network access to leverage resources from the cloud, so it must make intelligent decisions about what data should be stored locally and what processes should be run locally. As a result of these decisions, the user becomes vulnerable to attacks while interfacing with the pervasive system.

  3. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  4. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  6. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  7. Perceiving Pervasive Discrimination over Time: Implications for Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Mindi D.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence that the effects of perceived pervasive discrimination may be dynamic over time. It was expected that participants who perceived discrimination to be highly pervasive would initially be more likely to engage in inactive coping strategies than those who perceived low pervasiveness; however, those who continued to…

  8. Dynamic Pervasive Storytelling in Long Lasting Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve; Louchart, Sandy; Aalberg, Trond

    2015-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a reality-based gaming genre originating from alternative theatrical forms in which the performance becomes a part of the players' everyday life. In recent years much research has been done on pervasive gaming and its potential applications towards specific domains. Pervasive games have been effective with regards to…

  9. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  10. IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Calado, Juan; Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Rivas, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. This kind of devices favours at-home hospitalization, reducing the affluence to sanitary assistance centers to make routine controls. This fact causes a really favourable social impact, especially for elder people, rural-zone inhabitant, chronic patients and handicapped people. Furthermore, it offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the sanitary cost. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (screen, PDA, PC...) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size multi-channel electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the TCP/IP Hospital network. PMID:17281922

  11. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  12. Pervasive refusal syndrome - A clinical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Sowmyashree Mayur; Kommu, John Vijay Sagar; Seshadri, Shekhar; Girimaji, Satish Chandra; Srinath, Shoba

    2015-10-01

    Pervasive refusal syndrome is described as a condition comprising varying degrees of refusal across several domains; social withdrawal; resistance to treatment and is potentially life threatening with no detectable organic cause. Female predominance, refusal to eat with low weight, body image distortion, depressive features, premorbid personality issues similar to eating disorders have been noted, with 67% cases having complete recovery. In this paper, we describe what is probably the first case reported from India, of a child, who presented with neuropsychiatric symptoms, and treated with electroconvulsive therapy along with medications, but, sadly had a fatal outcome. PMID:26275914

  13. Modelling granite migration by mesoscale pervasive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, A. M.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2002-06-01

    Mesoscale pervasive magma migration leads to granite injection complexes, common in hot crustal terranes. Pervasive migration is limited by magma freezing when intruding cold country rock. Here, we explore numerically the feedback mechanism between magma intrusion and heating of the country rock, which allows younger intrusive batches to reach increasingly shallower/cooler levels. This process relies on the higher solidus temperature of a rock compared to that of its melt, once melt is segregated. We define the 'free-ride layer' as the region above the melt source, where magma may freely migrate because rock temperature is above melt solidus. The top of the free-ride layer, which corresponds to the melt solidus ( TS) isotherm, is at the 'limiting depth', zS. After magma passes through the free-ride layer, the magma 'front' is always at the limiting depth. We modeled the thickening and heating of the crust above the source as melt at its liquidus ( TL) intrudes it pervasively from below. We found that: (a) magma quickly warms crust below zS to about TL, forming a step in temperature at zS; (b) the front ( zS) moves up through the crust as more magma is intruded; (c) as magma is emplaced at the front, a mingled layer of about half magma half crust forms below it, so that the total rise of the front corresponds approximately to half of the thickness of magma added to the free-ride layer; (d) the rate of rise of the front depends on the temperature difference between crust and TL, and slows down as the magma front rises; (e) for most reasonable intrusion rates and volumes, the crust above zS feels little influence of the intrusion, because the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the rise rate of the front. In summary, pervasive migration is an efficient way of heating the lower to middle crust, and can result in an injection complex several kilometers thick, consisting of about half magma and half original crust.

  14. Dynamic Privacy Management in Pervasive Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Nan-Wei; Laibowitz, Mathew; Paradiso, Joseph A.

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a dynamic privacy management system aimed at enabling tangible privacy control and feedback in a pervasive sensor network. Our work began with the development of a potentially invasive sensor network (with high resolution video, audio, and motion tracking capabilities) featuring different interactive applications that created incentive for accepting this network as an extension of people's daily social space. A user study was then conducted to evaluate several privacy management approaches - an active badge system for both online and on-site control, on/off power switches for physically disabling the hardware, and touch screen input control. Results from a user study indicated that an active badge for on-site privacy control is the most preferable method among all provided options. We present a set of results that yield insight into the privacy/benefit tradeoff from various sensing capabilities in pervasive sensor networks and how privacy settings and user behavior relate in these environments.

  15. IEEE international conference on robotics and automation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the computer aspects of robots. Topics considered at the conference included vision, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, expert systems, computerized control systems, computerized simulation, manipulator control, failures, robot kinematics, computer-aided manufacturing, inspection, research trends, computer architecture, programming, and computer-aided design.

  16. An Efficient Resource Allocation Scheme for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Jae-Woo

    In this letter, we propose an efficient resource allocation scheme that improves the system performance by reducing the signaling overhead for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) services in the IEEE 802.16e OFDMA system. We theoretically analyze the performance of the proposed allocation scheme and carry out a computer simulation to evaluate the FA scheme.

  17. IEEE 1394 brings bandwidth, simplicity, and lower costs to machine vision and scientific imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fife, Jerry

    2000-05-01

    Its official name is IEEE 1394. It is also called FireWireTM (by Apple) and i.LINKTM (by Sony who has licensed this name to several other companies). It was created in the late 1980s as a digital technology designed to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for communications bandwidth for video. It was also designed to simplify and reduce the number of cables and connectors between devices. Simple one-cable connectivity has become a necessity brought about by miniaturization and increasing device functionality as ports have reduced in size and number. The IEEE 1394 high performance serial bus has already found its way into consumer products and one day probably will link every digital appliance in the house: TV, DVR, camcorder, hi-fi stereo, computers and peripherals. Now it's poised to make the same impact in the industrial/scientific imaging world.

  18. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  19. Synergistic Use of IEEE and IEC Nuclear Power Plant Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G

    2001-12-19

    Many organizations worldwide develop standards that affect nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C). Two of the primary standards organizations are the US IEEE's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee (NPEC), and the IEC subcommittee on Reactor Instrumentation (SC45A). This paper surveys the contents of the two sets of standards. Opportunities for complementary use of IEEE and IEC standards are discussed. The collections of IEEE. and IEC standards have some overlap, but in many cases cover significantly different topics. For example, IEEE standards go to great depth on environmental qualification of many specific types of components, while IEC covers the topic only at the general level. Conversely, certain IEC standards deal with specific instrumentation and control functions, a topic area where IEEE standards are largely mute. This paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to achieve broader topic coverage than is possible using only one or the other standard suite. To understand the similarities and differences between IEC and IEEE nuclear standards layer diagrams were developed for each set of standards. Another paper [Johnson, 2001] used the same layer diagrams to investigate where coordination between the two sets of standards is most critical.

  20. Minimizing the Pervasiveness of Women's Personal Experiences of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Mindi D.; Jackson, Lydia C.; Hartmann, Ryan; Woulfe, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Given the Rejection-Identification Model (Branscombe, Schmitt, & Harvey, 1999), which shows that perceiving discrimination to be pervasive is a negative experience, it was suggested that there would be conditions under which women would instead minimize the pervasiveness of discrimination. Study 1 (N= 91) showed that when women envisioned…

  1. The Rural Growth Revival In Nonmetropolitan America: Evidence of Pervasiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; And Others

    The 1970's ushered in widespread population deconcentration, seen in the pervasive shift of the United States population down the size-of-place scale. To document population changes in various sized places in the country from 1950 to 1980 and to show the pervasiveness of urban-rural deconcentration in nonmetropolitan areas, researchers examined…

  2. Towards a flexible middleware for context-aware pervasive and wearable systems.

    PubMed

    Muro, Marco; Amoretti, Michele; Zanichelli, Francesco; Conte, Gianni

    2012-11-01

    Ambient intelligence and wearable computing call for innovative hardware and software technologies, including a highly capable, flexible and efficient middleware, allowing for the reuse of existing pervasive applications when developing new ones. In the considered application domain, middleware should also support self-management, interoperability among different platforms, efficient communications, and context awareness. In the on-going "everything is networked" scenario scalability appears as a very important issue, for which the peer-to-peer (P2P) paradigm emerges as an appealing solution for connecting software components in an overlay network, allowing for efficient and balanced data distribution mechanisms. In this paper, we illustrate how all these concepts can be placed into a theoretical tool, called networked autonomic machine (NAM), implemented into a NAM-based middleware, and evaluated against practical problems of pervasive computing. PMID:22527692

  3. Sensorized Garment Augmented 3D Pervasive Virtual Reality System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulrez, Tauseef; Tognetti, Alessandro; de Rossi, Danilo

    Virtual reality (VR) technology has matured to a point where humans can navigate in virtual scenes; however, providing them with a comfortable fully immersive role in VR remains a challenge. Currently available sensing solutions do not provide ease of deployment, particularly in the seated position due to sensor placement restrictions over the body, and optic-sensing requires a restricted indoor environment to track body movements. Here we present a 52-sensor laden garment interfaced with VR, which offers both portability and unencumbered user movement in a VR environment. This chapter addresses the systems engineering aspects of our pervasive computing solution of the interactive sensorized 3D VR and presents the initial results and future research directions. Participants navigated in a virtual art gallery using natural body movements that were detected by their wearable sensor shirt and then mapped the signals to electrical control signals responsible for VR scene navigation. The initial results are positive, and offer many opportunities for use in computationally intelligentman-machine multimedia control.

  4. A Kennedy Space Center implementation of IEEE 1451

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostdyk, Rebecca L.; Mata, Carlos T.; Perotti, José M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.

    2006-05-01

    To meet the demand for more reliable sensory data, longer sensor calibration cycles, and more useful information for operators at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC's Advanced Electronics and Technology Development Laboratory at the KSC are developing custom intelligent sensors based on the IEEE 1451 family of smart-sensor standards. The KSC intelligent sensors are known as Smart Networked Elements (SNEs), and each SNE includes transducers and their associated Transducer Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS), signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, software algorithms for performing health checks on the data, and a network connection for sending data to other SNEs and higher-level systems. The development of the SNE has led to the definition of custom architectures, protocols, IEEE 1451 implementations, and TEDS, which are presented in this paper. The IEEE 1451 standards describe the architecture, message formats, software objects, and communication protocols within the smart sensor. Because of the standard's complexity, KSC has simplified the IEEE 1451 architecture and narrowed the scope of software objects to be included in the SNE to create a "light" IEEE 1451 implementation, and has used the manufacturer-defined TEDS to customize the SNE with health indicators. Furthermore, KSC has developed a protocol that allows the SNEs to communicate over an Ethernet network while reducing bandwidth requirements.

  5. Pervasive domestication of defective prophages by bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bobay, Louis-Marie; Touchon, Marie; Rocha, Eduardo P C

    2014-08-19

    Integrated phages (prophages) are major contributors to the diversity of bacterial gene repertoires. Domestication of their components is thought to have endowed bacteria with molecular systems involved in secretion, defense, warfare, and gene transfer. However, the rates and mechanisms of domestication remain unknown. We used comparative genomics to study the evolution of prophages within the bacterial genome. We identified over 300 vertically inherited prophages within enterobacterial genomes. Some of these elements are very old and might predate the split between Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The size distribution of prophage elements is bimodal, suggestive of rapid prophage inactivation followed by much slower genetic degradation. Accordingly, we observed a pervasive pattern of systematic counterselection of nonsynonymous mutations in prophage genes. Importantly, such patterns of purifying selection are observed not only on accessory regions but also in core phage genes, such as those encoding structural and lysis components. This suggests that bacterial hosts select for phage-associated functions. Several of these conserved prophages have gene repertoires compatible with described functions of adaptive prophage-derived elements such as bacteriocins, killer particles, gene transfer agents, or satellite prophages. We suggest that bacteria frequently domesticate their prophages. Most such domesticated elements end up deleted from the bacterial genome because they are replaced by analogous functions carried by new prophages. This puts the bacterial genome in a state of continuous flux of acquisition and loss of phage-derived adaptive genes. PMID:25092302

  6. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    PubMed Central

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  7. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  8. Throughput Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in the Presence of Transmission Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshanyour, Ahed; Agarwal, Anjali

    This paper introduces an accurate analysis using three- dimensional Markov chain modeling to compute the IEEE 802.11 DCF throughput under heavy traffic conditions and absence of hidden terminals for both access modes, basic and rts/cts. The proposed model considers the impact of retry counts of control and data frames jointly on the saturated throughput. Moreover, It considers the impact of transmission errors by taking into account the strength of the received signal and using the BER model to convert the SNR to a bit error probability.

  9. Deployment of Directory Service for IEEE N Bus Test System Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Amal; Sil, Jaya

    2008-10-01

    Exchanging information over Internet and Intranet becomes a defacto standard in computer applications, among various users and organizations. Distributed system study, e-governance etc require transparent information exchange between applications, constituencies, manufacturers, and vendors. To serve these purposes database system is needed for storing system data and other relevant information. Directory service, which is a specialized database along with access protocol, could be the single solution since it runs over TCP/IP, supported by all POSIX compliance platforms and is based on open standard. This paper describes a way to deploy directory service, to store IEEE n bus test system data and integrating load flow program with it.

  10. 1994 ASME/IEEE Joint Railroad Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This conference proceedings contains 21 papers. Topics discussed include railroad transportation, signal systems, computer systems, control systems, power supply system, vehicle suspensions, vehicle wheels, traction, failure (mechanical) and sensors. Some papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Fuzzy reasoning of accident provenance in pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Hu, Xiaohua

    2013-11-01

    In pervasive healthcare monitoring environments, data provenance, as one metadata, can help people analyze the reasons for medical accidents that are generated by complex events. This reasoning processing often encounters inaccurate time and irreversible reasoning problems. How to solve the uncertain process and fuzzy transformation time presents many challenges to the study of data provenance. In this paper, we propose a backward derivation model with the provenance semantic, backward fuzzy time reasoning net (BFTRN), to solve these two problems. We design a backward reasoning algorithm motivated by time automation theory based on this model. With regard to given life-critical alarms and some constraints, it cannot only derive all evolution paths and the possibility distribution of paths from historical information, but also efficiently compute the value of fuzzy time function for each transition of lift-critical complex alarms in the healthcare monitoring system. We also analyze the properties of BFTRN model in this paper. Experiments on real dataset show that the proposed model is efficient. PMID:24240719

  12. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  13. [Gender dysphoria in pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Tateno, Masaru; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Saito, Toshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are characterized by two essential symptoms: impairment in social interaction, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. PDD include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These three disorders are sometimes termed autism spectrum disorders. A recent epidemiological survey demonstrated that the rate of PDD may be almost 1% and that many PDD cases might not be diagnosed properly in childhood. Erik Erikson described eight stages of psychosocial development through which a normally developing human should pass from infancy to adulthood. In the theory, an adolescent shows 'Identity vs. Role Confusion'. It has been reported that individuals with PDD often have identity crises which sometimes include gender dysphoria. This phenomenon might be related to the so-called identity diffusion in youth. When they reach their young youth, it has been said that subjects with PDD realize their uniqueness and differences compared to others, and, as a result, they may develop confusion of identity which could be exhibited as gender identity disorder. A recent study demonstrated that, amongst 204 children and adolescents who visited a GID clinic in the Netherlands, 7.8% were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders after a careful diagnostic procedure by a multi-disciplinary team. Taken together, PDD and GID seem closely related to each other. In this paper, we present four PDD cases with gender dysphoria and related symptoms: 1) a girl with PDD who repeatedly asserted gender identity disorder (GID) symptoms in response to social isolation at school, 2) a junior high school boy with PDD and transvestism, 3) a boy diagnosed with Asperger's disorder who developed a disturbance of sexual orientation, and 4) a boy with Asperger's disorder and comorbid childhood GID. Many of the clinical symptoms related to gender dysphoria might be explained by the

  14. Simulating the pervasive fracture and fragmentation of materials and structures using randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations.

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Joseph E.

    2008-09-01

    Under extreme loading conditions most often the extent of material and structural fracture is pervasive in the sense that a multitude of cracks are nucleating, propagating in arbitrary directions, coalescing, and branching. Pervasive fracture is a highly nonlinear process involving complex material constitutive behavior, material softening, localization, surface generation, and ubiquitous contact. Two primary applications in which pervasive fracture is encountered are (1) weapons effects on structures and (2) geomechanics of highly jointed and faulted reservoirs. A pure Lagrangian computational method based on randomly close-packed Voronoi tessellations is proposed as a rational approach for simulating the pervasive fracture of materials and structures. Each Voronoi cell is formulated as a finite element using the reproducing kernel method. Fracture surfaces are allowed to nucleate only at the intercell faces. The randomly seeded Voronoi cells provide an unbiased network for representing cracks. In this initial study two approaches for allowing the new surfaces to initiate are studied: (1) dynamic mesh connectivity and the instantaneous insertion of a cohesive traction when localization is detected, and (2) a discontinuous Galerkin approach in which the interelement tractions are an integral part of the variational formulation, but only become active once localization is detected. Pervasive fracture problems are extremely sensitive to initial conditions and system parameters. Dynamic problems exhibit a form of transient chaos. The primary numerical challenge for this class of problems is the demonstration of model objectivity and, in particular, the identification and demonstration of a measure of convergence for engineering quantities of interest.

  15. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  16. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  17. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  18. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  19. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES: ROUND ONE DESIGNATIONS Area Requirements § 597.102 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by...

  20. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  1. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  2. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  3. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tests of pervasive poverty... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty is demonstrated by evidence that:...

  4. Examining the Criterion-Related Validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Carly A.; Perry, Adrienne

    2015-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory is a questionnaire designed to aid in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders or autism spectrum disorders. The Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior Inventory assesses adaptive and maladaptive behaviors associated with pervasive developmental disorders and provides an…

  5. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  6. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  7. IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T 2012) Proceedings (25th, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China, April 17-19, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IEEE Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, Proceedings (MS), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training (CSEE&T) is the premier international peer-reviewed conference, sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Computer Society, which addresses all major areas related to software engineering education, training, and professionalism. This year, as in…

  8. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  9. A High Throughput Medium Access Control Implementation Based on IEEE 802.11e Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min Li; Lee, Jin; Setiawan, Hendra; Ochi, Hiroshi; Park, Sin-Chong

    With the growing demand for high-performance multimedia applications over wireless channels, we need to develop a Medium Access Control (MAC) system that supports high throughput and quality of service enhancements. This paper presents the standard analysis, design architecture and design issues leading to the implementation of an IEEE 802.11e based MAC system that supports MAC throughput of over 100Mbps. In order to meet the MAC layer timing constraints, a hardware/software co-design approach is adopted. The proposed MAC architecture is implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) (XC2VP70-5FF1704C) prototype, and connected to a host computer through an external Universal Serial Bus (USB) interface. The total FPGA resource utilization is 11, 508 out of 33, 088 (34%) available slices. The measured MAC throughput is 100.7Mbps and 109.2Mbps for voice and video access categories, transmitted at a data rate of 260Mbps based on IEEE 802.11n Physical Layer (PHY), using the contention-based hybrid coordination function channel access mechanism.

  10. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-01-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  11. Sleep Patterns of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honomichl, Ryan D.; Goodlin-Jones, Beth L.; Burnham, Melissa; Gaylor, Erika; Anders, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Data on sleep behavior were gathered on 100 children (ages 2-11) with pervasive developmental disorders. Slightly more than half of parents reported a sleep problem in their child. All of the children exhibited longer sleep onset times and greater fragmentation of sleep than that reported for age-matched community norms. (Contains references.)…

  12. Response to 'pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome'.

    PubMed

    Tu, Shine; Holman, Christopher; Mossoff, Adam; Sichelman, Ted; Risch, Michael; Conteras, Jorge L; Heled, Yaniv; Dolin, Greg; Petherbridge, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A response to Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome by J Rosenfeld and C Mason. Genome Med 2013, 5:27. See related Correspondence by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/5/3/27 and related letter by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/6/2/15. PMID:25031614

  13. Fragmented Visuospatial Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter; van den Broek, Pieter J. A.; van der Pijll, Angela C. A. M.; Gabreels, Fons; van der Gaag, Rutger J.; Rotteveel, Jan J.

    2006-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger Syndrome (AS) may be characterised by a similar perceptual focus on details as children with autistic disorder (AD). This was tested by analysing their performance in a visuoperceptual task [the Children's Embedded Figure Test (CEFT)] and a…

  14. Early Symptoms and Recognition of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noterdaeme, Michele; Hutzelmeyer-Nickels, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders are characterised by the presence of abnormalities in social interaction and communication as well as repetitive patterns of behaviours. Although early symptoms of the disorder often appear during the first two years of life, its diagnosis is often delayed. The purpose of this study is to analyse the delay between…

  15. Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilincaslan, Ayse; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4-18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic,…

  16. Pervasive Learning Games: Explorations of Hybrid Educational Gamescapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Siobhan

    2006-01-01

    Pervasive gaming has tremendous potential as a learning tool and represents an interesting development in the field of video games and education. The literature surrounding video games and education is vast: For more than 20 years, educationalists have been discussing the potential that exists for the application of video games to learning.…

  17. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Two Canadian Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Coo, Helen; Yu, C. T.; Chudley, Albert E.; Noonan, Andrea; Breitenbach, Marlene; Ramji, Nasreen; Prosick, Talia; Bedard, Angela; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the proportion of children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) has increased in the past two decades, there is no consensus on the prevalence of these conditions. The accompanying large rise in demand for services, together with uncertainty regarding the extent to which the observed…

  18. Injury Treatment among Children with Autism or Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Suzanne; Zhou, Li; Mann, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the differences in the frequency and type of injury for children with autism and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) compared with typically developing peers, when both groups are insured by Medicaid. The relative rate (RR) of emergency/hospital treatment of injury for children with autism or PDD compared to controls was…

  19. Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Luke Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews whether Rett syndrome is a subtype of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The paper analyzes internal and external diagnostic validity and discusses whether Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder or a mental disorder. The paper concludes that data support the idea of classifying Rett syndrome as a subtype of PDD.…

  20. Pervasive Restart In MOOSE-based Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; David Andrs; John Peterson; Andrew Slaughter; Jason Miller

    2014-01-01

    Multiphysics applications are inherently complicated. Solving for multiple, interacting physical phenomena involves the solution of multiple equations, and each equation has its own data dependencies. Feeding the correct data to these equations at exactly the right time requires extensive effort in software design. In an ideal world, multiphysics applications always run to completion and produce correct answers. Unfortunately, in reality, there can be many reasons why a simulation might fail: power outage, system failure, exceeding a runtime allotment on a supercomputer, failure of the solver to converge, etc. A failure after many hours spent computing can be a significant setback for a project. Therefore, the ability to “continue” a solve from the point of failure, rather than starting again from scratch, is an essential component of any high-quality simulation tool. This process of “continuation” is commonly termed “restart” in the computational community. While the concept of restarting an application sounds ideal, the aforementioned complexities and data dependencies present in multiphysics applications make its implementation decidedly non-trivial. A running multiphysics calculation accumulates an enormous amount of “state”: current time, solution history, material properties, status of mechanical contact, etc. This “state” data comes in many different forms, including scalar, tensor, vector, and arbitrary, application-specific data types. To be able to restart an application, you must be able to both store and retrieve this data, effectively recreating the state of the application before the failure. When utilizing the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) framework developed at Idaho National Laboratory, this state data is stored both internally within the framework itself (such as solution vectors and the current time) and within the applications that use the framework. In order to implement restart in MOOSE

  1. Ethical Responsibility Key to Computer Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, M. Stuart

    1989-01-01

    The pervasiveness of powerful computers and computer networks has raised the specter of new forms of abuse and of concomitant ethical issues. Blurred boundaries, hackers, the Computer Worm, ethical issues, and implications for academic institutions are discussed. (MLW)

  2. IEEE 1394/firewire a low cost, high speed, digital serial bus

    SciTech Connect

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    Does the world need yet another 1/0 bus standard? If you need fast and cheap serial video communication, then the answer is yes. As technology advances, so too must data transport mechanisms advance. You can`t expect RS-232 to support real-time digital video, and if you can`t afford expensive professional serial video interfaces, (such as Sony`s Serial Digital Interface), Firewire may be a good solution. IEEE 1394, or commonly known as Firewire, is a general purpose serial bus that meets many of the 1/0 needs of today`s video and multimedia developers. For those of you who only read the first paragraph, here`s Firewire in a nutshell: It provides a guaranteed transfer rate of 10OMbps or 20OMbps of digital data (such as video direct from camera to computer), over an inexpensive, non-proprietary serial bus. Here is a list of its features.

  3. IEEE conference record -- Abstracts: 1996 IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This meeting covered the following topics: space plasmas; non-equilibrium plasma processing; computer simulation of vacuum power tubes; vacuum microelectronics; microwave systems; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases -- gaseous electronics, electrical discharges; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; plasma diagnostics; plasmas for lighting; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasma, ion, and electron sources; flat panel displays; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; environmental/energy issues in plasma science; thermal plasma processing; computational plasma physics; magnetic confinement fusion; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasma engineering; EM and ETH launchers; fast wave devices; intense beam microwaves; slow wave devices; space plasma measurements; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasma -- waves, instabilities, plasma theory, etc; plasma closing switches; fast opening switches; and laser-produced plasma. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this conference.

  4. IEEE conference record -- abstracts: 1995 IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Topics covered at this meeting are: computational plasma physics; slow wave devices; basic phenomena in fully ionized plasmas; microwave-plasma interactions; space plasmas; fast wave devices; plasma processing; plasma, ion, and electron sources; vacuum microelectronics; basic phenomena in partially ionized gases; microwave systems; plasma diagnostics; magnetic fusion theory/experiment; fast opening switches; laser-produced plasmas; dense plasma focus; intense ion and electron beams; plasmas for lighting; fast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; intense beam microwaves; ball lightning/spherical plasma configuration; environmental plasma science; EM and ETH launchers; and environmental/energy issues in plasma science. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the individual papers.

  5. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  6. The pervasive role of biological cohesion in bedform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie A.; Aspden, Rebecca J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Peakall, Jeff; Paterson, David M.; Schindler, Robert J.; Ye, Leiping; Lichtman, Ian D.; Bass, Sarah J.; Davies, Alan G.; Manning, Andrew J.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2015-02-01

    Sediment fluxes in aquatic environments are crucially dependent on bedform dynamics. However, sediment-flux predictions rely almost completely on clean-sand studies, despite most environments being composed of mixtures of non-cohesive sands, physically cohesive muds and biologically cohesive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) generated by microorganisms. EPS associated with surficial biofilms are known to stabilize sediment and increase erosion thresholds. Here we present experimental data showing that the pervasive distribution of low levels of EPS throughout the sediment, rather than the high surficial levels of EPS in biofilms, is the key control on bedform dynamics. The development time for bedforms increases by up to two orders of magnitude for extremely small quantities of pervasively distributed EPS. This effect is far stronger than for physical cohesion, because EPS inhibit sand grains from moving independently. The results highlight that present bedform predictors are overly simplistic, and the associated sediment transport processes require re-assessment for the influence of EPS.

  7. Supporting People with Dementia Using Pervasive Healthcare Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Nugent, Chris D.; Moelaert, Ferial; Craig, David; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Bengtsson, Johan E.

    In this chapter, an introduction is provided into pervasive healthcare technology, specifically as the use of information and communications technology in support of European policies, primarily inclusion. The focus of the chapter, and indeed the book, is on how such technologies can support people suffering from debilitating diseases including Alzheimer's. The work describes a research project called COGKNOW, comprising a multidisciplinary research consortium of scientists from across Europe, and relates some of the early achievements of the group from some very different perspectives, including technical, clinical, ethical, and of course how the needs of people with dementia and their carers can be harnessed in the development process to produce pervasive healthcare technology and services that are valued by all the stakeholders in the process.

  8. The pervasive role of biological cohesion in bedform development

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie A.; Aspden, Rebecca J.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Peakall, Jeff; Paterson, David M.; Schindler, Robert J.; Ye, Leiping; Lichtman, Ian D.; Bass, Sarah J.; Davies, Alan G.; Manning, Andrew J.; Thorne, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment fluxes in aquatic environments are crucially dependent on bedform dynamics. However, sediment-flux predictions rely almost completely on clean-sand studies, despite most environments being composed of mixtures of non-cohesive sands, physically cohesive muds and biologically cohesive extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) generated by microorganisms. EPS associated with surficial biofilms are known to stabilize sediment and increase erosion thresholds. Here we present experimental data showing that the pervasive distribution of low levels of EPS throughout the sediment, rather than the high surficial levels of EPS in biofilms, is the key control on bedform dynamics. The development time for bedforms increases by up to two orders of magnitude for extremely small quantities of pervasively distributed EPS. This effect is far stronger than for physical cohesion, because EPS inhibit sand grains from moving independently. The results highlight that present bedform predictors are overly simplistic, and the associated sediment transport processes require re-assessment for the influence of EPS. PMID:25656496

  9. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  10. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  11. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  12. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  13. 7 CFR 25.102 - Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress... ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements § 25.102 Pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Conditions of poverty must be reasonably distributed throughout the entire nominated...

  14. Security Framework for Pervasive Healthcare Architectures Utilizing MPEG-21 IPMP Components

    PubMed Central

    Fragopoulos, Anastasios; Gialelis, John; Serpanos, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays in modern and ubiquitous computing environments, it is imperative more than ever the necessity for deployment of pervasive healthcare architectures into which the patient is the central point surrounded by different types of embedded and small computing devices, which measure sensitive physical indications, interacting with hospitals databases, allowing thus urgent medical response in occurrences of critical situations. Such environments must be developed satisfying the basic security requirements for real-time secure data communication, and protection of sensitive medical data and measurements, data integrity and confidentiality, and protection of the monitored patient's privacy. In this work, we argue that the MPEG-21 Intellectual Property Management and Protection (IPMP) components can be used in order to achieve protection of transmitted medical information and enhance patient's privacy, since there is selective and controlled access to medical data that sent toward the hospital's servers. PMID:19132095

  15. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    PubMed

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks. PMID:18002795

  16. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  17. From black box to toolbox: Outlining device functionality, engagement activities, and the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions

    PubMed Central

    Danaher, Brian G.; Brendryen, Håvar; Seeley, John R.; Tyler, Milagra S.; Woolley, Tim

    2015-01-01

    mHealth interventions that deliver content via mobile phones represent a burgeoning area of health behavior change. The current paper examines two themes that can inform the underlying design of mHealth interventions: (1) mobile device functionality, which represents the technological toolbox available to intervention developers; and (2) the pervasive information architecture of mHealth interventions, which determines how intervention content can be delivered concurrently using mobile phones, personal computers, and other devices. We posit that developers of mHealth interventions will be better able to achieve the promise of this burgeoning arena by leveraging the toolbox and functionality of mobile devices in order to engage participants and encourage meaningful behavior change within the context of a carefully designed pervasive information architecture. PMID:25750862

  18. On conformance tests for IEEE PC 37.238 compliant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang; Fan, Yang; Gao, Jason; Zhao, Haisheng

    2011-10-01

    There is an increasing demand on accurate time synchronization for protection and control equipment for electrical power supply systems. The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) seems to be a promising way to handle the synchronization requirements of future substation automation. In this regard, the goal of the IEEE PC37.238 is to specify a common profile for use of IEEE 1588-2008 PTP in power system applications. This paper provides an overview of the current specifications of the IEEE PC37.238 draft standard. Using conformance tests for default PTP attribute values and peer delay mechanism as examples, we discuss in details the test methods, test procedures, and the expected results for the IEEE PC37.238 compliant devices.

  19. Mesoscale pervasive felsic magma migration: alternatives to dyking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Roberto F.

    1999-03-01

    This paper reviews the literature on dyking as a mechanism of felsic magma extraction from a source and transport to shallower crustal levels, and review the recent literature suggesting a range of alternative mechanisms of magma migration in hot crustal zones which produce mesoscale pervasive granite sheet intrusions. Recent papers have strongly favoured dyking as the main mechanism controlling magma migration. However, the initiation of dykes from a felsic magma source is fraught with difficulties, even when magma is immediately available for transportation, as in magma chambers. Within a partially molten source, magma may reside in a range of structures with a wide range of shapes, sizes and degrees of connectivity. Whereas the growth of individual dykes within a partially molten zone, and the self-propagation of large dykes into subsolidus crust, have both been studied in some detail, little attention has been given to the crucial intermediate step of the growth of a dyke network capable of producing wide crustal scale dykes. The rarity of granite dyke swarms suggests that, if dyking is the preferred mechanism of magma transport, felsic magma sources produce only few major transporting dykes during their lifetime. Alternatively, dyking is not an important mechanism. The parameters controlling the volume of the catchment drained by one such dyke, as well as other basic geometrical parameters controlling the structure of the dyke network within the source, are unknown. The ability of dyking to drain a partially molten source depends crucially on these variables and particularly on the horizontal permeability of the source. The slow velocity of viscous felsic magmas traveling in rock pores implies that magma drained during dyking is mostly that previously extracted from the pores, and resident in irregular magma bodies or dyke networks. The observation that large volumes of buoyant magma are commonly present in migmatite zones, and that dyking in these zones plays

  20. Architectures and economics for pervasive broadband satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.; Harvey, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The size of a satellite network necessary to provide pervasive high-data-rate business communications is estimated, and one possible configuration is described which could interconnect most organizations in the United States. Within an order of magnitude, such a network might reasonably have a capacity equivalent to 10,000 simultaneous 3-Mbps channels, and rely primarily upon a cluster of approximately 3-5 satellites in a single orbital slot. Nominal prices for 3-6 Mbps video conference services might then be approximately $2000 monthly lease charge plus perhaps 70 cents per minute one way.

  1. Compliance and Functional Testing of IEEE 1451.1 for NCAP-to-NCAP Communications in a Sensor Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Liu, H.; Singla, A.; Franzl, R.; Ma, H.; Bhatt, S.; Morris, J.; Turowski, M.; Figueroa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed control in a networked environment is an irreplaceable feature in systems with remote sensors and actuators. Although distributed control was not originally designed to be networked, usage of off-the-shelf networking technologies has become so prevalent that control systems are desired to have access mechanisms similar to computer networks. However, proprietary transducer interfaces for network communications and distributed control overwhelmingly dominate this industry. Unless the lack of compatibility and interoperability among transducers is resolved, the mature level of access (that computer networking can deliver) will not be achieved in such networked distributed control systems. Standardization of networked transducer interfaces will enable devices from different manufacturers to talk to each other and ensure their plug-and-play capability. One such standard is the suite of IEEE 1451 for sensor network communication and transducer interfaces. The suite not only provides a standard interface for smart transducers, but also outlines the connection of an NCAP (network capable application processor) and transducers (through a transducer interface module TIM). This paper presents the design of the compliance testing of IEEE 1451.1 (referred to as Dot1) compatible NCAP-to-NCAP communications on a link-layer independent medium. The paper also represents the first demonstration of NCAP-to-NCAP communications with Dot1 compatibility: a tester NCAP and an NCAP under test (NUT).

  2. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  3. The game mechanics of pervasive applications: visiting the uncanny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentès, Annie; Jutant, Camille

    2012-03-01

    "When I use a word", Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather scornful tone, "it means just what I choose it to mean - neither more nor less." "The question is", said Alice, "whether you can make words mean so many different things". "The question is", said Humpty Dumpty, "which is to be master - that's all". [Carroll 2007 (1865)] In pervasive games, a virtual layer with its own logic is added to the everyday, common meaning of objects, places, and people. The departure of the signifier ("things") from the signified (what they mean on the virtual level) is the semiotic process that allows for a double reading of the environment. Such a divorce has been explored in other cultural products (books, movies). It has been qualified as the "uncanny mode". This article analyzes how pervasive games use their own brand of uncanny. In particular, it shows how mobility becomes the way to uncover the hidden layers of the environment and serves as a tool to experience and eventually reduce or augment the uncanny. Finally, we can point to a typology of four main types of storytelling related to different types of mobility: games that use mimetic narrative strategies veering towards "realism"; games based on the "absurd"; "aloof" games that remain independent from places; games that present a specific play on this double reading of the world and develop the "Uncanny" as a genre.

  4. Bibliography of relay literature, 1993: IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Sachdev, M.S.; Folkman, A.G.; Finley, D.

    1995-04-01

    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature which were published previously and are contained in the volumes of the IEEE Transaction. The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. The listing of the titles is subdivided into ten sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The entries in each section are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the first author. Each title is listed in only one section even if it covers material that belongs to several sections. A list of the periodicals which have been cited and the addresses of their publishers follows the bibliography.

  5. Bibliography of relay literature, 1995. IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature which were published previously and are contained in the volumes of the IEEE Transactions. The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. The listing of titles is subdivided into ten sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The entries in each section are listed in only one section even if it covers material that belongs to several sections. A list of the periodicals which have been cited and the addresses of their publishers follows the bibliography. The abstracts of many articles reported in this paper are available in the Science Abstracts-Section B, the Engineering Index, and other digesting and/or indexing periodicals.

  6. Psychological interventions in pervasive developmental disorder: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Hameed, Noufal T.; Pandey, Jyoti Mishra; Mitra, Sayantanava; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are characterized by several impairments in the domains of social communication, social interaction and expression of social attachment, and other aspects of development like symbolic play. As the role of drugs in treating these impairments is extremely limited, a variety of psychological interventions have been developed to deal with them. Some of these have strong empirical support, while others are relatively new and hence controversial. Though it may prove to be a daunting task to begin with, the final reward of being able to improve the life of a child with PDD is enormous and hugely satisfying. Therefore, knowledge of these psychological interventions is important for a mental health professional, in order to be effective in the profession. Present paper presents an overview of these techniques in the management of PDD. PMID:25788797

  7. Pervasive flexibility in living technologies through degeneracy-based design.

    PubMed

    Whitacre, James; Bender, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to adapt can greatly influence the success of systems that need to compensate for damaged parts, learn how to achieve robust performance in new environments, or exploit novel opportunities that originate from new technological interfaces or emerging markets. Many of the conditions in which technology is required to adapt cannot be anticipated during its design stage, thus creating a challenge for the designer. Inspired by the study of a range of biological systems, we propose that degeneracy-the realization of multiple, functionally versatile components with contextually overlapping functional redundancy-will support adaptation in technologies, because it effects pervasive flexibility, evolutionary innovation, and homeostatic robustness. We provide examples of degeneracy in a number of rudimentary living technologies, from military sociotechnical systems to swarm robotics, and we present design principles-including shared protocols, loose regulatory coupling, and functional versatility-that allow degeneracy to arise in both biological and man-made systems. PMID:23834594

  8. The molecular basis of cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Aditi; Klann, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Persons with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit a range of cognitive deficits that hamper their quality of life, including difficulties involving communication, sociability, and perspective-taking. In recent years, a variety of studies in mice that model genetic syndromes with a high risk of PDD have provided insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with these disorders. What is less appreciated is how the molecular anomalies affect neuronal and circuit function to give rise to the cognitive deficits associated with PDD. In this review, we describe genetic mutations that cause PDD and discuss how they alter fundamental social and cognitive processes. We then describe efforts to correct cognitive impairments associated with these disorders and identify areas of further inquiry in the search for molecular targets for therapeutics for PDD. PMID:22904374

  9. The use of intonation to communicate in pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Fine, J; Bartolucci, G; Ginsberg, G; Szatmari, P

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to employ a functional linguistic approach to explore pragmatic failure in the spontaneous speech of subjects with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Patterns of intonation use were compared among subjects with Asperger's syndrome (AS), high-functioning autism (HFA), and psychiatric out-patient controls (OPC) with a variety of non-specific social problems. Written transcripts and audio-recordings were used to measure rates of various intonation types relative to the amount of speech produced. The major finding of the study was that the HFA subjects less often tend to employ useful patterns of intonation for communication than the AS or OPC groups. This suggests that HFA either send random intonation signals to hearers or else demonstrate systematic misuse of the linguistic system. AS subjects differed little from the controls. The implications of these results for understanding the communicative failure of PDD subjects is discussed. PMID:1918227

  10. Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified: primary care perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cascio, R S; Kilmon, C A

    1997-07-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD, NOS), a developmental-neurologic spectrum disorder, occurs in 10 to 12 of every 10,000 children. PDD, NOS is characterized by a spectrum of significant problems that may vary substantially in range and expression. These may include visual/spatial, kinesthetic, verbal/linguistic, and musical/rhythmic problems. Social skill deficits are also common, as are restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Symptoms of PDD, NOS are often expressed differently among children with the disorder and can be mistakenly attributed to other problems such as attention deficits, oppositional behavior, or stress reactions. Clinicians may encounter children in their practice who exhibit symptoms of PDD, NOS and must be familiar with this disorder so that appropriate diagnosis and treatment can be provided. Families also need ongoing, anticipatory guidance to help them cope with the behavioral aspects of the disorder. PMID:9253013

  11. 7SK-BAF axis controls pervasive transcription at enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A.; Do, Brian T.; Rubin, Adam J.; Calo, Eliezer; Lee, Byron; Kuchelmeister, Hannes; Rale, Michael; Chu, Ci; Kool, Eric T.; Wysocka, Joanna; Khavari, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    RNA functions at enhancers remain mysterious. Here we show that the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating nucleosome position. 7SK occupies enhancers and super enhancers genome-wide in mouse and human cells, and 7SK is required to limit eRNA initiation and synthesis in a manner distinct from promoter pausing. Clustered elements at super enhancers uniquely require 7SK to prevent convergent transcription and DNA damage signaling. 7SK physically interacts with the BAF chromatin remodeling complex, recruit BAF to enhancers, and inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating chromatin structure. In turn, 7SK occupancy at enhancers coincides with Brd4 and is exquisitely sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. Thus, 7SK employs distinct mechanisms to counteract diverse consequences of pervasive transcription that distinguish super enhancers, enhancers, and promoters. PMID:26878240

  12. IEEE-802.15.4-based low-power body sensor node with RF energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thang Viet; Chung, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and implementation of a low-voltage and low-power body sensor node based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to collect electrocardiography (ECG) and photoplethysmography (PPG) signals. To achieve compact size, low supply voltage, and low power consumption, the proposed platform is integrated into a ZigBee mote, which contains a DC-DC booster, a PPG sensor interface module, and an ECG front-end circuit that has ultra-low current consumption. The input voltage of the proposed node is very low and has a wide range, from 0.65 V to 3.3 V. An RF energy harvester is also designed to charge the battery during the working mode or standby mode of the node. The power consumption of the proposed node reaches 14 mW in working mode to prolong the battery lifetime. The software is supported by the nesC language under the TinyOS environment, which enables the proposed node to be easily configured to function as an individual health monitoring node or a node in a wireless body sensor network (BSN). The proposed node is used to set up a wireless BSN that can simultaneously collect ECG and PPG signals and monitor the results on the personal computer. PMID:25227063

  13. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks. PMID:27164106

  14. On the Feasibility of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks over IEEE 802.15.5 Mesh Topologies.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Rodenas-Herraiz, David; Cruz-Martinez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) are a special type of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) where large amounts of multimedia data are transmitted over networks composed of low power devices. Hierarchical routing protocols typically used in WSNs for multi-path communication tend to overload nodes located within radio communication range of the data collection unit or data sink. The battery life of these nodes is therefore reduced considerably, requiring frequent battery replacement work to extend the operational life of the WSN system. In a wireless sensor network with mesh topology, any node may act as a forwarder node, thereby enabling multiple routing paths toward any other node or collection unit. In addition, mesh topologies have proven advantages, such as data transmission reliability, network robustness against node failures, and potential reduction in energy consumption. This work studies the feasibility of implementing WMSNs in mesh topologies and their limitations by means of exhaustive computer simulation experiments. To this end, a module developed for the Synchronous Energy Saving (SES) mode of the IEEE 802.15.5 mesh standard has been integrated with multimedia tools to thoroughly test video sequences encoded using H.264 in mesh networks. PMID:27164106

  15. Low-power secure body area network for vital sensors toward IEEE802.15.6.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs. PMID:19964784

  16. An SNMP-based solution to enable remote ISO/IEEE 11073 technical management.

    PubMed

    Lasierra, Nelia; Alesanco, Alvaro; García, José

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an architecture based on the integration of simple network management protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) and the standard ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) to manage technical information in home-based telemonitoring scenarios. This architecture includes the development of an SNMPv3-proxyX73 agent which comprises a management information base (MIB) module adapted to X73. In the proposed scenario, medical devices (MDs) send information to a concentrator device [designated as compute engine (CE)] using the X73 standard. This information together with extra information collected in the CE is stored in the developed MIB. Finally, the information collected is available for remote access via SNMP connection. Moreover, alarms and events can be configured by an external manager in order to provide warnings of irregularities in the MDs' technical performance evaluation. This proposed SNMPv3 agent provides a solution to integrate and unify technical device management in home-based telemonitoring scenarios fully adapted to X73. PMID:22491096

  17. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  18. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  19. Reliability and Validity of the "Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale" and the "Gilliam Autism Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Fall, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating scale (Eaves, 2003) and the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (Gilliam, 1995) were investigated in this study. One hundred thirty-four individuals with autism, other pervasive developmental disorders, or conditions frequently confused with autism participated in the study. The…

  20. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  1. Utilizing Embedded Semantics for User-Driven Design of Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soylu, Ahmet; Mödritscher, Felix; de Causmaecker, Patrick

    The Web does not only offer an almost infinitive number of services and resources but can be also seen as a technology to combine different technological devices, like mobile phones, digital media solutions, intelligent household appliances, tablet PCs, and any other kind of computers, in order to create environments satisfying the need of users. However, due to the large amount of web resources and services as well as the variety and range of user needs, it is impossible to realize software solutions for all possible scenarios. In this paper, we present a user-driven approach towards designing and assembling pervasive environments, taking into consideration resources and services available on the Web and provided through computing devices. Based on semantics embedded in the web content, we explain the concept as well as important components of this user-driven environment design methodology and show a first prototype. Finally, the overall approach is critically discussed from the perspectives of programmers and web users on the basis of related work.

  2. Learning from failure in health care: frequent opportunities, pervasive barriers.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, A C

    2004-12-01

    The notion that hospitals and medical practices should learn from failures, both their own and others', has obvious appeal. Yet, healthcare organisations that systematically and effectively learn from the failures that occur in the care delivery process, especially from small mistakes and problems rather than from consequential adverse events, are rare. This article explores pervasive barriers embedded in healthcare's organisational systems that make shared or organisational learning from failure difficult and then recommends strategies for overcoming these barriers to learning from failure, emphasising the critical role of leadership. Firstly, leaders must create a compelling vision that motivates and communicates urgency for change; secondly, leaders must work to create an environment of psychological safety that fosters open reporting, active questioning, and frequent sharing of insights and concerns; and thirdly, case study research on one hospital's organisational learning initiative suggests that leaders can empower and support team learning throughout their organisations as a way of identifying, analysing, and removing hazards that threaten patient safety. PMID:15576689

  3. Sex hormones have pervasive effects on thymic epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dumont-Lagacé, Maude; St-Pierre, Charles; Perreault, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The goal of our study was to evaluate at the systems-level, the effect of sex hormones on thymic epithelial cells (TECs). To this end, we sequenced the transcriptome of cortical and medullary TECs (cTECs and mTECs) from three groups of 6 month-old mice: males, females and males castrated at four weeks of age. In parallel, we analyzed variations in the size of TEC subsets in those three groups between 1 and 12 months of age. We report that sex hormones have pervasive effects on the transcriptome of TECs. These effects were exquisitely TEC-subset specific. Sexual dimorphism was particularly conspicuous in cTECs. Male cTECs displayed low proliferation rates that correlated with low expression of Foxn1 and its main targets. Furthermore, male cTECs expressed relatively low levels of genes instrumental in thymocyte expansion (e.g., Dll4) and positive selection (Psmb11 and Ctsl). Nevertheless, cTECs were more abundant in males than females. Accumulation of cTECs in males correlated with differential expression of genes regulating cell survival in cTECs and cell differentiation in mTECs. The sexual dimorphism of TECs highlighted here may be mechanistically linked to the well-recognized sex differences in susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. PMID:26250469

  4. Treatment options for the management of pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Nash, Kathryn; Carter, K Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (previously known as pervasive developmental disorders) is characterized by social communication deficits, impaired functioning, and restrictive or repetitive behaviors and interests. Patients with autism spectrum disorder also commonly experience core maladaptive behaviors such as aggression and irritability, self-injurious behaviors, hyperactivity, and sleep abnormalities. These behaviors may be sources of stress for caregivers and patients alike and may require pharmacologic management. Risperidone and aripiprazole are frequently used to treat both irritability and self-injurious behavior related to autism spectrum disorder. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has also been studied for self-injurious behaviors, although long-term data are lacking when used in the autism spectrum disorder population. Methylphenidate, atomoxetine, clonidine, and guanfacine are all potential options for the treatment of hyperactivity or attention-deficient hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in patients with autism spectrum disorder. Lastly, melatonin is the most widely researched medication strategy for the management of sleep disorders in autism spectrum disorder. Future studies reviewing new pharmacologic treatment approaches in combination with non-pharmacologic therapies are warranted to ensure that target behaviors of autism spectrum disorder are appropriately managed. PMID:27079778

  5. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J.; Waldie, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  6. Global Prevalence of Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Divan, Gauri; Koh, Yun-Joo; Kim, Young Shin; Kauchali, Shuaib; Marcín, Carlos; Montiel-Nava, Cecilia; Patel, Vikram; Paula, Cristiane S; Wang, Chongying; Yasamy, Mohammad Taghi; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We provide a systematic review of epidemiological surveys of autistic disorder and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) worldwide. A secondary aim was to consider the possible impact of geographic, cultural/ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on prevalence estimates and on clinical presentation of PDD. Based on the evidence reviewed, the median of prevalence estimates of autism spectrum disorders was 62/10 000. While existing estimates are variable, the evidence reviewed does not support differences in PDD prevalence by geographic region nor of a strong impact of ethnic/cultural or socioeconomic factors. However, power to detect such effects is seriously limited in existing data sets, particularly in low-income countries. While it is clear that prevalence estimates have increased over time and these vary in different neighboring and distant regions, these findings most likely represent broadening of the diagnostic concets, diagnostic switching from other developmental disabilities to PDD, service availability, and awareness of autistic spectrum disorders in both the lay and professional public. The lack of evidence from the majority of the world's population suggests a critical need for further research and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries. Autism Res 2012, 5: 160–179. © 2012 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22495912

  7. Seven Pervasive Statistical Flaws in Cognitive Training Interventions.

    PubMed

    Moreau, David; Kirk, Ian J; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    The prospect of enhancing cognition is undoubtedly among the most exciting research questions currently bridging psychology, neuroscience, and evidence-based medicine. Yet, convincing claims in this line of work stem from designs that are prone to several shortcomings, thus threatening the credibility of training-induced cognitive enhancement. Here, we present seven pervasive statistical flaws in intervention designs: (i) lack of power; (ii) sampling error; (iii) continuous variable splits; (iv) erroneous interpretations of correlated gain scores; (v) single transfer assessments; (vi) multiple comparisons; and (vii) publication bias. Each flaw is illustrated with a Monte Carlo simulation to present its underlying mechanisms, gauge its magnitude, and discuss potential remedies. Although not restricted to training studies, these flaws are typically exacerbated in such designs, due to ubiquitous practices in data collection or data analysis. The article reviews these practices, so as to avoid common pitfalls when designing or analyzing an intervention. More generally, it is also intended as a reference for anyone interested in evaluating claims of cognitive enhancement. PMID:27148010

  8. Unique transposon landscapes are pervasive across Drosophila melanogaster genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Reazur; Chirn, Gung-wei; Kanodia, Abhay; Sytnikova, Yuliya A.; Brembs, Björn; Bergman, Casey M.; Lau, Nelson C.

    2015-01-01

    To understand how transposon landscapes (TLs) vary across animal genomes, we describe a new method called the Transposon Insertion and Depletion AnaLyzer (TIDAL) and a database of >300 TLs in Drosophila melanogaster (TIDAL-Fly). Our analysis reveals pervasive TL diversity across cell lines and fly strains, even for identically named sub-strains from different laboratories such as the ISO1 strain used for the reference genome sequence. On average, >500 novel insertions exist in every lab strain, inbred strains of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), and fly isolates in the Drosophila Genome Nexus (DGN). A minority (<25%) of transposon families comprise the majority (>70%) of TL diversity across fly strains. A sharp contrast between insertion and depletion patterns indicates that many transposons are unique to the ISO1 reference genome sequence. Although TL diversity from fly strains reaches asymptotic limits with increasing sequencing depth, rampant TL diversity causes unsaturated detection of TLs in pools of flies. Finally, we show novel transposon insertions negatively correlate with Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) levels for most transposon families, except for the highly-abundant roo retrotransposon. Our study provides a useful resource for Drosophila geneticists to understand how transposons create extensive genomic diversity in fly cell lines and strains. PMID:26578579

  9. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  10. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  11. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications. PMID:22777183

  12. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  13. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs.

  14. Consideration of IP Telephony Quality on the IEEE802.11a Wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Michifumi; Takamatsu, Hideyuki; Kurono, Masahiro

    Recently, IP telephony services in wired network are started, and paid attention for its charge-free nature due to IP technology. On the other hand, the Hot-Spot service, which provides one to access the Internet at the public space such as cafe, using the IEEE wireless LAN has been evolved, and it is expected that the IP telephony service on the Hot-Spot network will be developed. However, the IP telephony quality on the IEEE802.11a wireless LAN has not been fully studied yet. In this paper, we discuss about the quality of IP telephony service on the IEEE802.11a wireless LAN from the aspect of R-value, and show ability to improve the IP telephony quality on the Hot-Spot network employing PLC function defined in the ITU-T Recommendation G.711 Appendix I.

  15. Genome-wide activities of Polycomb complexes control pervasive transcription.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hun-Goo; Kahn, Tatyana G; Simcox, Amanda; Schwartz, Yuri B; Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes PRC1 and PRC2 are well known for silencing specific developmental genes. PRC2 is a methyltransferase targeting histone H3K27 and producing H3K27me3, essential for stable silencing. Less well known but quantitatively much more important is the genome-wide role of PRC2 that dimethylates ∼70% of total H3K27. We show that H3K27me2 occurs in inverse proportion to transcriptional activity in most non-PcG target genes and intergenic regions and is governed by opposing roaming activities of PRC2 and complexes containing the H3K27 demethylase UTX. Surprisingly, loss of H3K27me2 results in global transcriptional derepression proportionally greatest in silent or weakly transcribed intergenic and genic regions and accompanied by an increase of H3K27ac and H3K4me1. H3K27me2 therefore sets a threshold that prevents random, unscheduled transcription all over the genome and even limits the activity of highly transcribed genes. PRC1-type complexes also have global roles. Unexpectedly, we find a pervasive distribution of histone H2A ubiquitylated at lysine 118 (H2AK118ub) outside of canonical PcG target regions, dependent on the RING/Sce subunit of PRC1-type complexes. We show, however, that H2AK118ub does not mediate the global PRC2 activity or the global repression and is predominantly produced by a new complex involving L(3)73Ah, a homolog of mammalian PCGF3. PMID:25986499

  16. Shadow Enhancers Are Pervasive Features of Developmental Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cannavò, Enrico; Khoueiry, Pierre; Garfield, David A.; Geeleher, Paul; Zichner, Thomas; Gustafson, E. Hilary; Ciglar, Lucia; Korbel, Jan O.; Furlong, Eileen E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Embryogenesis is remarkably robust to segregating mutations and environmental variation; under a range of conditions, embryos of a given species develop into stereotypically patterned organisms. Such robustness is thought to be conferred, in part, through elements within regulatory networks that perform similar, redundant tasks. Redundant enhancers (or “shadow” enhancers), for example, can confer precision and robustness to gene expression, at least at individual, well-studied loci. However, the extent to which enhancer redundancy exists and can thereby have a major impact on developmental robustness remains unknown. Here, we systematically assessed this, identifying over 1,000 predicted shadow enhancers during Drosophila mesoderm development. The activity of 23 elements, associated with five genes, was examined in transgenic embryos, while natural structural variation among individuals was used to assess their ability to buffer against genetic variation. Our results reveal three clear properties of enhancer redundancy within developmental systems. First, it is much more pervasive than previously anticipated, with 64% of loci examined having shadow enhancers. Their spatial redundancy is often partial in nature, while the non-overlapping function may explain why these enhancers are maintained within a population. Second, over 70% of loci do not follow the simple situation of having only two shadow enhancers—often there are three (rols), four (CadN and ade5), or five (Traf1), at least one of which can be deleted with no obvious phenotypic effects. Third, although shadow enhancers can buffer variation, patterns of segregating variation suggest that they play a more complex role in development than generally considered. PMID:26687625

  17. Shadow Enhancers Are Pervasive Features of Developmental Regulatory Networks.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Enrico; Khoueiry, Pierre; Garfield, David A; Geeleher, Paul; Zichner, Thomas; Gustafson, E Hilary; Ciglar, Lucia; Korbel, Jan O; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2016-01-11

    Embryogenesis is remarkably robust to segregating mutations and environmental variation; under a range of conditions, embryos of a given species develop into stereotypically patterned organisms. Such robustness is thought to be conferred, in part, through elements within regulatory networks that perform similar, redundant tasks. Redundant enhancers (or "shadow" enhancers), for example, can confer precision and robustness to gene expression, at least at individual, well-studied loci. However, the extent to which enhancer redundancy exists and can thereby have a major impact on developmental robustness remains unknown. Here, we systematically assessed this, identifying over 1,000 predicted shadow enhancers during Drosophila mesoderm development. The activity of 23 elements, associated with five genes, was examined in transgenic embryos, while natural structural variation among individuals was used to assess their ability to buffer against genetic variation. Our results reveal three clear properties of enhancer redundancy within developmental systems. First, it is much more pervasive than previously anticipated, with 64% of loci examined having shadow enhancers. Their spatial redundancy is often partial in nature, while the non-overlapping function may explain why these enhancers are maintained within a population. Second, over 70% of loci do not follow the simple situation of having only two shadow enhancers-often there are three (rols), four (CadN and ade5), or five (Traf1), at least one of which can be deleted with no obvious phenotypic effects. Third, although shadow enhancers can buffer variation, patterns of segregating variation suggest that they play a more complex role in development than generally considered. PMID:26687625

  18. Pervasive developmental disorders in individuals with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kilincaslan, Ayse; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and associated factors of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), including autistic disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (NOS), in a clinical sample of 126 children and adolescents (75 males, 51 females; age range 4-18y, mean 8y 8mo, SD 3y 8mo) with tetraplegic, hemiplegic, diplegic, dyskinetic, or mixed types of cerebral palsy (CP); 28% could not crawl or walk even with support, 29% could move with support, and 43% walked independently. Participants were examined for PDD in two stages. In the first stage, probable participants were determined by direct observation, Autism Behavior Checklist score, and medical reports. In the second stage, those with 'probable' symptoms underwent psychiatric examination and their autistic symptoms were scored on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. The final diagnosis of autistic disorder or PDD-NOS was given according to DSM-IV criteria. Fourteen (11%) and five (4%) of the participants met the criteria for autistic disorder and PDD-NOS respectively. Children with CP and PDD differed from those without PDD in terms of type of CP (p=0.02), presence of epilepsy (p<0.001), intellectual level (p<0.001), and level of speech (p<0.001). PDD was more common in children with tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP, and in children with epilepsy, learning disability, and low level of speech. The findings corroborate the notion that CP is a complex disorder, often associated with additional impairments. PDD is not rare in CP and should be considered in patients with comorbid conditions such as epilepsy, learning disability, and language delay and in the presence of tetraplegic, mixed, and hemiplegic CP types. PMID:19335564

  19. 1994 IEEE first world conference on photovoltaic energy conversion: Conference record of the twenty-fourth IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference -- 1994. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 1994 IEEE First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion and conference record of the Twenty Fourth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference of 1994. The topics of the papers include research reports on advanced devices; results of pilot commercialization projects; financing, installing and operating photovoltaic power generating systems; and space photovoltaic device development and system applications. The papers are divided into the following sections: Silicon cells and materials; Si material growth and characterization; Si device and process modeling; Single crystal and high efficiency Si devices; Multicrystalline and thin-layer Si devices; Si defect and impurity effects in growth and processing; Si crystal growth and Si device modeling; Crystalline Si devices; Impurities and defects in crystalline Si and thin layer devices; Multijunction cells; Multijunction devices; Space systems; Space solar cells; National program economics and technology; and National programs status and prospects. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Withdrawal Study of Memantine in Pediatric Patients With Autism, Asperger's Disorder, or Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Previously Treated With Memantine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-31

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Autism; Autistic Disorder; Asperger's Disorder; Asperger's; Pediatric Autism; Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Pervasive Child Development Disorder

  1. Proceedings of the IEEE international symposium on intelligent control 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.; Luh, J.Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on Robotics is presented. Topics include the following: Navigation of an autonomous land vehicle, Computer vision with fuzzy edge perception; robotic control in a connection neutral inspired environment; and mathematical entropy formalism for robotic neural system Quantization Theory.

  2. Multimedia Learning Systems Based on IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kleinberger, Thomas; Muller, Paul

    One of the "hottest" topics in recent information systems and computer science is metadata. Learning Object Metadata (LOM) appears to be a very powerful mechanism for representing metadata, because of the great variety of LOM Objects. This is on of the reasons why the LOM standard is repeatedly cited in projects in the field of eLearning Systems.…

  3. Pervasive recombination and sympatric genome diversification driven by frequency-dependent selection in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease bacterium.

    PubMed

    Haven, James; Vargas, Levy C; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Xue, Vincent; Hernandez, Yozen; Pagan, Pedro; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Schutzer, Steven E; Luft, Benjamin J; Casjens, Sherwood R; Qiu, Wei-Gang

    2011-11-01

    How genomic diversity within bacterial populations originates and is maintained in the presence of frequent recombination is a central problem in understanding bacterial evolution. Natural populations of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterial agent of Lyme disease, consist of diverse genomic groups co-infecting single individual vertebrate hosts and tick vectors. To understand mechanisms of sympatric genome differentiation in B. burgdorferi, we sequenced and compared 23 genomes representing major genomic groups in North America and Europe. Linkage analysis of >13,500 single-nucleotide polymorphisms revealed pervasive horizontal DNA exchanges. Although three times more frequent than point mutation, recombination is localized and weakly affects genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. We show by computer simulations that, while enhancing population fitness, recombination constrains neutral and adaptive divergence among sympatric genomes through periodic selective sweeps. In contrast, simulations of frequency-dependent selection with recombination produced the observed pattern of a large number of sympatric genomic groups associated with major sequence variations at the selected locus. We conclude that negative frequency-dependent selection targeting a small number of surface-antigen loci (ospC in particular) sufficiently explains the maintenance of sympatric genome diversity in B. burgdorferi without adaptive divergence. We suggest that pervasive recombination makes it less likely for local B. burgdorferi genomic groups to achieve host specialization. B. burgdorferi genomic groups in the northeastern United States are thus best viewed as constituting a single bacterial species, whose generalist nature is a key to its rapid spread and human virulence. PMID:21890743

  4. Pervasive Learning--Using Games to Tear down the Classroom Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pløhn, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Pervasive gaming is a new and emerging gaming genre where the physical and social aspects of the real world are integrated into the game and blends into the player's everyday life. Given the nature of pervasive games, it may be possible to use that type of game as a tool to support learning in a university course by providing a gameplay where…

  5. Novel pervasive scenarios for home management: the Butlers architecture.

    PubMed

    Denti, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts today aim to energy saving, promoting the user's awareness and virtuous behavior in a sustainability perspective. Our houses, appliances, energy meters and devices are becoming smarter and connected, domotics is increasing possibilities in house automation and control, and ambient intelligence and assisted living are bringing attention onto people's needs from different viewpoints. Our assumption is that considering these aspects together allows for novel intriguing possibilities. To this end, in this paper we combine home energy management with domotics, coordination technologies, intelligent agents, ambient intelligence, ubiquitous technologies and gamification to devise novel scenarios, where energy monitoring and management is just the basic brick of a much wider and comprehensive home management system. The aim is to control home appliances well beyond energy consumption, combining home comfort, appliance scheduling, safety constraints, etc. with dynamically-changeable users' preferences, goals and priorities. At the same time, usability and attractiveness are seen as key success factors: so, the intriguing technologies available in most houses and smart devices are exploited to make the system configuration and use simpler, entertaining and attractive for users. These aspects are also integrated with ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, geo-localization, social networks and communities to provide enhanced functionalities and support smarter application scenarios, hereby further strengthening technology acceptation and diffusion. Accordingly, we first analyse the system requirements and define a reference multi-layer architectural model - the Butlers architecture - that specifies seven layers of functionalities, correlating the requirements, the corresponding technologies and the consequent value-added for users in each layer. Then, we outline a set of notable scenarios of increasing functionalities and complexity, discuss the structure of the

  6. Comparison of QoS guarantee techniques for VoIP over IEEE802.11 wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fanglu; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2008-01-01

    An emerging killer application for enterprise wireless LANs (WLANs) is voice over IP (VoIP) telephony, which promises to greatly improve the reachability and mobility of enterprise telephony service at low cost. None of the commercial IEEE 802.11 WLAN-based VoIP products can support more than ten G.729-quality voice conversations over a single IEEE 802.11b channel on real-world WLANs, even though the physical transmission rate is more than two orders of magnitude higher than an individual VoIP connection's bandwidth requirement. There are two main reasons why these VoIP systems' effective throughput is significantly lower than expected: VoIP's stringent latency requirement and substantial per-WLAN-packet overhead. Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a well-known technique that provides per-connection QoS guarantee as well as improves the radio channel utilization efficiency. This paper compares the effective throughput of IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11e and a software-based TDMA (STDMA) protocol that is specifically designed to support WLAN-based VoIP applications, on the same commodity IEEE 802.11 WLAN hardware. Empirical measurements from a VOIP over WLAN testbed show that the numbers of G.729-quality voice conversations that IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11e and STDMA can support over a single IEEE 802.11b channel are 18, 22 and 50, respectively.

  7. IEEE802.15.6 -based multi-accelerometer WBAN system for monitoring Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Keränen, Niina; Särestöniemi, Mariella; Partala, Juha; Hämäläinen, Matti; Reponen, Jarmo; Seppänen, Tapio; Iinatti, Jari; Jämsä, Timo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed example of a wireless body area network (WBAN) scenario utilizing the recent IEEE802.15.6 standard as applied to a multi-accelerometer system for monitoring Parkinson's disease and fall detection. Ultra wideband physical layer and standard security protocols are applied to meet application requirements for data rate and security. PMID:24110022

  8. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  9. Image Transfer Frequency Division Multiplex Multi-Hop Network Using IEEE 802.15.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inui, Kazuhiro; Sugiura, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    Recently, the wireless sensor network where advanced sensing, and image recognition and a network were connected attracts attention. In this research, the multi-hop wireless sensor network which carries out sensing of the image which used IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee is built. In the multi-hop network, two or more sets of terminals may be communicating within 1 hop using the same frequency band. In that case, communicative delay occurs by access control (CSMA/CA) of IEEE 802.15.4. In order to solve this problem, in this research, proposal of the image transfer network which applied the Frequency Division Multiplex system to IEEE 802.15.4, and construction were performed. In order to show the usefulness of this proposal system, image transmission by the conventional system and a proposal system was performed, and transmission time was measured. When a proposal system was applied, improvement in a throughput has been confirmed as compared with the conventional system. Furthermore, improvement in a throughput was confirmed by performing a channel setup which avoided the channel currently used by wireless LAN. Moreover, it confirmed that a proposal system improved about 25 [msec] faster than the conventional system by the experiment of the picture transmission by communication of IEEE 802.15.4.

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    PubMed

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results. PMID:26861352

  12. Performance Analysis of Non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Linbo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Gang

    This letter presents a model with queueing theory to analyze the performance of non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks. We use the closed queueing network model and derive an approximate representation of throughput which can reveal the relationship between the throughput and the total offered load under finite traffic load conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by extensive simulations.

  13. Conference record of the 1995 IEEE Industry Applications Society, thirtieth IAS annual meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This is the conference record of the 1995 IEEE Industry Applications Conference, Thirtieth IAS annual meeting. The topics of the papers included efficiency and power control of drives, sensorless permanent magnet motor drives, advanced drive concepts, sensorless control, permanent magnet motor drives, reluctance motor drives, induction motor drives, drive applications, and magnetics and energy conversion.

  14. IEEE International conference on plasma science: Conference record--Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The conference covered the following topics: basic plasma physics; vacuum electronics; gaseous and electrical gas discharges; laser-produced plasma; space plasmas; computational plasma science; plasma diagnostics; electron, ion and plasma sources; intense electron and ion beams; intense beam microwaves; fast wave M/W devices; microwave-plasma interactions; magnetic fusion; MHD; plasma focus; ultrafast z-pinches and x-ray lasers; plasma processing; fast-opening switches; EM and ETH launchers; solid-state plasmas and switches; plasmas for lighting; ball lightning and spherical plasma configurations; and environmental/energy issues. Separate abstracts were prepared for 379 items in this conference.

  15. IEEE 802.16J-Relay Fortified Aeromacs Networks; Benefits and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is an IEEE 802.16 standard-based (WiMAX) broadband aviation transmission technology, developed to provide safety critical communications coverage for airport surface in support of fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. We have previously demonstrated that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor of application of IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified WiMAX networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements. In this article, following introductory remarks on airport surface communications, WiMAX and AeroMACS; the IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX technology and multihop relay systems are briefly described. The two modes of relay operation supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment; i.e., transparent (TRS) and non-transparent (NTRS) modes, are discussed in some detail. Advantages and disadvantages of using TRS and NTRS in AeroMACS networks are summarized in a table. Practical issues vis--vis the inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks are addressed. It is argued that the selection of relay type may affect a number of network parameters. A discussion on specific benefits and challenges of inclusion of relays in AeroMACS networks is provided. The article concludes that in case it is desired or necessary to exclusively employ one type of relay mode for all applications throughout an AeroMACS network, the proper selection would be the non-transparent mode.

  16. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  17. 1999 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of mobile robot maneuvering; navigation in unknown environment; biped robots; underwater vehicles; robot planning and programming for assembly; discrete event control of manufacturing systems; motion planning; robot control; actuator; teleoperation; force and position control; contact and grasping control; visual servo control; tactile sensing; mobile robots and applications; sensor-based navigation; underwater robotics; sensing, navigation and control; flexible manipulators; task scheduling; actuators and joint actuation; teleoperation; sensor-based teleoperation; contact geometry; sonar-based sensing; mobile robot-environment interaction; mobile robot motion planning; biology-inspired methods; service and underwater robots; manufacturing planning and scheduling; constraint and nonholonomic system; fault-tolerant robots; parallel manipulators; dexterous manipulation; computer vision in manufacturing; contact sensing; mobile robot field applications; flexible robots; fuzzy control; and more.

  18. The 26th IEEE international conference on plasma science

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume.

  19. Slovak High School Students' Attitudes toward Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiatko, Milan; Halakova, Zuzana; Nagyova, Sona; Nagy, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The pervasive involvement of information and communication technologies and computers in our daily lives influences changes of attitude toward computers. We focused on finding these ecological effects in the differences in computer attitudes as a function of gender and age. A questionnaire with 34 Likert-type items was used in our research. The…

  20. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  1. Leiter-R versus developmental quotient for estimating cognitive function in preschoolers with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Portoghese, Claudia; Buttiglione, Maura; De Giacomo, Andrea; Lafortezza, Mariaelena; Lecce, Paola A; Martinelli, Domenico; Lozito, Vito; Margari, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    The utility of the developmental quotient (DQ) obtained with the Psychoeducational Profile Revised (PEP-R) was assessed as a means of estimating cognitive ability in young children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data from the PEP-R were analysed in a sample of 44 children aged from 2.0 to 5.9 years (mean 3.46 ± 1), 13 with an autistic disorder and 31 with a pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. DQ scores were compared with scores from the Leiter International Performance Scale Revised-Visualization and Reasoning Battery (Leiter-R) in the same 44 children. Overall and domain DQs on the PEP-R were significantly correlated with Leiter-R scores. This study suggests that DQ scores obtained from the PEP-R in preschool children with pervasive developmental disorders may be a viable alternative to the Leiter-R as an assessment tool. PMID:20856598

  2. Efficient Transmission of Multicast MAPs in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Jae-Heung; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    The institute of electrical and electronics engineers (IEEE) 802.16e is designed to support a wide range of applications with various quality of service requirements. Since MAP signaling overhead can unacceptably be large for voice traffic, IEEE 802.16e suggests the use of multicast sub-MAPS whose messages are encoded according to the channel condition. In this case, it is desirable for the base station to properly choose a modulation and coding set associated with the channel condition. In this letter, we consider the use of an adaptive modulation coding scheme for the multicast sub-MAPs without explicit information on the channel condition. The proposed scheme can achieve the same MAP coverage as the broadcast MAP while minimizing the signaling overhead. Simulation results show that when it is applied to voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP) services, the proposed scheme can significantly enhance the VoIP capacity.

  3. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  4. Location Error Detection and Compensation for IEEE 802.15.4a Networks in Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Youngbae; Kim, Junseok; Kwon, Younggoo; Park, Gwitae

    IEEE 802.15.4a standard enables location-aided routing or topology control in ZigBee networks, since it uses time-of-arrival (TOA)-based ranging technique. However, TOA based techniques may yield location error due to the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) effects, and hence degrade the network performance. In this letter, we demonstrate the impact of NLOS on the localization performance and propose a location error detection and compensation algorithm for IEEE 802.15.4a networks. The proposed algorithm detects NLOS by using the min-max algorithm and compensates the location error by using the Kalman filter. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the localization errors in indoor environments.

  5. A nomadic access mechanism for enabling dynamic video surveillance over IEEE 802.15.4 networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Felipe; Garcia-Sanchez, Antonio-Javier; Losilla, Fernando; Garcia-Haro, Joan

    2010-12-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 networking technology is designed to be the common standard for integrating WSN applications in heterogeneous environments. However, applications considering mobile nodes along with strict temporal requirements, such as those required for video transmission, are an unexplored field for this technology. These applications involve different challenges and issues that the direct employment of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard does not resolve. Therefore, in this paper a cross-layer mechanism consisting of application and medium access arbitration is presented, enabling the efficient connection and operation of mobile nodes together with the transmission of video flows. The proposed mechanism is evaluated via simulation and its feasibility checked by means of a first prototype. The study of power consumption is also taken into account and so are the quality of service parameters and the human quality perception of the received video stream. The results obtained are presented and further discussed.

  6. A Fast MAC-Layer Handover for an IEEE 802.16e-Based WMAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Sayan K.; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Sirisena, Harsha

    We propose a modification of the IEEE 802.16e hard handover (HHO) procedure, which significantly reduces the handover latency constraint of the original HHO procedure in IEEE 802.16e networks. It allows a better handling of the delay-sensitive traffic by avoiding unnecessary time-consuming scanning and synchronization activity as well as simplifies the network re-entry procedure. With the help of the backhaul network, it reduces the number of control messages in the original handover policy, making the handover latency acceptable also for real-time streaming traffic. Preliminary performance evaluation studies show that the modified handover procedure is able to reduce the total handover latency by about 50%.

  7. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed. PMID:26665952

  8. Interpretation of IEEE-854 floating-point standard and definition in the HOL system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    The ANSI/IEEE Standard 854-1987 for floating-point arithmetic is interpreted by converting the lexical descriptions in the standard into mathematical conditional descriptions organized in tables. The standard is represented in higher-order logic within the framework of the HOL (Higher Order Logic) system. The paper is divided in two parts with the first part the interpretation and the second part the description in HOL.

  9. Sensor Networking Testbed with IEEE 1451 Compatibility and Network Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurkan, Deniz; Yuan, X.; Benhaddou, D.; Figueroa, F.; Morris, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Design and implementation of a testbed for testing and verifying IEEE 1451-compatible sensor systems with network performance monitoring is of significant importance. The performance parameters measurement as well as decision support systems implementation will enhance the understanding of sensor systems with plug-and-play capabilities. The paper will present the design aspects for such a testbed environment under development at University of Houston in collaboration with NASA Stennis Space Center - SSST (Smart Sensor System Testbed).

  10. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  11. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sklavos, N.; Selimis, G.; Koufopavlou, O.

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given.

  12. An IEEE802.15.4-Based System for Locating Children on Their School Commutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Akihiko; Baba, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki

    With the increasing number of crimes and accidents in which children are becoming involved, there is a growing demand for devices to safeguard children's security by detecting their locations on their way to and from school. This paper proposes a system that uses an IEEE802.15.4-standard network to detect children's locations. To overcome the susceptibility of radio interference from nearby wireless LANs, frequency division multiplexing is applied to this IEEE802.15.4-based network, toward improving data acquisition from terminal units. The effectiveness of the system was field-tested with elementary school students who used about 400 IEEE 802.15.4-compliant terminal units. An experiment verified that the use of frequency division multiplexing in an environment where radio interference by wireless LANs is strong allowed the network to double the success rate of information communication from terminal units relative to that without frequency division multiplexing. In the experiment for detecting elementary schoolers' arrival at and departure from school, the terminal detection rate was 99% and the terminal detection rate on the designated school routes was 90%. These results prove the effectiveness of the system in detecting locations.

  13. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models. PMID:24110027

  14. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants.

  15. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    PubMed

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method. PMID:27271626

  16. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio. PMID:26266628

  17. Interventions for Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Richard P.; Robertson, Janet; Yasamy, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although interventions for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have been the focus of research effort and evidence reviews in many Western countries, this evidence has not been assessed in the context of low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries especially in terms of the fit with different cultures and resources.…

  18. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  19. Sex Differences in WISC-III Profiles of Children with High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Inada, Naoko; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Using the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), 26 girls with high-functioning (IQ greater than or equal to 70) pervasive developmental disorders (HFPDD) (mean age, 8.2 years) were compared with 116 boys with HFPDD (mean age, 9.0 years). Compared with the boys, the girls scored significantly…

  20. Face Recognition in Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, M.; Althaus, M.; de Sonneville, L. M. J.; Stant, A. D.; Jackson, A. E.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the accuracy and speed of face recognition in 26 children (ages 7-10) with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Subjects needed an amount of time to recognize the faces that almost equaled the time they needed to recognize abstract patterns that were difficult to distinguish. (Contains references.)…

  1. Mobile Autonomous Sensing Unit (MASU): A Framework That Supports Distributed Pervasive Data Sensing.

    PubMed

    Medina, Esunly; Lopez, David; Meseguer, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio F; Royo, Dolors; Santos, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people's behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios. PMID:27409617

  2. Affective e-Learning: Using "Emotional" Data to Improve Learning in Pervasive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin

    2009-01-01

    Using emotion detection technologies from biophysical signals, this study explored how emotion evolves during learning process and how emotion feedback could be used to improve learning experiences. This article also described a cutting-edge pervasive e-Learning platform used in a Shanghai online college and proposed an affective e-Learning model,…

  3. Using Virtual Reality Environment to Improve Joint Attention Associated with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or…

  4. Mental Development and Autistic Behavior in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Mayo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the features of mental development and autistic behavior in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) from the viewpoint of remedial therapy. The Tokyo Child Development Schedule (TCDS) and the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), designed to be completed by children's caregivers, were used. A…

  5. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  6. Regression of Language and Non-Language Skills in Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilleur, A. -A. S.; Fombonne, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: As part of the pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), there is a subgroup of individuals reported to have a different onset of symptom appearance consisting of an apparently normal early development, followed by a loss of verbal and/or non-verbal skills prior to 2 years of age. This study aims at comparing the symptomatology of…

  7. A Preliminary Study on Screening Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Schoolchildren in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    To study prevalence rates of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) symptoms and differences between subtypes in school age Iranian children. A random sample of 2,000 school age children from both genders was selected. A parent-completed, DSM-IV-referenced rating scale of PDD symptoms was used. About 1.9% of the sample obtained screening cutoff…

  8. Instructional Technology in Appalachian Kentucky 1929-2011: Countering the Pervasive Narrative of Innovation Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleton, Kimberely Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    The prevalent public narrative based on Roger's (2003) model of innovation diffusion categorizes teachers as laggards; rigidly entrenched in outdated practices and unwilling to change. As new instructional technologies failed to be adopted into classrooms, this public narrative served as a pervasive explanation, widely accepted as characteristic…

  9. Promoting Social Skill Development in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Feasibility and Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; White, Susan Williams; Pachler, Maryellen; Lau, Monika; Lewis, Moira; Klin, Ami; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled design was employed to evaluate a social skills intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Aims included evaluating the acceptability of the program and gathering preliminary evidence on efficacy. Forty-four children, ages 8-11 years, were randomly assigned to treatment or wait list. Treatment…

  10. Sleep Correlates of Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is a significant problem in the general pediatric population, and it occurs even more frequently in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Much time and energy have been spent examining the characteristics that predispose children to insomnia and it is likely that equivalent factors influence sleep in PDDs.…

  11. The Co-Occurrence of Nonaffective Psychosis and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Fiona E.; Miltsiou, Eleni; Tiffin, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) were originally conceptualised as a form of ("infantile") psychosis. Recently, the disorders have been viewed as separate constructs. However, there is evidence of overlapping psychopathology, pathophysiology, and occurrence of the two syndromes. Methods: A historical overview is provided. A…

  12. Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Co-Occurring Somatic Chronic Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeseburg, B.; Groothoff, J. W.; Dijkstra, G. J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Jansen, D. E. M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence on the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and the full range of pervasive developmental disorder behavior (PDD behavior) is scarce. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between somatic chronic diseases in ID-adolescents and mild PDD behavior. We obtained data on 1044 ID-adolescents, aged…

  13. Curiosity, Interest and Engagement in Technology-Pervasive Learning Environments: A New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Small, Ruth V.; Chauncey, Sarah A.; McKenna, H. Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for developing new ways to study curiosity in the context of today's pervasive technologies and unprecedented information access. Curiosity is defined in this paper in a way which incorporates the concomitant constructs of interest and engagement. A theoretical model for curiosity, interest and engagement in new…

  14. Automatic Processing of Emotional Faces in High-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Affective Priming Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamio, Yoko; Wolf, Julie; Fein, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    This study examined automatic processing of emotional faces in individuals with high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (HFPDD) using an affective priming paradigm. Sixteen participants (HFPDD and matched controls) were presented with happy faces, fearful faces or objects in both subliminal and supraliminal exposure conditions, followed…

  15. Pharmacotherapy for Hyperactivity in Children with Autism and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; Langworthy, Kristen S.

    2000-01-01

    A review of 41 studies on pharmacological treatments for children with autism and pervasive personality disorder not otherwise specified, found empirical evidence for significant reductions in hyperactive symptoms was strongest for the antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and naltrexone. A theoretical model is proposed for using attentional…

  16. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  17. The fission yeast CENP-B protein Abp1 prevents pervasive transcription of repetitive DNA elements.

    PubMed

    Daulny, Anne; Mejía-Ramírez, Eva; Reina, Oscar; Rosado-Lugo, Jesus; Aguilar-Arnal, Lorena; Auer, Herbert; Zaratiegui, Mikel; Azorin, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed producing cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs). However, the mechanisms regulating pervasive transcription are not well understood. Here, we report that the fission yeast CENP-B homolog Abp1 plays an important role in preventing pervasive transcription. We show that loss of abp1 results in the accumulation of CUTs, which are targeted for degradation by the exosome pathway. These CUTs originate from different types of genomic features, but the highest increase corresponds to Tf2 retrotransposons and rDNA repeats, where they map along the entire elements. In the absence of abp1, increased RNAPII-Ser5P occupancy is observed throughout the Tf2 coding region and, unexpectedly, RNAPII-Ser5P is enriched at rDNA repeats. Loss of abp1 also results in Tf2 derepression and increased nucleolus size. Altogether these results suggest that Abp1 prevents pervasive RNAPII transcription of repetitive DNA elements (i.e., Tf2 and rDNA repeats) from internal cryptic sites. PMID:27345571

  18. Validation of an Interview-Based Rating Scale Developed in Japan for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tani, Iori; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Adachi, Jun; Hara, Koichi; Ogasawara, Megumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Kamio, Yoko; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Hagiwara, Taku; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), an interview-based instrument for evaluating PDDs, has been developed in Japan with the aim of providing a method that (1) can be used to evaluate PDD symptoms and related support needs and (2) is simpler and easier than the currently used "gold standard"…

  19. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Adult Clients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli-Carminati, G.; Chauvet, I.; Deriaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In clients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), some authors have noticed the presence of gastrointestinal disorders and behavioural disorders. An augmented prevalence of different histological anomalies has also been reported. The aim of our study is to highlight the prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders in this adult with…

  20. Quality of Life of Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, F.; Baud, M. A.; Giroud, M.; Carminati, G. Galli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour…

  1. Neutral versus Emotional Human Stimuli Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannetzel, Leonard; Chaby, Laurence; Cautru, Fabienne; Cohen, David; Plaza, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) represents up to two-thirds of autism spectrum disorders; however, it is usually described in terms of the symptoms not shared by autism. The study explores processing of neutral and emotional human stimuli (by auditory, visual and multimodal channels) in children with PDD-NOS (n =…

  2. Pervasive Developmental Disorders: PDD-NOS, Asperger's Disorder and Autism. Parent Information Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Karen

    This information booklet is designed for parents who have a child who has been diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger's Disorder. It provides information on: (1) the definition of PDD; (2) the five subtypes of PDD, including PDD "not otherwise specified," Asperger's disorder, autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative…

  3. Parent Perceptions of Time Spent Meaningfully by Young Adults with Pervasive Support Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Zachary; Lehr, Donna; Lederer, Leslie; Pelerin, Dana; Huang, Shuoxi

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study that examined how 23 young adults with pervasive support needs and limited functional communication spent their time and how their parents (n = 23) and direct support professionals (DSPs; n = 2) defined meaningfulness in relation to the young adults' experiences. Data were collected through…

  4. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Sample of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolov, Roumen N.; Bearss, Karen E.; Lettinga, Jelle; Erickson, Craig; Rodowski, Maria; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Tierney, Elaine; Vitiello, Benedetto; Arnold, L. Eugene; Shah, Bhavik; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate gastrointestinal (GI) problems in a large, well-characterized sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Methods: One hundred seventy two children entering one of two trials conducted by the Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were assessed comprehensively prior to…

  5. Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan K.; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia; Aman, Michael G.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Cronin, Pegeen; Grados, Marco; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Koenig, Kathleen; Lam, Kristen S. L.; McGough, James; Posey, David J.; Ritz, Louise; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties of the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scales (CYBOCS) modified for pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: Raters from five Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network were trained to reliability. The modified scale (CYBOCS-PDD), which contains only…

  6. Brief Report: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Can Evolve into ADHD--Case Illustrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fein, Deborah; Dixon, Pamela; Paul, Jennifer; Levin, Harriet

    2005-01-01

    Despite prominent attentional symptoms in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) the relationship between PDD and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has received little direct examination. In addition, outcome studies of children with PDD often focus on language, educational placement, or adaptive skills, but seldom on loss of the…

  7. The Pervasiveness of 1/f Scaling in Speech Reflects the Metastable Basis of Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kello, Christopher T.; Anderson, Gregory G.; Holden, John G.; Van Orden, Guy C.

    2008-01-01

    Human neural and behavioral activities have been reported to exhibit fractal dynamics known as "1/f noise," which is more aptly named "1/f scaling." Some argue that 1/f scaling is a general and pervasive property of the dynamical substrate from which cognitive functions are formed. Others argue that it is an idiosyncratic property of…

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Brazil--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paula, Cristiane S.; Ribeiro, Sabrina H.; Fombonne, Eric; Mercadante, Marcos T.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study presents preliminary results concerning the prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in South America. It was a three-phase study conducted in a typical town in Southeast Brazil. Case definition was based in a combination of standardized instruments and clinical evaluations by experts. The prevalence of PDD was…

  9. Brief Report: Representational Momentum for Dynamic Facial Expressions in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) have difficulty with social communication via emotional facial expressions, but behavioral studies involving static images have reported inconsistent findings about emotion recognition. We investigated whether dynamic presentation of facial expression would enhance subjective perception of…

  10. A New Way with Autistic and Other Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arnold; Eller-Miller, Eileen

    This monograph describes the program of the Language and Cognitive Development Center (Massachusetts), which serves toddlers and school-aged children with autism or other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). An introduction presents incidence figures, the program's philosophy, the program's approach to assessment, intervention with children…

  11. Prevalence of Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Kraijer, Dirk; Minderaa, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    Background: Insight into the prevalence of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) in children and adolescents with mental retardation (MR) is known to be of clinical importance. However, estimating this prevalence is complicated. The literature reports prevalence rates ranging from 3% through 50%. This variation seems to be related to the concepts…

  12. Mobile Autonomous Sensing Unit (MASU): A Framework That Supports Distributed Pervasive Data Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Esunly; Lopez, David; Meseguer, Roc; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Royo, Dolors; Santos, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Pervasive data sensing is a major issue that transverses various research areas and application domains. It allows identifying people’s behaviour and patterns without overwhelming the monitored persons. Although there are many pervasive data sensing applications, they are typically focused on addressing specific problems in a single application domain, making them difficult to generalize or reuse. On the other hand, the platforms for supporting pervasive data sensing impose restrictions to the devices and operational environments that make them unsuitable for monitoring loosely-coupled or fully distributed work. In order to help address this challenge this paper present a framework that supports distributed pervasive data sensing in a generic way. Developers can use this framework to facilitate the implementations of their applications, thus reducing complexity and effort in such an activity. The framework was evaluated using simulations and also through an empirical test, and the obtained results indicate that it is useful to support such a sensing activity in loosely-coupled or fully distributed work scenarios. PMID:27409617

  13. Pervasive Vulnerabilities: Sexual Harassment in School. Adolescent Cultures, School, and Society. Volume 54

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Regina; Liston, Delores D.

    2012-01-01

    "Pervasive Vulnerabilities" explores the beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescent girls and boys and female teachers in order to expose the continuing persistence of sexual harassment in the United States. The book addresses the sexual double standard that continues to hold girls and women accountable for male sexual aggression, and…

  14. The Art of Gamification; Teaching Sustainability and System Thinking by Pervasive Game Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordby, Anders; Øygardslia, Kristine; Sverdrup, Ulrik; Sverdrup, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Hedmark University College conducted a research project where students from a game development project/study program developed and tested a Pervasive Game for learning as part of a class in System Thinking. The overall game goal was to teach Sustainability through System Thinking, and to give the students a real world experience with their…

  15. Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Client-Centered Approach. A Guide for Parents and Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie C.

    This guide to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) first provides a review of the literature on defining characteristics of PDD/ASD, causes of PDD, and diagnosis of PDD. Review of intervention and treatment comprises the major portion of the paper. After briefly considering parent education, this section…

  16. Using Collaborative Learning Exercises to Transfer Pervasive Skills: Some South African Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss-Keevy, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The Competency Framework, introduced by the South African Institute of Chartered Accountants (SAICA) details technical competencies, but also places emphasis on the pervasive skills that need to be attained by candidates for them to qualify as chartered accountants (CAs). Thus, an additional onus has been placed on academics to ensure that they…

  17. Hemispheric Processing of Idioms and Irony in Adults with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban-Bezalel, Ronit; Mashal, Nira

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have pointed to difficulties in comprehension of figurative language. Using the divided visual field paradigm, the present study examined hemispheric processing of idioms and irony in 23 adults with PDD and in 24 typically developing (TD) adults. The results show that…

  18. Detecting Subgroups in Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Laura; Barton, Marianne; Chen, Chi-Ming; Green, James; Fein, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism…

  19. Abnormalities on the Neurological Examination and EEG in Young Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Farid, Nikdokht; Courchesne, Eric; Haas, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the nature and frequency of neurological and EEG abnormalities in 60 young children (ages 2-6 years) with pervasive developmental disorders. A number of standard neurological functions could not be adequately assessed due to the young age of the children and/or limited comprehension and cooperation. The most common neurological…

  20. An Open-Label Trial of Escitalopram in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Thomas; Walton, Laura; Salt, Jeff; Guter, Stephen J., Jr.; Winnega, Marrea; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of escitalopram in the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Method: This 10-week study had a forced titration, open-label design. Twenty-eight subjects (mean age 125.1 [+ or -] 33.5 months) with a PDD received escitalopram at a dose that increased weekly to a maximum dose of 20 mg as tolerated. The…

  1. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  2. Electrocortical Reflections of Face and Gaze Processing in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, C.; Schuller, A-M.; Van Engeland, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) show behavioral abnormalities in gaze and face processing, but recent studies have indicated that normal activation of face-specific brain areas in response to faces is possible in this group. It is not clear whether the brain activity related to gaze processing is also normal in…

  3. ERPs and Eye Movements Reflect Atypical Visual Perception in Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemner, Chantal; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Many studies of eye tracking or event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) have yielded inconsistent results on attentional processing. However, recent studies have indicated that there are specific abnormalities in early processing that are probably related to perception. ERP amplitudes in…

  4. Facial Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Information from Faces and Voices in Individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research, it is still debated whether impairments in social skills of individuals with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) are related to specific deficits in the early processing of emotional information. We aimed to test both automatic processing of facial affect as well as the integration of auditory and visual…

  5. Audiovisual Speech Integration in Pervasive Developmental Disorder: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnee, Maurice J. C. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice; van Engeland, Herman; Kemner, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Background: Integration of information from multiple sensory sources is an important prerequisite for successful social behavior, especially during face-to-face conversation. It has been suggested that communicative impairments among individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) might be caused by an inability to integrate synchronously…

  6. Brief Report: Neuroanatomic Observations of the Brain in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews neuroanatomic studies on syndromes classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Findings in autism and Asperger's syndrome suggest that these two disorders may represent a continuum along a neurobiological spectrum with a common neuroanatomic substrate, while Rett syndrome appears to be clinically and anatomically distinct…

  7. Computing technology in the 1980's. [computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. S.

    1978-01-01

    Advances in computing technology have been led by consistently improving semiconductor technology. The semiconductor industry has turned out ever faster, smaller, and less expensive devices since transistorized computers were first introduced 20 years ago. For the next decade, there appear to be new advances possible, with the rate of introduction of improved devices at least equal to the historic trends. The implication of these projections is that computers will enter new markets and will truly be pervasive in business, home, and factory as their cost diminishes and their computational power expands to new levels. The computer industry as we know it today will be greatly altered in the next decade, primarily because the raw computer system will give way to computer-based turn-key information and control systems.

  8. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the construct validity of the Pervasive Developmental Disorder Rating Scale (PDDRS; R. C. Eaves, 1993), which is a screening instrument used to identify individuals with autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders. The PDDRS is purported to measure 3 factors--arousal, affect, and…

  9. Factor Analysis of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale with Teacher Ratings of Students with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Thomas O., Jr.; Eaves, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders Rating Scale (PDDRS; Eaves, 2003) is a rating scale that is used in the screening process for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The PDDRS contains three scales: Arousal, Affect, and Cognition. In this study, the construct validity of the PDDRS was examined with teacher ratings from a sample of 168…

  10. RATES OF FITNESS DECLINE AND REBOUND SUGGEST PERVASIVE EPISTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Perfeito, L; Sousa, A; Bataillon, T; Gordo, I

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the factors that determine the rate of adaptation is a major question in evolutionary biology. One key parameter is the effect of a new mutation on fitness, which invariably depends on the environment and genetic background. The fate of a mutation also depends on population size, which determines the amount of drift it will experience. Here, we manipulate both population size and genotype composition and follow adaptation of 23 distinct Escherichia coli genotypes. These have previously accumulated mutations under intense genetic drift and encompass a substantial fitness variation. A simple rule is uncovered: the net fitness change is negatively correlated with the fitness of the genotype in which new mutations appear—a signature of epistasis. We find that Fisher's geometrical model can account for the observed patterns of fitness change and infer the parameters of this model that best fit the data, using Approximate Bayesian Computation. We estimate a genomic mutation rate of 0.01 per generation for fitness altering mutations, albeit with a large confidence interval, a mean fitness effect of mutations of −0.01, and an effective number of traits nine in mutS− E. coli. This framework can be extended to confront a broader range of models with data and test different classes of fitness landscape models. PMID:24372601

  11. Sex Differences in Attitudes, Feelings, and Behaviors toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vredenburg, Karel; And Others

    Despite the pervasiveness of computers and daily advances in computer technology, comparatively little is known about the psychological reactions and attitudes that individuals have toward computers. To investigate sex differences in attitudes, beliefs, feelings, thoughts, behaviors, and behavioral intentions toward computers, 157 male and 305…

  12. Design and implementation of IEEE 802.11ac MAC controller in 65 nm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Bin, Wu; Yong, Hei

    2016-02-01

    An IEEE-802.11ac-1*1 wireless LAN system-on-a-chip (SoC) that integrates an analog front end, a digital base-band processor and a media access controller has been implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology. It can provide significantly increased throughput, high efficiency rate selection, and fully backward compatibility with the existing 802.11a/n WLAN protocols. Especially the measured maximum throughput of UDP traffic can be up to 267 Mbps. Project supported by the National Great Specific Project of China (No. 2012ZX03004004_001).

  13. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts tomore » the grid.« less

  14. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  15. A mathematical problem and a Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) used to evaluate control laws for flexible spacecraft. NASA/IEEE design challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1988-01-01

    The problen of controlling large, flexible space systems has been evaluated using computer simulation. In several cases, ground experiments have also been used to validate system performance under more realistic conditions. There remains a need, however, to test additional control laws for flexible spacecraft and to directly compare competing design techniques. A program is discussed which has been initiated to make direct comparisons of control laws for, first, a mathematical problem, then and experimental test article being assembled under the cognizance of the Spacecraft Control Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center with the advice and counsel of the IEEE Subcommittee on Large Space Structures. The physical apparatus will consist of a softly supported dynamic model of an antenna attached to the Shuttle by a flexible beam. The control objective will include the task of directing the line-of-sight of the Shuttle antenna configuration toward a fixed target, under conditions of noisy data, control authority and random disturbances.

  16. The Computer-Job Salary Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1987-01-01

    Discusses starting salaries for graduates with various degrees in computer science and electrical engineering. Summarizes the results of a recent study by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) which provides salary estimates for graduates in different specialties and in different geographical locations. (TW)

  17. Creating a New Model Curriculum: A Rationale for "Computing Curricula 1990".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Kim B.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a model for the design of undergraduate curricula in the discipline of computing that was developed by the ACM/IEEE (Association for Computing Machinery/Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Computer Society Joint Curriculum Task Force. Institutional settings and structures in which computing degrees are awarded are…

  18. Evidence against pervasively deformed bed material beneath rapidly moving lobes of the southern Laurentide Ice Sheet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, L.; Mickelson, D.M.; Attig, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    During the Wisconsin Glaciation, the ice lobes of the southern part of the Laurentide Ice Sheet moved rapidly as the result of elevated subglacial water pressure. The rapid movement was probably not accompanied by wide-spread pervasive deformation of unfrozen material under the ice. The till stratigraphy of much of this area is well known, and it is clear that the stratigraphic sequence is generally intact. Therefore, such deformation, if it occurred, would have been restricted to the till sheet that was currently being deposited. However, this seems unlikely as well, because the till of the region commonly contains lenses and clasts of unlithified bedded sand that should have been destroyed by pervasive shearing. If unfrozen deformed-till layers were widely present, they must have been confined to the thin upper parts of till sheets. ?? 1989.

  19. Emerging Needs for Pervasive Passive Wireless Sensor Networks on Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating passive wireless sensor technology to reduce instrumentation mass and volume in ground testing, air flight, and space exploration applications. Vehicle health monitoring systems (VHMS) are desired on all aerospace programs to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicles. Pervasive passive wireless sensor networks facilitate VHMS on aerospace vehicles. Future wireless sensor networks on board aerospace vehicles will be heterogeneous and will require active and passive network systems. Since much has been published on active wireless sensor networks, this work will focus on the need for passive wireless sensor networks on aerospace vehicles. Several passive wireless technologies such as microelectromechanical systems MEMS, SAW, backscatter, and chipless RFID techniques, have all shown potential to meet the pervasive sensing needs for aerospace VHMS applications. A SAW VHMS application will be presented. In addition, application areas including ground testing, hypersonic aircraft and spacecraft will be explored along with some of the harsh environments found in aerospace applications.

  20. [Rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xiu-jin; Wang, Zhen-xin; Dai, Xiao-min; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Xiao-jun

    2006-06-01

    Application of controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers can improve the efficiency of fertilizers and reduce the environmental pollution. Controlled-release urea (coated urea) is one of the controlled-release nitrogenous fertilizers developed quickly in the recent years. The rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane is the most important index of the capacity of controlled release. There is a maximum absorption at lambda=426 nm with complex in acidic solution, using p-dimethylaminozenzaldehyde as color reagent, and the absorbance exhibits a linear reponses to the urea concentration over the range of 7.5-210 microg x mL(-1). The method for determining the rate of controlled-release urea pervasion through membrane was realized through determining the content of urea in the liquor, the recovery efficiency of the method is 96.1%-103.9%. PMID:16961255

  1. Multiple power-saving MSSs scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chang

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%-70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  2. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology. PMID:25083792

  3. Multiple Power-Saving MSSs Scheduling Methods for IEEE802.16e Broadband Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes two enhanced multiple mobile subscriber stations (MSSs) power-saving scheduling methods for IEEE802.16e broadband wireless networks. The proposed methods are designed for the Unsolicited Grant Service (UGS) of IEEE802.16e. To reduce the active periods of all power-saving MSSs, the base station (BS) allocates each MSS fewest possible transmission frames to retrieve its data from the BS. The BS interlaces the active periods of each MSS to increase the amount of scheduled MSSs and splits the overflowing transmission frames to maximize the bandwidth utilization. Simulation results reveal that interlacing the active periods of MSSs can increase the number of scheduled MSSs to more than four times of that in the Direct scheduling method. The bandwidth utilization can thus be improved by 60%–70%. Splitting the overflowing transmission frames can improve bandwidth utilization by more than 10% over that achieved using the method of interlacing active periods, with a sacrifice of only 1% of the sleep periods in the interlacing active period method. PMID:24523656

  4. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-12-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group`s recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed.

  5. On the seamless, harmonized use of ISO/IEEE11073 and openEHR.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Kohl, Christian D; Eguzkiza, Aitor; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José; Knaup, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Standardized exchange of clinical information is a key factor in the provision of high quality health care systems. In this context, the openEHR specification facilitates the management of health data in electronic health records (EHRs), while the ISO/IEEE11073 (also referred to as X73PHD) family of standards provides a reference framework for medical device interoperability. Hospitals and health care providers using openEHR require flawless integration of data coming from external sources, such as X73PHD. Hence, a harmonization process is crucial for achieving a seamless, coherent use of those specifications in real scenarios. Such harmonization is the aim of this paper. Thus, the classes and attributes of a representative number of X73PHD specializations for medical devices--weight, temperature, blood pressure, pulse and heart rate, oximetry, and electrocardiograph--along with the X73PHD core document--ISO/IEEE11073-20601--have been analyzed and mapped to openEHR archetypes. The proposed methodology reuses the existing archetypes when possible and suggests new ones--or appropriate modifications--otherwise. As a result, this paper analyzes the inconsistencies found and the implications thereof in the coordinated use of these two standards. The procedure has also shown how existing standards are able to influence the archetype development process, enhancing the existing archetype corpus. PMID:24132031

  6. Social Skills Groups for Asperger’s Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) including Asperger’s disorder are relatively rare conditions that can be very disabling for individuals affected. This article focuses on social skills therapy, looking at research that has been completed in a group therapy format and then using composite case examples to review basic techniques that have been used to teach social skills to children with a diagnosis of PDD. PMID:19727303

  7. Response to ‘pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome’ - authors’ reply

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    An author reply to the Letter to the Editor from Tu et al. regarding Pervasive sequence patents cover the entire human genome by J Rosenfeld and C Mason. Genome Med 2013, 5:27. See related Correspondence by Rosenfeld and Mason, http://genomemedicine.com/content/5/3/27, and related letter by Tu et al., http://genomemedicine.com/content/6/2/14 PMID:24764495

  8. [Review of assessment methods used to evaluate feeding for children with pervasive developmental disorder].

    PubMed

    Nadon, G; Ehrmann Feldman, D; Gisel, E

    2008-08-01

    Current evaluations used by occupational therapists to assess and treat feeding problems derive mainly from the domain of dysphagia. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with tools used, in research, for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and to determine if any of these meet the needs of occupational therapists. The following data bases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, HAPI and PsyINFO, using the terms pervasive developmental disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, eating behavior, eating disorder, food preference, food selectivity, feeding disorders, picky eater and child. All articles published between 1980 and 2006 (n=27) were reviewed. A total of 20 studies met our selection criteria. Assessment methods are compared using the Disability Creation Model (DCP). The DCP is the Quebec alternative to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). None of the evaluation tools reviewed met all factors that may influence eating in children with PDD. Implications for research and practice in occupational therapy are discussed. PMID:18562184

  9. Personal computer process data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O. )

    1989-01-01

    A simple Basic program was written to permit personal computer data collection of process temperatures, pressures, flows, and inline analyzer outputs for a batch-type, unit operation. The field voltage outputs were read on a IEEE programmable digital multimeter using a programmable scanner to select different output lines. The data were stored in ASCII format to allow direct analysis by spreadsheet programs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. A Pervasive Parallel Processing Framework For Data Visualization And Analysis At Extreme Scale Final Scientific and Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Geveci, Berk

    2014-10-31

    The evolution of the computing world from teraflop to petaflop has been relatively effortless,with several of the existing programming models scaling effectively to the petascale. The migration to exascale, however, poses considerable challenges. All industry trends infer that the exascale machine will be built using processors containing hundreds to thousands of cores per chip. It can be inferred that efficient concurrency on exascale machines requires a massive amount of concurrent threads, each performing many operations on a localized piece of data. Currently, visualization libraries and applications are based off what is known as the visualization pipeline. In the pipeline model, algorithms are encapsulated as filters with inputs and outputs. These filters are connected by setting the output of one component to the input of another. Parallelism in the visualization pipeline is achieved by replicating the pipeline for each processing thread. This works well for today’s distributed memory parallel computers but cannot be sustained when operating on processors with thousands of cores. Our project investigates a new visualization framework designed to exhibit the pervasive parallelism necessary for extreme scale machines. Our framework achieves this by defining algorithms in terms of worklets, which are localized stateless operations. Worklets are atomic operations that execute when invoked unlike filters, which execute when a pipeline request occurs. The worklet design allows execution on a massive amount of lightweight threads with minimal overhead. Only with such fine-grained parallelism can we hope to fill the billions of threads we expect will be necessary for efficient computation on an exascale machine.

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Effects of Computer Anxiety on Performance in a Computing-Intensive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Mari W.; Davis, Larry R.; Vician, Chelley

    2007-01-01

    Computers are pervasive in business and education, and it would be easy to assume that all individuals embrace technology. However, evidence shows that roughly 30 to 40 percent of individuals experience some level of computer anxiety. Many academic programs involve computing-intensive courses, but the actual effects of this exposure on computer…

  12. Organizing the History of Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misa, Thomas J.

    This paper tries to distill some of the ‘lessons learned’ from the Charles Babbage Institute’s quarter-century experience (1980-present) in organizing the history of computing. It draws on the author’s (recent) experience as CBI director; conversations with Arthur Norberg, CBI’s long-time founding director; and papers delivered at a special symposium appraising CBI’s role in computing history, which appeared in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 29 no. 4 (October-December 2007).

  13. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    PubMed

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications. PMID:27223463

  14. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, J. Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-01

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  <  100 kHz) electromagnetic fields and contact current. The perspective in this publication is that of Subcommittee 6 of IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as ‘high priority’ by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  15. IEEE/NASA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margaria, Tiziana (Editor); Steffen, Bernhard (Editor); Hichey, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains the Preliminary Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE ISoLA Workshop on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation, with a special track on the theme of Formal Methods in Human and Robotic Space Exploration. The workshop was held on 23-24 September 2005 at the Loyola College Graduate Center, Columbia, MD, USA. The idea behind the Workshop arose from the experience and feedback of ISoLA 2004, the 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods held in Paphos (Cyprus) last October-November. ISoLA 2004 served the need of providing a forum for developers, users, and researchers to discuss issues related to the adoption and use of rigorous tools and methods for the specification, analysis, verification, certification, construction, test, and maintenance of systems from the point of view of their different application domains.

  16. Development of a Low Mobility IEEE 802.15.4 Compliant VANET System for Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  17. Antenna Efficiency and the Genius of the IEEE Standard for Antenna Terms [Education Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, Karl F.

    2012-08-01

    At a 2007 Square Kilometre Array Design Studies (SKADS) workshop in Dwingeloo, Wim van Cappellen of the Nether lands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON) gave a presentation on figures of merit, in which he memorably compared antenna terms to apples. What seems like a simple, homogeneous fruit comes in all colors and varieties. Similarly, a survey of antenna literature and textbooks shows that authors use a wide variety of antenna figures of merit, often not in compliance with the relevant IEEE Standard Definitions of Terms for Antennas [1]. Since this standard is now in the process of revision by the Antennas and Propagation Society Antenna Standards Committee, it seems worth while to consider the standard, and clarify some common misunderstandings and inconsistent usages.

  18. Beamforming Transmission in IEEE 802.11ac under Time-Varying Channels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11ac wireless local area network (WLAN) standard has adopted beamforming (BF) schemes to improve spectral efficiency and throughput with multiple antennas. To design the transmit beam, a channel sounding process to feedback channel state information (CSI) is required. Due to sounding overhead, throughput increases with the amount of transmit data under static channels. Under practical channel conditions with mobility, however, the mismatch between the transmit beam and the channel at transmission time causes performance loss when transmission duration after channel sounding is too long. When the fading rate, payload size, and operating signal-to-noise ratio are given, the optimal transmission duration (i.e., packet length) can be determined to maximize throughput. The relationship between packet length and throughput is also investigated for single-user and multiuser BF modes. PMID:25152927

  19. Development of a low mobility IEEE 802.15.4 compliant VANET system for urban environments.

    PubMed

    Nazabal, Juan Antonio; Falcone, Francisco; Fernández-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matías, Ignacio Raúl

    2013-01-01

    The use of Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (VANETs) is growing nowadays and it includes both roadside-to-vehicle communication (RVC) and inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The purpose of VANETs is to exchange useful information between vehicles and the roadside infrastructures for making an intelligent use of them. There are several possible applications for this technology like: emergency warning system for vehicles, cooperative adaptive cruise control or collision avoidance, among others. The objective of this work is to develop a VANET prototype system for urban environments using IEEE 802.15.4 compliant devices. Simulation-based values of the estimated signal strength and radio link quality values are obtained and compared with measurements in outdoor conditions to validate an implemented VANET system. The results confirm the possibility of implementing low cost vehicular communication networks operating at moderate vehicular speeds. PMID:23760089

  20. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  1. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  2. Architectural and Functional Design and Evaluation of E-Learning VUIS Based on the Proposed IEEE LTSA Reference Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Droma, Mairtin S.; Ganchev, Ivan; McDonnell, Fergal

    2003-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Learning Technology Standards Committee's (LTSC) of the architectural and functional design of e-learning delivery platforms and applications, e-learning course authoring tools, and learning management systems (LMSs), with a view of assessing how…

  3. Analyzing the Engineering Educational Research in Spain: A Global Vision through the Awards of CESEI-IEEE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaza, I.; Arcega, F.; Castro, M.; Llamas, M.

    2011-01-01

    CESEI is the acronym of the Spanish Chapter of the Education Society of IEEE (the Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers). Every year, the CESEI awards a prize for the best doctoral thesis and FDP (final (master) degree projects) about education. The thesis or the project must be developed in the areas of electrical engineering,…

  4. A PERVASIVE BROAD COMPONENT IN H I EMISSION LINE PROFILES: TEMPERATURE, TURBULENCE, OR A HELIUM SIGNATURE?

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, G. L.; Schmelz, J. T. E-mail: jschmelz@memphis.ed

    2010-06-15

    Gaussian analysis of interstellar neutral hydrogen emission profiles has revealed a pervasive broad component with a width on the order of 34 km s{sup -1}. When present, this component can most readily be identified in high galactic latitude directions where the H I profiles are either intrinsically weak or simple. Examination of published data reveals that this characteristic line width has been found in a variety of other H I features including compact high-velocity clouds, very-high-velocity clouds, and the Magellanic Stream. When its presence is accounted for in the analysis of H I profiles, other families of line widths at 14 and 6 km s{sup -1} are clearly revealed. Possible mechanisms for producing this broad background component are discussed, including temperature, turbulence, and the critical ionization velocity effect. A line width on the order of 34 km s{sup -1} would imply a kinetic temperature of 24,000 K, too high to keep the gas neutral; hence it should not be observed in H I emission spectra. Turbulent motions could explain a pervasive broad component, but not why it always has the same numerical value in various classes of H I emission line features. The critical ionization velocity effect hypothesis is intriguing because 34 km s{sup -1} is the value for helium. Clearly, this could be a coincidence but the other prominent distribution peaks correspond to two families of critical ionization velocities of abundant interstellar elements including C, N, and O (about 14 km s{sup -1}) and metals (about 6 km s{sup -1}). Unfortunately, the mechanism by which this effect operates, even in laboratory situations, is not clearly understood. It is suggested that further investigation of the distribution of H I component line widths by allowing for the existence of a pervasive broad underlying component may cast a clearer light on this intriguing phenomenon.

  5. Automatically Augmenting Lifelog Events Using Pervasively Generated Content from Millions of People

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Aiden R.; Smeaton, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    In sensor research we take advantage of additional contextual sensor information to disambiguate potentially erroneous sensor readings or to make better informed decisions on a single sensor’s output. This use of additional information reinforces, validates, semantically enriches, and augments sensed data. Lifelog data is challenging to augment, as it tracks one’s life with many images including the places they go, making it non-trivial to find associated sources of information. We investigate realising the goal of pervasive user-generated content based on sensors, by augmenting passive visual lifelogs with “Web 2.0” content collected by millions of other individuals. PMID:22294880

  6. Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Walker, Robert L; Killian, M Scott; Jaeger, Erich B; Chen, Yidong; Hipp, Jason; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Cornelison, Robert; Smith, William I; Bibikova, Marina; Fan, Jian-Bing; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Meltzer, Paul S

    2009-02-01

    Emerging technologies allow broad profiling of the cancer genome for differential DNA methylation relative to benign cells. Herein, bisulfite-modified DNA from lymph nodes with either reactive hyperplasia or follicular lymphoma (FL) were analyzed using a commercial C/UpG genotyping assay. Two hundred fifty-nine differentially methylated targets (DMT) distributed among 183 unique genes were identified in FL. Comparison of matched formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and frozen surgical pathology replicates showed the complete preservation of the cancer methylome among differently archived tissue specimens. Analysis of the DMT profile is consistent with a pervasive epigenomic remodeling process in FL that affects predominantly nonlymphoid genes. PMID:19155300

  7. Pervasive negative effects of rewards on intrinsic motivation: The myth continues

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Judy; Banko, Katherine M.; Pierce, W. David

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in psychology and education is that rewards decrease intrinsic motivation to perform activities. Over the past 30 years, more than 100 experimental studies have been conducted on this topic. In 1994, Cameron and Pierce conducted a meta-analysis of this literature and concluded that negative effects of reward were limited and could be easily prevented in applied settings. A more recent meta-analysis of the literature by Deci, Koestner, and Ryan (1999) shows pervasive negative effects of reward. The purpose of the present article is to resolve differences in previous meta-analytic findings and to provide a meta-analysis of rewards and intrinsic motivation that permits tests of competing theoretical explanations. Our results suggest that in general, rewards are not harmful to motivation to perform a task. Rewards given for low-interest tasks enhance free-choice intrinsic motivation. On high-interest tasks, verbal rewards produce positive effects on free-choice motivation and self-reported task interest. Negative effects are found on high-interest tasks when the rewards are tangible, expected (offered beforehand), and loosely tied to level of performance. When rewards are linked to level of performance, measures of intrinsic motivation increase or do not differ from a nonrewarded control group. Overall, the pattern of results indicates that reward contingencies do not have pervasive negative effects on intrinsic motivation. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are addressed. PMID:22478353

  8. The pervasive nature of unconscious social information processing in executive control

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans not only have impressive executive abilities, but we are also fundamentally social creatures. In the cognitive neuroscience literature, it has long been assumed that executive control mechanisms, which play a critical role in guiding goal-directed behavior, operate on consciously processed information. Although more recent evidence suggests that unconsciously processed information can also influence executive control, most of this literature has focused on visual masked priming paradigms. However, the social psychological literature has demonstrated that unconscious influences are pervasive, and social information can unintentionally influence a wide variety of behaviors, including some that are likely to require executive abilities. For example, social information can unconsciously influence attention processes, such that simply instructing participants to describe a previous situation in which they had power over someone or someone else had power over them has been shown to unconsciously influence their attentional focus abilities, a key aspect of executive control. In the current review, we consider behavioral and neural findings from a variety of paradigms, including priming of goals and social hierarchical roles, as well as interpersonal interactions, in order to highlight the pervasive nature of social influences on executive control. These findings suggest that social information can play a critical role in executive control, and that this influence often occurs in an unconscious fashion. We conclude by suggesting further avenues of research for investigation of the interplay between social factors and executive control. PMID:22557956

  9. Suppression of pervasive noncoding transcription in embryonic stem cells by esBAF

    PubMed Central

    Hainer, Sarah J.; Gu, Weifeng; Carone, Benjamin R.; Landry, Benjamin D.; Rando, Oliver J.; Mello, Craig C.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the human genome is transcribed, the majority of which does not encode protein. However, many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are rapidly degraded after transcription, and relatively few have established functions, questioning the significance of this observation. Here we show that esBAF, a SWI/SNF family nucleosome remodeling factor, suppresses transcription of ncRNAs from ∼57,000 nucleosome-depleted regions (NDRs) throughout the genome of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We show that esBAF functions to both keep NDRs nucleosome-free and promote elevated nucleosome occupancy adjacent to NDRs. Reduction of adjacent nucleosome occupancy upon esBAF depletion is strongly correlated with ncRNA expression, suggesting that flanking nucleosomes form a barrier to pervasive transcription. Upon forcing nucleosome occupancy near two NDRs using a nucleosome-positioning sequence, we found that esBAF is no longer required to silence transcription. Therefore, esBAF’s function to enforce nucleosome occupancy adjacent to NDRs, and not its function to maintain NDRs in a nucleosome-free state, is necessary for silencing transcription over ncDNA. Finally, we show that the ability of a strongly positioned nucleosome to repress ncRNA depends on its translational positioning. These data reveal a novel role for esBAF in suppressing pervasive transcription from open chromatin regions in ESCs. PMID:25691467

  10. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  11. ISO/IEEE 11073 PHD message generation toolkit to standardize healthcare device.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joon-Ho; Park, Chanyong; Park, Soo-Jun; Lee, Kyu-Chul

    2011-01-01

    As senior population increases, various healthcare devices and services are developed such as fall detection device, home hypertension management service, and etc. However, to vitalize healthcare devices and services market, standardization for interoperability between device and service must precede. To achieve the standardization goal, the IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) group has been standardized many healthcare devices, but until now there are few devices compatible with the PHD standard. One of main reasons is that it isn't easy for device manufactures to implement standard communication module by analyzing standard documents of over 600 pages. In this paper, we propose a standard message generation toolkit to easily standardize existing non-standard healthcare devices. The proposed toolkit generates standard PHD messages using inputted device information, and the generated messages are adapted to the device with the standard state machine file. For the experiments, we develop a reference H/W, and test the proposed toolkit with three healthcare devices: blood pressure, weighting scale, and glucose meter. The proposed toolkit has an advantage that even if the user doesn't know the standard in detail, the user can easily standardize the non-standard healthcare devices. PMID:22254521

  12. A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller with a multibus/IEEE 796 compatible interface.

    PubMed

    Papoff, P; Ricci, D

    1984-02-01

    A programmable positioning stepper-motor controller, based on the Multibus/IEEE 796 standard interface, has been assembled by use of some intelligent and programmable integrated circuits. This controller, organized as a bus-slave unit, has been planned for local management of up to four stepper motors working simultaneously. The number of steps, the direction of rotation and the step-rate for the positioning of each motor are issued by the bus master microcomputer to the controller which handles all the required operations. Once each positioning has been performed, the controller informs the master by generating a proper bus-vectored interrupt. Displacements in up to 64,000 steps may be programmed with step-rates ranging from 0.1 to 6550 steps/sec. This device, for which only low-cost, high-performance components are required, can be successfully used in a wide range of applications and can be easily extended to control more than four stepper motors. PMID:18963547

  13. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments. PMID:27355957

  14. IEEE802.15.6 NB portable BAN clinic and M2M international standardization.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Nohara, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The increase of non communicable diseases (NCDs) will change the direction of health services to emphasize the role of preventive medicine in healthcare services. The first short-range medical body are network (BAN) standard IEEE802.15.6 is expected to be used for secure and user-friendly sensor devices for portable medical equipment. A BAN is an enabler for uploading medical data to a backend system for remote diagnoses and treatment. Machine-to-Machine (M2M) infrastructure is also a key technology for providing flexible and affordable services extending electronic health record (EHR) systems. This paper proposes a BAN-based portable clinic that collects health-check data from user-friendly medical devices and sensors and sends the data to a local backend server, and it evaluates the clinic in fields of actual usage. We discuss issues experienced from actual deployment of the system and focus on integrating it into upcoming healthcare M2M infrastructure to achieve affordable and dependable clinic services. We explain the components and workflow of the clinic and the system model. The system is set up at a temporary health center and has a network link to a remote medical help center. The paper concludes with our plan to introduce our system to contribute to internationally standardized preventive medicine. PMID:24110023

  15. An Enhanced Reservation-Based MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, José A.; Silva, Helder D.; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results. PMID:22163826

  16. New IEEE 11073 Standards for interoperable, networked Point-of-Care Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Kasparick, Martin; Schlichting, Stefan; Golatowski, Frank; Timmermann, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    Surgical procedures become more and more complex and the number of medical devices in an operating room (OR) increases continuously. Today's vendor-dependent solutions for integrated ORs are not able to handle this complexity. They can only form isolated solutions. Furthermore, high costs are a result of vendor-dependent approaches. Thus we present a service-oriented device communication for distributed medical systems that enables the integration and interconnection between medical devices among each other and to (medical) information systems, including plug-and-play functionality. This system will improve patient's safety by making technical complexity of a comprehensive integration manageable. It will be available as open standards that are part of the IEEE 11073 family of standards. The solution consists of a service-oriented communication technology, the so called Medical Devices Profile for Web Services (MDPWS), a Domain Information & Service Model, and a binding between the first two mechanisms. A proof of this concept has been done with demonstrators of real world OR devices. PMID:26736609

  17. A Placement Test for Computer Science: Design, Implementation, and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok; Lang, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    An introductory CS1 course presents problems for educators and students due to students' diverse background in programming knowledge and exposure. Students who enroll in CS1 also have different expectations and motivations. Prompted by the curricular guidelines for undergraduate programmes in computer science released in 2001 by the ACM/IEEE, and…

  18. Brain-Computer Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Gerwin

    2009-01-01

    The theoretical groundwork of the 1930’s and 1940’s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This article is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body’s input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations, and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades. PMID:18310804

  19. Introduction to the special issue on the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum.

    PubMed

    Burt, Eric; Gill, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    The 8 invited and 17 contributed papers in this special issue focus on the following topical areas covered at the 2011 Joint IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and European Frequency and Time Forum, held in San Francisco, California: 1) Materials and Resonators; 2) Oscillators, Synthesizers, and Noise; 3) Microwave Frequency Standards; 4) Sensors and Transducers; 5) Timekeeping and Time and Frequency Transfer; and 6) Optical Frequency Standards. PMID:22481765

  20. Dynamic subframe allocation for mobile broadband m-health using IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 4G health will be one of the key focus areas of future m-health research and enterprise activities in the coming years. WiMAX technology is one of the constituent 4G wireless technologies that provides broadband wireless access (BWA). Despite the fact that WiMAX is able to provide a high data rate in a relatively large coverage; this technology has specific limitations such as: coverage, signal attenuation problems due to shadowing or path loss, and limited available spectrum. The IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay (MMR) technology is a pragmatic solution designed to overcome these limitations. The aim of IEEE 802.16j MMR is to expand the IEEE 802.16e's capabilities with multihop features. In particular, the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) subframe allocation in WiMAX network is usually fixed. However, dynamic frame allocation is a useful mechanism to optimize uplink and downlink subframe size dynamically based on the traffic conditions through real-time traffic monitoring. This particular mechanism is important for future WiMAX based m-health applications as it allows the tradeoff in both UL and DL channels. In this paper, we address the dynamic frame allocation issue in IEEE 802.16j MMR network for m-health applications. A comparative performance analysis of the proposed approach is validated using the OPNET Modeler(®). The simulation results have shown an improved performance of resource allocation and end-to-end delay performance for typical medical video streaming application. PMID:23365886

  1. Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

  2. FOREST ECOLOGY. Pervasive drought legacies in forest ecosystems and their implications for carbon cycle models.

    PubMed

    Anderegg, W R L; Schwalm, C; Biondi, F; Camarero, J J; Koch, G; Litvak, M; Ogle, K; Shaw, J D; Shevliakova, E; Williams, A P; Wolf, A; Ziaco, E; Pacala, S

    2015-07-31

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but important for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with the understanding of basic plant physiology. We examined the recovery of stem growth in trees after severe drought at 1338 forest sites across the globe, comprising 49,339 site-years, and compared the results with simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We found pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1 to 4 years after severe drought. Legacy effects were most prevalent in dry ecosystems, among Pinaceae, and among species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, limited or no legacy effects after drought were simulated by current climate-vegetation models. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem-level carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes. PMID:26228147

  3. Imitation and communication skills development in children with pervasive developmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Portoghese, Claudia; Martinelli, Domenico; Fanizza, Isabella; L’Abate, Luciano; Margari, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the correlation between failure to develop spontaneous imitation and language skills in pervasive developmental disorders. Sixty-four children between the age of 3 and 8 years were assessed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), as well as direct observation of imitation. The sample was subdivided into a verbal and a nonverbal group. Analysis of mean scores on the CARS “imitation” items and of ADI-R “spontaneous imitation” and “pointing to express interest” revealed a statistically significant difference between verbal and nonverbal groups, with more severe impairment/higher scores in the nonverbal than the verbal group. These results suggest that nonverbal children have specifically impaired imitation and pointing skills. PMID:19590730

  4. Pervasive liquid metal based direct writing electronics with roller-ball pen

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-11-15

    A roller-ball pen enabled direct writing electronics via room temperature liquid metal ink was proposed. With the rolling to print mechanism, the metallic inks were smoothly written on flexible polymer substrate to form conductive tracks and electronic devices. The contact angle analyzer and scanning electron microscope were implemented to disclose several unique inner properties of the obtained electronics. An ever high writing resolution with line width and thickness as 200 μm and 80 μm, respectively was realized. Further, with the administration of external writing pressure, GaIn{sub 24.5} droplets embody increasing wettability on polymer which demonstrates the pervasive adaptability of the roller-ball pen electronics.

  5. Quality of life of adults with pervasive developmental disorders and intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Gerber, F; Baud, M A; Giroud, M; Galli Carminati, G

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe quality of life (QoL) and global evolution of persons with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in three different groups. Individualized programs for PDD were compared to traditional programs for intellectual disabilities. Behavioural disorders were repeatedly evaluated using the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC) and QoL once a year. Little research has investigated this domain due to methodological problems with a non-verbal population. Two preliminary studies of individualized programs showed a significant reduction in behaviour disorders over the course of the study. The recent inclusion of a control group indicates that a traditional program reduces lethargy/social withdrawal (ABC factor 2). A good QoL was measured for the three groups. PMID:18266098

  6. Pervasive selection for and against antibiotic resistance in inhomogeneous multistress environments

    PubMed Central

    Chait, Remy; Palmer, Adam C.; Yelin, Idan; Kishony, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria coexist in natural environments with low, if detectable, antibiotic concentrations. Except possibly around localized antibiotic sources, where resistance can provide a strong advantage, bacterial fitness is dominated by stresses unaffected by resistance to the antibiotic. How do such mixed and heterogeneous conditions influence the selective advantage or disadvantage of antibiotic resistance? Here we find that sub-inhibitory levels of tetracyclines potentiate selection for or against tetracycline resistance around localized sources of almost any toxin or stress. Furthermore, certain stresses generate alternating rings of selection for and against resistance around a localized source of the antibiotic. In these conditions, localized antibiotic sources, even at high strengths, can actually produce a net selection against resistance to the antibiotic. Our results show that interactions between the effects of an antibiotic and other stresses in inhomogeneous environments can generate pervasive, complex patterns of selection both for and against antibiotic resistance. PMID:26787239

  7. Four-decade record of pervasive grounding line retreat along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, Frazer D. W.; Bingham, Robert G.; Gourmelen, Noel; Tett, Simon F. B.; Muto, Atsuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Changes to the grounding line, where grounded ice starts to float, can be used as a remotely sensed measure of ice-sheet susceptibility to ocean-forced dynamic thinning. Constraining this susceptibility is vital for predicting Antarctica's contribution to rising sea levels. We use Landsat imagery to monitor grounding line movement over four decades along the Bellingshausen margin of West Antarctica, an area little monitored despite potential for future ice losses. We show that ~65% of the grounding line retreated from 1990 to 2015, with pervasive and accelerating retreat in regions of fast ice flow and/or thinning ice shelves. Venable Ice Shelf confounds expectations in that, despite extensive thinning, its grounding line has undergone negligible retreat. We present evidence that the ice shelf is currently pinned to a sub-ice topographic high which, if breached, could facilitate ice retreat into a significant inland basin, analogous to nearby Pine Island Glacier.

  8. Pervasive community care platform: Ambient Intelligence leveraging sensor networks and mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chuan-Jun; Chiang, Chang-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Several powerful trends are contributing to an aging of much of the world's population, especially in economically developed countries. To mitigate the negative effects of rapidly ageing populations, societies must act early to plan for the welfare, medical care and residential arrangements of their senior citizens, and for the manpower and associated training needed to execute these plans. This paper describes the development of an Ambient Intelligent Community Care Platform (AICCP), which creates an environment of Ambient Intelligence through the use of sensor network and mobile agent (MA) technologies. The AICCP allows caregivers to quickly and accurately locate their charges; access, update and share critical treatment and wellness data; and automatically archive all records. The AICCP presented in this paper is expected to enable caregivers and communities to offer pervasive, accurate and context-aware care services.

  9. Pervasive large-scale magnetic fields in the Venus nightside ionosphere and their implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhmann, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    When the solar wind dynamic pressure at Venus was extraordinarily high during the primary mission of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), 'disappearing ionospheres' occurred on the nightside, with accompanying pervasive near-periapsis magnetic fields of tens of nanoteslas. These nightside counterparts of the generally horizontal large-scale magnetic fields in the dayside ionosphere are found to exhibit some dependence of field magnitude on the solar wind pressure but not on solar zenith angle. Their statistical behavior suggests a global configuration in which the low-altitude field wraps around the planet, while the field at higher altitudes is draped like the induced magnetotail field. The toroidal low-altitude field geometry implies the possible existence of magnetic x points in the low-altitude wake.

  10. Pervasively Altered Hematite-Rich Deposits Southeast of Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Schmidt, M. E.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Rice, J. W.; Yen, A. S.; deSouza, P. A., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of Home Plate and its surroundings in the Inner Basin of the Columbia Hills in Gusev Crater has added substantially to the water story on Mars. Textural, morphological, and geochemical evidence from Home Plate point towards an explosive origin, probably a hydrovolcanic explosion [1]. High silica deposits in the immediate vicinity of Home Plate suggest hydrothermal alteration [e.g. 2,3]. Pervasively altered deposits rich in hematite were investigated to the southeast of Home Plate. Of these, the target Halley, the target KingGeorgeIsland on the GrahamLand outcrop, and the targets Montalva and Riquelme on the Troll outcrop were investigated in situ with the Alpha Particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), the Microscopic Imager (MI), and the Moessbauer (MB) spectrometer (Fig. 1).

  11. Pervasive Drought Legacy Effects in Forest Ecosystems and their Carbon Cycle Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderegg, W.; Schwalm, C.; Biondi, F.; Camarero, J. J.; Koch, G. W.; Litvak, M. E.; Ogle, K.; Shaw, J.; Shevliakova, E.; Williams, P.; Wolf, A.; Ziaco, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The impacts of climate extremes on terrestrial ecosystems are poorly understood but central for predicting carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models typically assume that vegetation recovery from extreme drought is immediate and complete, which conflicts with basic plant physiological understanding. We examine the recovery of tree stem growth after severe drought at 1,338 forest sites globally comprising 49,339 site-years and compare it to simulated recovery in climate-vegetation models. We find pervasive and substantial "legacy effects" of reduced growth and incomplete recovery for 1-4 years after severe drought, and that legacy effects are most prevalent in dry ecosystems, Pinaceae, and species with low hydraulic safety margins. In contrast, no or limited legacy effects are simulated in current climate-vegetation models after drought. Our results highlight hysteresis in ecosystem carbon cycling and delayed recovery from climate extremes.

  12. A girl with pervasive developmental disorder and complex chromosome rearrangement involving 8p and 10p.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Sonnenberg, L K; Heshka, T; Eastwood, S; Xu, J

    2005-06-01

    We report a 4-year-old girl with a de novo, apparently balanced complex chromosome rearrangement. She initially presented for assessment of velopharyngeal insufficiency due to hypernasal speech. She has distinctive facial features (long face, broad nasal bridge, and protuberant ears with simplified helices), bifid uvula, strabismus, and joint laxity. She is developmentally delayed, with language and cognitive skills approximately 2 SD below the mean expected for her age, and meets ADI, ADOS, and DSM-IV criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. She has poor eye contact, atypical communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviours and significant difficulties with processing sensory input. Her karyotype is characterized by the presence of two derivative chromosomes; 46,XX, der(8)(10pter- >10pl2.32::8p12- >8qter), der(l0)(8pter- >8p21.3::10p12.32- >10p11.23::8p21.3- > 8p12::10p11.23- >l0qter). The der(8) is a result of translocation of the segment 10p12.32-pter onto 8p12. The der(l0) has two 8p segments collectively from 8p12-pter in that the segment 8p21.3-pter is translocated onto 10p12.32 and the segment 8p12-p21.3 is inserted at 10p11.23. FISH analysis showed no microdeletion of the major locus at 22q11.2 nor for the minor locus at 10p13p14. This case suggests that aberrations at 8p12, 8p21.3, 10p11.23 and/or 10p12.32 may result in pervasive developmental disorder, associated with mild cognitive delay and specific facial anomalies. PMID:16119480

  13. A deadline-aware transmission framework for H.264/AVC video over IEEE 802.11e EDCA wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jianchao; Chen, Chang Wen

    2010-07-01

    One of the most challenging issues in video transmission over wireless networks is to address the rigid time bounded constraint for video delivery. We propose in this paper a deadline-aware transmission framework (DATF) for video over IEEE 802.11e EDCA wireless networks. In this new framework, we estimate the deadline for time bounded video delivery for each packet in queues at MAC layer according to the sequence number of a frame a given video data packet belonging to as well as the current network delay. Then, the MAC layer determines whether a packet should be sent or should be dropped based on the estimated deadline information. To accomplish the scheme of DATF, we propose to modify the mapping scheme in IEEE 802.11e EDCA to facilitate unequal deadline requirement of video packets. Instead of mapping all video packets into class AC_VI, which is defined for video data in IEEE 802.11e EDCA, we differentiate video packets further based on the dependency characteristics of a given frame type. The proposed DATF scheme has been implemented with NS-2 simulation based on the scenario of wired-cum-wireless network architecture. We compare the proposed approach with several competing schemes and the simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms these competing schemes in terms of both wireless networking metrics and received video quality.

  14. Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  15. Service differentiated and adaptive CSMA/CA over IEEE 802.15.4 for Cyber-Physical Systems.

    PubMed

    Xia, Feng; Li, Jie; Hao, Ruonan; Kong, Xiangjie; Gao, Ruixia

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) that collect, exchange, manage information, and coordinate actions are an integral part of the Smart Grid. In addition, Quality of Service (QoS) provisioning in CPS, especially in the wireless sensor/actuator networks, plays an essential role in Smart Grid applications. IEEE 802.15.4, which is one of the most widely used communication protocols in this area, still needs to be improved to meet multiple QoS requirements. This is because IEEE 802.15.4 slotted Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) employs static parameter configuration without supporting differentiated services and network self-adaptivity. To address this issue, this paper proposes a priority-based Service Differentiated and Adaptive CSMA/CA (SDA-CSMA/CA) algorithm to provide differentiated QoS for various Smart Grid applications as well as dynamically initialize backoff exponent according to traffic conditions. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed SDA-CSMA/CA scheme significantly outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 slotted CSMA/CA in terms of effective data rate, packet loss rate, and average delay. PMID:24260021

  16. Performance evaluation of reactive and proactive routing protocol in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Salima; Cizeron, Eddy; Issaka, Hafiz; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard is widely deployed. This technology is used to support multiple types of communication services (data, voice, image) with different QoS requirements. MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) does not require a fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes communicate through multihop paths. The wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. Furthermore, node mobility creates a continuously changing communication topology in which paths break and new one form dynamically. The routing table of each router in an adhoc network must be kept up-to-date. MANET uses Distance Vector or Link State algorithms which insure that the route to every host is always known. However, this approach must take into account the adhoc networks specific characteristics: dynamic topologies, limited bandwidth, energy constraints, limited physical security, ... Two main routing protocols categories are studied in this paper: proactive protocols (e.g. Optimised Link State Routing - OLSR) and reactive protocols (e.g. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector - AODV, Dynamic Source Routing - DSR). The proactive protocols are based on periodic exchanges that update the routing tables to all possible destinations, even if no traffic goes through. The reactive protocols are based on on-demand route discoveries that update routing tables only for the destination that has traffic going through. The present paper focuses on study and performance evaluation of these categories using NS2 simulations. We have considered qualitative and quantitative criteria. The first one concerns distributed operation, loop-freedom, security, sleep period operation. The second are used to assess performance of different routing protocols presented in this paper. We can list end-to-end data delay, jitter, packet delivery ratio, routing load, activity distribution. Comparative study will be presented with number of networking context consideration and the results show

  17. Behavior Change in a Student with a Dual Diagnosis of Deafness and Pervasive Development Disorder: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easterbrooks, S. R.; Handley, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    The broad term "pervasive developmental disorder" (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as "autism spectrum disorders" (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must…

  18. Parental Perception of Sleep Problems in Children of Normal Intelligence with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Prevalence, Severity, and Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couturier, Jennifer L.; Speechley, Kathy N.; Steele, Margaret; Norman, Ross; Stringer, Bernadette; Nicolson, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study compares parents' perceptions of the prevalence, severity, and pattern of sleep problems in children of normal intelligence with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) with a normative comparison group of children. Method: A survey including the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire was mailed to a sample of parents of…

  19. Long-Term Safety and Adverse Events of Risperidone in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellings, Jessica A.; Cardona, Alicia M.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine long-term adverse events of risperidone in 19 children, adolescents, and adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and intellectual disability, continuing risperidone for a mean of 186.5 weeks, following a 46-week risperidone study. Nineteen individuals continued long-term follow-up after our…

  20. Common and Unique Impairments in Facial-Expression Recognition in Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uono, Shota; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify specific difficulties and associated features related to the problems with social interaction experienced by individuals with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) using an emotion-recognition task. We compared individuals with PDD-NOS or Asperger's disorder (ASP) and typically…

  1. Medication and Parent Training in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavior Problems: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Handen, Benjamin; Arnold, L. Eugene; Johnson, Cynthia; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Bearss, Karen; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi B.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Ramadan, Yaser; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Lecavalier, Luc; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Mulick, James A.; Hall, Kristy L.; Dziura, James; Ritz, Louise; Trollinger, Stacie; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) have serious, functionally impairing behavioral problems. We tested whether combined treatment (COMB) with risperidone and parent training (PT) in behavior management is superior to medication alone (MED) in improving severe behavioral problems in children with PDDs. Method:…

  2. Gross Motor Performance and Self-Perceived Motor Competence in Children with Emotional, Behavioural, and Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud; Beek, Peter; Doreleijers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Motor performance and self-perceived motor competence have a great impact on the psychosocial development of children in general. In this review, empirical studies of gross motor performance and self-perception of motor competence in children with emotional (depression and anxiety), behavioural, and pervasive developmental disorders are…

  3. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  4. Relationship between Motor and Executive Functioning in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurink, J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E. J. A.; Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the motor skills and executive functioning (EF) of 28 children diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; mean age: 10 years 6 months, range: 7-12 years; 19 boys, 9 girls) in comparison with age- and gender-matched typically developing children. The potential relationship between motor…

  5. The Pervasiveness of Racial Prejudice in Higher Education in the U.S.: Raising Awareness and Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Justina O.

    2007-01-01

    Racial diversity is one of the greatest strengths of America?s higher education system. But racial prejudice is entrenched and pervasive in many campuses of institutions of higher learning. A close observation reveals that racial prejudice is not restricted to any race. As much as one would like to believe that simply passing legislations and…

  6. What Factors Are Related to a Negative Outcome of Self-Injurious Behaviour during Childhood in Pervasive Developmental Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghdadli, A.; Picot, M. C.; Pry, R.; Michelon, C.; Burzstejn, C.; Lazartigues, A.; Aussilloux, C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To explore the factors related to the outcome of self-injurious behaviour (SIB) in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Children with PDD were assessed on individual and environmental variables at time 1 and 3 years later. A questionnaire about the presence or absence of SIB was also administered at both times in…

  7. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  8. Donepezil in the Treatment of ADHD-Like Symptoms in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder: A Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Robert L.; Frazier, Jean; Spencer, Thomas J.; Geller, Daniel; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent studies reported ADHD-like symptoms and cognitive deficits in pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Because work in dementia documents improvement in executive function deficits with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, the authors reason that similar benefits could be obtained in PDD. Method: The authors describe…

  9. Empirically Based Phenotypic Profiles of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Interpretation in the Light of the DSM-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Eussen, Mart L. J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Mandy, William; Hudziak, James J.; Steenhuis, Mark Peter; de Nijs, Pieter F.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to contribute to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) debates on the conceptualization of autism by investigating (1) whether empirically based distinct phenotypic profiles could be distinguished within a sample of mainly cognitively able children with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), and (2) how profiles related to…

  10. Microswitch- and VOCA-Assisted Programs for Two Post-Coma Persons with Minimally Conscious State and Pervasive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music…

  11. Design and Subject Characteristics in the Federally-Funded Citalopram Trial in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T.; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (plus or minus 3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were…

  12. Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Young People with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Relative Prevalence, Effects of Subject Characteristics, and Empirical Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lecavalier, Luc

    2006-01-01

    Parents or teachers rated 487 non-clinically referred young people with Pervasive Developmental Disorders on the Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form. The objectives of the study were to examine the relative prevalence of specific behavior problems, assess the impact of subject characteristics, and derive an empirical classification of behavioral…

  13. Differential Language Markers of Pathology in Autism, Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified and Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demouy, Julie; Plaza, Monique; Xavier, Jean; Ringeval, Fabien; Chetouani, Mohamed; Perisse, Didier; Chauvin, Dominique; Viaux, Sylvie; Golse, Bernard; Cohen, David; Robel, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Language impairment is a common core feature in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Many studies have tried to define the specific language profiles of these disorders, some claiming the existence of overlaps, and others conceiving of them as separate categories. Fewer have sought to determine whether…

  14. Follow-Up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change during the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Asmundsdottir, Gudlaug; Hjartardottir, Sigrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis B.; Smaradottir, Hrafnhildur H.; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Smari, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group) and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) of the…

  15. Low-Dose Fluvoxamine Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andres; Koenig, Kathleen; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    This prospective open-label study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of low-doze fluvoxamine in 14 children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). Although there was no response for the group as a whole, eight subjects were considered at least partial responders in intent-to-treat analyses. Results suggest fluvoxamine can be beneficial…

  16. Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Social Communication and Self-Regulation in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Hyperactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…

  17. Platelet Serotonin Levels in Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Mental Retardation: Diagnostic Group Differences, Within-Group Distribution, and Behavioral Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Erik J.; Anderson, George M.; Kema, Ido P.; De Bildt, Annelies; Van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Den Boer, Johan A.; Minderaa Ruud B.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Method: Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's and PDD-not otherwise…

  18. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. PMID:26014280

  19. Brief Report: Autistic Behaviors among Children with Fragile X or Rett Syndrome: Implications for the Classification of Pervasive Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Fiumara, Agata; Cocuzza, M.; Nigro, F.; Incorpora, G.; Barone, R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 14 males with fragile X syndrome, 12 females with Rett Syndrome, and 25 individuals with other developmental disorders found that among those with fragile X syndrome, none of the 11 who did not have a diagnosis of autism met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria for pervasive developmental disorder.…

  20. Supporting collaborative computing and interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; McParland, Charles; Perry, Marcia

    2002-05-22

    To enable collaboration on the daily tasks involved in scientific research, collaborative frameworks should provide lightweight and ubiquitous components that support a wide variety of interaction modes. We envision a collaborative environment as one that provides a persistent space within which participants can locate each other, exchange synchronous and asynchronous messages, share documents and applications, share workflow, and hold videoconferences. We are developing the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) as such an environment. The PCCE will provide integrated tools to support shared computing and task control and monitoring. This paper describes the PCCE and the rationale for its design.

  1. [Value of ancillary testing in the diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Ota, Toyosaku; Iida, Junzo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in adults with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) who seek general psychiatric services for various psychiatric problems. The diagnosis of PDD requires the careful collection of information about the patient's developmental history. A structured diagnostic interview is useful and should be performed, but has limitations now. The clinical value of the measurement of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Autism-Spectrum Quotient Japanese Version, and the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale was demonstrated by a questionnaire survey that the authors conducted in 2010. These additional tests are useful if interpreted with caution. For example, a discrepancy between the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and the verbal IQ in the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale does not by itself diagnose PDD. We examined whether the Japanese version of the National Adult Reading Test (Japanese Adult Reading Test; JART), a valid scale for evaluating pre-morbid IQ in patients with schizophrenia, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) are useful for discriminating between PDD and schizophrenia. Sixteen patients with adult PDD and 16 patients with schizophrenia matched for age, education and sex participated in this study. In addition, the two groups were matched for JART and the Global Assessment of Functioning scores. All subjects were scored on the JART and WAIS-R after giving informed consent for the study. The result was that significant diagnosis-by-IQ examination interactions were found (F [1, 30]=10.049, P=0.003). Also, the WAIS-R scores of the PDD group were higher than those of the schizophrenia group (P=0.002) when the two groups were matched for JART. In conclusion, the comparison of IQ in the PDD group and in the schizophrenia group by JART and WAIS-R might be an easy and useful method for helping to discriminate between PDD and schizophrenia. In addition, the

  2. An Arbitrary Precision Computation Package

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-06-14

    This package permits a scientist to perform computations using an arbitrarily high level of numeric precision (the equivalent of hundreds or even thousands of digits), by making only minor changes to conventional C++ or Fortran-90 soruce code. This software takes advantage of certain properties of IEEE floating-point arithmetic, together with advanced numeric algorithms, custom data types and operator overloading. Also included in this package is the "Experimental Mathematician's Toolkit", which incorporates many of these facilitiesmore » into an easy-to-use interactive program.« less

  3. Networking DEC and IBM computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mish, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Local Area Networking of DEC and IBM computers within the structure of the ISO-OSI Seven Layer Reference Model at a raw signaling speed of 1 Mops or greater are discussed. After an introduction to the ISO-OSI Reference Model nd the IEEE-802 Draft Standard for Local Area Networks (LANs), there follows a detailed discussion and comparison of the products available from a variety of manufactures to perform this networking task. A summary of these products is presented in a table.

  4. Transonic airfoil computation using the integral equation with and without embedded Euler domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Hu, Hong

    1987-01-01

    Two transonic computational schemes which are based on the Integral Equation Formulation of the full potential equation were presented. The first scheme is a Shock Capturing-Shock Fitting (SCSF) scheme which uses the full potential equation throughout with the exception of the shock wave where the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to cross and fit the shock. The second scheme is an Integral Equation with Embedded Euler (IEEE) scheme which uses the full potential equation with an embedded region where the Euler equations are used. The two schemes are applied to several transonic airfoil flows and the results were compared with numerous computational results and experimental domains with fine grids. The SCSF-scheme is restricted to flows with weak shock, while the IEEE-scheme can handle strong shocks. Currently, the IEEE scheme is applied to other transonic flows with strong shocks as well as to unsteady pitching oscillations.

  5. Union and separation in the therapy of pervasive developmental disorders and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of psychotherapy for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in the context of the curative effects of the movement of images. The 'autistic spectrum' is widened here and includes not only PDD, but also ADHD. The main common characteristic in these two sets of disorders seems to be the lack of a subject, which manifests itself as the absence of awareness of otherness and difficulties with boundaries and language. In these cases a normal psychotherapy is ineffective as it presupposes an established subject. However a psychotherapeutic approach with these patients can contribute to the emergence of a subject. In severe cases the process of union and separation which is enacted either in the therapeutic relationship or in symbolic play leads to the birth of a subject, and of language. In milder cases, such as ADHD, the moments of separation and confrontation with the therapist suffice. I will discuss a case of my own with Asperger's syndrome in which union and separation in the play therapy occurred simultaneously. This indicates that union and separation are not a consecutive process, but are simultaneous and lead to dialectical movement. However, in neurotic cases with an established subjectivity the symbolic meaning of image plays a central role. This corresponds to Jung's understanding of image in alchemy. PMID:19840158

  6. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm(-3)) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm(-3)). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation. PMID:24681646

  7. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach

    PubMed Central

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  8. Ribosome profiling reveals pervasive and regulated stop codon readthrough in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Joshua G; Foo, Catherine K; Belletier, Nicolette G; Gavis, Elizabeth R; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes can read through stop codons in a regulated manner, elongating rather than terminating the nascent peptide. Stop codon readthrough is essential to diverse viruses, and phylogenetically predicted to occur in a few hundred genes in Drosophila melanogaster, but the importance of regulated readthrough in eukaryotes remains largely unexplored. Here, we present a ribosome profiling assay (deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments) for Drosophila melanogaster, and provide the first genome-wide experimental analysis of readthrough. Readthrough is far more pervasive than expected: the vast majority of readthrough events evolved within D. melanogaster and were not predicted phylogenetically. The resulting C-terminal protein extensions show evidence of selection, contain functional subcellular localization signals, and their readthrough is regulated, arguing for their importance. We further demonstrate that readthrough occurs in yeast and humans. Readthrough thus provides general mechanisms both to regulate gene expression and function, and to add plasticity to the proteome during evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01179.001 PMID:24302569

  9. An Ontology for Telemedicine Systems Resiliency to Technological Context Variations in Pervasive Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bults, Richard G. A.; Van Sinderen, Marten J.; Widya, Ing; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data are crucial for any medical case to study and understand a patient’s condition and to give the patient the best possible treatment. Pervasive healthcare systems apply information and communication technology to enable the usage of ubiquitous clinical data by authorized medical persons. However, quality of clinical data in these applications is, to a large extent, determined by the technological context of the patient. A technological context is characterized by potential technological disruptions that affect optimal functioning of technological resources. The clinical data based on input from these technological resources can therefore have quality degradations. If these degradations are not noticed, the use of this clinical data can lead to wrong treatment decisions, which potentially puts the patient’s safety at risk. This paper presents an ontology that specifies the relation among technological context, quality of clinical data, and patient treatment. The presented ontology provides a formal way to represent the knowledge to specify the effect of technological context variations in the clinical data quality and the impact of the clinical data quality on a patient’s treatment. Accordingly, this ontology is the foundation for a quality of data framework that enables the development of telemedicine systems that are capable of adapting the treatment when the quality of the clinical data degrades, and thus guaranteeing patients’ safety even when technological context varies. PMID:27170903

  10. Pervasive surveillance-agent system based on wireless sensor networks: design and deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, José F.; Bravo, Sury; García, Ana B.; Corredor, Iván; Familiar, Miguel S.; López, Lourdes; Hernández, Vicente; Da Silva, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Nowadays, proliferation of embedded systems is enhancing the possibilities of gathering information by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Flexibility and ease of installation make these kinds of pervasive networks suitable for security and surveillance environments. Moreover, the risk for humans to be exposed to these functions is minimized when using these networks. In this paper, a virtual perimeter surveillance agent, which has been designed to detect any person crossing an invisible barrier around a marked perimeter and send an alarm notification to the security staff, is presented. This agent works in a state of 'low power consumption' until there is a crossing on the perimeter. In our approach, the 'intelligence' of the agent has been distributed by using mobile nodes in order to discern the cause of the event of presence. This feature contributes to saving both processing resources and power consumption since the required code that detects presence is the only system installed. The research work described in this paper illustrates our experience in the development of a surveillance system using WNSs for a practical application as well as its evaluation in real-world deployments. This mechanism plays an important role in providing confidence in ensuring safety to our environment.

  11. Pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning as a catalyst for efficient energy dissipation in a bioceramic armour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Hierarchical composite materials design in biological exoskeletons achieves penetration resistance through a variety of energy-dissipating mechanisms while simultaneously balancing the need for damage localization to avoid compromising the mechanical integrity of the entire structure and to maintain multi-hit capability. Here, we show that the shell of the bivalve Placuna placenta (~99 wt% calcite), which possesses the unique optical property of ~80% total transmission of visible light, simultaneously achieves penetration resistance and deformation localization via increasing energy dissipation density (0.290 ± 0.072 nJ μm-3) by approximately an order of magnitude relative to single-crystal geological calcite (0.034 ± 0.013 nJ μm-3). P. placenta, which is composed of a layered assembly of elongated diamond-shaped calcite crystals, undergoes pervasive nanoscale deformation twinning (width ~50 nm) surrounding the penetration zone, which catalyses a series of additional inelastic energy dissipating mechanisms such as interfacial and intracrystalline nanocracking, viscoplastic stretching of interfacial organic material, and nanograin formation and reorientation.

  12. Evidence for a pervasive ‘idling-mode’ activity template in flying and pedestrian insects

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Andrew M.; Jones, Hayley B. C.; Hill, Jane K.; Pearson, Aislinn J.; Wilson, Kenneth; Wolf, Stephan; Lim, Ka S.; Reynolds, Don R.; Chapman, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex movement patterns of animals in natural environments is a key objective of ‘movement ecology’. Complexity results from behavioural responses to external stimuli but can also arise spontaneously in their absence. Drawing on theoretical arguments about decision-making circuitry, we predict that the spontaneous patterns will be scale-free and universal, being independent of taxon and mode of locomotion. To test this hypothesis, we examined the activity patterns of the European honeybee, and multiple species of noctuid moth, tethered to flight mills and exposed to minimal external cues. We also reanalysed pre-existing data for Drosophila flies walking in featureless environments. Across these species, we found evidence of common scale-invariant properties in their movement patterns; pause and movement durations were typically power law distributed over a range of scales and characterized by exponents close to 3/2. Our analyses are suggestive of the presence of a pervasive scale-invariant template for locomotion which, when acted on by environmental cues, produces the movements with characteristic scales observed in nature. Our results indicate that scale-finite complexity as embodied, for instance, in correlated random walk models, may be the result of environmental cues overriding innate behaviour, and that scale-free movements may be intrinsic and not limited to ‘blind’ foragers as previously thought. PMID:26064664

  13. Is it possible to assess the impact of abuse on children with pervasive developmental disorders?

    PubMed

    Howlin, P; Clements, J

    1995-08-01

    Although it is now recognized that children may exhibit widespread symptoms of stress following exposure to abuse or neglect, the impact of traumatic experiences on children with pervasive developmental disorders has received little attention. The present paper describes a strategy devised to assess the long-term effects of abuse on a group of children who had attended a specialist autistic school where physical and emotional mistreatment of pupils was well documented. Because most of the children had very limited communication skills, the evidence relied heavily on retrospective parental reports. Despite the problems inherent in using such data it was possible to derive reliable measures that could be used to test hypotheses about predicted patterns of behavioral change, based on work with other children who have been abused. In most cases, too, parental reports could be corroborated by information from other sources. Consistent patterns in both the nature and timing of behavioral disturbances were found, which seemed to relate specifically to the period of abuse at the school. PMID:7592248

  14. Personality adjustment and social support of parents who care for children with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S J

    1991-02-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the degree of personality adjustment and perceived social support of parents who care for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Data were collected with the California Q-Set (a personality measure) and the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Personality adjustment of the parents was found to be significantly less than optimal, with a high degree of anxiety, minimal ego resilience, and use of defensive coping processes. Siblings of the child with the disorder and mothers of the parents were those most frequently identified as providing support to the caregiver, although friends, special education teachers, and daycare staff were the individuals whose support was most significantly related to greater amounts of perceived affection and affirmation, tangible aid, and concrete caregiving assistance. In fact, the more the caregivers depended upon their families for support, the less well adjusted were the caregivers on the personality measure. The implications of the findings for caregivers and their families are discussed. PMID:2039277

  15. Pervasive RNA editing among hornwort rbcL transcripts except Leiosporoceros.

    PubMed

    Duff, R Joel; Moore, Francisco B-G

    2005-11-01

    RNA editing affecting chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes has been identified in all major clades of land plants. The frequency of edited sites varies greatly between lineages but hornworts represent an extreme in propensity for editing in both their chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes. cDNA sequences from seven taxonomically diverse hornwort rbcL sequences combined with a survey of 13 additional DNA sequences for potential edited sites demonstrate the presence of 62 edited sites and predict a minimum of 10 additional sites. These 72 total edited sites represent 43 C-to-U and 28 U-to-C nucleotide conversions, with 1 site exhibiting editing in both directions. With one exception, all taxa are heavily edited, with each having from 20 to 34 edited sites. However, a single sample, Leiosporoceros, is shown to lack edited sites. Phylogenetic reconstruction of hornworts results in ambiguous resolution of Leiosporoceros depending on whether edited sites are maintained or eliminated from the analyses. Depending on the inferred relationship of Leiosporoceros to the hornworts, at least two explanations for the origin and maintenance of pervasive editing in hornworts are possible. The absence of edited sites in Leiosporoceros could represent either the absence or a low level of editing ability in the common ancestor of hornworts, as represented by Leiosporoceros, or the loss of editing sites in this lineage after the primary diversification events in the group. PMID:16177870

  16. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus: A Pervasive Pathogen Highlights the Need for New Antimicrobial Development

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Emily A.; Balkin, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has entered the spotlight as a globally pervasive drug-resistant pathogen. While historically associated exclusively with hospital-acquired infections in immunocompromised hosts, the methicillin-resistant form of S. aureus has been spreading throughout communities since the 1990s. Indeed, it has now become a common household term: MRSA. S. aureus has developed numerous mechanisms of virulence and strategies to evade the human immune system, including a host of surface proteins, secreted enzymes, and toxins. In hospital intensive care units, the proportion of MRSA-related S. aureus infections has increased strikingly from just 2 percent in 1974 to 64 percent in 2004. Its presence in the community has been rising similarly, posing a significant public health burden. The growing incidence of MRSA unfortunately has been met with dwindling efforts to develop new, more effective antibiotics. The continued emergence of resistant strains of bacteria such as MRSA demands an urgent revival of the search for new antibiotics. PMID:21165342

  17. A pervasive health system integrating patient monitoring, status logging and social sharing.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllidis, A K; Koutkias, V G; Chouvarda, I; Maglaveras, N

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and development of a pervasive health system enabling self-management of chronic patients during their everyday activities. The proposed system integrates patient health monitoring, status logging for capturing various problems or symptoms met, and social sharing of the recorded information within the patients community, aiming to facilitate disease management. A prototype is implemented on a mobile device illustrating the feasibility and applicability of the presented work by adopting unobtrusive vital signs monitoring through a wearable multi-sensing device, a service oriented architecture for handling communication issues, and popular micro-blogging services. Furthermore, a study has been conducted with 16 hypertensive patients, in order to investigate the user acceptance, the usefulness, and the virtue of the proposed system. The results show that the system is welcome by the chronic patients who are especially willing to share healthcare information, and easy to learn and use, while its features have been overall regarded by the patients as helpful for their disease management and treatment. PMID:23193318

  18. Using virtual reality environment to improve joint attention associated with pervasive developmental disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yufang; Huang, Ruowen

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this study is using data glove to practice Joint attention skill in virtual reality environment for people with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). The virtual reality environment provides a safe environment for PDD people. Especially, when they made errors during practice in virtual reality environment, there is no suffering or dangerous consequences to deal with. Joint attention is a critical skill in the disorder characteristics of children with PDD. The absence of joint attention is a deficit frequently affects their social relationship in daily life. Therefore, this study designed the Joint Attention Skills Learning (JASL) systems with data glove tool to help children with PDD to practice joint attention behavior skills. The JASL specifically focus the skills of pointing, showing, sharing things and behavior interaction with other children with PDD. The system is designed in playroom-scene and presented in the first-person perspectives for users. The functions contain pointing and showing, moving virtual objects, 3D animation, text, speaking sounds, and feedback. The method was employed single subject multiple-probe design across subjects' designs, and analysis of visual inspection in this study. It took 3 months to finish the experimental section. Surprisingly, the experiment results reveal that the participants have further extension in improving the joint attention skills in their daily life after using the JASL system. The significant potential in this particular treatment of joint attention for each participant will be discussed in details in this paper. PMID:22776822

  19. Pervasive Radio Mapping of Industrial Environments Using a Virtual Reality Approach.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, Adrian-Valentin; Machedon-Pisu, Mihai; Duguleana, Mihai; Talaba, Doru

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are seriously affected by reliability and performance issues, due to the multipath nature of obstacles within such environments. Special attention needs to be given to planning a wireless industrial network, so as to find the optimum spatial position for each of the nodes within the network, and especially for key nodes such as gateways or cluster heads. The aim of this paper is to present a pervasive radio mapping system which captures (senses) data regarding the radio spectrum, using low-cost wireless sensor nodes. This data is the input of radio mapping algorithms that generate electromagnetic propagation profiles. Such profiles are used for identifying obstacles within the environment and optimum propagation pathways. With the purpose of further optimizing the radio planning process, the authors propose a novel human-network interaction (HNI) paradigm that uses 3D virtual environments in order to display the radio maps in a natural, easy-to-perceive manner. The results of this approach illustrate its added value to the field of radio resource planning of industrial communication systems. PMID:26167533

  20. Using ESB and BPEL for Evolving Healthcare Systems Towards Pervasive, Grid-Enabled SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koufi, V.; Malamateniou, F.; Papakonstantinou, D.; Vassilacopoulos, G.

    Healthcare organizations often face the challenge of integrating diverse and geographically disparate information technology systems to respond to changing requirements and to exploit the capabilities of modern technologies. Hence, systems evolution, through modification and extension of the existing information technology infrastructure, becomes a necessity. Moreover, the availability of these systems at the point of care when needed is a vital issue for the quality of healthcare provided to patients. This chapter takes a process perspective of healthcare delivery within and across organizational boundaries and presents a disciplined approach for evolving healthcare systems towards a pervasive, grid-enabled service-oriented architecture using the enterprise system bus middleware technology for resolving integration issues, the business process execution language for supporting collaboration requirements and grid middleware technology for both addressing common SOA scalability requirements and complementing existing system functionality. In such an environment, appropriate security mechanisms must ensure authorized access to integrated healthcare services and data. To this end, a security framework addressing security aspects such as authorization and access control is also presented.

  1. Deriving Requirements for Pervasive Well-Being Technology From Work Stress and Intervention Theory: Framework and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Koldijk, Saskia; Kraaij, Wessel

    2016-01-01

    Background Stress in office environments is a big concern, often leading to burn-out. New technologies are emerging, such as easily available sensors, contextual reasoning, and electronic coaching (e-coaching) apps. In the Smart Reasoning for Well-being at Home and at Work (SWELL) project, we explore the potential of using such new pervasive technologies to provide support for the self-management of well-being, with a focus on individuals' stress-coping. Ideally, these new pervasive systems should be grounded in existing work stress and intervention theory. However, there is a large diversity of theories and they hardly provide explicit directions for technology design. Objective The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive and concise framework that can be used to design pervasive technologies that support knowledge workers to decrease stress. Methods Based on a literature study we identify concepts relevant to well-being at work and select different work stress models to find causes of work stress that can be addressed. From a technical perspective, we then describe how sensors can be used to infer stress and the context in which it appears, and use intervention theory to further specify interventions that can be provided by means of pervasive technology. Results The resulting general framework relates several relevant theories: we relate “engagement and burn-out” to “stress”, and describe how relevant aspects can be quantified by means of sensors. We also outline underlying causes of work stress and how these can be addressed with interventions, in particular utilizing new technologies integrating behavioral change theory. Based upon this framework we were able to derive requirements for our case study, the pervasive SWELL system, and we implemented two prototypes. Small-scale user studies proved the value of the derived technology-supported interventions. Conclusions The presented framework can be used to systematically develop theory

  2. Distributed GPU Computing in GIScience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.; Li, J.; Sun, M.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscientists strived to discover potential principles and patterns hidden inside ever-growing Big Data for scientific discoveries. To better achieve this objective, more capable computing resources are required to process, analyze and visualize Big Data (Ferreira et al., 2003; Li et al., 2013). Current CPU-based computing techniques cannot promptly meet the computing challenges caused by increasing amount of datasets from different domains, such as social media, earth observation, environmental sensing (Li et al., 2013). Meanwhile CPU-based computing resources structured as cluster or supercomputer is costly. In the past several years with GPU-based technology matured in both the capability and performance, GPU-based computing has emerged as a new computing paradigm. Compare to traditional computing microprocessor, the modern GPU, as a compelling alternative microprocessor, has outstanding high parallel processing capability with cost-effectiveness and efficiency(Owens et al., 2008), although it is initially designed for graphical rendering in visualization pipe. This presentation reports a distributed GPU computing framework for integrating GPU-based computing within distributed environment. Within this framework, 1) for each single computer, computing resources of both GPU-based and CPU-based can be fully utilized to improve the performance of visualizing and processing Big Data; 2) within a network environment, a variety of computers can be used to build up a virtual super computer to support CPU-based and GPU-based computing in distributed computing environment; 3) GPUs, as a specific graphic targeted device, are used to greatly improve the rendering efficiency in distributed geo-visualization, especially for 3D/4D visualization. Key words: Geovisualization, GIScience, Spatiotemporal Studies Reference : 1. Ferreira de Oliveira, M. C., & Levkowitz, H. (2003). From visual data exploration to visual data mining: A survey. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE

  3. Wireless Sensor Node Power Profiling Based on IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 Communication Protocols. Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Richardson, Joseph; Zhang, Yanliang

    2015-10-01

    Most wireless sensor network (comprising of thousands of WSNs) applications require operation over extended periods of time beginning with their deployment. Network lifetime is extremely critical for most applications and is one of the limiting factors for energy-constrained networks. Based on applications, there are wide ranges of different energy sources suitable for powering WSNs. A battery is traditionally used to power WSNs. The deployed WSN is required to last for long time. Due to finite amount of energy present in batteries, it is not feasible to replace batteries. Recently there has been a new surge in the area of energy harvesting were ambient energy in the environment can be utilized to prolong the lifetime of WSNs. Some of the sources of ambient energies are solar power, thermal gradient, human motion and body heat, vibrations, and ambient RF energy. The design and development of TEGs to power WSNs that would remain active for a long period of time requires comprehensive understanding of WSN operational. This motivates the research in modeling the lifetime, i.e., power consumption, of a WSN by taking into consideration various node and network level activities. A WSN must perform three essential tasks: sense events, perform quick local information processing of sensed events, and wirelessly exchange locally processed data with the base station or with other WSNs in the network. Each task has a power cost per unit tine and an additional cost when switching between tasks. There are number of other considerations that must also be taken into account when computing the power consumption associated with each task. The considerations includes: number of events occurring in a fixed active time period and the duration of each event, event-information processing time, total communication time, number of retransmission, etc. Additionally, at the network level the communication of information data packets between WSNs involves collisions, latency, and

  4. Micro-trace fossils reveal pervasive reworking of Pliocene sapropels by low-oxygen-adapted benthic meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, S. C.; Kennedy, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Animal burrowers leave an indelible signature on the sedimentary record in most marine environments, with the seeming exception of low-oxygen environments. In modern sedimentary settings, however, sub-millimetre-sized benthic animals (meiofauna) are adapted to low oxygen and even sulfidic conditions. Almost nothing is known about their impact on ancient marine sediments because they leave few recognizable traces. Here we show, in classic Pliocene-aged anoxic facies from the Mediterranean, the first reported trace fossil evidence of meiofaunal activity and its relation to changing oxygenation. A novel approach utilizing electron imaging of ion-polished samples shows that meiofauna pervasively reworked sediment under oxygen-depleted conditions that excluded macrofauna, fragmenting organic laminae and emplacing 15- to 70-μm-diameter faecal pellets without macroscopically influencing the fabric. The extent of reworking raises the question: how pervasively altered are other sediments presently assumed to lack animal influence and how far into the geological record does this influence extend?

  5. A second visually impaired, mentally retarded male with pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder and Ganser's syndrome: diagnostic classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kerbeshian, J; Burd, L

    The authors report a second visually impaired, mentally retarded male who presents with symptoms consistent with atypical pervasive developmental disorder, Tourette disorder, and a syndrome of approximate answers (Ganser's syndrome). Both this case and an earlier reported case are significant in that they identify two children with strikingly similar long-standing symptoms and developmental histories. Since these findings may have broader relevance to children with multiple coexisting disorders, diagnostic and intervention strategies in this population are reviewed. PMID:3459721

  6. Performance Analysis of Multicast Video Streaming in IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Testbed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostuch, Aleksander; Gierłowski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Jozef

    The aim of the work is to analyse capabilities and limitations of different IEEE 802.11 technologies (IEEE 802.11 b/g/n), utilized for both multicast and unicast video streaming transmissions directed to mobile devices. Our preliminary research showed that results obtained with currently popular simulation tools can be drastically different than these possible in real-world environment, so, in order to correctly evaluate performance of video streaming, a simple wireless test-bed infrastructure has been created. The results show a strong dependence of the quality of video streaming on the chosen transmission technology. At the same time there are significant differences in perception quality between multicast (1:n) and unicast (1:1) streams, and also between devices offered by different manufacturers. The overall results seem to demonstrate, that, while multicast support quality in different products is still varied and often requires additional configuration, it is possible to select a WiFi access point model and determine the best system parameters to ensure a good video transfer conditions in terms of acceptable QoP/E (Quality of Perception/Exellence).

  7. Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A

    2014-03-01

    Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee(®) (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism, which was designed to solve the identified reliability problems. This mechanism was able to restore the delivery ratio to 100% even in the scenario without retransmissions. PMID:24350805

  8. Path loss variation of on-body UWB channel in the frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dayananda; Sarma, Kanak C; Mahanta, Anil

    2016-06-01

    The wireless body area network (WBAN) has gaining tremendous attention among researchers and academicians for its envisioned applications in healthcare service. Ultra wideband (UWB) radio technology is considered as excellent air interface for communication among body area network devices. Characterisation and modelling of channel parameters are utmost prerequisite for the development of reliable communication system. The path loss of on-body UWB channel for each frequency band defined in IEEE 802.15.6 standard is experimentally determined. The parameters of path loss model are statistically determined by analysing measurement data. Both the line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight channel conditions are considered in the measurement. Variations of parameter values with the size of human body are analysed along with the variation of parameter values with the surrounding environments. It is observed that the parameters of the path loss model vary with the frequency band as well as with the body size and surrounding environment. The derived parameter values are specific to the particular frequency bands of IEEE 802.15.6 standard, which will be useful for the development of efficient UWB WBAN system. PMID:27382482

  9. Performance analyses and improvements for the IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA scheme with heterogeneous buffered conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianping; Tao, Zhengsu; Lv, Chunfeng

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme have been received considerable attention recently, with most of these studies focusing on homogeneous or saturated traffic. Two novel transmission schemes-OSTS/BSTS (One Service a Time Scheme/Bulk Service a Time Scheme)-are proposed in this paper to improve the behaviors of time-critical buffered networks with heterogeneous unsaturated traffic. First, we propose a model which contains two modified semi-Markov chains and a macro-Markov chain combined with the theory of M/G/1/K queues to evaluate the characteristics of these two improved CSMA/CA schemes, in which traffic arrivals and accessing packets are bestowed with non-preemptive priority over each other, instead of prioritization. Then, throughput, packet delay and energy consumption of unsaturated, unacknowledged IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled networks are predicted based on the overall point of view which takes the dependent interactions of different types of nodes into account. Moreover, performance comparisons of these two schemes with other non-priority schemes are also proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that delay and fairness of our schemes are superior to those of other schemes, while throughput and energy efficiency are superior to others in more heterogeneous situations. Comprehensive simulations demonstrate that the analysis results of these models match well with the simulation results. PMID:22666076

  10. Standard-compliant real-time transmission of ECGs: harmonization of ISO/IEEE 11073-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2009-01-01

    Ambient assisted living and integrated care in an aging society is based on the vision of the lifelong Electronic Health Record calling for HealthCare Information Systems and medical device interoperability. For medical devices this aim can be achieved by the consistent implementation of harmonized international interoperability standards. The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference standard for medical device interoperability. In its Personal Health Device (PHD) version several devices have been included, but an ECG device specialization is not yet available. On the other hand, the SCP-ECG standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064) has been recently approved as an international standard ISO/IEEE 11073-91064:2009. In this paper, the relationships between a proposed x73-PHD model for an ECG device and the fields of the SCP-ECG standard are investigated. A proof-of-concept implementation of the proposed x73-PHD ECG model is also presented, identifying open issues to be addressed by standards development for the wider interoperability adoption of x73-PHD standards. PMID:19963856

  11. Performance evaluation of complete data transfer of physical layer according to IEEE 802.15.4 standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Kota Solomon; Merugu, Naresh Babu; Neetu, Babu, E. Ram

    2016-03-01

    ZigBee is well-accepted industrial standard for wireless sensor networks based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Wireless Sensor Networks is the major concern of communication these days. These Wireless Sensor Networks investigate the properties of networks of small battery-powered sensors with wireless communication. The communication between any two wireless nodes of wireless sensor networks is carried out through a protocol stack. This protocol stack has been designed by different vendors in various ways. Every custom vendor possesses his own protocol stack and algorithms especially at the MAC layer. But, many applications require modifications in their algorithms at various layers as per their requirements, especially energy efficient protocols at MAC layer that are simulated in Wireless sensor Network Simulators which are not being tested in real time systems because vendors do not allow the programmability of each layer in their protocol stack. This problem can be quoted as Vendor-Interoperability. The solution is to develop the programmable protocol stack where we can design our own application as required. As a part of the task first we tried implementing physical layer and transmission of data using physical layer. This paper describes about the transmission of the total number of bytes of Frame according to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard using Physical Layer.

  12. Enhanced delegated computing using coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, Stefanie; Dunjko, Vedran; Schlederer, Florian; Moore, Merritt; Kashefi, Elham; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2016-03-01

    A longstanding question is whether it is possible to delegate computational tasks securely—such that neither the computation nor the data is revealed to the server. Recently, both a classical and a quantum solution to this problem were found [C. Gentry, in Proceedings of the 41st Annual ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, 2009), pp. 167-178; A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, 2009), pp. 517-526]. Here, we study the first step towards the interplay between classical and quantum approaches and show how coherence can be used as a tool for secure delegated classical computation. We show that a client with limited computational capacity—restricted to an XOR gate—can perform universal classical computation by manipulating information carriers that may occupy superpositions of two states. Using single photonic qubits or coherent light, we experimentally implement secure delegated classical computations between an independent client and a server, which are installed in two different laboratories and separated by 50 m . The server has access to the light sources and measurement devices, whereas the client may use only a restricted set of passive optical devices to manipulate the information-carrying light beams. Thus, our work highlights how minimal quantum and classical resources can be combined and exploited for classical computing.

  13. Long-term risperidone for pervasive developmental disorder: efficacy, tolerability, and discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Zuddas, A; Di Martino, A; Muglia, P; Cianchetti, C

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the safety (e.g., weight gain, liver function, extrapyramidal side effects, and seizures) and efficacy of the long-term use of risperidone in children and adolescents and to ascertain the effects of drug withdrawal in a semi-naturalistic prospective, subjects with autism or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDDNOS) were treated with risperidone for 6 months after which parents were given the option of continuing for a further 6 months (final assessment at 12 months). Behavioral rating included Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Child Psychiatric Rating Scale (CPRS), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), and Child-Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Risperidone significantly ameliorated behavioral symptoms of PDD in 10 out of 11 subjects, with the effects on core symptoms being of smaller amplitude and of slower onset. No loss of effectiveness was observed in patients who continued risperidone for 12 months, while a relapse of associated behavioral symptoms occurred in the others. Weight gain was common, although the rate of increase lessened over a period of time; after drug withdrawal, considerable weight loss was observed in the patient who had previously shown the most significant increase. After 6 months of therapy, two patients developed facial dystonia: this disappeared after reducing dosage in one case, after drug discontinuation in the other. Amenorrhea was also observed, but no changes in liver function, blood tests or EEG were reported. The data indicate that risperidone is an effective and relatively safe drug for long term treatment of behavioral disruption in autistic children and adolescents. PMID:10933118

  14. Fecal Microbiota and Metabolome of Children with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Maria; Piccolo, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Siragusa, Sonya; De Giacomo, Andrea; Serrazzanetti, Diana Isabella; Cristofori, Fernanda; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Gobbetti, Marco; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the fecal microbiota and metabolome of children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) and autism (AD) in comparison to healthy children (HC). Bacterial tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) of the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses were carried out to determine total bacteria (16S rDNA) and metabolically active bacteria (16S rRNA), respectively. The main bacterial phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Verrucomicrobia) significantly (P<0.05) changed among the three groups of children. As estimated by rarefaction, Chao and Shannon diversity index, the highest microbial diversity was found in AD children. Based on 16S-rRNA and culture-dependent data, Faecalibacterium and Ruminococcus were present at the highest level in fecal samples of PDD-NOS and HC children. Caloramator, Sarcina and Clostridium genera were the highest in AD children. Compared to HC, the composition of Lachnospiraceae family also differed in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. Except for Eubacterium siraeum, the lowest level of Eubacteriaceae was found on fecal samples of AD children. The level of Bacteroidetes genera and some Alistipes and Akkermansia species were almost the highest in PDD-NOS or AD children as well as almost all the identified Sutterellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were the highest in AD. Compared to HC children, Bifidobacterium species decreased in AD. As shown by Canonical Discriminant Analysis of Principal Coordinates, the levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds of fecal samples were markedly affected in PDD-NOS and, especially, AD children. If the gut microbiota differences among AD and PDD-NOS and HC children are one of the concomitant causes or the consequence of autism, they may have implications regarding specific diagnostic test, and/or for treatment and prevention. PMID:24130822

  15. Pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders revealed by integrative analysis of multiple GWAS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Can; Gelernter, Joel; Zhao, Hongyu

    2015-11-01

    Although some existing epidemiological observations and molecular experiments suggested that brain disorders in the realm of psychiatry may be influenced by immune dysregulation, the degree of genetic overlap between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders has not been well established. We investigated this issue by integrative analysis of genome-wide association studies of 18 complex human traits/diseases (five psychiatric disorders, seven immune disorders, and others) and multiple genome-wide annotation resources (central nervous system genes, immune-related expression-quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and DNase I hypertensive sites from 98 cell lines). We detected pleiotropy in 24 of the 35 psychiatric-immune disorder pairs. The strongest pleiotropy was observed for schizophrenia-rheumatoid arthritis with MHC region included in the analysis (p = 3.9 x 10(-285), and schizophrenia-Crohn's disease with MHC region excluded (p = 1.1 x 10(-36). Significant enrichment (> 1.4 fold) of immune-related eQTL was observed in four psychiatric disorders. Genomic regions responsible for pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders were detected. The MHC region on chromosome 6 appears to be the most important with other regions, such as cytoband 1p13.2, also playing significant roles in pleiotropy. We also found that most alleles shared between schizophrenia and Crohn's disease have the same effect direction, with similar trend found for other disorder pairs, such as bipolar-Crohn's disease. Our results offer a novel bird's-eye view of the genetic relationship and demonstrate strong evidence for pervasive pleiotropy between psychiatric disorders and immune disorders. Our findings might open new routes for prevention and treatment strategies for these disorders based on a new appreciation of the importance of immunological mechanisms in mediating risk of many psychiatric diseases. PMID:26340901

  16. Nutrition has a pervasive impact on cardiac microRNA expression in isogenic mice.

    PubMed

    Wing-Lun, Edwina; Eaton, Sally A; Hur, Suzy S J; Aiken, Alastair; Young, Paul E; Buckland, Michael E; Li, Cheryl C Y; Cropley, Jennifer E; Suter, Catherine M

    2016-07-01

    The complex interaction between obesity, Western-style diets, and cardiovascular disease is of increasing interest, with a growing number of children being born to obese parents with poor lifestyle choices. These offspring have themselves an increased susceptibility to obesity and subsequent cardiovascular disease in adult life, which may be 'programmed' by their intrauterine environment. Cardiac microRNAs (miRNAs) are affected by multiple disease states, and have also been shown to be capable of exerting a hormone-like control on whole body metabolism. Here we sought to determine the effect of prenatal exposure to maternal obesity and/or postnatal exposure to a Western diet on miRNA expression in the heart. Unbiased small RNA sequencing was carried out on cardiac tissue from young adult mice born to lean or obese mothers; offspring were weaned onto either a low-fat control diet or a high-fat Western-style diet. We found 8 cardiac miRNAs that were significantly altered in response to maternal obesity, but only when the offspring were challenged postnatally with the Western diet. In contrast, postnatal exposure to the diet alone induced significant changes to the expression of a much larger number of miRNAs (33 in offspring of lean and 46 in offspring of obese). Many of the affected miRNAs have previously been implicated in various cardiac pathologies. The pervasive cardiac miRNA changes induced by a Western diet suggest that an individual's lifestyle choices outweigh the impact of any programming effects by maternal obesity on miRNA-related cardiac health. PMID:27216962

  17. Pervasiveness of the IQ Rise: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pietschnig, Jakob; Voracek, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Background Generational IQ gains in the general population (termed the Flynn effect) show an erratic pattern across different nations as well as across different domains of intelligence (fluid vs crystallized). Gains of fluid intelligence in different countries have been subject to extensive research, but less attention was directed towards gains of crystallized intelligence, probably due to evidence from the Anglo-American sphere suggesting only slight gains on this measure. In the present study, development of crystallized intelligence in the German speaking general population is assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether IQ gains for crystallized intelligence are in progress in German-speaking countries, two independent meta-analyses were performed. By means of a cited reference search in ISI Web of Science, all studies citing test manuals and review articles of two widely-used salient measures of crystallized intelligence were obtained. Additionally, the electronic database for German academic theses was searched to identify unpublished studies employing these tests. All studies reporting participants mean IQ or raw scores of at least one of the two measures were included in the present analyses, yielding over 500 studies (>1,000 samples; >45,000 individuals). We found a significant positive association between years of test performance and intelligence (1971–2007) amounting to about 3.5 IQ points per decade. Conclusions/Significance This study clearly demonstrates that crystallized IQ gains are substantial and of comparable strength as Flynn effects typically observed for measures of fluid intelligence in Central Europe. Since mean IQ was assessed in a large number of small, non-representative samples, our evidence suggests a remarkable robustness of these gains. Moreover, in both meta-analyses strength of gains was virtually identical. On the whole, results of the present study demonstrate a pervasive and generalizing Flynn effect in

  18. Computational... Physics Education: Letting physics learning drive the computational learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonacky, Norman

    2011-03-01

    For several years I have been part of a team researching and rethinking why physicists are more willing to admit the value of computational modeling than to include it in what they teach. We have concluded that undergraduate faculty face characteristic barriers that discourage them from starting to integrate computation into their courses. Computational tools and resources are already developed and freely available for them to use. But there loom ill-defined ``costs'' to their course learning objectives and to them personally as instructors in undertaking this. In an attempt to understand these issues more deeply, I placed myself in the mindset of a relative novice to computational applications. My approach: focus on a physics problem first and then on the computation needed to address it. I asked: could I deepen my understanding of physics while simultaneously mastering new computational skills? My results may aid appreciation of the plight of both a novice professor contemplating the introduction of computation into a course and the students taking it. These may also provide insight into practical ways that computational physics might be integrated into an entire undergraduate curriculum. Research support from: Shodor Education Foundation; IEEE-Computer Society; and Teragrid Project. Research collaboration from Partnership for Integration of Computation into Undergraduate Physics.

  19. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    PubMed

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards. PMID:25162425

  20. Cloud@Home: A New Enhanced Computing Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Salvatore; Cunsolo, Vincenzo D.; Puliafito, Antonio; Scarpa, Marco

    Cloud computing is a distributed computing paradigm that mixes aspects of Grid computing, ("… hardware and software infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent, pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end computational capabilities" (Foster, 2002)) Internet Computing ("…a computing platform geographically distributed across the Internet" (Milenkovic et al., 2003)), Utility computing ("a collection of technologies and business practices that enables computing to be delivered seamlessly and reliably across multiple computers, ... available as needed and billed according to usage, much like water and electricity are today" (Ross & Westerman, 2004)) Autonomic computing ("computing systems that can manage themselves given high-level objectives from administrators" (Kephart & Chess, 2003)), Edge computing ("… provides a generic template facility for any type of application to spread its execution across a dedicated grid, balancing the load …" Davis, Parikh, & Weihl, 2004) and Green computing (a new frontier of Ethical computing1 starting from the assumption that in next future energy costs will be related to the environment pollution).

  1. Above-Campus Services: Shaping the Promise of Cloud Computing for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Brad; Waggener, Shelton

    2009-01-01

    The concept of today's cloud computing may date back to 1961, when John McCarthy, retired Stanford professor and Turing Award winner, delivered a speech at MIT's Centennial. In that speech, he predicted that in the future, computing would become a "public utility." Yet for colleges and universities, the recent growth of pervasive, very high speed…

  2. An Improved Cross-Layering Design for IPv6 Fast Handover with IEEE 802.16m Entry Before Break Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ronny Yongho; Jung, Inuk; Kim, Young Yong

    IEEE 802.16m is an advanced air interface standard which is under development for IMT-Advanced systems, known as 4G systems. IEEE 802.16m is designed to provide a high data rate and a Quality of Service (QoS) level in order to meet user service requirements, and is especially suitable for mobilized environments. There are several factors that have great impact on such requirements. As one of the major factors, we mainly focus on latency issues. In IEEE 802.16m, an enhanced layer 2 handover scheme, described as Entry Before Break (EBB) was proposed and adopted to reduce handover latency. EBB provides significant handover interruption time reduction with respect to the legacy IEEE 802.16 handover scheme. Fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in order to provide reduced handover interruption time from IP layer perspective. Since FMIPv6 utilizes link layer triggers to reduce handover latency, it is very critical to jointly design FMIPv6 with its underlying link layer protocol. However, FMIPv6 based on new handover scheme, EBB has not been proposed. In this paper, we propose an improved cross-layering design for FMIPv6 based on the IEEE 802.16m EBB handover. In comparison with the conventional FMIPv6 based on the legacy IEEE 802.16 network, the overall handover interruption time can be significantly reduced by employing the proposed design. Benefits of this improvement on latency reduction for mobile user applications are thoroughly investigated with both numerical analysis and simulation on various IP applications.

  3. General purpose interface bus for personal computers used in wind tunnel data acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puram, Chith K.

    1993-01-01

    The use of the general purpose interface bus IEEE-488 to met the special requirements of wind tunnel testing involving PCs is discussed. The gearing of instrumentation to minimize test time, the choice of software to meet computer memory constraints, the use of graphics for improved use of tunnel run time, and the choice of data acquisition equipment to remove bottlenecks are addressed.

  4. A pervasive denigration of natural history misconstrues how biodiversity inventories and taxonomy underpin scientific knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Embracing comparative biology, natural history encompasses those sciences that discover, decipher and classify unique (idiographic) details of landscapes, and extinct and extant biodiversity. Intrinsic to these multifarious roles in expanding and consolidating research and knowledge, natural history endows keystone support to the veracity of law-like (nomothetic) generalizations in science. What science knows about the natural world is governed by an inherent function of idiographic discovery; characteristic of natural history, this relationship is exemplified wherever an idiographic discovery overturns established wisdom. This nature of natural history explicates why inventories are of such epistemological importance. Unfortunately, a Denigration of Natural History weakens contemporary science from within. It expresses in the prevalent, pervasive failure to appreciate this pivotal role of idiographic research: a widespread disrespect for how natural history undergirds scientific knowledge. Symptoms of this Denigration of Natural History present in negative impacts on scientific research and knowledge. One symptom is the failure to appreciate and support the inventory and monitoring of biodiversity. Another resides in failures of scientiometrics to quantify how taxonomic publications sustain and improve knowledge. Their relevance in contemporary science characteristically persists and grows; so the temporal eminence of these idiographic publications extends over decades. This is because they propagate a succession of derived scientific statements, findings and/or conclusions - inherently shorter-lived, nomothetic publications. Widespread neglect of natural science collections is equally pernicious, allied with disregard for epistemological functions of specimens, whose preservation maintains the veracity of knowledge. Last, but not least, the decline in taxonomic expertise weakens research capacity; there are insufficient skills to study organismal diversity in all

  5. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  6. Proceedings of the 8th annual conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society

    SciTech Connect

    Kondraske, G.V.; Robinson, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains over 200 selections. Some of the titles are: Clinical Engineering in Nuclear Medicine in a Rapidly Developing Country; Microscopic NMR Imaging; Computer Graphics Imaging of T1 and T2 mappings for NMR Data: High Detail Magnetic Resonance Images using SIFFT; Waveform Analysis of EMG Evoked During Muscle Relaxation; and Sinus Arrhythmia and REM/NREM Sleep.

  7. An integrated PHY-MAC analytical model for IEEE 802.15.7 VLC network with MPR capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-feng; Chi, Xue-fen; Liu, Jian

    2014-09-01

    Considering that the collision caused by hidden terminal is particularly serious due to the narrow beams of optical devices, the multi-packet reception (MPR) is introduced to mitigate the collisions for IEEE 802.15.7 visible light communication (VLC) system. To explore the impact of MPR on system performance and investigate the interaction between physical (PHY) layer and media access control (MAC) layer, a three dimensional (3D) integrated PHY-MAC analytical model of carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is established based on Markov chain theory for VLC system, in which MPR is implemented through the use of orthogonal code sequence. Throughput is derived to evaluate the performance of VLC system with MPR capability under imperfect optical channel. The results can be used for the performance optimization of a VLC system with MPR capability.

  8. Eascon '83: 16th annual IEEE electronics and aerospace systems conference and explosition. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: space stations; future satellite applications; direct broadcast systems; NASA advanced satellite communications technology; aerospace surveillance; surface surveillance; undersea surveillance; advanced software systems; fault-tolerant electronics; command control communications intelligence (c/sup 3/i) systems; distributed database systems; computer networking; and interactive displays. Abstracts of individual papers can be found under the relevant classification codes in this or future issues.

  9. Inhalation tolerance is induced selectively in thoracic lymph nodes but executed pervasively at distant mucosal and nonmucosal tissues.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Swirski, Filip K; Yang, Teng-Chih; Fattouh, Ramzi; Croitoru, Ken; Bramson, Jonathan L; Stämpfli, Martin R; Jordana, Manel

    2006-02-15

    Under immunogenic conditions, both the site of initial Ag exposure and consequent T cell priming in specific draining lymph nodes (LNs) imprint the ensuing immune response with lasting tissue-selective tropism. With respect to immune tolerance, whether the site of tolerance induction leads to compartmentalized or, alternatively, pervasive tolerance has not been formally investigated. Using a murine model of inhalation tolerance, we investigated whether the induction of respiratory mucosal tolerance precludes the development of de novo Th2 sensitization upon subsequent exposure to the same Ag at distant mucosal (gut) and nonmucosal (cutaneous) sites. By tracking the proliferation of CFSE-labeled OVA-TCR transgenic CD4(+) T cells upon OVA inhalation in vivo, we defined the site of tolerance induction to be restricted to the thoracic LNs. Expectedly, inhalation tolerance prevented de novo Th2 sensitization upon subsequent exposure to the same Ag at the same site. Importantly, although gut- and skin-draining LNs were not used during tolerance induction, de novo Ag-specific proliferation and Th2 differentiation in these LNs, as well as memory/effector Th2 responses in the gut (allergic diarrhea) and skin (late-phase cutaneous responses) were inhibited upon immunogenic challenge to the same Ag. Interestingly, this pervasive tolerogenic phenotype was not associated with the presence of suppressive activity throughout the lymphatics; indeed, potent suppressive activity was detected solely in the spleen. These data indicate that while inhalation tolerance is selectively induced in local thoracic LNs, its tolerogenic activity resides systemically and leads to pervasive immune tolerance in distant mucosal and nonmucosal sites. PMID:16456019

  10. Proceeding of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (1st, Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY.

    Papers in this Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (Roanoke, Virginia, June 24-28, 2001) discuss: automatic genre analysis; text categorization; automated name authority control; automatic event generation; linked active content; designing e-books for legal research; metadata harvesting; mapping the…

  11. IEEE Validation of the Continuing Education Achievement of Engineers Registry System. Procedures for Use with a CPT 8000 Word Processor and Communications Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) validation program is designed to motivate persons practicing in electrical and electronics engineering to pursue quality technical continuing education courses offered by any responsible sponsor. The rapid acceptance of the validation program necessitated the additional development of a…

  12. Pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Azuma, K. G.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-12-01

    (Hegerl et al., 2011) possibly because of less accurate forcing reconstruction. The weak but pervasive solar influence on Greenland temperature over the past 4000 years provides important implications on current and future Greenland temperatures. Hegerl, G., Luterbacher, J., González-Rouco, F., Tett, S. F., Crowley, T., and Xoplaki, E.: Influence of human and natural forcing on European seasonal temperatures, Nat. Geosci., 4, 99-103, 2011. Kobashi, T., Kawamura, K., Severinghaus, J. P., Barnola, J.-M., Nakaegawa, T., Vinther, B. M., Johnsen, S. J., and Box, J. E.: High variability of Greenland surface temperature over the past 4000 years estimated from trapped air in an ice core, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, 10.1029/2011GL049444, 2011. Kobashi, T., Shindell, D. T., Kodera, K., Box, J. E., Nakaegawa, T., and Kawamura, K.: On the origin of Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 years, Clim. Past, 9, 583-596, 2013.

  13. Using High Resolution Aeromagnetic Data to Map Pervasive Folding in the Lithologically Indistinct Franciscan Coastal Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, G. A.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    50 degrees NW, sub parallel to the surface trace of the San Andreas Fault (trending 40 degrees NW in the area), which it intersects at an acute angle. The elongated structures in the relatively lithologically indistinct Coastal belt closely resemble structures defined by terrane fault boundaries and magnetic anomalies (produced mainly by tabular ophiolitic sources) in the adjacent lithologically heterogeneous Central belt. The distributions of mean vector direction and dispersion of magnetically-defined edges of the two datasets are very similar, and the global mean direction and dispersion agree to within 2 degrees. Many edges defined by the magnetic data are coincident with or continue the trend of mapped faults that form the structural boundaries between the Coastal belt and the Central belt terranes. The similarity of the pervasive structure in the Coastal belt evident from the aeromagnetic data with structure in the adjacent Central belt suggests that the structures within the two terranes are similar. This not only implies that structure in the Central belt can be used to inform further structural interpretations in the Coastal belt, but also suggests that the structural pattern seen in both terranes is the result of a younger tectonic overprinting that postdates the amalgamation of the two terranes.

  14. IEEE 1982. Proceedings of the international conference on cybernetics and society

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: knowledge-based systems; risk analysis; man-machine interactions; human information processing; metaphor, analogy and problem-solving; manual control modelling; transportation systems; simulation; adaptive and learning systems; biocybernetics; cybernetics; mathematical programming; robotics; decision support systems; analysis, design and validation of models; computer vision; systems science; energy systems; environmental modelling and policy; pattern recognition; nuclear warfare; technological forecasting; artificial intelligence; the Turin shroud; optimisation; workloads. Abstracts of individual papers can be found under the relevant classification codes in this or future issues.

  15. A pervasive parallel framework for visualization : final report for FWP 10-014707.

    SciTech Connect

    Moreland, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    We are on the threshold of a transformative change in the basic architecture of highperformance computing. The use of accelerator processors, characterized by large core counts, shared but asymmetrical memory, and heavy thread loading, is quickly becoming the norm in high performance computing. These accelerators represent significant challenges in updating our existing base of software. An intrinsic problem with this transition is a fundamental programming shift from message passing processes to much more fine thread scheduling with memory sharing. Another problem is the lack of stability in accelerator implementation; processor and compiler technology is currently changing rapidly. This report documents the results of our three-year ASCR project to address these challenges. Our project includes the development of the Dax toolkit, which contains the beginnings of new algorithms for a new generation of computers and the underlying infrastructure to rapidly prototype and build further algorithms as necessary.

  16. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  17. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  18. Conduct problems and level of social competence in Head Start children: prevalence, pervasiveness, and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Hammond, M

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the current project was to determine the prevalence of conduct problems, low social competence, and associated risk factors in a sample of 4-year-old low-income children (N = 426) from 64 Head Start classrooms in the Seattle area. Conduct problems and social competence were assessed based on a combination of teacher reports, parent reports, and independent observations of children interacting with peers in the classroom and with parents at home. We examined the relative contribution of a variety of risk factors, including maternal history and socioeconomic background, current levels of stress and social support, mothers' emotional state, and parenting competence in relation to "pervasive" (i.e., at home and school) and "nonpervasive" conduct problems and low social competence. Findings indicated similar risk factors for conduct problems and for low social competence, with an ordered increase in the number of risk factors from normal to "nonpervasive" to "pervasive" groups. Harshness of parenting style (i.e., slapping, hitting, yelling) significantly distinguished between the three groups for low social competence and conduct problems. Positive affect, praise, and physical warmth from mothers were positively related to social competence but unrelated to conduct problems. PMID:11324301

  19. Micro-trace fossils reveal pervasive reworking of Pliocene sapropels by low-oxygen-adapted benthic meiofauna.

    PubMed

    Löhr, S C; Kennedy, M J

    2015-01-01

    Animal burrowers leave an indelible signature on the sedimentary record in most marine environments, with the seeming exception of low-oxygen environments. In modern sedimentary settings, however, sub-millimetre-sized benthic animals (meiofauna) are adapted to low oxygen and even sulfidic conditions. Almost nothing is known about their impact on ancient marine sediments because they leave few recognizable traces. Here we show, in classic Pliocene-aged anoxic facies from the Mediterranean, the first reported trace fossil evidence of meiofaunal activity and its relation to changing oxygenation. A novel approach utilizing electron imaging of ion-polished samples shows that meiofauna pervasively reworked sediment under oxygen-depleted conditions that excluded macrofauna, fragmenting organic laminae and emplacing 15- to 70-μm-diameter faecal pellets without macroscopically influencing the fabric. The extent of reworking raises the question: how pervasively altered are other sediments presently assumed to lack animal influence and how far into the geological record does this influence extend? PMID:25762504

  20. Microswitch- and VOCA-assisted programs for two post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Oliva, Doretta; Signorino, Mario; Megna, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Intervention programs, based on learning principles and assistive technology, were assessed in two studies with two post-coma men with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities. Study I assessed a program that included (a) an optic microswitch, activated via double blinking, which allowed a man direct access to brief music intervals, and (b) a voice output communication aid (VOCA) with two channels, activated via different hand-closure movements, which allowed the man to call his mother and a research assistant who provided stimulation events. Study II assessed a program that included (a) a pressure microswitch, activated via head movements, which allowed a man direct access to video-clips and music, and (b) a VOCA device, activated via prolonged eyelid closure, which allowed the man to call the caregiver (i.e., a research assistant) who provided attention and sung to him. Each of the two participants had significant increases in both microswitch- and VOCA-related responses during the intervention phases of the studies. Moreover, purposeful choice seemed to occur between the two VOCA responses in Study I. Implications of the findings for improving the situation of post-coma persons with minimally conscious state and pervasive motor disabilities are discussed. PMID:19660902

  1. IEEE 1989 National Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Denver, CO, May 23-25, 1989, Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference discusses topics in the measurement of EM fields, EMI shielding, EMP and lightning effects, EMI immunity testing methods, the modeling of electrostatic fields, open-area test sites, radiation hazards and immunity therefrom, conducted EMI, spectrum and Walsh functions, automotive EMC, field-to-wire compatibility, EMC management for ac lines, computer-radiated emissions, EMI shielding methods, EMI test facilities, and EMI measurements. Attention is given to a theory for optimization of EMI signals detection and measurement, the characterization of a cable and shelter network's EMP response, an assessment methodology for RF effects, a calculation of the energy in transient overvoltages, an innovative method for the quantification of spectrum use, the graphical attenuation-calculation methodology, antenna beamwidth considerations, and the detuning of free-standing towers.

  2. Proceedings of 1994 IEEE industry applications society: Annual meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The following topics were dealt with: electric generators; induction motors; permanent magnet motors; synchronous motors; reluctance motors; DC motors; sensors and actuators; industrial drives; electric vehicle drives; sensorless control; field oriented control; power control; power converters; utility interface; power electronics; thermal issues; gate drives; charged particles and corona systems; electrostatics in polymer processing and web handling; electrostatic spraying and coating; biological applications and hazards; electrostatic precipitators; plasma chemical processing; computational electrostatics; electrohydrodynamics; control system applications; intelligent control; fuzzy logic and neural networks; robot simulators and controllers; industrial process control and heating; real-time systems, I/O bus and control software; applied automation; motion control technology; lighting; metals application; mine electrical systems; rubber and plastics; power system design, analysis and reliability; power quality. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Principled design for an integrated computational environment

    SciTech Connect

    Disessa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Boxer is a computer language designed to be the base of an integrated computational environment providing a broad array of functionality -- from text editing to programming -- for naive and novice users. It stands in the line of Lisp inspired languages (Lisp, Logo, Scheme), but differs from these in achieving much of its understandability from pervasive use of a spatial metaphor reinforced through suitable graphics. This paper describes a set of learnability and understandability issues first and then uses them to motivate design decisions made concerning Boxer and the environment in which it is embedded.

  4. NASA/IEEE MSST 2004 Twelfth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in cooperation with the Twenty-First IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    MSST2004, the Twelfth NASA Goddard / Twenty-first IEEE Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies has as its focus long-term stewardship of globally-distributed storage. The increasing prevalence of e-anything brought about by widespread use of applications based, among others, on the World Wide Web, has contributed to rapid growth of online data holdings. A study released by the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California, Berkeley, estimates that over 5 exabytes of data was created in 2002. Almost 99 percent of this information originally appeared on magnetic media. The theme for MSST2004 is therefore both timely and appropriate. There have been many discussions about rapid technological obsolescence, incompatible formats and inadequate attention to the permanent preservation of knowledge committed to digital storage. Tutorial sessions at MSST2004 detail some of these concerns, and steps being taken to alleviate them. Over 30 papers deal with topics as diverse as performance, file systems, and stewardship and preservation. A number of short papers, extemporaneous presentations, and works in progress will detail current and relevant research on the MSST2004 theme.

  5. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  6. Guideline-driven telemonitoring and follow-up of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices using IEEE 11073, HL7 & IHE profiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Maohua; Chronaki, Catherine E; Lüpkes, Christian; Thiel, Andreas; Plössnig, Manuela; Hinterbuchner, Lynne; Arbelo, Elena; Laleci, Gokce Banu; Kabak, Yildiray; Duarte, Fernandez; Guillén, Alejandra; Navarro, Xavier; Dogac, Asuman; Eichelberg, Marco; Hein, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    For patients with Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Devices (CIEDs), telemonitoring promises improved quality of life and safety, since events recorded by the device or observed by the patient can alert a health professional. Taking into account the latest clinical guidelines when responding to such alerts, is a topic of active research addressed by the iCARDEA project. A key technical challenge is correlating telemonitoring CIED report data in a vendor-independent format with Electronic Health Record (EHR) data collected in the hospital and Personal Health Record (PHR) data entered by the patient, in guideline-driven care processes. The iCARDEA CIED exposure service component presented in this paper employs standards specifications from ISO/IEEE 11073 (Health Informatics, Point-of-care Medical Device Communication) and HL7v2.x in the context of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) profiles to deliver telemonitoring CIED report data from two different CIED vendors to the adaptive care planner that implements guideline-driven care plans. Experience gained with implementation and initial component testing is discussed, while challenges and expectations for future health information standards to effectively support EHR-integrated guide-line-driven telemonitoring services are highlighted. PMID:22255018

  7. Implementation of a wireless ECG acquisition SoC for IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee) applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Hung; Chen, Tsung-Yen; Lin, Kuang-Hao; Fang, Qiang; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless biosignal acquisition system-on-a-chip (WBSA-SoC) specialized for electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. The proposed system consists of three subsystems, namely, 1) the ECG acquisition node, 2) the protocol for standard IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system, and 3) the RF transmitter circuits. The ZigBee protocol is adopted for wireless communication to achieve high integration, applicability, and portability. A fully integrated CMOS RF front end containing a quadrature voltage-controlled oscillator and a 2.4-GHz low-IF (i.e., zero-IF) transmitter is employed to transmit ECG signals through wireless communication. The low-power WBSA-SoC is implemented by the TSMC 0.18-μm standard CMOS process. An ARM-based displayer with FPGA demodulation and an RF receiver with analog-to-digital mixed-mode circuits are constructed as verification platform to demonstrate the wireless ECG acquisition system. Measurement results on the human body show that the proposed SoC can effectively acquire ECG signals. PMID:25561447

  8. Device interoperability and authentication for telemedical appliance based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (PHD) Standards.

    PubMed

    Caranguian, Luther Paul R; Pancho-Festin, Susan; Sison, Luis G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the interoperability and authentication of medical devices in the context of telemedical systems. A recent standard called the ISO/IEEE 11073 Personal Health Device (X73-PHD) Standards addresses the device interoperability problem by defining common protocols for agent (medical device) and manager (appliance) interface. The X73-PHD standard however has not addressed security and authentication of medical devices which is important in establishing integrity of a telemedical system. We have designed and implemented a security policy within the X73-PHD standards. The policy will enable device authentication using Asymmetric-Key Cryptography and the RSA algorithm as the digital signature scheme. We used two approaches for performing the digital signatures: direct software implementation and use of embedded security modules (ESM). The two approaches were evaluated and compared in terms of execution time and memory requirement. For the standard 2048-bit RSA, ESM calculates digital signatures only 12% of the total time for the direct implementation. Moreover, analysis shows that ESM offers more security advantage such as secure storage of keys compared to using direct implementation. Interoperability with other systems was verified by testing the system with LNI Healthlink, a manager software that implements the X73-PHD standard. Lastly, security analysis was done and the system's response to common attacks on authentication systems was analyzed and several measures were implemented to protect the system against them. PMID:23366130

  9. Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center March 27-30, 2000. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, new technology with a special emphasis on holographic storage, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on stability of optical media, disk subsystem performance evaluation, I/O and storage tuning, functionality and performance evaluation of file systems for storage area networks.

  10. Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center April 15-18, 2002. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the ingest, storage, and management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long-term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long-term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, storage networking with emphasis on IP storage, performance, standards, site reports, and vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on perpendicular magnetic recording, object based storage, storage virtualization and IP storage.

  11. IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee-Based Time-of-Arrival Estimation for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Jeonghyeon; Hwang, Hyunsu; Kim, Dongsun; Jung, Yunho

    2016-01-01

    Precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation is one of the most important techniques in RF-based positioning systems that use wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Because the accuracy of TOA estimation is proportional to the RF signal bandwidth, using broad bandwidth is the most fundamental approach for achieving higher accuracy. Hence, ultra-wide-band (UWB) systems with a bandwidth of 500 MHz are commonly used. However, wireless systems with broad bandwidth suffer from the disadvantages of high complexity and high power consumption. Therefore, it is difficult to employ such systems in various WSN applications. In this paper, we present a precise time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation algorithm using an IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee system with a narrow bandwidth of 2 MHz. In order to overcome the lack of bandwidth, the proposed algorithm estimates the fractional TOA within the sampling interval. Simulation results show that the proposed TOA estimation algorithm provides an accuracy of 0.5 m at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 8 dB and achieves an SNR gain of 5 dB as compared with the existing algorithm. In addition, experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm provides accurate TOA estimation in a real indoor environment. PMID:26861331

  12. Telemonitoring systems interoperability challenge: an updated review of the applicability of ISO/IEEE 11073 standards for interoperability in telemonitoring.

    PubMed

    Galarraga, M; Serrano, L; Martinez, I; de Toledo, P; Reynolds, Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Advances in Information and Communication Technologies, ICT, are bringing new opportunities and use cases in the field of systems and Personal Health Devices used for the telemonitoring of citizens in Home or Mobile scenarios. At a time of such challenges, this review arises from the need to identify robust technical telemonitoring solutions that are both open and interoperable. These systems demand standardized solutions to be cost effective and to take advantage of standardized operation and interoperability. Thus, the fundamental challenge is to design plug-&-play devices that, either as individual elements or as components, can be incorporated in a simple way into different Telecare systems, perhaps configuring a personal user network. Moreover, there is an increasing market pressure from companies not traditionally involved in medical markets, asking for a standard for Personal Health Devices, which foresee a vast demand for telemonitoring, wellness, Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) and e-health applications. However, the newly emerging situations imply very strict requirements for the protocols involved in the communication. The ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards is adapting and moving in order to face the challenge and might appear the best positioned international standards to reach this goal. This work presents an updated survey of these standards, trying to track the changes that are being fulfilled, and tries to serve as a starting-point for those who want to familiarize themselves with them. PMID:18003427

  13. On the network convergence process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks: improvement and trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs. PMID:25004154

  14. On the Network Convergence Process in RPL over IEEE 802.15.4 Multihop Networks: Improvement and Trade-Offs

    PubMed Central

    Kermajani, Hamidreza; Gomez, Carles

    2014-01-01

    The IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL) has been recently developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Given its crucial role in enabling the Internet of Things, a significant amount of research effort has already been devoted to RPL. However, the RPL network convergence process has not yet been investigated in detail. In this paper we study the influence of the main RPL parameters and mechanisms on the network convergence process of this protocol in IEEE 802.15.4 multihop networks. We also propose and evaluate a mechanism that leverages an option available in RPL for accelerating the network convergence process. We carry out extensive simulations for a wide range of conditions, considering different network scenarios in terms of size and density. Results show that network convergence performance depends dramatically on the use and adequate configuration of key RPL parameters and mechanisms. The findings and contributions of this work provide a RPL configuration guideline for network convergence performance tuning, as well as a characterization of the related performance trade-offs. PMID:25004154

  15. Behavior change in a student with a dual diagnosis of deafness and pervasive developmental disorder: a case study.

    PubMed

    Easterbrooks, Susan R; Handley, C Michele

    The broad term pervasive developmental disorder (PPD) describes a set of symptoms that occur along a continuum of severity; these symptoms are often referred to as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of ASDs among students who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH). Teachers of DHH students, who must work with individuals with dual diagnoses, are at a loss for guidance from the literature. The authors review the literature on ASDs (also referred to as PDD) within the DHH population, provide results of a single-subject study to reduce PDD-type behaviors in a child with hearing loss, and argue that teachers of students who are DHH must learn about practices associated with applied behavior analysis as an tool for intervening therapeutically with children with dual diagnoses of hearing loss plus an ASD. PMID:16610472

  16. Design and subject characteristics in the federally-funded citalopram trial in children with pervasive developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Scahill, Lawrence; McCracken, James T; Bearss, Karen; Robinson, Fay; Hollander, Eric; King, Bryan; Bregman, Joel; Sikich, Lin; Dukes, Kimberly; Sullivan, Lisa; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Kim, Young-Shin; Ritz, Louise; Hirtz, Deborah; Wagner, Ann

    2012-03-01

    The Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment Network conducted a randomized trial with citalopram in children with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). We present the rationale, design and sample characteristics of the citalopram trial. Subjects (128 boys, 21 girls) had a mean age of 9.3 (±3.12) years; 132 (88.6%) were diagnosed with autistic disorder (4.7% with Asperger's Disorder; 6.7% with PDD-not otherwise specified). Less than half of the subjects were intellectually disabled; 117 (78.5%) were rated Moderate or Marked on the Clinical Global Impression for Severity. Study measures were similar to previous Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology trials. Subjects in this trial were slightly older and more likely to have complaints of repetitive behavior than participants in RUPP trials. PMID:21667200

  17. 'All that glitters is not gold': misdiagnosis of psychosis in pervasive developmental disorders--a case series.

    PubMed

    Dossetor, David R

    2007-10-01

    The early literature established the validity of the distinction between early onset schizophrenia and autism. In the modern context of increasing recognition of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and a growing interest in very early onset schizophrenia and other childhood onset psychoses, this clinical distinction is often difficult to make. This article looks at problems arising from overdiagnosing psychosis in those with PDD. Four case examples of misattributed diagnosis of psychosis are described. The features that were mistaken for psychotic phenomena are described and explained and successfully treated in the context of a diagnosis of PDD. The article describes problems of reliability of ascertaining subjective mental phenomena and the range of mental phenomena that need to be recognized in PDD. The overlap of abnormal perceptions and cognitions in both these conditions is described with reference to the literature. It is evident that more needs to be done to improve diagnostic reliability of psychosis in PDD, by improving clinical awareness and research tools. PMID:18095536

  18. Pervasive and strong effects of plants on soil chemistry: a meta-analysis of individual plant ‘Zinke’ effects

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Bonnie G.; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Barry, Kathryn E.; Becklund, Kristen K.; Dale, Sarah; Gei, Maria G.; Keller, Adrienne B.; Lopez, Omar R.; Markesteijn, Lars; Mangan, Scott; Riggs, Charlotte E.; Rodríguez-Ronderos, María Elizabeth; Segnitz, R. Max; Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Powers, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species leave a chemical signature in the soils below them, generating fine-scale spatial variation that drives ecological processes. Since the publication of a seminal paper on plant-mediated soil heterogeneity by Paul Zinke in 1962, a robust literature has developed examining effects of individual plants on their local environments (individual plant effects). Here, we synthesize this work using meta-analysis to show that plant effects are strong and pervasive across ecosystems on six continents. Overall, soil properties beneath individual plants differ from those of neighbours by an average of 41%. Although the magnitudes of individual plant effects exhibit weak relationships with climate and latitude, they are significantly stronger in deserts and tundra than forests, and weaker in intensively managed ecosystems. The ubiquitous effects of plant individuals and species on local soil properties imply that individual plant effects have a role in plant–soil feedbacks, linking individual plants with biogeochemical processes at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26224711

  19. [The effect of parent training program on children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders and/or pervasive developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Motoyama, Kazunori; Matsuzaka, Tetsuo; Nagaoka, Tamao; Matsuo, Mitsuhiro

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of 18 children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD) and 6 with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) underwent a parent training (PT) program. After the program, the Beck Depression Inventory- II (BDI - II) score, which indicates parenting stress, significantly decreased from 15 to 8 (p=0.036). A total of 22 mothers had increased parenting self-esteem, and better parent-child relationships were noted in these cases. An analysis of children's behavior by using Achenbach's Child Behavior Checklist showed that introversion tendency, physical failure, aggressive behavior, and extroversion score improved significantly after PT (p<0.05). After PT, out-of-control behaviors improved in 19 children and continued in 5. We conclude that PT for mothers of children with AD/HD and/or high-functioning PDD is effective in improving both the parenting skills of mothers and adaptive behaviors of children. PMID:22844759

  20. Investigation of Teachers' Attitudes towards Computer Use in Primary Education in Kurdistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balisane, Hewa

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances have pervasively changed our behaviours, beliefs and approaches in working, socialising and entertaining. Educators, including those in primary education, have acknowledged the positive effects of computer use in the classroom in various ways. With regard to pedagogical consideration, primary school teachers have adopted…

  1. FPGA Implementation of Reed-Solomon Decoder for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Systems using Simulink-Sysgen Design Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrek, Miljko; Albright, Austin P

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents FPGA implementation of the Reed-Solomon decoder for use in IEEE 802.16 WiMAX systems. The decoder is based on RS(255,239) code, and is additionally shortened and punctured according to the WiMAX specifications. Simulink model based on Sysgen library of Xilinx blocks was used for simulation and hardware implementation. At the end, simulation results and hardware implementation performances are presented.

  2. A Security Solution for IEEE 802.11's Ad-hoc Mode:Password-Authentication and Group Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, Bresson; Olivier, Chevassut; David, Pointcheval

    2005-10-01

    The IEEE 802 standards ease the deployment of networkinginfrastructures and enable employers to accesscorporate networks whiletraveling. These standards provide two modes of communication calledinfrastructure and ad-hoc modes. A security solution for the IEEE802.11's infrastructure mode took several years to reach maturity andfirmware are still been upgraded, yet a solution for the ad-hoc modeneeds to be specified. The present paper is a first attempt in thisdirection. It leverages the latest developments in the area ofpassword-based authentication and (group) Diffie-Hellman key exchange todevelop a provably-secure key-exchange protocol for IEEE 802.11's ad-hocmode. The protocol allows users to securely join and leave the wirelessgroup at time, accommodates either a single-shared password orpairwise-shared passwords among the group members, or at least with acentral server; achieves security against dictionary attacks in theideal-hash model (i.e. random-oracles). This is, to the best of ourknowledge, the first such protocol to appear in the cryptographicliterature.

  3. Analysis of ISO/IEEE 11073 built-in security and its potential IHE-based extensibility.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Óscar J; Trigo, Jesús D; Alesanco, Álvaro; Serrano, Luis; García, José

    2016-04-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 standard for Personal Health Devices (X73PHD) aims to ensure interoperability between Personal Health Devices and aggregators-e.g. health appliances, routers-in ambulatory setups. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative promotes the coordinated use of different standards in healthcare systems (e.g. Personal/Electronic Health Records, alert managers, Clinical Decision Support Systems) by defining profiles intended for medical use cases. X73PHD provides a robust syntactic model and a comprehensive terminology, but it places limited emphasis on security and on interoperability with IHE-compliant systems and frameworks. However, the implementation of eHealth/mHealth applications in environments such as health and fitness monitoring, independent living and disease management (i.e. the X73PHD domains) increasingly requires features such as secure connections to mobile aggregators-e.g. smartphones, tablets-, the sharing of devices among different users with privacy, and interoperability with certain IHE-compliant healthcare systems. This work proposes a comprehensive IHE-based X73PHD extension consisting of additive layers adapted to different eHealth/mHealth applications, after having analyzed the features of X73PHD (especially its built-in security), IHE profiles related with these applications and other research works. Both the new features proposed for each layer and the procedures to support them have been carefully chosen to minimize the impact on X73PHD, on its architecture (in terms of delays and overhead) and on its framework. Such implications are thoroughly analyzed in this paper. As a result, an extended model of X73PHD is proposed, preserving its essential features while extending them with added value. PMID:26883877

  4. A Technology-Assisted Learning Setup as Assessment Supplement for Three Persons with a Diagnosis of Post-Coma Vegetative State and Pervasive Motor Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Colonna, Fabio; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Bosco, Andrea; Megna, Gianfranco; De Tommaso, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Post-coma persons in an apparent condition of vegetative state and pervasive motor impairment pose serious problems in terms of assessment and intervention options. A technology-based learning assessment procedure might serve for them as a diagnostic supplement with possible implications for rehabilitation intervention. The learning assessment…

  5. Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening of Social Maladaptive Behaviour in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability: Differentiating Disordered Attachment and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giltaij, H. P.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at risk for maladaptive development of social relatedness. Controversy exists whether Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) takes precedence over disordered attachment for describing maladaptive social behaviour. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of disordered attachment…

  6. Is Long-Term Prognosis for Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Different from Prognosis for Autistic Disorder? Findings from a 30-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordre, Marianne; Groholt, Berit; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sponheim, Eili; Mykletun, Arnstein; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2012-01-01

    We followed 74 children with autistic disorder (AD) and 39 children with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS) for 17-38 years in a record linkage study. Rates of disability pension award, marital status, criminality and mortality were compared between groups. Disability pension award was the only outcome measure that…

  7. Parent-Rated Anxiety Symptoms in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Frequency and Association with Core Autism Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Scahill, Lawrence; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; McCracken, James T.; Tierney, Elaine; White, Susan Williams; Lecavalier, Luc; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2008-01-01

    Background: In addition to the core symptoms, children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) often exhibit other problem behaviors such as aggression, hyperactivity, and anxiety, which can contribute to overall impairment and, therefore, become the focus of clinical attention. Limited data are available on the prevalence of anxiety in these…

  8. The Pervasive Developmental Disorders of Childhood: Who Are These Children and What Role Does the Educational Professional Play in Evaluation and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, James N.; And Others

    A child psychiatric consultant describes the category of pervasive developmental disorders of children, characterized by grossly deviant patterns of growth and maturation in cognitive, psychological, biological, and social development (not including disorders resulting from demonstrable brain damage). Theories of causation are reviewed and…

  9. Determining Differences in Social Cognition between High-Functioning Autistic Disorder and Other Pervasive Developmental Disorders Using New Advanced "Mind-Reading" Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuroda, Miho; Wakabayashi, Akio; Uchiyama, Tokio; Yoshida, Yuko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in understanding the mental state of others ("mind-reading") have been well documented in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, it is unclear whether this deficit in social cognition differs between the subgroups of PDD defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text…

  10. Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting Procedure in 1:1 and Small Group Instruction to Teach Play Skills to Preschool Students with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colozzi, Gail A.; Ward, Louise W.; Crotty, Kerry E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined and compared the effectiveness of a simultaneous prompting procedure used in both 1:1 and small group instruction to teach pretend play skills to a group of preschool students, three having a diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorder and one having a diagnosis of severe developmental disabilities. The study also assessed…

  11. Efficacy of Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD Symptoms in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Prospective, Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Jaen, Alberto; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Daniel Martin; Calleja-Perez, Beatriz; Munoz-Jareno, Nuria; Campos Diaz, Maria del Rosario; Lopez-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine's tolerance and efficacy were studied in 24 patients with pervasive developmental disorder and symptoms of ADHD. Method: Prospective, open-label, 16-week study was performed, using the variables of the Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Conners' Scale, among others. Results: A significant difference was found…

  12. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  13. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Treatment of the Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Volkmar, Fred R.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Many children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) exhibit behaviors and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We sought to determine the relative efficacy of medications for treating ADHD symptoms in children with PDD by identifying all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of…

  14. Reliability and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Diagnostic Inventory for Disharmony (DID) in Youths with Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiple Complex Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xavier, Jean; Vannetzel, Leonard; Viaux, Sylvie; Leroy, Arthur; Plaza, Monique; Tordjman, Sylvie; Mille, Christian; Bursztejn, Claude; Cohen, David; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) category is a psychopathological entity few have described and is poorly, and mainly negatively, defined by autism exclusion. In order to limit PDD-NOS heterogeneity, alternative clinical constructs have been developed. This study explored the reliability and the diagnostic…

  15. Cognitive Profiles of Adults with Asperger's Disorder, High-Functioning Autism, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified Based on the WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanai, Chieko; Tani, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Yamada, Takashi; Ota, Haruhisa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Iwanami, Akira; Kato, Nobumasa

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive profiles of high-functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adults based on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). We examined cognitive profiles of adults with no intellectual disability (IQ greater than 70), and in adults with Asperger's disorder (AS; n = 47), high-functioning autism (HFA;…

  16. Unlocking the Barriers to Women and Minorities in Computer Science and Information Systems Studies: Results from a Multi-Methodological Study Conducted at Two Minority Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole; Ukoha, Ojiabo; Rustagi, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    The under representation of women and minorities in undergraduate computer science and information systems programs is a pervasive and persistent problem in the United States. Needed is a better understanding of the background and psychosocial factors that attract, or repel, minority students from computing disciplines. An examination of these…

  17. An evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and presentation across different timescales reveals pervasive selection.

    PubMed

    Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Tresoldi, Claudia; Pozzoli, Uberto; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Riva, Stefania; Menozzi, Giorgia; Colleoni, Marta; Biasin, Mara; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-03-01

    The antigenic repertoire presented by MHC molecules is generated by the antigen processing and presentation (APP) pathway. We analyzed the evolutionary history of 45 genes involved in APP at the inter- and intra-species level. Results showed that 11 genes evolved adaptively in mammals. Several positively selected sites involve positions of fundamental importance to the protein function (e.g. the TAP1 peptide-binding domains, the sugar binding interface of langerin, and the CD1D trafficking signal region). In CYBB, all selected sites cluster in two loops protruding into the endosomal lumen; analysis of missense mutations responsible for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) showed the action of different selective forces on the very same gene region, as most CGD substitutions involve aminoacid positions that are conserved in all mammals. As for ERAP2, different computational methods indicated that positive selection has driven the recurrent appearance of protein-destabilizing variants during mammalian evolution. Application of a population-genetics phylogenetics approach showed that purifying selection represented a major force acting on some APP components (e.g. immunoproteasome subunits and chaperones) and allowed identification of positive selection events in the human lineage. We also investigated the evolutionary history of APP genes in human populations by developing a new approach that uses several different tests to identify the selection target, and that integrates low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data with Sanger sequencing. This analysis revealed that 9 APP genes underwent local adaptation in human populations. Most positive selection targets are located within noncoding regions with regulatory function in myeloid cells or act as expression quantitative trait loci. Conversely, balancing selection targeted nonsynonymous variants in TAP1 and CD207 (langerin). Finally, we suggest that selected variants in PSMB10 and CD207 contribute to human phenotypes

  18. 1999 IEEE radar conference

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    This conference addresses the stringent radar technology demands facing the next century: target detection, tracking and identification; changing target environment; increased clutter mitigation techniques; air traffic control; transportation; drug smuggling; remote sensing, and other consumer oriented applications. A timely discussion covers how to minimize costs for these emerging areas. Advanced radar technology theory and applications are also presented. Topics covered include: signal processing; space time adaptive processing/antennas; surveillance technology; radar systems; dual use; and phenomenology.

  19. Event centrality and posttraumatic outcomes in the context of pervasive violence: a study of teachers in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Roland, Ashli G; Currier, Joseph M; Rojas-Flores, Lisseth; Herrera, Sofia

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that the importance assigned to a trauma can affect one's recovery and psychological health in numerous ways. Event centrality is an increasingly popular construct that captures the tendency among survivors to reevaluate and possibly accommodate their worldviews posttrauma. The centrality given to trauma appears to serve as a "double-edged sword" in that this construct might factor prominently in both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Focusing on 257 violence-exposed teachers from educational departments throughout El Salvador, we examined whether the centrality assigned by the teachers to stressful life events uniquely predicted both PTSD symptomatology and PTG. Results revealed that event centrality was positively related to both PTSD and PTG, even when controlling for demographic factors, violence exposure, and depression. In addition, PTSD symptomatology and PTG were not associated with one another in this sample. In summary, these findings support the role of event centrality as a contributing factor for PTSD and PTG among persons exposed to pervasive trauma. PMID:24033152

  20. Metatranscriptomic evidence of pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophy relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Talia N M; Karaoz, Ulas; Brodie, Eoin L; Williams, Kenneth H; Beller, Harry R

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are conventionally thought to be fueled by surface-derived allochthonous organic matter and dominated by heterotrophic microbes living under often-oligotrophic conditions. However, in a 2-month study of nitrate amendment to a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO), strain-resolved metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophic bacterial activity relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling. Before nitrate injection, anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria accounted for 16% of overall microbial community gene expression, whereas during the nitrate injection, two other groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria collectively accounted for 80% of the metatranscriptome: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Notably, the proportion of the metatranscriptome accounted for by these three groups was considerably greater than the proportion of the metagenome coverage that they represented. Transcriptional analysis revealed some unexpected metabolic couplings, in particular, putative nitrate-dependent Fe(II) and S oxidation among nominally microaerophilic Gallionellaceae strains, including expression of periplasmic (NapAB) and membrane-bound (NarGHI) nitrate reductases. The three most active groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in this study had overlapping metabolisms that allowed them to occupy different yet related metabolic niches throughout the study. Overall, these results highlight the important role that chemolithoautotrophy can have in aquifer biogeochemical cycling, a finding that has broad implications for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling and is supported by recent studies of geochemically diverse aquifers. PMID:26943628

  1. Metatranscriptomic evidence of pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophy relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling in a shallow alluvial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Talia N M; Karaoz, Ulas; Brodie, Eoin L; Williams, Kenneth H; Beller, Harry R

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater ecosystems are conventionally thought to be fueled by surface-derived allochthonous organic matter and dominated by heterotrophic microbes living under often-oligotrophic conditions. However, in a 2-month study of nitrate amendment to a perennially suboxic aquifer in Rifle (CO), strain-resolved metatranscriptomic analysis revealed pervasive and diverse chemolithoautotrophic bacterial activity relevant to C, S, N and Fe cycling. Before nitrate injection, anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria accounted for 16% of overall microbial community gene expression, whereas during the nitrate injection, two other groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria collectively accounted for 80% of the metatranscriptome: (1) members of the Fe(II)-oxidizing Gallionellaceae family and (2) strains of the S-oxidizing species, Sulfurimonas denitrificans. Notably, the proportion of the metatranscriptome accounted for by these three groups was considerably greater than the proportion of the metagenome coverage that they represented. Transcriptional analysis revealed some unexpected metabolic couplings, in particular, putative nitrate-dependent Fe(II) and S oxidation among nominally microaerophilic Gallionellaceae strains, including expression of periplasmic (NapAB) and membrane-bound (NarGHI) nitrate reductases. The three most active groups of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria in this study had overlapping metabolisms that allowed them to occupy different yet related metabolic niches throughout the study. Overall, these results highlight the important role that chemolithoautotrophy can have in aquifer biogeochemical cycling, a finding that has broad implications for understanding terrestrial carbon cycling and is supported by recent studies of geochemically diverse aquifers. PMID:26943628

  2. Pervasive and essential roles of the Top3-Rmi1 decatenase orchestrate recombination and facilitate chromosome segregation in meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shangming; Wu, Michelle Ka Yan; Zhang, Ruoxi; Hunter, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Summary The Bloom’s helicase ortholog, Sgs1, plays central roles to coordinate the formation and resolution of joint molecule intermediates (JMs) during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. Sgs1 can associate with type-I topoisomerase Top3 and its accessory factor Rmi1 to form a conserved complex best known for its unique ability to decatenate double-Holliday junctions. Contrary to expectations, we show that the strand-passage activity of Top3-Rmi1 is required for all known functions of Sgs1 in meiotic recombination, including channeling JMs into physiological crossover and noncrossover pathways, and suppression of non-allelic recombination. We infer that Sgs1 always functions in the context of the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 complex to regulate meiotic recombination. In addition, we reveal a distinct late role for Top3-Rmi1 in resolving recombination-dependent chromosome entanglements to allow segregation at anaphase. Surprisingly, Sgs1 does not share this essential role of Top3-Rmi1. These data reveal an essential and unexpectedly pervasive role for the Top3-Rmi1 decatenase during meiosis. PMID:25699709

  3. Pivotal role of pervasive neoplastic and stromal cells reprogramming in circulating tumor cells dissemination and metastatic colonization.

    PubMed

    Meseure, Didier; Drak Alsibai, Kinan; Nicolas, Andre

    2014-12-01

    Reciprocal interactions between neoplastic cells and their microenvironment are crucial events in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Pervasive stromal reprogramming and remodeling that transform a normal to a tumorigenic microenvironment modify numerous stromal cells functions, status redox, oxidative stress, pH, ECM stiffness and energy metabolism. These environmental factors allow selection of more aggressive cancer cells that develop important adaptive strategies. Subpopulations of cancer cells acquire new properties associating plasticity, stem-like phenotype, unfolded protein response, metabolic reprogramming and autophagy, production of exosomes, survival to anoikis, invasion, immunosuppression and therapeutic resistance. Moreover, by inducing vascular transdifferentiation of cancer cells and recruiting endothelial cells and pericytes, the tumorigenic microenvironment induces development of tumor-associated vessels that allow invasive cells to gain access to the tumor vessels and to intravasate. Circulating cancer cells can survive in the blood stream by interacting with the intravascular microenvironment, extravasate through the microvasculature and interact with the metastatic microenvironment of target organs. In this review, we will focus on many recent paradigms involved in the field of tumor progression. PMID:25523234

  4. Are There Differences in Neurocognition and Social Cognition Among Adolescents with Schizophrenia, a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, and Both Disorders?

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Tani, Pekka; Lindberg, Nina; Lipsanen, Jari; Kettunen, Kirsi; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Saarimaa, Leena-Kaisa; Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Hokkanen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SCH) and pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) belong to different diagnostic categories. There is, however, overlap between these 2 diagnostic groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate some aspects of neurocognitions and social cognitions in adolescents with SCH (n = 10, 2 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-17.7 years), a PDD (n = 15, 7 boys and 8 girls; age range = 13.3-18.0 years), or both disorders (n = 8, 5 boys and 3 girls; age range = 13.5-18 years). Eight subtests (Information, Similarities, Arithmetic, Comprehension, Picture Completion, Coding B, Block Design, and Object Assembly) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Version and 2 subtests (Theory of Mind [ToM] and Affect Recognition) of the NEPSY-II were administered. Adolescents with both disorders and those with a PDD only performed better on visual processing tasks than did adolescents with SCH only. On the other hand, adolescents with both disorders as well as those with SCH only experienced more problems with processing speed than did adolescents with a PDD only. Adolescents with SCH only performed significantly more poorly with verbal ToM tasks compared with those with a PDD only. Adolescents with both disorders performed as well as those with SCH only. All in all, our preliminary findings support the current idea that SCH and PDDs are separate disorders. PMID:27015370

  5. New method for calibration of a computer controlled CRT: feedback calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingping; Zhu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Dazun

    1994-08-01

    There are many formulas to describe the input and output relationship of CRT. As the radiant output of CRT submits to the statistical distribution, the prediction of the colorimetry from these formulas is not good. Some deviation of the brightness are as high as 50%. There is a need to find a new method to calibrate CRT. We have set up an automatic measurement and calibration system with PHOTO 1980B, IEEE 4888 interface board, CRT and a computer.

  6. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  7. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verheij, C.; Louwerse, A.; van der Ende, J.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van Gool, A. R.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined…

  8. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross-sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty-six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0-5 months and 29.3% of children 6-23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0-5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20-23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub-Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast-milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale. Strengthened implementation and enforcement of Cambodia's subdecree 133

  9. Computers and Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary

    1980-01-01

    This resource directory provides brief evaluative descriptions of six popular home computers and lists selected sources of educational software, computer books, and magazines. For a related article on microcomputers in the schools, see p53-58 of this journal issue. (SJL)

  10. Recent volcanic history of Irazu volcano, Costa Rica: alternation and mixing of two magma batches, and pervasive mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Carr, Michael J.; Turrin, Brent D.; Swisher, Carl C., III; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Hudnut, Kenneth W.

    2006-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dates, field observations, and geochemical data are reported for Irazú volcano, Costa Rica. Volcanism dates back to at least 854 ka, but has been episodic with lava shield construction peaks at ca. 570 ka and 136–0 ka. The recent volcanic record on Irazú volcano comprises lava flows and a variety of Strombolian and phreatomagmatic deposits, with a long-term trend toward more hydrovolcanic deposits. Banded scorias and hybridized rocks reflect ubiquitous magma mixing and commingling. Two distinct magma batches have been identified. One magma type or batch, Haya, includes basalt with higher high field strength (HFS) and rare-earth element contents, suggesting a lower degree melt of a subduction modified mantle source. The second batch, Sapper, has greater enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to HFS elements and rare-earth elements, suggesting a higher subduction signature. The recent volcanic history at Irazú records two and one half sequences of the following pattern: eruptions of the Haya batch; eruptions of the Sapper batch; and finally, an unusually clear unconformity, indicating a pause in eruptions. In the last two sequences, strongly hybridized magma erupted after the eruption of the Haya batch. The continuing presence of two distinct magma batches requires two active magma chambers. The common occurrence of hybrids is evidence for a small, nearer to the surface chamber for mixing the two batches. Estimated pre-eruptive temperatures based on two-pyroxene geothermometry range from ∼1000–1176 °C in basalts to 922 °C in hornblende andesites. Crystallization occurred mainly between 4.6 and 3 kb as measured by different geobarometers. Hybridized rocks show intermediate pressures and temperatures. High silica magma occurs in very small volumes as banded scorias but not as lava flows. Although eruptions at Irazú are not often very explosive, the pervasiveness of magma mixing presents the danger of larger, more explosive

  11. Eunis Observation of Pervasive Faint Fe XIX Line Emission from a Solar Active Region: Evidence for Coronal Heating By Nanoflares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosius, J. W.; Daw, A. N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements ofpervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 A line emission in an active regionobserved during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme UltravioletNormal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectralresolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 A (formedat temperature T around 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 A (T around 1.6MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of4920 square arcsec (2.58x10^9 square km, more than 60% of the activeregion), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model ofthe solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2hours before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed northand east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. Theabsence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region,particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIXemission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but ismost likely attributed to localized heating (due to reconnection,wave dissipation, or some other mechanism) consistent with thenanoflare heating model of the solar corona. We measure average FeXIX/Fe XII intensity ratios of 0.070 outside the AR core, 0.22 inarea of bright coronal emission (the area in which the Fe XIIintensity exceeds half its maximum observed value), and 0.55 in theregion's hot core. Using the CHIANTI atomic physics database andassuming ionization equilibrium, we estimate corresponding Fe XIX/FeXII emission measure ratios of about 0.076, 0.23 and 0.59. Theemission measure ratios must be viewed with caution in light oflingering uncertainties in the Fe XII contribution functions.EUNIS-13 was supported by the NASA Heliophysics Division through itsLow Cost Access to Space program.

  12. Linguistic influence on mathematical development is specific rather than pervasive: revisiting the Chinese Number Advantage in Chinese and English children.

    PubMed

    Mark, Winifred; Dowker, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The relative linguistic transparency of the Asian counting system has been used to explain Asian students' relative superiority in cross-cultural comparisons of mathematics achievement. To test the validity and extent of linguistic transparency in accounting for mathematical abilities, this study tested Chinese and British primary school children. Children in Hong Kong can learn mathematics using languages with both regular (Chinese) and irregular (English) counting systems, depending on their schools' medium of instruction. This makes it possible to compare groups with varying levels of exposure to the regular and irregular number systems within the same educational system, curriculum, and cultural environment. The study included three groups of first/second graders and third/fourth graders with varying degrees of experience to the Chinese language and counting systems: no experience (UK; n = 49); spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in English at school (HK-E; n = 43); spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in Chinese at school (HK-C; n = 47). They were compared on counting, numerical abilities and place value representation. The present study also measured nonverbal reasoning, attitude toward mathematics, involvement of parents, and extra-curricular mathematics lessons to explore alternative explanations of children's numeric ability. Results indicated that students in HK-C were better at counting backward and on the numeric skills test than those in HK-E, who were in turn better than the UK students. However, there was no statistical difference in counting forward, place value understanding, and a measure of arithmetic. Our findings add to existent literature suggesting that linguistic transparency does not have an all-pervasive influence on cross-national differences in arithmetic performance. PMID:25767456

  13. Pervasive effects of a dominant foliar endophytic fungus on host genetic and phenotypic expression in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Luis C.; Herre, Edward A.; Sparks, Jed P.; Winter, Klaus; García, Milton N.; Van Bael, Sunshine A.; Stitt, Joseph; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that macro-organisms (corals, insects, plants, vertebrates) consist of both host tissues and multiple microbial symbionts that play essential roles in their host's ecological and evolutionary success. Consequently, identifying benefits and costs of symbioses, as well as mechanisms underlying them are research priorities. All plants surveyed under natural conditions harbor foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) in their leaf tissues, often at high densities. Despite producing no visible effects on their hosts, experiments have nonetheless shown that FEF reduce pathogen and herbivore damage. Here, combining results from three genomic, and two physiological experiments, we demonstrate pervasive genetic and phenotypic effects of the apparently asymptomatic endophytes on their hosts. Specifically, inoculation of endophyte-free (E−) Theobroma cacao leaves with Colletotrichum tropicale (E+), the dominant FEF species in healthy T. cacao, induces consistent changes in the expression of hundreds of host genes, including many with known defensive functions. Further, E+ plants exhibited increased lignin and cellulose content, reduced maximum rates of photosynthesis (Amax), and enrichment of nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 isotopes. These phenotypic changes observed in E+ plants correspond to changes in expression of specific functional genes in related pathways. Moreover, a cacao gene (Tc00g04254) highly up-regulated by C. tropicale also confers resistance to pathogen damage in the absence of endophytes or their products in host tissues. Thus, the benefits of increased pathogen resistance in E+ plants are derived in part from up-regulation of intrinsic host defense responses, and appear to be offset by potential costs including reduced photosynthesis, altered host nitrogen metabolism, and endophyte heterotrophy of host tissues. Similar effects are likely in most plant-endophyte interactions, and should be recognized in the design and interpretation of genetic

  14. Linguistic influence on mathematical development is specific rather than pervasive: revisiting the Chinese Number Advantage in Chinese and English children

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Winifred; Dowker, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The relative linguistic transparency of the Asian counting system has been used to explain Asian students’ relative superiority in cross-cultural comparisons of mathematics achievement. To test the validity and extent of linguistic transparency in accounting for mathematical abilities, this study tested Chinese and British primary school children. Children in Hong Kong can learn mathematics using languages with both regular (Chinese) and irregular (English) counting systems, depending on their schools’ medium of instruction. This makes it possible to compare groups with varying levels of exposure to the regular and irregular number systems within the same educational system, curriculum, and cultural environment. The study included three groups of first/second graders and third/fourth graders with varying degrees of experience to the Chinese language and counting systems: no experience (UK; n = 49); spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in English at school (HK-E; n = 43); spoke Chinese at home and learnt to count in Chinese at school (HK-C; n = 47). They were compared on counting, numerical abilities and place value representation. The present study also measured nonverbal reasoning, attitude toward mathematics, involvement of parents, and extra-curricular mathematics lessons to explore alternative explanations of children’s numeric ability. Results indicated that students in HK-C were better at counting backward and on the numeric skills test than those in HK-E, who were in turn better than the UK students. However, there was no statistical difference in counting forward, place value understanding, and a measure of arithmetic. Our findings add to existent literature suggesting that linguistic transparency does not have an all-pervasive influence on cross-national differences in arithmetic performance. PMID:25767456

  15. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 Security Suite with a Compact Implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 Elliptic Curves

    PubMed Central

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4–12 MHz range). Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7) have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC;. Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM) can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH) and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES). Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM). PMID:23899936

  16. Performance Analysis of the ertPS Algorithm and Enhanced ertPS Algorithm for VoIP Services in IEEE 802.16e Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Joo; Hwang, Gang Uk

    In this paper, we analyze the extended real-time Polling Service (ertPS) algorithm in IEEE 802.16e systems, which is designed to support Voice-over-Internet-Protocol (VoIP) services with data packets of various sizes and silence suppression. The analysis uses a two-dimensional Markov Chain, where the grant size and the voice packet state are considered, and an approximation formula for the total throughput in the ertPS algorithm is derived. Next, to improve the performance of the ertPS algorithm, we propose an enhanced uplink resource allocation algorithm, called the e2rtPS algorithm, for VoIP services in IEEE 802.16e systems. The e2rtPS algorithm considers the queue status information and tries to alleviate the queue congestion as soon as possible by using remaining network resources. Numerical results are provided to show the accuracy of the approximation analysis for the ertPS algorithm and to verify the effectiveness of the e2rtPS algorithm.

  17. A WiSN node SoC with real-time image compressor and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renyan; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Luo, Ao; Chen, Xinkai; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a wireless image sensor node SoC (system-on-a-chip) for low-power wireless image sensor network (WiSN), in which camera chip interface, high-quality image compression and IEEE 802.15.4 compliant acceleration modules are integrated on chip. The proposed SoC contains a hardware-implemented real-time lossless JPEG (JPEG-LS) compression engine for Bayer Color Filter Arrays (Bayer CFA), reaching a 3.5 bits/pixel with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) greater than 46.3 dB and achieving a maximum 5 frames/s @16 MHz for VGA (640 × 480) colour images. The proposed hardware accelerator for IEEE 802.15.4 media access control (MAC) layer covers crucial protocol defined functions and algorithms, and reduces 45% software code in the host processor. This SoC has been fabricated in UMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process. The average power of the prototype chip is 18.2 mW at 3.0 V power supply and 16 MHz clock rate.

  18. Extending the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite with a compact implementation of the NIST P-192/B-163 elliptic curves.

    PubMed

    de la Piedra, Antonio; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    Typically, commercial sensor nodes are equipped with MCUsclocked at a low-frequency (i.e., within the 4-12 MHz range). Consequently, executing cryptographic algorithms in those MCUs generally requires a huge amount of time. In this respect, the required energy consumption can be higher than using a separate accelerator based on a Field-programmable Gate Array (FPGA) that is switched on when needed. In this manuscript, we present the design of a cryptographic accelerator suitable for an FPGA-based sensor node and compliant with the IEEE802.15.4 standard. All the embedded resources of the target platform (Xilinx Artix-7) have been maximized in order to provide a cost-effective solution. Moreover, we have added key negotiation capabilities to the IEEE 802.15.4 security suite based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). Our results suggest that tailored accelerators based on FPGA can behave better in terms of energy than contemporary software solutions for motes, such as the TinyECC and NanoECC libraries. In this regard, a point multiplication (PM) can be performed between 8.58- and 15.4-times faster, 3.40- to 23.59-times faster (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman, ECDH) and between 5.45- and 34.26-times faster (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme, ECIES). Moreover, the energy consumption was also improved with a factor of 8.96 (PM). PMID:23899936

  19. Optimal Throughput and Self-adaptability of Robust Real-Time IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for AMI Mesh Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Hikma; Mohamud Ahmed, Musse; Khan, Sheroz; Hameed, Shahab Ahmed; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    A smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity system that brings intelligence, reliability, efficiency and optimality to the power grid. To provide an automated and widely distributed energy delivery, the smart grid will be branded by a two-way flow of electricity and information system between energy suppliers and their customers. Thus, the smart grid is a power grid that integrates data communication networks which provide the collected and analysed data at all levels in real time. Therefore, the performance of communication systems is so vital for the success of smart grid. Merit to the ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std low cost, low power, low data rate, short range, simplicity and free licensed spectrum that makes wireless sensor networks (WSNs) the most suitable wireless technology for smart grid applications. Unfortunately, almost all ZigBee channels overlap with wireless local area network (WLAN) channels, resulting in severe performance degradation due to interference. In order to improve the performance of communication systems, this paper proposes an optimal throughput and self-adaptability of ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std for smart grid.

  20. Toward developing a unit of measure and scale of digital video quality: IEEE Broadcast Technology Society Subcomittee on Video Compression Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libert, John M.; Stanger, Leon; Watson, Andrew B.; Rohaly, Ann M.

    2000-06-01

    Development of video quality metrics has taken support from experimental vision data mainly at two levels of abstraction. On the one hand are the carefully controlled tests of human visual response to well-defined, controlled visual stimuli, such as the ModelFest study. On the other hand are experiments in which viewers rate the global quality of 'natural' video sequences exhibiting impairments of loosely-controlled composition and amplitude, as in the Video Quality Experts Group study. The IEEE Broadcast Technology Society Subcommittee on Video Compression Measurements has initiated an intermediate level approach to video quality assessment aimed toward developing a scale of video impairment and unit of measure by which to describe video distortion in both perceptual and engineering terms. The proposed IEEE study will attempt to define a scale of video impairment in terms of multiple measurements of the just-noticeable-difference (JND) of compression-induced video impairments. A paired comparison psychophysical method will be used to define a psychometric function of the visual sensitivity to compression-induced video impairments of various amplitudes. In this effort, quality assessment is related directly to visual perception of video impairments rather than to the more 'atomic' visual stimuli as used in many human vision experiments. Yet the experimenter's control over the stimuli is greater than that used in much of contemporary video quality testing.

  1. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... surroundings, and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns. Autism (a developmental brain disorder characterized by impaired social ... TTY) Fax: 301-984-1473 MAAP Services for Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and PDD P.O. Box 524 ...

  2. Mobile healthcare information management utilizing Cloud Computing and Android OS.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos; Pliakas, Thomas; Maglogiannis, Ilias

    2010-01-01

    Cloud Computing provides functionality for managing information data in a distributed, ubiquitous and pervasive manner supporting several platforms, systems and applications. This work presents the implementation of a mobile system that enables electronic healthcare data storage, update and retrieval using Cloud Computing. The mobile application is developed using Google's Android operating system and provides management of patient health records and medical images (supporting DICOM format and JPEG2000 coding). The developed system has been evaluated using the Amazon's S3 cloud service. This article summarizes the implementation details and presents initial results of the system in practice. PMID:21097207

  3. Can i have a second child? dilemmas of mothers of children with pervasive developmental disorder: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) has an uncertain etiology, no method of treatment, and results in communication deficiencies and other behavioral problems. As the reported recurrence risk is 5%-10% and there are no methods of either prevention or prenatal testing, mothers of PDD children may face unique challenges when contemplating second pregnancies. The purpose of this study was to explore the mothers' lived experiences of second child-related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD. Methods The participants for this study were restricted to mothers living within the greater Tokyo metropolitan area who had given birth to a first child with PDD within the past 18 years. The ten participants were encouraged to describe their experiences of second-child related decision-making after the birth of a child with PDD on the basis of semi-structured interviews. Data analysis was performed by using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which is concerned with understanding what the participant thinks or believes about the topic under discussion. Results We identified two superordinate themes. The first was balancing hopes and fears, in which hope was the potential joy to be gained by the birth of a new child without PDD and fears were characterized as uncertainty of PDD and perception of recurrence risk, burden on later-born children, and negative effects on a child with PDD. The second superordinate theme was assessing the manageability of the situation, which was affected by factors as diverse as severity of PDD, relationship between mother and father, and social support and acceptance for PDD. Our 10 participants suffered from extreme psychological conflict, and lack of social support and acceptance for PDD created numerous practical difficulties in having second children. Conclusions Our participants faced various difficulties when considering second pregnancies after the birth of children with PDD in the Japanese society. As lack

  4. Magnetic Processing – A Pervasive Energy Efficient Technology for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Specialty Steel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Mackiewicz-Ludtka, G.; Ludtka, G.M.; Ray, P.; Magee, J.

    2010-09-10

    Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing is an exceptionally fertile, pervasive and cross-cutting technology that is just now being recognized by several major industry leaders for its significant potential to increase energy efficiency and materials performance for a myriad of energy intensive industries in a variety of areas and applications. ORNL has pioneered the use and development of large magnetic fields in thermomagnetically processing (T-MP) materials for altering materials phase equilibria and transformation kinetics. ORNL has discovered that using magnetic fields, we can produce unique materials responses. T-MP can produce unique phase stabilities & microstructures with improved materials performance for structural and functional applications not achieved with traditional processing techniques. These results suggest that there are unprecedented opportunities to produce significantly enhanced materials properties via atomistic level (nano-) microstructural control and manipulation. ORNL (in addition to others) have shown that grain boundary chemistry and precipitation kinetics are also affected by large magnetic fields. This CRADA has taken advantage of ORNL’s unique, custom-designed thermo-magnetic, 9 Tesla superconducting magnet facility that enables rapid heating and cooling of metallic components within the magnet bore; as well as ORNL’s expertise in high magnetic field (HMF) research. Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is a a US-based industrial company, that provides enhanced performance alloys for the Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. In this CRADA, Carpenter Technologies, Corp., is focusing on applying ORNL’s Thermomagnetic Magnetic Processing (TMP) technology to improve their current and future proprietary materials’ product performance and open up new markets for their Aerospace and Specialty Steel products. Unprecedented mechanical property performance improvements have been demonstrated for a high strength bainitic alloy industrial

  5. Baby, Where Did You Get Those Eyes?: IEEE Pulse talks with Mark Sagar about the new face of artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Mark Sagar is changing the way we look at computers by giving them faces?disconcertingly realistic human faces. Sagar first gained widespread recognition for his pioneering work in rendering faces for Hollywood movies, including Avatar and King Kong. With a Ph.D. degree in bioengineering and two Academy Awards under his belt, Sagar now directs a research lab at the University of Auckland, New Zealand, a combinatorial hub where artificial intelligence (AI), neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, and cognitive psychology intersect in creating interactive, intelligent technologies. PMID:26583883

  6. Determination of safety distance limits for a human near a cellular base station antenna, adopting the IEEE standard or ICNIRP guidelines.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Justin; Marx, Bernd; Buhl, Johannes; Hombach, Volker

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates the minimum distance for a human body in the near field of a cellular telephone base station antenna for which there is compliance with the IEEE or ICNIRP threshold values for radio frequency electromagnetic energy absorption in the human body. First, local maximum specific absorption rates (SARs), measured and averaged over volumes equivalent to 1 and to 10 g tissue within the trunk region of a physical, liquid filled shell phantom facing and irradiated by a typical GSM 900 base station antenna, were compared to corresponding calculated SAR values. The calculation used a homogeneous Visible Human body model in front of a simulated base station antenna of the same type. Both real and simulated base station antennas operated at 935 MHz. Antenna-body distances were between 1 and 65 cm. The agreement between measurements and calculations was excellent. This gave confidence in the subsequent calculated SAR values for the heterogeneous Visible Human model, for which each tissue was assigned the currently accepted values for permittivity and conductivity at 935 MHz. Calculated SAR values within the trunk of the body were found to be about double those for the homogeneous case. When the IEEE standard and the ICNIRP guidelines are both to be complied with, the local SAR averaged over 1 g tissue was found to be the determining parameter. Emitted power values from the antenna that produced the maximum SAR value over 1 g specified in the IEEE standard at the base station are less than those needed to reach the ICNIRP threshold specified for the local SAR averaged over 10 g. For the GSM base station antenna investigated here operating at 935 MHz with 40 W emitted power, the model indicates that the human body should not be closer to the antenna than 18 cm for controlled environment exposure, or about 95 cm for uncontrolled environment exposure. These safe distance limits are for SARs averaged over 1 g tissue. The corresponding safety distance limits

  7. Ubiquitous computing in sports: A review and analysis.

    PubMed

    Baca, Arnold; Dabnichki, Peter; Heller, Mario; Kornfeind, Philipp

    2009-10-01

    Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is a term for a synergetic use of sensing, communication and computing. Pervasive use of computing has seen a rapid increase in the current decade. This development has propagated in applied sport science and everyday life. The work presents a survey of recent developments in sport and leisure with emphasis on technology and computational techniques. A detailed analysis on new technological developments is performed. Sensors for position and motion detection, and such for equipment and physiological monitoring are discussed. Aspects of novel trends in communication technologies and data processing are outlined. Computational advancements have started a new trend - development of smart and intelligent systems for a wide range of applications - from model-based posture recognition to context awareness algorithms for nutrition monitoring. Examples particular to coaching and training are discussed. Selected tools for monitoring rules' compliance and automatic decision-making are outlined. Finally, applications in leisure and entertainment are presented, from systems supporting physical activity to systems providing motivation. It is concluded that the emphasis in future will shift from technologies to intelligent systems that allow for enhanced social interaction as efforts need to be made to improve user-friendliness and standardisation of measurement and transmission protocols. PMID:19764000

  8. Proceedings 3rd NASA/IEEE Workshop on Formal Approaches to Agent-Based Systems (FAABS-III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael (Editor); Rash, James (Editor); Truszkowski, Walt (Editor); Rouff, Christopher (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    These preceedings contain 18 papers and 4 poster presentation, covering topics such as: multi-agent systems, agent-based control, formalism, norms, as well as physical and biological models of agent-based systems. Some applications presented in the proceedings include systems analysis, software engineering, computer networks and robot control.

  9. Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

  10. An Italian Education: IEEE Pulse talks with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of Italy's National Bioengineering Group, about Italian progress and challenges in biomedical engineering education.

    PubMed

    Pietrabissa, Riccardo; Reynolds, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    From Leonardo da Vinci's designs for ball bearings to the incredible engineering wizardry behind the Ferrari, the inventive, inquisitive, and ingenious spirit of the engineer has always lived--and thrived--in Italy. From education to research to product development, Italy has always been regarded as an engineering leader. But does this apply to biomedical engineering (BME)? Despite many successes, questions loom, as they do at engineering schools worldwide. Concerns such as whether BME programs are providing students with enough focused, practical, hands-on training remain at the forefront, as does the question of whether graduates will be able to find jobs in industry after university studies are over. Here, IEEE Pulse explores these topics with Riccardo Pietrabissa, president of the Gruppo Nazionale di Bioingegneria (National Bioengineering Group) and a full professor in the Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering at Politecnico di Milano. PMID:26186055

  11. Performance Analysis of Power Saving Class of Type I for Voice Service in Two-Way Communication in IEEE 802.16e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Eunju; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Bong Dae

    In IEEE 802.16e, power saving is one of the important issues for battery-powered mobile stations (MSs). We present a performance analysis of power saving class (PSC) of type I in IEEE 802.16e standard for voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) service with silence suppression in two-way communication. On-off pattern of a voice user in two-way communication is characterized by the modified Brady model, which includes short silence gaps less than 200ms and talkspurt periods shorter than 15ms, and so differs from the Brady model. Our analysis of PSC I follows the standard-based procedure for the deactivation of the sleep mode, where a uplink packet arrival during a mutual silence period wakes up the MS immediately while a downlink packet arrival waits to be served until the next listening window. We derive the delay distribution of the first downlink packet arriving during a mutual silence period, and find the dropping probability of downlink packets since a voice packet drops if it is not transmitted within maximum delay constraint. In addition, we calculate the average power consumption under the modified Brady model. Analysis and simulation results show that the sleep mode operation for the MS with VoIP service yields 32 ∼ 39% reduction in the power consumption of the MS. Finally we obtain the optimal initial/final-sleep windows that yield the minimum average power consumption while satisfying QoS constraints on the packet dropping probability and the maximum delay.

  12. Interoperability of medical device information and the clinical applications: an HL7 RMIM based on the ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Mustafa; Dogac, Asuman

    2011-07-01

    Medical devices are essential to the practice of modern healthcare services. Their benefits will increase if clinical software applications can seamlessly acquire the medical device data. The need to represent medical device observations in a format that can be consumable by clinical applications has already been recognized by the industry. Yet, the solutions proposed involve bilateral mappings from the ISO/IEEE 11073 Domain Information Model (DIM) to specific message or document standards. Considering that there are many different types of clinical applications such as the electronic health record and the personal health record systems, the clinical workflows, and the clinical decision support systems each conforming to different standard interfaces, detailing a mapping mechanism for every one of them introduces significant work and, thus, limits the potential health benefits of medical devices. In this paper, to facilitate the interoperability of clinical applications and the medical device data, we use the ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM to derive an HL7 v3 Refined Message Information Model (RMIM) of the medical device domain from the HL7 v3 Reference Information Mode (RIM). This makes it possible to trace the medical device data back to a standard common denominator, that is, HL7 v3 RIM from which all the other medical domains under HL7 v3 are derived. Hence, once the medical device data are obtained in the RMIM format, it can easily be transformed into HL7-based standard interfaces through XML transformations because these interfaces all have their building blocks from the same RIM. To demonstrate this, we provide the mappings from the developed RMIM to some of the widely used HL7 v3-based standard interfaces. PMID:21558061

  13. GLOBECOM '92 - IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Orlando, FL, Dec. 6-9, 1992, Conference Record. Vols. 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papers are presented on such topics as the wireless data network in PCS, advances in digital mobile networks, ATM switching experiments, broadband applications, network planning, and advances in SONET/SDH implementations. Consideration is also given to gigabit computer networks, techniques for modeling large high-speed networks, coding and modulation, the next-generation lightwave system, signaling systems for broadband ISDN, satellite technologies, and advances in standardization of low-rate signal processing.

  14. Blast from the Past: Pervasive Impact and Landscape-Scale Modification from Historical Mining Over 1000 Years in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansson, S.; Bindler, R.

    2011-12-01

    In the public consciousness Sweden is often viewed as a largely natural landscape. However, many parts of the landscape have undergone substantial changes. For example, in the historically and culturally important Bergslagen region in central Sweden, which played an important role in the economic development of Sweden since the medieval period, agriculture and mining have greatly transformed the landscape over the past 1000 years. Bergslagen is an ore-rich region characterized as a granite-porphyr belt formed 1900 Ma ago, with thousands of mines and mine pits, hundreds of furnaces, smelters and forges distributed throughout the area. Drawing on data from selected lake sediment records from different historical mining districts in Central Sweden (e.g. Norberg mining district - iron ores and Falun mining district - copper ores) the aim of this presentation is to show how small-scale but pervasively widespread mining and metallurgy, along with associated settlement, have transformed the surrounding landscape. These anthropogenic activities led to changes in sedimentation and erosion rates, forest structure, and also causing large-scale metal pollution and ecological changes in recipient watercourses and lakes. This historical pollution was oftentimes on a scale we associate with modern mining pollution. Our research is based on analyses of lake sediment records, which include multi-element analyses of minor and trace elements using XRF, mercury, carbon, and in some lakes also pollen and diatoms. In two lakes in Norberg, recent catastrophic failure (1991) of a sand magazine below a now closed mine led to significant contamination of the two downstream lakes, with Cu and Hg concentrations up to 1800 ppm and 1400 ppb, respectively. These concentrations are 50 and 20 times greater than natural background values. However, such elevated concentrations are also frequently found in sediments dated to the 16th-18th centuries. For example, in one lake in the Norberg iron mining

  15. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  16. Computer Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Perry

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.). Although most people would think that analog synthesizers and electronic music substantially predate the use of computers in music, many experiments and complete computer music systems were being constructed and used as early as the 1950s.

  17. Computational estimation of magnetically induced electric fields in a rotating head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilvonen, Sami; Laakso, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    Change in a magnetic field, or similarly, movement in a strong static magnetic field induces electric fields in human tissues, which could potentially cause harmful effects. In this paper, the fields induced by different rotational movements of a head in a strong homogeneous magnetic field are computed numerically. Average field magnitudes near the retinas and inner ears are studied in order to gain insight into the causes of phosphenes and vertigo-like effects, which are associated with extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields. The induced electric fields are calculated in four different anatomically realistic head models using an efficient finite-element method (FEM) solver. The results are compared with basic restriction limits by IEEE and ICNIRP. Under rotational movement of the head, with a magnetic flux rate of change of 1 T s-1, the maximum IEEE-averaged electric field and maximum ICNIRP-averaged current density were 337 mV m-1 and 8.84 mA m-2, respectively. The limits by IEEE seem significantly stricter than those by ICNIRP. The results show that a magnetic flux rate of change of 1 T s-1 may induce electric field in the range of 50 mV m-1 near retinas, and possibly even larger values near the inner ears. These results provide information for approximating the threshold electric field values of phosphenes and vertigo-like effects.

  18. Pygmalion's Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Howard A.

    Computers have undoubtedly entered the educational arena, mainly in the areas of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and artificial intelligence, but whether educators should embrace computers and exactly how they should use them are matters of great debate. The use of computers in support of educational administration is widely accepted.…

  19. A Location-Based Duplex Scheme for Cost Effective Rural Broadband Connectivity Using IEEE 802.22 Cognitive Radio Based Wireless Regional Area Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalidoss, R.; Bhagyaveni, M. A.; Vishvaksenan, K. S.

    2014-08-01

    The search for a method of utilizing the scarce spectrum in an efficient manner is an active area of research in both academic and industrial communities. IEEE 802.22 is a standard for wireless regional area network (WRAN) based on cognitive radio (CR) that operates over underutilized portions of TV bands (54-862 MHz). Time division duplex (TDD)-based WRAN cells have such advantages as dynamic traffic allocation, traffic asymmetry to users and ease of spectrum allocation. However, these cells suffer from severe cross time slot (CTS) interference when the frames of the cells are not synchronized with adjacent WRAN cells. In this paper, we evaluate the location-based duplex (LBD) scheme for eliminating the CTS interference. The proposed LBD system is much more flexible and efficient in providing asymmetric data service and eliminating CTS interference by exploiting the advantages of both TDD and frequency division duplex (FDD) schemes. We also compare the performance of LBD systems with virtual cell concepts. Furthermore, our simulation results reveal that LBD-based systems outperform the virtual cell approach in terms of the low signal-to-interference (SIR) ratio requirement by mitigating the effects of CTS.

  20. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified.

    PubMed

    Verheij, C; Louwerse, A; van der Ende, J; Eussen, M L J M; Van Gool, A R; Verheij, F; Verhulst, F C; Greaves-Lord, K

    2015-12-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined childhood factors that predicted the stability of comorbid psychiatric disorders. The rate of comorbid psychiatric disorders dropped significantly from childhood (81 %) to adolescence (61 %). Higher levels of parent reported stereotyped behaviors and reduced social interest in childhood significantly predicted the stability of psychiatric comorbidity. Re-evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity should be considered in clinical practice, since several individuals shifted in comorbid diagnoses. PMID:26456972