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Sample records for ife fusion test

  1. MULTI-IFE-A one-dimensional computer code for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2016-06-01

    The code MULTI-IFE is a numerical tool devoted to the study of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) microcapsules. It includes the relevant physics for the implosion and thermonuclear ignition and burning: hydrodynamics of two component plasmas (ions and electrons), three-dimensional laser light ray-tracing, thermal diffusion, multigroup radiation transport, deuterium-tritium burning, and alpha particle diffusion. The corresponding differential equations are discretized in spherical one-dimensional Lagrangian coordinates. Two typical application examples, a high gain laser driven capsule and a low gain radiation driven marginally igniting capsule are discussed. In addition to phenomena relevant for IFE, the code includes also components (planar and cylindrical geometries, transport coefficients at low temperature, explicit treatment of Maxwell's equations) that extend its range of applicability to laser-matter interaction at moderate intensities (<1016  W cm-2). The source code design has been kept simple and structured with the aim to encourage user's modifications for specialized purposes.

  2. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C. A.; Blanchard, W. R.; Kozub, T. A.; Aristova, M.; McGahan, C.; Natta, S.; Pagdon, K.; Zelenty, J.

    2010-01-14

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber

  3. IFE target fabrication and injection—achieving "believability"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, K. R.; Goodin, D. T.; Nobile, A.

    2001-05-01

    At the heart of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the incident driver energy beams. The "Target Factory" at an inertial fusion power plant must produce about 500,000 targets per day, fill them with deuterium-tritium fuel, cool them to cryogenic temperature, and layer the solid fuel into a symmetric and smooth shell inside the capsule. The target must then accurately be delivered to the target chamber center at a rate of about 5 Hz, with a precisely predicted target location. These fragile targets must survive injection into the target chamber without damage. While IFE power plant design studies have presented plausible scenarios for IFE target fabrication and injection, these issues have become "believability" issues for IFE. A credible pathway for development of accurate, economic and reliable IFE target fabrication and injection must be demonstrated before we can proceed with the next major step in the IFE Program, the construction of an IFE Integrated Research Experiment. General Atomics is designing, constructing, and testing an experimental Target Injection and Tracking System to develop the scientific understanding necessary for injection of IFE targets into a high temperature reaction chamber. This paper summarizes the requirements for IFE target fabrication and injection, reviews the results from the studies that predict success, discusses the development program now underway, and presents the current status of and results from that program.

  4. Diode-pumped solid state lasers (DPSSLs) for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W.F.

    1996-10-01

    The status of diode-pumped, transverse-gas-flow cooled, Yb-S-FAP slab lasers is reviewed. Recently acquired experimental performance data are combined with a cost/performance IFE driver design code to define a cost-effective development path for IFE DPSSL drivers. Specific design parameters are described for the Mercury 100J/10 Hz, 1 kW system (first in the development scenario).

  5. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  6. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffrary, A R; Abdel-Khalik, S; Kulcinski, G; Latkowski, J F; Najmabadi, F; Olson, C L; Peterson, P F; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-11-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including dry-wall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers. Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.

  7. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  8. Yb:YAG ceramic-based laser driver for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Copeland, Drew A.; Litt, Amardeep S.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a new class of laser amplifiers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) drivers based on a Yb:YAG ceramic disk in an edge-pumped configuration and cooled by a high-velocity gas flow. The Yb lasant offers very high efficiency and low waste heat. The ceramic host material has a thermal conductivity nearly 15-times higher than the traditionally used glass and it is producible in sizes suitable for a typical 10- to 20-kJ driver beam line. The combination of high lasant efficiency, low waste heat, edge-pumping, and excellent thermal conductivity of the host, enable operation at 10 to 20 Hz at over 20% wall plug efficiency while being comparably smaller and less costly than recently considered face-pumped alternative drivers using Nd:glass, Yb:S-FAP, and cryogenic Yb:YAG. Scalability of the laser driver over a broad range of sizes is presented.

  9. Systems modeling for laser IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Raffray, A. R.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    2006-06-01

    A systems model of a laser-driven IFE power plant is being developed to assist in design trade-offs and optimization. The focus to date has been on modeling the fusion chamber, blanket and power conversion system. A self-consistent model has been developed to determine key chamber and thermal cycle parameters (e.g., chamber radius, structure and coolant temperatures, cycle efficiency, etc.) as a function of the target yield and pulse repetition rate. Temperature constraints on the tungsten armor, ferritic steel wall, and structure/coolant interface are included in evaluating the potential design space. Results are presented for a lithium cooled first wall coupled with a Brayton power cycle. LLNL work performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by the University of California LLNL under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  10. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  11. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes > 1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa ("displacement-per-atom", the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  12. Transmutations in fusion test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1986-04-01

    Using an expanded nuclear data base, the transmutation of PCA, AMCR33 (a reduced activation austenitic steel), HT-9, Rafer2 (a reduced activation ferritic steel), V-15%Cr-5%Ti alloy, and SiAlON (a ceramic) were calculated for two positions in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), three positions in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and the first wall position of both the STARFIRE and MARS conceptual fusion reactors. The peripheral test (PTP) position, and to a lesser extent the radial beryllium (RB) position, of HFIR show significant transmutations which are often in the opposite direction to the transmutations in the fusion conceptual designs. The positions in FFTF, as well as the hafnium covered location in the HFIR RB position show relative minor transmutations.

  13. The role of the NIF in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1995-03-16

    Recent decisions by DOE to proceed with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the first half of the Induction Systems Linac Experiments (ILSE) can provide the scientific basis for inertial fusion ignition and high-repetition heavy-ion driver physics, respectively. Both are critical to Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). A conceptual design has been completed for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{micro}m-solid-state laser system, the NIF. The NIF will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security applications, and for IFE development. It will support science applications using high-power lasers. The demonstration of inertial fusion ignition and gain, along with the parallel demonstration of the feasibility of an efficient, high-repetition-rate driver, would provide the basis for a follow-on Engineering Test Facility (ETF) identified in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The ETF would provide an integrated testbed for the development and demonstration of the technologies needed for IFE power plants. In addition to target physics of ignition, the NIF will contribute important data on IFE target chamber issues, including neutron damage, activation, target debris clearing, operational experience in many areas prototypical to future IFE power plants, and an opportunity to provide tests of candidate low-cost IFE targets and injection systems. An overview of the NIF design and the target area environments relevant to conducting IFE experiments are described in Section 2. In providing this basic data for IFE, the NIF will provide confidence that an ETF can be successful in the integration of drivers, target chambers, and targets for IFE.

  14. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

  15. IFE14 and OSI Technologies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, R. H.; Macleod, G.

    2013-12-01

    The On-Site Inspection (OSI) regime is the final verification pillar of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. Unlike the International Monitoring System (IMS) and the International Data Centre (IDC) which are under interim operations during the CTBTO Preparatory Commission an OSI cannot occur until after entry into force of the treaty. The Preparatory Commission has been charged with developing the methodologies and the training curricula and determining the equipment required for conducting an OSI. An Integrated Field Exercise (IFE) of all the technologies and techniques following Treaty guidelines and structures is utilized to determine the progress being made by the Preparatory Commission in completing its OSI mandate. IFE14 will be conducted in a 1000 km2 area near the Dead Sea in Jordan next year. In order to adequately test the verification regimes the data utilized from the triggering event throughout the five weeks of the inspection must be scientifically credible and internally consistent so that the inspection team members performing the OSI remain immersed in the exercise and not distracted unrealistic or scientifically improbable data. This means the data simulation starts at the beginning with the triggering event(s) and carries on through the OSI techniques of visual observation including MSIR, measurement of seismic aftershocks, measurement of radioactivity fields, collection and analysis of environmental samples (solids, liquids, and gases, utilization of geophysical techniques: active seismic, resonance seismometry, gravimetry, magnetometry, and electrical conductivity measurements and lastly drilling to obtain radioactive samples. IFE14 will not utilize resonance seismometry or drilling to obtain radioactive samples for cost and time reasons but all other techniques will be utilized. A full understanding of the triggering event and the geologic and geophysical regime of the inspection area needs to be in place to ensure the scientifically credible

  16. Rugged Packaging for Damage Resistant Inertial Fusion Energy Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmack, Larry

    2003-11-17

    The development of practical fusion energy plants based on inertial confinement with ultraviolet laser beams requires durable, stable final optics that will withstand the harsh fusion environment. Aluminum-coated reflective surfaces are fragile, and require hard overcoatings resistant to contamination, with low optical losses at 248.4 nanometers for use with high-power KrF excimer lasers. This program addresses the definition of requirements for IFE optics protective coatings, the conceptual design of the required deposition equipment according to accepted contamination control principles, and the deposition and evaluation of diamondlike carbon (DLC) test coatings. DLC coatings deposited by Plasma Immersion Ion Processing were adherent and abrasion-resistant, but their UV optical losses must be further reduced to allow their use as protective coatings for IFE final optics. Deposition equipment for coating high-performance IFE final optics must be designed, constructed, and operated with contamination control as a high priority.

  17. The role of the National Ignition Facility in the development of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1996-06-01

    The authors have completed a conceptual design for a 1.8-MJ, 500-TW, 0.35-{mu}m solid-state laser system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), which will demonstrate inertial fusion ignition and gain for national security, energy, and science applications. The technical goal of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program as stated in the current ICF Five-Year Program Plan is {open_quotes}to produce pure fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 MJ, in support of three missions: (1) to play an essential role in accessing physics regimes of interest in nuclear weapon design...; (2) to provide an above-ground simulation capability for nuclear weapon effects...; and (3) to develop inertial fusion energy for civilian power production.{close_quotes} This article addresses the third goal-- the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE). This article reports a variety of potential contributions the NIF could make to the development of IFE, drawn from a nationally attended workshop held at the University of California at Berkeley in Feb, 1994. In addition to demonstrating fusion ignition as a fundamental basis for IFE, the findings of the workshop, are that the NIF could also provide important data for target physics and fabrication technology, for IFE target chamber phenomena such as materials responses to target emissions, and for fusion power technology-relevant tests.

  18. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of Inertial Fusion Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diazdelarubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, Robert E.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NIF will use a (ge) 1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF. Additionally, we believe it is feasible to inject up to four targets and engage them with the NIF laser by triggering the beams in groups of approximately 50 separated in time by approximately 0.1 s. Sub-ignition neutron yields would allow an indication of symmetry achieved in such proof-of-principle rep-rate experiments.

  19. Contributions of the National Ignition Facility to the development of inertial fusion energy. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Diaz De La Rubia, T.; Schrock, V.; Schultz, K.; Tokheim, R.; Abdou, M.; Bangerter, R.

    1994-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to construct the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to embark on a program to achieve ignition and modest gain in the laboratory early in the next century. The NM will use a {ge}1.8-MJ, 0.35-mm laser with 192 independent beams, a fifty-fold increase over the energy of the Nova laser. System performance analyses suggest yields as great as 20 MJ may be achievable. NIF will conduct more than 600 shots per year. The benefits of a micro-fusion capability in the laboratory include: Essential contributions to defense programs, resolution of important Inertial Fusion Energy issues, and unparalleled conditions of energy density for basic science and technology research. We have begun to consider the role the National Ignition Facility will fill in the development of Inertial Fusion Energy. While the achievement of ignition and gain speaks for itself in terms of its impact on developing IFE, we believe there are areas of IFE development, such as fusion power technology, IFE target design and fabrication, and understanding chamber dynamics, that would significantly benefit from NIF experiments. In the area of IFE target physics, ion targets will be designed using the NIF laser, and feasibility of high gain targets will be confirmed. Target chamber dynamics experiments will benefit from x-ray and debris energies that mimic in-IFE-chamber conditions. Fusion power technology will benefit from using single-shot neutron yields to measure spatial distribution of neutron heating, activation, and tritium breeding in relevant materials. IFE target systems will benefit from evaluating low-cost target fabrication techniques by testing such targets on NIF.

  20. Hybrid Al/SiC Composite Optics for IFE Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kowbel, W.; Tillack, M

    2005-04-15

    Inertial Fusion (IFE) optics presents a unique challenge. Ghoniem provides a mirror design for such an application. The surface has been chosen to be metallic, because dielectric materials exhibit great sensitivity to the effects of ionizing radiation. The leading high reflectivity candidate materials are aluminum, magnesium, silver, gold and copper. To select between these metals the following criteria were used:1) high reflectivity in the wavelength of interest2) effects of radiation on absorptivity3) surface temperature rise during the laser pulse4) thermal fatigue resistance5) radiation effects on surface deformation.

  1. IFE Final Optics and Chamber Dynamics Modeling and Experiments Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    F. Najmabadi; M. S. Tillack

    2006-01-11

    Our OFES-sponsored research on IFE technology originally focused on studies of grazing-incidence metal mirrors (GIMM's). After the addition of GIMM research to the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program, our OFES-sponsored research evolved to include laser propagation studies, surface material evolution in IFE wetted-wall chambers, and magnetic intervention. In 2003, the OFES IFE Technology program was terminated. We continued to expend resources on a no-cost extension in order to complete student research projects in an orderly way and to help us explore new research directions. Those explorations led to funding in the field of extreme ultraviolet lithography, which shares many issues in common with inertial fusion chambers, and the field of radiative properties of laser-produced plasma.

  2. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  3. Design of a fusion engineering test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The fusion Engineering Test Facility (ETF) is being designed to provide for engineering testing capability in a program leading to the demonstration of fusion as a viable energy option. It will combine power-reactor-type components and subsystems into an integrated tokamak system and provide a test bed to test blanket modules in a fusion environment. Because of the uncertainties in impurity control two basic designs are being developed: a design with a bundle divertor (Design 1) and one with a poloidal divertor (Design 2). The two designs are similar where possible, the latter having somewhat larger toroidal field (TF) coils to accommodate removal of the larger torus sectors required for the single-null poloidal divertor. Both designs have a major radius of 5.4 m, a minor radius of 1.3 m, and a D-shaped plasma with an elongation of 1.6. Ten TF coils are incorporated in both designs, producing a toroidal field of 5.5 T on-axis. The ohmic heating and equilibrium field (EF) coils supply sufficient volt-seconds to produce a flat-top burn of 100 s and a duty cycle of 135 s, including a start of 12 s, a burn termination of 10 s, and a pumpdown of 13 s. The total fusion power during burn is 750 MW, giving a neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m/sup 2/. In Design 1 of the poloidal field (PF) coils except the fast-response EF coils are located outside the FT coils and are superconducting. The fast-response coils are located inside the TF coil bore near the torus and are normal conducting so that they can be easily replaced.In Design 2 all of the PF coils are located outside the TF coils and are superconducting. Ignition is achieved with 60 MW of neutral beam injection at 150 keV. Five megawatts of radio frequency heating (electron cyclotron resonance heating) is used to assist in the startup and limit the breakdown requirement to 25 V.

  4. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  5. Decommissioning the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Spampinato, P.T.; Walton, G.R.

    1993-10-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) will complete its experimental lifetime with a series of deuterium-tritium pulses in 1994. As a result, the machine structures will become radioactive, and vacuum components will also be contaminated with tritium. Dose rate levels will range from less than 1 mr/h for external structures to hundreds of mr/h for the vacuum vessel. Hence, decommissioning operations will range from hands on activities to the use of remotely operated equipment. After 21 months of cool down, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) operations will commence and continue for approximately 15 months. The primary objective is to render the test cell complex re-usable for the next machine, the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). This paper presents an overview of decommissioning TFTR and discusses the D and D objectives.

  6. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-09-22

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets.

  7. Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; C. Gentile; R. Parsells; K. Rule; R. Strykowsky; M. Viola

    2003-10-28

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was operated from 1982 until 1997. The last several years included operations with mixtures of deuterium and tritium. In September 2002, the three year Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Project for TFTR was successfully completed. The need to deal with tritium contamination as well as activated materials led to the adaptation of many techniques from the maintenance work during TFTR operations to the D&D effort. In addition, techniques from the decommissioning of fission reactors were adapted to the D&D of TFTR and several new technologies, most notably the development of a diamond wire cutting process for complex metal structures, were developed. These techniques, along with a project management system that closely linked the field crews to the engineering staff who developed the techniques and procedures via a Work Control Center, resulted in a project that was completed safely, on time, and well below budget.

  8. Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

    1981-04-01

    One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

  9. Evaluation of Fluidized Beds for Mass Production of IFE Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Vermillion, B.A.; Brown, L.C.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Stephens, R.B.

    2005-01-15

    Of the building blocks of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) plant, target fabrication remains a significant credibility issue. For this reason, an extensive parametric study has been conducted on mass production of glow discharge polymer (GDP) shells in a vertical fluidized bed. Trans-2-butene was used as a reactant gas with hydrogen as a diluting and etching agent. Coating rates in the range of 1 to 2 {mu}m/h were demonstrated on batches of 30 shells where National Ignition Facility-quality surfaces were obtained for 3- to 5-{mu}m-thick coatings. Thick coatings up to 325 {mu}m were also demonstrated that are visually transparent, without void and stress fracture. A phenomenological understanding of the GDP growth mechanisms to guide future experiments was further established. Specifically, gas-phase precipitation and high-impact collisions were identified as the main surface-roughening mechanisms. The former produces dense cauliflower-like surface patterns that can be eliminated by adjusting the gas flow rates and the flow ratio. The latter produces isolated domelike surface defects that can be reduced by introducing concerted motion between the shells. By converting from a vertical to a horizontal configuration, fully transparent coatings were obtained on 350 shells. Collisions in a fluidized bed have been identified as the limiting factor in meeting IFE specifications, and a related-rotary kiln technique is recommended for scale-up.

  10. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  11. Test design description for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly (Fusion MOTA-2A): Volume 1A, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.E.

    1988-11-01

    This document encompasses the test requirements, hardware design, fabrication, and safety analysis for the Fusion Materials Open Test Assembly experiment for irradiation in FFTF Cycle 11 (Fusion MOTA-2A). Fusion MOTA is equally shared by the US Fusion Material (DOE), Japanese Fusion Materials (MONBUSHO), and BEATRIX-II (IEA) programs. In the interest of providing optimum use of the irradiation space in the Fusion MOTA-2A and LMR MOTA-1G, eight of the Fusion MOTA canisters will be placed in MOTA-1G and an equal number of LMR canisters placed in Fusion MOTA-2A (Powell/Doran 1988). This eliminates the need to process Fusion MOTA-2A through the IEM cell prior to insertion for FFTF Cycle 11A. The LMR MOTA design and safety analysis (Greenslade 1984) is the basis for much of this design and safety analysis report. This design description and safety analysis for the Fusion MOTA-2A is presented per the outline given in Chapter IV of the FTR User`s Guide (Taylor 1978). 35 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Magnetized Target Fusion Integrated Engineering Test Shot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intrator, T.; Sears, J.; Turchi, P. J.; Waganaar, W. J.; Weber, T.; Wurden, G. A.; Degnan, J. H.; Domonkos, M.; Grabowski, C.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W.; Gale, D.; Kostora, M.; Parker, J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Siemon, R. E.; Fuelling, S.; Bauer, B. S.; Lynn, A. G.; Roderick, N. F.

    2010-11-01

    The LANL & AFRL collaboration has carried out the first engineering shakedown demonstration of a Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) shot. We used a solid, cylinder aluminum flux compressor. The target plasma was created as a high density Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) with closed flux surfaces. After formation, the FRC was expelled to a compression region at 15km/sec. We show some initial data that characterize the target FRC, including some translation data from the Los Alamos FRC experiment FRXL and the FRCHX experiment at AFRL. Data from the implosion shot show that we achieved all our initial objectives. The solid liner realization of Magneto Inertial Fuson is only one of several magnetized, pulsed, fusion schemes that are being pursued.

  13. Parental Socio-Economic Status as Correlate of Child Labour in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elegbeleye, O. S.; Olasupo, M. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental socio-economic status and child labour practices in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed survey method to gather data from 200 parents which constituted the study population. Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test statistics were used for the data analyses. The outcome of the study…

  14. Neutron Dosimetry Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Lithium Blanket Module

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Harker, Y.D.; Anderl, R.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) program is a first-of-kind neutronics experiment involving a toroidal fusion neutron source. Qualification experiments have been conducted to develop primary measurement techniques and verify dosimetry materials that will be used to characterize the neutron environment inside and on the surfaces of the LBM. The deuterium-tritium simulation experiments utilizing a 14-MeV neutron generator and a fusion blanket mockup facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Results and discussions are presented that identify the quality and limitations of the measured integral reaction data, including the minimum fluence requirement for the TFTR experiment.

  15. Sexual assault in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Badejoko, Olusegun Olalekan; Anyabolu, Henry Chineme; Badejoko, Bolaji Olusola; Ijarotimi, Adebimpe Omotade; Kuti, Oluwafemi; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa Aderonke

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual assault (SA) is a shattering malevolence against women. This study determined the burden, periodicity, presentation and management of SA in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 76 SA survivors managed over a 5-year period (2007-2011) in Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals complex (OAUTHC), Ile-Ife. Results: Sexual assault accounted for 0.69% of all female and 5.2% of all gynaecological emergencies in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. The survivors’ ages ranged from 4 to 50 years (mean = 17.7 ± 8.8years) and adolescents made up for 48%. The peak prevalence of SA was in February and December and among adults and under-16-year-old survivors, respectively. Daytime and weekday SA were significantly more common among the under-16-year-old survivors (P = 0.008). Majority of the survivors (62%) knew their assailant(s). Neighbours were the commonest perpetrators identified (28.2%) and the assailants’ house was the commonest location (39.4%). Weapons were involved in 29.6% of cases and various injuries were identified in 28.2% of the survivors. Hospital presentation was within 24 hours in majority (76.1%) of the survivors, but rape kit examinations were not performed as the kits were not available. Although appropriate medical management was routinely commenced, only 12.7% of survivors returned for follow-up. Conclusions: Seasonal and diurnal patterns exist in the prevalence of SA in Ile-Ife and most survivors that reported in the hospital presented early. Rape kit examinations were, however, not executed, due to non-availability. Personnel training, protocol development, provision of rape kits and free treatment of SA survivors are, therefore, recommended. Public enlightenment on preventive strategies based on the observed periodicity and age patterns is also suggested. PMID:25013260

  16. Vanishing penis syndrome: the Ife experience.

    PubMed

    Badejo, O A

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-five cases of vanishing penis syndrome as a rare cause of mechanical impotence seen over a nine year period in Ile-Ife are presented. Local aetiological factors some distinct from those earlier recorded in literature are highlighted. The prominent role which surgery can play in the management of this form of physical and mental handicap, loss of sexual function let alone becoming a social out cast is stressed. PMID:2633111

  17. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Briggs, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable {open_quotes}Integrated Research Experiment{close_quotes} (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, {open_quotes}the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenology{close_quotes}. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well.

  18. Experimental Test of the Polarization Persistence in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didelez, J. P.; Deutsch, C.; Fujiwara, M.; Nakai, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2016-03-01

    The complete deuteron and triton polarization in the DT fusion increases the reactivity by 50%. For Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), due to the dynamics of the fusion reaction process, the fusion rate could even be further increased. It has been argued that the polarization would survive as well in magnetic as in inertial confinements. Recently, we have proposed an experiment to test the persistence of the polarization in a fusion process, using a powerful laser hitting a polarized HD target.The polarized deuterons heated in the plasma induced by the laser can fuse. The corresponding reaction is: D + D → 3He + n. The angular distribution of the emitted neutrons and the change in the corresponding total cross section are signatures to estimate the polarization persistency. A proposal to test the persistence of the polarization in ICF has been accepted at ILE: the POLAF project (POlarization in LAser Fusion Process). It uses the polarized HD targets produced at RCNP and the powerful ILE lasers, as well as the neutron detectors existing there. Both institutions are on the same campus at Osaka University. The description of the POLAF experiment and of the corresponding set-up is given.

  19. Cryogenic system for the mirror fusion test facility

    SciTech Connect

    VanSant, J.H.; Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.

    1980-02-26

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF), currently being constructed at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, has large superconducting magnets, cryopanels, and supporting cryogenic equipment that will comprise one of the world's largest liquid helium (LHe) systems. The facility will provide mirror magnetic confinement for experimental fusion plasmas that will be approximately the same physical size as if in a conceptual fusion reactor. The cryogenic system typifies the magnitude and makeup of systems that will be used in future magnetic fusion reactors. Here we describe the LHe cryopumping and magnet systems. Principal components include a 3300 W helium refrigerator, 30,000 L LHe storage, a 1.5 MW (2000 hp) refrigerator compressor, 1100 m/sup 2/ of cryopanels, and a 420 MJ superconducting magnet system. Design features, method of operation, thermal protection, and helium recovery operations are discussed.

  20. The prospect for fusion energy with light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlhorn, T.A.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.

    1998-09-01

    Intense ion beams may be the best option for an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) driver. While light ions may be the long-term pulsed power approach to IFE, the current economic climate is such that there is no urgency in developing fusion energy sources. Research on light ion beams at Sandia will be suspended at the end of this fiscal year in favor of z-pinches studying ICF target physics, high yield fusion, and stewardship issues. The authors document the status of light ion research and the understanding of the feasibility of scaling light ions to IFE.

  1. Status of the irradiation test vehicle for testing fusion materials in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.; Palmer, A.J.; Ingram, F.W.; Wiffen, F.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of the irradiation test vehicle (ITV) for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) has been completed. The main application for the ITV is irradiation testing of candidate fusion structural materials, including vanadium-base alloys, silicon carbide composites, and low-activation steels. Construction of the vehicle is underway at the Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO). Dummy test trains are being built for system checkout and fine-tuning. Reactor insertion of the ITV with the dummy test trains is scheduled for fall 1998. Barring unexpected difficulties, the ITV will be available for experiments in early 1999.

  2. Tritium experience in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.; Hosea, J.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Brooks, J.N.; Hogan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Tritium management is a key enabling element in fusion technology. Tritium fuel was used in 3.5 years of successful deuterium-tritium (D-T) operations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The D-T campaign enabled TFTR to explore the transport, alpha physics, and MHD stability of a reactor core. It also provided experience with tritium retention and removal that highlighted the importance of these issues in future D-T machines. In this paper, the authors summarize the tritium retention and removal experience in TFTR and its implications for future reactors.

  3. Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) Concept for Z-Pinch IFE*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, C. L.; Slutz, S. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Morrow, C. W.; Kammer, D. C.; Fatenejad, M.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; de Groot, J. S.; Peterson, P. F.

    2003-10-01

    The Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) concept for IFE uses a recyclable material for the magnetically-insulated transmission line that connects the pulsed power accelerator to the z-pinch fusion target. The RTL may be made of frozen coolant (e.g., Flibe) or a material that is easily separable from the coolant (e.g., low activation ferritic steel). Initial experiments on Saturn at the 10 MA level have already shown excellent electrical turn-on for several candidate RTL materials, and demonstrated high electrical conductivities for thin low-mass RTLs. The present RTL baseline is a 50 kg ferritic steel RTL operating in a 10-20 Torr background chamber pressure. Initial results of investigations are presented on the RTL structural strength (buckling analysis); post-shot RTL formation of schrapnel/plasma; vacuum and electrical RTL connections to the power feed; post-shot effects up the RTL (EMP, schrapnel, etc.); activation and waste stream analysis; study of mechanical properties of foam Flibe; handling of sheer mass of RTLs (one-day storage supply, etc.); and RTL manufacturing and recycling system design.

  4. Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    E. Perry; J. Chrzanowski; K. Rule; M. Viola; M. Williams; R. Strykowsky

    1999-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the TFTR is scheduled to occur over a period of three years beginning in October 1999. This is not a typical Department of Energy D and D Project where a facility is isolated and cleaned up by ''bulldozing'' all facility and hardware systems to a greenfield condition. The mission of TFTR D and D is to: (a) surgically remove items which can be re-used within the DOE complex, (b) remove tritium contaminated and activated systems for disposal, (c) clear the test cell of hardware for future reuse, (d) reclassify the D-site complex as a non-nuclear facility as defined in DOE Order 420.1 (Facility Safety) and (e) provide data on the D and D of a large magnetic fusion facility. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The record-breaking deuterium-tritium experiments performed on TFTR resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 75 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size and shape of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling.

  5. Possible approaches to fast quality control of IFE targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koresheva, E. R.; Nikitenko, A. I.; Aleksandrova, I. V.; Bazdenkov, S. V.; Belolipetskiy, A. A.; Chtcherbakov, V. I.; Osipov, I. E.

    2006-11-01

    In recent years, research into the development of reliable methods and techniques for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets has been carried out very actively. This is motivated by the need to provide the means for precise and accurate knowledge of cryogenic target parameters. On the other hand, particular emphasis should be paid to the fact that fuelling of a commercial power plant requires ~6 targets each second. This indicates that the development of fast quality control techniques is of critical importance as well. Therefore, in this report we discuss the issues underlying the construction of different algorithms for characterization and quality control of ICF/IFE targets. Among them are: (a) algorithm banks and their structure, (b) algorithm testing, (c) target reconstruction experiments. The algorithm bank incorporates the algorithms for two stages of target production: the stage of fuel layering technique development (motionless target) and the stage of cryogenic target delivery (injected target). In the first case an inverse algorithm for individual target characterization (3D target reconstruction) and two threshold algorithms for fast control of target quality are presented. They are based on tomographic information processing methods. Experimentally, tomographic data acquisition is carried out by a hundred projections microtomograph. The spatial resolution of the optical system of the microtomograph is 1 µm for 490 nm wavelength, the accuracy of target angular positioning is ±1.5-2.5 min. In the second case we describe the algorithm based on Fourier transform holography for ultra fast target characterization during its injection. The performed computer experiments have demonstrated much promise of this approach in the following directions: recognition of the target imperfections in both low- and high- harmonics; quality control of both a single target and a target batch; simultaneous control of both an injected target quality and its

  6. Beryllium pressure vessels for creep tests in magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neef, W.S.

    1990-07-20

    Beryllium has interesting applications in magnetic fusion experimental machines and future power-producing fusion reactors. Chief among the properties of beryllium that make these applications possible is its ability to act as a neutron multiplier, thereby increasing the tritium breeding ability of energy conversion blankets. Another property, the behavior of beryllium in a 14-MeV neutron environment, has not been fully investigated, nor has the creep behavior of beryllium been studied in an energetic neutron flux at thermodynamically interesting temperatures. This small beryllium pressure vessel could be charged with gas to test pressures around 3, 000 psi to produce stress in the metal of 15,000 to 20,000 psi. Such stress levels are typical of those that might be reached in fusion blanket applications of beryllium. After contacting R. Powell at HEDL about including some of the pressure vessels in future test programs, we sent one sample pressure vessel with a pressurizing tube attached (Fig. 1) for burst tests so the quality of the diffusion bond joints could be evaluated. The gas used was helium. Unfortunately, budget restrictions did not permit us to proceed in the creep test program. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the lessons learned to date, including photographs of the test pressure vessel that show the tooling necessary to satisfactorily produce the diffusion bonds. This document can serve as a starting point for those engineers who resume this task when funds become available.

  7. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Wayne R.

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  8. Fusion materials irradiation test facility test-cell instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, J. L.; Burke, R. J.

    1982-05-01

    Many of the facility instrumentation components and systems currently under development, though specifically designed for FMIT purposes, are similar to those useful for fusion reactors. Various ceramic-insulated signal-cable components are being evaluated for 14-MeV neutron tolerance. Thermocouples are shown to decalibrate in high energy fields. Nondestructive optical viewing of deuteron-induced residual gas flow is planned for beam profiling in real space and phase space. Various optics were irradiated to 10(18) n/cm(2) at 14 MeV with good results. Feasibility of neutron and gamma field imaging was demonstrated using pinhole collimator and microchannel plate devices. Infrared thermography and optical monitoring of the target surface is being investigated. Considerable experience on the compatibility of optical and insulator materials with (highly reactive) lithium was obtained.

  9. Model year 2010 Ford Fusion Level-1 testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, E.; Bocci, D.; Duoba, M.; Lohse-Busch, H.; Energy Systems

    2010-11-23

    As a part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), a model year 2010 Ford Fusion was procured by eTec (Phoenix, AZ) and sent to ANL's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility for the purposes of vehicle-level testing in support of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. Data was acquired during testing using non-intrusive sensors, vehicle network information, and facilities equipment (emissions and dynamometer). Standard drive cycles, performance cycles, steady-state cycles, and A/C usage cycles were conducted. Much of this data is openly available for download in ANL's Downloadable Dynamometer Database. The major results are shown in this report. Given the benchmark nature of this assessment, the majority of the testing was done over standard regulatory cycles and sought to obtain a general overview of how the vehicle performs. These cycles include the US FTP cycle (Urban) and Highway Fuel Economy Test cycle as well as the US06, a more aggressive supplemental regulatory cycle. Data collection for this testing was kept at a fairly high level and includes emissions and fuel measurements from an exhaust emissions bench, high-voltage and accessory current/voltage from a DC power analyzer, and CAN bus data such as engine speed, engine load, and electric machine operation. The following sections will seek to explain some of the basic operating characteristics of the MY2010 Fusion and provide insight into unique features of its operation and design.

  10. Use of the National Ignition Facility for the development of inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, M.; Logan, G.; Anderson, A.; Delarubiadiaz, T.

    1994-06-01

    The primary purpose of the workshop was to gather input from the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) laboratories, private industry, and universities on the potential use of the NIF to conduct experiments in support of the development of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE). To accomplish this, we asked over 60 workshop participants to identify key credibility and development issues for IFE in four areas: Target Physics --Issues related to the design and performance of targets for IFE; Chamber Dynamics -- Issues in IFE chambers resulting from the deposition of x-rays and debris; Inertial Fusion Power Technology -- Issues for energy conversion, tritium breeding and processing, and radiation shielding; interactions of neutrons with materials; and chamber design; Target System -- Issues related to automated, high-production-rate manufacture of low-cost targets for IFE, target handling and transport, target injection, tracking, and beam pointing. These topics are discussed in this report.

  11. Diamond Wire Cutting of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Robert Parsells

    2003-01-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 MeV neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies, while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the technology was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. Ten complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D (Decontamination and Decommissioning) activity.

  12. DIAMOND WIRE CUTTING OF THE TOKAMAK FUSION TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith; Perry, Erik; Parsells, Robert

    2003-02-27

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a-kind, tritium-fueled fusion research reactor that ceased operation in April 1997. As a result, decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The 100 cubic meter volume of the donut-shaped reactor makes it the second largest fusion reactor in the world. The deuterium-tritium experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Engineers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) decided to investigate an alternate, innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR vacuum vessel: diamond wire cutting technology. In August 1999, this technology was successfully demonstrated and evaluated on vacuum vessel surrogates. Subsequently, the techno logy was improved and redesigned for the actual cutting of the vacuum vessel. 10 complete cuts were performed in a 6-month period to complete the removal of this unprecedented type of D&D activity.

  13. The Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) for OSI - Experiences from IFE14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Sick, Benjamin; Häge, Martin; Blake, Thomas; Labak, Peter; Joswig, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    An on-site inspection (OSI) is the third of four elements of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The sole purpose of an OSI is to confirm whether a nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the treaty and to gather any facts which might assist in identifying any possible violator. It thus constitutes the final verification measure under the CTBT if all other available measures are not able to confirm the nature of a suspicious event. The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) carried out the Integrated Field Exercise 2014 (IFE14) in the Dead Sea Area of Jordan from 3 November to 9. December 2014. It was a fictitious OSI whose aim was to test the inspection capabilities in an integrated manner. The technologies allowed during an OSI are listed in the Treaty. The aim of the Seismic Aftershock Monitoring System (SAMS) is to detect and localize aftershocks of low magnitudes of the triggering event or collapses of underground cavities. The locations of these events are expected in the vicinity of a possible previous explosion and help to narrow down the search area within an inspection area (IA) of an OSI. The success of SAMS depends on the main elements, hardware, software, deployment strategy, the search logic and not least the effective use of personnel. All elements of SAMS were tested and improved during the Built-Up Exercises (BUE) which took place in Austria and Hungary. IFE14 provided more realistic climatic and hazardous terrain conditions with limited resources. Significant variations in topography of the IA of IFE14 in the mountainous Dead Sea Area of Jordan led to considerable challenges which were not expected from experiences encountered during BUE. The SAMS uses mini arrays with an aperture of about 100 meters and with a total of 4 elements. The station network deployed during IFE14 and results of the data analysis will be presented. Possible aftershocks of

  14. Seismic analysis of the mirror fusion test facility shielding vault

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrielsen, B.L.; Tsai, K.

    1981-04-01

    This report presents a seismic analysis of the vault in Building 431 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which houses the mirror Fusion Test Facility. The shielding vault structure is approximately 120 ft long by 80 ft wide and is constructed of concrete blocks approximately 7 x 7 x 7 ft. The north and south walls are approximately 53 ft high and the east wall is approximately 29 ft high. These walls are supported on a monolithic concrete foundation that surrounds a 21-ft deep open pit. Since the 53-ft walls appeared to present the greatest seismic problem they were the first investigated.

  15. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  16. Conceptual Engineering Method for Attenuating He Ion Interactions on First Wall Components in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Employing a Low-Pressure Noble Gas

    SciTech Connect

    C.A.Gentile, W.R.Blanchard, T.Kozub, C.Priniski, I.Zatz, S.Obenschain

    2009-09-21

    It has been shown that post detonation energetic helium ions can drastically reduce the useful life of the (dry) first wall of an IFE reactor due to the accumulation of implanted helium. For the purpose of attenuating energetic helium ions from interacting with first wall components in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber, several concepts have been advanced. These include magnetic intervention (MI), deployment of a dynamically moving first wall, use of a sacrificial shroud, designing the target chamber large enough to mitigate the damage caused by He ions on the target chamber wall, and the use of a low pressure noble gas resident in the target chamber during pulse power operations. It is proposed that employing a low-pressure (~ 1 torr equivalent) noble gas in the target chamber will thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall. The principle benefit of this concept is the simplicity of the design and the utilization of (modified) existing technologies for pumping and processing the noble ambient gas. Although the gas load in the system would be increased over other proposed methods, the use of a "gas shield" may provide a cost effective method of greatly extending the first wall of the target chamber. An engineering study has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering metmethods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the FTF.

  17. Modeling Laser Effects on the Final Optics in Simulated IFE Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nasr Ghoniem

    2004-08-14

    When laser light interacts with a material's surface, photons rapidly heat the electronic system, resulting in very fast energy transfer to the underlying atomic crystal structure. The intense rate of energy deposition in the shallow sub-surface layer creates atomic defects, which alter the optical characteristics of the surface itself. In addition, the small fraction of energy absorbed in the mirror leads to its global deformation by thermal and gravity loads (especially for large surface area mirrors). The aim of this research was to model the deformation of mirror surfaces at multiple length and time scales for applications in advanced Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) systems. The goal is to control micro- and macro-deformations by material system and structural design. A parallel experimental program at UCSD has been set up to validate the modeling efforts. The main objective of the research program was to develop computer models and simulations for Laser-Induced Damage (LID) in reflective and transmissive final optical elements in IFE laser-based systems. A range of materials and material concepts were investigated and verified by experiments at UCSD. Four different classes of materials were considered: (1) High-reflectivity FCC metals (e.g. Cu, Au, Ag, and Al), (2) BCC metals (e.g. Mo, Ta and W), (3) Advanced material concepts (e.g. functionally graded material systems, amorphous coatings, and layered structures), and (4) Transmissive dielectrics (e.g. fused SiO2). In this report, we give a summary of the three-year project, followed by details in three areas: (1) Characterization of laser-induced damage; (2) Theory development for LIDT; and (3) Design of IFE reflective laser mirrors.

  18. Statistic Tests Aided Multi-Source dem Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, C. Y.; Tsay, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Since the land surface has been changing naturally or manually, DEMs have to be updated continually to satisfy applications using the latest DEM at present. However, the cost of wide-area DEM production is too high. DEMs, which cover the same area but have different quality, grid sizes, generation time or production methods, are called as multi-source DEMs. It provides a solution to fuse multi-source DEMs for low cost DEM updating. The coverage of DEM has to be classified according to slope and visibility in advance, because the precisions of DEM grid points in different areas with different slopes and visibilities are not the same. Next, difference DEM (dDEM) is computed by subtracting two DEMs. It is assumed that dDEM, which only contains random error, obeys normal distribution. Therefore, student test is implemented for blunder detection and three kinds of rejected grid points are generated. First kind of rejected grid points is blunder points and has to be eliminated. Another one is the ones in change areas, where the latest data are regarded as their fusion result. Moreover, the DEM grid points of type I error are correct data and have to be reserved for fusion. The experiment result shows that using DEMs with terrain classification can obtain better blunder detection result. A proper setting of significant levels (α) can detect real blunders without creating too many type I errors. Weighting averaging is chosen as DEM fusion algorithm. The priori precisions estimated by our national DEM production guideline are applied to define weights. Fisher's test is implemented to prove that the priori precisions correspond to the RMSEs of blunder detection result.

  19. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well asmore » to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.« less

  20. Scientific and technological advancements in inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.

    2013-09-26

    Scientific advancements in inertial fusion energy (IFE) were reported on at the IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, October 2012. Results presented transect the different ways to assemble the fuel, different scenarios for igniting the fuel, and progress in IFE technologies. The achievements of the National Ignition Campaign within the USA, using the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to indirectly drive laser fusion, have found beneficial the achievements in other IFE arenas such as directly driven laser fusion and target fabrication. Moreover, the successes at NIF have pay-off to alternative scenarios such as fast ignition, shock ignition, and heavy-ion fusion as well as to directly driven laser fusion. As a result, this synergy is summarized here, and future scientific studies are detailed.

  1. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S

  2. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

  3. Vacuum vessel for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gerich, J.W.

    1986-03-10

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy gave the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory approval to design and build a tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to support the goals of the National Mirror Program. We designed the MFTF-B vacuum vessel both to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum environment and to structurally support the 42 superconducting magnets plus auxiliary internal and external equipment. During our design work, we made extensive use of both simple and complex computer models to arrive at a cost-effective final configuration. As part of this work, we conducted a unique dynamic analysis to study the interaction of the 32,000-tonne concrete-shielding vault with the 2850-tonne vacuum vessel system. To maintain a vacuum of 2 x 10/sup -8/ torr during the physics experiments inside the vessel, we designed a vacuum pumping system of enormous capacity. The vacuum vessel (4200-m/sup 3/ internal volume) has been fabricated and erected, and acceptance tests have been completed at the Livermore site. The rest of the machine has been assembled, and individual systems have been successfully checked. On October 1, 1985, we began a series of integrated engineering tests to verify the operation of all components as a complete system.

  4. Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  5. Initial testing of the tritium systems at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Sissingh, R.A.P.; Gentile, C.A.; Rossmassler, R.L.; Walters, R.T.; Voorhees, D.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton will start its D-T experiments in late 1993, introducing and operating the tokamak with tritium in order to begin the study of burning plasma physics in D-T. Trace tritium injection experiments, using small amounts of tritium will begin in the fall of 1993. In preparation for these experiments, a series of tests with low concentrations of tritium inn deuterium have been performed as an initial qualification of the tritium systems. These tests began in April 1993. This paper describes the initial testing of the equipment in the TFTR tritium facility.

  6. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  7. Application of reliability analysis method to fusion component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The term reliability here implies that a component satisfies a set of performance criteria while under specified conditions of use over a specified period of time. For fusion nuclear technology, the reliability goal to be pursued is the development of a mean time between failures (MTBF) for a component which is longer than its lifetime goal. While the component lifetime is mainly determined by the fluence limitation (i.e., damage level) which leads to performance degradation or failure, the MTBF represents an arithmetic average life of all units in a population. One method of assessing the reliability goal involves determining component availability needs to meet the goal plant availability, defining a test-analyze-fix development program to improve component reliability, and quantifying both test times and the number of test articles that would be required to ensure that a specified target MTBF is met. Statistically, constant failure rates and exponential life distributions are assumed for analyses and blanket component development is used as an example. However, as data are collected the probability distribution of the parameter of interest can be updated in a Bayesian fashion. The nuclear component testing program will be structured such that reliability requirements for DEMO can be achieved. The program shall not exclude the practice of a good design (such as reducing the complexity of the system to the minimum essential for the required operation), the execution of high quality manufacturing and inspection processes, and the implication of quality assurance and control for component development. In fact, the assurance of a high quality testing/development program is essential so that there is no question left for reliability.

  8. Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Abbott, R

    2006-09-19

    This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce recycling and remanufacturing costs and power needs. See Section 4 and Appendix B. (3) Description of potential figures of merit (FOMs) for actinide transmutation technologies and a discussion of how these FOMs apply and can be used in the ongoing evaluation of the Z-pinch actinide burner, referred to as the In-Zinerator. See Section 5. (4) A critique of, and suggested improvements to, the In-Zinerator chamber design in response to the SNL design team's request for feedback on its preliminary design. This is covered in Section 6.

  9. Development and testing ov danadium alloys for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    V base alloys have advantages for fusion reactor first-wall and blanket structure. To screen candidate alloys and optimize a V-base alloy, physical and mechanical properties of V-Ti, V-Cr-Ti, and V-Ti- Si alloys were studied before and after irradiation in Li environment in fast fission reactors. V-4Cr-4Ti containing 500-1000 wppM Si and <1000 wppM O+N+C was investigated as the most promising alloy, and more testing is being done. Major results of the work are presented in this paper. The reference V-4Cr-4Ti had the most attractive combination of the mechanical and physical properties that are prerequisite for first-wall and blanket structures: good thermal creep, good tensile strength/ductility, high impact energy, excellent resistance to swelling, and very low ductile-brittle transition temperature before and after irradiation. The alloy was highly resistant to irradiation-induced embrittlement in Li at 420-600 C, and the effects of dynamically charged He on swelling and mechanical properties were insignificant. However, several important issues remain unresolved: welding, low-temperature irradiation, He effect at high dose and high He concentration, irradiation creep, and irradiation performance in air or He. Initial results of investigation of some of these issues are also given.

  10. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  11. Distributed Hypothesis Testing With Social Learning and Symmetric Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Joong Bum; Goyal, Vivek K.

    2014-12-01

    We study the utility of social learning in a distributed detection model with agents sharing the same goal: a collective decision that optimizes an agreed upon criterion. We show that social learning is helpful in some cases but is provably futile (and thus essentially a distraction) in other cases. Specifically, we consider Bayesian binary hypothesis testing performed by a distributed detection and fusion system, where all decision-making agents have binary votes that carry equal weight. Decision-making agents in the team sequentially make local decisions based on their own private signals and all precedent local decisions. It is shown that the optimal decision rule is not affected by precedent local decisions when all agents observe conditionally independent and identically distributed private signals. Perfect Bayesian reasoning will cancel out all effects of social learning. When the agents observe private signals with different signal-to-noise ratios, social learning is again futile if the team decision is only approved by unanimity. Otherwise, social learning can strictly improve the team performance. Furthermore, the order in which agents make their decisions affects the team decision.

  12. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ``drive`` inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  13. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S. ); Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H. (Lawrence Liver

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  14. Neoclassical Simulations of Fusion Alpha Particles in Pellet Charge Exchange Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Batha, S.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Levinton, F.M.; Redi, M.H.; et al

    1999-02-01

    Neoclassical simulations of alpha particle density profiles in high fusion power plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1577] are found to be in good agreement with measurements of the alpha distribution function made with a sensitive active neutral particle diagnostic. The calculations are carried out in Hamiltonian magnetic coordinates with a fast, particle-following Monte Carlo code which includes the neoclassical transport processes, a recent first-principles model for stochastic ripple loss and collisional effects. New global loss and confinement domain calculations allow an estimate of the actual alpha particle densities measured with the pellet charge exchange diagnostic.

  15. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.; Chan, A.A.; England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and /sup 3/He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling.

  16. Grand challenges of inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuckolls, J. H.

    2010-08-01

    As soon as practical, Earth's low-cost, abundant, environmentally attractive fusion energy resources should be applied to the urgent global challenges of climate change, energy supply, economic growth, and the developing world. A National Ignition Campaign is under way at the recently completed National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to ignite high-gain inertial fusion targets in the 2010-2012 time frame. Achieving ignition on NIF could be the catalyst for national and global leaders to support the development of inertial fusion energy (IFE) to meet the future's worldwide electric power demand. With sustained, high-priority funding could practical IFE be possible by the 2020 timeframe? The answer lies in how well can the community address and solve technical challenges in four key areas: achieving ignition, producing advanced targets and drivers, creating a practical fusion engine, and developing economical fusion power plants.

  17. Intelligent Front-end Electronics for Silicon photodetectors (IFES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerzopf, Clemens; Gruber, Lukas; Suzuki, Ken; Zmeskal, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard

    2016-05-01

    While high channel density can be easily achieved for big experiments using custom made microchips, providing something similar for small and medium size experiments imposes a challenge. Within this work we describe a novel and cost effective solution to operate silicon photodetectors such as silicon photo multipliers (SiPM). The IFES modules provide the bias voltage for the detectors, a leading edge discriminator featuring time over threshold and a differential amplifier, all on one printed circuit board. We demonstrate under realistic conditions that the module is usable for high resolution timing measurements exploiting both charge and time information. Furthermore we show that the modules can be easily used in larger detector arrays. All in all this confirms that the IFES modules are a viable option for a broad range of experiments if cost-effectiveness and small form factor are required.

  18. Nuclear Design Considerations for Z-IFE Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Schmitt, R C; Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S

    2005-02-02

    Z-pinch driven IFE (Z-IFE) requires the design of a repetitive target insertion system that allows coupling of the pulsed power to the target with adequate standoff, and a chamber that can withstand blast and radiation effects from large yield targets. The present strategy for Z-IFE is to use high yield targets ({approx}2-3 GJ/shot), low repetition rate per chamber ({approx}0.1 Hz), and 10 chambers per power plant. In this study, we propose an alternative power plant configuration that uses very high yield targets (20 GJ/shot) in a single chamber operating at 0.1 Hz. A thick-liquid-wall chamber is proposed to absorb the target emission (x-rays, debris and neutrons) and mitigate the blast effects on the chamber wall. The target is attached to the end of a conical shaped Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) made from a solid coolant (e.g., frozen flibe), or a material that is easily separable from the coolant (e.g., steel). The RTL/target assembly is inserted through a single opening at the top of the chamber for each shot. This study looks at the RTL material choice from a safety and environmental point of view. Materials were assessed according to waste disposal rating (WDR) and contact dose rate (CDR). Neutronics calculations, using the TART2002 Monte Carlo code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), were performed for the RTL and Z-IFE chamber, and key results reported here.

  19. Inertial Confinement Fusion Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory:. The National Ignition Facility, Inertial Fusion Energy, 100-1000 TW Lasers, and the Fast Igniter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard Lowdermilk, W.

    The ultimate goal of worldwide research in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is to develop fusion as an inexhaustible, economic, environmentally safe source of electric power. Following nearly thirty years of laboratory and underground fusion experiments, the next step toward this goal is to demonstrate ignition and propagating burn of fusion fuel in the laboratory. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project is being constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for just this purpose. NIF will use advanced Nd-glass laser technology to deliver 1.8 MJ of 0.35 μm laser light in a shaped pulse, several nanoseconds in duration, achieving a peak power of 500 TW. A national community of U.S. laboratories is participating in this project, now in its final design phase. France and the United Kingdom are collaborating on development of required technology under bilateral agreements with the US. This paper presents key aspects of the laser design, and descriptions of principal laser and optical components. Follow-on development of lasers to meet the demands of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is reviewed. In parallel with the NIF Project and IFE developments, work is proceeding on ultrashort pulse lasers with peak power in the range of 100-1000 TW. A beamline on the Nova laser at LLNL recently delivered nearly 600 J of 1 μm light in a 0.5 ps duration pulse, for a peak power in excess of a petawatt (1015 W). This beamline, with advanced adaptive optics, will be capable of focused intensities in excess of 1021 W/cm2. Its primary purpose will be to test technological and scientific aspects of an alternate ignition concept, called the "Fast Igniter", that has the potential to produce higher fusion gain than conventional ICF.

  20. Neoclassical simulations of fusion alpha particles in pellet charge exchange experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Batha, S.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Levinton, F.M.; McCune, D.C.; Medley, S.S.; Petrov, M.P.; von Goeler, S.; White, R.B.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.; TFTR Team

    1999-07-01

    Neoclassical simulations of alpha particle density profiles in high fusion power plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [Phys. Plasmas {bold 5}, 1577 (1998)] are found to be in good agreement with measurements of the alpha distribution function made with a sensitive active neutral particle diagnostic. The calculations are carried out in Hamiltonian magnetic coordinates with a fast, particle-following Monte Carlo code which includes the neoclassical transport processes, a recent first-principles model for stochastic ripple loss and collisional effects. New calculations show that monotonic shear alpha particles are virtually unaffected by toroidal field ripple. The calculations show that in reversed shear the confinement domain is not empty for trapped alphas at birth and allow an estimate of the actual alpha particle densities measured with the pellet charge exchange diagnostic. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. A system for testing distributed information fusion applications for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehn, Hans; Happe, Jens; Guitouni, Adel; Valin, Pierre; Bossé, Éloi

    2008-03-01

    A PRECARN partnership project, called CanCoastWatch (CCW), is bringing together a team of researchers from industry, government, and academia for creating an advanced simulation test bed for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of Network Enabled Operations in a Coastal Wide Area Surveillance situation. The test bed allows experimenting with higher-level distributed information fusion, dynamic resource management and configuration management given multiple constraints on the resources and their communications networks. The test bed provides general services that are useful for testing many fusion applications. This includes a multi-layer plug-and-play architecture, and a general multi-agent framework based on John Boyd's OODA loop.

  2. Concept for testing fusion first wall/blanket systems in existing nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.Y.S.; Bohn, T.S.; Deis, G.A.; Judd, J.L.; Longhurst, G.R.; Miller, L.G.; Millsap, D.A.; Scott, A.J.; Wessol, D.E.

    1980-10-01

    A novel concept to produce a reasonable simulation of a fusion first wall/blanket test environment (except the 14 MeV neutron component) employing an existing nuclear facility is presented. Preliminary results show that an asymmetric, nuclear test environment with surface and volumetric heating rates similar to those expected in a fusion first wall/blanket or divertor chamber surface appears feasible. The proposed concept takes advantage of nuclear reactions within the annulus of a test space (15 cm in diameter and approximately 100 cm high) to provide an energy flux to the surface of a test module.

  3. A wavelet transformation approach for multi-source gravity fusion: Applications and uncertainty tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yongliang; Dong, Dongdong; Wu, Shiguo; Liu, Zhan; Zhang, Guangxu; Xu, Kaijun

    2016-05-01

    Gravity anomalies detected by different measurement platforms have different characteristics and advantages. There are different kinds of gravity data fusion methods for generating single gravity anomaly map with a rich and accurate spectral content. Former studies using wavelet based gravity fusion method which is a newly developed approach did not pay more attention to the fusion uncertainties. In this paper, we firstly introduce the wavelet based gravity fusion method, and then apply this method to one synthetic model and also to the northern margin of the South China Sea. Wavelet type and the decomposition level are two input parameters for this fusion method, and the uncertainty tests show that fusion results are more sensitive to wavelet type than the decomposition level. The optimal application result of the fusion methodology on the synthetic model is closer to the true anomaly field than either of the simulated shipborne anomaly and altimetry-based anomaly grid. The best fusion result on the northern margin of the South China Sea is based on the 'rbio1.3' wavelet and four-level decomposition. The fusion result contains more accurate short-wavelength anomalies than the altimetry-based gravity anomalies along ship tracks, and it also has more accurate long wavelength characteristics than the shipborne gravity anomalies between ship tracks. The real application case shows that the fusion result has better correspondences to the seafloor topography variations and sub-surface structures than each of the two input gravity anomaly maps (shipborne based gravity anomaly map and altimetry based gravity anomaly map). Therefore, it is possible to map and detect more precise seafloor topography and geologic structures by the new gravity anomaly map.

  4. Stability tests of the Westinghouse coil in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dresner, L.; Fehling, D.T.; Lubell, M.S.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.; Wilson, C.T.

    1987-09-01

    The Westinghouse coil is one of three forced-flow coils in the six-coil toroidal array of the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is wound with an 18-kA, Nb/sub 3/Sn/Cu, cable-in-conduit superconductor structurally supported by aluminum plates and cooled by 4-K, 15-atm supercritical helium. The coil is instrumented to permit measurement of helium temperature, pressure, and flow rate; structure temperature and strain; field; and normal zone voltage. A resistive heater has been installed to simulate nuclear heating, and inductive heaters have been installed to facilitate stability testing. The coil has been tested both individually and in the six-coil array. The tests covered charging to full design current and field, measuring the current-sharing threshold temperature using the resistive heaters, and measuring the stability margin using the pulsed inductive heaters. At least one section of the conductor exhibits a very broad resistive transition (resistive transition index = 4). The broad transition, though causing the appearance of voltage at relatively low temperatures, does not compromise the stability margin of the coil, which was greater than 1.1 J/cm/sup 3/ of strands. In another, nonresistive location, the stability margin was between 1.7 and 1.9 J/cm/sup 3/ of strands. The coil is completely stable in operation at 100% design current in both the single- and six-coil modes.

  5. Design, construction, and testing of the vacuum vessel for the tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerich, J. W.

    1985-11-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy gave the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory approval to design and build a tandem Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) to support the goals of the National Mirror Program. We designed the MFTF-B vacuum vessel both to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum environment and to structurally support the 42 superconducting magnets plus auxiliary internal and external equipment. During our design work, we made extensive use of both simple and complex computer models to arrive at a cost-effective final configuration. As part of this work, we conducted a unique dynamic analysis to study the interaction of the 32,000-ton concrete-shielding vault with the 2850-ton vacuum vessel system. To maintain a vacuum of 2 x 10 to the -8 Torr during the physics experiments inside the vessel, we designed a vacuum pumping system of enormous capacity. The vacuum vessel (4200 cu m) has been fabricated, erected, and acceptance tests have been completed at the Livermore site. The rest of the machine has been assembled, and individual systems have been successfully checked. On October 1, 1985, we began a series of integrated engineering tests to verify the operation of all components as a complete system.

  6. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  7. A new level of plasticity: Drosophila smooth-like testes muscles compensate failure of myoblast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kuckwa, Jessica; Fritzen, Katharina; Buttgereit, Detlev; Rothenbusch-Fender, Silke; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2016-01-01

    The testis of Drosophila resembles an individual testis tubule of mammals. Both are surrounded by a sheath of smooth muscles, which in Drosophila are multinuclear and originate from a pool of myoblasts that are set aside in the embryo and accumulate on the genital disc later in development. These muscle stem cells start to differentiate early during metamorphosis and give rise to all muscles of the inner male reproductive system. Shortly before the genital disc and the developing testes connect, multinuclear nascent myotubes appear on the anterior tips of the seminal vesicles. Here, we show that adhesion molecules are distinctly localized on the seminal vesicles; founder cell (FC)-like myoblasts express Dumbfounded (Duf) and Roughest (Rst), and fusion-competent myoblast (FCM)-like cells mainly express Sticks and stones (Sns). The smooth but multinuclear myotubes of the testes arose by myoblast fusion. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Sns or both Duf and Rst severely reduced the number of nuclei in the testes muscles. Duf and Rst probably act independently in this context. Despite reduced fusion in all of these RNAi-treated animals, myotubes migrated onto the testes, testes were shaped and coiled, muscle filaments were arranged as in the wild type and spermatogenesis proceeded normally. Hence, the testes muscles compensate for fusion defects so that the myofibres encircling the adult testes are indistinguishable from those of the wild type and male fertility is guaranteed. PMID:26657767

  8. A new level of plasticity: Drosophila smooth-like testes muscles compensate failure of myoblast fusion.

    PubMed

    Kuckwa, Jessica; Fritzen, Katharina; Buttgereit, Detlev; Rothenbusch-Fender, Silke; Renkawitz-Pohl, Renate

    2016-01-15

    The testis of Drosophila resembles an individual testis tubule of mammals. Both are surrounded by a sheath of smooth muscles, which in Drosophila are multinuclear and originate from a pool of myoblasts that are set aside in the embryo and accumulate on the genital disc later in development. These muscle stem cells start to differentiate early during metamorphosis and give rise to all muscles of the inner male reproductive system. Shortly before the genital disc and the developing testes connect, multinuclear nascent myotubes appear on the anterior tips of the seminal vesicles. Here, we show that adhesion molecules are distinctly localized on the seminal vesicles; founder cell (FC)-like myoblasts express Dumbfounded (Duf) and Roughest (Rst), and fusion-competent myoblast (FCM)-like cells mainly express Sticks and stones (Sns). The smooth but multinuclear myotubes of the testes arose by myoblast fusion. RNAi-mediated attenuation of Sns or both Duf and Rst severely reduced the number of nuclei in the testes muscles. Duf and Rst probably act independently in this context. Despite reduced fusion in all of these RNAi-treated animals, myotubes migrated onto the testes, testes were shaped and coiled, muscle filaments were arranged as in the wild type and spermatogenesis proceeded normally. Hence, the testes muscles compensate for fusion defects so that the myofibres encircling the adult testes are indistinguishable from those of the wild type and male fertility is guaranteed. PMID:26657767

  9. TEST FUSION IN ADULT FORAMINIFERA: A REVIEW WITH NEW OBSERVATIONS OF AN EARLY EOCENE NUMMULITES SPECIMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ferràndez-Cañadell, Carles; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Wöger, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In foraminifera, so-called “double tests” usually arise due to abnormal growth originating mainly from twinning, but may also be caused by irregularities in the early chambers and by regeneration after test injury that modifies the direction of growth. A fourth cause of double tests has only rarely been reported: the fusion of the tests of two adult individuals. We studied an early Eocene Nummulites double test consisting of two adult individuals that fused after an extended period of independent growth. The specimen was studied using computed tomography with micrometric resolution (micro-CT) that allowed bi- and three-dimensional visualization of the internal structure. Before fusion each individual test had 30–36 chambers, which, by comparison with growth rates in recent nummulitids, implies at least three months of independent growth. After fusion, the compound test grew in two spirals that fused after about one whorl and then continued in a single spiral. To fuse their tests, either adult individuals have to be forced to do so or the allorecognition (ability to distinguish between self and another individual) mechanisms must fail. A possible explanation for the merged Nummulites tests in this study is forced fusion in attached individuals after surviving ingestion and digestion by a metazoan. Alternatively, environmental stress could lead to a failure of allorecognition mechanisms and/or foraminiferal motility. Once fused, subsequent growth seems to be determined mainly by the relative orientation of individual tests. In any case, the frequency in which adult fusion occurs remains unknown. PMID:26166916

  10. Principles of data-fusion in multi-sensor systems for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chioclea, Shmuel; Dickstein, Phineas

    2000-05-01

    In recent years, there has been progress in the application of measurement and control systems that engage multi-sensor arrays. Several algorithms and techniques have been developed for the integration of the information obtained from the sensors. The fusion of the data may be complicated due to the fact that each sensor has its own performance characteristics, and because different sensors may detect different physical phenomena. As a result, data fusion turns out to be a multidisciplinary field, which applies principles adopted from other fields such as signal processing, artificial intelligence, statistics, and The Theory of Information. The data fusion machine tries to imitate the human brain, in combining data from numerous sensors and making optimal inferences about the environment. The present paper provides a critical review of data fusion algorithms and techniques and a trenchant summary of the experience gained to date from the several preliminary NDT studies which have been applying multi-sensor data fusion systems. Consequently, this paper provides a list of rules and criteria to be followed in future applications of data fusion to nondestructive testing.

  11. Review of the Inertial Fusion Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-03-29

    Igniting fusion fuel in the laboratory remains an alluring goal for two reasons: the desire to study matter under the extreme conditions needed for fusion burn, and the potential of harnessing the energy released as an attractive energy source for mankind. The inertial confinement approach to fusion involves rapidly compressing a tiny spherical capsule of fuel, initially a few millimeters in radius, to densities and temperatures higher than those in the core of the sun. The ignited plasma is confined solely by its own inertia long enough for a significant fraction of the fuel to burn before the plasma expands, cools down and the fusion reactions are quenched. The potential of this confinement approach as an attractive energy source is being studied in the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) program, which is the subject of this report. A complex set of interrelated requirements for IFE has motivated the study of novel potential solutions. Three types of “drivers” for fuel compression are presently studied: high-averagepower lasers (HAPL), heavy-ion (HI) accelerators, and Z-Pinches. The three main approaches to IFE are based on these drivers, along with the specific type of target (which contains the fuel capsule) and chamber that appear most promising for a particular driver.

  12. Progress in Z-pinch inertial fusion energy.

    SciTech Connect

    Weed, John Woodruff

    2010-03-01

    The goal of z-pinch inertial fusion energy (IFE) is to extend the single-shot z-pinch inertial confinement fusion (ICF) results on Z to a repetitive-shot z-pinch power plant concept for the economical production of electricity. Z produces up to 1.8 MJ of x-rays at powers as high as 230 TW. Recent target experiments on Z have demonstrated capsule implosion convergence ratios of 14-21 with a double-pinch driven target, and DD neutron yields up to 8x10exp10 with a dynamic hohlraum target. For z-pinch IFE, a power plant concept is discussed that uses high-yield IFE targets (3 GJ) with a low rep-rate per chamber (0.1 Hz). The concept includes a repetitive driver at 0.1 Hz, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the driver to the target, high-yield targets, and a thick-liquid wall chamber. Recent funding by a U.S. Congressional initiative for $4M for FY04 is supporting research on RTLs, repetitive pulsed power drivers, shock mitigation, full RTL cycle planned experiments, high-yield IFE targets, and z-pinch power plant technologies. Recent results of research in all of these areas are discussed, and a Road Map for Z-Pinch IFE is presented.

  13. Sequential testing over multiple stages and performance analysis of data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Gaurav

    2013-05-01

    We describe a methodology for modeling the performance of decision-level data fusion between different sensor configurations, implemented as part of the JIEDDO Analytic Decision Engine (JADE). We first discuss a Bayesian network formulation of classical probabilistic data fusion, which allows elementary fusion structures to be stacked and analyzed efficiently. We then present an extension of the Wald sequential test for combining the outputs of the Bayesian network over time. We discuss an algorithm to compute its performance statistics and illustrate the approach on some examples. This variant of the sequential test involves multiple, distinct stages, where the evidence accumulated from each stage is carried over into the next one, and is motivated by a need to keep certain sensors in the network inactive unless triggered by other sensors.

  14. Operation of the cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chronis, W.C.; Slack, D.S.

    1987-06-09

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was designed to cool the entire MFTF-B system from ambient to operating temperature in less than 10 days. The system was successfully operated in the recent plant and capital equipment (PACE) acceptance tests, and results from these tests helped us correct problem areas and improve the system.

  15. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  16. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2015-09-22

    , low electrical conductivity and therefore low MHD pressure drop, low chemical reactivity, and extremely low tritium inventory; the addition of sodium (FLiNaBe) has been considered because it retains the properties of FliBe but also lowers the melting point. Although many of these blanket concepts are promising, challenges still remain. The limited amount of beryllium available poses a problem for ceramic breeders such as the HCPB. FLiBe and FLiNaBe are highly viscous and have a low thermal conductivity. Lithium lead possesses a poor thermal conductivity which can cause problems in both DCLL and LiPb blankets. Additionally, the tritium permeation from these two blankets into plant components can be a problem and must be reduced. Consequently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is attempting to develop a lithium-based alloy—most likely a ternary alloy—which maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns for use in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The LLNL concept employs inertial confinement fusion (ICF) through the use of lasers aimed at an indirect-driven target composed of deuterium-tritium fuel. The fusion driver/target design implements the same physics currently experimented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The plant uses lithium in both the primary coolant and blanket; therefore, lithium-related hazards are of primary concern. Although reducing chemical reactivity is the primary motivation for the development of new lithium alloys, the successful candidates will have to guarantee acceptable performance in all their functions. The scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of a large number of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of the IFE engine and assess their properties upon activation. This manuscript is organized as follows: Section 12 presents the models and methodologies used for the analysis; Section

  17. Testing of low Z coated limiters in tokamak fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Whitely, J.B.; Mullendore, A.W.; Langley, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive testing on a laboratory scale has been used to select those coatings most suitable for this environment. From this testing which included pulsed electron beam heating, low energy ion bombardment and arcing, chemical vapor deposited coating of TiB/sub 2/ and TiC on Poco graphite substrates have been selected and tested as limiters in ISX. Both limiter materials gave clean, stable, reproducible tokamak discharges the first day of operation. After one weeks exposure, the TiC limiter showed only superficial damage with no coating failure. The TiB/sub 2/ limiter had some small areas of coating failure. TiC coated graphite limiters have also been briefly tested in the tokamaks Alcator and PDX with favorable results.

  18. The development of a universal diagnostic probe system for Tokamak fusion test reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastronardi, R.; Cabral, R.; Manos, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), the largest such facility in the U.S., is discussed with respect to instrumentation in general and mechanisms in particular. The design philosophy and detailed implementation of a universal probe mechanism for TFTR is discussed.

  19. Information fusion in regularized inversion of tomographic pumping tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohling, G.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate a simple approach to incorporating geophysical information into the analysis of tomographic pumping tests for characterization of the hydraulic conductivity (K) field in an aquifer. A number of authors have suggested a tomographic approach to the analysis of hydraulic tests in aquifers - essentially simultaneous analysis of multiple tests or stresses on the flow system - in order to improve the resolution of the estimated parameter fields. However, even with a large amount of hydraulic data in hand, the inverse problem is still plagued by non-uniqueness and ill-conditioning and the parameter space for the inversion needs to be constrained in some sensible fashion in order to obtain plausible estimates of aquifer properties. For seismic and radar tomography problems, the parameter space is often constrained through the application of regularization terms that impose penalties on deviations of the estimated parameters from a prior or background model, with the tradeoff between data fit and model norm explored through systematic analysis of results for different levels of weighting on the regularization terms. In this study we apply systematic regularized inversion to analysis of tomographic pumping tests in an alluvial aquifer, taking advantage of the steady-shape flow regime exhibited in these tests to expedite the inversion process. In addition, we explore the possibility of incorporating geophysical information into the inversion through a regularization term relating the estimated K distribution to ground penetrating radar velocity and attenuation distributions through a smoothing spline model. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  20. Review of deuterium-tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, K. M.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J. L.; Anderson, J. W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bateman, G.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N. L.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Chang, C. S.; Cheng, C. Z.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Dendy, R.; Dorland, W.; Dudek, L.; Duong, H.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Evenson, H.; Fisch, N.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G. Y.; Fujita, T.; Furth, H. P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gilbert, J.; Gioia, J.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G. R.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, L. C.; Kalish, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kesner, J.; Kugel, H.; Labik, G.; Lam, N. T.; LaMarche, P. H.; Lawson, E.; LeBlanc, B.; Levine, J.; Levinton, F. M.; Loesser, D.; Long, D.; Loughlin, M. J.; Machuzak, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marmar, E. S.; Marsala, R.; Martin, A.; Martin, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Mauel, M.; McCarthy, M. P.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D. C.; McKee, G.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Murphy, J. A.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Norris, M.; O'Connor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Ongena, J.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D. K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Parks, P.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Perry, E.; Persing, R.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, M.; Pitcher, S.; Pysher, R.; Qualls, A. L.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Ramsey, A.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Redi, M. H.; Renda, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scillia, R.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Senko, T.; Sesnic, S.; Sissingh, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Snipes, J.; Stencel, J.; Stevens, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Swanson, J.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J.; Thompson, M. E.; Tighe, W.; Timberlake, J. R.; Tobita, K.; Towner, H. H.; Tuszewski, M.; von Halle, A.; Vannoy, C.; Viola, M.; von Goeler, S.; Voorhees, D.; Walters, R. T.; Wester, R.; White, R.; Wieland, R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Winston, J.; Wright, K.; Wong, K. L.; Woskov, P.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yoshikawa, S.; Young, K. M.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zavereev, V.; Zweben, S. J.

    1995-06-01

    After many years of fusion research, the conditions needed for a D-T fusion reactor have been approached on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. For the first time the unique phenomena present in a D-T plasma are now being studied in a laboratory plasma. The first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas using nearly equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium have been carried out on TFTR. At present the maximum fusion power of 10.7 MW, using 39.5 MW of neutral-beam heating, in a supershot discharge and 6.7 MW in a high-βp discharge following a current rampdown. The fusion power density in a core of the plasma is ≊2.8 MW m-3, exceeding that expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 3, p. 239] at 1500 MW total fusion power. The energy confinement time, τE, is observed to increase in D-T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the ni(0) Ti(0) τE product by 55%. The improvement in thermal confinement is caused primarily by a decrease in ion heat conductivity in both supershot and limiter-H-mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time to 0.27 s and enabled higher current operation in both supershot and high-βp discharges. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating of a D-T plasma, using the second harmonic of tritium, has been demonstrated. First measurements of the confined alpha particles have been performed and found to be in good agreement with TRANSP [Nucl. Fusion 34, 1247 (1994)] simulations. Initial measurements of the alpha ash profile have been compared with simulations using particle transport coefficients from He gas puffing experiments. The loss of alpha particles to a detector at the bottom of the vessel is well described by the first-orbit loss mechanism. No loss due to alpha-particle-driven instabilities has yet been observed

  1. Systems Modeling for Z-IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2006-11-08

    A preliminary systems model has been developed for Z-IFE power plants. The model includes cost and performance scaling for the target physics, z-pinch driver, chamber, power conversion system and target/RTL manufacturing plant. As the base case we consider the dynamic hohlraum target and a thick liquid wall chamber with flibe as the working fluid. Driver cost and efficiency are evaluated parametrically since various options are still being considered. The model allows for power plants made up of multiple chambers and power conversion units supplied by a central target/RTL manufacturing plant. Initial results indicate that plants with few chambers operating at high yield are economically more attractive than the 10-unit plant previously proposed. Various parametric and sensitivity studies have been completed and are discussed.

  2. Model for collisional fast ion diffusion into Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor loss cone

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.S. |; Zweben, S.J.; Schivell, J.; Budny, R.; Scott, S.

    1994-08-01

    An analytic model is developed to estimate the classical pitch angle scattering loss of energetic fusion product ions into prompt loss orbits in a tokamak geometry. The result is applied to alpha particles produced by deutrium-tritium fusion reactions in a plasma condition relevant to Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). A poloidal angular distribution of collisional fast ion loss at the first wall is obtained and the numerical result from the TRANSP code is discussed. The present model includes the effect that the prompt loss boundary moves away from the slowing-down path due to reduction in banana thickness, which enables us to understand, for the first time. the dependence of the collisional loss rate on Z{sub eff}.

  3. Neutron dosimetry qualification experiments for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Lithium Blanket Module program

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, F.Y.; Harker, Y.D.; Anderi, R.A.; Nigg, D.W.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-11-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Lithium Blanket module (LBM) program is a first-of-kind neutronics experiment involving a toroidal fusion neutron source. Qualification experiments have been conducted to develop primary measurement techniques and verify dosimetry materials that will be used to characterize the neutron environment inside and on the surfaces of the LBM. The deuterium-tritium simulation experiments utilizing a 14-MeV neutron generator and a fusion blanket mockup facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are described. Results and discussions are presented that identify the quality and limitations of the measured integral reaction data, including the minimum fluence requirement for the TFTR experiment and the use of such data in neutron spectrum adjustment and in predicting integral performance parameters, e.g., tritium production.

  4. Fuel plate and fusion insulator irradiation test program

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.

    1980-11-01

    As the prices of fuel fabricating, shipping, and reprocessing continue to rise at rapid rates, research people look for alternate methods to keep their reactor fuel costs within limited funds. Extending fuel element lifetimes without jeopardizing reactor safety can reduce fuel costs by up to a factor of two. But to gain this factor, some fuel plate tests must be performed to the higher burnup to verify burnup fuel plate performance. In this proposed test, fuel plates will be constructed to a maximum fuel loading which can be produced on a commercial basis, contain a maximum boron content as used in ATR to reduce initial reactor reactivity, and will be loaded with UAl/sub 2/ to obtain higher uranium content and better operating performance over UAl/sub 3/.

  5. TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injected power measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Dudek, L.E.; Gammel, G.M.; Johnson, G.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Lagin, L.; O'Connor, T.E.; Shah, P.A.; Sichta, P.

    1989-05-01

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterfall calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source in the well instrumented test stand, 99.5 +- 3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12/degree/, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations on the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Canik, John; Diem, Stephanie J; Milora, Stanley L; Park, J. M.; Sontag, Aaron C; Fogarty, P. J.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Murakami, Masanori; Burgess, Thomas W; Cole, Michael J; Katoh, Yutai; Korsah, Kofi; Patton, Bradley D; Wagner, John C; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  7. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) before Upgrade to Component Test Facility (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    2010-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, understand, and innovate scientific and technical solutions for the challenges facing DEMO, by addressing the multi-scale synergistic interactions involving fusion plasma material interactions, tritium fuel cycle, power extraction, and the nuclear effects on materials. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of 19 MW. If and when this research operation is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and 76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate- plasmas would minimize plasma-induced disruptions, helping to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all components using extensive remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for all internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post with RH-compatible bi-directional sliding joints. Such device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum seal welds behind the internal and shielding components. If these further goals could be achieved, the FNSF would provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, at higher neutron fluence and duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF strategy would be complementary to the ITER and the Broader Approach programs, and thereby help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program

  8. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE: LLNL Progress Report for FY-04

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W; Abbott, R; Latkowski, J; Moir, R; Reyes, S; Schmitt, R

    2004-10-06

    During the last quarter of FY2004, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a brief study of power plant options for a z-pinch-based inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) power plant. Areas that were covered include chamber design, thick-liquid response, neutronics and activation, and systems studies. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas, provides recommendations for improvements to the basic design concept, and identifies future work that is needed. As a starting point to the LLNL studies, we have taken information provided in several publications and presentations. In particular, many of the basic parameters were taken from the ZP-3 study, which is described in reference 4. The ZP-3 design called for 12 separate target chambers, with any 10 of them operating at a given time. Each chamber would be pulsed at a repetition rate of 0.1 Hz with a target yield of 3 GJ. Thus, each chamber would have a fusion power of 300 MW for a power plant total of 3000 MW. The ZP-3 study considered several options for the recyclable transmission lines (RTL). Early in the study, the LLNL group questioned the use of many chambers as well as the yield limitation of 3 GJ. The feeling was that a large number of chambers would invariably lead to a considerably higher system cost than for a system with fewer chambers. Naturally, this trend would be somewhat offset by the increased availability that might be possible with many chambers. Reference 4 points out that target yields as high as 20 GJ would be possible with currently available manufacturing technology. The LLNL team considered yields ranging from 3 to 20 GJ. Our findings indicate that higher yields, which lead one to fewer chambers, make the most sense from an economic point of view. Systems modeling, including relative economics, is covered in Section 2. Regardless of the number of chambers of the fusion yield per target, a Z-IFE power plant would make use of a thick-liquid wall protection scheme

  9. Assessment of NDE Methods on Inspection of HDPE Butt Fusion Piping Joints for Lack of Fusion with Validation from Mechanical Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Moran, Traci L.; Watts, Michael W.

    2010-12-01

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high-speed tensile impact test and the side-bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12-in. IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack-of-fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), phased-array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer-diameter weld beads were removed for the microwave inspection. In two of the four pipes, both the outer and inner weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. The pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the side-bend test by cutting portions of the fusion joint into slices that were planed and bent. The last step in this limited study will be to correlate the fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. The results of the correlation will be used in identifying any future work that is needed.

  10. The operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, C.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Anderson, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    The TFTR tritium operations staff has successfully received, stored, handled, and processed over five hundred thousand curies of tritium for the purpose of supporting D-T (Deuterium-Tritium) operations at TFTR. Tritium operations personnel nominally provide continuous round the clock coverage (24 hours/day, 7 days/week) in shift complements consisting of I supervisor and 3 operators. Tritium Shift Supervisors and operators are required to have 5 years of operational experience in either the nuclear or chemical industry and to become certified for their positions. The certification program provides formal instruction, as well as on the job training. The certification process requires 4 to 6 months to complete, which includes an oral board lasting up to 4 hours at which time the candidate is tested on their knowledge of Tritium Technology and TFTR Tritium systems. Once an operator is certified, the training process continues with scheduled training weeks occurring once every 5 weeks. During D-T operations at TFTR the operators must evacuate the tritium area due to direct radiation from TFTR D-T pulses. During `` time operators maintain cognizance over tritium systems via a real time TV camera system. Operators are able to gain access to the Tritium area between TFTR D-T pulses, but have been excluded from die tritium area during D-T pulsing for periods up to 30 minutes. Tritium operators are responsible for delivering tritium gas to TFRR as well as processing plasma exhaust gases which lead to the deposition of tritium oxide on disposable molecular sieve beds (DMSB). Once a DMSB is loaded, the operations staff remove the expended DMSB, and replace it with a new DMSB container. The TFIR tritium system is operated via detailed procedures which require operator sign off for system manipulation. There are >300 procedures controlling the operation of the tritium systems.

  11. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  12. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  13. Preparations for deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J. L.; Anderson, J. W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Aschroft, D.; Barnes, C. W.; Barnes, G.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bateman, G.; Batha, S.; Baylor, L. A.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Biglow, T. S.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bonoli, P.; Bretz, N. L.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Burgess, T.; Bush, H.; Bush, C. E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Chang, Z.; Chen, L.; Cheng, C. Z.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collazo, I.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cowley, S.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Faunce, J.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gettelfinger, G.; Gilbert, J.; Gioia, J.; Goldfinger, R. C.; Golian, T.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gouge, M. J.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hermann, H. W.; Hill, K. W.; Hirshman, S.; Hoffman, D. J.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R. A.; Hsuan, H.; Jaeger, E. F.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, L. C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kesner, J.; Kugel, H.; Kwon, S.; Labik, G.; Lam, N. T.; LaMarche, P. H.; Laughlin, M. J.; Lawson, E.; LeBlanc, B.; Leonard, M.; Levine, J.; Levinton, F. M.; Loesser, D.; Long, D.; Machuzak, J.; Mansfield, D. E.; Marchlik, M.; Marmar, E. S.; Marsala, R.; Martin, A.; Martin, G.; Mastrocola, V.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Majeski, R.; Mauel, M.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Milora, S. L.; Monticello, D.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Murphy, J. A.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Nishitani, T.; Norris, M.; O'Connor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Ongena, J.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D. K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pavlov, Yu. I.; Pearson, G.; Perkins, F.; Perry, E.; Persing, R.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pitcher, S.; Popovichev, S.; Qualls, A. L.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramsey, A.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Redi, M. H.; Renda, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Scharer, J.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scillia, R.; Scott, S. D.; Senko, T.; Sissingh, R.; Skinner, C.; Snipes, J.; Snook, P.; Stencel, J.; Stevens, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Swanson, J.; Synakowski, E.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J.; Thompson, M. E.; Timberlake, J. R.; Towner, H. H.; Ulrickson, M.; von Halle, A.; Vannoy, C.; Wieland, R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, K.; Wong, D.; Wong, K. L.; Woskov, P.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yeun, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Young, K. M.; Zakharov, L.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J.

    1994-05-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a FluorinertTM system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation, and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium-deuterium (D-D) run to simulate expected deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D-T experiments using D-D have been performed. The physics objectives of D-T operation are production of ≊10 MW of fusion power, evaluation of confinement, and heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas, evaluation of α-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined α particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D-T experiments are reviewed.

  14. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF NDE METHODS ON INSPECTION OF HDPE BUTT FUSION PIPING JOINTS FOR LACK OF FUSION WITH VALIDATION FROM MECHANICAL TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Doctor, Steven R.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Watts, Michael W.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2010-07-22

    Studies at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, are being conducted to evaluate nondestructive examinations (NDE) coupled with mechanical testing of butt fusion joints in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe for assessing lack of fusion. The work provides information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the effectiveness of volumetric inspection techniques of HDPE butt fusion joints in Section III, Division 1, Class 3, buried piping systems in nuclear power plants. This paper describes results from preliminary assessments using ultrasonic and microwave nondestructive techniques and mechanical testing with the high speed tensile impact test and the bend test for determining joint integrity. A series of butt joints were fabricated in 3408, 12 inch (30.5 cm) IPS DR-11 HDPE material by varying the fusion parameters to create good joints and joints containing a range of lack of fusion conditions. Six of these butt joints were volumetrically examined with time of flight diffraction (TOFD), phased array (PA) ultrasound, and the Evisive microwave system. The outer diameter (OD) weld beads were removed for microwave evaluation and the pipes ultrasonically re-evaluated. In two of the six pipes both the outer and inner diameter (ID) weld beads were removed and the pipe joints re-evaluated. Several of the pipes were sectioned and the joints destructively evaluated with the following techniques: high speed tensile test, bend test, and focused immersion ultrasound on a joint section removed from the pipe coupled with slicing through the joint and examining the revealed surfaces. The fusion parameters, nondestructive, and destructive evaluation results will be correlated to validate the effectiveness of what each NDE technology detects and what each does not detect. This is an initial limited study which will aid in identifying key future work.

  15. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Ultra-Lightweight Borosilicate Gas-Fusion Mirror for Cryogenic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voevodsky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hextek Corporation fabricated a 250 mm diameter ultra-lightweight borosilicate mirror substrate for cryogenic testing at NASA MSFC XRCF facility in Huntsville AL under contract# H-34475D. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that the Hextek Gas-Fusion technology is capable of meeting the 15kg/sq m areal density target required for future space missions, and to provide a demonstration substrate for NASA MSFC to finish and test at cryogenic temperature. This presentation reviews company background and capabilities, features and benefits of the Gas-Fusion technology, historical data on cryogenic performance of borosilicate glass showing near zero cte at 30-35 degrees Kelvin, design and fabrication results of the 250 mm 15kg/sq m areal density substrate, and finally, projected scaling, lightweighing and fabrication lead-times for meter class segments.

  17. Transmutation behaviour of Eurofer under irradiation in the IFMIF test facility and fusion power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Wilson, P. P. H.

    2004-08-01

    The transmutation behaviour of the low activation steel Eurofer was analysed for irradiation simulations in the high flux test module (HFTM) of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source and the first wall of a typical fusion power reactor (FPR) employing helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and pebble bed (HCPB) blankets. The transmutation calculations were conducted with the analytical and laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis (ALARA) code and IEAF-2001 data for the IFMIF and the EASY-2003 system for the fusion power reactor (FPR) irradiations. The analyses showed that the transmutation of the main constituents of Eurofer, including iron and chromium, is not significant. Minor constituents such as Ti, V and Mn increase by 5-15% per irradiation year in the FPR and by 10-35% in the IFMIF HFTM. Other minor constituents such as B, Ta, and W show a different transmutation behaviour resulting in different elemental compositions of the Eurofer steel after high fluence irradiations in IFMIF and fusion power reactors.

  18. Complexity versus availability for fusion: The potential advantages of inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.,

    1996-09-05

    Probably the single largest advantage of the inertial route to fusion energy (IFE) is the perception that its power plant embodiments could achieve acceptable capacity factors. This is a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. We examine these issues in terms of the complexity, reliability, maintainability and, therefore, availability of both magnetic and inertial fusion power plants and compare these factors with corresponding scheduled and unscheduled outage data from present day fission experience. We stress that, given the simple nature of a fission core, the vast majority of unplanned outages in fission plants are due to failures outside the reactor vessel itself Given we must be prepared for similar outages in the analogous plant external to a fusion power core, this puts severe demands on the reliability required of the fusion core itself. We indicate that such requirements can probably be met for IFE plants. We recommend that this advantage be promoted by performing a quantitative reliability and availability study for a representative IFE power plant and suggest that databases are probably adequate for this task.

  19. High-performance deuterium-lithium neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.; Bhatia, T.S.; Blind, B.; Guy, F.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Schnurr, N.M.; Schriber, S.O.; Varsamis, G.L.; Wangler, T.P.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in high-current linear-accelerator technology since the design of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility have increased the attractiveness of a deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing. This paper discusses a new approach to such a source aimed at meeting the near-term requirements of a high-flux high-energy International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). The concept employs multiple accelerator modules providing deuteron beams to two liquid-lithium jet targets oriented at right angles. This beam/target geometry provides much larger test volumes than can be attained with a single beam and target and produces significant regions of low neutron-flux gradient. A preliminary beam-dynamics design has been obtained for a 250-mA reference accelerator module. Neutron-flux levels and irradiation volumes were calculated for a neutron source incorporating two such modules, and interaction of the beam with the lithium jet was studied using a thermal-hydraulic computer simulation. Cost estimates are provided for a range of beam currents and a possible facility staging sequence is suggested. 12 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Development of a Dry Wall Concept for Laser IFE Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, James P.; Martin, Carl J.

    2005-04-15

    The first wall of a laser fusion chamber will experience high heat loads pulsed at 5-10 Hz with pulse widths on the order of a few microseconds. This poses a challenging problem for dry wall designs, as the wall will be susceptible to a variety of failure modes. The primary design concept of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) project is a ferritic steel first wall coated with tungsten armor. Due to the extreme heat loads, the armor will experience high temperatures, extensive yielding, and surface cracking. In order to evaluate the ability of this design to provide a suitable lifetime, a series of experiments to simulate chamber conditions using ions, x-rays, infrared heating, and lasers is under way. These experimental efforts have been coupled with numerical modeling to help determine likely failure modes and establish design criteria for chambers. This paper compares models for the thermomechanical effects seen in the tests to those expected in a full power chamber, in order to assess the ability of the tests to mimic the actual chamber performance. The tests are found to have some limitations, but they still offer excellent approximations of the true behavior.

  1. Craniocervical necrotizing fasciitis in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ndukwe, K C; Fatusi, O A; Ugboko, V I

    2002-02-01

    Sixteen cases of necrotizing fasciitis were seen at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria from 1990 to 2000. Primary craniocervical involvement was recorded in seven patients (five men and two women). The clinical records of five patients were sufficiently detailed to allow us to report their age, aetiology, predisposing illness, clinical features, complications, management regimen and outcome. The patients were aged 30-75 years and in four of them odontogenic infections were the cause of the condition. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity were the underlying systemic diseases in three cases and the body/angle region of the mandible was the predominant site of the infection on the face. All five cases had involvement of the neck. Mediastinal extension was recorded in three cases. Two patients had complications: one had septicaemia and renal failure and the other developed bone necrosis. Pre-existing ill health, old age, late surgical intervention, and mediastinal and thoracic extension of infection were responsible for the only death. Treatment involved frequent and multiple surgical debridement, aggressive antimicrobial treatment and control of systemic disease. Early recognition, prompt surgical intervention, and aggressive antimicrobial treatment are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Rapid progression of infection, financial constraints, delayed referrals from rural clinics and distance to the tertiary hospital caused problems. PMID:11883974

  2. Performance test of personal RF monitor for area monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion facility.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Uda, Tatsuhiko; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2012-02-01

    For safety management at a magnetic confinement fusion-test facility, protection from not only ionising radiation, but also non-ionising radiation such as the leakage of static magnetic and electromagnetic fields is an important issue. Accordingly, the use of a commercially available personal RF monitor for multipoint area monitoring is proposed. In this study, the performance of both fast- and slow-type personal RF monitors was investigated by using a transverse electromagnetic cell system. The range of target frequencies was between 10 and 300 MHz, corresponding to the ion cyclotron range of frequency in a fusion device. The personal RF monitor was found to have good linearity, frequency dependence and isotropic response. However, the time constant for the electric field sensor of the slow-type monitor was much longer than that for the fast-type monitor. Considering the time-varying field at the facility, it is found that the fast-type monitor is suitable for multipoint monitoring at magnetic confinement fusion test facilities. PMID:21441242

  3. Industrial Hygiene Concerns during the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Lumia; C.A. Gentile

    2002-01-18

    A significant industrial hygiene concern during the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) was the oxidation of the lead bricks' surface, which were utilized for radiation shielding. This presented both airborne exposure and surface contamination issues for the workers in the field removing this material. This paper will detail the various protection and control methods tested and implemented to protect the workers, including those technologies deployed to decontaminate the work surfaces. In addition, those techniques employed to recycle the lead for additional use at the site will be discussed.

  4. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector.

  5. A high-performance D-lithium neutron source for fusion technology testing

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.; Wangler, T.P.; Schriber, S.O.; Kemp, E.L.; Wilson, M.T.; Bhatia, T.S.; Neuschaefer, G.H.; Guy, F.W.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    Recent advances in high-current linear accelerator technology have considerably increased the attractiveness of a deuterium-lithium high-energy neutron source for fusion materials and technology testing. This paper describes a new Los Alamos conceptual design for a deuteron accelerator aimed at meeting near-term flux requirements of an International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility. The new neutron-source driver concept is based on the idea of multiple accelerator modules, with each module consisting of two 125-mA, 175-MHz radio-frequency quadrupoles funneling 3-MeV cw deuteron beams into a 35-MeV, 250-mA, 350-MHz drift-tube linac.

  6. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  7. High-flux source of fusion neutrons for material and component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D. E.; Hooper, E. B.; Ryutov, D. D.; Thomassen, K. I.

    1999-01-07

    The inner part of a fusion reactor will have to operate at very high neutron loads. In steady-state reactors the minimum fluence before the scheduled replacement of the reactor core should be at least l0-15 Mw.yr/m2. A more frequent replacement of the core is hardly compatible with economic constraints. A most recent summary of the discussions of these issues is presented in Ref. [l]. If and when times come to build a commercial fusion reactor, the availability of information on the behavior of materials and components at such fluences will become mandatory for making a final decision. This makes it necessary an early development and construction of a neutron source for fusion material and component testing. In this paper, we present information on one very attractive concept of such a source: a source based on a so called Gas Dynamic Trap. This neutron source was proposed in the mid 1980s (Ref. [2]; see also a survey [3] with discussion of the early stage of the project). Since then, gradual accumulation of the relevant experimental information on a modest-scale experimental facility GDT at Novosibirsk, together with a continuing design activity, have made initial theoretical considerations much more credible. We believe that such a source can be built within 4 or 5 years. Of course, one should remember that there is a chance for developing steady-state reactors with a liquid (and therefore continuously renewable) first wall [4], which would also serve as a tritium breeder. In this case, the need in the neutron testing will become less pressing. However, it is not clear yet that the concept of the flowing wall will be compatible with all types of steady-state reactors. It seems therefore prudent to be prepared to the need of a quick construction of a neutron source. It should also be mentioned that there exist projects of the accelerator-based neutron sources (e.g., [5]). However, they generally have two major disadvantages: a wrong neutron spectrum

  8. Calculations of alpha particle loss for reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; White, R.B.; Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; McCune, D.C.

    1997-03-01

    Hamiltonian coordinate, guiding center code calculations of the toroidal field ripple loss of alpha particles from a reversed shear plasma predict both total alpha losses and ripple diffusion losses to be greater than those from a comparable non-reversed magnetic shear plasma in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. High central q is found to increase alpha ripple losses as well as first orbit losses of alphas in the reversed shear simulations. A simple ripple loss model, benchmarked against the guiding center code, is found to work satisfactorily in transport analysis modelling of reversed and monotonic shear scenarios. Alpha ripple transport on TFTR affects ions within r/a=0.5, not at the plasma edge. The entire plasma is above threshold for stochastic ripple loss of alpha particles at birth energy in the reversed shear case simulated, so that all trapped 3.5 MeV alphas are lost stochastically or through prompt losses. The 40% alpha particle loss predictions for TFTR suggest that reduction of toroidal field ripple will be a critical issue in the design of a reversed shear fusion reactor.

  9. Analysis of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Prototype of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)‡

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Scott, Dan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    TFTR produced world record of 10 million watts of controlled fusion power1 (CFP-1994) was summarized in Review1. We present evidence3 that: (1) TFTR input vs. output was 40 to 10 MW i.e. a power loss. (2) Review claims no experimental evidence for thermonuclear CFP production (only a calculation). (3) Ultra-high vacuum (UHV) required for τE = 0.2 s is 10-9 torr. TFTR had no UHV pumps, resulting in 10-3 torr, restricting τE <10-6 s, << thermalization time; 0.1 s., hence DT plasma did not occur. (4) Carbon ions were presented as D-T plasma. (5) Unknown neutron detector on unexplained neutron diamagnetic effect, measured ``fusion neutron power'' without particle energy identification, energy or coincidence. (6) 8 of 9 parameters claimed were inferred not measured. Quadratic test of TFTR data results2 in zero thermonuclear fusion power contribution to 10 MW: SFP = (0 +/- 1)%. ‡ Submitted to Physics of Plasmas†

  10. Anomalous fast ion losses at high β on the tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Bell, M. G.; Budny, R. V.; Darrow, D. S.; White, R.

    2015-03-15

    This paper describes experiments carried out on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. J. Hawryluk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 33, 1509 (1991)] to investigate the dependence of β-limiting disruption characteristics on toroidal field strength. The hard disruptions found at the β-limit in high field plasmas were not found at low field, even for β's 50% higher than the empirical β-limit of β{sub n} ≈ 2 at high field. Comparisons of experimentally measured β's to TRANSP simulations suggest anomalous loss of up to half of the beam fast ions in the highest β, low field shots. The anomalous transport responsible for the fast ion losses may at the same time broaden the pressure profile. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes, fishbone instabilities, and Geodesic Acoustic Modes are investigated as possible causes of the enhanced losses. Here, we present the first observations of high frequency fishbones [F. Zonca et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 085009 (2009)] on TFTR. The interpretation of Axi-symmetric Beam-driven Modes as Geodesic Acoustic Modes and their possible correlation with transport barrier formation are also presented.

  11. Preparations for deuterium tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, G.

    1994-04-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a Fluorinet{sup {trademark}} system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium-deuterium (D-D) run to simulate expected deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D-T experiments using D-D have been performed. The physics objectives of D-T operation are production of {approximately} 10 megawatts (MW) of fusion power, evaluation of confinement and heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas, evaluation of {alpha}-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined {alpha}-particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D-T experiments are reviewed.

  12. Fracture toughness evaluation of fusion reactor structural steels at low temperatures by small punch tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, T.; Nagata, S.; Aoki, N.; Ishizaka, J.; Hamaguchi, Y.

    1989-12-01

    A small punch (SP) test using miniaturized specimens has been performed for cryogenic austenitic steels at 4.2, 77 and 293 K to evaluate fracture toughness in a fusion material program. An SP testing cryostat for load versus deflection curve measurements has been successfully constructed. A universal relationship between valid fracture toughness, JIC, and equivalent fracture strain, ¯ge qf, for austenitic steels at different test temperatures has been confirmed and empirical parameters for that relation have been determined using a linear regression model. A linear correlation between valid JIC and ¯ge qf has been clarified for austenitic steels at low temperatures, where the regression coefficient is found to be 845 kJ/m 2. Using the results of the SP test above room temperature, a new attempt at statistical analysis has been proposed to estimate the relative change in fracture toughness due to neutron irradiation.

  13. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrison, L M; Zenobia, S J; Egle, B J; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10(14) ions/(cm(2) s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials. PMID:27587118

  14. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, L. M.; Zenobia, S. J.; Egle, B. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA-500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 1014 ions/(cm2 s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  15. A cost-effective target supply for inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, D. T.; Alexander, N. B.; Brown, L. C.; Frey, D. T.; Gallix, R.; Gibson, C. R.; Maxwell, J. L.; Nobile, A.; Olson, C.; Petzoldt, R. W.; Raffray, R.; Rochau, G.; Schroen, D. G.; Tillack, M.; Rickman, W. S.; Vermillion, B.

    2004-12-01

    A central feature of an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant is a target that has been compressed and heated to fusion conditions by the energy input of the driver. This is true whether the driver is a laser system, heavy ion beams or Z-pinch system. The IFE target fabrication, injection and tracking programmes are focusing on methods that will scale to mass production. We are working closely with target designers, and power plant systems specialists, to make specifications and material selections that will satisfy a wide range of required and desirable target characteristics. One-of-a-kind capsules produced for today's inertial confinement fusion experiments are estimated to cost about US2500 each. Design studies of cost-effective power production from laser and heavy-ion driven IFE have suggested a cost goal of about 0.25-0.30 for each injected target (corresponding to ~10% of the 'electricity value' in a target). While a four orders of magnitude cost reduction may seem at first to be nearly impossible, there are many factors that suggest this is achievable. This paper summarizes the design, specifications, requirements and proposed manufacturing processes for the future for laser fusion, heavy ion fusion and Z-pinch driven targets. These target manufacturing processes have been developed—and are proposed—based on the unique materials science and technology programmes that are ongoing for each of the target concepts. We describe the paradigm shifts in target manufacturing methodologies that will be needed to achieve orders of magnitude reductions in target costs, and summarize the results of 'nth-of-a-kind' plant layouts and cost estimates for future IFE power plant fuelling. These engineering studies estimate the cost of the target supply in a fusion economy, and show that costs are within the range of commercial feasibility for electricity production.

  16. Images of plasma disruption effects in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maqueda, R.J.; Wurden, G.A.

    1999-02-01

    Fast-framing imaging of visible radiation from magnetically confined plasmas has lately become a useful tool for both machine operation and physics studies. Using an intensified, commercial Kodak Ektapro imaging system, the effects of a plasma disruption were observed in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The high-energy runaway electrons created soon after the disruption collide with the plasma facing components damaging this surface and producing a shower of debris that traverses the toroidal vessel and falls over the inner bumper limiter.

  17. Alpha particle losses from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Batha, S.

    1996-01-01

    Because alpha particle losses can have a significant influence on tokamak reactor viability, the loss of deuterium-tritium alpha particles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been measured under a wide range of conditions. In TFTR, first orbit loss and stochastic toroidal field ripple diffusion are always present. Other losses can arise due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or due to waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. No alpha particle losses have yet been seen due to collective instabilities driven by alphas. Ion Bernstein waves can drive large losses of fast ions from TFTR, and details of those losses support one element of the alpha energy channeling scenario.

  18. Safety Assessment for Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plants: Methodology and Application to the Analysis of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO Conceptual Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Sanz, J.; Gomez del Rio, J.

    2001-06-01

    Although the safety and environmental (S & E) characteristics of fusion energy have long been emphasized, these benefits are not automatically achieved. To maximize the potential S & E attractiveness of the inertial fusion energy (IFE), analyses must be performed early in the designs so that lessons can be learned and intelligent decisions made. In this work we have introduced for the first time heat transfer and thermal-hydraulics calculations as part of a state-of-the-art set of codes and libraries in order to establish an updated methodology for IFE safety analysis. We have focused our efforts primarily on two IFE power plant conceptual designs: HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO. To some degree, these designs represent the extremes in IFE power plant designs. Also, a preliminary safety assessment has been performed for a generic target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production techniques. Although this study cannot address all issues and hazards posed by an IFE power plant, it advances our understanding of radiological safety of such facilities. This will enable better comparisons between IFE designs and competing technologies from the safety point of view.

  19. Tools and methods for implementing the control systems on the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, E.G.; Labiak, W.G.

    1981-09-29

    Installation of the major hardware subsystems for MFTF is nearing completion. These subsystems include the Fusion Chamber System, the eighty KV Neutral Beam System, the Superconducting Magnet System, and the Personnel Safety System. The Local Controls group has undertaken a uniform aproach to implementing the control systems for all of these hardware subsystems. This approach has two major aspects: (1) to provide a stand-alone computer control system with a remote, portable terminal so that computer control can be provided at the site of the hardware for initial testing, (2) to provide hardware simulators so that the complicated MFTF computer control system can be tested independent of the hardware. The software and hardware tools which were developed to carry out this plan will be described. Our experiences with bringing up subsystems containing up to 900 separate channels of control and status will also be described.

  20. Deuterium-tritium plasmas in novel regimes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.G.; Beer, M.; Batha, S.

    1997-02-01

    Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have explored several novel regimes of improved tokamak confinement in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas, including plasmas with reduced or reversed magnetic shear in the core and high-current plasmas with increased shear in the outer region (high-l{sub i}). New techniques have also been developed to enhance the confinement in these regimes by modifying the plasma-limiter interaction through in-situ deposition of lithium. In reversed-shear plasmas, transitions to enhanced confinement have been observed at plasma currents up to 2.2 MA (q{sub a} {approx} 4.3), accompanied by the formation of internal transport barriers, where large radial gradients develop in the temperature and density profiles. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the barrier formation and its relationship with the magnetic configuration and with the heating characteristics. The increased stability of high-current, high-l{sub i} plasmas produced by rapid expansion of the minor cross-section, coupled with improvement in the confinement by lithium deposition has enabled the achievement of high fusion power, up to 8.7 MW, with D-T neutral beam heating. The physics of fusion alpha-particle confinement has been investigated in these regimes, including the interactions of the alphas with endogenous plasma instabilities and externally applied waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In D-T plasmas with q{sub 0} > 1 and weak magnetic shear in the central region, a toroidal Alfven eigenmode instability driven purely by the alpha particles has been observed for the first time. The interactions of energetic ions with ion Bernstein waves produced by mode-conversion from fast waves in mixed-species plasmas have been studied as a possible mechanism for transferring the energy of the alphas to fuel ions.

  1. Simulations of 3D LPI's relevant to IFE using the PIC code OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Winjum, B. J.

    2014-10-01

    We will study three dimensional effects of laser plasma instabilities, including backward raman scattering, the high frequency hybrid instability, and the two plasmon instability using OSIRIS in 3D Cartesian geometry and cylindrical 2D OSIRIS with azimuthal mode decompositions. With our new capabilities we hope to demonstrate that we are capable of studying single speckle physics relevant to IFE in an efficent manner.

  2. Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea by School Adolescents in ILE-IFE, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A.; Babatunde, Oluwayemisi A.

    2010-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a problem that girls and women face and often manage themselves with or without support from health professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted among adolescents with dysmenorrhea (N = 150) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The aims of the study were to determine their knowledge of menstruation and primary dysmenorrhea,…

  3. Deuterium-Tritium Simulations of the Enhanced Reversed Shear Mode in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Manickam, J.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff

    1997-04-01

    The potential performance, in deuterium-tritium plasmas, of a new enhanced con nement regime with reversed magnetic shear (ERS mode) is assessed. The equilibrium conditions for an ERS mode plasma are estimated by solving the plasma transport equations using the thermal and particle dif- fusivities measured in a short duration ERS mode discharge in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [F. M. Levinton, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 75, 4417, (1995)]. The plasma performance depends strongly on Zeff and neutral beam penetration to the core. The steady state projections typically have a central electron density of {approx}2:5x10 20 m{sup -3} and nearly equal central electron and ion temperatures of {approx}10 keV. In time dependent simulations the peak fusion power, {approx} 25 MW, is twice the steady state level. Peak performance occurs during the density rise when the central ion temperature is close to the optimal value of {approx} 15 keV. The simulated pressure profiles can be stable to ideal MHD instabilities with toroidal mode number n = 1, 2, 3, 4 and {infinity} for {beta}{sub norm} up to 2.5; the simulations have {beta}{sub norm} {le} 2.1. The enhanced reversed shear mode may thus provide an opportunity to conduct alpha physics experiments in conditions imilar to those proposed for advanced tokamak reactors.

  4. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  5. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying

    2016-03-01

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification. PMID:27036822

  6. Inertial Confinement Fusion: Quarterly report, April-June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, D.

    1996-06-01

    The lead article, `Ion-beam propagation in a low-density reactor chamber for heavy-ion inertial fusion` (p. 89), explores the ability of heavy-ion beams to be adequately transported and focused in an IFE reactor. The next article, `Efficient production and applications of 2- to 10-keV x rays by laser-heated underdense radiators` (p. 96), explores the ability of the NIF to produce sufficient high-energy x rays for diagnostic backlighting, target preheating, or uniform irradiation of large test objects for Nuclear Weapons Effects Testing. For capsule implosion experiments, the increasing energies and distances involved in the NIF compared to Nova require the development of new diagnostics methods. The article `Fusion reaction-rate measurements--Nova and NIF` (p. 115) first reviews the use of time-resolved neutron measurements on Nova to monitor fusion burn histories and then explores the limitations of that technique, principally Doppler broadening, for the proposed NIF. It also explores the use of gamma rays on Nova, thereby providing a proof-of-principle for using gamma rays for monitoring fusion burn histories on the NIF. The articles `The energetics of gas-filled hohlraums` (p. 110) and `Measurements of laser- speckle-induced perturbations in laser-driven foils` (p. 123) report measurements on Nova of two important aspects of implosion experiments. The first characterizes the amount of energy lost from a hohlraum by stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering as a function of gas fill and laser-beam uniformity. The second of these articles shows that the growth of density nonuniformities implanted on smooth capsule surfaces by laser speckle can be correlated with the effects of physical surface roughness. The article `Laser-tissue interaction modeling with the LATIS computer program` (p. 103) explores the use of modeling to enhance the effectiveness--maximize desired effects and minimize collateral damage--of lasers for medical purposes.

  7. The role of inertial fusion energy in the energy marketplace of the 21st century and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John Perkins, L.

    The viability of inertial fusion in the 21st century and beyond will be determined by its ultimate cost, complexity, and development path relative to other competing, long term, primary energy sources. We examine this potential marketplace in terms of projections for population growth, energy demands, competing fuel sources and environmental constraints (CO 2), and show that the two competitors for inertial fusion energy (IFE) in the medium and long term are methane gas hydrates and advanced, breeder fission; both have potential fuel reserves that will last for thousands of years. Relative to other classes of fusion concepts, we argue that the single largest advantage of the inertial route is the perception by future customers that the IFE fusion power core could achieve credible capacity factors, a result of its relative simplicity, the decoupling of the driver and reactor chamber, and the potential to employ thick liquid walls. In particular, we show that the size, cost and complexity of the IFE reactor chamber is little different to a fission reactor vessel of the same thermal power. Therefore, relative to fission, because of IFE's tangible advantages in safety, environment, waste disposal, fuel supply and proliferation, our research in advanced targets and innovative drivers can lead to a certain, reduced-size driver at which future utility executives will be indifferent to the choice of an advanced fission plant or an advanced IFE power plant; from this point on, we have a competitive commercial product. Finally, given that the major potential customer for energy in the next century is the present developing world, we put the case for future IFE "reservations" which could be viable propositions providing sufficient reliability and redundancy can be realized for each modular reactor unit.

  8. Early experience with laparoscopic surgery in children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Talabi, Ademola Olusegun; Adisa, Adewale Oluseye; Adefehinti, Olufemi; Sowande, Oludayo Adedapo; Etonyeaku, Amarachukwu Chiduziem; Adejuyigbe, Olusanya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Laparoscopy is not yet routinely employed in many Paediatric Surgical Units in Nigeria despite the advantages it offers. This study describes the preliminary experience with laparoscopic procedures in a single centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children who had laparoscopic surgery between January 2009 and December 2013 at the Paediatric Surgical Unit of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile-Ife was carried out. Their sociodemographic, preoperative and intraoperative data along with postoperative records were subjected to descriptive analysis. Results: Eleven (44%) diagnostic and 14 (56%) therapeutic procedures were performed on 25 children whose age ranged from 5 months to 15 years (Median: 84 months, Mean: 103 ± 64.1 months), including eight (32%) females and 17 (68%) males. Indications included acute appendicitis in 12 (48%), intra-abdominal masses in six (24%), three (12%) disorders of sexual differentiation, two (8%) ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunctions and impalpable undescended testes in two (8%) children. The procedures lasted 15-90 minutes (Mean = 54 (±21.6) minutes). Conversion rate was 17% for two patients who had ruptured retrocaecal appendices. No intra operative complications were recorded while three (12%) patients had superficial port site infections post-operatively. All diagnostic (11) and two therapeutic procedures were done as day case surgery. The mean duration of hospital stay was 3.1 (±3.3) days for those who had appendectomies. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery in children is safe and feasible in our hospital. We advocate increased use of laparoscopy in paediatric surgical practice in Nigeria and similar developing settings. PMID:25659546

  9. Multiple tests for wind turbine fault detection and score fusion using two- level multidimensional scaling (MDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiang; Gao, Weihua; Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2010-04-01

    Wind is an important renewable energy source. The energy and economic return from building wind farms justify the expensive investments in doing so. However, without an effective monitoring system, underperforming or faulty turbines will cause a huge loss in revenue. Early detection of such failures help prevent these undesired working conditions. We develop three tests on power curve, rotor speed curve, pitch angle curve of individual turbine. In each test, multiple states are defined to distinguish different working conditions, including complete shut-downs, under-performing states, abnormally frequent default states, as well as normal working states. These three tests are combined to reach a final conclusion, which is more effective than any single test. Through extensive data mining of historical data and verification from farm operators, some state combinations are discovered to be strong indicators of spindle failures, lightning strikes, anemometer faults, etc, for fault detection. In each individual test, and in the score fusion of these tests, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) to reduce the high dimensional feature space into a 3-dimensional visualization, from which it is easier to discover turbine working information. This approach gains a qualitative understanding of turbine performance status to detect faults, and also provides explanations on what has happened for detailed diagnostics. The state-of-the-art SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system in industry can only answer the question whether there are abnormal working states, and our evaluation of multiple states in multiple tests is also promising for diagnostics. In the future, these tests can be readily incorporated in a Bayesian network for intelligent analysis and decision support.

  10. Modeling of neutral hydrogen velocities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Budny, R. V.; Ramsey, A. T.; Ruzic, D. N.; Turkot, R. B., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Monte Carlo neutral transport simulations of hydrogen velocities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. McGuire et al., Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)] are compared with experiment using the Doppler-broadened Balmer-α spectral line profile. Good agreement is obtained under a range of conditions, validating the treatment of charge exchange, molecular dissociation, surface reflection, and sputtering in the neutral gas code DEGAS [D. Heifetz et al., J. Comput. Phys. 46, 309 (1982)]. A residual deficiency of 10-100 eV neutrals in most of the simulations indicates that further study of the energetics of H+2 dissociation for electron energies in excess of 100 eV is needed.

  11. Supervisory control and diagnostics system for the mirror fusion test facility: overview and status 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McGoldrick, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a complex facility requiring a highly-computerized Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) to monitor and provide control over ten subsystems; three of which require true process control. SCDS will provide physicists with a method of studying machine and plasma behavior by acquiring and processing up to four megabytes of plasma diagnostic information every five minutes. A high degree of availability and throughput is provided by a distributed computer system (nine 32-bit minicomputers on shared memory). Data, distributed across SCDS, is managed by a high-bandwidth Distributed Database Management System. The MFTF operators' control room consoles use color television monitors with touch sensitive screens; this is a totally new approach. The method of handling deviations to normal machine operation and how the operator should be notified and assisted in the resolution of problems has been studied and a system designed.

  12. Dielectronic satellite spectra of hydrogenlike iron from TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Decaux, V. ); Bitter, M.; Hsuan, H.; von Goeler, S.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Taylor, G.; Park, H. . Plasma Physics Lab.); Bhalla, C.P. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-08-01

    Spectra of hydrogenlike iron, Fe26, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the Fe26 Ly-{alpha}{sub 1}and Ly-{alpha}{sub 2} lines and the associated dielectronic satellites, which are due to transitions 1snl-2pnl{prime} with n {ge} 2, as well as the heliumlike 1s{sup 2}({sup 1}S{sub 0}){minus}1s4p({sup 1}P{sub 1})and both hydrogenlike Ly-{beta}{sub 1} and Ly-{beta}{sub 2} lines from chromium. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can be determined very accurately. The spectral data are in very good agreement with theoretical calculations. The observed spectra have also been used to estimate the total dielectronic recombination rate coefficient of Fe26. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Construction, testing of the 1 MW, 130-260 GHz Fusion-FEM

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bongers, G.; Dijk, C.A.J. van

    1995-12-31

    During the previous 9 months the major part of the Fusion-FEM has been constructed. The 2 MV Insulated Core Transformer, the electron gun, the accelerator, the focusing lenses and the undulator have been tested on-site. In the present - temporary - set-up, the electron beam line consists of a 12 A, 80 keV thermionic electron gun, a 2 MeV dc accelerator, beam transport optics, the undulator and a collector. The gun is mounted in the high voltage terminal, which is now at -2 MV, and the undulator and mm-wave system am at ground potential outside the SF{sub 6}-filled pressure tank. This so-called inverse set-up allows easy access to the larger part of the beam line, the undulator and the mm-wave system, which is important in the conditioning phase. The decelerator and depressed collector am not yet installed. The design of the electron beam line has been optimised using the GPS particle-tracking code and the TOSCA code. The TOSCA code is used for accurate field calculations of the magnetic lenses. The results are used in the GPS code. The combination of these two codes allows optimization of the tens designs with respect to aberations, such as to avoid emittance growth. The mm-wave beam line has been designed, including a Boron-Nitride, Brewster angle, high power, broadband window. The window is designed for transmitting 1 MW of mm-wave power in the frequency range 130 - 260 GHz. Loss power is of the order of a percent. The first major goal is the transport of the electron beam through the undulator with only a small loss current. We report the final design of the electron beam line, the design of the mm-wave beam line, and the status of construction and testing of the Fusion-FEM.

  14. Challenges Surrounding the Injection and Arrival of Targets at LIFE Fusion Chamber Center

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, R; Spaeth, M; Manes, K; Amendt, P; Tabak, M; Bond, T; Kucheyev, S; Latkowski, J; Loosmore, G; Bliss, E; Baker, K; Bhandarkar, S; Petzoldt, R; Alexander, N; Tillack, M; Holdener, D

    2010-12-01

    IFE target designers must consider several engineering requirements in addition to the physics requirements for successful target implosion. These considerations include low target cost, high manufacturing throughput, the ability of the target to survive the injection into the fusion chamber and arrive in a condition and physical position consistent with proper laser-target interaction and ease of post-implosion debris removal. This article briefly describes these considerations for the Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) targets currently being designed.

  15. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H{sub 2}O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  16. Analysis of the tritium-water (T-H sub 2 O) system for a fusion material test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Smith, D.L.; Sze, D.K.; Reed, C.B.

    1992-04-01

    The need for a high flux, high energy neutron test facility to evaluate performance of fusion reactor materials is urgent. An accelerator based D-Li source is generally accepted as the most reasonable approach to a high flux neutron source in the near future. The idea is to bombard a high energy (35 MeV) deuteron beam into a lithium target to produce high energy neutrons to simulate the fusion environment. More recently it was proposed to use a 21 MeV triton beam incident on a water jet target to produce the required neutron source for testing and simulating fusion material environments. The advantages of such a system are discussed. Major concerns regarding the feasibility of this system are also highlighted.

  17. Anomalous Loss of DT Alpha Particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1997-06-01

    Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first experimental fusion device to routinely use tritium to study the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction,allowing the first systematic study of DT alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. A crucial aspect of alpha-particle physics is the fraction of alphas that escape from the plasma, particularly since these energetic particles can do severe damage to the first wall of a reactor. An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of alpha-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous "delayed" loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on alpha-particle loss has led to a better understanding of alpha-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing alpha-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e. compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90 degree lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an alpha-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized alpha-particles near the

  18. Remote Handling and Plasma Conditions to Enable Fusion Nuclear Science R&D Using a US Component Testing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Burgess, Thomas W; Carroll, Adam J; Neumeyer, C. L.; Canik, John; Cole, Michael J; Dorland, W. D.; Fogarty, P. J.; Grisham, L.; Hillis, Donald Lee; Katoh, Yutai; Korsah, Kofi; Kotschenreuther, M.; LaHaye, R.; Mahajan, S.; Majeski, R.; Nelson, Brad E; Patton, Bradley D; Rasmussen, David A; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sontag, Aaron C; Stoller, Roger E; Tsai, C. C.; Vanlanju, P.; Wagner, Jill C; Yoder, III, Graydon L

    2009-08-01

    The use of a fusion component testing facility to study and establish, during the ITER era, the remaining scientific and technical knowledge needed by fusion Demo is considered and described in this paper. This use aims to lest components in an integrated fusion nuclear environment, for the first time, to discover and understand the underpinning physical properties, and to develop improved components for further testing, in a time-efficient manner. It requires a design with extensive modularization and remote handling of activated components, and flexible hot-cell laboratories. It further requires reliable plasma conditions to avoid disruptions and minimize their impact, and designs to reduce the divertor heat flux to the level of ITER design. As the plasma duration is extended through the planned ITER level (similar to 10(3) s) and beyond, physical properties with increasing time constants, progressively for similar to 10(4) s, similar to 10(5) s, and similar to 10(6) s, would become accessible for testing and R&D. The longest time constants of these are likely to be of the order of a week ( 106 S). Progressive stages of research operation are envisioned in deuterium, deuterium-tritium for the ITER duration, and deuterium-tritium with increasingly longer plasma durations. The fusion neutron fluence and operational duty factor anticipated for this "scientific exploration" phase of a component test facility are estimated to be up to 1 MW-yr/m(2) and up to 10%, respectively.

  19. FUSION METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PLUTONIUM IN SOILS: SINGLE-LABORATORY EVALUATION AND INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of a single-laboratory evaluation and an interlaboratory collaborative test of a method for measuring plutonium in soil. The method employs potassium fluoride and potassium pyrosulfate fusions to decompose a 10-gram sample, barium sulfate precipit...

  20. Alpha Particle-Driven Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Deuterium-Tritium Plasmas: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Fu, G.Y.; Nazikian, R.

    1998-07-09

    The toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [K. Young, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 11 (1984)]deuterium-tritium plasmas are analyzed using the NOVA-K code [C.Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211, 1 (1992)]. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental measurements in detail. In most cases, the theory agrees with the observations in terms of mode frequency, mode structure, and mode stability. However, one mode with toroidal mode number n = 2 is observed to be poloidally localized on the high field side of the magnetic axis with a mode frequency substantially below the TAE frequency.

  1. SELF-SIMILAR SKELETAL STRUCTURES IN FUSION AND MATERIAL TEST DEVICES: NUMERICAL MODELING AND NEW OBSERVATIONAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kukushkin, A. B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V. A.

    2009-07-26

    The hypotheses for self-assembling of a fractal condensed matter in electric discharges and the probable role of a skeletal matter in the long-lived filamentary structures in fusion devices is studied in two directions. First, we append previous collection of respective data with recent evidences for skeletal structuring in peripheral plasmas and dust deposits in fusion and material test devices. Second, we demonstrate, via numerical modelling, the possibility of coaxial tubular structuring formation in a system of electric current filaments composed of magnetized, electrically conducting thin rods (nanodust), with an accent on self-reduction of spatial dimensionality of structuring and on the role of magnetic in such systems.

  2. Modeling and Testing Miniature Torsion Specimens for SiC Joining Development Studies for Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Borlaug, Brennan A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, Andrea; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-08-19

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with CVD-SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many of these miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the CVD-SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated joint strengths to determine the effects of the irradiation. Finite element elastic damage and elastic-plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated joint test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  3. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Henager, Jr., C. H.; Nguyen, Ba N.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Ferraris, Monica; Ventrella, A.; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-08-05

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. For this research, miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite elementmore » elastic damage and elastic–plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. Finally, the implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.« less

  4. Modeling and testing miniature torsion specimens for SiC joining development studies for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, C. H.; Nguyen, B. N.; Kurtz, R. J.; Roosendaal, T. J.; Borlaug, B. A.; Ferraris, M.; Ventrella, A.; Katoh, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The international fusion community has designed a miniature torsion specimen for neutron irradiation studies of joined SiC and SiC/SiC composite materials. Miniature torsion joints based on this specimen design were fabricated using displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC joints with SiC and tested in torsion-shear prior to and after neutron irradiation. However, many miniature torsion specimens fail out-of-plane within the SiC specimen body, which makes it problematic to assign a shear strength value to the joints and makes it difficult to compare unirradiated and irradiated strengths to determine irradiation effects. Finite element elastic damage and elastic-plastic damage models of miniature torsion joints are developed that indicate shear fracture is more likely to occur within the body of the joined sample and cause out-of-plane failures for miniature torsion specimens when a certain modulus and strength ratio between the joint material and the joined material exists. The model results are compared and discussed with regard to unirradiated and irradiated test data for a variety of joint materials. The unirradiated data includes Ti3SiC2 + SiC/CVD-SiC joints with tailored joint moduli, and includes steel/epoxy and CVD-SiC/epoxy joints. The implications for joint data based on this sample design are discussed.

  5. The IfE Global Gravity Field Model Recovered from GOCE Orbit and Gradiometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hu; Muiller, Jurgen; Brieden, Phillip

    2015-03-01

    An independent global gravity field model is computed from the GOCE orbit and gradiometer data using our own IfE software. We analysed the same data period that were considered for the first released GOCE models. The Acceleration Approach is applied to process the orbit data. The gravity gradients are processed in the framework of the remove-restore technique by which the low-frequency noise of the original gradients are removed. For the combined solution, the normal equations are summed by the Variance Component Estimation Approach. The result in terms of accumulated geoid height error calculated from the coefficient difference w.r.t. EGM2008 is about 11 cm at D/O 200, which corresponds to the accuracy level of the first released TIM and DIR solutions. This indicates that our IfE model has a comparable performance as the other official GOCE models.

  6. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  7. Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE and the Fusion Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James

    2008-11-01

    Recent proposed designs for a Fusion Test Facility (FTF) (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) but the proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize the LPI risk. We examine, using simulation results from NRL's FAST hydrocode, the proposed operational regimes of the FTF in relation to the thresholds for the SRS, SBS, and 2-plasmon instabilities. Simulations are also used to help design and interpret ongoing experiments being conducted at NRL's NIKE facility for the purpose of generating and studying LPI. Target geometries and laser pulseshapes were devised in order to create plasma conditions with long scalelengths and low electron temperatures that allow the growth of parametric instabilities. These simulations include the effects of finite beam angles through the use of raytracing.

  8. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  9. Facility for high heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S; Ohriner, Evan Keith; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C; Snead, Lance Lewis; Schaich, Charles Ross

    2014-01-01

    A new high-heat flux testing facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon Plasma Arc Lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can handle irradiated plasma facing component materials and mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at ORNL can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over a heated area of 9x12 and 1x10 cm2, respectively, which are fusion-prototypical steady state heat flux conditions. The facility will be described and the main differences between the photon-based high-heat flux testing facilities, such as PALs, and the e-beam and particle beam facilities more commonly used for fusion HHF testing are discussed. The components of the test chamber were designed to accommodate radiation safety and materials compatibility requirements posed by high-temperature exposure of low levels irradiated tungsten articles. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing are presented and discussed.

  10. Idiopathic Focal Eosinophilic Enteritis (IFEE), an Emerging Cause of Abdominal Pain in Horses: The Effect of Age, Time and Geographical Location on Risk

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Debra C.; Costain, Deborah A.; Sherlock, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic focal eosinophilic enteritis (IFEE) is an emerging cause of abdominal pain (colic) in horses that frequently requires surgical intervention to prevent death. The epidemiology of IFEE is poorly understood and it is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. The aetiology of this condition and methods of possible prevention are currently unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate temporal and spatial heterogeneity in IFEE risk and to ascertain the effect of horse age on risk. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective, nested case-control study was undertaken using data from 85 IFEE cases and 848 randomly selected controls admitted to a UK equine hospital for exploratory laparotomy to investigate the cause of colic over a 10-year period. Generalised additive models (GAMs) were used to quantify temporal and age effects on the odds of IFEE and to provide mapped estimates of ‘residual’ risk over the study region. The relative risk of IFEE increased over the study period (p = 0.001) and a seasonal pattern was evident (p<0.01) with greatest risk of IFEE being identified between the months of July and November. IFEE risk decreased with increasing age (p<0.001) with younger (0–5 years old) horses being at greatest risk. The mapped surface estimate exhibited significantly atypical sub-regions (p<0.001) with increased IFEE risk in horses residing in the North-West of the study region. Conclusions/Significance IFEE was found to exhibit both spatial and temporal variation in risk and is more likely to occur in younger horses. This information may help to identify horses at increased risk of IFEE, provide clues about the aetiology of this condition and to identify areas that require further research. PMID:25463382

  11. The measurement of gamma heating in a fusion blanket test assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H. K.; Bennett, E. F.; Micklich, B. J.

    Determining the distribution of gamma heating in fusion test assemblies will help guide the construction and operation of future experiments. Currently the dominant technique for spatial characterization of heating is the wide dispersal of thin film TLD's, which are limited to measurement of the total neutron + gamma dose. Heating is measured using calibrated proportional counters, which allows for the rejection of fast pulse rise events characteristic of ionizations produced by neutron induced atomic recoils. A coupled calculational and experimental program designed to demonstrate this capability was initiated at ANL. An irradiation assembly composed of graphite filled 5 x 5 x 61 cm Mg sleeves in cubic geometry was constructed. This assembly was then irradiated in turn with Co-60 gammas and 14.8 MeV neutrons produced by a D-T neutron generator in two sets of measurements with the proportional counter occupying various positions in the central channel of the assembly. Calculation of the expected dose in the assembly due to the sources at the positions of interest were made. These calculations first generated the neutral flux profile in the assembly with either ANISN or MCNP depending on the degree of detail used in the modelling of the counter. The profile is then fed into a charged particle generation model to obtain the charged particle profiles, hence energy deposition in the assembly. A comparison was made between these calculations of the energy deposition and measured energy deposition in the assembly. It is hoped that by understanding this comparison a clear picture of gamma heating in a mixed gamma and neutron environment will be obtained.

  12. Surface analysis of 1984/1985 Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor limiter tiles

    SciTech Connect

    Pontau, A.E.; Wampler, W.R.; Mills, B.E.; Doyle, B.L.; Wright, A.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; LaMarche, P.H.; Dylla, H.F.; Fukuda, S.

    1986-05-01

    Bare POCO AXF-5Q graphite tiles were installed as the plasma-facing surface of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) movable limiter for a series of approx. 2700 high power discharges (600 with up to 6 MW neutral beams). During this operating phase, erosion and deposition processes modified the surface of the limiter. In the regions of the most intense plasma contact, which reached temperatures over 2400/sup 0/C, only small amounts of metallic impurities (<5 x 10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) are observed during subsequent beta backscattering and proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Also observed in these regions are several small areas of surface crazing, and scattered droplets of metals (approx. 1 mm diam) presumed to originate from melted internal hardware. In regions more removed from direct plasma contact, thicker metallic deposits are observed (approx. 2 x 10/sup 18/ atoms/cm/sup 2/). There are more of these deposits on the side facing the electron drift direction than on the ion drift side. The metallic deposits are composed of approx. 55% Ni, 25% Cr, and 20% Fe and several trace elements. Near-surface retained deuterium levels vary from 10/sup 16/ to 10/sup 18//cm/sup 2/ along one ion-side/electron-side pair of tiles. Deuterium from TFTR operations in the bulk of a tile may have been as much as 5 ppm. Hydrogen in the tile was approx.1 at. %. Surface roughness measured outside the intense plasma contact region is much more than the original POCO AXF-5Q graphite, whereas within the plasma contact region, tile surfaces are somewhat smoother than they were initially. Two of the tiles in high heat flux regions broke during operation. The resulting geometry change led to areas of enhanced erosion and nearby redeposition of carbon.

  13. Integrated systems for pulsed-power driven inertial fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Slutz, S. A.; Stygar, W. A.; Herrmann, M. C.; Sinars, D. B.; McBride, R. D.; Vesey, R. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Vandevender, J. P.; Waisman, E. M.; Hansen, D. L.; Owen, A. C.; Jones, J. F.; Romero, J. A.; McKenney, J.

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed power fusion concepts integrate: (i) directly-magnetically-driven fusion targets that absorb large energies (10 MJ), (ii) efficient, rep-rated driver modules, (iii) compact, scalable, integrated driver architectures, (iv) driver-to-target coupling techniques with standoff and driver protection, and (v) long lifetime fusion chambers shielded by vaporizing blankets and thick liquid walls. Large fusion yields (3-30 GJ) and low rep-rates (0.1-1 Hz) may be an attractive path for IFE. Experiments on the ZR facility are validating physics issues for magnetically driven targets. Scientific breakeven (fusion energy = fuel energy) may be possible in the next few years. Plans for system development and integration will be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Radioactivity in the community water supplies of Ife-Central and Ife-East local government areas of Osun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchokossa, P.; Olomo, J. B.; Osibote, O. A.

    1999-02-01

    The average concentrations of radionuclides in the various types of community water supplies of the Ife-Central and Ife-East Local Government areas with a population of 200 000 people were estimated from the measurements of mean specific activity using a well-calibrated Canberra vertical coaxial high-purity germanium detector system. Water samples were collected from dam, streams, boreholes, wells, tap water, etc., being the most frequently used water sources in the study area. The radionuclides observed with reliable regularity belonged to the series - decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238U and 232Th as well as the non-series nuclide, 40K. The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K, respectively, were 8.67±4.28, 2.31±1.48 and 98.99±6.23 Bq l -1 for well water; 12.45±3.39, 3.02±0.64 and 97.46±6.35 Bq l -1 for borehole water; 12.41±1.37, 2.47±0.09 and 85.06±17.27 Bq l -1 for tap water; 10.40±1.70, 2.70±1.30 and 72.60±9.10 Bq l -1 for dam water; 7.04±0.66, 3.55±0.13 and 69.18±20.80 Bq l -1 for stream water.

  15. The prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sowemimo, Oluyomi A

    2009-03-01

    A study of gastrointestinal parasites in 269 faecal samples from dogs (Canis familiaris) collected from Ile-Ife, Nigeria between January and December 2004, revealed seven helminth species: Toxocara canis 33.8%, Ancylostoma sp. 34.6%, Toxascaris leonina 3.3%, Trichuris vulpis 3.7%, Dipylidium caninum 4.1%, Uncinaria stenocephala 0.7% and Taenia sp. 1.1%. The faecal egg intensities, determined as mean eggs per gram of faeces ( +/- SEM) were: T. canis 393.8 +/- 83.4, Ancylostoma sp. 101.5 +/- 32.8, T. leonina 14.3 +/- 7.9, T. vulpis 3.4 +/- 1.5, D. caninum 2.2 +/- 0.8, U. stenocephala 0.2 +/- 0.2. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in dogs of age 0-6 months than in older age groups. There was no significance difference in overall prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites between male (58.3%) and female (50.0%) dogs (P>0.05). The prevalence of helminth parasites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in free-ranging than in kennelled dogs. The prevalence of helminth parasites was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in African shepherds than in Alsatians and other exotic breeds. Each helminth parasite had similar prevalences and intensities among both genders (P>0.05) except in T. vulpis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for dog care in Ile-Ife. Therefore, there is the need to establish a veterinary facility in Ile-Ife. PMID:18838021

  16. Modeling of divertor geometry effects in China fusion engineering testing reactor by SOLPS/B2-Eirene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, M. L.; Chen, Y. P.; Li, G. Q.; Luo, Z. P.; Guo, H. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031; General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186 ; Ye, M. Y.; Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei 230031 ; Tendler, M.

    2014-05-15

    The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) is currently under design. The SOLPS/B2-Eirene code package is utilized for the design and optimization of the divertor geometry for CFETR. Detailed modeling is carried out for an ITER-like divertor configuration and one with relatively open inner divertor structure, to assess, in particular, peak power loading on the divertor target, which is a key issue for the operation of a next-step fusion machine, such as ITER and CFETR. As expected, the divertor peak heat flux greatly exceeds the maximum steady-state heat load of 10 MW/m{sup 2}, which is a limit dictated by engineering, for both divertor configurations with a wide range of edge plasma conditions. Ar puffing is effective at reducing divertor peak heat fluxes below 10 MW/m{sup 2} even at relatively low densities for both cases, favoring the divertor configuration with more open inner divertor structure.

  17. Analyses in Support of Z-IFE LLNL Progress Report for FY-05

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R W; Abbott, R P; Callahan, D A; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Reyes, S

    2005-10-17

    The FY04 LLNL study of Z-IFE [1] proposed and evaluated a design that deviated from SNL's previous baseline design. The FY04 study included analyses of shock mitigation, stress in the first wall, neutronics and systems studies. In FY05, the subject of this report, we build on our work and the theme of last year. Our emphasis continues to be on alternatives that hold promise of considerable improvements in design and economics compared to the base-line design. Our key results are summarized here.

  18. Renewing Aristotelian Theory: The Cold Fusion Controversy as a Test Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan G.

    1995-01-01

    Exhibits the strength and flexibility of science as a rhetorical enterprise via a rhetorical analysis of cold fusion which reveals science under considerable stress. Assumes the continuing viability of classical rhetoric as an explanation for the persuasiveness of texts, while acknowledging the need to reexamine its central concepts. (SR)

  19. Spinal fusion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion; Low back pain - fusion; Herniated disk - fusion ... If you had chronic back pain before surgery, you will likely still have some pain afterward. Spinal fusion is unlikely to take away all your pain ...

  20. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design andmore » implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.« less

  1. High-heat-flux testing of irradiated tungsten-based materials for fusion applications using infrared plasma arc lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Schaich, Charles R.; Ueda, Yoshio; Harper, David C.; Katoh, Yutai; Snead, Lance L.; Byun, Thak S.

    2014-11-01

    Testing of advanced materials and component mock-ups under prototypical fusion high-heat-flux conditions, while historically a mainstay of fusion research, has proved to be quite challenging, especially for irradiated materials. A new high-heat-flux–testing (HHFT) facility based on water-wall plasma arc lamps (PALs) is now introduced for materials and small-component testing. Two PAL systems, utilizing a 12 000°C plasma arc contained in a quartz tube cooled by a spiral water flow over the inside tube surface, provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW/m2 over areas of 9×12 and 1×10 cm2, respectively. This paper will present the overall design and implementation of a PAL-based irradiated material target station (IMTS). The IMTS is primarily designed for testing the effects of heat flux or thermal cycling on material coupons of interest, such as those for plasma-facing components. Temperature results are shown for thermal cycling under HHFT of tungsten coupon specimens that were neutron irradiated in HFIR. Finally, radiological surveys indicated minimal contamination of the 36×36×18 cm test section, demonstrating the capability of the new facility to handle irradiated specimens at high temperature.

  2. Initial progress in the first wall, blanket, and shield Engineering Test Program for magnetically confined fusion-power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.; Baker, C.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1981-10-01

    The first wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S) Engineering Test Program (ETP) progressed from the planning stage into implementation during July, 1981. The program, generic in nature, comprises four Test Program Elements (TPE's), the emphasis of which is on defining the performance parameters for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) and the major fusion device to follow FED. These elements are: (1) nonnuclear thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing of first wall and component facsimiles with emphasis on surface heat loads and heat transient (i.e., plasma disruption) effects; (2) nonnuclear and nuclear testing of FW/B/S components and assemblies with emphasis on bulk (nuclear) heating effects, integrated FW/B/S hydraulics and mechanics, blanket coolant system transients, and nuclear benchmarks; (3) FW/B/S electromagnetic and eddy current effects testing, including pulsed field penetration, torque and force restraint, electromagnetic materials, liquid metal MHD effects and the like; and (4) FW/B/S Assembly, Maintenance and Repair (AMR) studies focusing on generic AMR criteria, with the objective of preparing an AMR designers guidebook; also, development of rapid remote assembly/disassembly joint system technology, leak detection and remote handling methods.

  3. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  4. The impact of pulsed irradiation upon neutron activation calculations for inertial and magnetic fusion energy power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J.F.; Sanz, J.; Vujic, J.L.

    1996-06-26

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) and magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plants will probably operate in a pulsed mode. The two different schemes, however, will have quite different time periods. Typical repetition rates for IFE power plants will be 1-5 Hz. MFE power plants will ramp up in current for about 1 hour, shut down for several minutes, and repeat the process. Traditionally, activation calculations for IFE and MFE power plants have assumed continuous operation and used either the ``steady state`` (SS) or ``equivalent steady state`` (ESS) approximations. It has been suggested recently that the SS and ESS methods may not yield accurate results for all radionuclides of interest. The present work expands that of Sisolak, et al. by applying their formulae to conditions which might be experienced in typical IFE and MFE power plants. In addition, complicated, multi-step reaction/decay chains are analyzed using an upgraded version of the ACAB radionuclide generation/depletion code. Our results indicate that the SS method is suitable for application to MFE power plant conditions. We also find that the ESS method generates acceptable results for radionuclides with half-lives more than a factor of three greater than the time between pulses. For components that are subject to 0.05 Hz (or more frequent) irradiation (such as coolant), use of the ESS method is recommended. For components or materials that are subject to less frequent irradiation (such as high-Z target materials), pulsed irradiation calculations should be used.

  5. Facility for high-heat flux testing of irradiated fusion materials and components using infrared plasma arc lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Ohriner, Evan K.; Kiggans, Jim; Harper, David C.; Snead, Lance L.; Schaich, Charles R.

    2014-04-01

    A new high-heat flux testing (HHFT) facility using water-wall stabilized high-power high-pressure argon plasma arc lamps (PALs) has been developed for fusion applications. It can accommodate irradiated plasma facing component materials and sub-size mock-up divertor components. Two PALs currently available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory can provide maximum incident heat fluxes of 4.2 and 27 MW m-2, which are prototypic of fusion steady state heat flux conditions, over a heated area of 9 × 12 and 1 × 10 cm2, respectively. The use of PAL permits the heat source to be environmentally separated from the components of the test chamber, simplifying the design to accommodate safe testing of low-level irradiated articles and materials under high-heat flux. Issues related to the operation and temperature measurements during testing of tungsten samples are presented and discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of this photon-based HHFT facility are compared to existing e-beam and particle beam facilities used for similar purposes.

  6. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J.

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  7. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  8. Systems modeling and analysis of heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.

    1998-06-03

    A computer model for systems analysis of heavy ion drivers based on induction linac technology has been used to evaluate driver designs for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Design parameters and estimated costs have been determined for drivers with various ions, different charge states, different front-end designs, with and without beam merging, and various pulse compression and acceleration schedules. We have examined the sensitivity of the results to variations in component cost assumptions, design constraints, and selected design parameters

  9. Neutronics issues and inertial fusion energy: a summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J. F., LLNL

    1998-05-29

    We have analyzed and compared five major inertial fusion energy (IFE) and two representative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) power plant designs for their environment, safety, and health (ES&H) characteristics. Our work has focussed upon the neutronics of each of the designs and the resulting radiological hazard indices. The calculation of a consistent set of hazard indices allows comparisons to be made between the designs. Such comparisons enable identification of trends in fusion ES&H characteristics and may be used to increase the likelihood of fusion achieving its full potential with respect to ES&H characteristics. The present work summarizes our findings and conclusions. This work emphasizes the need for more research in low-activation materials and for the experimental measurement of radionuclide release fractions under accident conditions.

  10. A New Interpretation of Alpha-particle-driven Instabilities in Deuterium-Tritium Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nazikian; G.J. Kramer; C.Z. Cheng; N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; S.E. Sharapov

    2003-03-26

    The original description of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in terms of Toroidal Alfvin Eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the anti-ballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time.

  11. Hot electrons in the anchor region of the axicell design of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-09-14

    The axicell design of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) requires electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) up to average electron energies of as high as 450 keV. These temperatures, plus the magnetic field and plasma beta profiles, lead to the requirement for three frequencies-28, 35, and 56 (or 60) GHz. Power balance studies include the effects of scattering, drag, synchrotron radiation, and cold electron production, and they predict that about 600 kW of ECRH power is needed at each end of MFTF.

  12. Integrated operations plan for the MFTF-B Mirror Fusion Test Facility. Volume II. Integrated operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    This document defines an integrated plan for the operation of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B). The plan fulfills and further delineates LLNL policies and provides for accomplishing the functions required by the program. This plan specifies the management, operations, maintenance, and engineering support responsibilities. It covers phasing into sustained operations as well as the sustained operations themselves. Administrative and Plant Engineering support, which are now being performed satisfactorily, are not part of this plan unless there are unique needs.

  13. New interpretation of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor.

    PubMed

    Nazikian, R; Kramer, G J; Cheng, C Z; Gorelenkov, N N; Berk, H L; Sharapov, S E

    2003-09-19

    The original description of alpha particle driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor in terms of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the antiballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time. PMID:14525368

  14. The Study on the Measurement & Testing Technology of the HMCVT Hydraulic Pressure Based on the Data Fusion Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. W.; Zhou, Z. L.; Men, Q. Y.; Deng, C. N.

    2006-10-01

    The pressure of the hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) is not only one of the major factors affecting the performance of the power train but also the major control parameter of the HMCVT control system. So how to improve the high accuracy hydraulic pressure parameter for the HMCVT control system will be one of the key technologies in system development. Based on the HMCVT test system for a certain tracked vehicle, the hydraulic pressure is studied, and multi-sensor data fusion technology based on Taylor polynomial regression equation is put forward, which turn out to improve the performance of the pressure sensor. Utilizing the above-mentioned method, the ability of antijamming of the hydraulic screen pressure system of the HMCVT is effectively improved, and the validity of the test data in the test system is improved too.

  15. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  16. Damage parameter comparison for candidate intense neutron test facilities for fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Greenwood, L.R. ); Mann, F.M. )

    1990-07-31

    It is recognized worldwide that an intense source of fusion energy neutrons is needed to evaluate candidate fusion materials. At an International Energy Agency (IEA) workshop held in San Diego in February 1989, an Evaluation Panel recommended that three neutron source concepts be developed further. The panel also recommended that further comparisons were needed of their irradiation environments. In this paper, a comparison is made of damage parameters for beryllium, carbon, silicon, vanadium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and tungsten irradiated in spectra characteristic of di-Li, spallation, and beam-plasma (d-t) neutron sources and in a reference DEMO first wall spectrum. The treatment of neutron-induced displacement reactions is confined to the region below 20 MeV and transmutation reactions to below 50 MeV by the limited availability of calculational tools. The spallation spectrum is relatively soft; less than 2% of the neutrons are above 50 MeV. The transmutation results emphasize the need to define the neutron spectra at low, as well as high, energies; only the DEMO spectrum is adequate in this respect. Recommendations are given for further work to be performed under an international working group. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution in residential indoor environment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibhafidon, Lawrence I.; Obaseki, Daniel O.; Erhabor, Gregory E.; Akor, Alexander A.; Irabor, Iziegbe; Obioh, IB

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Particulate air pollution is associated with increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and decreased pulmonary, function but the relative impact of pollution from different domestic energy sources is not well-known or studied. Aim: The study was aimed at assessing the association between particulate concentrations, respiratory symptoms and lung function. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study comprised of randomly selected residents of three communities. These communities were selected according to the predominant type of fuel used for household cooking which were: firewood, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Assessment of the indoor PM10 levels was done by filtration using the Gent stacked filter unit sampler for collection of atmospheric aerosol in two size fractions (PM2.5 and PM10). The Medical Research Council (MRC) questionnaire was administered followed by spirometry test. Results: The mean PM10 concentration in participants using LPG, kerosene and firewood was 80.8 ± 9.52 μg/m3, 236.9 ± 26.5 μg/m3 and 269 ±93.7 μg/m3, respectively. The mean age and height-adjusted percent predicted forced expiratory volumes in 1 s (FEV1) for men were 127 ± 7, 109 ± 40 and 91 ± 20 and for women were 129 ± 13, 115 ± 14, 100 ± 14 in users of LPG, kerosene and firewood, respectively. A similar trend was found in the forced vital capacity (FVCs). Users of firewood had significantly lower FEV1 and FVC compared with LPG users (P < 0.05). The participants using firewood had the highest prevalence of pulmonary and non-pulmonary symptoms (57.1%), whereas subjects using LPG had the lowest (23.8%). Conclusion: There are high levels of particulate matter pollutions with respiratory effects in residential indoor environments in Ile-Ife, Nigeria PMID:24970970

  18. Snowmass 2002: The Fusion Energy Sciences Summer Study

    SciTech Connect

    N. Sauthoff; G. Navratil; R. Bangerter

    2002-01-31

    The Fusion Summer Study 2002 will be a forum for the critical technical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program, and will provide crucial community input to the long-range planning activities undertaken by the DOE [Department of Energy] and the FESAC [Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee]. It will be an ideal place for a broad community of scientists to examine goals and proposed initiatives in burning plasma science in magnetic fusion energy and integrated research experiments in inertial fusion energy. This meeting is open to every member of the fusion energy science community and significant international participation is encouraged. The objectives of the Fusion Summer Study are three: (1) Review scientific issues in burning plasmas to establish the basis for the following two objectives and to address the relations of burning plasma in tokamaks to innovative magnetic fusion energy (MFE) confinement concepts and of ignition in inertial fusion energy (IFE) to integrated research facilities. (2) Provide a forum for critical discussion and review of proposed MFE burning plasma experiments (e.g., IGNITOR, FIRE, and ITER) and assess the scientific and technological research opportunities and prospective benefits of these approaches to the study of burning plasmas. (3) Provide a forum for the IFE community to present plans for prospective integrated research facilities, assess present status of the technical base for each, and establish a timetable and technical progress necessary to proceed for each. Based on significant preparatory work by the fusion community prior to the July Snowmass meeting, the Snowmass working groups will prepare a draft report that documents the scientific and technological benefits of studies of burning plasmas. The report will also include criteria by which the benefits of each approach to fusion science, fusion engineering/technology, and the fusion development path can be assessed. Finally, the report

  19. Artifact reduction in non-destructive testing by means of complementary data fusion of x-ray computed tomography and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrapp, Michael; Scharrer, Thomas; Goldammer, Matthias; Rupitsch, Stefan J.; Sutor, Alexander; Ermert, Helmut; Lerch, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    In industrial non-destructive testing, x-ray computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic pulse-echo testing play an important role in the investigation of large-scale samples. One major artifact arises in CT, when the x-ray absorption in specific directions is too intense, so that the material cannot be fully penetrated. Due to different physical interaction principles, ultrasonic imaging is able to show features which are not visible in the CT image. In this contribution, we present a novel fusion method for the complementary data provided by x-ray CT and ultrasonic testing. The ultrasonic data are obtained by an adapted synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) and complement the missing edge information in the CT image. Subsequently, the full edge map is incorporated as a priori information in a modified simultaneous iterative reconstruction method (SIRT) and allows a significant reduction of artifacts in the CT image.

  20. Anthropometric Indices Associated with Variation in Cardiovascular Parameters among Primary School Pupils in Ile-Ife

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Adedeji G.; Egwu, Michael O.; Adedoyin, Rufus A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigated the anthropometric indices associated with variations in cardiovascular parameters among primary school pupils in Ile-Ife. Method. One thousand and twenty-six pupils (age range 6–14 years, mean age 10.12 years) from ten schools were recruited with parents' informed consent. Anthropometric (Height (Ht), Weight (Wt), Abdominal Circumference (AC)) and cardiovascular (Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), Heart Rate (HR)) parameters were measured using standard instruments and procedures. Blood pressure (BP) was measured after ten minutes of quiet sitting. Body Mass Index (BMI), Rate Pressure Product (RPP) and Pulse Pressure (PP) were estimated. Results. Age, Ht, Wt, BMI, and AC correlated significantly (P < .01) with BP and PP. AC and BMI were predictors of BP, HR, RPP, and PP. Conclusion. Significant correlations exist between age, Ht, Wt, BMI, AC, and BP with weight being a more viable predictor of SBP and age a more viable predictor of DBP. PMID:21747972

  1. Nuclear aspects of tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) diagnostics and instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1982-01-01

    There are five principal aspects of the nuclear radiation from the high temperature plasmas of TFTR on its plasma diagnostic equipment. i) Important information about the plasma properties to be obtained from measurement of the neutrons, or other fusion reaction products. ii) Experimental studies to give design data for future tokamak devices and their instrumentation. iii) Transient noise or damage effects on the array of detectors for the collection of physics data about the plasma. iv) The effect of tritium on detectors that necessarily are in vacuum, directly connected to the tokamak vacuum vessel. v) Damage of diagnostic components mounted close to the vacuum vessel. Each of these topics will be addressed after a brief description of the TFTR tokamak and its radiation environment.

  2. Fabrication and integrity test preparation of HIP-joined W and ferritic-martensitic steel mockups for fusion reactor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyu In; Kim, Suk Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae Sung; Choi, Bo Guen; Moon, Se Youn; Hong, Bong Guen

    2014-10-01

    Tungsten (W) and ferritic-martensitic steel (FMS) as armor and structural materials, respectively, are the major candidates for plasma-facing components (PFCs) such as the blanket first wall (BFW) and the divertor, in a fusion reactor. In the present study, three W/FMS mockups were successfully fabricated using a hot isostatic pressing (HIP, 900 °C, 100 MPa, 1.5 hrs) with a following post-HIP heat treatment (PHHT, tempering, 750 °C, 70 MPa, 2 hrs), and the W/FMS joining method was developed based on the ITER BFW and the test blanket module (TBM) development project from 2004 to the present. Using a 10-MHz-frequency flat-type probe to ultrasonically test of the joint, we found no defects in the fabricated mockups. For confirmation of the joint integrity, a high heat flux test will be performed up to the thermal lifetime of the mockup under the proper test conditions. These conditions were determined through a preliminary analysis with conventional codes such as ANSYS-CFX for thermal-hydraulic conditions considering the test facility, the Korea heat load test facility with an electron beam (KoHLT-EB), and its water coolant system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI).

  3. Chronic Airflow Obstruction in a Black African Population: Results of BOLD Study, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obaseki, Daniel O; Erhabor, Gregory E; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Adewole, Olufemi O; Buist, Sonia A; Burney, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Global estimates suggest that Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is emerging as a leading cause of death in developing countries but there are few spirometry-based general population data on its prevalence and risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) protocol to select a representative sample of adults aged 40 years and above in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. All the participants underwent spirometry and provided information on smoking history, biomass and occupational exposures as well as diagnosed respiratory diseases and symptoms. Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO) was defined as the ratio of post-bronchodilator (BD) one second Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1) to Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) below the lower limit of normal (LLN) of the population distribution for FEV1/FVC. The overall prevalence of obstruction (post-BD FEV1/FVC < LLN) was 7.7% (2.7% above LLN) using Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) equations. It was associated with few respiratory symptoms; 0.3% reported a previous doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD. Independent predictors included a lack of education (OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 6.4) and a diagnosis of either TB (OR 23.4, 95% CI: 2.0, 278.6) or asthma (OR 35.4, 95%CI: 4.9, 255.8). There was no association with the use of firewood or coal for cooking or heating. The vast majority of this population (89%) are never smokers. We conclude that the prevalence of CAO is low in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and unrelated to biomass exposure. The key independent predictors are poor education, and previous diagnosis of tuberculosis or asthma. PMID:26451840

  4. Distributions of alpha particles escaping to the wall during sawtooth oscillations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Y.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.; Yakovenko, Y.V.; Zweben, S.J.

    1999-04-01

    It has been observed experimentally in deuterium{endash}tritium shots of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion {bold 25}, 1167 (1985)] that crashes of sawtooth oscillations may result in very inhomogeneous flux of alpha particles to the wall. To explain this phenomenon, both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have been carried out. It is concluded that the {open_quotes}crash-induced prompt loss,{close_quotes} i.e., the orbital loss of marginally trapped particles arising because of the crash-induced orbit transformation of circulating particles, is responsible for the flux near the bottom of the vessel, whereas the crash-induced stochastic diffusion of moderately trapped particles explains the large signal near the equatorial plane of the torus. The calculated poloidal distributions of the integral alpha flux are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The energy spectrum of the escaping particles has also been calculated, which can be used for diagnostics of the crash type. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.} thinsp

  5. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A; Kulcinski, J; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Santarius, J; Simonen, T; Wirth, B D; Ying, A

    2009-11-23

    The successful operation (with {beta} {le} 60%, classical ions and electrons with Te = 250 eV) of the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) device at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia, extrapolates to a 2 MW/m{sup 2} Dynamic Trap Neutron Source (DTNS), which burns only {approx}100 g of tritium per full power year. The DTNS has no serious physics, engineering, or technology obstacles; the extension of neutral beam lines to steady state can use demonstrated engineering; and it supports near-term tokamaks and volume neutron sources. The DTNS provides a neutron spectrum similar to that of ITER and satisfies the missions specified by the materials community to test fusion materials (listed as one of the top grand challenges for engineering in the 21st century by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering) and subcomponents (including tritium-breeding blankets) needed to construct DEMO. The DTNS could serve as the first Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), called for by ReNeW, and could provide the data necessary for licensing subsequent FSNFs.

  6. The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Simonen, T C

    2009-07-17

    This report summarizes discussions and conclusions of the workshop to 'Assess The Mission and Technology of a Gas Dynamic Trap Neutron Source for Fusion Material and Component Testing and Qualification'. The workshop was held at LBNL, Berkeley, CA on March 12, 2009. Most workshop attendees have worked on magnetic mirror systems, several have worked on similar neutron source designs, and others are knowledgeable of materials, fusion component, and neutral beams The workshop focused on the gas dynamic trap DT Neutron Source (DTNS) concept being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) in Novosibirsk, Russia. The DTNS may be described as a line source of neutrons, in contrast to a spallation or a D-Lithium source with neutrons beaming from a point, or a tokamak volume source. The DTNS is a neutral beam driven linear plasma system with magnetic mirrors to confine the energetic deuterium and tritium beam injected ions, which produce the 14 MeV neutrons. The hot ions are imbedded in warm-background plasma, which traps the neutral atoms and provides both MHD and micro stability to the plasma. The 14 MeV neutron flux ranges typically at the level of 1 to 4 MW/m2.

  7. Static and dynamic analyses on the MFTF (Mirror Fusion Test Facility)-B Axicell Vacuum Vessel System: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1986-09-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a large-scale, tandem-mirror-fusion experiment. MFTF-B comprises many highly interconnected systems, including a magnet array and a vacuum vessel. The vessel, which houses the magnet array, is supported by reinforced concrete piers and steel frames resting on an array of foundations and surrounded by a 7-ft-thick concrete shielding vault. The Pittsburgh-Des Moines (PDM) Corporation, which was awarded the contract to design and construct the vessel, carried out fixed-base static and dynamic analyses of a finite-element model of the axicell vessel and magnet systems, including the simulation of various loading conditions and three postulated earthquake excitations. Meanwhile, LLNL monitored PDM's analyses with modeling studies of its own, and independently evaluated the structural responses of the vessel in order to define design criteria for the interface members and other project equipment. The assumptions underlying the finite-element model and the behavior of the axicell vessel are described in detail in this report, with particular emphasis placed on comparing the LLNL and PDM studies and on analyzing the fixed-base behavior with the soil-structure interaction, which occurs between the vessel and the massive concrete vault wall during a postulated seismic event. The structural members that proved sensitive to the soil effect are also reevaluated.

  8. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Miniature Torsion Specimen Shear Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ventrella, Andrea; Ferraris, Monica

    2011-04-17

    The use of SiC composites in fusion environments likely requires joining of plates using reactive joining or brazing. One promising reactive joining method uses solid-state displacement reactions between Si and TiC to produce Ti3SiC2 + SiC. We continue to explore the processing envelope for this joint for the TITAN collaboration in order to produce optimal joints to undergo irradiation studies in HFIR. The TITAN collaboration has designed miniature torsion joints for preparation, testing, and irradiation in HFIR. PNNL synthesized 40 miniature torsion joints and several were tested for shear strength prior to irradiation testing in HFIR. The resulting tests indicated that (1) joint fixture alignment problems cause joint strengths to be lower than optimal, (2) that non-planar torsion test failures limit the effectiveness of the miniature specimen design, and (3) that several joints that were well aligned had high shear strengths and promising mechanical properties. In summary, we now show conclusively that high joint strengths cause non-planar shear fracture and complicate strength analysis for miniature torsion specimens.

  9. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, B. William; Chiu, Ing L.

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  11. Radionuclide observables during the Integrated Field Exercise of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Jonathan L; Miley, Harry S; Milbrath, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    In 2014 the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) undertook an Integrated Field Exercise (IFE14) in Jordan. The exercise consisted of a simulated 0.5-2 kT underground nuclear explosion triggering an On-site Inspection (OSI) to search for evidence of a Treaty violation. This research paper evaluates two of the OSI techniques used during the IFE14, laboratory-based gamma-spectrometry of soil samples and in-situ gamma-spectrometry, both of which were implemented to search for 17 OSI relevant particulate radionuclides indicative of nuclear explosions. The detection sensitivity is evaluated using real IFE and model data. It indicates that higher sensitivity laboratory measurements are the optimum technique during the IFE and within the Treaty/Protocol-specified OSI timeframes. PMID:26802699

  12. Ion distribution in the hot spot of an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xianzhu; Guo, Zehua; Berk, Herb

    2012-10-01

    Maximizing the fusion gain of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) for inertial fusion energy (IFE) applications leads to the standard scenario of central hot spot ignition followed by propagating burn wave through the cold/dense assembled fuel. The fact that the hot spot is surrounded by cold but dense fuel layer introduces subtle plasma physics which requires a kinetic description. Here we perform Fokker-Planck calculations and kinetic PIC simulations for an ICF plasma initially in pressure balance but having large temperature gradient over a narrow transition layer. The loss of the fast ion tail from the hot spot, which is important for fusion reactivity, is quantified by Fokker-Planck models. The role of electron energy transport and the ambipolar electric field is investigated via kinetic simulations and the fluid moment models. The net effect on both hot spot ion temperature and the ion tail distribution, and hence the fusion reactivity, is elucidated.

  13. A Laser Technology Test Facility for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, A J; Campbell, R W; Ebbers, C A; Freitas, B L; Latkowski, J; Molander, W A; Sutton, S B; Telford, S; Caird, J A

    2009-10-06

    A LIFE laser driver needs to be designed and operated which meets the rigorous requirements of the NIF laser system while operating at high average power, and operate for a lifetime of >30 years. Ignition on NIF will serve to demonstrate laser driver functionality, operation of the Mercury laser system at LLNL demonstrates the ability of a diode-pumped solid-state laser to run at high average power, but the operational lifetime >30 yrs remains to be proven. A Laser Technology test Facility (LTF) has been designed to specifically address this issue. The LTF is a 100-Hz diode-pumped solid-state laser system intended for accelerated testing of the diodes, gain media, optics, frequency converters and final optics, providing system statistics for billion shot class tests. These statistics will be utilized for material and technology development as well as economic and reliability models for LIFE laser drivers.

  14. Analysis of alpha particle-driven toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium{endash}tritium experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Wong, K.L.; Zweben, S.

    1996-11-01

    The toroidal Alfv{acute e}n eigenmodes (TAE) are calculated to be stable in the presently obtained deuterium{endash}tritium plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. {bold 26}, 11 (1984)]. However, the core localized TAE mode can exist and is less stable than the global TAE modes. The beam ion Landau damping and the radiative damping are the two main stabilizing mechanisms in the present calculation. In future deuterium{endash}tritium experiments, the alpha-driven TAE modes are predicted to occur with a weakly reversed shear profile. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Interference of daratumumab in monitoring multiple myeloma patients using serum immunofixation electrophoresis can be abrogated using the daratumumab IFE reflex assay (DIRA).

    PubMed

    van de Donk, Niels W C J; Otten, Henny G; El Haddad, Omar; Axel, Amy; Sasser, A Kate; Croockewit, Sandra; Jacobs, Joannes F M

    2016-06-01

    Daratumumab is a fully human anti-CD38 IgG1-κ monoclonal antibody (mAb) currently being evaluated in several Phase 2 and 3 clinical studies for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In this clinical case study we demonstrate that daratumumab can be detected as an individual monoclonal band in serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE). M-protein follow-up by IFE is part of the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria to assess treatment response. Therefore, it is crucial that the daratumumab band is not confused with the endogenous M-protein of the patient during IFE interpretation. Moreover, a significant number of IgG-κ M-proteins co-migrate with daratumumab. Co-migration introduces a bias in the M-protein quantification since pharmacokinetic studies show that daratumumab peak plasma concentrations reach up to 1 g/L. More importantly, co-migration can mask clearance of the M-protein by IFE which is necessary for classification of complete response by IMWG criteria (negative serum IFE). For optimal M-protein monitoring the laboratory specialist needs to be informed when patients receive daratumumab, and it is essential that the laboratory specialist is aware that a slow migrating band in the γ-region in those patients may be derived from the daratumumab. A daratumumab specific IFE reflex assay (DIRA) has been developed and can be utilized to abrogate interference. The here described mAb interference is not limited to daratumumab, and as therapeutic antibodies gain approval and enter into common clinical practice, laboratory specialists will need additional processes to characterize IFE interference and distinguish endogenous M-protein from therapeutic antibodies. PMID:26812873

  16. Development and laboratory testing of low Z refractory coatings for fusion reactor limiters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A materials development program for low Z (Z < 24) coated tokamak limiters is described. A variety of refractory coatings applied by chemical vapor deposition, plasma spraying and chemical conversion to graphite and copper substrates have been evaluated. The results of laboratory testing for low energy hydrogen ion erosion, arc erosion and thermal fatigue by pulsed electron beam heating are reported. The 250 V hydrogen ion erosion data, analysed in terms of the effect of plasma radiation losses from resultant contaminants, indicates near equivalence of the very low Z (B and B/sub 4/C e.g.) and the moderate Z (e.g., TiB/sub 2/) coatings. Thermal fatigue testing has identified several candidate materials which can survice 1000, 3 kJ /cm/sup 2/ pulses of electron beam heating. The development of prototype limiters of TiB/sub 2/, TiC and B coated graphite for testing in the ORNL ISX-B tokamak is described.

  17. Investigation of Ionospheric response to Geomagnetic Storms over a Low Latitude Station, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimoh, Oluwaseyi E.; Yesufu, Thomas K.; Ariyibi, Emmanuel A.

    2016-05-01

    Due to several complexities associated with the equatorial ionosphere, and the significant role which the total electron content (TEC) variability plays in GPS signal transmission, there is the need to monitor irregularities in TEC during storm events. The GPS SCINDA receiver data at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was analysed with a view to characterizing the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms on 9 March and 1 October 2012. Presently, positive storm effects, peaks in TEC which were associated with prompt penetration of electric fields and changes in neutral gas composition were observed for the storms. The maximum percentage deviation in TEC of about 120 and 45% were observed for 9 March and 1 October 2012, respectively. An obvious negative percentage TEC deviation subsequent to sudden storm commencement (SSC) was observed and besides a geomagnetic storm does not necessarily suggest a high scintillation intensity (S4) index. The present results show that magnetic storm events at low latitude regions may have an adverse effect on navigation and communication systems.

  18. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs. PMID:25381280

  19. Child-rearing practices among nursing mothers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odebiyi, A I

    1985-01-01

    This study attempts to highlight the relationship between the educational status of mothers in Ile-Ife and their child-rearing practices. It was observed that the educated mothers in good jobs spent less time at home with the children than the illiterates who have their children with them at the farms and in the market places. Thus, a higher proportion of the educated mothers admitted to using more bottle feeding than breast feeding, and forced hand-feeding which was practised by all the illiterate women interviewed. Only one educated woman still practices female circumcision. Of interest in the study is the fact that the children of the different categories of women are exposed to different types of health hazards; while the children of the educated suffer neglect and are deprived of the advantages of breast feeding, the children of the illiterate suffer from undue exposure to unhygienic conditions in the farms and market places and from the implications of forced hand-feeding and female circumcision. PMID:4075501

  20. Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Energy: Summaries of Program Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A; Barnard, J J; Kaganovich, I; Seidl, P A; Briggs, R J; Faltens, A; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Logan, B G

    2011-02-28

    The goal of the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is to apply high-current accelerator technology to IFE power production. Ion beams of mass {approx}100 amu and kinetic energy {>=} 1 GeV provide efficient energy coupling into matter, and HIF enjoys R&D-supported favorable attributes of: (1) the driver, projected to be robust and efficient; see 'Heavy Ion Accelerator Drivers.'; (2) the targets, which span a continuum from full direct to full indirect drive (and perhaps fast ignition), and have metal exteriors that enable injection at {approx}10 Hz; see 'IFE Target Designs'; (3) the near-classical ion energy deposition in the targets; see 'Beam-Plasma Interactions'; (4) the magnetic final lens, robust against damage; see 'Final Optics-Heavy Ion Beams'; and (5) the fusion chamber, which may use neutronically-thick liquids; see 'Liquid-Wall Chambers.' Most studies of HIF power plants have assumed indirect drive and thick liquid wall protection, but other options are possible.

  1. High-heat-flux testing of helium-cooled heat exchangers for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Youchison, D.L.; Izenson, M.G.; Baxi, C.B.; Rosenfeld, J.H.

    1996-07-01

    High-heat-flux experiments on three types of helium-cooled divertor mock-ups were performed on the 30-kW electron beam test system and its associated helium flow loop at Sandia National Laboratories. A dispersion-strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) was used in the manufacture of all the mock-ups. The first heat exchanger provides for enhanced heat transfer at relatively low flow rates and much reduced pumping requirements. The Creare sample was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 5.8 MW/m{sup 2}. The second used low pressure drops and high mass flow rates to achieve good heat removal. The GA specimen was tested to a maximum absorbed heat flux of 9 MW/m{sup 2} while maintaining a surface temperature below 400{degree}C. A second experiment resulted in a maximum absorbed heat flux of 34 MW/m{sup 2} and surface temperatures near 533{degree}C. The third specimen was a DSCu, axial flow, helium-cooled divertor mock-up filled with a porous metal wick which effectively increases the available heat transfer area. Low mass flow and high pressure drop operation at 4.0 MPa were characteristic of this divertor module. It survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 16 MW/m{sup 2} and reached a surface temperature of 740{degree}C. Thermacore also manufactured a follow-on, dual channel porous metal-type heat exchanger, which survived a maximum absorbed heat flux of 14 MW/m{sup 2} and reached a maximum surface temperature of 690{degree}C. 11refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  3. Data Fusion in Wind Tunnel Testing; Combined Pressure Paint and Model Deformation Measurements (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    2004-01-01

    As the benefit-to-cost ratio of advanced optical techniques for wind tunnel measurements such as Video Model Deformation (VMD), Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PSP), and others increases, these techniques are being used more and more often in large-scale production type facilities. Further benefits might be achieved if multiple optical techniques could be deployed in a wind tunnel test simultaneously. The present study discusses the problems and benefits of combining VMD and PSP systems. The desirable attributes of useful optical techniques for wind tunnels, including the ability to accommodate the myriad optical techniques available today, are discussed. The VMD and PSP techniques are briefly reviewed. Commonalties and differences between the two techniques are discussed. Recent wind tunnel experiences and problems when combining PSP and VMD are presented, as are suggestions for future developments in combined PSP and deformation measurements.

  4. The National Ignition Facility and the Promise of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E I

    2010-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, CA, is now operational. The NIF is the world's most energetic laser system capable of producing 1.8 MJ and 500 TW of ultraviolet light. By concentrating the energy from its 192 extremely energetic laser beams into a mm{sup 3}-sized target, NIF can produce temperatures above 100 million K, densities of 1,000 g/cm{sup 3}, and pressures 100 billion times atmospheric pressure - conditions that have never been created in a laboratory and emulate those in planetary interiors and stellar environments. On September 29, 2010, the first integrated ignition experiment was conducted, demonstrating the successful coordination of the laser, cryogenic target system, array of diagnostics and infrastructure required for ignition demonstration. In light of this strong progress, the U.S. and international communities are examining the implication of NIF ignition for inertial fusion energy (IFE). A laser-based IFE power plant will require a repetition rate of 10-20 Hz and a laser with 10% electrical-optical efficiency, as well as further development and advances in large-scale target fabrication, target injection, and other supporting technologies. These capabilities could lead to a prototype IFE demonstration plant in the 10- to 15-year time frame. LLNL, in partnership with other institutions, is developing a Laser Inertial Fusion Engine (LIFE) concept and examining in detail various technology choices, as well as the advantages of both pure fusion and fusion-fission schemes. This paper will describe the unprecedented experimental capabilities of the NIF and the results achieved so far on the path toward ignition. The paper will conclude with a discussion about the need to build on the progress on NIF to develop an implementable and effective plan to achieve the promise of LIFE as a source of carbon-free energy.

  5. Gas utilization in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Kugel, H.W.; Grisham, L.R.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1987-08-01

    Measurements of gas utilization in a test TFTR neutral beam injector have been performed to study the feasibility of running tritium neutral beams with existing ion sources. Gas consumption is limited by the restriction of 50,000 curies of T/sub 2/ allowed on site. It was found that the gas efficiency of the present long-pulse ion sources is higher than it was with previous short-pulse sources. Gas efficiencies were studied over the range of 35 to 55%. At the high end of this range the neutral fraction of the beam fell below that predicted by room temperature molecular gas flow. This is consistent with observations made on the JET injectors, where it has been attributed to beam heating of the neutralizer gas and a concomitant increase in conductance. It was found that a working gas isotope exchange from H/sub 2/ to D/sub 2/ could be accomplished on the first beam shot after changing the gas supply, without any intermediate preconditioning. The mechanism believed responsible for this phenomenon is heating of the plasma generator walls by the arc and a resulting thermal desorption of all previously adsorbed and implanted gas. Finally, it was observed that an ion source conditioned to 120 kV operation could produce a beam pulse after a waiting period of fourteen hours by preceding the beam extraction with several hi-pot/filament warm-up pulses, without any gas consumption. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Material behavior and materials problems in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Dylla, H.F.; Ulrickson, M.A.; Owens, D.K.; Heifetz, D.B.; Mills, B.E.; Pontau, A.E.; Wampler, W.R.; Doyle, B.L.; Lee, S.R.; Watson, R.D.; Croessmann, C.D.

    1988-05-01

    This paper reviews the experience with first-wall materials over a 20-month period of operation spanning 1985--1987. Experience with the axisymmetric inner wall limiter, constructed of graphite tiles, will be described including the necessary conditioning procedures needed for impurity and particle control of high power ({le}20 MW) neutral injection experiments. The thermal effects in disruptions have been quantified and no significant damage to the bumper limiter has occurred as a result of disruptions. Carbon and metal impurity redeposition effects have been quantified through surface analysis of wall samples. Estimates of the tritium retention in the graphite limiter tiles and redeposited carbon films have been made based on analysis of deuterium retention in removed graphite tiles and wall samples. New limiter structures have been designed using a 2D carbon/carbon (C/C) composite material for RF antenna protection. Laboratory tests of the important thermal, mechanical and vacuum properties of C/C materials will be described. Finally, the last series of experiments in TFTR with in-situ Zr/Al surface pumps will be described. Problems with Ar/Al embrittlement have led to the removal of the getter material from the in-torus environment. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  9. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Toughness characterization by small specimen test technique for HIPed joints of F82H steel aiming at first wall fabrication in fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, H.; Ono, T.; Sakasegawa, H.; Tanigawa, H.; Kohno, Y.; Kohyama, A.

    2013-09-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H steels, have been developed as candidates of structural materials for fusion. In the design of a fusion reactor, cooling channels are built in the first wall of the blanket. One large issue is to determine how to join rectangular tubes to thin panels to fabricate the first wall. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIPing) is a solution to solve the issue. Because of the thin HIPed walls of the channels, the specimen size for inspection of HIPed interface is limited. In the present research, Small Specimen Test Techniques (SSTT) are screened for the destructive toughness investigation technique of HIPed F82H joints. 1/3 size Charpy V-notch impact (1/3 CVN) and small punch (SP) tests are employed for the present research. The toughness of the HIPed joints is strongly affected by various surface finishing of specimens treated previous to the HIPing. In the present research, several kinds of HIPed joints were surface finished by different methods and investigated by 1/3 CVN impact test. The HIPed F82H joints had different toughness ranging from 20% to 70% of the toughness of the F82H base metal. The SP test is also available for the investigation of toughness change by the HIPing. The sensitivity of 1/3 CVN impact test against toughness change was better than the SP test, it revealed that the SP test has some limitations.

  11. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  12. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  13. Current status of the SBS PCM approach to self-navigation of lasers on injected IFE pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalal, Milan; Martinkova, Michaela; Slezak, Ondrej; Kong, Hong Jin; Yoon, Jin Woo; Shin, Jae Sung; Rostislavovna Koresheva, Elena; Aleksandrovich Startsev, Sergei

    2010-08-01

    Current status of SBS PCM based IFE approach proposed recently as an alternative to the IFE classical approach is presented. This technology is of particular importance to the direct drive scheme taking care of automatic self-navigation of every individual laser beam on the injected pellets with no need for any final optics adjustment. Conceptual design of one typical laser driver is shown and its features discussed. In comparison with the earlier design an upgraded scheme was developed with the low energy illumination laser beam (glint) entering the reactor chamber through the same entrance window as used by the corresponding high energy irradiation laser beam. Results of experimental verification of this improved design are reported. In these experiments for the fist time a complete setup including the pellet (realized by the static steel ball) was employed. The pellet survival conditions in the period between its low energy illumination and subsequent high energy irradiation were studied and the upper limits on the allowed energies absorbed were found for both DD and DT fuels.

  14. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project and the Tokamak Physics Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-27

    If the US is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Fusion energy has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion energy would provide a substantially reduced environmental impact as compared with other forms of energy generation. Since fusion utilizes no fossil fuels, there would be no release of chemical combustion products to the atmosphere. Additionally, there are no fission products formed to present handling and disposal problems, and runaway fuel reactions are impossible due to the small amounts of deuterium and tritium present. The purpose of the TPX Project is to support the development of the physics and technology to extend tokamak operation into the continuously operating (steady-state) regime, and to demonstrate advances in fundamental tokamak performance. The purpose of TFTR D&D is to ensure compliance with DOE Order 5820.2A ``Radioactive Waste Management`` and to remove environmental and health hazards posed by the TFTR in a non-operational mode. There are two proposed actions evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA). The actions are related because one must take place before the other can proceed. The proposed actions assessed in this EA are: the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR); to be followed by the construction and operation of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Both of these proposed actions would take place primarily within the TFTR Test Cell Complex at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The TFTR is located on ``D-site`` at the James Forrestal Campus of Princeton University in Plainsboro Township, Middlesex County, New Jersey, and is operated by PPPL under contract with the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  16. MIRI: A multichannel far-infrared laser interferometer for electron density measurements on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Johnson, L.C.; Anderson, H.M.; Chouinard, R.; Foote, V.S.; Ma, C.H.; Clifton, B.J.

    1987-07-01

    A ten-channel far-infrared laser interferometer which is routinely used to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the electron density profile on the TFTR tokamak is described and representative results are presented. This system has been designed for remote operation in the very hostile environment of a fusion reactor. The possible expansion of the system to include polarimetric measurements is briefly outlined. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-04-20

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  18. Relative Advantages of Direct and Indirect Drive for an Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Driven by a Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.D.

    2001-03-06

    This paper reviews our current understanding of the relative advantages of direct drive (DD) and indirect drive (ID) for a 1 GWe inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant driven by a diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). This comparison is motivated by a recent study (1) that shows that the projected cost of electricity (COE) for DD is actually about the same as that for ID even though the target gain for DD can be much larger. We can therefore no longer assume that DD is the ultimate targeting scenario for IFE, and must begin a more rigorous comparison of these two drive options. The comparison begun here shows that ID may actually end up being preferred, but the uncertainties are still rather large.

  19. Fusion Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2002-02-20

    If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

  20. NDCX-II, an Induction Linac for HEDP and IFE Research

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Arbelaez, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Faltens, A.; Friedman, A.; Galvin, J.; Greenway, W.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D. P.; Jung, J.Y.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Lund, S. M.; Reginato, L.L.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W. M.; Takakuwa, J.; Waldron, W.L.

    2011-04-20

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory in the USA is constructing a new Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. This facility is being developed for high energy density physics and inertial fusion energy research. The 12 m long induction linac in NDCX-II will produce a Li{sup +} beam pulse, at energies of 1.2-3 MeV, to heat target material to the warm dense matter regime ({approx} 1 eV). By making use of special acceleration voltage waveforms, 2.5T solenoid focusing, and neutralized drift compression, 20 - 50 nC of beam charge from the ion source will be compressed longitudinally and radially to achieve a subnanosecond pulse length and mm-scale target spot size. The original Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) has successfully demonstrated simultaneous radial and longitudinal compression by imparting a velocity ramp to the ion beam, which then drifts in a neutralizing plasma to and through the final focussing solenoid and onto the target. At higher kinetic energy and current, NDCX-II will offer more than 100 times the peak energy fluence on target of NDCX-I. NDCX-II makes use of many parts from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at LLNL. It includes 27 lattice periods between the injector and the neutralized drift compression section (Figure 1). There are 12 energized induction cells, 9 inactive cells which provide drift space, and 6 diagnostic cells which provide beam diagnostics and pumping. Custom pulsed power systems generate ramped waveforms for the first 7 induction cells, so as to quickly compress the beam from 600 ns at the injector down to 70 ns. After this compression, the high voltages of the ATA Blumleins are then used to rapidly add energy to the beam. The Blumleins were designed to match the ferrite core volt-seconds with pulses up to 250 kV and a fixed FWHM of 70 ns. The machine is limited to a pulse repetition rate of once every 20 seconds due to cooling requirements. The NDCX

  1. The width-tapered double cantilever beam for interlaminar fracture testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, W. D.; Jensen, R. M.; Bullman, G. W.; Hunston, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The width-tapered double-cantilever-beam (WTDCB) specimen configuration used to determine the Mode-I interlaminar fracture energy (IFE) of composites has special advantages for routine development work and for quality-assurance purposes. These advantages come primarily from the simplicity of testing and the fact that the specimen is designed for constant change in compliance with crack length, so that the computation of Mode-I IFE is independent of crack length. In this paper, a simplified technique for fabrication and testing WTDCB specimens is described. Also presented are the effects of fiber orientation and specimen dimensions, a comparison of data obtained using the WTDCB specimens and other specimen geometries, and comparison of data obtained at different laboratories. It is concluded that the WTDCB gives interlaminar Mode-I IFE essentially equal to other type specimens, and that it can be used for rapid screening in resin-development work and for quality assurance of composite materials.

  2. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des

  3. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des

  4. Image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavel, M.

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

  5. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    SciTech Connect

    Jolodosky, A.; Fratoni, M.

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  6. Status of Safety& Environmental Activities for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Cadwallader, L C; Sharpe, J P; Marshall, T D; Merrill, B J; Moore, R L; Petti, D A; Falquina, R; Rodriguez, A; Sanz, J; Cabellos, O

    2002-11-25

    Over the past several years, significant progress has been made in the analysis of safety and environmental (S&E) issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Detailed safety assessments have been performed for the baseline power plant concepts, as well as for a conceptual target fabrication facility. Safety analysis results are helping to drive the agenda for experiments. A survey of the S&E characteristics--both radiological and chemical--of candidate target materials has been completed. Accident initiating events have been identified and incorporated into master logic diagrams, which will be essential to the detailed safety analyses that will be needed in the future. Studies of aerosol generation and transport will have important safety implications. A Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analysis procedure has been developed for use in neutron activation calculations. Finally, waste management issues are receiving increased attention and are deserving of further discussion.

  7. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Gomez del Rio, J; Sanz, J

    2000-02-23

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work a set of computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) has been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here the authors consider a severe lost of coolant accident (LOCA) producing simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the containment) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and containment building it self). Even though containment failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product release and transport. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 6 mSv (0.6 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  8. Elise - the next step in development of induction heavy ion drivers for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Bangerter, R.O.; Celata, C.; Faltens, A.; Fessenden, T.; Peters, C.; Pickrell, J.; Reginato, L.; Seidl, P.; Yu, S.

    1994-11-01

    LBL, with the participation of LLNL and industry, proposes to build Elise, an electric-focused accelerator as the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction linac powerful enough to implode or {open_quotes}drive{close_quotes} inertial-confinement fusion targets. Elise will be at full driver scale in several important parameters-most notably line charge density (a function of beam size), which was not explored in earlier experiments. Elise will be capable of accelerating and electrostatically focusing four parallel, full-scale ion beams and will be designed to be extendible, by successive future construction projects, to meet the goal of the USA DOE Inertial Fusion Energy program (IFE). This goal is to address all remaining issues in heavy-ion IFE except target physics, which is currently the responsibility of DOE Defense Programs, and the target chamber. Thus Elise is the first step of a program that will provide a solid foundation of data for further progress toward a driver, as called for in the National Energy Strategy and National Energy Policy Act.

  9. Use of Clearance Indexes to Assess Waste Disposal Issues for the HYLIFE-II Inertial Fusion Energy Power Plant Design

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Sanz, J

    2002-01-17

    Traditionally, waste management studies for fusion energy have used the Waste Disposal Rating (WDR) to evaluate if radioactive material from irradiated structures could qualify for shallow land burial. However, given the space limitations and the negative public perception of large volumes of waste, there is a growing international motivation to develop a fusion waste management system that maximizes the amount of material that can be cleared or recycled. In this work, we present an updated assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant, using the concept of Clearance Index (CI) for radioactive waste disposal. With that purpose, we have performed a detailed neutronics analysis of the HYLIFE-II design, using the TART and ACAB computer codes for neutron transport and activation, respectively. Whereas the traditional version of ACAB only provided the user with the WDR as an index for waste considerations, here we have modified the code to calculate Clearance Indexes using the current International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) clearance limits for radiological waste disposal. The results from the analysis are used to perform an assessment of the waste management options for the HYLIFE-II IFE design.

  10. Developing a commercial production process for 500,000 targets per day: A key challenge for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, D.T.; Alexander, N.B.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Bozek, A.S.; Brown, L.C.; Flint, G.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; McQuillan, B.W.; Nikroo, A.; Paguio, R.R.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Schroen, D.G.; Sheliak, J.D.; Vermillion, B.A.; Carlson, L.C.; Goodman, P.; Maksaereekul, W.; Raffray, R.; Spalding, J.; Tillack, M.S.

    2006-05-15

    As is true for current-day commercial power plants, a reliable and economic fuel supply is essential for the viability of future Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) [Energy From Inertial Fusion, edited by W. J. Hogan (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1995)] power plants. While IFE power plants will utilize deuterium-tritium (DT) bred in-house as the fusion fuel, the 'target' is the vehicle by which the fuel is delivered to the reaction chamber. Thus the cost of the target becomes a critical issue in regard to fuel cost. Typically six targets per second, or about 500 000/day are required for a nominal 1000 MW(e) power plant. The electricity value within a typical target is about $3, allocating 10% for fuel cost gives only 30 cents per target as-delivered to the chamber center. Complicating this economic goal, the target supply has many significant technical challenge - fabricating the precision fuel-containing capsule, filling it with DT, cooling it to cryogenic temperatures, layering the DT into a uniform layer, characterizing the finished product, accelerating it to high velocity for injection into the chamber, and tracking the target to steer the driver beams to meet it with micron-precision at the chamber center.