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Sample records for ieee singapore section

  1. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity. PMID:25950861

  2. Singapore Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Singapore Math" is a collection of math curricula originally developed by Singapore's Ministry of Education and private textbook publishers for use in Singapore schools. "Singapore Math" curricula were developed under a national framework centered on problem solving that emphasizes computational skills as well as conceptual and strategic thinking…

  3. Lifetime and twelve-month prevalence of heavy-drinking in Singapore: Results from a representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study aimed to establish the prevalence of heavy drinking, evaluate correlations between heavy drinking and socio-demographic factors, physical and psychiatric conditions, and assess the impact of heavy drinking on quality of life and days of work-loss. Methods Data from a nationally-representative cross-sectional sample were used. The sample comprised 6616 community-dwelling Singaporeans & Singapore Permanent Residents. The main instruments used were the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and EuroQol 5D. Heavy drinking was defined as consumption of 4 or more drinks, or 5 or more drinks in a day in women and men respectively. Results 12.6% of all adult Singapore residents reported heavy drinking in the last 12 months, and 15.9% reported lifetime heavy-drinking. Strong gender, ethnic, age and income differences were seen. Heavy drinking was positively associated with major depression, the presence of any mood disorder, and with chronic pain. It was also strongly associated with alcohol dependence, alcohol abuse, and nicotine dependence. Heavy-drinkers reported lower quality of life compared to non-heavy drinkers, measured using the EuroQol 5D Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusions Singapore has a relatively high prevalence of 12-month heavy drinking of 12.6%, and lifetime heavy drinking of 15.9%. Heavy drinking was positively associated with both physical and mental health conditions, and with declines in quality of life. Continued monitoring of heavy drinking behavior and sustained efforts to mitigate the risks associated with heavy drinking is needed. PMID:24499269

  4. Cholesterol-raising diterpenes in types of coffee commonly consumed in Singapore, Indonesia and India and associations with blood lipids: A survey and cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To measure the content of cholesterol-raising diterpenes in coffee sold at the retailer level in Singapore, Indonesia and India and to determine the relationship of coffee consumption with lipid levels in a population-based study in Singapore. Methods Survey and cross-sectional study in local coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India to measure the diterpene content in coffee, and a population-based study in Singapore to examine the relationship of coffee consumption and blood lipid levels. Interviews and coffee samples (n = 27) were collected from coffee shops in Singapore, Indonesia and India. In addition, 3000 men and women who were Chinese, Malay, and Indian residents of Singapore participated in a cross-sectional study. Results and Discussion The traditional 'sock' method of coffee preparation used in Singapore resulted in cafestol concentrations comparable to European paper drip filtered coffee (mean 0.09 ± SD 0.064 mg/cup). This amount would result in negligible predicted increases in serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. Similarly low amounts of cafestol were found in Indian 'filter' coffee that used a metal mesh filter (0.05 ± 0.05 mg/cup). Coffee samples from Indonesia using the 'sock' method (0.85 ± 0.41 mg/cup) or a metal mesh filter (0.98 mg/cup) contained higher amounts of cafestol comparable to espresso coffee. Unfiltered coffee from Indonesia contained an amount of cafestol (4.43 mg/cup) similar to Scandinavian boiled, Turkish and French press coffee with substantial predicted increases in serum cholesterol (0.33 mmol/l) and triglycerides (0.20 mmol/l) concentrations for consumption of 5 cups per day. In the Singaporean population, higher coffee consumption was not substantially associated with serum lipid concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [LDL-cholesterol: 3.07 (95% confidence interval 2.97-3.18) for <1 cup/week versus 3.12 (2.99-3.26) for ≥ 3 cups/day; p trend 0.12]. Conclusions Based on

  5. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  6. Association of Maternal Vitamin D Status with Glucose Tolerance and Caesarean Section in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes Study

    PubMed Central

    Loy, See Ling; Lek, Ngee; Yap, Fabian; Soh, Shu E.; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Tan, Kok Hian; Biswas, Arijit; Yeo, George Seow Heong; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Saw, Seang Mei; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological studies relating maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and mode of delivery have shown controversial results. We examined if maternal 25OHD status was associated with plasma glucose concentrations, risks of GDM and caesarean section in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study. Methods Plasma 25OHD concentrations, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured in 940 women from a Singapore mother-offspring cohort study at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. 25OHD inadequacy and adequacy were defined based on concentrations of 25OHD ≤75nmol/l and >75nmol/l respectively. Mode of delivery was obtained from hospital records. Multiple linear regression was performed to examine the association between 25OHD status and glucose concentrations, while multiple logistic regression was performed to examine the association of 25OHD status with risks of GDM and caesarean section. Results In total, 388 (41.3%) women had 25OHD inadequacy. Of these, 131 (33.8%), 155 (39.9%) and 102 (26.3%) were Chinese, Malay and Indian respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal 25OHD inadequacy was associated with higher FG concentrations (β = 0.08mmol/l, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.01, 0.14), but not 2HPPG concentrations and risk of GDM. A trend between 25OHD inadequacy and higher likelihood of emergency caesarean section (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.95, 2.05) was observed. On stratification by ethnicity, the association with higher FG concentrations was significant in Malay women (β = 0.19mmol/l, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.33), while risk of emergency caesarean section was greater in Chinese (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.43) and Indian women (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.73). Conclusions 25OHD inadequacy is prevalent in pregnant Singaporean women, particularly among the Malay and Indian women. This is associated with higher FG concentrations in Malay

  7. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  8. Counseling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Soo Yin; Neihart, Maureen F.

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, a tiny island nation, rose from 3rd- to 1st-world status in just 3 decades. Unlike in most developed countries, counseling in Singapore has a short history with faith-based beginnings and currently faces challenges to remain culturally relevant. The authors trace the development of Singapore's counseling services, provide an update…

  9. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  10. "Crossing" in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti; Roslan, Mardiana

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the way a group of pre-teens in Singapore use Malay, Chinese and English to perform identity. It is based on one case study of a Malay girl, Syafiqah, from a larger project called The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore 2006, and does not claim to be generalizable. The data are transcripts of recordings made on the speech…

  11. "Until" in Singapore English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bao, Zhiming; Wee, Lionel

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated the syntax and semantics of the word "until" in Standard British English and Singapore English. While the word is used similarly in the two languages, it has uses in Singapore English not available in Standard Spoken English, paralleling the word "dao" in Chinese and suggesting a substrate influence that is structural in…

  12. Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Clifford A.

    2001-01-01

    Presents architectural details of a large Singapore polytechnical school where the specialties of engineering, health sciences, information technologies, and business management are organized as individual schools sharing a single campus. Includes ten photographs and a site plan. (GR)

  13. Prehospital Trauma Care in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Chew, David; Wong, Ting Hway; Ng, Yih Yng; Pek, Pin Pin; Lim, Swee Han; Anantharaman, Venkataraman; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital emergency care in Singapore has taken shape over almost a century. What began as a hospital-based ambulance service intended to ferry medical cases was later complemented by an ambulance service under the Singapore Fire Brigade to transport trauma cases. The two ambulance services would later combine and come under the Singapore Civil Defence Force. The development of prehospital care systems in island city-state Singapore faces unique challenges as a result of its land area and population density. This article defines aspects of prehospital trauma care in Singapore. It outlines key historical milestones and current initiatives in service, training, and research. It makes propositions for the future direction of trauma care in Singapore. The progress Singapore has made given her circumstances may serve as lessons for the future development of prehospital trauma systems in similar environments. Key words: Singapore; trauma; prehospital emergency care; emergency medical services. PMID:25494913

  14. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  15. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  16. Special Education in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan; Nam, Sang Seok

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the development and current status of special education in Singapore. Topics include organization of service delivery, integration, teacher training, and achievements. Challenges to improve the quality of special education services through integration opportunities, preservice teacher training, and greater coordination among…

  17. "Right" in Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Singapore English has been, and still is, an enigma for many scholars and researchers. In recent years, much attention has been given to the analysis of its particles. However, rather than focusing on the analysis of one particle or several particles and how they operate at the level of the sentence, this paper looks at a particular phenomenon in…

  18. MEMS in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tay, Francis E.

    2001-03-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) can be termed as a crossroad technology. Cross road in the sense that it is an amalgamation of various disciplines to produce a solution. Cross road also, in the sense that it is disruptive to the way that solutions used to be provided. At the crossroad, a decision needs to be made either to do things the old way or to embrace the new technology. In this paper, a review is made to the research and development of MEMS technology with potentially widespread applications in Singapore. In most cases, these are preparations to a possible acceleration of MEMS related industry in this part of the world. However, the author also noted that the transfer of MEMS technology from the laboratory to the industry is not a trivial matter. A major decision has to be made due to the high capital outlay and the high operational costs involved. Further, many production related issues such as yield and packaging have to be considered. A large number of MEMS commercial outfits such as Bosch are serving internal customers. As a small country with limited resources, Singapore places great emphasis on building up MEMS research and development activities to support future high value-added design and fabrication. In this paper, some of the MEMS activities in the national universities and institutes in Singapore are introduced, and some recent progress and development of MEMS technology in Singapore are presented.

  19. Singapore Chooses Teachers Carefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sclafani, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    At the heart of the plans and programs that launched Singapore's rise to the top of international education comparisons are the tiny nation-state's commitments to its teaching force beginning with its highly competitive selection process and carrying through its teacher training, its career-long professional development, and even an enhanced…

  20. Peer Crowds in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yeo, Geck Hong

    2012-01-01

    This study examined peer crowds in the Singapore context. A total of 598 Secondary 1 and 2 adolescents were asked to identify the crowds they perceived to exist in their schools and to describe these crowds' characteristics. The adolescents had no difficulty identifying crowds, generating a total of 1,534 crowds. Among the crowds identified, seven…

  1. Breastfeeding in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Fok, D

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the trends of breastfeeding in Singapore for the past 40 years, describes the recent breastfeeding education efforts and makes recommendations after drawing inferences from the results of the Breastfeeding Mothers' Support Group's (BMSG) February 1996 survey and other local studies. Although the BMSG and other local studies' sample sizes are small, there are recurring themes in the factors affecting the breastfeeding rates in Singapore. The consistent patterns are that the well-to-do breastfeed more than the poor, the Chinese breastfeed less than the other ethnic groups and the more educated mothers breastfeed more than the less educated ones. Target groups for breastfeeding education are identified--the less the less educated mothers, the Chinese mothers and the working mothers. Hospitals are encouraged to become baby-friendly in their practices. The next step after raising public awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding is to increase the present breastfeeding duration of two months to six months. PMID:9699470

  2. Hoarding in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kenneth Wei-Qiang; Lee, Wei Liang; How, Choon How; Ng, Beng Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Hoarding refers to an excessive acquisition of objects and inability to part with apparently valueless possessions. While it can lead to excessive clutter, distress and disability, it is important to note that not all cases of hoarding are pathological. This article aims to suggest how one can make recommendations to patients and families when they encounter someone exhibiting hoarding behaviour. It also introduces the Hoarding Task Force and relevant legislation in Singapore to address the issue of hoarding in the community. PMID:26464529

  3. A Pandora's Box in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overland, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    Singapore is no longer content to produce only engineers and technocrats, says Tharman Shanmugaratnam, minister for education. The government wants to foster a dynamic environment that can attract thinkers and leaders in many fields, not just science. Singapore's planners envision their city as the "Boston of the East"--where the alchemy between…

  4. Family planning in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kanagaratnam, K

    1968-01-01

    Since the initial voluntary efforts of the Singapore Family Planning Association in 1949, family planning in Singapore has made important progress. This effort extended over the years until the end of 1965 when the government accepted full responsibility for family planning on a national scale. In September 1965, the government announced a 5-year National Family Planning Program with the goal of reducing the birthrate from 32/1000 in 1964 to below 20/1000 by 1970. This would result in a growth rate of not more than 1.5%. The government program aims at reaching 60% of married women in the reproductive age range of 15-45. It is estimated that out of 450,000 in this age range, some 300,000 are married. The target is 180,000 in 5 years. The Singapore Family Planning & Population Board was established by an Act of Parliament and charged with responsibility for the implementation of the 5-year plan. The national program offers a menu card of all family planning methods except abortion. Initial focus was on the IUD as the method of choice for 80%. Oral contraception (OC) was the preferred alternative for the remaining 20%. Other conventonal methods also were available. A few months after the plan began in 1966, the IUD became unacceptable to Singapore women. Its side effects of bleeding, cramps, perforation, and pregnancy were exaggerated by rumors. By the middle of 1966, attendance and acceptors in the national program had declined. Emphasis in the national program was changed to OCs, which now are the mainstay of family planning. Currently, nearly 65% of the acceptors use OCs. The program also demonstrates the importance, especially in urban areas, of the tremendous impact of a postpartum family planning service. Over 70% of the births in Singapore take place at the Kandang Kerbau Maternity Hospitals. Government midwives deliver another 5%. All these women are contacted by a team of family planning workers in the postpartum period and are offered family planning. Nearly

  5. Higher Education and Entrepreneurial Citizenship in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on Singapore's "Global Schoolhouse" project, this article discusses how efforts to transform Singapore into a "world class" knowledge economy entail changes to the status of citizenship in Singapore. The project of wooing top foreign universities to Singapore is permeated with an entrepreneurial ideal of Singapore…

  6. Singapore: A History of the Lion City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelander, Bjorn

    An overview of Singapore's history and culture is discussed in this learning guide. A study of the history of Singapore, including Temasek to Singapore, the Raffles Years, and the Straits Settlements, is given. Information about the transition of Singapore as a British Colony to the modern independent state of today, and the effects of World War…

  7. Academic geriatrics in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chek Hooi; Landefeld, C Seth

    2011-11-01

    Singapore is one of the fastest-aging countries in the world. The proportion of adults aged 65 and older is projected to increase from 8.7% to 20% over the next 20 years. The country has developed various strategies to meet the needs of this increase in older adults. There is an acute shortage of geriatricians and a need to train more healthcare workers to care for older adults. Geriatric medicine is a relatively new specialty, and a small number of geriatricians have been tasked with providing an increasing load of clinical service, education, and research. Hence, there is a need to develop a cohesive structure of support for faculty development and retention, advanced specialty trainee recruitment, leadership in medical education, research, and clinical service to care for the rapidly aging population. In addition, geriatric medicine is primarily a hospital-based specialty in Singapore. There is still opportunity to collaborate and improve the academic and practice integration of geriatric medicine into primary care and intermediate and long-term care where it is most needed. PMID:22091794

  8. Younger adult type 2 diabetic patients have poorer glycaemic control: a cross-sectional study in a primary care setting in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic patients, and to identify factors associated with unacceptable glycaemic control (defined as HbA1c >8.0%). Methods Analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional survey of type 2 diabetic patients in eight SingHealth Polyclinics in January 2009. HbA1c value was measured on the day of the survey, while information on patient and diabetic characteristics was obtained through a questionnaire. Odds ratio of having unacceptable glycaemic control was estimated for selected variables using multiple logistic regression models. Results A total of 688 patients were included in the analysis. The mean (± standard deviation) and median (range) HbA1c levels were 7.6% (± 1.35) and 7.3% (5.0% to 14.0%), respectively. 25.4% of the patients had an unacceptable HbA1c level of >8.0% and the odds of this were higher (p < 0.05) in patients with the following characteristics: younger age, longer diabetes duration, presence of insulin treatment, and poorer compliance to medication. Conclusion Younger adult patients were found to have poorer glycaemic control, and hence targeted educational and behaviour modification programmes would be required to effectively manage this group of patients. PMID:23725198

  9. Metal allergy in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Goon, Anthony T J; Goh, C L

    2005-03-01

    This is a clinical epidemiologic study to determine the frequency of metal allergy among patch-tested patients in the years 2001-2003. The results are compared with those of previous studies. All patients diagnosed as having allergic contact dermatitis in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, from January 2001 to December 2003 were studied retrospectively. The frequency of positive patch tests to the following metals were nickel 19.9%, chromate 5.6%, cobalt 8.2% and gold 8.3%. The frequency of nickel allergy has been steadily rising over the last 20 years. The most common sources of nickel allergy are costume jewelry, belt buckles, wrist watches and spectacle frames. After declining from 1984 to 1990, chromate and cobalt allergies have also been steadily increasing subsequently. The most common sources of chromate allergy were cement, leather and metal objects. Most positive patch tests to cobalt are regarded as co-sensitization due to primary nickel or chromate allergies. There has been a steep increase in positive patch tests to gold from 2001 to 2003, which is difficult to explain because the relevance and sources of such positive patch tests can rarely be determined with certainty. There has been an overall rise in the frequency of metal allergy in the last 20 years. PMID:15811025

  10. Breastfeeding trends in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chua, S; Viegas, O A; Counsilman, J J; Ratnam, S S

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of well-to-do mothers in Singapore initiate breastfeeding. This value compares favourably with the 36% recently recorded for poor mothers, but is still unacceptably low compared to the 85-95% of well-to-do mothers and 90% of poor mothers who breastfed in the 1950s and 1960s. There has been a general decline in the incidence of breastfeeding over the last 35 years. Differences between the well-to-do and poor groups were initially small. A pronounced decline in the incidence of breastfeeding among the well-to-do mothers followed; a reversal in this downward trend in well-to-do mothers over the past 10 years has narrowed, and indeed reversed, the difference between the two groups. Similar trends can be found for the duration of breastfeeding. Whilst the overall decline probably reflects increasing affluence and 'Westernization' of the population the variation between these two economic groups is probably a result of differences in education. Among the three major ethnic communities, Chinese favoured breastfeeding least and Malays favoured it most. The differences are believed to be related to cultural differences and the ability of traditional practices and beliefs among the ethnic groups to resist the modern trend towards bottlefeeding. PMID:2919314

  11. Misidentifying Factors Underlying Singapore's High Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    2012-01-01

    Singapore students have scored exceedingly well on international tests in mathematics. In response, there has been a desire in the United States--both at the policy level and at the school level--to emulate Singapore. Because what can be identified most easily about Singapore's school mathematics can be gleaned from curriculum documents from the…

  12. English Literatures in Post-Colonial Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Rozita

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of a vibrant literary, culture and arts scene promotes Singapore's claims as a hub for arts and culture in the Asian region, and as a global arts city by the 21st century. The richness and variety of Singapore literature from the early post-colonial years are evident in the evolution of a Singapore literary culture. The diaspora of…

  13. Mammoth order for Singapore project.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Two new hospitals in Singapore that form a new integrated healthcare hub, that feature a range of innovations in patient treatment and care, and are reportedly the country's first such healthcare facilities built together as an integrated development to complement each other's capabilities and services, were officially opened by Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien Loong, last October. Operated by Jurong Health, a public healthcare 'cluster' formed to facilitate the integration of healthcare services in the west of Singapore, the Ng Teng Fong Hospital and Jurong Community Hospital feature an extensive array of Gerflor flooring, selected, as the company explains in this article, for a combination of outstanding aesthetics, durability, safety, and hard wear. PMID:26946579

  14. Verification of IEEE Compliant Subtractive Division Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.; Leathrum, James F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A parameterized definition of subtractive floating point division algorithms is presented and verified using PVS. The general algorithm is proven to satisfy a formal definition of an IEEE standard for floating point arithmetic. The utility of the general specification is illustrated using a number of different instances of the general algorithm.

  15. The IEEE Software Engineering Standards Process

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Fletcher J.

    1984-01-01

    Software Engineering has emerged as a field in recent years, and those involved increasingly recognize the need for standards. As a result, members of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formed a subcommittee to develop these standards. This paper discusses the ongoing standards development, and associated efforts.

  16. Visitor Behavior at Singapore Zoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchman, David; Bossler, Charles

    In this study, data were collected on 15 visitor groups for the duration of their stay, and on 1556 visitor groups at 18 exhibits at the Singapore Zoo. Mean time at the zoo was 155 minutes; the distribution of the time spent among four activities was analyzed by ethnicity and group size. The actual route followed was traced on zoo maps and group…

  17. Singapore Language Enhancer: Identity Included

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Desmond

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the rhetoric of the four official languages (English, Mandarin, Malay and Tamil) in Singapore and the domestic aversion towards Chinese "dialects" and colloquial "Singlish". The "Speak Mandarin Campaign" alongside the "Speak Good English Movement" represent a display of intercultural and transcultural ideologies which…

  18. Career Guidance in Singapore Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the history and stages of development for career guidance in Singapore schools. Asserts that to meet the challenges of the new millennium, there is a need to train professional career counselors, develop indigenous resource materials, and promote a new concept of career development among students. (Contains 15 references.) (GCP)

  19. Spinal Injury Rehabilitation in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, H. L.; Chua, K.; Chan, W.

    1998-01-01

    This study reviewed 231 cases of spinal cord injury treated in Singapore. Data on demographic characteristics, common causes (mostly falls and traffic accidents), types of spinal damage, and outcomes are reported. Following rehabilitation, 68 patients were able to ambulate independently and 45 patients achieved independence in activities of daily…

  20. Station characteristics of the Singapore Infrasound Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, Anna; Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Garces, Milton; Avila Encillo, Jeffrey; Ildefonso, Sorvigenaleon

    2016-04-01

    Singapore, located in Southeast Asia, presents an ideal location for an additional regional infrasound array, with diverse persistent natural and anthropogenic regional infrasound sources, including ~750 active or potentially active volcanoes within 4,000 kilometers. Previous studies have focused on theoretical and calculated regional signal detection capability improvement with the addition of a Singapore array. The Earth Observatory of Singapore installed a five element infrasound array in northcentral Singapore in late 2014, and this station began consistent real-time data transmission mid-2015. The Singapore array uses MB2005s microbarometers and Nanometrics Taurus digitizers. Automated array processing is carried out with the INFrasonic EneRgy Nth Octave (INFERNO) energy estimation suite, and PMCC (Progressive MultiChannel Correlation). The addition of the Singapore infrasound array to the existing International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in the region has increased regional infrasound detection capability, which is illustrated with the preliminary work on three observed meteor events of various sizes in late 2015. A meteor observed in Bangkok, Thailand in early September, 2015 was picked up by the CTBTO, however, another meteor observed in Bangkok in November was only recorded on the Singapore array. Additionally, another meteor observed over Sumatra was only recorded by one IMS station and the Singapore array. This study uses array processing and Power Spectral Density results for both the Singapore and publicly available regional IMS stations to examine station characteristics and detection capability of the Singapore array in the context of the regional IMS network.

  1. Defining the IEEE-854 floating-point standard in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul S.

    1995-01-01

    A significant portion of the ANSI/IEEE-854 Standard for Radix-Independent Floating-Point Arithmetic is defined in PVS (Prototype Verification System). Since IEEE-854 is a generalization of the ANSI/IEEE-754 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, the definition of IEEE-854 in PVS also formally defines much of IEEE-754. This collection of PVS theories provides a basis for machine checked verification of floating-point systems. This formal definition illustrates that formal specification techniques are sufficiently advanced that is is reasonable to consider their use in the development of future standards.

  2. Singapore's anatomical future: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Ang, Eng-Tat; Sugand, Kapil; Hartman, Mikael; Seow, Choon-Sheong; Bay, Boon-Huat; Abrahams, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The disciplines of anatomy and surgery are not dichotomous since one is dependent on the other. Traditionally, surgeons predominantly taught gross and clinical anatomy. In this review, we examine the context of how human anatomy is taught nowadays. In essence, we discovered that there are certain discernable trends consistently observable between the American and British systems. In Singapore, the British Russell Group first influenced its education landscape but now more so by the American Ivy League. Singapore now has three medical schools all offering differing anatomy curricula, which serves as an opportune time for it to consider if there is a best approach given that the practice of surgery is also evolving in parallel. This review discusses the various pedagogies and issues involved, and will serve as a forum and stimulus for discussion. By tweaking the curriculum correctly and the lessons learnt, future doctors and surgeons in training will receive a better anatomical education, not just in Singapore but the world in general. Key recommendations include the use of body painting, clay, plasticine to facilitate the learning of anatomy, and the implementation of a body donation program. Furthermore, strategic mergers with key stakeholders will also ensure the survival of the discipline. PMID:22566391

  3. Singapore's Literacy Policy and Its Conflicting Ideologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Catherine Siew Kheng

    2004-01-01

    Singapore's leading literacy policy is affected by a tension between the ideologies associated with English and those attached to Singapore's mother tongues. Singaporeans must safeguard their heritages, keeping themselves open to the places where their ancestors came from by learning their designated mother tongues. At the same time, Singaporeans…

  4. Singapore's E(Si)nglish-Knowing Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chua, Siew Kheng Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Singapore's bilingual policy and looks at how the government's top-down and structured language policy has transformed the country into an English-knowing society. Education and language-in-education planning in Singapore are linked closely to the country's economic development and nation-building process. This pair of…

  5. Deep Culture Matters: Multiracialism in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Multiculturalism is more accurately described as "multiracialism" in Singapore as the government classifies everyone based on four racial identities according to one's paternal line: Chinese, Malay, Indian, and others. Exploring the principle and practice of multiracialism in Singapore schools, this article points out that the surface culture…

  6. Sleep disorders in children: the Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Chng, Seo Yi

    2008-08-01

    This review article summarises the current available literature on sleep patterns and sleep problems in Singapore children. Co-sleeping is a culturally dependent practice and its prevalence in Singapore has been determined to be 73%. Co-sleeping is not associated with significant sleep problems in Singapore children. Snoring and habitual snoring occur in 28.1% and 6.0% of Singapore children, respectively. Habitual snoring in Singapore children was significantly associated with obesity, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, maternal smoking and breastfeeding. Atopy was the strongest risk factor for habitual snoring in Singapore, and the effect was cumulative. Children attending psychiatric services in Singapore may also have sleep disorders, the highest prevalence being in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The knowledge on childhood sleep disorders (including obstructive sleep apnoea) amongst the public, patients, parents and future doctors in Singapore are inadequate and there is an urgent need for increased education in this area given the importance of good sleep in children. There is also a need to change parental attitudes about sleep disorders and encourage early medical consultation. PMID:18797566

  7. Saving Chinese-Language Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cher Leng

    2012-01-01

    Three-quarters of Singapore's population consists of ethnic Chinese, and yet, learning Chinese (Mandarin) has been a headache for many Singapore students. Recently, many scholars have argued that the rhetoric of language planning for Mandarin Chinese should be shifted from emphasizing its cultural value to stressing its economic value since…

  8. Sorting Citizens: Differentiated Citizenship Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Li-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as a case study, this paper examines how the discourses of democratic elitism and meritocracy help allocate different citizen roles to students and define the nature of the social studies citizenship education programmes for different educational tracks. While the Singapore education system is not unique in its stratification of…

  9. Mathematics Curriculum in India and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Seok Hoon; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    This paper compares and analyzes preschool mathematics education in Singapore and India in terms of strategies, learning activities, teacher expectations, and parental involvement. The paper describes the mathematics curriculum of one school in Erode, India, including teaching methods, and in Singapore. The results of a parent survey in each…

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Games in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Elizabeth; Kin, Yeo Gee; Wadhwa, Bimlesh; Lim, John

    2012-01-01

    With the proliferation of entertainment games, supported by heavy investment in the underlying technologies, educators are now examining the educational values of gaming and attempting to incorporate games into their teaching. In Singapore, the game sector is worth many million Singapore dollars (SGDs), and gaming is an engaging activity of the…

  11. The Singapore years and subsequently.

    PubMed

    Mahathir, M

    2005-07-01

    Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad was a medical student at the King Edward VII College of Medicine from 1947 to 1953. He described his student days with fondness; he made many friends while he was at the College. He recounted his early days as a doctor before he entered politics in 1964. He became the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia for 22 years from 1981 to 2003. He concluded "The contribution of my Medical College days in Singapore to the racial harmony, peace and prosperity of Malaysia is tangible but unquantifiable." PMID:16010378

  12. Bibliography of relay literature, 1995. IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature which were published previously and are contained in the volumes of the IEEE Transactions. The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. The listing of titles is subdivided into ten sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The entries in each section are listed in only one section even if it covers material that belongs to several sections. A list of the periodicals which have been cited and the addresses of their publishers follows the bibliography. The abstracts of many articles reported in this paper are available in the Science Abstracts-Section B, the Engineering Index, and other digesting and/or indexing periodicals.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of heart disease among adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Picco, Louisa; Subramaniam, Mythily; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann

    2016-02-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and it has been well established that it is associated with both mental and physical conditions. This paper describes the prevalence of heart disease with mental disorders and other chronic physical conditions among the Singapore resident population. Data were from the Singapore Mental Health Study which was a representative, cross-sectional epidemiological survey undertaken with 6616 Singapore residents, between December 2009 and December 2010. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 was used to establish the diagnosis of mental disorders, while a chronic medical conditions checklist was used to gather information on 15 physical conditions, including various forms of heart disease. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Euro-Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D). The lifetime prevalence of heart disease was 2.8%. Socio-demographic correlates of heart disease included older age, Indian ethnicity, secondary education (vs. tertiary) and being economically inactive. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables and other comorbid physical and mental disorders, the prevalence of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder were significantly higher among those with heart disease, as were diabetes, arthritis, kidney failure and lung disease. These findings highlight important associations between heart disease and various socio-demographic correlates, mental disorders and physical conditions. Given the high prevalence of mood disorders among heart disease patients, timely and appropriate screening and treatment of mental disorders among this group is essential. PMID:26957336

  14. Bibliography of relay literature, 1993: IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Sachdev, M.S.; Folkman, A.G.; Finley, D.

    1995-04-01

    The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature which were published previously and are contained in the volumes of the IEEE Transaction. The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, as well as to the field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. The listing of the titles is subdivided into ten sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The entries in each section are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the first author. Each title is listed in only one section even if it covers material that belongs to several sections. A list of the periodicals which have been cited and the addresses of their publishers follows the bibliography.

  15. 1994 IEEE first world conference on photovoltaic energy conversion: Conference record of the twenty-fourth IEEE photovoltaic specialists conference -- 1994. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 1994 IEEE First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion and conference record of the Twenty Fourth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference of 1994. The topics of the papers include research reports on advanced devices; results of pilot commercialization projects; financing, installing and operating photovoltaic power generating systems; and space photovoltaic device development and system applications. The papers are divided into the following sections: Silicon cells and materials; Si material growth and characterization; Si device and process modeling; Single crystal and high efficiency Si devices; Multicrystalline and thin-layer Si devices; Si defect and impurity effects in growth and processing; Si crystal growth and Si device modeling; Crystalline Si devices; Impurities and defects in crystalline Si and thin layer devices; Multijunction cells; Multijunction devices; Space systems; Space solar cells; National program economics and technology; and National programs status and prospects. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Tejero-Calado, Juan; Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Rivas, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. This kind of devices favours at-home hospitalization, reducing the affluence to sanitary assistance centers to make routine controls. This fact causes a really favourable social impact, especially for elder people, rural-zone inhabitant, chronic patients and handicapped people. Furthermore, it offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the sanitary cost. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (screen, PDA, PC...) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size multi-channel electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the TCP/IP Hospital network. PMID:17281922

  17. IEEE 1547 Standards Advancing Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, Thomas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Andy; Coddington, Michael

    2015-06-14

    Technology advances including development of advanced distributed energy resources (DER) and grid-integrated operations and controls functionalities have surpassed the requirements in current standards and codes for DER interconnection with the distribution grid. The full revision of IEEE Standards 1547 (requirements for DER-grid interconnection and interoperability) and 1547.1 (test procedures for conformance to 1547) are establishing requirements and best practices for state-of-the-art DER including variable renewable energy sources. The revised standards will also address challenges associated with interoperability and transmission-level effects, in addition to strictly addressing the distribution grid needs. This paper provides the status and future direction of the ongoing development focus for the 1547 standards.

  18. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  19. Teaching Biological Evolution to Singapore's Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Yeoh, Oon-Chye

    1998-01-01

    Finds that only half of practicing science teachers and a third of pre-service teachers surveyed in Singapore agreed with statements that biological evolution has a valid scientific basis. (Contains 12 references.) (WRM)

  20. Chinese Entrepreneurship: A Study in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jean; Chan, Javihn

    1998-01-01

    Content analysis of interviews with second-generation Chinese entrepreneurs in Singapore revealed the majority were male and had high school education. Their motivational orientations for business ownership were classified as follows: achievers, networkers, and hard workers. (SK)

  1. Teacher led school-based surveillance can allow accurate tracking of emerging infectious diseases - evidence from serial cross-sectional surveys of febrile respiratory illness during the H1N1 2009 influenza pandemic in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Schools are important foci of influenza transmission and potential targets for surveillance and interventions. We compared several school-based influenza monitoring systems with clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance, and assessed the variation in illness rates between and within schools. Methods During the initial wave of pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) infections from June to Sept 2009 in Singapore, we collected data on nation-wide laboratory confirmed cases (Sch-LCC) and daily temperature monitoring (Sch-DTM), and teacher-led febrile respiratory illness reporting in 6 sentinel schools (Sch-FRI). Comparisons were made against age-stratified clinic-based influenza-like illness (ILI) data from 23 primary care clinics (GP-ILI) and proportions of ILI testing positive for pdmH1N1 (Lab-ILI) by computing the fraction of cumulative incidence occurring by epidemiological week 30 (when GP-ILI incidence peaked); and cumulative incidence rates between school-based indicators and sero-epidemiological pdmH1N1 incidence (estimated from changes in prevalence of A/California/7/2009 H1N1 hemagglutination inhibition titers ≥ 40 between pre-epidemic and post-epidemic sera). Variation in Sch-FRI rates in the 6 schools was also investigated through a Bayesian hierarchical model. Results By week 30, for primary and secondary school children respectively, 63% and 79% of incidence for Sch-LCC had occurred, compared with 50% and 52% for GP-ILI data, and 48% and 53% for Sch-FRI. There were 1,187 notified cases and 7,588 episodes in the Sch-LCC and Sch-DTM systems; given school enrollment of 485,723 children, this represented 0.24 cases and 1.6 episodes per 100 children respectively. Mean Sch-FRI rate was 28.8 per 100 children (95% CI: 27.7 to 29.9) in the 6 schools. We estimate from serology that 41.8% (95% CI: 30.2% to 55.9%) of primary and 43.2% (95% CI: 28.2% to 60.8%) of secondary school-aged children were infected. Sch-FRI rates were similar across the 6 schools

  2. The Singapore Global Schoolhouse: An Analysis of the Development of the Tertiary Education Landscape in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee; Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse the Singapore government's recent attempt to make Singapore a "Global Schoolhouse" by transforming its tertiary education sector. It aims to examine the government's attempt to promote greater diversity and autonomy in the tertiary education landscape; it also aims to examine the government's systems of state…

  3. Mass Communication in Singapore: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Cristina Y., Ed.; Fontgalland, Guy de, Ed.

    This bibliography lists and describes published and unpublished material relating to mass communications in Singapore, from 1945 to 1973. Most of the items listed are written in English; a limited number are in Chinese. The bibliography is divided into 18 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods;…

  4. 75 FR 38487 - Order Finding That the Fuel Oil-180 Singapore Swap Contract Traded on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...On October 20, 2009, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``CFTC'' or ``Commission'') published for comment in the Federal Register \\1\\ a notice of its intent to undertake a determination whether the Fuel Oil-180 Singapore Swap (``SZS'') contract traded on the IntercontinentalExchange, Inc. (``ICE''), an exempt commercial market (``ECM'') under sections 2(h)(3)-(5) of the Commodity......

  5. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.705(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. 52.223-16 Section 52.223-16 Federal Acquisition... Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products (DEC 2007) (a)...

  9. Moving towards Quality Physical Education: Physical Education Provision in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael; Lim, Boon San Coral; Wang, Chee Keng John; Tan, Wee Keat Clara; MacPhail, Ann

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the provision of physical education (PE) in Singapore. Singapore is a small island city state of approximately 699 square kilometres with a population of about 4 million people. This article aims to highlight the current status of PE in Singapore schools and compare it against suggested international standards and…

  10. A Features-Based Approach for Teaching Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaetzel, Kirsten; Lim, Beng Soon; Low, Ee Ling

    2010-01-01

    Research into Singapore English (SgE) has undergone many paradigm shifts from the 1970s to the present. This paper first begins with a consideration of how variation in the English language used in Singapore has been studied. It then identifies the two main varieties of English commonly described in Singapore, namely, Standard SgE (SSE) and…

  11. Islam and Citizenship Education in Singapore: Challenges and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    The religious diversity of Singapore, coupled with the current phenomenon of Islamic revivalism, makes the management of religion a paramount concern for the Singapore government. By examining the developments of Islam in Singapore, this article explores the challenges and implications these developments have on citizenship education in the…

  12. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  13. Synergistic Use of IEEE and IEC Nuclear Power Plant Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G

    2001-12-19

    Many organizations worldwide develop standards that affect nuclear instrumentation and control (I and C). Two of the primary standards organizations are the US IEEE's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee (NPEC), and the IEC subcommittee on Reactor Instrumentation (SC45A). This paper surveys the contents of the two sets of standards. Opportunities for complementary use of IEEE and IEC standards are discussed. The collections of IEEE. and IEC standards have some overlap, but in many cases cover significantly different topics. For example, IEEE standards go to great depth on environmental qualification of many specific types of components, while IEC covers the topic only at the general level. Conversely, certain IEC standards deal with specific instrumentation and control functions, a topic area where IEEE standards are largely mute. This paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to achieve broader topic coverage than is possible using only one or the other standard suite. To understand the similarities and differences between IEC and IEEE nuclear standards layer diagrams were developed for each set of standards. Another paper [Johnson, 2001] used the same layer diagrams to investigate where coordination between the two sets of standards is most critical.

  14. National Cancer Center Singapore: the way forward.

    PubMed

    Teo, Melissa; Soo, Khee Chee

    2016-02-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Singapore, comprising almost 30% of annual deaths. The incidence and prevalence continue to rise, resulting in Singapore having the highest age-standardized rate of cancer in southeast Asia. A review of national health policies in 1992 resulted in the creation of a National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) in 1999. The current NCCS, with its three pillars of clinical service, research and education, manages about 70% of all new cancer cases in the countries public healthcare system. As it outgrows its current outfit and looks to the new NCCS building in 2020, the goal must be for strategic planning to attract and retain the best minds and heart in the field of cancer if it were to continue to be successful in achieving its vision and mission. This article chronicles the NCCS's history and details the foundation of its strategic plans. PMID:26776828

  15. Public awareness of AIDS in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, S C

    1991-04-01

    Singapore had 52 cases of AIDS as at June 1990. This places Singapore in the low-infection-load group of countries. Constant vigilance is necessary however. The Health education programme against AIDS in Singapore was launched in 1985. This first ever National Survey on public awareness of AIDS was carried out by the Research and Evaluation Department, Ministry of Health HQ, in late 1987, to assess the impact of the programme. It showed the level of knowledge of among Singaporeans to be high and comparable in many areas to that in the USA. The survey however also showed lack of credibility in the knowledge of AIDS among the public in certain important areas. This poses challenges to the public education programme. PMID:2042073

  16. 1991 IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Singapore, Nov. 18-21, 1991, Proceedings. Vols. 1-3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present conference the application of neural networks to associative memories, neurorecognition, hybrid systems, supervised and unsupervised learning, image processing, neurophysiology, sensation and perception, electrical neurocomputers, optimization, robotics, machine vision, sensorimotor control systems, and neurodynamics. Attention is given to such topics as optimal associative mappings in recurrent networks, self-improving associative neural network models, fuzzy activation functions, adaptive pattern recognition with sparse associative networks, efficient question-answering in a hybrid system, the use of abstractions by neural networks, remote-sensing pattern classification, speech recognition with guided propagation, inverse-step competitive learning, and rotational quadratic function neural networks. Also discussed are electrical load forecasting, evolutionarily stable and unstable strategies, the capacity of recurrent networks, neural net vs control theory, perceptrons for image recognition, storage capacity of bidirectional associative memories, associative random optimization for control, automatic synthesis of digital neural architectures, self-learning robot vision, and the associative dynamics of chaotic neural networks.

  17. A Kennedy Space Center implementation of IEEE 1451

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostdyk, Rebecca L.; Mata, Carlos T.; Perotti, José M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.

    2006-05-01

    To meet the demand for more reliable sensory data, longer sensor calibration cycles, and more useful information for operators at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC's Advanced Electronics and Technology Development Laboratory at the KSC are developing custom intelligent sensors based on the IEEE 1451 family of smart-sensor standards. The KSC intelligent sensors are known as Smart Networked Elements (SNEs), and each SNE includes transducers and their associated Transducer Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS), signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, software algorithms for performing health checks on the data, and a network connection for sending data to other SNEs and higher-level systems. The development of the SNE has led to the definition of custom architectures, protocols, IEEE 1451 implementations, and TEDS, which are presented in this paper. The IEEE 1451 standards describe the architecture, message formats, software objects, and communication protocols within the smart sensor. Because of the standard's complexity, KSC has simplified the IEEE 1451 architecture and narrowed the scope of software objects to be included in the SNE to create a "light" IEEE 1451 implementation, and has used the manufacturer-defined TEDS to customize the SNE with health indicators. Furthermore, KSC has developed a protocol that allows the SNEs to communicate over an Ethernet network while reducing bandwidth requirements.

  18. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  19. Stakeholders' Perceptions of School Counselling in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Poi Kee

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study that set out to understand stakeholders' perception of the school counselling service in Singapore. Using semi-structured interviews, this study explored the perceptions of three main stakeholder groups, namely teachers and counsellors working within the schools and those working in the communities.…

  20. Creative Destruction: Singapore's Speak Good English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubdy, Rani

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to show that the move to stem the popularity of Singlish (Singapore English) is another manifestation of the notion of creative destruction, currently being proposed as a strategy to improve partial destruction of existing economic ideas and structures that rapidly obsolesce with the emergence of new ones. Argues that attempts to replace…

  1. Listening to Estuary English in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deterding, David

    2005-01-01

    In Singapore, many people are not familiar with Estuary English (EE), the variety of English becoming popular in much of southern England. In the current study, when students listened to interviews with EE speakers and were asked to transcribe orthographically what they heard, most of them had severe problems. Features of pronunciation that…

  2. Language and Language Policy in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, William H., III

    1985-01-01

    Singapore's language policy must balance the wishes of the various ethnic groups, the political situation in the regions, and the needs of economic development. Malay, Mandarin Chinese, English, and Tamil are all recognized as official languages. Malay has special symbolic status as the national language. (RM)

  3. Globalisation of Language and Culture in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    What are the effects of globalisation on patterns of language use in the domain of media in Singapore? Rather than only cultural imperialism of hegemonic English, which is no doubt the case, the use of languages in the "mediascap" also shows the consumption of non-English languages and cultures. Though English may be the main language of the…

  4. Education and Intergenerational Mobility in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Irene Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    International research on the effects of educational regimes on intergenerational mobility suggests that Singapore's education system possesses characteristics that tend to decrease intergenerational mobility. These characteristics include ability-based and school-based streaming, privatization of basic and tertiary education, expansion of…

  5. Geography's Place in Higher Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Lily

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the other papers in this symposium, which deal with countries where there are large numbers of universities, and comparison can be made over time and across space of geography's place in higher education, this paper focuses on a country that was for a long time described as a "one-university town": Singapore. What interesting story can…

  6. Teachers' Experience with Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Chong, Wan Har; Neihart, Maureen F.; Huan, Vivien S.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers' positive attitude is most critically and consistently associated with successful inclusion. However, little is known about teachers' first-hand encounters with inclusive education in Singapore. We present findings from a qualitative study on inclusion based on focus group interviews with 202 teachers from 41 resourced primary schools.…

  7. Research on Vocational Behavior: The Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    1998-01-01

    This review of vocational psychology research in Singapore, 1985 to 1997, addresses career development, interests, sex stereotypes, work values, job satisfaction, and home/family influence. The review shows an increase in research on school-aged populations and a need to study the vocational behavior of the work force. (SK)

  8. Studying Overseas: Mainland Chinese Students in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Leong, Jason Ong Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a study aimed at developing a substantive theory on the perspectives of Mainland Chinese studying in Singaporean universities. The study was guided by two research questions: (1) Why do university students from Mainland China choose to study in Singapore? and (2) How do Mainland Chinese university students manage the experience…

  9. Emerging Education Hubs: The Case of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder; Ho, K.-C.; Yeoh, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In anticipation of a globalising post-Fordist political economy, countries and universities are increasingly pursuing strategic transnational education and research alliances. This article analyses the Global Schoolhouse, a key education policy platform that aims to transform Singapore into a knowledge and innovation hub by establishing networks…

  10. Singapore Students' Misconceptions of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chew-Hung; Pascua, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is an important theme in the investigation of human-environment interactions in geographic education. This study explored the nature of students' understanding of concepts and processes related to climate change. Through semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 27 Secondary 3 (Grade 9) students from Singapore. The data…

  11. Physical Education and Health in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, Michael C.; Fry, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    As a school subject, physical education (PE) in Singapore took on its own shape with the introduction of a conceptual games teaching approach in response to the national government's "Thinking Schools, Learning Nation" policy of the late 1990s. With the recent media attention on hosting two main international events (Asian Youth Games and the…

  12. Compulsory Education in Singapore--Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Compulsory education was legislated in Singapore in 2000. This came several decades after the attainment of universal primary education and after numerous assertions on the part of the government that such legislation was unnecessary. Also interesting is that the period of compulsory education was limited to six years. The article discusses the…

  13. The Particle "ya" in Colloquial Singapore English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    It has been recently argued that the particles in Colloquial Singapore English (CSE) constitute a grammatical category that actively draws new members to it. Drawing on distributional and collocational evidence, this paper establishes that CSE has a new particle, "ya". The paper then proceeds to analyse the discourse pragmatic function of the…

  14. Hormone metabolism genes and mammographic density in Singapore Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjung; Su, Yu-Chen; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Hsu, Chris; Van den Berg, David; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Stram, Daniel O.; Yu, Mimi C.; Wu, Anna H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Female steroid hormone levels and exogenous hormone use influence breast cancer risk. We investigated the association between genetic variation in the hormone metabolism and signaling pathway and mammographic density (MD), a strong predictor of breast cancer risk. Methods We genotyped 161 SNPs in 15 hormone metabolism pathway gene regions and evaluated MD in 2,038 Singapore Chinese women. Linear regression analysis was used to investigate SNP-MD association. An overall pathway summary was obtained using the adaptive ranked truncated product test. Results We did not find any of the individually tested SNPs to be associated with MD after a multiple testing correction. There was no evidence of an overall effect on MD of genetic variation in the hormone metabolism pathway. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, genetic variation in hormone metabolism pathway was not associated with MD in Singapore Chinese women. Impact Consistent with existing data from Caucasian populations, polymorphisms in hormone pathway genes are not likely to be strong predictors of MD in Asian women. PMID:23429186

  15. Environmental concerns and diet in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Jeitner, Chris; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-08-01

    Many factors affect how people perceive the world and their environment, and how such perceptions affect lifestyle decisions, yet the relationship between personal perceptions about environmental hazards and diet is rarely examined. In this study, environmental concerns on a local and global scale were examined, along with dietary patterns, to determine if there were associations and age-related differences. The hypothesis that concerns about water pollution might be reflected in choices about seafood consumption was examined. Many aspects of dietary choices varied significantly by age, including (1) younger people ate more "fast food" than others, (2) subjects aged 22-32 yr ate more meals in restaurants than older or younger people, (3) older individuals drank more tea than younger subjects, while younger people drank more soda than older people, and (4) there were few significant differences in total fish and shellfish meals, although young people ate more meals of other types of meat. Individuals who rated their health the best reported significantly fewer seafood meals than others. People who listed pollution as the major environmental problem did not consume seafood less often than others. While pollution was listed as the most important environmental problem globally, people distinguished between air and water pollution only for Singapore. Although Singapore, with its rapidly expanding economy, has reason to be concerned about both water and air pollution, only 14% of those listing pollution as the main Singapore environmental problem mentioned "water pollution." Singapore has been able to take measures to reduce water pollution from internal sources. Respondents considered air pollution a greater problem, perhaps reflecting recent haze disasters from deliberately set forest fires in Indonesia, which are beyond the direct control of Singapore or Singaporeans. PMID:12857632

  16. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    PubMed Central

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  17. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  18. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  19. Evolving EMRSA-15 epidemic in Singapore hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Yang; Loomba-Chlebicka, Nidhi; Koh, Yin-Ling; Tan, Thean-Yen; Krishnan, Prabha; Lin, Raymond Tzer-Pin; Tee, Nancy Wen-Sin; Fisher, Dale Andrew; Koh, Tse-Hsien

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of EMRSA-15 spread in hospitals in Singapore. Molecular analysis of 197 non-duplicate meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates collected from five acute care public hospitals in Singapore in May 2005 revealed that 66 (33.5%) were EMRSA-15 while 121 (61.4%) belonged to the endemic multidrug-resistant ST239 clone. Median and mode vancomycin MIC for both major clones of health-care-associated MRSA were relatively high at 2.0 microg ml-1. Subsequent laboratory surveillance data collected from the first half of 2006 confirmed increasing numbers of the EMRSA-15 clone--ranging from 25.0 to 66.1% of all MRSA isolated in local hospitals--replacing the ST239 clone island-wide. PMID:17314369

  20. Myopia and night lighting in children in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Saw, S.; Wu, H.; Hong, C.; Chua, W.; Chia, K.; Tan, D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To examine the role of night time lighting and myopia in children in Singapore
METHODS—A cross sectional study was conducted on 1001 children in two Singapore schools. Cycloplegic refraction and A-scan biometry measurements were made in both eyes. A detailed questionnaire was completed by the parents to obtain information on night time lighting, near work activity, educational and demographic factors.
RESULTS—There was no difference in myopia prevalence rates in children exposed to night time light (33.1%) compared with children who slept in the dark (31.4%) before age 2. In addition, vitreous chamber depth was not related to night light (p=0.58) before age 2. These results remained even after controlling for near work.
CONCLUSION—Myopia is not associated with night light in Asian populations.

 PMID:11316706

  1. National inventory of emergency departments in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Emergency departments (EDs) are the basic units of emergency care. We performed a national inventory of all Singapore EDs and describe their characteristics and capabilities. Methods Singapore EDs accessible to the general public 24/7 were surveyed using the National ED Inventories instrument ( http://www.emnet-nedi.org). ED staff members were asked about ED characteristics with reference to calendar year 2007. Results Fourteen EDs participated (100% response). All EDs were located in hospitals, and most (92%) were independent departments. One was a psychiatric ED; the rest were general EDs. Among general EDs, all had a contiguous layout, with medical and surgical care provided in one area. All but two EDs saw both adults and children; one ED was adult-only, and the other saw only children. Six were in the public sector and seven in private health-care institutions, with public EDs seeing the majority (78%) of ED patients. Each private ED had an annual patient census of <30,000. These EDs received 2% of ambulances and had an inpatient admission rate of 7%. Each public ED had an annual census of >60,000. They received 98% of ambulances and had an inpatient admission rate of 30%. Two public EDs reported being overcapacity; no private EDs did. For both public and private EDs, availability of consultant resources in EDs was high, while technological resources varied. Conclusion Characteristics and capabilities of Singapore EDs varied and were largely dependent on whether they are in public or private hospitals. This initial inventory establishes a benchmark to further monitor the development of emergency care in Singapore. PMID:23114079

  2. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome at a Singapore eye clinic

    PubMed Central

    Seng Lee, Jason Kian; Ying Wong, Elizabeth Poh; Ho, Su Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) in a Singapore hospital eye outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study of 93 consecutive patients (146 eyes) with PXF was undertaken by a single ophthalmologist over a period of 37 months (July 1, 2006, to July 31, 2009). Results Ninety-three (2.8%) of 3,297 patients seen during the study period were diagnosed with PXF. Forty-three (46.2%) of the 93 PXF patients were male. Indians were 5.04 times more likely to develop PXF than Chinese (P<0.001, 95% confidence interval 3.05–8.33), while Malays were 2.22 times more likely to develop PXF as compared with Chinese (P=0.029, 95% CI 1.08–4.55). Twenty-two (23.7%) of the 93 PXF patients had PXG at the time of diagnosis. There was no statistically significant difference in mean age between PXF and PXG patients. There was a larger proportion of males with PXG than females (P<0.001). Conclusion PXF is not infrequent in elderly Singapore eye clinic patients, and is more likely to occur in Indians than in Chinese. In the Singapore eye clinic setting, males may be more likely to develop PXG, although larger studies will be required to confirm this. PMID:26366055

  3. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    PubMed

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  4. Selective Bibliography about Education and Training in Library and Information Science in PR China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, H.-R.; Meis, Nicola

    This selective bibliography lists 66 items published from 1980 until 1989 on education, training, and continuing education in library and information science and documentation in the Chinese-speaking countries, i.e., the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. The document is divided into 10 sections: (1) a preface (in…

  5. An IEEE 1451.1 Architecture for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Jon A.; Turowski, Mark; Schmalzel, John L.; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    The IEEE 1451.1 Standard for a Smart Transducer Interface defines a common network information model for connecting and managing smart elements in control and data acquisition networks using network-capable application processors (NCAPs). The Standard is a network-neutral design model that is easily ported across operating systems and physical networks for implementing complex acquisition and control applications by simply plugging in the appropriate network level drivers. To simplify configuration and tracking of transducer and actuator details, the family of 1451 standards defines a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) that is associated with each physical element. The TEDS contains all of the pertinent information about the physical operations of a transducer (such as operating regions, calibration tables, and manufacturer information), which the NCAP uses to configure the system to support a specific transducer. The Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) group at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has been developing an ISHM architecture that utilizes IEEE 1451.1 as the primary configuration and data acquisition mechanism for managing and collecting information from a network of distributed intelligent sensing elements. This work has involved collaboration with other NASA centers, universities and aerospace industries to develop IEEE 1451.1 compliant sensors and interfaces tailored to support health assessment of complex systems. This paper and presentation describe the development and implementation of an interface for the configuration, management and communication of data, information and knowledge generated by a distributed system of IEEE 1451.1 intelligent elements monitoring a rocket engine test system. In this context, an intelligent element is defined as one incorporating support for the IEEE 1451.x standards and additional ISHM functions. Our implementation supports real-time collection of both measurement data (raw ADC counts and

  6. Parental Perspectives and Challenges in Inclusive Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…

  7. Children's Rights: Television Programmes Aired in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrier, Sheela; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on aspects of children's rights as portrayed in television. The results of a six-month research study show analyses of television content of Channel 5, which is the only free-to-air, 24-hour, English-language entertainment channel in Singapore. The results identify the role of television in assisting Singapore to meet its…

  8. Creating Thinking Schools through Authentic Assessment: The Case in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Tan, Charlene; Ng, Pak Tee

    2012-01-01

    Using Singapore as an example, we argue that schools need to equip and encourage teachers to adopt authentic assessment in teaching and learning so as to develop the students' higher-order thinking. The importance of teaching and assessing higher-order thinking in Singapore classrooms is encapsulated in the vision of "Thinking Schools" launched by…

  9. University Restructuring in Singapore: Amazing or a Maze?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael H.; Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2008-01-01

    The Singapore government has put forward a comprehensive restructuring program of university education since the 1990s. Public universities in Singapore are going to be developed as world-class universities through a series of university education policies and reforms. This article reviews major developments of university education policies and…

  10. IT Integration and Online Learning in the Singapore Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Tan, Seng Chee; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2003-01-01

    Reviews technology integration efforts in Singapore. Discusses examples of online learning in schools under four broad categories: cyber conferencing, e-learning services providers, e-publication, and wireless technology. Describes ways information technology is being used at the National Institute of Education in Singapore, as a tool for…

  11. Attitudes towards Literary Tamil and Standard Spoken Tamil in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    2007-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that focused on attitudes towards two varieties of Tamil, Literary Tamil (LT) and Standard Spoken Tamil (SST), with the multilingual state of Singapore as the backdrop. The attitudes of 46 Singapore Tamil teachers towards speakers of LT and SST were investigated using the matched-guise approach along with…

  12. Lifelong Learning in Singapore: Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2004-01-01

    The term lifelong learning has been used in different contexts and in policy application for a wide variety of purposes and initiatives. Singapore's approach to lifelong learning is pragmatic and rational. It is one of the economic drivers used by policy makers to enhance Singapore's competitiveness and is viewed as an antidote against…

  13. Constructing the Cosmopolitan Subject: Teaching Secondary School Literature in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Angelia Mui Cheng

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the ambitious educational reforms of the Singapore government in response to the challenges of globalization vis-a-vis the specific issues arising from the case of teaching Literature in secondary schools. It shows how the Singapore state is invested in a particular view of globalization and argues how recent scholarly moves…

  14. Singapore's Global Schoolhouse Strategy: Retreat or Recalibration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waring, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In 2002 a high-level economic review committee recommended that Singapore position itself as a "global schoolhouse". An ambitious target was set to attract 150,000 international students to Singapore by 2015 and to lift the education sector's contribution to GDP from 1.9% to 5% in the same timeframe. The global schoolhouse was…

  15. A Review of Singapore Principals' Leadership Qualities, Styles, and Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David Foo Seong; Nguyen, Dong Thanh; Wong, Benjamin Koon Siak; Choy, William Kim Weng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of empirical studies on principal leadership in Singapore. It seeks to provide a general picture of Singapore principals' leadership qualities, styles, and roles. Design/methodology/approach: This is a systematic review of empirical studies, using a "bounded" approach with a focus…

  16. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  17. 76 FR 60100 - The Singapore Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... securities. The Singapore Stock Exchange is the primary trading market for the Singapore equity securities... Malaysian equity securities, however applicant has subsequently disposed of its Malaysian holdings. The... contractual obligations, require special trading facilities, or may only be traded with the counterparty...

  18. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  19. Value Orientation of Singapore Adolescents Towards Truthfulness, Justice and Compassion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, SeokHoon; Siang, Low Meow; Wei, Tan Tai

    This study examined the value orientation of Singapore adolescents toward the three fundamental values of truthfulness, justice, and compassion. A random sample of 315 secondary school students from 4 schools in Singapore (135 males and 180 females) completed a questionnaire, and a select sample of 19 students completed interviews about their…

  20. Mathematics Education in Singapore--An Insider's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Singapore's Education System has evolved over time and so has Mathematics Education in Singapore. The present day School Mathematics Curricula can best be described as one that caters for the needs of every child in school. It is based on a framework that has mathematical problem solving as its primary focus. The developments from 1946 to 2012…

  1. Creating "Good Citizens" and Maintaining Religious Harmony in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the concept of "good citizens" in Singapore is linked to the principle of harmony, characterised by collectivism and a strong interventionist government. The value of religious harmony is actively promoted by the Singapore government and supported by the religious leaders. This article argues that the principle of…

  2. Trend of Vocational Training in Singapore. VITB Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Law Song

    Prior to 1960 vocational and technical education in Singapore received little attention. After Singapore attained self-government in 1959, a policy of diversification to accelerate economic growth through industrialization was adopted. The emphasis then shifted to technical education and training. In 1964 there was a significant move towards the…

  3. Distributed Leadership to Support PLCs in Asian Pragmatic Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairon, Salleh; Goh, Jonathan Wee Pin; Lin, Tzu-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Nation states around the world, including Singapore, are endeavouring to reform their education systems in order to successfully compete in the global economy (Carnoy, 1999). With human capital as Singapore's primary resource, it is unsurprising that the state has placed great emphasis on strengthening the economic-education nexus. This tight…

  4. In Tandem: Preparing Singapore Teachers for a Changing Primary English Classroom: The Singapore Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Maureen; And Others

    This article examines the changing nature of the 2-year Diploma in Education program for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore. It describes the evolution of language teacher training from the 1970s through the 1990s and the factors influencing the changing nature of the teacher education…

  5. Computer aided coordination of line protection schemes IEEE committee report

    SciTech Connect

    Postforoosh, J.M.; Akamine, J.; Banerjee, H.N.; Cornelison, J.R.; Enns, M.K.; Grier, S.E.; Hass, R.W.; Hasenwinkle, I.O.; Johnson, R.W.; Mozina, C.J.; Ramaswami, R.; Smith, H.S.; Taylor, R.P.; Turley, J.R.; Zipp, J.A.

    1991-04-01

    IEEE PSRC working group on Computer Aided Coordination of Line Protection Schemes was established in 1985 to investigate the application of computers to the task of setting and verifying the setting of line protective devices. This report provides the findings of the working group regarding functional requirements of the data base, software, and hardware for this system as well as the methods of presenting the results to the protection engineer.

  6. Proceedings of the 1994 ASME/IEEE joint railroad conference

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, K.L.; Hill, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The proceedings contains 22 papers from the IEEE/ASME Joint Railroad Conference. Topics discussed include flange bearing crossing frogs; rapid transit; vehicle on-board computer systems; total transport system control functions; automated train dispatching system; wheel thermal damage limits; AC propulsion; AC traction drives; electric power supplies; failure detection and identification; cargo transportation; and critical speed for railroad vehicles. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  7. The development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chng, J; Low, C T; Kang, W L

    2011-12-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a noninvasive therapy used in the treatment of diving-related medical illnesses. It is an important adjunct in the management of a variety of medical conditions. The Republic of Singapore Navy Medical Service (NMS) is the main driver of the development of hyperbaric and diving medicine in Singapore. The practice of hyperbaric medicine has inherent risks, and unregulated application of this therapy may do more harm than good. NMS and Singapore General Hospital (SGH) signed a Memorandum of Understanding to combine NMS' experience with the clinical expertise of SGH to provide holistic care for diving and clinical hyperbaric treatment patients. This collaboration would increase the profile of this clinical specialty in Singapore, and help to establish safe clinical practice guidelines, training and accreditation requirements for diving and hyperbaric medicine practitioners in Singapore, thus ensuring that the practice of bona fide hyperbaric medicine is safeguarded and patient care is not compromised. PMID:22159934

  8. West Meets East in Malaysia and Singapore. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program 1999 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    These projects were completed by participants in the Fulbright-Hays summer seminar in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999. The participants represented various regions of the U.S. and different grade levels and subject areas. The seminar offered a comprehensive overview of how the people of Malaysia and Singapore live, work, and strive towards their…

  9. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S

    1988-06-01

    "In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper." PMID:12341971

  10. Ethnic variability in dementia: results from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ampil, Encarnita R; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Sodagar, Swati N; Chen, Christopher P L H; Auchus, Alexander P

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of Singapore's population affords a unique opportunity to study ethnic variability in the dementias. We sought to explore the effects of ethnicity on the frequency of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia in a large Singaporean sample. A total of 357 patients were studied: 190 with vascular dementia and 167 with Alzheimer disease. Vascular dementia was more common among Chinese and Malays, whereas Alzheimer disease was more common in Indians and Eurasians. Factors that may contribute to the observed ethnic variability in dementia etiologies include differential frequency of the ApoE-e4 allele, frequency of vascular risk factors, lifestyle choices, and cultural attitudes toward health care utilization. PMID:16327344

  11. A survey of air quality in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y. K.; Tang, S. M.

    1993-04-01

    Ambient aerosol samples were collected near an industrial area in Singapore during the period of July 91 to January 92. The sampling site was a highway at a height of about 20 m. PIXE analysis of these samples was carried out using 1.8 MeV protons. Thirteen trace elements were observed, ranging from Si to Pb. Among these, Cl and S had the highest concentrations. The former was attributed to the sea-salt particles and the latter could be due to the presence of oil refineries in the vicinity. Pb was found to be below the detection limit of 30 ngm -3 in most of the samples analysed. This is likely due to the fact that unleaded petrol was used by many cars in Singapore and that the sampling point was quite a distance away from the ground level. The observed variations in concentration for most of the trace elements were well-correlated with traffic intensity and meteorological conditions. Time variation patterns on weekdays and during weekends were also observed. A higher level of pollutants was detected during the period when there were prolonged forest fires in the nearby islands in Indonesia.

  12. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  13. Demographics and Personality Factors Associated with Burnout among Nurses in a Singapore Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ang, Shin Yuh; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Ayre, Tracy Carol; Uthaman, Thendral; Fong, Kuan Yok; Tien, Choo Eng; Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and extent of burnout among nurses in Singapore and investigate the influence of demographic factors and personal characteristics on the burnout syndrome. Methods. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. All registered nurses working in Singapore General Hospital were approached to participate. A questionnaire eliciting data on demographics, burnout (measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, MBI), and personality profile (measured using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) was used. Results. 1830 nurses out of 3588 responded (response rate: 51%). Results from 1826 respondents were available for analysis. The MBI identified 39% to have high emotional exhaustion (EE, cut-off score of >27), 40% having high depersonalization (DP, cut-off score of >10), and 59% having low personal accomplishment (PA, cut-off score of <33). In multivariable analysis, age, job grade, and neuroticism were significantly associated with each of the 3 components of the MBI. Staff nurses less than 30 years with high to very high neuroticism were more likely to experience high EE, high DP, and low PA. Conclusion. Younger nurses in Singapore are at increased risk of burnout. Personality traits also played a significant role in the experience of burnout. PMID:27478835

  14. Psychiatric morbidity in pain conditions: Results from the Singapore Mental Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Mythily; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a common problem among the general population and has been found to be associated with psychiatric disorders in studies based on both clinical samples and epidemiological surveys. OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence, correlates and comorbidities of chronic pain disorders among the adult population of Singapore. METHODS: The data used in the present analysis were derived from the Singapore Mental Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a representative sample of the adult resident population of Singapore. Diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. A modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 checklist of chronic medical disorders was used, in which the chronic medical disorders were reclassified into eight types of physical disorders. Chronic pain disorders included arthritis or rheumatism, back problems including disk or spine problems, and migraine headaches. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence estimates for arthritis, back pain and migraine in the Singapore general population were 6.0% (n=282), 7.0% (n=436) and 5.6% (n=446), respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbid pain disorders and the presence of other chronic physical conditions, migraine remained significantly associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted OR=2.4), generalized anxiety disorder (adjusted OR=3.0) and alcohol use disorders (adjusted OR=2.1), while back pain was significantly associated with major depressive disorder (adjusted OR=2.0). CONCLUSIONS: The significant association between pain and psychiatric disorders emphasizes the need to screen individuals with chronic pain conditions for psychiatric disorders, particularly depression. There is a need to develop integrated pharmacological and psychological treatments for both conditions. PMID:23936892

  15. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  16. Studies in family planning. 6. Singapore.

    PubMed

    Kee, W F; Lee, A S

    1973-05-01

    Family planning progress in Singapore during 1972 is reviewed. The Singapore Family Planning and Population Board launched its most intensive family planning campaign in July 1972. A primary objective of the campaign was to promote both male and female sterilizations. Stronger social disincentives to discourage large family size (higher delivery fees, reduction of income tax deductions, reduction of allowable maternity leaves, and housing priority for small families) have been read in Parliament and will take effect August 1, 1973. The 1972 crude birth rate was estimated at 22.6 per 1000, compared with 22.3 in 1971. The crude death rate remains constant at an estimated 5.4 per 1000. The rate of natural increase has risen to an estimated 17.2 per 1000, compared with 16.9 in 1971. The Second Five-Year Plan (1971-1975) sets a target of 80,000 new acceptors to be recruited evenly throughout the period. In 1972, the Board recruited 17,666 new acceptors. The main method used continued to be the pill, but the number of new pill users dropped from 19,000 in 1968 to 10,000 in 1971 and 1972. The number of condom acceptors dropped from 10,076 in 1968 to 7343 in 1972. IUD insertions were 3703 in 1968, and in 1972 there were only 177 IUDs inserted. Female sterilizations rose from 477 in 1966 to 3848 in 1971 to over 5700 in 1972. Abortions rose from 2929 in 1969 to 5943 in 1972. The Board approved the establishment of a Research and Evaluation Committee at the close of 1972. An Information, Education, and Communication Unit and a Training Center financed by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) were established in 1972. The Family Planning Campaign is being evaluated by pre- and postcampaign KAP-type surveys. During 1972, clinical trials were initiated on the Dalkon Shield and the Copper 7 with encouraging preliminary results. The average desired family size among Singapore families is 3.6, and there are problems in trying to reduce this figure. The

  17. DNA-based analyses of molds in Singapore public buildings results in a proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index.

    PubMed

    Goh, V; Yap, H M; Gutiérrez, R A; Ng, L C; Vesper, S S

    2014-12-01

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/36) occur at similar rates in Singapore and the United States. A Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (SERMI) is proposed which might be divided into low (<18), medium (18 to 28) and high (>28) mold burden categories but more samples will help to refine these categories. PMID:25776591

  18. Regionalization, economic restructuring and labour migration in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hui, W T

    1997-01-01

    "This paper documents the impact of economic development on changes in employment and labour migration in Singapore. High export-led growth and the relaxation of immigration policies in the late 1960s enabled employment of substantial numbers of unskilled foreign labour in manufacturing, construction and domestic service sectors....Economic development in the 1990s, characterized by the regionalization drive which relocates relatively resource-intensive operations of Singapore-based companies overseas, has led to increased retrenchments and a moderation of demand for foreign workers. The upgrading of remaining production operations in Singapore is expected to increase demand for workers with higher skill levels. Emigration of highly educated and skilled professionals from Singapore became a national concern in the late 1980s. However, with regionalization, the new challenge in the 1990s has become one of encouraging Singaporeans to temporarily take up overseas positions." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12292466

  19. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jean-Yin; Rajasegaran, Kumudhini

    2016-08-01

    The introduction of adolescent medicine as a medical subspecialty in Singapore was a welcome in an evolving health care system that is unique in terms of both efficiency, in financing and the results achieved in community health outcomes. The Ministry of Health (MOH) already recognized the need to accommodate the health care concerns related to adolescent psychosocial health risk behaviors and an increased prevalence of young people living with chronic illness. The challenge for the pioneer team of physicians trained in adolescent medicine was to develop and sustain a model of care that integrated (i) core clinical services that include quality measures of care to adolescents; (ii) professional development and capacity building needing an expansive teaching agenda at every level of health education; (iii) strong inter-sectorial collaborations within hospital and community partners; and (iv) robust research and evaluation strategies that keep clinical practice relevant and evidence based. PMID:26115501

  20. IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference: Notes on the Early Conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper gathers the remembrances of several key contributors who participated in the earliest Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conferences (NSREC).

  1. Singapore's foreign workforce: some reflections on its benefits and costs.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C W

    1984-01-01

    "This article provides some empirical information pertaining to the benefits and costs of foreign labor to Singapore and subjects to critical analysis some of Pang and Lim's hypotheses concerning the costs of labor importation presented in a previous article.... The article concludes with a discussion of the real cost to Malaysia of Singapore's labor importation policies and its potential for disruption of Malaysia's development plans." PMID:12312927

  2. Reading, the Library, and the Elderly: A Singapore Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Brendan; Ann, Ho Swee

    2011-01-01

    Singapore is now one of the fastest aging societies in the world. By 2030 those over 65 years old are expected to number 1.41m strong, 26.8 percent of the country's entire population. Given these numbers, it is not surprising that aging is a key concern in Singapore. This article reports on a qualitative study of 32 individuals over the age of 55…

  3. Workforce education and manpower development: a road map for Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tuan-Kay

    2002-05-01

    In recognition of the rapid growth potential of the world market in optics and photonics Singapore is determined to establish itself as an optics hub. Indeed, Singapore's strong industry base in electronics, electrical devices, and semiconductors will complement well the multidisciplinary characteristics of optics and photonics, and will serve as an excellent foundation to develop more optical applications. In addition, Singapore's excellent infrastructure and appropriate industry mix, coupled with its close proximity to the emerging Asian markets would also give it an advantage for undertaking R&D and incubation of new technologies. However, a critical factor for realizing the rapid growth of the optics industry is the adequate and steady supply of qualified personnel at all levels. In this paper, a plan for developing a comprehensive, integrated education and training system is proposed. It is pointed out that the development and implementation of such a system requires the collaboration and dedication of the whole optics and photonics community in Singapore, as well as the support of a global network of optics clusters. In particular, the important roles of the Singapore Centre of Photonics Excellence (SCOPE) and the Photonics Association, Singapore) [PA(S)] is emphasized.

  4. Future synergism in diving accident management: The Singapore model.

    PubMed

    Chong, Si Jack; Liang, Weihao; Kim, Soo Jang; Kang, Wee Lee

    2010-03-01

    The popularity of diving as a leisure activity has been an increasing trend in recent years. With the rise of this sport inevitably comes increasing numbers and risk of diving-related injuries and demand for professional medical treatment of such injuries. Concurrently, with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) being more readily available, new applications for HBOT have been proven for the treatment of various medical conditions. In Singapore, diving and hyperbaric medicine was largely a military medicine specialty and its practice confined to the Singapore Armed Forces for many years. The new Hyperbaric and Diving Medicine Centre set up in Singapore General Hospital (SGH) offers an excellent opportunity for collaboration between the Singapore Navy Medical Service (NMS) and SGH. This combines the expertise in the field of diving and hyperbaric medicine that NMS provides, with the resources and specialized services available at SGH. This collaboration was officially formalized by the recent signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between the two organisations. The partnership will allow both organisations to leverage on each other's strengths and enhance the development of research and training capabilities. This collaboration will also be an important step towards formal recognition and accreditation of diving and hyperbaric medicine as a medical subspecialty in the foreseeable future, thus helping to develop and promote diving and hyperbaric medicine in Singapore. This synergistic approach in diving accident management will also promote and establish Singapore as a leader in the field of diving and hyperbaric medicine in the region. PMID:23111838

  5. Sex work and risky sexual behaviors among foreign entertainment workers in urban Singapore: findings from Mystery Client Survey.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy; Tan, Hiok Hee; Yong, Eunice; Lee, Lionel; Cutter, Jeffrey; Tay, Joanne; Koh, David

    2012-12-01

    Globalization has led to a rapid influx of female workers from Asian countries with high prevalence of HIV to Singapore, with many entering the entertainment industry. We assessed the prevalence of sexual services, condom use, and self-initiated screening for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated variables among foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. A cross-sectional survey of 317 female entertainment workers, using mystery clients, was conducted on a two-stage proportional cluster sample of 93 entertainment establishments stratified by geographical zone in Singapore. We found a high prevalence (71 %) of sexual services in entertainment establishments with 53 % of the female entertainment workers reporting selling sex. Consistent condom use for sex with paying clients in a usual week in the past 3 months was low, ranging from 37.9 % for oral sex, 46.9 % for anal sex, to 51.9 % for vaginal sex. On multivariate logistic regression, consistent condom use for vaginal sex with clients showed a significant independent association with the entertainment worker's behavior of asking clients to use condoms and a borderline association with entertainment worker being a Chinese national. Less than half (48.9 %) of the sex workers had ever been screened for STIs either locally or in their home country. The only independent factor significantly associated with STI screening was having to support one's family. In summary, a high percentage of foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore reported selling sex. Condom use and STI screening were low among them. Access to STI screening, treatment, and education services should be enhanced for foreign female entertainment workers in Singapore. PMID:22707309

  6. Benefits of IEEE-754 features in modern symmetric tridiagonaleigensolvers

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Osni; Riedy, Jason E.; Vomel, Christof

    2006-03-12

    Bisection is one of the most common methods used to compute the eigenvalues of symmetric tridiagonal matrices. Bisection relies on the Sturm count: For a given shift a, the number of negative pivots in the factorization T - {sigma}I = LDL{sup T} equals the number of eigenvalues of T that are smaller than a. In IEEE-754 arithmetic, the value oo permits the computation to continue past a zero pivot, producing a correct Sturm count when T is unreduced. Demmel and Li showed that using oo rather than testing for zero pivots within the loop could significantly improve performance on certain architectures. When eigenvalues are to be computed to high relative accuracy, it is often preferable to work with LDL{sup T} factorizations instead of the original tridiagonal T. One important example is the MRRR algorithm. When bisection is applied to the factored matrix, the Sturm count is computed from LDL{sup T} which makes differential stationary and progressive qds algorithms the methods of choice. While it seems trivial to replace T by LDL{sup T}, in reality these algorithms are more complicated: In IEEE-754 arithmetic, a zero pivot produces an overflow followed by an invalid exception (NaN, or 'Not a Number') that renders the Sturm count incorrect. We present alternative, safe formulations that are guaranteed to produce the correct result. Benchmarking these algorithms on a variety of platforms shows that the original formulation without tests is always faster provided that no exception occurs. The transforms see speed-ups of up to 2.6x over the careful formulations. Tests on industrial matrices show that encountering exceptions in practice is rare. This leads to the following design: First, compute the Sturm count by the fast but unsafe algorithm. Then, if an exception occurs, recompute the count by a safe, slower alternative. The new Sturm count algorithms improve the speed of bisection by up to 2x on our test matrices. Furthermore, unlike the traditional tiny

  7. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    PubMed

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks. PMID:18002795

  8. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    King, J

    2001-10-22

    Given the increased productivity and growing popularity of wireless communications in general, and wireless data communications in particular, this paper outlines the protocols, security implications, and architectures of IEEE Std. 802.11-1999 wireless LANs (WLANs) and makes recommendations regarding a phased implementation of WLANs at LLNL. This project is driven by the need for convenient and secure access to the Internet for Laboratory visitors and to the internal network for Laboratory employees. A solid architecture designed with a priority on security will allow LLNL to offer network access in areas where it is traditionally hard to deploy wired networks. It will also enable such services as wireless access for inventory control and convenient network access for conference rooms around LLNL. Wireless network access has the potential to increase productivity by enabling instant access to information.

  9. Review of the IEEE Standard for Computerized Operating Procedure Systems

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.; Higgins, J.

    2010-02-26

    Increasingly nuclear power plant procedures, such as emergency operating procedures, are being presented in computer form with functionality to support operator use and management of the procedures. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently has guidance for the review of computer-based procedures (CBPs); however, there remain CBP functions and human performance issues for which up-to-date guidance is lacking. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has initiated a standard development effort to address the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of CBP systems. When completed, it may provide guidance to supplement the NRC staff's review criteria. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the suitability of the IEEE Standard for use in the NRC's HFE safety reviews of CBP systems and to ensure that the guidance meets the NRC's standard for scientific and engineering rigor used in its own guidance development efforts. We established the following criteria with which to evaluate the Standard: (1) it should meet an existing need of NRC reviewers, (2) it should be based in sound HFE principles, (3) it should be thoroughly peer-reviewed, and (4) it should address CBP-related human performance issues identified in the literature. This report describes the methodology we used to evaluate each criterion. Our evaluation concluded that the Standard generally does meet these criteria, however several areas were identified for which additional clarifications are needed. Thus consideration of the Standard's use by the NRC is supported. The standard evaluation methodology developed in this study can be generally applied to the review of other HFE standards being considered for possible use or endorsement by the NRC.

  10. Incense Use and Cardiovascular Mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Maggie L.; Ang, Li-Wei; Yu, Mimi C.; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2014-01-01

    Background: Incense burning is common in many parts of the world. Although it is perceived that particulate matter from incense smoke is deleterious to health, there is no epidemiologic evidence linking domestic exposure to cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to incense burning and cardiovascular mortality in the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Methods: We enrolled a total of 63,257 Singapore Chinese 45–74 years of age during 1993–1998. All participants were interviewed in person to collect information about lifestyle behaviors, including the practice of burning incense at home. We identified cardiovascular deaths via record linkage with the nationwide death registry through 31 December 2011. Results: In this cohort, 76.9% were current incense users, and most of the current users (89.9%) had burned incense daily for ≥ 20 years. Relative to noncurrent users, current users had a 12% higher risk of cardiovascular mortality [multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.20]. The HR was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.37) for mortality due to stroke and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for mortality due to coronary heart disease. The association between current incense use and cardiovascular mortality appeared to be limited to participants without a history of cardiovascular disease at baseline (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26) but not linked to those with a history (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.17). In addition, the association was stronger in never-smokers (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23) and former smokers (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.42) than in current smokers (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.22). Conclusions: Long-term exposure to incense burning in the home environment was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality in the study population. Citation: Pan A, Clark ML, Ang LW, Yu MC, Yuan JM, Koh WP. 2014. Incense use and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese in Singapore: The Singapore Chinese Health

  11. Numerical Modelling of Circulation and Exchange through Singapore Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G.; Xu, M.; Chua, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    The circulation in the Singapore coastal region is complicated and influenced by the combination of tidal forcing of the surrounding seas, complex bathymetry, irregular coastlines, and seasonal monsoon and local winds. An unstructured-grid SUNTANS (Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator) model is employed to perform three-dimensional simulations of flow in Singapore coastal waters. The unstructured-grid has an average resolution of 50 - 100 m around Singapore and in areas close to the shoreline, while a coarse grid resolution is employed in the open waters. The model is tidally forced at the three open boundaries, located to the west, south and east of Singapore, using the 8 main tidal constituents as derived from the OSU Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS). A detailed calibration is performed, and the model-predicted water levels and currents compare well with observed data throughout the model domain. We examine the individual and combined effects of tidal and wind forcing by performing simulations with (1) tides only, (2) winds only and (3) both tides and wind. The exchange through Singapore Strait is investigated by computing volume fluxes and transport pathways at four transects, namely the Malacca Strait, Java Sea, South China Sea and Singapore transects. The transport pathways are computed by releasing particles on each side of the transects, and identifying the spatial distribution of the particles over one tidal cycle. Our results show that tidal forcing is predominant in Singapore Strait, and wind forcing is an important mechanism during the monsoon season. The residual effects, attributed to nonlinear interactions between tidal and wind forcing, is dominant during the inter-monsoon season.

  12. On conformance tests for IEEE PC 37.238 compliant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang; Fan, Yang; Gao, Jason; Zhao, Haisheng

    2011-10-01

    There is an increasing demand on accurate time synchronization for protection and control equipment for electrical power supply systems. The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) seems to be a promising way to handle the synchronization requirements of future substation automation. In this regard, the goal of the IEEE PC37.238 is to specify a common profile for use of IEEE 1588-2008 PTP in power system applications. This paper provides an overview of the current specifications of the IEEE PC37.238 draft standard. Using conformance tests for default PTP attribute values and peer delay mechanism as examples, we discuss in details the test methods, test procedures, and the expected results for the IEEE PC37.238 compliant devices.

  13. The sexual profile of rapists in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gwee, K P; Lim, L E C; Woo, M

    2002-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first paper that examines the sexual profile of rapists in Singapore. A semi-structured interview based on a questionnaire about sexual habits was conducted on 62 convicted rapists and a control group of 63 prisoners comprising 32 convicted for violent non-sexual offences and 31 for non-violent non-sexual offences. Significantly more rapists masturbated at least once a month and were exposed to pornography within six months before the offence when compared to non-violent controls. Violent controls did not differ significantly from rapists in any aspect of the sexual history. The greater similarity between rapists and violent controls lends support to the concept of rape as a violent rather than sexual offence. A subgroup of 17 'hypersexual' rapists were identified who were either having sex or masturbating very frequently but had still resorted to rape. Compared to the other 46 rapists, the 'hypersexual' rapists were more likely to have fantasised predominantly about rape or bondage and to cite domination, aggression or hostility as reasons for committing rape, suggesting an even stronger element of power and aggression than in their less sexually active counterparts. PMID:11858209

  14. The hepatitis B immunization programme in Singapore.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, K. T.; Doraisingham, S.; Tan, K. L.; Oon, C. J.; Ho, M. L.; Chen, A. J.; Chan, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    A voluntary immunization programme to prevent perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Singapore was implemented on 1 October 1985 as an integral component of the national childhood immunization programme. Up to April 1988, a total of 68,845 mothers who attended government maternal and child health clinics were screened for the disease. Of these, 2432 (3.5%) were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 904 (1.3%) for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). Virtually all the babies born to carrier mothers completed the full immunization schedule; and in addition, those of HBeAg-positive mothers were given a dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth. The hepatitis B immunization programme was extended on 1 September 1987 to cover all newborns. About 90% of the 15,943 babies delivered in government institutions from September 1987 to April 1988 were immunized at birth, with the subsequent doses being administered at maternal and child health clinics at 4-6 weeks and 5 months later. More than 85% of the children given the full course of plasma-derived and yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine from birth continued to have protective antibody to HBV two years after immunization. The programme is being closely monitored to assess the duration of immunity and the need for booster doses, while seronegative adults are also being encouraged to be vaccinated. PMID:2523251

  15. Singapore Math: Problem-Solving Secrets from the World's Math Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Using this four CD-ROM disc set, teachers can have their very own math problem solving mentor as a leading expert in Singapore Math guides them through a lively presentation, working through math problems and explaining how Singapore has become the world's leading method in math. The expert's explanation of how to use Singapore's model-drawing…

  16. Singapore Math®. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report. Updated December 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report on "Singapore Math®" updates the 2009 WWC review of the curriculum to include seven new studies. Despite the additional research, no studies meet WWC design standards and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the effectiveness of "Singapore Math®." [For the 2009 report, "Singapore Math," see…

  17. The Quest for Global Competitiveness: Promotion of Innovation and Entrepreneurial Universities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2015-01-01

    The economy of Singapore has been continuously reforming since its independence. In the late 1980s, the economy of Singapore depended heavily on the vibrant manufacturing sector formed by foreign direct investment and multinational companies. This article critically reviews the policies and reform measures adopted by the Singapore government in…

  18. The Bilingual Education Policy in Singapore: Implications for Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin

    This paper examines assumptions about second language acquisition, bilingualism, and language planning that underlie Singapore's bilingual education policy, noting how the experience in Singapore illuminates current theories in second language acquisition and language planning. In Singapore, English is promoted as the "working language," while…

  19. Ethnic fertility differentials in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Saw, S H

    1990-01-01

    Differences in fertility between the three major ethnic groups (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore have existed since before the onset of fertility decline in the late 1950s and remain today, although the relative positions and the actual differences have changed due to the varying rates of decline. By 1987, the Malays experienced the highest fertility and the Chinese the lowest in both countries but in Singapore the Malay fertility was lower than the Chinese fertility in Peninsular Malaysia. The fertility differentials will lead to changes in the ethnic composition in both countries but more so in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:2298755

  20. University students and mental health. Canada, Britain and Singapore.

    PubMed

    Gold, J H

    1979-01-01

    There are many crucial determinants of the individual outcome and benefit of a university education including the stressful interplay of cultural and socioeconomic factors which are of growing importance in the inflationary 1970's. An epidemiological study of university students from 1969-1972 in Canada, 1973-1974 in Britain, and 1975 in Singapore, attempted to identify stresses leading to mental ill-health in these students. Singapore was chosen as an example of a culture bridging the developed Northern and developing Southern nations of the world. Cultural differences affecting the results of the study are discussed as is the role of social change. PMID:511452

  1. Singapore's Zero-Energy Building's daylight monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Grobe, Lars; Wittkopf, Stephen; Pandey, Anupama Rana; Xiaoming, Yang; Seng, Ang Kian; Scartezzini, Jean-Louis; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2010-02-28

    A setup to monitor the daylighting performance of different glazing types in Singapore is presented. The glazing is installed in the facade of four dedicated testing chambers in BCAA's Zero Energy Building in Singapore. These test rooms are equipped with sensors that both record illuminances on the work plane, and luminances as seen by occupants. The physical and logical design of the monitoring system is presented. Criteria to assess the daylighting performance are introduced, and initial results of the work in progress are presented.

  2. Green Tea, Soy, and Mammographic Density in Singapore Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Khoo, Kei-Siong; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from observational studies that breast cancer risk is inversely associated with soy and green tea consumption. We investigated the effects of these two dietary agents on mammographic density, a well-established biomarker for breast cancer risk, in a cross-sectional analysis of mammograms and validated food frequency questionnaires from 3,315 Chinese women in Singapore. Percent mammographic density (PMD) was assessed using a reproducible computer-assisted method. We used generalized linear models to estimate PMD by intake of soy, green tea, and black tea while adjusting for potential confounders. Daily green tea drinkers showed statistically significantly lower PMD (19.5%) than non-tea drinkers (21.7%; P = 0.002) after adjusting for relevant covariates. This difference in PMD between daily green tea drinkers and non-tea drinkers remained statistically significant after adjustment for soy (P = 0.002); the effect was more apparent among lower soy consumers (Q1–Q3; 21.9% versus 19.4%; P = 0.002) than in higher (Q4) consumers (20.9% versus 19.5%; P = 0.32). Black tea intake was unrelated to PMD. Only among postmenopausal women who reported very high soy intake (Q4) compared with those with less soy intake was there any association noted between PMD and soy intake (18.9% versus 20.5%; P = 0.035). Following adjustment for green tea intake, the association between soy and PMD was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.52). Our findings suggest that both regular green tea and high soy intake may have beneficial effects on the breast; the effect of green tea on PMD may be stronger than the effect of soy. PMID:19064551

  3. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  4. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  5. Musical Memories: Snapshots of a Chinese Family in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines music in the home of a Chinese family in Singapore with specific attention to the children (aged five and seven) of the household: an exploration of what constitutes the lived 'musical' memory of a family enmeshed in the technology and media of a globalised world. The study is part of a larger ethnographic study on the musical…

  6. Instituting Change in Early Childhood Education: Recent Developments in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve preschool education, the Singapore government has embraced the need for change by identifying needed policies related to preschool education. These changes require teachers to rethink their approach to learning and teaching. A proposed tool suggested in this paper that may help facilitate curriculum change is the use of…

  7. Addressing the Needs of the Gifted in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen; Teo, Chua Tee

    2013-01-01

    The tiny, multicultural nation of Singapore has a long history of provisions for gifted students. Beliefs about ability and talent development are strongly influenced by traditional Confucian perspectives that view environmental factors as dominant in the development of talent. Early identification is not stressed and working hard is emphasized at…

  8. Successful School Leadership: Case Studies of Four Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Loke Heng; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics and practices of principals in four successful Singapore primary schools. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple perspective case studies were used which included semi-structured interviews with the principal, teaching and non-teaching staff, students, parents and school board…

  9. An epidemic of cockles-associated hepatitis A in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, K. T.; Chan, L.; Ding, J. L.; Oon, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    An epidemic of serologically confirmed hepatitis A occurred between May and September 1983 in Singapore. The vehicle of transmission was traced to raw and partially cooked cockles, Anadara granosa, which had been imported from places with no sanitary control on the production. Strict controls on imported cockles are warranted. PMID:6335847

  10. A hypothesis for the 2007 dengue outbreak in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Massad, E; Coutinho, F A B; Ma, S; Burattini, M N

    2010-07-01

    A previous mathematical model explaining dengue in Singapore predicted a reasonable outbreak of about 6500 cases for 2006 and a very mild outbreak with about 2000 cases for 2007. However, only 3051 cases were reported in 2006 while more than 7800 were reported in the first 44 weeks of 2007. We hypothesized that the combination of haze with other local sources of particulate matter had a significant impact on mosquito life expectancy, significantly increasing their mortality rate. To test the hypothesis a mathematical model based on the reproduction number of dengue fever and aimed at comparing the impact of several possible alternative control strategies was proposed. This model also aimed at contributing to the understanding of the causes of dengue resurgence in Singapore in the last decade. The model's simulation demonstrated that an increase in mosquito mortality in 2006 and either a reduction in mortality or an increase in the carrying capacity of mosquitoes in 2007 explained the patterned observed in Singapore. Based on the model's simulation we concluded that the fewer than expected number of dengue cases in Singapore in 2006 was caused by an increase in mosquito mortality due to the disproportionate haze affecting the country that year and that particularly favourable environmental conditions in 2007 propitiated mosquitoes with a lower mortality rate, which explains the greater than expected number of dengue cases in 2007. Whether our hypothesis is plausible or not should be debated further. PMID:19653928

  11. Framing Educational Success: A Comparative Study of Shanghai and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2011-01-01

    In the light of the global trends towards international assessment, inter-country comparison and policy convergence, this article critically discusses the contextual factors that influence educational success in Shanghai and Singapore. Focussing on the structural and cultural frames, this article maintains that the educational achievement in…

  12. Musical Behaviours of Primary School Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Chee-Hoo

    2009-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, the musical behaviours of 28 primary school children in Singapore were examined for their meaning and diversity as they engaged in the school day. A large part of these children's musical behaviours stemmed from their exposure to the mass media. Children's musical inventions emerged in the context of play, occasionally…

  13. Organisational Legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceived organisational legitimacy of the Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) in preparing the population for work in the knowledge-based economy (KBE). It is argued that challenges to MOE's legitimacy are emerging with ramifications that are difficult to ignore. These challenges relate to equipping the population…

  14. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency. PMID:25225924

  15. University 2.0: A View from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Daniel; Lee, Chye Seng; Chan, Lay Kock; Lu, Adrian Din How

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights the processes and best practices adopted by Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore in implementing their mission-critical e-learning services for a population of 28,000 students and 1,100 faculty members. The various phases of this rapid growth in e-learning from the initial genesis in achieving mass buy-in by…

  16. Use of Facebook: A Case Study of Singapore Students' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hew, Khe Foon; Cheung, Wing Sum

    2012-01-01

    Facebook has become one of the most popular social network sites among many students. However, current research on Facebook use has focused mainly on Anglo-American students. Relatively little is known about Facebook use in Singapore. Data were collected from 83 students (ages ranged from 15 to 23). This study uses a naturalistic case study…

  17. The Language Attitudes of Bilingual Youth in Multilingual Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Caleon, Imelda Santos

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about the language attitudes that bilingual youth in Singapore have towards their Mother Tongue and English, and towards codeswitching between the two. The language attitudes of 443 primary school students were investigated using a variation of the matched-guise technique. Status and solidarity dimensions of attitudes, with ethnicity…

  18. Principals' Engagement of Low Ability Students in Singapore Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Chye Hin; Dimmock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a grounded theory constructed from a study of Singapore neighbourhood secondary school principals' engagement of their lowest stream, the Normal Technical students, in their schools. This substantive theory is labelled the "theory of selective engagement". It implies that how principals engage their lowest streamed students…

  19. They Play Soccer Too!--"Madrasah" Education in Multicultural Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Ooi Giok; Fui, Chee Min

    2007-01-01

    Muslim education, particularly in rapidly globalising Singapore, has had to negotiate changes which both the education sector specifically and society generally have faced. Some of these changes have challenged "madrasahs", which provide Muslim religious education, to introduce new curriculum. Yet other changes are challenging the nature of the…

  20. Young Children's Number Sense in Finland, Hong Kong and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunio, Pirjo; Ee, Jessie; Lim, Swee Eng Audrey; Hautamaki, Jarkko; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines young children's number sense in subjects from Finland (n =254), Hong Kong (n =246), and Singapore (n =130). Chinese, English and Finnish versions of the Early Numeracy Test (ENT; Van Luit et al., 1994) were used. Two highly correlated aspects of number sense were measured, one reflecting children's abilities to organize and…

  1. Bilingualism without Diglossia: The Indian Community in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Viniti

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells a tentative story from the preliminary findings of The Sociolinguistic Survey of Singapore, 2006 (SSS 2006). Though the main study reports on language use amongst Chinese, Malay and Indian communities, my focus is only on Indian homes. The paper reports results from five domains: school, family and friends, media, public space and…

  2. How to Assemble a Knowledge Economy: Singapore's Transnational Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2006-01-01

    This article takes Singapore, an emerging education hub, as a focal point from which to investigate its attempts to become a global city and knowledge-based economy. It outlines how discourses of the knowledge economy are used to rationalise particular policy interventions and the transnational education forms arising from them. It speculates on…

  3. The Talent Development of a Musically Gifted Adolescent in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Pauline S. K.; Chong, Sylvia N. Y.

    2010-01-01

    Using Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual model, this study investigated the factors that influenced the talent development process of a musically gifted adolescent in Singapore. Five macro themes emerged as key catalysts that impacted the adolescent's talent growth: (1) natural abilities; (2) early musical…

  4. What Provokes Young People to Get into Trouble: Singapore Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…

  5. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  6. Possibilities for an Inclusive Society in Singapore: Becoming Inclusive within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Levan

    2009-01-01

    The envisioning of Singapore as an inclusive society has witnessed the most progressive systemic and policy developments concerning people with disabilities in recent years. The building of "heartware" in society (as in the will, values, and attitudes of its citizens) in order to realize the vision of an inclusive society, however, requires both…

  7. Singapore Math: Place Value, Computation & Number Sense. [CD-ROM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    "Singapore Math: Place Value, Computation & Number Sense" is a six-part presentation on CD-ROM that can be used by individual teachers or an entire school. The author takes primary to upper elementary grade teachers through place value skills with each of the computational operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. She gives…

  8. Libraries in West Malaysia and Singapore; A Short History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tee, Edward Lim Huck

    An attempt is made to trace the history of every major library in Malay and Singapore. Social and recreational club libraries are not included, and school libraries are not extensively covered. Although it is possible to trace the history of Malaysia's libraries back to the first millenium of the Christian era, there are few written records…

  9. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  10. Reviving Polya's "Look Back" in a Singapore School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Yew Hoong; Tay, Eng Guan; Toh, Tin Lam; Quek, Khiok Seng; Dindyal, Jaguthsing

    2011-01-01

    This study is based on the stance that Polya's "Look Back," though understudied, remains relevant to Mathematics curricula that place emphasis on problem solving. Although the Singapore Mathematics curriculum adopts the goal of teaching Look Back, research about how it is carried out in actual classroom practice is rare. In our project, we focus…

  11. Training Communication Graduates for Singapore's Media Research Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Billy; Ying, Angeling Sim Zhi

    2000-01-01

    Presents preliminary findings from a needs assessment study of undergraduate communication and media training in Singapore. Content analyzes 372 relevant employment ads for 1998 and 1999. Finds nearly 60% were for marketing research, public opinion polling or other kinds of applied research. Suggests an exploding demand for graduates with…

  12. Civics and Moral Education in Singapore: Lessons for Citizenship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Joy Oon Ai

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the themes of the Civics and Moral Education program in Singapore schools are training citizens and transmitting national values for economic and political socialization. Discusses key components, and shows how the program integrates strands of civics and moral education from earlier programs. Assesses impacts on students and teachers.…

  13. Language Planning in Singapore: On Pragmatism, Communitarianism and Personal Names

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Wee, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    Singapore's annual Speak Mandarin Campaign has been largely successful in shifting the language patterns of its Chinese citizens from Chinese dialects to Mandarin in all sectors. However, there has been a notable exception: the effort to have Chinese Singaporeans give their children Mandarin names, rather than dialect ones. In this paper, we…

  14. Curriculum Integration in Singapore: Teachers' Perspectives and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Chi Chung; Alviar-Martin, Theresa; Adler, Susan A.; Sim, Jasmine B.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we examined eleven Singapore teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning as related to their experiences implementing integrated curriculum. Interviews revealed that the teachers' conceptions of integration spanned the spectrum of ideas found in relevant literature. Further, although participants saw benefits to…

  15. The State, Teachers and Citizenship Education in Singapore Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Jasmine B-Y; Print, Murray

    2009-01-01

    States commonly employ education policy to build a strong sense of citizenship within young people and to create types of citizens appropriate to the country. In Singapore the government created a policy to build citizenship through both policy statements and social studies in the school curriculum. In the context of a tightly controlled state…

  16. Creating Polyphony with Exploratory Web Documentation in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Sirene; Hoo, Lum Chee

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and reflect on "Images of Teaching", an ongoing web documentation research project on preschool teaching in Singapore. This paper discusses the project's purpose, methodological process, and our learning points as researchers who aim to contribute towards inquiry-based professional learning. The website offers a window into some…

  17. Educational Leadership in Singapore: Tight Coupling, Sustainability, Scalability, and Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: While Singapore's outstanding educational achievements are well known worldwide, there is a disproportionate paucity of literature on school leadership practices that contribute to and support pedagogical initiatives that--along with socio-cultural factors--are normally considered responsible for its educational success. The aim of this…

  18. The Effect of Accent on Listening Comprehension: A Singapore Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, George K.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted at Nanyang University in Singapore with Chinese-educated students who supposedly received 12 years of instruction in English but who were still deficient in the language. Comprehension of four different English accents were tested, and two tests of measuring aural comprehension were compared. (SW)

  19. Developing Teachers at the Pinnacle of Profession: The Singapore Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Lee Hean

    2010-01-01

    Background: Master teachers in Singapore have been recognised on the basis of their invaluable contribution in their field of teaching, and are deemed to be at the pinnacle of their career. A national programme for incumbent and potential master teachers, Advanced Senior Teachers Programme (ASTP), was inaugurated in 2005. Conducted by the National…

  20. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  1. Issues in Second Language Curriculum Development: Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakir, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes current theoretical and practical issues of second-language learning and teaching in the national curricula of Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam. Postcolonial developments in each country influence the theory and practice of first- and second-language acquisition. Of importance also are the attitudes and expectations of…

  2. English, Language Shift and Values Shift in Japan and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morita, Liang

    2015-01-01

    This is a comparative study of English language education in Japan and Singapore and the role English plays in both countries. English language education in Japan has not been very effective. Although the communicative approach to teaching English was introduced in the 1980s, schools still use the grammar-translation method and most Japanese do…

  3. Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Building on the Singapore Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Turner, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Is it possible to teach someone to be an entrepreneur? Is innovation something that can be assessed and taught in a classroom? Teaching Innovation and Entrepreneurship answers these and other questions by focusing on a teaching experiment in Singapore at Nanyang Technological University, wherein classes of English-speaking Singaporeans and…

  4. Fourth Way in Action? The Evolution of Singapore's Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopinathan, Saravanan

    2012-01-01

    Hargreaves and Shirley's "The Fourth Way" offers a valuable framework for considering the challenges and dilemmas that confront education change practitioners. In this article, I consider how well their framework fits the evolution and more recent changes in Singapore education. History, context culture and aspirations are seen as providing for…

  5. Toward a Cosmopolitan Vision of English Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2014-01-01

    English education has played a vital role in facilitating Singapore's global city ambitions since the country's independence. While the state has prioritized English education's cognitive objective emphasizing information processing and effective communication skills, it has given insufficient attention to the role of English in…

  6. "Our Shared Values" in Singapore: A Confucian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Charlene Tan offers a philosophical analysis of the Singapore state's vision of shared citizenship by examining it from a Confucian perspective. The state's vision, known formally as "Our Shared Values," consists of communitarian values that reflect the official ideology of multiculturalism. This initiative included a White Paper,…

  7. Cultural Aspects of Language Imposition in Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley, Verner C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper distinguishes Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language) and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language) according to type and function and summarizes their development as the national languages of Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. It presents a short, historical account of the spread, through religious and educational activities, of the English…

  8. Journeys in the Learning Sciences: The Singapore Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Thiam Seng; Huang, David; Lim, Kenneth Y. T.; Chen, Victor; Hung, David

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research in the Learning Sciences from a Design Research perspective, as it has been framed in Singapore by the National Institute of Education (NIE). The initial research agenda is considered in the light of challenges and the subsequent re-casting of objectives, based on the working out of a tripartite…

  9. Seeking Resilience and Sustainability: Outdoor Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Ho, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    Outdoor education is not a universal value. Rather, outdoor education's contributions need to be grounded in time, place and culture. In this paper we describe the historical and cultural milieu that has enabled the emergence of outdoor education in Singapore and report on exploratory survey research into Singaporean teachers' conceptions of…

  10. "Inculcating" Creativity: Culture as Public Pedagogy in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Terence

    2014-01-01

    The Singapore government has long relied on the inherent public pedagogical qualities of culture in the forms of official cultural and media policies and in the unscripted signifiers of cultural conduct, such as in the public's attitude towards the arts. The prime objective is to instrumentalise citizens on how they should become both…

  11. Supporting Inclusive Education: Negotiating Home-School Partnership in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Meng Ee; Ng, Zi Jia; Poon, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    While there has been growing theoretical and policy interest in the areas of homeschool partnership and inclusive education, relatively little work has linked the two fields. Where there have been studies, these have focused primarily on parent or school perspective. With inclusive education in its nascent stage in Singapore, this study examines…

  12. Theoretical Discussion on Forms of Cultural Capital in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Cheng Yong

    2013-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion on five forms of cultural resources that constitute cultural capital for children in the meritocratic yet stratified society of Singapore. These five forms of cultural capital are namely "academic" tastes and leisure preferences, use of Standard English, access to and dispositions toward…

  13. The Reform Agenda for Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    As governments in many countries review their education systems to optimise their human capital in an age of globalisation, religious schools such as madrasahs (Islamic or Muslim schools) have also come under state scrutiny. This article examines the Singapore government's reform agenda for madrasah education in the country. It argues that the…

  14. Understanding Critical Reading in an ESL Class in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macknish, Cynthia Jean

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the understandings and practice of critical reading in a postsecondary English as a second language (ESL) reading class for mainland Chinese students in Singapore. Despite the challenges of defining critical reading in practice and overcoming assumptions about Chinese students' lack of criticality, as well as the lack of…

  15. Wireless Laptops in English Classrooms: A SWOT Analysis from Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip A.; Vaish, Viniti

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents illustrative findings from a one-year pilot study undertaken in the English department of a high school in Singapore that was in the first year of implementing a one-to-one wireless laptop programme. The findings show that learning was often constrained by lecture-style presentations and overt test preparation. Despite…

  16. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  17. Numeracy of Young Children in Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ee, Jessie; Wong, Khoon Yoong; Aunio, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Young children's number sense is essential for the acquisition of higher number skills in later years. Most recent studies focus on children over 6 years of age only. To extend the scope, this study dealt with the performance of children aged 4-7 years in 3 cities: Singapore, Beijing and Helsinki (This study is an extension of the research of…

  18. Lifelong Learning: The Whole DAMN Cycle--A Singapore Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Daphne Yuen

    The Desire, Ability, Means, and Need (DAMN) Cycle is a useful paradigm for understanding the lifelong learning framework in Singapore. The cycle suggests that, for learning to occur, students must have a desire and an ability to learn, including inquiring minds and higher order process skills; the means must be provided through a well-defined…

  19. Developing Teacher Leadership in Singapore: Multiple Pathways for Differentiated Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, A. Lin; Low, Ee Ling; Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine quality teachers through teacher leadership development. Using Singapore as an illustrative case, we describe the redefinition of the teaching profession to include deliberate structures and multiple pathways designed to nurture teacher leaders, and the role of teacher leaders in supporting education reform. We go on to…

  20. Encouraging a Culture of Research in Practicing Teachers in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory; Chan, Yvonne Yoke Yin; Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Upgrading the status of early childhood teaching and improving job satisfaction are areas of concern to practitioners, policy makers and other stakeholders in the early childhood field. Ways to upgrade practicing teachers, including their involvement in research, is an on-going challenge. This paper reports on a research in Singapore where a…

  1. Multiculturalism in Environmental Science: A Snapshot of Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Bryan; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Shepardson, Daniel P.

    2006-01-01

    Students' perceptions of the environment can differ based on sociocultural factors and experiences. Understanding how students develop environmental perceptions is an important step toward developing an inclusive environmental science curriculum. This article presents preliminary data from a study conducted in Singapore in which students'…

  2. Contesting Reform: Bernstein's Pedagogic Device and Madrasah Education in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights the active role played by various pedagogic agents in contesting the state educational reforms for madrasahs in Singapore. Drawing upon Basil Bernstein's pedagogic device, the paper identifies tensions and challenges that arise from the attempts by the state to implement curriculum reforms. The paper contends that the stakes…

  3. Suicide Methods in Singapore (2000-2004): Types and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Boon-Hock; Franzco, Audrey Chia; Ng, Wai-Yee; Tai, Bee-Choo

    2011-01-01

    The choice of suicide methods varies between countries. Common methods used in Singapore between 2000 and 2004 were jumping (72.4%), hanging (16.6%), and poisoning (5.9%). Those who jumped were more likely to be young, single, female, and to have had a major mental illness. By comparison, those who hung themselves were more likely to be older (OR…

  4. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  5. Vocational Education in Singapore: Meritocracy and Hidden Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Terence

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a broad overview of vocational education in Singapore. Looking at vocational education from Independence, it argues that the development of a skilled labour force was not only crucial in the age of globalisation and the dominance of multinational companies, but also an empirical litmus test of the newly elected post-colonial…

  6. Testing (HIV). Quick test receives Singapore approval.

    PubMed

    1996-04-22

    Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 is a rapid HIV antibody immunoassay developed by Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (SDS) which can be used by anyone who can read the product insert. The test kit is comprised of a small lancet for a finger stick, a cylindrical tube with a capillary tip and a SDS diagnostic strip inside, and a vial of buffer. Once blood is drawn by the lancet, the capillary tip is placed upon the blood droplet and the blood is automatically drawn into the tube. The tube is then inserted tip first into the vial of buffer. The buffer and blood migrate over the diagnostic strip inside, yielding stable results within 15 minutes. Studies have found Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 to have a sensitivity and specificity greater than 99.4%, as accurate as most conventional HIV tests which require the use of laboratory equipment and trained staff, and possibly hours to produce results. Moreover, the test kit requires neither refrigeration nor special storage. Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 has received a certificate of free sale from the Ministry of Health in Singapore and is now being submitted for regulatory approval in Brazil, China, Russia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and the UK. SDS products in production include Sero-Strip HIV 1/2, a rapid serum-based HIV antibody test; Omni-SAL, a saliva collector which is the principal sample collection device used by British insurance companies for HIV testing with other confirmatory tests; Omni-Swab, a serrated swab which collects body fluids or cells; Saliva-Sampler, a saliva collection device used for general testing purposes; and Saliva Check, a test which checks the composition of saliva samples. SDS is in the final stages of developing Saliva-Strip HIV-1/2, a rapid saliva-based HIV antibody test. The company also intends to complete development in 1996 of a rapid blood-based antibody test for the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a pathogen linked to 80% of peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. PMID:12290908

  7. Dengue Seroprevalence of Healthy Adults in Singapore: Serosurvey among Blood Donors, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Low, Swee-Ling; Lam, Sally; Wong, Wing-Yan; Teo, Diana; Ng, Lee-Ching; Tan, Li-Kiang

    2015-01-01

    Routine national notifications of dengue cases typically do not reflect the true dengue situation due to large proportion of unreported cases. Serosurveys, when conducted periodically, could shed light on the true dengue infections in the population. To determine the magnitude of dengue infections of the adult population in Singapore following the outbreak in 2007, we performed a cross-sectional study on blood donor samples from December 2009 to February 2010. The residual blood of 3,995 donors (aged 16–60 years) was screened for the presence of dengue-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The age-weighted IgG prevalence of residents was 50.8% (N = 3,627, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 49.4–52.3%). Dengue IgG prevalence increased with age, with the lowest in 16–20 years age group (16.1%) and the highest in 56–60 years age group (86.6%). Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) on samples of young resident adults (aged 16–30 years) revealed lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to each serotype, ranging from 5.4% to 20.3% compared with the older age groups. The level of exposure to dengue among the young adults is relatively low despite the endemicity of the disease in Singapore. It partially explains the population’s susceptibility to explosive outbreaks and the high incidence rate among young adults. PMID:26013376

  8. Malaysia/Singapore: Where Asian Cultures Meet. Participants' Papers. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Malaysia and Singapore).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaysian-American Commission on Educational Exchange, Kuala Lumpur.

    The general objective of the Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program is to help U.S. educators enhance their international understanding and increase their knowledge of the people and culture of other countries. This particular program offered participants an overview of life in Malaysia and Singapore through seminars and other activities.…

  9. DNA-Based Analyses of Molds in Singapore Public Buildings Results in a Proposed Singapore Environmental Relative Moldiness Index

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dust samples (n=75) were collected from shopping malls, hotels and libraries in Singapore and then analyzed using Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction(MSQPCR) for the 36 molds that make up the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). Most of these molds (23/...

  10. What the United States Can Learn From Singapore's World-Class Mathematics System (and What Singapore Can Learn from the United States): An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Alan; Leinwand, Steven; Anstrom, Terry; Pollock, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study compares key features of the Singapore and U.S. mathematics systems in the primary grades, when students need to build a strong mathematics foundation. It identifies major differences between the mathematics frameworks, textbooks, assessments, and teachers in Singapore and the United States. It also presents initial results…

  11. Investing in Our Future: The Early Years. First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers (Singapore, December 2-3, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan-Niam, Carolyn, Ed.; Ling, Quah May, Ed.

    Informed by current thinking and supported by data gathered in Singapore, this volume compiles a selection of papers presented at the First Singapore Conference on Preschool Education: Promoting Quality Care and Education for Preschoolers. The papers are: (1) "Introduction: Issues in Quality Provision for Preschool Care and Education" (Carolyn…

  12. A national study of scientific talent development in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quek, Chwee Geok

    Three cohorts comprising a total of 155 gifted science students who had participated in a research mentorship program, the Science Research Program (SRP) in Singapore, were surveyed in this cross-sectional study. Adapting Gagne's (2003, 2004) Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT) as a conceptual framework, this study examined the intrapersonal and environmental catalysts that students perceived to have contributed to their talent development in the sciences. It also sought to evaluate the impact of the SRP on the students, and the extent to which it reinforced their passion for the sciences, and decision to pursue careers in science and/or research. Respondents attributed the biggest role to the 'self' in their talent development journey. They perceived that various intrapersonal qualities they had---sense of curiosity, passion for the subject as well as persistence---were most important in nurturing and sustaining their interest and engagement in science. The external catalysts of teachers and the school appeared to have played a bigger role than parents and the home in respondents' perceptions of the influences on their scientific talent development process. Qualitative descriptions of inspiring and memorable teachers were consistent with qualities of effective teachers in the literature. Findings also showed that students felt the SRP had been very effective in enhancing their scientific knowledge and skills, but that it was less impactful in shaping their future course and career decisions. Indeed, except for a handful who reported that the SRP actually helped them discover that science was not really their passion, the majority plan to pursue careers in science, both in research and in applied fields, aspirations they have had since childhood. There appeared to be little attrition of this group from the science pipeline although there are some indications that more might need to be done to attract more gifted females to the field and to help

  13. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  14. The potential for a controlled human infection platform in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Balasingam, Shobana; Horby, Peter; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-09-01

    For over 100 years, controlled human infection (CHI) studies have been performed to advance the understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. This methodology has seen a resurgence, as it offers an efficient model for selecting the most promising agents for further development from available candidates. CHI studies are utilised to bridge safety and immunogenicity testing and phase II/III efficacy studies. However, as this platform is not currently utilised in Asia, opportunities to study therapeutics and vaccines for infections that are important in Asia are missed. This review examines the regulatory differences for CHI studies between countries and summarises other regulatory differences in clinical trials as a whole. We found that the regulations that would apply to CHI studies in Singapore closely mirror those in the United Kingdom, and conclude that the regulatory and ethical guidelines in Singapore are compatible with the conduct of CHI studies. PMID:25273928

  15. Vector control and surveillance operations in the republic of singapore.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen

    2013-06-01

    Singapore is known for its comprehensive vector control methods that keep mosquito populations at low levels in the urban, tropical, and green city-state. This report describes the measures taken by the National Environment Agency on the basis of observations of vector control and surveillance activities in residential areas, construction sites, and foreign worker quarters. The government-led active operations dealt not only with mosquito control but also social issues in urban residential buildings where people with varying preferences live, the responsibilities of the business sector, and the education of multi-cultural/lingual residents and foreign workers. The public health measures implemented in Singapore offer useful ideas to countries/cities that have not yet established vector control programs against mosquito-borne infectious diseases. PMID:23874140

  16. Influenza Pandemics in Singapore, a Tropical, Globally Connected City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mark I.; Chan, Siew Pang; Wong, Chia Siong; Cutter, Jeffery; Goh, Kee Tai; Tambyah, Paul Anath

    2007-01-01

    Tropical cities such as Singapore do not have well-defined influenza seasons but have not been spared from influenza pandemics. The 1918 epidemic in Singapore, which was then already a major global trading hub, occurred in 2 waves, June–July, and October–November, and resulted in >2,870 deaths. The excess mortality rate was higher than that for industrialized nations in the Northern Hemisphere but lower than that for less industrialized countries in Asia and Africa. The 1957 epidemic occurred in May and resulted in widespread illness. The 1968 epidemic occurred in August and lasted a few weeks, again with widespread illness. Tropical cities may be affected early in a pandemic and have higher mortality rates. With the increase in travel and trade, a future pandemic may reach a globally connected city early and spread worldwide. Preparedness and surveillance plans must be developed to include the megacities of the tropical world. PMID:18214178

  17. Current status of food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Hian, Y E; Lay-Hoon, C

    1991-12-01

    Parasitic infections adopt a rather low profile in the highly urbanized setting in Singapore. Very few food-borne parasitic infections are encountered. Apart from a few reports of infections with Clonorchis/Opisthorchis, Taenia spp. and hydatid disease, there are no other citations of such helminthic infections. Seroprevalence surveys have shown the presence of toxoplasmosis in local meat animals (sheep, pigs and cattle) and Toxoplasma strains have been isolated from the pig, tree shrew (Tupaia glis), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang) and guinea pigs. Human toxoplasmosis is prevalent in Singapore. Anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are found in the normal population as well as in clinical cases (cervical lymphadenopathy, ocular disease and congenital toxoplasmosis). Carcasses/organs from meat animals (sheep, pigs, cattle) slaughtered at local abattoirs were examined for parasites. The main parasites found were Ascaris suum, Dictyocaulus, Metastrongylus, Cysticercus ovis, Fasciola hepatica and Sarcocystis spp. Pigs were also examined for trichinosis and, thus far, these have all been negative. PMID:1822903

  18. Organochlorine compounds in the marine atmosphere of Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurl, Oliver; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in high-volume air samples collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) over the sea surface of Singapore during the summer monsoon period of 2004. A novel and quality assured microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) procedure for PUF was developed as an alternative to conventional Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). Average concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣHCHs and ΣDDTs in air samples were 32, 311 and 8 pg m -3, respectively. Overall, a decline in the ocean atmospheric concentration of DDTs was noted relative to data obtained from the early 1990s, but current data are in a similar range for HCH and PCBs. Levels of OCs in the equatorial atmosphere were compared to equivalent data from temperate regions available in the literature. On a global scale, the levels of DDTs and PCBs in the atmosphere of Singapore are low, but moderate for HCHs.

  19. Optical packaging activities at Institute of Microelectronics (IME), Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Keng-Hwa; Sudharsanam, Krishnamachari; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Yeo, Yongkee; Iyer, Mahadevan K.

    2002-08-01

    The development of optoelectronic components for gigabit Ethernet communications is converging towards access networks where the cost of device makes a significant impact on the market acceptance. Device fabrication and packaging cost have to be brought down with novel assembly and packaging methods. Singapore has established a reputation in semiconductor device development and fabrication with excellent process and packaging facilities. Institute of Microelectronics (IME) was founded in 1991 to add value to the Singapore electronics industry. IME is involved in the development of active and passive photonics components using Silicon and polymer materials. We present a brief report on the development activities taking place in the field of optical component packaging at IME in recent years. We present a review of our competence and some of the optical device packaging activities that are being undertaken.

  20. Maritime radio-medical services: the Singapore General Hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Fatimah; Anantharaman, Venkataraman

    2002-07-01

    Medical care for the sick and injured on a variety of sea-faring vessels throughout the world represents a challenging area of medical care. The scope is extremely broad and unique in terms of the problems encountered at sea, logistical difficulties in assessment and treatment of patients, as well as the provision of definitive care. The problems of sparse resources availability, great distances, isolation, communications, accessibility, and weather are also very real. In Singapore, radio-medical advice was first coordinated by the Port Health Authority. In 1980, the accident and emergency department at Singapore General Hospital took over this responsibility. This report analyzes 2,320 calls received over a period of 21 years (January 1980 to December 2000). It highlights the common consultations, modes of communications, treatment and management prescribed, training requirements, as well as the challenges for the future. PMID:12098185

  1. Vector Control and Surveillance Operations in the Republic of Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Minako Jen

    2013-01-01

    Singapore is known for its comprehensive vector control methods that keep mosquito populations at low levels in the urban, tropical, and green city-state. This report describes the measures taken by the National Environment Agency on the basis of observations of vector control and surveillance activities in residential areas, construction sites, and foreign worker quarters. The government-led active operations dealt not only with mosquito control but also social issues in urban residential buildings where people with varying preferences live, the responsibilities of the business sector, and the education of multi-cultural/lingual residents and foreign workers. The public health measures implemented in Singapore offer useful ideas to countries/cities that have not yet established vector control programs against mosquito-borne infectious diseases. PMID:23874140

  2. The potential for a controlled human infection platform in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Balasingam, Shobana; Horby, Peter; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    For over 100 years, controlled human infection (CHI) studies have been performed to advance the understanding of the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. This methodology has seen a resurgence, as it offers an efficient model for selecting the most promising agents for further development from available candidates. CHI studies are utilised to bridge safety and immunogenicity testing and phase II/III efficacy studies. However, as this platform is not currently utilised in Asia, opportunities to study therapeutics and vaccines for infections that are important in Asia are missed. This review examines the regulatory differences for CHI studies between countries and summarises other regulatory differences in clinical trials as a whole. We found that the regulations that would apply to CHI studies in Singapore closely mirror those in the United Kingdom, and conclude that the regulatory and ethical guidelines in Singapore are compatible with the conduct of CHI studies. PMID:25273928

  3. Gender Differences in Factors Associated With Anal Intercourse Among Heterosexual Adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ng, Junice Y S; Wong, Mee-Lian; Chan, Roy K W; Sen, Priya; Chio, Martin T W; Koh, David

    2015-08-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey, we examined the gender differences in prevalence of and factors associated with anal sex among adolescents attending the only public STI clinic in Singapore. Data were collected from 1035 sexually active adolescents aged 14 to 19 and analyzed using Poisson regression. Prevalence of anal intercourse was 28%, with significantly more females (32%) than males (23%) ever engaged in it. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with anal intercourse for both genders were oral sex and the nonuse of contraception at last sex. For males, anal intercourse was associated with younger age of sexual debut and greater perceived external control. Among females, it was associated with higher rebellious scores and lack of confidence to resist peer pressure to engage in sex. Consistent condom use for anal sex was 22% and 8% for males and females, respectively. STI prevention programs for adolescents should address anal sex, be gender-specific, and take into consideration individual personality characteristics. PMID:26241386

  4. Rights versus morality: online debate about decriminalization of gay sex in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Detenber, Benjamin H; Cenite, Mark; Zhou, Shuhua; Malik, Shelly; Neo, Rachel L

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative content analysis of 10,473 comments from two opposing online petitions related to the legal status of a section of the penal code in Singapore used to ban sex between men. Results indicate numerous significant differences in how the two sides discussed the law and its significance. In particular, they used different types of arguments to support their views and expressed different kinds of concerns over the potential impact of changing or maintaining the law. The patterns of language use seem to reflect distinctly different approaches to the debate and suggest the difficulty of finding common ground amid this contentious social issue, but they also reveal similarities to how Western cultures have framed the debate. PMID:24924998

  5. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in Singapore, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kun Lee; Eden, John-Sebastian; Oon, Lynette L E; White, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is the most common cause of sporadic and epidemic gastroenteritis, globally. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis in Singapore by classifying circulating NoV genotypes and genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) variants between September 2004 and February 2011. The temporal dominance and antigenic variation within the circulating epidemic NoV GII.4 variants was also examined, in order to compare the trends in Singapore to those observed globally during the same period. A total of 312 of 1,060 fecal specimens were positive for NoV RNA, using a quantitative RT-PCR. In a subset (125 of 312) of NoV positive samples, the 5' end of ORF2 (region C) of the GI or GII NoV genome was amplified and sequenced. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified GII.4 was the most commonly identified genotype representing 80.8% (101/125) of NoV sequenced in this study. The predominant GII.4 variants in circulation during the 2004-2011 epidemic periods were Hunter 2004 (2004-2005), Den Haag 2006b (2006-2009), and New Orleans 2009 (2009-2011). Amino acid variation within the P2 domain of the major capsid protein, VP1, was followed longitudinally within the GII.4 lineage. A constant turnover of variant-specific amino acid change was observed, particularly within the antigenic epitopes A, C and E. In conclusion, this study has characterized the NoV strains in circulation in Singapore between 2004 and 2011. The molecular epidemiology and persistence of GII.4 pandemic NoV lineages in Singapore was similar to trends seen globally, with a noted absence of the Asia 2003 variant. PMID:23868077

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus control in Singapore: moving forward.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Lynette A; Fisher, Dale A

    2008-10-01

    Singapore has a sophisticated healthcare system and is an important referral centre for Asia. Like much of the world, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is now endemic across its health system. MRSA infection has been associated with considerable attributable mortality, morbidity plus personal and public cost. Nosocomial infections are potentially preventable and need to be considered an unacceptable complication rather than a tolerable byproduct of healthcare. Failure to introduce long-term sustainable infection control initiatives is not an option for responsible clinical leaders and managers. Control of MRSA transmission in Singapore is achievable but we need to accept the challenge and acknowledge that it will take perhaps a decade. It requires implementation of many varied infection control measures to be rolled out sequentially and across all health services. Our ambition, in Singapore, should be for hospitals to achieve an inpatient prevalence of <1% MRSA colonised patients. Identified transmission of MRSA should be regarded as a serious breech. Successful control will require extraordinary collaboration, support, resources, accountability and consistency of effort. Currently, efforts are evolving significantly and today, we have a good opportunity to embark on this difficult journey. Implementing infection control initiatives successfully over the next few years will save lives in the future. PMID:19037524

  7. Hydrodynamic modeling of Singapore's coastal waters: Nesting and model accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, G. M. Jahid; van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Ooi, Seng Keat

    2016-01-01

    The tidal variation in Singapore's coastal waters is influenced by large-scale, complex tidal dynamics (by interaction of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea) as well as monsoon-driven low frequency variations, requiring a model with large spatial coverage. Close to the shores, the complex topography, influenced by headlands and small islands, requires a high resolution model to simulate tidal dynamics. This can be achieved through direct nesting or multi-scale nesting, involving multiple model grids. In this paper, we investigate the effect of grid resolution and multi-scale nesting on the tidal dynamics in Singapore's coastal waters, by comparing model results with observations using different statistical techniques. The results reveal that the intermediate-scale model is generally sufficiently accurate (equal to or better than the most refined model), but also that the most refined model is only more accurate when nested in the intermediate scale model (requiring multi-scale nesting). This latter is the result of the complex tidal dynamics around Singapore, where the dominantly diurnal tidal currents are decoupled from the semi-diurnal water level variations. Furthermore, different techniques to quantify model accuracy (harmonic analysis, basic statistics and more complex statistics) are inconsistent in determining which model is more accurate.

  8. Commuter exposure to aerosol pollution on public transport in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Norford, L.

    2013-12-01

    Personal exposure to aerosol pollutants in the transport microenvironment of Singapore has not been well documented. Studies from many cities suggest that brief periods of exposure to high concentrations of airborne pollutants may have significant health impacts. Thus, a large proportion of aerosol exposure may be experienced during daily commuting trips due to the proximity to traffic. A better understanding of the variability across transport modes is therefore needed to design transport policies that minimize commuters' exposure. In light of this, personal exposure measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, particle number (PN), black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH), and active surface area (SA) were conducted on a selected route in downtown Singapore. Portable and real-time monitoring instruments were carried onto three different modes of public transport (bus, taxi, subway) and by foot. Simultaneous measurements were taken at a nearby park to capture the background concentrations. Large variability was observed amongst the various transport modes investigated. For example, the particle number concentration was on average 1.5, 1.6, 0.8, and 2.2 times higher inside buses, taxis, subway and by foot, respectively, than at the background site. Based on the results, it is possible to come up with a ranking of the 'cleanest' transport mode for Singapore.

  9. Performance Analysis of Sleep Mode Operation in IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sangkyu; Son, Jung Je; Choi, Bong Dae

    We mathematically analyze the sleep mode operation of IEEE 802.16m. The sleep mode operation for downlink traffic is modeled as a 3-dimensional discrete time Markov chain. We obtain the average power consumption of a mobile station and the average delay of a message. Numerical results match simulations very well. Numerical results show that there is a tradeoff between power consumption and message delay. We find the optimal lengths of sleep cycle and close-down time that minimize the power consumption while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) constraint on message delay. The power consumption of the sleep mode in IEEE 802.16m is better than that of sleep modes in legacy IEEE 802.16e standard under the same delay bound.

  10. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs.