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1

Prey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Prey application is quite invaluable and it is a fine way to locate a missing phone or computer. After downloading Prey, users can gather information regarding the device's location, hardware, and network status. Also, users can grab a screenshot of what the device is doing at that moment and they can also even take a picture of the potential thief with the device's webcam. This particular version is compatible with those computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and newer, Windows 2000 and newer, and Linux.

2011-01-01

2

Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores ('capital' spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an 'income'-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely 'skipped' spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.

Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.

2007-01-01

3

Prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraguild (IG) predation is an important factor influencing community structure, yet factors allowing coexistence of IG predator\\u000a and IG prey are not well understood. The existence of spatial refuges for IG prey has recently been noted for their importance\\u000a in allowing coexistence. However, reduction in basal prey availability might lead IG prey to leave spatial refuges for greater\\u000a access to

Ryan R. Wilson; Terry L. Blankenship; Mevin B. Hooten; John A. Shivik

2010-01-01

4

New parasitoid-predator associations: female parasitoids do not avoid competition with generalist predators when sharing invasive prey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations.

Chailleux, Anaďs; Wajnberg, Eric; Zhou, Yuxiang; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

2014-12-01

5

Prey-mediated avoidance of an intraguild predator by its intraguild prey.  

PubMed

Intraguild (IG) predation is an important factor influencing community structure, yet factors allowing coexistence of IG predator and IG prey are not well understood. The existence of spatial refuges for IG prey has recently been noted for their importance in allowing coexistence. However, reduction in basal prey availability might lead IG prey to leave spatial refuges for greater access to prey, leading to increased IG predation and fewer opportunities for coexistence. We determined how the availability of prey affected space-use patterns of bobcats (Lynx rufus, IG prey) in relation to coyote space-use patterns (Canis latrans, IG predators). We located animals from fall 2007 to spring 2009 and estimated bobcat home ranges and core areas seasonally. For each bobcat relocation, we determined intensity of coyote use, distance to water, small mammal biomass, and mean small mammal biomass of the home range during the season the location was collected. We built generalized linear mixed models and used Akaike Information Criteria to determine which factors best predicted bobcat space use. Coyote intensity was a primary determinant of bobcat core area location. In bobcat home ranges with abundant prey, core areas occurred where coyote use was low, but shifted to areas intensively used by coyotes when prey declined. High spatial variability in basal prey abundance allowed some bobcats to avoid coyotes while at the same time others were forced into more risky areas. Our results suggest that multiple behavioral strategies associated with spatial variation in basal prey abundance likely allow IG prey and IG predators to coexist. PMID:20953798

Wilson, Ryan R; Blankenship, Terry L; Hooten, Mevin B; Shivik, John A

2010-12-01

6

Incontinentia pigmenti in Combination with Decreased IgG Subclass Concentrations in a Female Newborn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a rare neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the NEMO (NF-?B essential modulator) gene. Skin lesions are typically the first manifestation of IP though they may be accompanied by multiple malformations. This report presents the case of a female newborn with early onset of IP lesions within the 1st day of life. After the age of

Eva Pauly; Otwin Linderkamp; Johannes Pöschl

2005-01-01

7

IgG Avidity Antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in High Risk Females of Reproductive Age Group in India  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India. PMID:25352696

Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M.; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A.

2014-01-01

8

IgG avidity antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in high risk females of reproductive age group in India.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India. PMID:25352696

Siddiqui, Naushaba; Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A

2014-10-01

9

Mucosal immunization of lactating female rhesus monkeys with a transmitted/founder HIV-1 envelope induces strong Env-specific IgA antibody responses in breast milk.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23596289

Fouda, Genevieve G A; Amos, Joshua D; Wilks, Andrew B; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L; Liebl, Brooke E; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J; Staats, Herman F; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; Labranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L; Haynes, Barton F; Permar, Sallie R

2013-06-01

10

Unidirectional prey–predator facilitation: apparent prey enhance predators' foraging success on cryptic prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food availability can strongly affect predator- prey dynamics. When change in habitat con- dition reduces the availability of one prey type, predators often search for other prey, perhaps in a different habitat. Interactions between beha- vioural and morphological traits of different prey may influence foraging success of visual predators through trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), such as prey activity and body

Yixin Zhang; John S. Richardson

2007-01-01

11

Birds of Prey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows the student to independently research several birds of prey and compare the predator/prey relationship. Although the research questions are limited, the background reading should lead the student to make a connection between these birds and the ecosystem in which they live. This may also lead to a discussion of food webs and food chains.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

12

Influence of prey reserve in a prey–predator fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The excessive and unsustainable exploitation of marine resources has to led to the promotion of marine reserve as a fisheries management tool. In this paper we study a prey–predator system in a two-patch environment: one accessible to both prey and predators (patch 1) and the other one being a refuge for the prey (patch 2). The prey refuge (patch 2)

Tapan Kumar Kar; Swarnakamal Misra

2006-01-01

13

Predator-Prey Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to develop and explore the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions as a prototypical first-order system of differential equations.

David Smith

14

Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.  

PubMed

We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection. PMID:24349498

Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

2013-01-01

15

Seasonal Foraging Ecology of Non-Migratory Cougars in a System with Migrating Prey  

PubMed Central

We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection. PMID:24349498

Elbroch, L. Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E.; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

2013-01-01

16

Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.  

PubMed

Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis. PMID:23695895

Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

2014-03-01

17

Effect of prior diet on consumption and digestion of prey and non-prey food by adults of the generalist predator Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coleomegilla maculata adults fed on prey (Colorado potato beetle eggs) or non-prey (corn pollen) food following 7 days of feeding on a mixed diet, showed differences in ingestion, with females consuming greater quantities of pollen, and males consuming greater quantities of eggs, under no-choice con...

18

Prey Detection and Prey Capture in Copepod Nauplii  

PubMed Central

Copepod nauplii are either ambush feeders that feed on motile prey or they produce a feeding current that entrains prey cells. It is unclear how ambush and feeding-current feeding nauplii perceive and capture prey. Attack jumps in ambush feeding nauplii should not be feasible at low Reynolds numbers due to the thick viscous boundary layer surrounding the attacking nauplius. We use high-speed video to describe the detection and capture of phytoplankton prey by the nauplii of two ambush feeding species (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) and by the nauplii of one feeding-current feeding species (Temora longicornis). We demonstrate that the ambush feeders both detect motile prey remotely. Prey detection elicits an attack jump, but the jump is not directly towards the prey, such as has been described for adult copepods. Rather, the nauplius jumps past the prey and sets up an intermittent feeding current that pulls in the prey from behind towards the mouth. The feeding-current feeding nauplius detects prey arriving in the feeding current but only when the prey is intercepted by the setae on the feeding appendages. This elicits an altered motion pattern of the feeding appendages that draws in the prey. PMID:23144712

Bruno, Eleonora; Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Kiřrboe, Thomas

2012-01-01

19

Bacterial Predator-Prey Interaction at Low Prey Density  

PubMed Central

A bacterial predator-prey interaction was studied using Bdellovibrio and bioluminescent prey bacteria. The attacking bdellovibrio causes decay of bioluminescence, which is correlated with bdellovibrio penetration into the prey. The behavior of the prey and predator populations over time was found to be well described by a Lotka-Volterra model. By using this model, the probability of bdellovibrio penetration after encountering a prey cell was found to be approximately 3.0%. The prey density required to give the bdellovibrios a 50% chance of survival was calculated to be at least 3.0 × 106 cells per ml, and the density required for population equilibria was calculated to be about 7 × 105 prey bacteria per ml. These values, not generally characteristic of natural habitats, suggest that the existence of Bdellovibrio in nature is limited to special ecological niches. PMID:16345299

Varon, M.; Zeigler, B. P.

1978-01-01

20

Seasonal Consumptive Demand and Prey Use by Stocked Saugeyes in Ohio Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community structure and species composition may be strongly influenced by predator– prey interactions resulting from and leading to episodes of population abundance or scarcity. We quantified diets of stocked saugeyes (female walleye Sander vitreus × male sauger S. canadensis) and estimated biomass of their primary prey, gizzard shad Dorosoma cepedianum, in three Ohio reservoirs at quarterly intervals during July 2002–July

Jonathan C. Sieber Denlinger; R. Scott Hale; Roy A. Stein

2006-01-01

21

Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Longitudinal records of prey selection by 10 adult female sea otters on the Monterey Peninsula, California, from 1983 to 1990 demonstrate extreme inter-individual vari- ation in diet. Variation in prey availability cannot explain these differences as the data were obtained from a common spatial-temporal area. 2. Individual dietary patterns persisted throughout our study, thus indicating that they are

J. A. Estes; M. L. Riedman; M. M. Staedler; M. T. Tinker; B. E. Lyon

2003-01-01

22

Does a Polyphagous Predator Prefer Prey Species That Confer Reproductive Advantage?: Case Study of Podisus maculiventris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether preferred prey of Podisus macu- liventris (Say) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) adult females also conferred maximal fecundity. We also studied egg development and maturation as a function of predator age, i.e., \\

Jesusa Crisostomo Legaspi; Benjamin C. Legaspi

2004-01-01

23

Unidirectional prey-predator facilitation: apparent prey enhance predators' foraging success on cryptic prey.  

PubMed

Food availability can strongly affect predator-prey dynamics. When change in habitat condition reduces the availability of one prey type, predators often search for other prey, perhaps in a different habitat. Interactions between behavioural and morphological traits of different prey may influence foraging success of visual predators through trait-mediated indirect interactions (TMIIs), such as prey activity and body coloration. We tested the hypothesis that foraging success of stream-dwelling cutthroat trout (Onchorhyncus clarki) on cryptically coloured, less-active benthic prey (larval mayfly; Paraleptophebia sp.) can be enhanced by the presence of distinctly coloured, active prey (larval stonefly shredder; Despaxia augusta). Cutthroat trout preyed on benthic insects when drifting invertebrates were unavailable. When stonefly larvae were present, the trout ate most of the stoneflies and also consumed a higher proportion of mayflies than under mayfly only treatment. The putative mechanism is that active stonefly larvae supplied visual cues to the predator that alerted trout to the mayfly larvae. Foraging success of visual predators on cryptic prey can be enhanced by distinctly coloured, active benthic taxa through unidirectional facilitation to the predators, which is a functional change of interspecific interaction caused by a third species. This study suggests that prey-predator facilitation through TMIIs can modify species interactions, affecting community dynamics. PMID:17426008

Zhang, Yixin; Richardson, John S

2007-06-22

24

ORIGINAL PAPER Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey  

E-print Network

predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS with trying to conduct such a study. Keywords Canis lupus . Global positioning system (GPS) collars for the scarcity of summer predation studies. Recently, use of global positioning system (GPS) collars

Boyer, Edmond

25

Predators and Prey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity uses a model of the Virtual Ecosystem with three species in it: grass, rabbits, and hawks, enabling the students to explore the effect of predation on the prey population. At first students explore protective coloration as they ?become? a hawk and try to catch and eat brown and white rabbits on a snowy field. The latter blend into the background and are harder to see, so they have a selective advantage. Students then explore how the color of the rabbit population changes as the environment changes over time.

The Concord Consortium

2011-12-11

26

Goshawk prey have more bacteria than non-prey.  

PubMed

1. Predators often prey on individuals that are sick or otherwise weakened. Although previous studies have shown higher abundance of parasites in prey, whether prey have elevated loads of micro-organisms remains to be determined. 2. We quantified the abundance of bacteria and fungi on feathers of woodpigeons Columba palumbus L., jays Garrulus glandarius L. and blackbirds Turdus merula L. that either fell prey to goshawks Accipiter gentilis L. or were not depredated. 3. We found an almost three-fold increase in bacterial load of prey compared with non-prey, while there was no significant difference between prey and non-prey in level of fungal infection of the plumage. 4. The results were not confounded by differences in size or mass of feathers, date of collection of feathers, or date of analysis of feathers for micro-organisms. 5. These findings suggest a previously unknown contribution of bacteria to risk of predation, with important implications for behaviour, population ecology and community ecology. PMID:22039986

Mřller, A P; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Nielsen, J T; López-Hernández, E; Soler, J J

2012-03-01

27

Prey choice by marten during a decline in prey abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined variation in diet choice by marten (Martes americana) among seasons and between sexes and ages from 1980–1985. During this period prey populations crashed simultaneously, except for ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) which was common at the beginning and end of the study, and masked shrews (Sorex cinereus) which were abundant in 1983. Marten were catholic in selection of prey

Ian D. Thompson; Patrick W. Colgan

1990-01-01

28

Predator-prey systems depend on a prey refuge.  

PubMed

Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based model which does not require the factors or constraints of previous models to reproduce all six patterns in persistent populations. Our parsimonious model represents a generalised predator and prey species with a small prey refuge. The lack of the constraints of previous models, considered to be important for those models, casts doubt on the current hypothesised mechanisms of exclusive predator-prey systems. The implication for management of the lynx, a protected species, is that maintenance of an heterogeneous environment offering natural refuge areas for the hare is the most important factor for the conservation of this species. PMID:25058806

Chivers, W J; Gladstone, W; Herbert, R D; Fuller, M M

2014-11-01

29

Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

Hamerstrom, Frances

30

Predation by vervet monkeys in an outdoor enclosure: The effect of age, rank, and kinship on prey capture and consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-one instances of vertebrate predation have been directly observed or inferred from remains in a captive colony of vervet\\u000a monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus)over a 6-year period. Vertebrate prey included 33 rodents,27 birds, and 1 frog. Prey capturing was performed predominantly by juvenile males and females, independent of rank. Avian\\u000a prey were highly preferred: all 27 birds were eaten completely, while

Lynn A. Fairbanks

1984-01-01

31

The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification. PMID:22675186

Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

2012-01-01

32

Top carnivores increase their kill rates on prey as a response to human-induced fear.  

PubMed

The fear induced by predators on their prey is well known to cause behavioural adjustments by prey that can ripple through food webs. Little is known, however, about the analogous impacts of humans as perceived top predators on the foraging behaviour of carnivores. Here, we investigate the influence of human-induced fear on puma foraging behaviour using location and prey consumption data from 30 tagged individuals living along a gradient of human development. We observed strong behavioural responses by female pumas to human development, whereby their fidelity to kill sites and overall consumption time of prey declined with increasing housing density by 36 and 42%, respectively. Females responded to this decline in prey consumption time by increasing the number of deer they killed in high housing density areas by 36% over what they killed in areas with little residential development. The loss of food from declines in prey consumption time paired with increases in energetic costs associated with killing more prey may have consequences for puma populations, particularly with regard to reproductive success. In addition, greater carcass availability is likely to alter community dynamics by augmenting food resources for scavengers. In light of the extensive and growing impact of habitat modification, our study emphasizes that knowledge of the indirect effects of human activity on animal behaviour is a necessary component in understanding anthropogenic impacts on community dynamics and food web function. PMID:25608884

Smith, Justine A; Wang, Yiwei; Wilmers, Christopher C

2015-03-01

33

2D immunoblots show differential response of mouse IgG and IgM antibodies to antigens of mammary carcinoma 4 T1 cells  

PubMed Central

Background Immunosuppression in breast cancer has been reported in women and in the highly metastatic mouse mammary tumor model 4 T1. The immunosuppressive environment complicates the use of the humoral response against the tumor as an immunodiagnostic tool. IgM has not been used in immunodiagnostic in part because its antitumor responses, both innate and adaptive, have not been studied in function of time in breast cancer. We show a new approach to analyzing the mouse humoral immune response, and compare the evolution with time of IgG and IgM responses against the antigens of 4 T1 cells. Methods The study is based on 2-dimensional immunoblotting detection of antigens from 4 T1 cells by the IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum of female mice injected with 4 T1 cells. Results There was a high variability in the intra-and inter-mouse response. Variability in the IgM response was manifested as a pattern of spots that could become a multibinomial variable of 0 and 1, which could represent a signature of the immune response. Different numbers of spots was found in the IgG and IgM responses from week 1 to 5. On average, the IgM had more but the IgG response decrease with the time. The natural IgM at t?=?0 responds stronger than w1; the adaptive response of both IgM and IgG were elicited where, with the former being stronger better than the latter. Antigens that are recognized by some female mice in the first week are also recognized by other female mice at time 0. Contamination of the natural IgM makes difficult use the adaptive IgM as a tool for immunodiagnostic. Conclusions IgM and IgG response varied with the time and individuals. Spot variation in 2D pattern for the natural IgM could be expressed as a binomial signature, which opens up the way to correlate a particular pattern with resistance or susceptibility. This uncovers a battery of IgMs for each individual to confront cancer or infections. The possibility to differentiate between adaptive IgM antibodies from the natural IgM will allow investigation of the adaptive IgM for early immunodiagnosis. PMID:24467921

2014-01-01

34

Predator-prey relationships in a changing environment: the case of the sparrowhawk and its avian prey community in a rural area.  

PubMed

1. Changes in community composition are expected to entail cascading effects at different trophic levels within a food web. However, empirical evidence on the impact of changes in prey communities on the population dynamics of generalist predators, and on the extent of possible feedback processes, remains scarce. 2. We analysed the dynamics of a generalist predator, the European sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus L., in a rural area of Northern Denmark. Over a 20-year period, the diet of the predator has been thoroughly assessed (>30,000 identified prey items) and quantitative information about its avian prey community, based on standard breeding bird surveys, has revealed significant trends for several passerine species, although the overall prey biomass available remained stable. 3. The growth rate of the sparrowhawk breeding population was negatively related to the previous sparrowhawk density and to winter temperature, but was positively related to available prey biomass. Contrary to expectations for a generalist predator, sparrowhawks seemed to be predominantly sensitive to changes in the cumulative abundance of their two main prey species, the skylark Alauda arvensis L. and the blackbird Turdus merula L., but less so to changes in the wider prey community. 4. In demographic terms, the two-phase sparrowhawk dynamic recorded here (a recovery following an initial decrease) was mainly driven by recruitment of yearling females into the breeding population rather than by variation in the apparent survival of breeding females. 5. Our findings emphasize that changes in the composition of a prey community, affected by environmental changes, impacted population dynamics of a generalist predator. Finally, we found conditions that might enable apparent competition between blackbirds and song thrushes Turdus philomelos L. to occur. High blackbird abundance, maintaining sparrowhawks at a relatively high density may, in turn, push song thrushes into a predator pit. PMID:19558613

Millon, Alexandre; Nielsen, Jan Třttrup; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Mřller, Anders Pape

2009-09-01

35

Predator-Prey Simulation Exercises for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrations of predator-prey interactions looking at different prey distributions, structural complexity of the environment, prey's reproductive rate,and both predator-prey reproduction in a complex environment.

James Waddell (University of Maine at Orono; )

2009-08-26

36

Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.

2004-01-01

37

Innate prey preference overridden by familiarisation with detrimental prey in a specialised myrmecophagous predator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prey-specialised spiders often do not have brood care and may not deposit eggs in the proximity of the preferred prey. Thus, naďve spiderlings are left to their own to find their focal prey. Our aim was to reveal whether the choice of a specific prey is innate and whether familiarisation with a certain prey will condition prey choice. We used the myrmecophagous spider Euryopis episinoides, which specialises on Messor ants. It finds ants using chemical cues deposited on the substrate. Naďve spiderlings were offered chemical cues from Messor and Myrmica ants and Drosophila flies. They chose significantly more chemical cues from Messor ants than those from Drosophila flies. Then spiderlings were assigned to three prey treatments: fed with Messor ants only (optimal prey), fed with Myrmica ants only (suboptimal prey) or fed with Drosophila flies only (detrimental prey) until adulthood. Every 2 weeks, all spiders from all treatments were offered chemical cues from the three prey types and the frequency of choice and latency to assuming a posture were recorded. Experienced spiderlings preferred chemical cues from the prey in which they were raised. They suffered high mortality on Drosophila flies and attained largest size on the optimal prey. We show here that majority of spiderlings are born with an innate preference to their focal prey, which can be altered by familiarisation with alternative prey, irrespective of whether such a prey is beneficial.

Pekár, Stano; Cárdenas, Manuel

2015-02-01

38

Innate prey preference overridden by familiarisation with detrimental prey in a specialised myrmecophagous predator.  

PubMed

Prey-specialised spiders often do not have brood care and may not deposit eggs in the proximity of the preferred prey. Thus, naďve spiderlings are left to their own to find their focal prey. Our aim was to reveal whether the choice of a specific prey is innate and whether familiarisation with a certain prey will condition prey choice. We used the myrmecophagous spider Euryopis episinoides, which specialises on Messor ants. It finds ants using chemical cues deposited on the substrate. Naďve spiderlings were offered chemical cues from Messor and Myrmica ants and Drosophila flies. They chose significantly more chemical cues from Messor ants than those from Drosophila flies. Then spiderlings were assigned to three prey treatments: fed with Messor ants only (optimal prey), fed with Myrmica ants only (suboptimal prey) or fed with Drosophila flies only (detrimental prey) until adulthood. Every 2 weeks, all spiders from all treatments were offered chemical cues from the three prey types and the frequency of choice and latency to assuming a posture were recorded. Experienced spiderlings preferred chemical cues from the prey in which they were raised. They suffered high mortality on Drosophila flies and attained largest size on the optimal prey. We show here that majority of spiderlings are born with an innate preference to their focal prey, which can be altered by familiarisation with alternative prey, irrespective of whether such a prey is beneficial. PMID:25645732

Pekár, Stano; Cárdenas, Manuel

2015-02-01

39

Prey pursuit and interception in dragonflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perching dragonflies (Libellulidae; Odonata) are sit-and-wait predators, which take off and pursue small flying insects.\\u000a To investigate their prey pursuit strategy, we videotaped 36 prey-capture flights of male dragonflies, Erythemis simplicicollis and Leucorrhinia intacta, for frame-by-frame analysis. We found that dragonflies fly directly toward the point of prey interception by steering to\\u000a minimize the movement of the prey's image on

R. M. Olberg; A. H. Worthington; K. R. Venator

2000-01-01

40

Dragonfly Production and Prey Turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual production was calculated for three dominant larval odonate populations (Ladona deplanata, Epitheca spp., and Celithemis fasciata) coexisting in the littoral zone of an abandoned farm pond. Dragonfly populations and their prey were collected simultaneously with an Ekman grab at 2-wk to 1-mo intervals. Production for each dragonfly species was calculated using both the Allen curve method and the removal-summation

Arthur C. Benke

1976-01-01

41

Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.  

PubMed

The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

2010-04-23

42

Qualitative and quantitative prey requirements of two aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota and Hippodamia variegata.  

PubMed

The suitability of two prey species, Aphis pomi De Geer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.), for two generalist aphidophagous coccinellids, Adalia tetraspilota (Hope) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Hippodamia variegata (Goeze), at various abundance levels was investigated under laboratory conditions. While both A. pomi and B. brassicae were found to be suitable, the predators performed better when feeding upon B. brassicae. The prey densities affected the developmental parameters of the two predators appreciably. Optimal growth and development was noted in the prey density range of 40-80 aphids per day per predator. Both species and abundance levels of prey significantly affected the larval period of the two predators. Appreciable variation in survivorship of larvae, prepupal and pupal period, and adult weight was noted by varying the prey species and prey abundance. Longer reproductive period (oviposition period) and shorter non-reproductive periods (preoviposition and postoviposition periods) were noted for females that fed on B. brassicae as compared to those that fed on A. pomi. Reproductive output was appreciably higher for females that fed on B. brassicae, and the fecundity decreased drastically under food shortage. PMID:25373219

Shah, Mohd Abas; Khan, Akhtar Ali

2014-01-01

43

Prey life-history and bioenergetic responses across a predation gradient.  

PubMed

To evaluate the importance of non-consumptive effects of predators on prey life histories under natural conditions, an index of predator abundance was developed for naturally occurring populations of a common prey fish, the yellow perch Perca flavescens, and compared to life-history variables and rates of prey energy acquisition and allocation as estimated from mass balance models. The predation index was positively related to maximum size and size at maturity in both male and female P. flavescens, but not with life span or reproductive investment. The predation index was positively related to size-adjusted specific growth rates and growth efficiencies but negatively related to model estimates of size-adjusted specific consumption and activity rates in both vulnerable (small) and invulnerable (large) size classes of P. flavescens. These observations suggest a trade-off between growth and activity rates, mediated by reduced activity in response to increasing predator densities. Lower growth rates and growth efficiencies in populations with fewer predators, despite increased consumption suggests either 1) a reduction in prey resources at lower predator densities or 2) an intrinsic cost of rapid prey growth that makes it unfavourable unless offset by a perceived threat of predation. This study provides evidence of trade-offs between growth and activity rates induced by predation risk in natural prey fish populations and illustrates how behavioural modification induced through predation can shape the life histories of prey fish species. PMID:21039502

Rennie, M D; Purchase, C F; Shuter, B J; Collins, N C; Abrams, P A; Morgan, G E

2010-10-01

44

Prey pursuit and interception in dragonflies.  

PubMed

Perching dragonflies (Libellulidae; Odonata) are sit-and-wait predators, which take off and pursue small flying insects. To investigate their prey pursuit strategy, we videotaped 36 prey-capture flights of male dragonflies, Erythemis simplicicollis and Leucorrhinia intacta, for frame-by-frame analysis. We found that dragonflies fly directly toward the point of prey interception by steering to minimize the movement of the prey's image on the retina. This behavior could be guided by target-selective descending interneurons which show directionally selective visual responses to small-object movement. We investigated how dragonflies discriminate distance of potential prey. We found a peak in angular velocity of the prey shortly before take-off which might cue the dragonfly to nearby flying targets. Parallax information from head movements was not required for successful prey pursuit. PMID:10707313

Olberg, R M; Worthington, A H; Venator, K R

2000-02-01

45

IGS Network Coordinator Report - 2002  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IGS network is a set of permanent, continuously-operating, dual-frequency GPS stations operated by over 100 worldwide agencies. The dataset is pooled at IGS Data Centers for routine use by IGS Analysis Centers in creating precise IGS products, as well as free access by other analysts around the world. The IGS Central Bureau hosts the IGS Network Coordinator, who assures adherence to standards and provides information regarding the IGS network via the Central Bureau Information System website at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov.

Moore, Angelyn

2004-01-01

46

Biology Graphs - Predator and Prey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the numerical relationship between the population growth of predator (lynx) and prey (hare) over a 90 year period as shown in a graph. The graph shows that as the population of hares increases, the population of lynx increases. As the population of lynx continue to increase, the population of hares decreases. Questions probe student thinking on this relationship and other factors that may impact the population of the hare and the lynx.

47

Investigating Predator-Prey Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a mixed culture, how does the population of Didinium affect the population of Paramecium â?? and vice versa? Predator-prey cycles can be modeled using the Biota simulation. How do variables such as the presence of a refuge or the availability of food perturb the population cycles? * study the effects that the presence of a refuge from predators has on a model microbial population

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

48

Reproductive tradeoff limits the predatory efficiency of female Arizona Bark Scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus)  

PubMed Central

Background Life history tradeoffs may result from temporal and physiological constraints intrinsic to an organism. When faced with limited time and energy, compromises occur and these resources are allocated among essential activities, such as body growth, maintenance, foraging, mating, and offspring care. We investigated potential tradeoffs that may occur between reproductive activities and feeding performance in female Arizona Bark Scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus) by comparing the time taken to capture prey between non-reproductive and reproductive females (gravid females and females exhibiting maternal care, i.e. carrying offspring on their backs). Results Gravid females were as efficient at catching prey as non-gravid females. To control for variation in the duration of the maternal care period, we removed all offspring from all post-parturient females after 5 days. Brooding females and females 24 hours following offspring removal (FOR) did not successfully capture prey within the 900-second trial period. Twenty-eight days FOR, females caught prey faster than females displaying maternal care and females 24 hours FOR, but were not as efficient at catching prey as non-gravid and gravid females. When pursuing prey, C. sculpturatus exhibiting maternal care used an active foraging strategy more frequently than non-gravid, gravid, and females 28 days FOR. In contrast, non-gravid, gravid, and females 28 days FOR used active and ambush foraging with similar frequency. Conclusions Our data suggest that reproduction does not significantly reduce the predatory efficiency of gravid C. sculpturatus, and that these females can cope with increasing body mass and the physiological costs of gestation. However, the observation that brooding females and females 24 hours FOR did not catch prey within the trial period indicates that maternal care significantly reduces predatory efficiency in these scorpions. Females 28 days FOR were still not as efficient at catching prey as non-gravid and gravid females, suggesting that reproductive costs extend for at least 4 weeks after the end of the maternal care period. Preferential use of an active foraging strategy by brooding females may increase prey encounter rates, allowing the scorpions to more rapidly replenish energy reserves depleted during reproduction. However, active foraging may be energetically costly and increase predation risk for brooding females. Our findings regarding antagonistic interactions between reproduction and feeding in female C. sculpturatus demonstrate the pervasive nature of reproductive costs for viviparous females, and may provide insight on factors that influence the diversity of reproductive strategies observed in nature. PMID:24034444

2013-01-01

49

The Role of Ciscoes as Prey in the Trophy Growth Potential of Walleyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the growth characteristics of 215 populations of walleye Sander vitreus across Ontario revealed that female walleyes reached larger asymptotic lengths in lakes in which ciscoes Coregonus artedi provided a relatively large prey species for them. The stomach contents of walleyes from a set of intensively studied lakes revealed that walleyes of all sizes depended on ciscoes but that

Scott D. Kaufman; George E. Morgan; John M. Gunn

2009-01-01

50

SUPPORTING ONLINE MATERIAL Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community  

E-print Network

, the main alternate prey are birds (ptarmigan, waders and passerines) for the snowy owl, small birds, fishes at snowmelt (N') based on the density of winter nests for 1988-2002 and on direct live-trapping for 1998 to be looked for since only the male snowy owl hunts (and feeds the female) while the skuas take turns

Helsinki, University of

51

Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios  

PubMed Central

Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

2014-01-01

52

IGS Data Flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The IGS analysis centers and user community in general need to be assured that the data centers archive a consistent set of files. Changes to the archives can occur because of the re-publishing of data, the transmission of historic data, and the resulting re-distribution (or lack thereof) of these data from data center to data center. To ensure the quality of the archives, a defined data flow and method of archive population needs to be established. This poster will diagram and review the current IGS data flow, discuss problems that have occurred, and provide recommendations for improvement.

Noll, Carey

2006-01-01

53

Coevolution can reverse predator-prey cycles.  

PubMed

A hallmark of Lotka-Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator-prey interactions, is that in predator-prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator-prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka-Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage-cholera, mink-muskrat, and gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator-prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator-prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

2014-05-20

54

Coevolution can reverse predator–prey cycles  

PubMed Central

A hallmark of Lotka–Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator–prey interactions, is that in predator–prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator–prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka–Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage–cholera, mink–muskrat, and gyrfalcon–rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator–prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator–prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

Cortez, Michael H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

2014-01-01

55

Deterministic and Stochastic Analysis of a Prey-Dependent Predator-Prey System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on studies of the deterministic and stochastic behaviours of a predator-prey system with prey-dependent response function. The first part of the paper deals with the deterministic analysis of uniform boundedness, permanence, stability and bifurcation. In the second part the reproductive and mortality factors of the prey and…

Maiti, Alakes; Samanta, G. P.

2005-01-01

56

Prey selection by dragonflies in relation to prey size and wasp-like colours and patterns  

E-print Network

Prey selection by dragonflies in relation to prey size and wasp-like colours and patterns ARASH and patterns were important in deterring attacks by dragonflies, using pairwise and single presentations of both natural and artificial prey in the field. Dragonflies were more likely to attack smaller natural

Beatty, Christopher

57

"Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

2012-01-01

58

Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator Model Incorporating a Prey Refuge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with a prey-predator model incorporating a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…

Kar, Tapan Kumar

2006-01-01

59

Influence of plumage colour on prey response: does habitat alter heron crypsis to prey?  

E-print Network

Influence of plumage colour on prey response: does habitat alter heron crypsis to prey? M. CLAY of crypsis to aquatic prey. White plumage has been hypothesized to be adaptive for herons hunting in open; Caldwell 1986; Tickell 2003). One hypothesis suggests that white plumage may result in in- creased crypsis

Green, Clay - Department of Biology, Texas State University

60

Consequences of size structure in the prey for predator–prey dynamics: the composite functional response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Current formulations of functional responses assume that the prey is homogeneous and independent of intraspecific processes. Most prey populations consist of different coexisting size classes that often engage in asymmetrical intraspecific interactions, including cannibalism, which can lead to nonlinear interaction effects. This may be important as the size structure with the prey could alter the overall density-dependent predation

Volker H. W. Rudolf

2008-01-01

61

The Packaging Problem: Bivalve Prey Selection and Prey Entry Techniques of the Octopus Enteroctopus dofleini  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many predators face a complex step of prey preparation before consumption. Octopuses faced with bivalve prey use several techniques to penetrate the shells to gain access to the meat inside. When given prey of mussels Mytilus trossulus, Manila clams Venerupis philippinarum, and littleneck clams Protothaca staminea, Enteroctopus dofleini solved the problem differently. They pulled apart V. philippinarum and M. trossulus,

Roland C. Anderson; Jennifer A. Mather

2007-01-01

62

Effects of Antiε on Total and Specific IgE Levels in Adult Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult (2- to 3-month-old) female CBA\\/J mice were injected intraperitoneally with heavy chain specific rabbit anti-IgE (anti-ε) to determine its effects on total and specific serum IgE. Animals receiving 10 × 250 ?g injections over a 50-day period displayed significantly increased (10 × levels of serum IgE compared to rabbit gamma-globulin or untreated controls. If animals were immunized with castor

Brian E. Bozelka; Marjorie L. McCants; John E. Salvaggio; Samuel B. Lehrer

1985-01-01

63

Prey perception of predation risk: volatile chemical cues mediate non-consumptive effects of a predator on a herbivorous insect.  

PubMed

Predators can affect prey in two ways-by reducing their density (consumptive effects) or by changing their behavior, physiology or other phenotypic traits (non-consumptive effects). Understanding the cues and sensory modalities prey use to detect predators is critical for predicting the strength of non-consumptive effects and the outcome of predator-prey encounters. While predator-associated cues have been well studied in aquatic systems, less is known about how terrestrial prey, particularly insect larvae, detect their predators. We evaluated how Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, larvae perceive predation risk by isolating cues from its stink bug predator, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris. When exposed to male "risk" predators that were surgically manipulated so they could hunt but not kill, beetles reduced feeding 29% compared to controls. Exposure to risk females caused an intermediate response. Beetles ate 24% less on leaves pre-exposed to predators compared to leaves never exposed to predators, indicating that tactile and visual cues are not required for the prey's response. Volatile odor cues from predators reduced beetle feeding by 10% overall, although male predators caused a stronger reduction than females. Finally, visual cues from the predator had a weak effect on beetle feeding. Because multiple cues appear to be involved in prey perception of risk, and because male and female predators have differential effects, beetle larvae likely experience tremendous variation in the information about risk from their local environment. PMID:25234373

Hermann, Sara L; Thaler, Jennifer S

2014-11-01

64

Anti-IgE Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, nasal congestion, hives and swelling. Anti-IgE attaches to IgE in ... 12 years of age who: Have chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU; chronic hives without a known cause) who ...

65

Managing fisheries involving predator and prey species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several management strategies for ecosystems with biological interaction are discussed, including predator removal, predator-prey coexistence, prey exploitation, overexploitation, and introduction of sanctuaries. Some case studies related to ecosystem management are briefly presented; these describe Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika, discarding from shrimp trawl fisheries and the development in the North Sea that led to introduction of multispecies analysis. The concept of

Villy Christensen; Lake Victoria; Lake Tanganyika

1996-01-01

66

RESEARCH ARTICLE Prey Capture Behavior of Native  

E-print Network

predators, and Sonora sucker (Catostomus insignis) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), benthic omnivores; in contrast, Sonora sucker remove attached prey via scraping. When presented with different prey types, common large, invasive crayfish and young roundtail chub--their presumptive trophic competitors. J. Exp. Zool

Gibb, Alice C.

67

Prey preferences of the leopard (Panthera pardus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leopards Panthera pardus have a catholic diet and are generally thought to prey on medium-sized ungulates; however, knowledge on which species are actually preferred and avoided is lacking, along with an understanding of why such preferences arise. Twenty-nine published and four unpublished studies of leopard diet that had relative prey abundance estimates associated with them were analysed from 13 countries

M. W. Hayward; P. Henschel; J. O'Brien; M. Hofmeyr; G. Balme; G. I. H. Kerley

2006-01-01

68

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles that diet and prey abundance play in habitat selection of Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous United States is poorly understood. From 1998-2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus),

69

Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.

Palacios, Vicente; Mech, L. David

2010-01-01

70

Shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web.  

PubMed

Shifting prey selection has been identified as a mechanism potentially regulating predator-prey interactions, but it may also lead to different outcomes, especially in more complex systems with multiple prey species available. We assessed changing prey selection by lions, the major predator for 12 large herbivore species in South Africa's Kruger National Park. The database was provided by records of found carcasses ascribed to kills by lions assembled over 70 years, coupled with counts of changing prey abundance extending over 30 years. Wildebeest and zebra constituted the most favored prey species during the early portion of the study period, while selection for buffalo rose in the south of the park after a severe drought increased their vulnerability. Rainfall had a negative influence on the proportional representation of buffalo in lion kills, but wildebeest and zebra appeared less susceptible to being killed under conditions of low rainfall. Selection by lions for alternative prey species, including giraffe, kudu, waterbuck, and warthog, was influenced by the changing relative abundance and vulnerability of the three principal prey species. Simultaneous declines in the abundance of rarer antelope species were associated with a sharp increase in selection for these species at a time when all three principal prey species were less available. Hence shifting prey selection by lions affected the dynamics of herbivore populations in different ways: promoting contrasting responses by principal prey species to rainfall variation, while apparently being the main cause of sharp declines by alternative prey species under certain conditions. Accordingly, adaptive responses by predators, to both the changing relative abundance of the principal prey species, and other conditions affecting the relative vulnerability of various species, should be taken into account to understand the interactive dynamics of multispecies predator-prey webs. PMID:18481536

Owen-Smith, Norman; Mills, M G L

2008-04-01

71

Ig Nobel Prizes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On October 5, the tenth annual Ig Nobel awards ceremony was held at Harvard University. The Ig Nobel awards honor individuals whose achievements "cannot or should not be reproduced." This year's illustrious winners include, in the Physics category, Andre Geim of the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University (UK) for using magnets to levitate a frog and a sumo wrestler, and the Peace award goes to the British Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!" A complete list of winners with links to further information is provided at the site, along with previous winners and an archived webcast of this and past year's ceremonies (free registration required).

2000-01-01

72

Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.  

PubMed

Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour. PMID:23405121

Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

2013-01-01

73

Seasonal Diet and Prey Preference of the African Lion in a Waterhole-Driven Semi-Arid Savanna  

PubMed Central

Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs’ index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group “medium Bovidae” are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs’ index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour. PMID:23405121

Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Hunt, Jane E.; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W.

2013-01-01

74

Tennis, incidence of URTI and salivary IgA.  

PubMed

Tennis played at an elite level requires intensive training characterized by repeated bouts of brief intermittent high intensity exercise over relatively long periods of time (1 - 3 h or more). Competition can place additional stress on players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal association between specific components of tennis training and competition, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and salivary IgA, in a cohort of seventeen elite female tennis players. Timed, whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after selected 1-h training sessions at 2 weekly intervals, over 12 weeks. Salivary IgA concentration was measured by ELISA and IgA secretion rate calculated (microg IgA x ml -1 x ml saliva x min -1). Players reported URTI symptoms and recorded training and competition in daily logs. Data analysis showed that higher incidence of URTI was significantly associated with increased training duration and load, and competition level, on a weekly basis. Salivary IgA secretion rate (S-IgA) dropped significantly after 1 hour of tennis play. Over the 12-week period, pre-exercise salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate were directly associated with the amount of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). However, the decline in S-IgA after 1 h of intense tennis play was also positively related to the duration and load of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). Although exercise-induced suppression of salivary IgA may be a risk factor, it could not accurately predict the occurrence of URTI in this cohort of athletes. PMID:12740744

Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

2003-04-01

75

Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

76

Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders.  

PubMed

During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

2013-01-01

77

Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders  

PubMed Central

During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

2013-01-01

78

A new antibody in rheumatoid arthritis targeting glycated IgG: IgM anti- IgG-AGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Hyperglycaemia and\\/or oxidative stress can cause IgG to be modified by advanced glycation end products (AGE). Three patients with aggressive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and vasculitis are described who have high titres of IgM antibodies against AGE-modified IgG (IgM anti-IgG-AGE ). Diabetics and randomly selected patients with rheumatic diseases, including 50 additional RA patients, were tested for IgM and IgA

S. LIGIER; P. R. FORTIN; M. M. NEWKIRK

1998-01-01

79

The effect of habitat structure on prey mortality depends on predator and prey microhabitat use.  

PubMed

Structurally complex habitats provide cover and may hinder the movement of animals. In predator-prey relationships, habitat structure can decrease predation risk when it provides refuges for prey or hinders foraging activity of predators. However, it may also provide shelter, supporting structures and perches for sit-and-wait predators and hence increase their predation rates. We tested the effect of habitat structure on prey mortality in aquatic invertebrates in short-term laboratory predation trials that differed in the presence or absence of artificial vegetation. The effect of habitat structure on prey mortality was context dependent as it changed with predator and prey microhabitat use. Specifically, we observed an 'anti-refuge' effect of added vegetation: phytophilous predators that perched on the plants imposed higher predation pressure on planktonic prey, while mortality of benthic prey decreased. Predation by benthic and planktonic predators on either type of prey remained unaffected by the presence of vegetation. Our results show that the effects of habitat structure on predator-prey interactions are more complex than simply providing prey refuges or cover for predators. Such context-specific effects of habitat complexity may alter the coupling of different parts of the ecosystem, such as pelagic and benthic habitats, and ultimately affect food web stability through cascading effects on individual life histories and trophic link strengths. PMID:25085443

Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

2014-09-01

80

Disentangling taste and toxicity in aposematic prey  

PubMed Central

Many predators quickly learn to avoid attacking aposematic prey. If the prey vary in toxicity, the predators may alternatively learn to capture and taste-sample prey carefully before ingesting or rejecting them (go-slow behaviour). An increase in prey toxicity is generally thought to decrease predation on prey populations. However, while prey with a higher toxin load are more harmful to ingest, they may also be easier to recognize and reject owing to greater distastefulness, which can facilitate a taste-sampling foraging strategy. Here, the classic diet model is used to study the separate effects of taste and toxicity on predator preferences. The taste-sampling process is modelled using signal detection theory. The model is applicable to automimicry and Batesian mimicry. It shows that when the defensive toxin is sufficiently distasteful, a mimicry complex may be less profitable to the predator and better protected against predation if the models are moderately toxic than if they are highly toxic. Moreover, taste mimicry can reduce the profitability of the mimicry complex and increase protection against predation. The results are discussed in relation to the selection pressures acting on prey defences and the evolution of mimicry. PMID:23256198

Holen, Řistein Haugsten

2013-01-01

81

IGS 1996 Analysis Center Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Components of the IGS[International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for geodynamics], have operated a GPS tracking system for several years. The network now contains more than 100 stations and has produced a combined GPS ephemeris that has become the standard for geodesists and geophysicists worldwide. IGS data and products are freely available to all thanks to the cooperation and participation of all the IGS members. The IGS has initiated development of several new products, and technical issues permitting greater accuracy of IGS products have been identified. The IGS convened a workshop on March 1996 in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, to coordinate these developments and to examine technical problems and solutions. The following topics were addressed: orbit/clock combination; Earth orientation; antenna calibration; SINEX and densification of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) using the GPS; receiver standards and performance; and atmospheric topics.

Neilan, R. E. (Editor); VanScoy, P. A. (Editor); Zumberge, J. F. (Editor)

1996-01-01

82

Reproductive responses of invasive and native predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to varying prey availability.  

PubMed

As adults, many predatory insects must adjust to a constantly changing prey environment while balancing between survival and reproduction. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to compare reproductive responses of females of two species of lady beetles, invasive Coccinella septempunctata L. and native C. transversoguttata richardsoni (Brown), in Utah alfalfa fields to varying availability of prey. When both lady beetles were placed immediately on experimental diets after being collected from the field (first experiment) and when they were provided excess prey for 14 d before being placed on experimental diets (second experiment), C. septempunctata produced more but individually smaller eggs than C. transversoguttata. Overall, however, in both experiments, C. septempunctata and C. transversoguttata responded similarly when they consumed pea aphids in varying amounts, by laying fewer and less viable eggs when fewer prey were consumed. In particular, the experiments provided no evidence that C. septempunctata converts pea aphids into eggs at a relatively higher rate than C. transversoguttata under limited prey availability. However, C. septempunctata had greater ability than C. transversoguttata to maintain body weight, even as they were producing eggs at low rates. This suggests that low aphid availability is less stressful for C. septempunctata, perhaps because it has more physiological ability than C. transversoguttata to assimilate pea aphid nutrients at low aphid availability. Such ability might contribute to the numerical dominance of the introduced C. septempunctata in alfalfa fields, which have supported low numbers of aphids in recent years. PMID:19689911

Kajita, Y; Evans, E W; Yasuda, H

2009-08-01

83

IgG4-Related Systemic Disease Can Be Easily Mistaken as a Uroepithelial Tumor  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic syndrome characterized by elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and tumefaction or tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We experienced a case of IgG4-RD involving multiple organs in a 64-year-old female who was referred for a suspected uroepithelial tumor. A mass biopsy confirmed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. We discuss this case and review the literature to bring IgG4-RD to the attention to clinicians because it responds dramatically well to steroid therapy and should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery.

Han, Song Yi; Lee, Seung Ik; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung

2015-01-01

84

Human Activity Helps Prey Win the Predator-Prey Space Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a “space race”, where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing

Tyler B. Muhly; Christina Semeniuk; Alessandro Massolo; Laura Hickman; Marco Musiani; Matjaz Perc

2011-01-01

85

Predators' decisions to eat defended prey depend on the size of undefended prey.  

PubMed

Predators that have learned to associate warning coloration with toxicity often continue to include aposematic prey in their diet in order to gain the nutrients and energy that they contain. As body size is widely reported to correlate with energetic content, we predicted that prey size would affect predators' decisions to eat aposematic prey. We used a well-established system of wild-caught European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, foraging on mealworms, Tenebrio molitor, to test how the size of undefended (water-injected) and defended (quinine-injected) prey, on different coloured backgrounds, affected birds' decisions to eat defended prey. We found that birds ate fewer defended prey, and less quinine, when undefended prey were large compared with when they were small, but that the size of the defended prey had no effect on the numbers eaten. Consequently, we found no evidence that the mass of the defended prey or the overall mass of prey ingested affected the amount of toxin that a predator was willing to ingest, and instead the mass of undefended prey eaten was more important. This is a surprising finding, challenging the assumptions of state-dependent models of aposematism and mimicry, and highlighting the need to understand better the mechanisms of predator decision making. In addition, the birds did not learn to discriminate visually between defended and undefended prey based on size, but only on the basis of colour. This suggests that colour signals may be more salient to predators than size differences, allowing Batesian mimics to benefit from aposematic models even when they differ in size. PMID:23814280

Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

2013-06-01

86

Egg Load Decreases Mobility and Increases Predation Risk in Female Black-Horned Tree Crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis)  

PubMed Central

Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis) prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, body size alone cannot fully explain why wasps take more females. We tested the hypothesis that wasps catch adult female tree crickets more often because bearing eggs impedes a female’s ability to escape predation. We compared female survivors to prey of I. mexicana, and found that females carrying more eggs were significantly more likely to be caught by wasps, regardless of their body size and jumping leg mass. We also conducted laboratory experiments where females’ jumping responses to a simulated attack were measured and compared to her egg load and morphology. We found a significant negative relationship between egg load and jumping ability, and a positive relationship between body size and jumping ability. These findings support the hypothesis that ovarian eggs are a physical handicap that contributes to female-biased predation in this system. Predation on the most fecund females may have ecological-evolutionary consequences such as collapse of prey populations or selection for alternate life history strategies and behaviours. PMID:25330090

Ercit, Kyla; Martinez-Novoa, Andrew; Gwynne, Darryl T.

2014-01-01

87

Effects of predator species, vegetation and prey assemblage on prey preferences of predators with  

E-print Network

and community dynamics. For example, common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., is an invasive species that can become, Cyprinus carpio, fathead minnow, foraging, prey selection, yellow perch. Introduction Predation

88

Campylobacter spp. and birds of prey.  

PubMed

A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey. PMID:25055637

Dipineto, Ludovico; De Luca Bossa, Luigi Maria; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro

2014-06-01

89

Individual variation in space use by female spotted hyenas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large carnivores range more widely than many other terrestrial mammals, and this behavior tends to bring them into frequent conflict with humans. Within any carnivore population, individual variation in patterns of space use should be expected to make some animals more vulnerable than others to risks of mortality from humans and other sources. In this study, our goal was to document variation among individuals in space use by female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We examined predictions of hypotheses suggesting that space use by female hyenas is affected by reproductive state, social rank, and local prey abundance. Home-range size, distance at which females were found from the current communal den, and distance at which they were found from the nearest territorial boundary all varied significantly with the 3 independent variables. Females with den-dwelling cubs had smaller home ranges, were found closer to the communal den, and were found farther from the territorial boundary than were females with no den-dwelling cubs. Neither social rank nor prey availability significantly influenced the space-use patterns of females with den-dwelling cubs. Among females with no den-dwelling cubs, high-ranking females had smaller home ranges, were closer to the communal den, and were farther from the territorial boundary than were low-ranking females. The females ranging most widely were low-ranking individuals with no den-dwelling cubs when they were observed during periods of prey scarcity.

Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

2003-01-01

90

PREY OF NESTING BALD EAGLES IN TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food habits of nesting bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Texas were assessed by examining prey remains collected from within and beneath nests. We collected and identified 661 prey items from 27 nesting territories. Nesting bald eagles appeared to be opportunistic feeders and their diets contained nearly equal proportions of birds (33.7%), reptiles (30.7%), and fish (30.1%); American coots (Fulica americana),

DAVID W. MABIE; M. TODD MERENDINO; DAVID H. REID

91

IGS News Publisher, Editor and Chapter Correspondents .....................................................42  

E-print Network

IGS News Publisher, Editor and Chapter Correspondents .....................................................42 IGS Council.............................................................43 IGS Officers ............................................................43 IGS Membership Application................................44 President's Corner: Student and Young

Zornberg, Jorge G.

92

President's Corner: The Chapters of IGS  

E-print Network

President's Corner: The Chapters of IGS Dear IGS member, IGS News, Vol. 27, No.1 (2011) 2 On March 13, 2011, the number of chapters of the IGS increased by ap- proximately 10%. Specifically, during its recent meeting in Dallas, the IGS Council approved the creation of the Finnish, Pakistani

Zornberg, Jorge G.

93

Dear IGS Colleague, IGS As a member of the IGS you should have received an invitation to vote in the important 2010 IGS  

E-print Network

Dear IGS Colleague, IGS As a member of the IGS you should have received an invitation to vote in the important 2010 IGS Election. I would like to encourage you to take the time to vote and I hope that you will cast your vote for me, Prof. Jorge Zornberg, for IGS President. I am extremely thankful to the Board

Zornberg, Jorge G.

94

Severe IgG4-Related Disease in a Young Child: A Diagnosis Challenge.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized syndrome that can appear with multiple organ involvement, typically with tumor-like swelling, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. We report the case of a 22-month-old female child with failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory tract infections since 8 months of age. Physical examination was normal except for pulmonary auscultation with bilateral crackles and wheezes. Laboratory tests revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated serum IgG and IgG4 with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Thoracic CT and MRI showed multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a nodular posterior mediastinal mass in right paratracheal location with bronchial compression. Initial fine needle aspiration biopsy was compatible with reactive lymphadenopathy but after clinical worsening a thoracoscopic partial resection of the mass was performed and tissue biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and a ratio of IgG4/IgG positive cells above 40%. Glucocorticoids therapy was started with symptomatic improvement, reduction in the size of the mass, and decrease of serum IgG4 levels after 6 weeks. There are very few reports of IgG4-RD in children. Long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor relapses and additional organ involvement. PMID:25705537

Corujeira, Susana; Ferraz, Catarina; Nunes, Teresa; Fonseca, Elsa; Vaz, Luísa Guedes

2015-01-01

95

Severe IgG4-Related Disease in a Young Child: A Diagnosis Challenge  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an increasingly recognized syndrome that can appear with multiple organ involvement, typically with tumor-like swelling, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. We report the case of a 22-month-old female child with failure to thrive and recurrent respiratory tract infections since 8 months of age. Physical examination was normal except for pulmonary auscultation with bilateral crackles and wheezes. Laboratory tests revealed elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and elevated serum IgG and IgG4 with polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Thoracic CT and MRI showed multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and a nodular posterior mediastinal mass in right paratracheal location with bronchial compression. Initial fine needle aspiration biopsy was compatible with reactive lymphadenopathy but after clinical worsening a thoracoscopic partial resection of the mass was performed and tissue biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells and a ratio of IgG4/IgG positive cells above 40%. Glucocorticoids therapy was started with symptomatic improvement, reduction in the size of the mass, and decrease of serum IgG4 levels after 6 weeks. There are very few reports of IgG4-RD in children. Long-term follow-up is necessary to monitor relapses and additional organ involvement. PMID:25705537

Ferraz, Catarina; Nunes, Teresa; Fonseca, Elsa; Vaz, Luísa Guedes

2015-01-01

96

Flexibility in assessment of prey cues: frog-eating bats and frog calls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predators use cues associated with their prey to assess prey quality and to avoid consuming poisonous prey. Considerable attention has been given to predators' use of aposematic cues to assess prey quality, but little is known about predators that eavesdrop on prey cues that are not intended for them. Here we investigate the prey-cue\\/prey-quality associations of a predator that eavesdrops

Rachel A. Page; Michael J. Ryan

2005-01-01

97

Selective IgA Deficiency  

E-print Network

calcium modulator and cyclo- philin ligand interactor gene appear to act as disease- modifying mutations in both IgA deficiencycalcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI, TNFRSF13B) have been found both in a subset of patients with IgA deficiency

Yel, Leman

2010-01-01

98

Predator prey interactions of Procambarus clarkii with aquatic macroinvertebrates in single and multiple prey systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interspecific interactions of Procambarus clarkii with other aquatic macroinvertebrates will help to unveil the mechanisms and processes underlying biological invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate predator-prey interactions of two ontogenic phases of P. clarkii with native and exotic species of aquatic macroinvertebrates at a single and multiple prey level. We performed laboratory experiments to determine the consumption and the behavioral responses of Chironomus riparius, Physa acuta and Corbicula fluminea to P. clarkii. The presence of P. clarkii significantly affected the abundance of C. riparius and P. acuta, but not of C. fluminea whether prey species were provided singly or simultaneously. The consumption of C. riparius by P. clarkii was higher than P. acuta for both crayfish sizes and situations (single/multiple prey systems) and C. fluminea was never consumed. Physa acuta was the only species that exhibited an anti-predator behavior to P. clarkii. Our results show that P. clarkii can have strong consumptive and trait effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate prey at a single and multiple prey level, resulting in differential impacts on different prey species. This study clarifies some aspects of the predator-prey interactions between P. clarkii and native as well as other exotic macroinvertebrate species that have invaded freshwater biocenosis worldwide.

Correia, Alexandra Marçal; Bandeira, Nuno; Anastácio, Pedro Manuel

2005-11-01

99

Influence of plumage colour on prey response: does habitat alter heron crypsis to prey?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foraging strategies of wading birds may be influenced by their degree of crypsis to aquatic prey. White plumage has been hypothesized to be adaptive for herons hunting in open water habitats. We tested this hypothesis with laboratory and field experiments with multiple prey species. We investigated the response of crayfish, Procambarus spp., and mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, to white- and

M. Clay Green; Paul L. Leberg

2005-01-01

100

Size-dependent suitability of two mirids as prey for the cursorial spider Hibana futilis (Araneae: Anyphaenidae).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ability of 2nd and 4th instars and adult females of the cursorial spider, Hibana futilis (Banks), to prey on different stages of two mirid pests of cotton was examined. Small nymphs, large nymphs, and adults of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudomatoscelis seriatus (Reuter) and Creontiades signatus (...

101

Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest\\u000a of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of\\u000a predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus

Vicente Palacios; L. David Mech

2011-01-01

102

Prey Responses to Predator Chemical Cues: Disentangling the Importance of the Number and Biomass of Prey Consumed  

PubMed Central

To effectively balance investment in predator defenses versus other traits, organisms must accurately assess predation risk. Chemical cues caused by predation events are indicators of risk for prey in a wide variety of systems, but the relationship between how prey perceive risk in relation to the amount of prey consumed by predators is poorly understood. While per capita predation rate is often used as the metric of relative risk, studies aimed at quantifying predator-induced defenses commonly control biomass of prey consumed as the metric of risk. However, biomass consumed can change by altering either the number or size of prey consumed. In this study we determine whether phenotypic plasticity to predator chemical cues depends upon prey biomass consumed, prey number consumed, or both. We examine the growth response of red-eyed treefrog tadpoles (Agalychnis callidryas) to cues from a larval dragonfly (Anax amazili). Biomass consumed was manipulated by either increasing the number of prey while holding individual prey size constant, or by holding the number of prey constant and varying individual prey size. We address two questions. (i) Do prey reduce growth rate in response to chemical cues in a dose dependent manner? (ii) Does the magnitude of the response depend on whether prey consumption increases via number or size of prey? We find that the phenotypic response of prey is an asymptotic function of prey biomass consumed. However, the asymptotic response is higher when more prey are consumed. Our findings have important implications for evaluating past studies and how future experiments should be designed. A stronger response to predation cues generated by more individual prey deaths is consistent with models that predict prey sensitivity to per capita risk, providing a more direct link between empirical and theoretical studies which are often focused on changes in population sizes not individual biomass. PMID:23082171

McCoy, Michael W.; Touchon, Justin C.; Landberg, Tobias; Warkentin, Karen M.; Vonesh, James R.

2012-01-01

103

Learning predator promotes coexistence of prey species in host–parasitoid systems  

PubMed Central

Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator–prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host–one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ?20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host–parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator–prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature. PMID:22411808

Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu

2012-01-01

104

Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

Erwin, R.M.

1989-01-01

105

Predator functional response and prey survival: direct and indirect interactions affecting a marked prey population.  

PubMed

1. Predation plays an integral role in many community interactions, with the number of predators and the rate at which they consume prey (i.e. their functional response) determining interaction strengths. Owing to the difficulty of directly observing predation events, attempts to determine the functional response of predators in natural systems are limited. Determining the forms that predator functional responses take in complex systems is important in advancing understanding of community interactions. 2. Prey survival has a direct relationship to the functional response of their predators. We employed this relationship to estimate the functional response for bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocepalus predation of Canada goose Branta canadensis nests. We compared models that incorporated eagle abundance, nest abundance and alternative prey presence to determine the form of the functional response that best predicted intra-annual variation in survival of goose nests. 3. Eagle abundance, nest abundance and the availability of alternative prey were all related to predation rates of goose nests by eagles. There was a sigmoidal relationship between predation rate and prey abundance and prey switching occurred when alternative prey was present. In addition, predation by individual eagles increased as eagle abundance increased. 4. A complex set of interactions among the three species examined in this study determined survival rates of goose nests. Results show that eagle predation had both prey- and predator-dependent components with no support for ratio dependence. In addition, indirect interactions resulting from the availability of alternative prey had an important role in mediating the rate at which eagles depredated nests. As a result, much of the within-season variation in nest survival was due to changing availability of alternative prey consumed by eagles. 5. Empirical relationships drawn from ecological theory can be directly integrated into the estimation process to determine the mechanisms responsible for variation in observed survival rates. The relationship between predator functional response and prey survival offers a flexible and robust method to advance our understanding of predator-prey interactions in many complex natural systems where prey populations are marked and regularly visited. PMID:16903047

Miller, David A; Grand, James B; Fondell, Thomas F; Anthony, Michael

2006-01-01

106

2001 Ig Nobel Prize Winners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the United States, another set of awards were passed out this week: the Ig Nobels. Awarded by humor rag The Annals of Improbable Research, the Ig Nobels honor people whose achievements "cannot or should not be reproduced." This year's illustrious Ig Nobel laureates include, for Medicine, the publisher of "Injuries Due to Falling Coconuts," in the Journal of Trauma, the founder of the Apostrophe Protection Society (Literature), and the Peace Prize goes to the Lithuanian who built an amusement park known colloquially as "Stalin World."

2001-01-01

107

Unpalatable prey resolves the paradox of enrichment  

PubMed Central

Enrichment is an increasingly serious trend in natural ecosystems. A theoretical model of a predator–prey system with a natural assumption of satiation in predation predicts that enrichment causes the populations to fluctuate to stochastic extinction. However, this 'paradox of enrichment' does not always occur in experimental and natural communities. Here we present a theoretical model that describes a novel mechanism for resolving the paradox in the case of a predator with optimal selective feeding. Specifically, a less profitable but edible (thus `unpalatable') prey species sharply reduces the amplitude of population oscillations and firmly prevents the minimum abundances of species from falling below certain values. The presence of such an unpalatable prey thus guarantees the robustness of the system against enrichment.

Genkai-Kato, M.; Yamamura, N.

1999-01-01

108

Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture  

PubMed Central

Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

2010-01-01

109

Complex-to-Predict Generational Shift between Nested and Clustered Organization of Individual Prey Networks in Digger Wasps  

PubMed Central

Although diet has traditionally been considered to be a property of the species or populations as a whole, there is nowadays extensive knowledge that individual specialization is widespread among animal populations. Nevertheless, the factors determining the shape of interactions within food webs remain largely undiscovered, especially in predatory insects. We used an aggregation of the digger wasp Bembix merceti to 1) analyse patterns of individual prey use across three flying seasons in a network–based context; and 2) test the effect of four potential factors that might explain network topologies (wasp mass, nest spatial distribution, simultaneous nest-provisioning, prey availability). Inter-individual diet variation was found in all three years, under different predator-prey network topologies: Individuals arranged in dietary clusters and displayed a checkerboard pattern in 2009, but showed nestedness in 2008 and 2010. Network topologies were not fully explained by the tested factors. Larger females consumed a higher proportion of the total number of prey species captured by the population as a whole, in such a way that nested patterns may arise from mass-dependent prey spectrum width. Conversely, individuals with similar body mass didn’t form clusters. Nested patterns seemed to be associated with a greater availability of the main prey species (a proxy for reduced intra-specific competition). Thus, according with theory, clusters seemed to appear when competition increased. On the other hand, the nests of the individuals belonging to a given cluster were not more closely located, and neither did individuals within a cluster provision their nests simultaneously. Thus, a female-female copying behaviour during foraging was unlikely. In conclusion, wasp populations can maintain a considerable individual variation across years under different food web organizations. The tested factors only partially accounted for the shift in network properties, and new analyses should be carried out to elucidate how diet network topologies arise in wasp populations. PMID:25019164

Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Bańos-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep Daniel

2014-01-01

110

IgG4-related disease of the ileocecal region mimicking malignancy: A case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by chronic fibrosing inflammation with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells, and responds well to steroids. Previous reports of IgG4-RD have focused on pancreatic and extrapancreatic including the gastrointestinal tract, however, the colonic IgG4-RD is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We herein report the case of a 74-year-old female with edematous wall thickening of the terminal ileum to the lower ascending colon confirmed by several preoperative imaging studies, who underwent right hemi-colectomy for suspected malignant lymphoma. The resected specimen showed an irregular wall thickness with subserosal sclerosis, and the lesion was 10 cm in length from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-RD by pathological examinations, which demonstrated an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells (150/HPF), and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio (50%). DISCUSSION Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD appears to be difficult to diagnose prior to surgical resection because of its rarity, and the similarity of its features to malignancy. The measurement of the serum IgG4 levels, immunohistochemical examination of biopsy specimens and use of several imaging modalities might help us to diagnose the disease without surgical resection, and this disease can generally be treated with steroid therapy. However, surgical resection for IgG4-RD may still be also necessary for patients with concerns regarding malignancy or with intractable gastrointestinal obstruction caused by this disease. CONCLUSION Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD often mimics malignancy, and we should therefore consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of colonic lesions in order to optimize the treatment. PMID:25194601

Hiyoshi, Yukiharu; Oki, Eiji; Zaitsu, Yoko; Ando, Koji; Ito, Shuhei; Saeki, Hiroshi; Morita, Masaru; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Baba, Hideo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2014-01-01

111

How the owl tracks its prey – II  

PubMed Central

Barn owls can capture prey in pitch darkness or by diving into snow, while homing in on the sounds made by their prey. First, the neural mechanisms by which the barn owl localizes a single sound source in an otherwise quiet environment will be explained. The ideas developed for the single source case will then be expanded to environments in which there are multiple sound sources and echoes – environments that are challenging for humans with impaired hearing. Recent controversies regarding the mechanisms of sound localization will be discussed. Finally, the case in which both visual and auditory information are available to the owl will be considered. PMID:20889819

Takahashi, Terry T.

2010-01-01

112

Human Activity Helps Prey Win the Predator-Prey Space Race  

PubMed Central

Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a “space race”, where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing predation risk, a trait-mediated indirect effect of humans that spatially decouples predators from prey. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that high-human activity was displacing predators and thus indirectly creating spatial refuge for prey species, helping prey win the “space race”. We measured the occurrence of eleven large mammal species (including humans and cattle) at 43 camera traps deployed on roads and trails in southwest Alberta, Canada. We tested species co-occurrence at camera sites using hierarchical cluster and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analyses; and tested whether human activity, food and/or habitat influenced predator and prey species counts at camera sites using regression tree analysis. Cluster and NMS analysis indicated that at camera sites humans co-occurred with prey species more than predator species and predator species had relatively low co-occurrence with prey species. Regression tree analysis indicated that prey species were three times more abundant on roads and trails with >32 humans/day. However, predators were less abundant on roads and trails that exceeded 18 humans/day. Our results support the hypothesis that high-human activity displaced predators but not prey species, creating spatial refuge from predation. High-human activity on roads and trails (i.e., >18 humans/day) has the potential to interfere with predator-prey interactions via trait-mediated direct and indirect effects. We urge scientist and managers to carefully consider and quantify the trait-mediated indirect effects of humans, in addition to direct effects, when assessing human impacts on wildlife and ecosystems. PMID:21399682

Muhly, Tyler B.; Semeniuk, Christina; Massolo, Alessandro; Hickman, Laura; Musiani, Marco

2011-01-01

113

Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

1993-01-01

114

Competition between Serum IgG, IgM, and IgA Anti-Glycan Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Anti-glycan antibodies are an abundant subpopulation of serum antibodies with critical functions in many immune processes. Changes in the levels of these antibodies can occur with the onset of disease, exposure to pathogens, or vaccination. As a result, there has been significant interest in exploiting anti-glycan antibodies as biomarkers for many diseases. Serum contains a mixture of anti-glycan antibodies that can recognize the same antigen, and competition for binding can potentially influence the detection of antibody subpopulations that are more relevant to disease processes. The most abundant antibody isotypes in serum are IgG, IgM, and IgA, but little is known regarding how these different isotypes compete for the same glycan antigen. In this study, we developed a multiplexed glycan microarray assay and applied it to evaluate how different isotypes of anti-glycan antibodies (IgA, IgG, and IgM) compete for printed glycan antigens. While IgG and IgA antibodies typically outcompete IgM for peptide or protein antigens, we found that IgM outcompete IgG and IgA for many glycan antigens. To illustrate the importance of this effect, we provide evidence that IgM competition can account for the unexpected observation that IgG of certain antigen specificities appear to be preferentially transported from mothers to fetuses. We demonstrate that IgM in maternal sera compete with IgG resulting in lower than expected IgG signals. Since cord blood contains very low levels of IgM, competition only affects maternal IgG signals, making it appear as though certain IgG antibodies are higher in cord blood than matched maternal blood. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of competition for studies involving anti-glycan antibodies. PMID:25807519

Muthana, Saddam M.; Xia, Li; Campbell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Yalong; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C.

2015-01-01

115

Observations on the Nesting and Prey of the Solitary Wasp, Tachysphex inconspicuus, with a Review of Nesting Behavior in the T. obscuripennis species group  

PubMed Central

The nesting behaviors of 10 females of Tachysphex inconspicuus (Kirby) (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) were studied on a sandy, mowed lawn at the La Selva Biological Station in northeastern Costa Rica on 27–29 April 1980. Twenty-four completed nests were observed, excavated, and measured. The nests had oblique, short burrows leading to one or two shallow cells. Prey cockroaches belonging to 11 species of Chorisoneura and Riatia fulgida (Saussure) (Blattaria: Blattellidae), all tropical wet forest canopy indicator species, were removed from the cells, weighed, and identified. The cockroaches consisted mainly of adult females, selectively preyed upon over adult males and nymphs due to their larger sizes. The aggregate prey mass in cells was separable into prospective larger (heavier) female and smaller (lighter) male cells. Wasps usually oviposited on the heaviest cockroach in a cell, in most cases an adult female. Atypical genus behavior included (1) prey being carried to one side of the wasp and perhaps grasped by a hindleg during removal of the temporary entrance closure and nest entry and (2) wasp's egg being laid affixed to a forecoxal corium and extending backward in a longitudinally posteriad position across the prey's ventral thorax. A comparison with the nesting behavior of other species in the Tachysphex obscuripennis species group is made. PMID:21062142

Kurczewski, Frank E.; Coville, Rollin E.; Schal, Coby

2010-01-01

116

A meal or a male: the ‘whispers’ of black widow males do not trigger a predatory response in females  

PubMed Central

Introduction Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female’s attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female’s web. In web-dwelling spiders, little is known about how males solve this conundrum, or about their courtship signals. Here we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the vibrations produced by males and prey (house flies and crickets) on tangle webs of the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus and on sheet webs of the hobo spider Tegenaria agrestis. We recorded the vibrations at the location typically occupied by a hunting female spider. We compared the vibrations produced by males and prey in terms of their waveform, dominant frequency, frequency bandwidth, amplitude and duration. We also played back recorded male and prey vibrations through the webs of female L. hesperus to determine the vibratory parameters that trigger a predatory response in females. Results We found overlap in waveform between male and prey vibrations in both L. hesperus and T. agrestis. In both species, male vibrations were continuous, of long duration (on average 6.35 s for T. agrestis and 9.31 s for L. hesperus), and lacked complex temporal patterning such as repeated motifs or syllables. Prey vibrations were shorter (1.38 - 2.59 s), sporadic and often percussive. Based on the parameters measured, courtship signals of male L. hesperus differed more markedly from prey cues than did those of T. agrestis. Courtship vibrations of L. hesperus males differed from prey vibrations in terms of dominant frequency, amplitude and duration. Vibrations of T. agrestis males differed from prey in terms of duration only. During a playback experiment, L. hesperus females did not respond aggressively to low-amplitude vibrations irrespective of whether the playback recording was from a prey or a male. Conclusions Unlike courtship signals of other spider species, the courtship signals of L. hesperus and T. agrestis males do not have complex temporal patterning. The low-amplitude ‘whispers’ of L. hesperus males at the onset of courtship are less likely to trigger a predatory response in females than the high-amplitude vibrations of struggling prey. PMID:24433544

2014-01-01

117

Effect of colostrum administration practices on serum IgG in goat kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty Canary Caprine kids (30 males and 30 females) were assigned to three colostrum feeding managements, natural suckling (NS), hand-fed ad libitum colostrum (HALC) and restricted hand-fed colostrum (RHC). IgG concentrations were recorded in colostrum and kids serum at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 70, and 84 h of life. No significant differences in serum IgG concentrations were observed between

A. Argüello; N. Castro; J. Capote; J. W. Tyler; N. M. Holloway

2004-01-01

118

A Predator–Prey system with anorexia response  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Predator–Prey system is proposed with an introduction of anorexia response on one prey population. By using the comparison theorem and constructing suitable Lyapunov function, we study such Predator–Prey system with almost periodic coefficients. Some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic solution. Numerical simulations of Predator–Prey system with anorexia response and the one without

Zhenkun Huang; Xinghua Wang; Yonghui Xia

2007-01-01

119

IgM nephropathy revisited  

PubMed Central

IgM nephropathy (IgMN) is an idiopathic immune complex-mediated glomerulopathy that was first described as a distinct disease in a nephropathology literature in 1978. Here, a historical review and the current status of IgMN in the light of world literature and the current experience will be presented. The Pubmed (www.pubmed.gov) search was made for articles on IgMN as the sole subject of the study or where it constituted a significant number of cases in a biopsy series in the world literature written in English. A total of 41 articles were found. A critical review of the literature was made. Soon after 1978, a series of reports were published mostly from the western world, but the interest in the entity did not withstand the test of time. No substantial basic medical research was carried out and the disease was largely ignored by the western researchers. More recently, a flurry of articles have appeared in the literature on the topic, mostly from tropical countries, and have renewed the interest in the entity. However, most of the current literature on IgMN is based on clinical observations, and experimental models and mechanistic studies of IgMN are lacking. There is an urgent need to develop consensus based criteria for the diagnosis of the condition, as well as, to focus the research on mechanistic studies to understand the pathogenesis of the disease better. PMID:23573499

Mubarak, Muhammed; Kazi, Javed I

2012-01-01

120

Interaction of Bdellovibrio with Its prey in mixed microbial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction ofBdellovibrio with its prey can be affected by the presence of other microorganisms regardless of whether they serve as a prey for the bdellovibrios. This was shown in a system in which the fate of one prey could be followed in mixed bacterial populations thanks to a specific trait, bioluminescence. The attacking bdellovibrio causes decay of bioluminescence, and

Mazal Varon

1981-01-01

121

SPRING AND SUMMER PREY OF CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS, ZALOPHUS CAUFORNIANUS,  

E-print Network

SPRING AND SUMMER PREY OF CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS, ZALOPHUS CAUFORNIANUS, AT SAN MIGUEL ISLAND lion, Zalophus califomianus, at San Miguel Island for the purpose of identifying prey species. A total prey of the California sea lion. Thec"california sea lion,Zalophus cali{ornianus, is the most abundant

122

Chemosensory detection of prey by Nephelopsis obscura (Hirudinoidea: Erpobdellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemosensory detection of prey by the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura (Erpobdellidae) was investigated in the laboratory. Without direct tactile contact N. obscura of all three size classes tested were unable to detect and react to any of the prey types (Gammarus lacustris, Chironomus sp., Tubifex sp) or prey conditions (live, asphyxiated, homogenate) tested. The length of the starvation period

Ronald W. Davies; L. R. Linton; W. Parsons; E. S. Edgington

1982-01-01

123

Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whale Habitat and Prey Studies were conducted off southern California during August 1995 (WHAPS95) and July 1996 (WHAPS96) to (1) study the distribution and activities of blue whales and other large whales, (2) survey the distribution of prey organisms (krill), and (3) measure physical and biological habitat variables that influence the distribution of whales and prey. A total of 1307

Paul C. Fiedler; Stephen B. Reilly; Roger P. Hewitt; David Demer; Valerie A. Philbrick; Susan Smith; Wesley Armstrong; Donald A. Croll; Bernie R. Tershy; Bruce R. Mate

1998-01-01

124

Hydrodynamics of prey capture in sharks: effects  

E-print Network

REPORT Hydrodynamics of prey capture in sharks: effects of substrate Sandra Nauwelaerts1,*, Cheryl predictions regarding the effects of substrate proximity on the feeding hydrodynamics of a benthic shark. An oblique circular cylinder and a shark head model were used. To test the models, we used digital particle

Nauwelaerts, Sandra

125

Prey processing in central place foragers.  

PubMed

The importance of prey processing as an integral part of foraging behaviour has long been acknowledged, but little theoretical consideration has been given to the optimization of the processing behaviour itself. Processing renders food down to ingestible, palatable portions, and also removes non-essential mass thus reducing transport costs. Here, several models of processing are developed for a central place forager. When the forager has to make a simple choice between processing the prey and not, a critical distance from the central place can be calculated, beyond which it is optimal to process prey. If the forager also decides on how much of the prey to remove, the optimal amount to be removed can also be calculated. Imposing a ceiling on overall metabolic expenditure is shown to reduce the distances at which processing becomes the optimal strategy. The models are tested using parameters derived for a provisioning merlin, Falco columbarius, and alternative explanations as to why observed behaviours should differ from the optimal behaviour predicted are discussed. PMID:10640435

Rands, S A; Houston, A I; Gasson, C E

2000-01-21

126

Prey Processing in Central Place Foragers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of prey processing as an integral part of foraging behaviour has long been acknowledged, but little theoretical consideration has been given to the optimization of the processing behaviour itself. Processing renders food down to ingestible, palatable portions, and also removes non-essential mass thus reducing transport costs. Here, several models of processing are developed for a central place forager.

SEAN A. RANDS; ALASDAIR I. HOUSTON; CATHERINE E. GASSON

2000-01-01

127

Prey density, prey detectability and food habits: the case of Bonelli’s eagle and the conservation measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the diet of raptors the presence of prey-species is influenced by their abundance and the ground-level vegetation in territories, this situation being analysed for the Bonelli’s eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) in south-eastern Spain. First, the minimum number of prey-items for the reliability of results was tested, obtaining between 15 and 30 prey-items depending of pair. Second, differences in prey frequency

Diego Ontiveros; Juan M. Pleguezuelos; Jesús Caro

2005-01-01

128

Prey size, prey nutrition, and food handling by shrews of different body sizes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested some predictions relating metabolic constraints of foraging behavior and prey selection by comparing food handling and utilization in four sympatric shrew species: Sorex minutus (mean body mass = 3.0 g), S. araneus (8.0 g), Neomys anomalus (10.0 g), and N. fodiens (14.4 g). Live fly larvae, mealworm larvae, and aquatic arthropods were offered to shrews as small prey

Leszek Rychlik

2002-01-01

129

Apparent decoupling of prey recognition ability with prey availability in an insular snake population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies on the feeding behavior of snakes have reported the consistency of tongue-flick responses with their natural\\u000a diets. For representatives of widely distributed, dietary generalist species from particular localities, we can expect that\\u000a their tongue-flick responses to potential prey unavailable in their original habitats have been reduced whereas those to prey\\u000a common in the habitats have been enhanced. To

Koji Tanaka; Akira Mori; Masami Hasegawa

2001-01-01

130

Integration of multiple intraguild predator cues for oviposition decisions by a predatory mite  

PubMed Central

In mutual intraguild predation (IGP), the role of individual guild members is strongly context dependent and, during ontogeny, can shift from an intraguild (IG) prey to a food competitor or to an IG predator. Consequently, recognition of an offspring's predator is more complex for IG than classic prey females. Thus, IG prey females should be able to modulate their oviposition decisions by integrating multiple IG predator cues and by experience. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as prey and passing through ontogenetic role shifts in mutual IGP, we assessed the effects of single and combined direct cues of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni (eggs and traces left by a female on the substrate) on prey patch selection and oviposition behaviour of naďve and IG predator-experienced IG prey females of Phytoseiulus persimilis. The IG prey females preferentially resided in patches without predator cues when the alternative patch contained traces of predator females or the cue combination. Preferential egg placement in patches without predator cues was only apparent in the choice situation with the cue combination. Experience increased the responsiveness of females exposed to the IG predator cue combination, indicated by immediate selection of the prey patch without predator cues and almost perfect oviposition avoidance in patches with the cue combination. We argue that the evolution of the ability of IG prey females to evaluate offspring's IGP risk accurately is driven by the irreversibility of oviposition and the functionally complex relationships between predator guild members. PMID:23264692

Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

131

Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey  

SciTech Connect

The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

2000-04-01

132

Predator-prey interactions between omnivorous diaptomid copepods and rotifers: The role of prey morphology and behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspension-feeding diaptomid copepods feed selectively on several rotifer species. Predator-prey interactions between Diaptomus pallidus and seven species of rotifers were quantified and behav- ioral probabilities computed. Prey size was a good predictor of the probability of Diaptomus avoiding a prey following an encounter but had little or no predictive value in subsequent levels of interaction (capture, ingestion). Three of the

CRAIG E. WILLIAMSON

1987-01-01

133

The role of prey-generated sounds, vision, and echolocation in prey localization by the African bat Cardioderma cor (Megadermatidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardioderma cor responded with head movements and flight toward speakers broadcasting calls of frogs and crickets which contained only sonic frequencies. Unlike the frog-eating bat,Trachops cirrhosus, they did not make contact with the speakers. Prey movements that generated sonic and ultrasonic sounds were both sufficient and necessary for the bats to localize and capture prey. Prey dragged across a glass

Michael J. Ryan; Merlin D. Tuttle

1987-01-01

134

Mild leptospirosis with three-year persistence of IgG- and IgM-antibodies, initially manifesting as carpal tunnel syndrome.  

PubMed

Long-term persistence of IgG- and IgM-antibodies against leptospira after mild leptospirosis has not been reported. In a 45-year-old female pet-shop worker with carpal tunnel syndrome, accompanied by arthralgias, coughing, repeatedly elevated temperature, followed by easy fatigability, personality change, memory and speech disturbance, blurred vision, myalgia and swollen lymph nodes, leptospirosis was diagnosed, based upon history, clinical findings, and serological investigations. After the described symptoms had disappeared following doxycyclin for 2 weeks, IgG- and IgM-antibodies against leptospira remained positive during the next three years. This case illustrates that leptospirosis may start as carpal tunnel syndrome and that the severity of leptospirosis does not seem to be related to the intensity of the humoral immune response against the causative agent. PMID:16038755

Finsterer, Josef; Stöllberger, Claudia; Sehnal, Ernst; Stanek, Gerold

2005-08-01

135

COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE ABSORPTION OF COLOSTRAL IgG1 AND IgM IN THE NEWBORN CALF EFFECTS OF THYROXINE, CORTISOL Nutritionnelles, l.N.R.A., Centre de Theix, 63110 Beaumont France Résumé ABSORPTION DES IgGl ET IgM COLOSTRALES conditions. Les résultats suivants ont été obtenus : - la capacité d'absorption des IgGl et des IgM varie

Boyer, Edmond

136

Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.  

PubMed

Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

2009-01-01

137

Preparing the Perfect Cuttlefish Meal: Complex Prey Handling by Dolphins  

PubMed Central

Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

2009-01-01

138

Effects of uniform rotational flow on predator-prey system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotational flow is often observed in lotic ecosystems, such as streams and rivers. For example, when an obstacle interrupts water flowing in a stream, energy dissipation and momentum transfer can result in the formation of rotational flow, or a vortex. In this study, I examined how rotational flow affects a predator-prey system by constructing a spatially explicit lattice model consisting of predators, prey, and plants. A predation relationship existed between the species. The species densities in the model were given as S (for predator), P (for prey), and G (for plant). A predator (prey) had a probability of giving birth to an offspring when it ate prey (plant). When a predator or prey was first introduced, or born, its health state was assigned an initial value of 20 that subsequently decreased by one with every time step. The predator (prey) was removed from the system when the health state decreased to less than zero. The degree of flow rotation was characterized by the variable, R. A higher R indicates a higher tendency that predators and prey move along circular paths. Plants were not affected by the flow because they were assumed to be attached to the streambed. Results showed that R positively affected both predator and prey survival, while its effect on plants was negligible. Flow rotation facilitated disturbances in individuals’ movements, which consequently strengthens the predator and prey relationship and prevents death from starvation. An increase in S accelerated the extinction of predators and prey.

Lee, Sang-Hee

2012-12-01

139

Body size matters for aposematic prey during predator aversion learning.  

PubMed

Aposematic prey advertise their toxicity to predators using conspicuous warning signals, which predators learn to use to reduce their intake of toxic prey. Like other types of prey, aposematic prey often differ in body size, both within and between species. Increasing body size can increase signal size, which make larger aposematic prey more detectable but also gives them a more effective and salient deterrent. However, increasing body size also increases the nutritional value of prey, and larger aposematic prey may make a more profitable meal to predators that are trading off the costs of eating toxins with the benefits of ingesting nutrients. We tested if body size, independent of signal size, affected predation of toxic prey as predators learn to reduce their attacks on them. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) learned to discriminate between defended (quinine-injected) and undefended (water-injected) mealworm prey (Tenebrio molitor) using visual signals. During this process, we found that birds attacked and ate more defended prey the larger they were. Body size does affect the probability that toxic prey are attacked and eaten, which has implications for the evolutionary dynamics of aposematism and mimicry (where species share the same warning pattern). PMID:25256160

Smith, Karen E; Halpin, Christina G; Rowe, Candy

2014-11-01

140

Forest type affects prey foraging of saddleback tamarins, Saguinus nigrifrons.  

PubMed

Callitrichids can persist in secondary forests where they may benefit from elevated prey abundance. However, how tamarins forage for prey in secondary forest compared to primary forest has not been examined. Using scan and focal sampling, we compared prey foraging and capture success of two groups of Saguinus nigrifrons in north-eastern Peru: one ranging in primary forest, the other with access to a 10-year-old anthropogenic secondary forest. There was a trend for more prey search in the secondary forest, but prey feeding, capture success and size were lower compared to the primary forest. Tamarins avoided the forest floor, used vertical supports less often and searched on a lower variety of substrates in the secondary forest. In the secondary forest, tamarins did not capture flushed prey, which make up a substantial part of the total prey captures biomass in primary forests. Reduced prey capture success is unlikely to reflect reduced prey availability, since more Orthoptera were found in secondary forest through ultrasonic surveys. Therefore, the prey search activity of S. nigrifrons in young secondary forests seemed rather opportunistic, presumably influenced by altered predation patterns, vegetation structure, as well as prey diversity. PMID:24687729

Kupsch, Denis; Waltert, Matthias; Heymann, Eckhard W

2014-07-01

141

Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study. ?? 2010 US Government.

Palacios, V.; Mech, L.D.

2011-01-01

142

Low antibody affinity restricted to the IgA isotype in IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed Central

Antibody affinity affects the handling and behaviour of immune complexes, and experimental studies have shown that animals which produce predominantly low-affinity antibody are prone to immune complex deposition resulting in glomerulonephritis. In order to investigate the potential role of antibody affinity in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy, affinity of both IgA and IgG antibody isotypes during secondary response to systemic immunization with tetanus toxoid was studied in 20 patients with IgA nephropathy. Patients with IgA nephropathy produced IgA antibodies of significantly lower affinity than controls (P < 0.001), whereas IgG antibody affinities were similar. Contrasting with controls, patients' IgA antibody affinity was inversely related to antibody concentration, with higher responders producing large amounts of low-affinity antibody. IgG antibody affinity increased with time, and maturation of IgG antibody affinity was similar in both controls and patients. IgA affinity in controls decreased with time, and this lack of IgA affinity maturation may explain the relative unimportance of IgA in normal systemic immunity. This temporal decrease in IgA affinity was not observed in patients with IgA nephropathy. The production of low-affinity IgA in IgA nephropathy may provide an explanation for the predominant deposition of IgA in this disease. PMID:8287607

Layward, L; Allen, A C; Hattersley, J M; Harper, S J; Feehally, J

1994-01-01

143

Management of a pemphigus with IgA and IgG antibodies and coexistent lung cancer.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) pemphigus is a clinically distinct variant of pemphigus characterized by intercellular IgA deposition in the epidermis. Recently, an IgA/Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subset of pemphigus with IgA and IgG anti-keratinocyte cell surface antibodies has been described. Both IgA and IgA/IgG pemphigus have been associated with internal malignancies. Above all, monoclonal IgA gammopathy in patients with IgA pemphigus has been reported, and lung cancers in association with IgA/IgG pemphigus have been described. IgA pemphigus can be successfully treated with dapsone, whereas therapeutic management of IgG/IgA pemphigus is not well established yet. We report a rare case of a patient, who developed atypical pemphigus with both IgA and IgG autoantibodies and an underlying lung cancer, successfully treated with corticosteroids and dapsone. PMID:24754245

Cetkovská, Petra; Komorousová, Michaela; Lomicová, Iva

2014-01-01

144

David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

Pekár, Stano; Šedo, On?ej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zden?k

2014-07-01

145

Female Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

Infertility is a term doctors use if a woman hasn't been able to get pregnant after ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from physical problems, hormone ...

146

Consequences of intraspecific variation in female body size in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae): feeding ecology, male attraction, and egg production.  

PubMed

Body size is an important feature of organisms, influencing many components of life history and fitness, such as feeding success and reproductive output. Body size is considered especially salient for solitary predators, whose food intake hinges on individual predation success, which in turn is often driven by the relative sizes of predator and prey. The current study examined intraspecific variation in adult female length and its fitness consequences in a solitary predator, the praying mantid Stagmomantis limbata Hahn. Through a 5-yr integration of observational and experimental work in the field and captivity, we investigated the relationship between female pronotum length and prey size, diet breadth, male attraction, and measures of egg production (fecundity and ootheca mass). We found that longer females ate longer prey in the field and showed greater breadth of prey size than shorter females. Longer females did not necessarily feed at higher rates in the field, as measured by the rate of abdominal expansion. Female length failed to show significant effects on male attraction or on the incidence of cannibalism. Longer females had higher fecundity (mature eggs in body at death) and laid heavier oothecae than shorter females. In nature, longer females consistently emerged as adults earlier in the season than shorter females. Shorter female adults emerged when feeding rates were higher in the field, suggesting an incidental ecological benefit of shorter adult size. PMID:24341955

Maxwell, Michael R; Frinchaboy, Caylin

2014-02-01

147

Nest-Site Selection by Female Black-Capped Chickadees: Settlement Based on Conspecific Attraction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) solicit extrapair copulations (EPCs) from neighboring high-ranking males, and these EPCs result in extrapair young. Females might choose to locate their nests near the territory boundaries of attractive males to facilitate access to EPCs. Other hypotheses might also explain choice of nest site, namely (1) habitat characteristics, (2) prey abundance, and (3) previous experience. We

Scott M. Ramsay; Ken A. Otter; Laurene M. Ratcliffe

1999-01-01

148

Predator-Prey Interactions of Marine Invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey interactions are among the most fundamental processes shaping the structure and function of ecological communities,\\u000a particularly in marine systems. In the past several decades, it has become clear that humans are interfering considerably\\u000a with these interactions in many marine systems, mainly by removing top predators via harvesting (Myers and Worm 2003), but\\u000a also through biological introductions. Most introduced species

Gil Rilov

149

Prey DNA detection success following digestion by intraguild predators: influence of prey and predator species.  

PubMed

Intraguild predation (IGP) has been increasingly recognized as an important interaction in ecological systems over the past two decades, and remarkable insights have been gained into its nature and prevalence. We have developed a technique using molecular gut-content analysis to compare the rate of IGP between closely related species of coccinellid beetles (lady beetles or ladybirds), which had been previously known to prey upon one another. We first developed PCR primers for each of four lady beetle species: Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata, Coleomegilla maculata and Propylea quatuordecimpunctata. We next determined the prey DNA detection success over time (DS(50) ) for each combination of interacting species following a meal. We found that DS(50) values varied greatly between predator-prey combinations, ranging from 5.2 to 19.3 h. As a result, general patterns of detection times based upon predator or prey species alone are not discernable. We used the DS(50) values to correct field data to demonstrate the importance of compensation for detection times that are specific to particular predator-prey combinations. PMID:21749673

Gagnon, A-Č; Doyon, J; Heimpel, G E; Brodeur, J

2011-11-01

150

Integration of multiple cues allows threat-sensitive anti-intraguild predator responses in predatory mites  

PubMed Central

Intraguild (IG) prey is commonly confronted with multiple IG predator species. However, the IG predation (IGP) risk for prey is not only dependent on the predator species, but also on inherent (intraspecific) characteristics of a given IG predator such as its life-stage, sex or gravidity and the associated prey needs. Thus, IG prey should have evolved the ability to integrate multiple IG predator cues, which should allow both inter- and intraspecific threat-sensitive anti-predator responses. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing spider mites as prey, we evaluated the effects of single and combined cues (eggs and/or chemical traces left by a predator female on the substrate) of the low risk IG predator Neoseiulus californicus and the high risk IG predator Amblyseius andersoni on time, distance and path shape parameters of the larval IG prey Phytoseiulus persimilis. IG prey discriminated between traces of the low and high risk IG predator, with and without additional presence of their eggs, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. The behavioural changes were manifest in distance moved, activity and path shape of IG prey. The cue combination of traces and eggs of the IG predators conveyed other information than each cue alone, allowing intraspecific threat-sensitive responses by IG prey apparent in changed velocities and distances moved. We argue that graded responses to single and combined IG predator cues are adaptive due to minimization of acceptance errors in IG prey decision making. PMID:23750040

Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

2013-01-01

151

Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

2012-01-01

152

Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds  

PubMed Central

High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

2009-01-01

153

Prey switching with a linear preference trade-off  

E-print Network

In ecology, prey switching refers to a predator's adaptive change of habitat or diet in response to prey abundance. In this paper, we study piecewise-smooth models of predator-prey interactions with a linear trade-off in a predator's prey preference. We consider optimally foraging predators and derive a model for a 1 predator-2 prey interaction with a tilted switching manifold between the two sides of discontinuous vector fields. We show that the 1 predator-2 prey system undergoes a novel adding-sliding-like (center to two-part periodic orbit; "C2PO") bifurcation in which the prey ratio transitions from constant to time-dependent. Further away from the bifurcation point, the period of the oscillating prey ratio period doubles, suggesting a possible cascade to chaos. We compare our model predictions with data and demonstrate that we successfully capture the periodicity in the ratio between the predator's preferred and alternative prey types in data on freshwater plankton. Our study suggests that it is useful to investigate prey ratio as a possible indicator of how population dynamics can be influenced by ecosystem diversity.

S. H. Piltz; M. A. Porter; P. K. Maini

2013-02-25

154

Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey  

PubMed Central

Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey ‘educated’ predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424

Halpin, Christina G.; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

2014-01-01

155

Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey.  

PubMed

Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424

Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

2014-04-22

156

A dinoflagellate exploits toxins to immobilize prey prior to ingestion.  

PubMed

Toxins produced by the harmful algal bloom (HAB) forming, mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum have long been associated with fish kills. To date, the perceived ecological role for toxins has been relief from grazing pressures. Here, we demonstrate that karlotoxins also serve as a predation instrument. Using high-speed holographic microscopy, we measure the swimming behavior of several toxic and nontoxic strains of K. veneficum and their prey, Storeatula major, within dense suspensions. The selected strains produce toxins with varying potency and dosages, including a nontoxic one. Results clearly show that mixing the prey with the predatory, toxic strains causes prey immobilization at rates that are consistent with the karlotoxins' potency and dosage. Even prey cells that continue swimming slow down after exposure to toxic predators. The swimming characteristics of predators vary substantially in pure suspensions, as quantified by their velocity, radii of helical trajectories, and direction of helical rotation. When mixed with prey, all toxic strains that are involved in predation slow down. Furthermore, they substantially reduced their predominantly vertical migration, presumably to remain in the vicinity of their prey. Conversely, the nontoxic control strain does not alter its swimming and does not affect prey behavior. In separate experiments, we show that exposing prey to exogenous toxins also causes prey immobilization at rates consistent with potency. Clearly, the toxic predatory strains use karlotoxins as a means of stunning their prey, before ingesting it. These findings add a substantiated critical understanding for why some HAB species produce such complex toxin molecules. PMID:20133853

Sheng, Jian; Malkiel, Edwin; Katz, Joseph; Adolf, Jason E; Place, Allen R

2010-02-01

157

The effect of background cuing on prey detection.  

PubMed

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

Kono; Reid; Kamil

1998-10-01

158

High-Affinity IgG Antibodies Develop Naturally in Ig-Knockout Rats Carrying Germline Human IgH/Ig?/Ig? Loci Bearing the Rat CH Region  

PubMed Central

Mice transgenic for human Ig loci are an invaluable resource for the production of human Abs. However, such mice often do not yield human mAbs as effectively as conventional mice yield mouse mAbs. Suboptimal efficacy in delivery of human Abs might reflect imperfect interaction between the human membrane IgH chains and the mouse cellular signaling machinery. To obviate this problem, in this study we generated a humanized rat strain (OmniRat) carrying a chimeric human/rat IgH locus (comprising 22 human VHs, all human D and JH segments in natural configuration linked to the rat CH locus) together with fully human IgL loci (12 V?s linked to J?-C? and 16 V?s linked to J?-C?). The endogenous Ig loci were silenced using designer zinc finger nucleases. Breeding to homozygosity resulted in a novel transgenic rat line exclusively producing chimeric Abs with human idiotypes. B cell recovery was indistinguishable from wild-type animals, and human V(D)J transcripts were highly diverse. Following immunization, the OmniRat strain performed as efficiently as did normal rats in yielding high-affinity serum IgG. mAbs, comprising fully human variable regions with subnanomolar Ag affinity and carrying extensive somatic mutations, are readily obtainable, similarly to conventional mAbs from normal rats. PMID:23303672

Osborn, Michael J.; Ma, Biao; Avis, Suzanne; Binnie, Ashleigh; Dilley, Jeanette; Yang, Xi; Lindquist, Kevin; Ménoret, Séverine; Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ouisse, Laure-Hélčne; Rajpal, Arvind; Anegon, Ignacio; Neuberger, Michael S.

2013-01-01

159

Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition.  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype. PMID:10090895

Vorechovský, I; Webster, A D; Plebani, A; Hammarström, L

1999-01-01

160

Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Blood-based anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ? 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

2014-01-01

161

Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. METHODS: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG,

Aristo Vojdani

2009-01-01

162

[Diagnostic use of ELISA, IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity in recent and chronic toxoplasmosis].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis, a world-wide zoonotic infection, is generally asymptomatic and benign in immunocompetent individuals, but it can be serious in immunodeficiencies particularly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in children infected in utero. So, it is important to dispose methods which permit discriminate between recent and chronic infections. In order to contribute to improve the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis ELISA IgG, IgM, IgA and ELISA IgG avidity were performed in 15 and 24 sera from patients suspected of having acute and chronic infection respectively, according dye test (DT) titres. ELISA IgG was positive in both groups, ELISA IgM was positive in 78.6 and 58.3% respectively, while ELISA IgA was positive in 85.7 and 33.3% of recent and chronic group respectively. In those sera with low IgG avidity (18.8%) we found specific IgM in 71.5 and 4.2% and IgA in 78.6 and 0.0% of recent and chronic groups respectively. Parallelling, 208 sera samples were classified according to the results of DT, indirect hemagglutination and complement fixation tests in the following groups: acute (97), intermediate (36), chronic (35) and negative (40). The results were: acute (96.9-64.9-55.6 and 65.9%); intermediate (97.2-63.8-44.4 and 47.2%); chronic (45.7-42.8-5.7 and 34.3%) for IgG, IgM, IgA and low IgG avidity respectively. The use of both acute markers, IgA and low IgG avidity in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is discussed. PMID:11757412

Contreras, M C; Sandoval, L; Salinas, P; Muńoz, P; Vargas, S

2000-01-01

163

International standards for IgG and IgM anti-?2glycoprotein antibody measurement.  

PubMed

International standards for anti-beta2 glycoprotein I (anti-?2GPI) testing are needed. We evaluated the suitability of polyclonal/monoclonal candidate reference materials (RM) for the assay. IgG/IgM anti-?2GPI were affinity-purified (AP) from high-positive antiphospholipid syndrome sera and IgG from HCAL clone supernatant. Igs were tested for purity by SDS-PAGE, pooled, concentrated, sterile-filtered and the protein concentration determined. One unit was defined as the binding activity of 1 µg/ml of AP anti-?2GPI Ig. IgG/IgM RM were each assigned a unit value using the respective AP material as a calibrator. Polyclonal/monoclonal RM and 30 samples were evaluated for linearity, unit equivalency and commutability. Polyclonal AP material was assigned a value of 100 U IgG and 15 U IgM anti-?2GPI, respectively. IgG-RM had a value of 270 IgG and the IgM-RM of 220.3 IgM anti-?2GPI U. The linearity (R (2)) of each RM curve for the various assays ranged from 0.96 to 0.99. Commutability samples fit very well within 95% prediction intervals and had excellent correlation when comparing assays. IgG and IgM polyclonal and IgG monoclonal RM displayed excellent linearity and commutability, being good candidates for better standardization of anti-?2GPI immunoassays. PMID:25228737

Willis, R; Grossi, C; Orietta Borghi, M; Martos-Sevilla, G; Zegers, I; Sheldon, J; Meroni, P L

2014-10-01

164

IGS News, Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2009 3 IGS in the Americas  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 25, No. 3, November 2009 3 IGS in the Americas Jorge Zornberg The Americas have played an im- portant role in the history of geosyn- thetics and of the IGS. A significant portion of the IGS. It is true that for years the US and Canada have been organizing excellent and very well attended

Zornberg, Jorge G.

165

IGS M-GEX -THE IGS MULTI-GNSS GLOBAL EXPERIMENT Robert Weber (1)  

E-print Network

IGS M-GEX - THE IGS MULTI-GNSS GLOBAL EXPERIMENT Robert Weber (1) , Urs Hugentobler (2) , Ruth:ruth.e.neilan@jpl.nasa.gov ABSTRACT The IGS (International GNSS Service) is deeply involved in GNSS tracking, analysis and production, positioning, navigation and timing and other applications that benefit society. Up to now IGS operations have

Schuh, Harald

166

Tetrameric and Homodimeric Camelid IgGs Originate from the Same IgH Locus  

E-print Network

and homodimeric IgGs by constructing an alpaca (Lama pacos) genomic cosmid library. We showed that a single IgH locus in alpaca chromosome 4 contains all of the genetic elements required for the generation of the two types of Igs. The alpaca IgH locus is composed of a V region that contains both VHH and VH genes

Utrecht, Universiteit

167

The biomechanics of fast prey capture in aquatic bladderworts  

PubMed Central

Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 ?s, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey. PMID:21389013

Singh, Amit K.; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sane, Sanjay P.

2011-01-01

168

Protective Effect of Stachybotrys microspora Triprenyl Phenol-7on the Deposition of IgA to the Glomerular Mesangium in Nivalenol-induced IgA Nephropathy Using BALB/c Mice.  

PubMed

Activators of tissue proteolysis including Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenol (SMTP)-7 are a new class of agents that are expected to be effective for amelioration of chronic tissue destructive diseases. The present study was performed to examine whether SMTP-7 is effective for the amelioration or protection of early-stage IgA nephropathy (IgAN) induced by nivalenol (NIV) in female BALB/c mice. In Experiment 1, mice were administered NIV at 24 ppm in diet for 8 weeks, and during the NIV treatment, they were intraperitoneally injected with SMTP-7 (10 mg/kg) three times a week. In Experiment 2, mice were injected similarly with SMTP-7 during the last 4 weeks of a 16-week NIV treatment. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed an inhibitory effect of SMTP-7 on the glomerular deposition of IgA in Experiment 1; however, it was ineffective in Experiment 2. On the other hand, SMTP-7 did not affect the serum concentration of IgA in both experiments. These results suggest that SMTP-7 has a potential to decrease the progression of IgAN induced by NIV through inhibition of local accumulation of IgA in the glomerular mesangium, while it was ineffective for suppression of IgA production. On the other hand, SMTP-7 was found to be ineffective for already deposited IgA, suggesting that SMTP-7 may not be effective for ameliorating advanced IgAN. PMID:22907981

Kemmochi, Sayaka; Hayashi, Hitomi; Taniai, Eriko; Hasumi, Keiji; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

2012-06-01

169

Prey regurgitation and stomach vacuity among groupers and snappers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey regurgitation during capture is a potential important confounding effect in fish dietary ecology studies as it may lead\\u000a to overestimation of stomach vacuity and underestimation of prey consumption. This study investigates patterns of prey regurgitation\\u000a and stomach vacuity among five grouper and three snapper species in shallow water off French Polynesia and tests the effectiveness\\u000a of piercing swim-bladders after

Matthias Vignon; Jan Dierking

2011-01-01

170

The maintenance of Bdellovibrio at low prey density  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for the interaction ofBdellovibrio and its prey predicted that a relatively high prey density (7×105 cells ml?1) would be required for the establishment of an equilibrium in a mixed population [8]. The present report shows thatBdellovibrio can be maintained in a continuous culture when the prey cell density is much lower (2–5×104 cells ml?1), and closer to

Mazal Varon; Miriam Fine; Anat Stein

1984-01-01

171

Foraging mode, prey chemical discrimination, and phylogeny in lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-held hypothesis that active foragers should use chemical senses to detect food more than do ambush foragers is verified for lizards. In actively foraging and herbivorous families, tongue-flicking permits sampling of chemicals for detection and identification of prey, but in ambush-foraging families the tongue does not participate even in detection of prey. Because foraging mode and prey chemical discrimination

William E. Cooper

1995-01-01

172

Nash Equilibria in Noncooperative Predator-Prey Games  

SciTech Connect

A noncooperative game governed by a distributed-parameter predator-prey system is considered, assuming that two players control initial conditions for predator and prey, respectively. Existence of a Nash equilibrium is shown under the condition that the desired population profiles and the environmental carrying capacity for the prey are sufficiently small. A conceptual approximation algorithm is proposed and analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed, too.

Ramos, Angel Manuel [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, 28040 (Spain)], E-mail: Angel_Ramos@mat.ucm.es; Roubicek, Tomas [Mathematical Institute, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 and Institute of Information Theory and Automation, Academy of Sciences, Pod vodarenskou vezi 4 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: roubicek@karlin.mff.cuni.cz

2007-09-15

173

Prey capture by a benthic coral reef hydrozoan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural diet and prey abundance of the benthic coral reef hydrozoan Nemalecium lighti, a common tropical species, were studied by analysing the gastrovascular contents of polyps. Prey capture was estimated from\\u000a 10 samples collected at 3-h intervals during a single diel cycle (1–2 September, 1995) in the San Blas Islands (Panamá). Prey\\u000a size ranged from 5 to 550??m, with

R. Coma; M. Ribes; C. Orejas; J.-M. Gili

1999-01-01

174

Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.  

PubMed

Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

2013-06-01

175

Uniform persistence for sigmoidal diet selection with keystone prey species  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In this paper we discuss uniform persistence (UP) criteria of two prey- one predator systems, where we consider that the\\u000a predator's diet selection is a sigmoidal function of the most profitable prey type in place of a step function of conventional\\u000a diet choice theory. We also derive UP results of the system with direct interspecific competition between the prey.

Asim Sikder

2000-01-01

176

The Coevolution of "Tyrannosaurus" & Its Prey: Could "Tyrannosaurus" Chase down & Kill a "Triceratops" for Lunch?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students will analyze the coevolution of the predator-prey relationships between "Tyrannosaurus rex" and its prey species using analyses of animal speeds from fossilized trackways, prey-animal armaments, adaptive behaviors, bite marks on prey-animal fossils, predator-prey ratios, and scavenger competition. The students will be asked to…

May, S. Randolph

2014-01-01

177

Effect of zooplankton type and abundance on prey consumption by the fairy shrimp, Streptocephalus proboscideus (Anostraca: Crustacea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory cultured Streptocephalus proboscideus (three sizes (mm), viz. 8.44 ± 0.95 (virgin), 14.18 ± 1.49 (adult I) and 19.24 ± 1.52 (adult II)) were offered (separately\\u000a for males and females) field collected zooplankton (12 prey types) at three levels of abundance (1.0 ml?1, 2.0 ml?1 and 4.1 ind. ml?1 in 30-minute feeding experiments. Gut contents, analyzed for abundance and diversity

A. Jawahar Ali; S. S. S. Sarma; G. Murugan; H. J. Dumont

1996-01-01

178

Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).  

PubMed

We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts. PMID:23612845

Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

2013-07-01

179

Reward for Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus for preying on a polyhydroxyalkanoate producer.  

PubMed

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus?HD100 is an obligate predator that invades and grows within the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, including mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producers such as Pseudomonas putida. We investigated the impact of prey PHA content on the predator fitness and the potential advantages for preying on a PHA producer. Using a new procedure to control P.?putida?KT2442 cell size we demonstrated that the number of Bdellovibrio progeny depends on the prey biomass and not on the viable prey cell number or PHA content. The presence of mcl-PHA hydrolysed products in the culture supernatant after predation on P.?putida?KT42Z, a PHA producing strain lacking PhaZ depolymerase, confirmed the ability of Bdellovibrio to degrade the prey's PHA. Predator motility was higher when growing on PHA accumulating prey. External addition of PHA polymer (latex suspension) to Bdellovibrio preying on the PHA minus mutant P.?putida?KT42C1 restored predator movement, suggesting that PHA is a key prey component to sustain predator swimming speed. High velocities observed in Bdellovibrio preying on the PHA producing strain were correlated to high intracellular ATP levels of the predator. These effects brought Bdellovibrio fitness benefits as predation on PHA producers was more efficient than predation on non-producing bacteria. PMID:23227863

Martínez, Virginia; Jurkevitch, Edouard; García, José Luis; Prieto, María Auxiliadora

2013-04-01

180

Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey.  

PubMed

Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as 'prey'. PMID:20980305

Wignall, Anne E; Taylor, Phillip W

2011-05-01

181

Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey  

PubMed Central

Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as ‘prey’. PMID:20980305

Wignall, Anne E.; Taylor, Phillip W.

2011-01-01

182

EVALUATION OF PREYS / PREDATORS SYSTEMS FOR VISUAL ATTENTION SIMULATION  

E-print Network

Author manuscript, published in "VISAPP 2010, Angers : France (2010)" #12;Colors curiosity Intensity curiosity Orientation curiosity Interest Attended location Lowlevelpartof originalItti'smodel Preys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

183

IGS Data Center Working Group Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At its 18th meeting held December 09, 2001 in San Francisco, the IGS Governing Board recommended the formation of a working group to focus on data center issues. This working group will tackle many of the problems facing the IGS data centers as well as develop new ideas to aid users both internal and external to the IGS. The direction of the IGS has changed since its start in 1992 and many new working groups, projects, data sets, and products have been created and incorporated into the service since that time. Therefore, this may be an appropriate time to revisit the requirements of data centers within the IGS.

Noll, Carey E.

2004-01-01

184

Prognostic utility of intact immunoglobulin Ig??/Ig?? ratios in multiple myeloma patients  

PubMed Central

To determine whether isotype matched immunoglobulin (Ig; Ig??/Ig??) ratios had prognostic significance in patients with intact Ig multiple myeloma (MM). Novel immunoassays measuring serum concentrations of the Ig heavy chain/light chain (HLC) subsets IgG?, IgG?, IgA? and IgA? were compared with monoclonal protein (‘M-spike') quantification by serum protein electrophoresis, ?2-microglobulin (?2-M), albumin, serum free light chain (FLC) and cytogenetic markers in relation to outcome in 339 MM patients. Abnormal IgG?/IgG? and IgA?/IgA? ratios present in the respective tumor isotypes at clinical presentation were predictive of shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 1.9; P=0.0002), predominantly due to the suppression of the uninvolved (polyclonal) Ig of the same isotype as the tumor (HR 1.8; P=0.002). No significant associations were observed between PFS and M-spike concentrations, suppression of non-tumor Igs of different isotypes or FLC ?/? ratios. ?2-M and HLC ratios were independently prognostic (P=0.045 and P=0.001). A staging system using ?2-M and extreme HLC ratios (<0.01 or >200) had greater prognostic value than the widely used ISS staging system (HR 1.7; P=0.00002 vs HR 1.3; P=0.017). These results suggest that HLC ratios may have a role in clinical management of MM. PMID:22699454

Bradwell, A; Harding, S; Fourrier, N; Mathiot, C; Attal, M; Moreau, P; Harousseau, J-L; Avet-Loiseau, H

2013-01-01

185

Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats.  

PubMed

Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels. PMID:17724339

Urban, Mark C

2007-09-01

186

Aquatic predation alters a terrestrial prey subsidy.  

PubMed

Organisms with complex life histories (CLH) often cross habitat or ecosystem boundaries as they develop from larvae to adults, coupling energy flow between ecosystems as both prey (bottom-up) and consumers (top-down). Predation effects on one stage of this life cycle can therefore cascade across ecosystems, magnifying the impact of local predation. The majority of predation studies have assessed effects only on a local level, within the habitat of the predator. I used large outdoor stream mesocosms to test the hypothesis that predation in an aquatic habitat alters the magnitude and trophic structure of a prey assemblage in a terrestrial habitat. I also tested how a consumer in the terrestrial habitat (web-weaving spiders) responded to these changes in prey export. Two fish species were the predators (red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis and orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile) in an experiment with three treatments: both fish species monocultures plus a fishless control. Fish predation reduced aquatic insect emergence biomass by 50% compared to the fishless control and altered the trophic structure of the emergent community, reducing emerging insect predator biomass by 50%, but had no effect on other insect trophic groups. Spiders captured only insects that were unaffected by fish predation (mostly chironomids) and therefore did not respond numerically to overall changes in insect abundance or biomass. Patterns of insect emergence were largely driven by a strong negative relationship between fish and a predatory dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). The results of this experiment show that predation in one habitat can have strong effects on the biomass and trophic structure of subsidies entering adjacent habitats, resulting in contrasting predictions for the role of these subsidies in recipient food webs. In the absence of fish, aquatic habitats produced terrestrial insect communities with higher biomass (bottom-up potential) and a higher proportion of predators (top-down potential) than when fish were present. PMID:20503875

Wesner, Jeff Scott

2010-05-01

187

Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats  

PubMed Central

Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels. PMID:17724339

Urban, Mark C.

2007-01-01

188

Effects of predator removal on vertebrate prey populations: birds of prey and small mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of removal of breeding nomadic avian predators (the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus and Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus) on small mammals (voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys and the common shrew, Sorex araneus) during 1989–1992 in western Finland to find out if these predators have a regulating or limiting impact on their prey populations. We removed potential

Kai Norrdahl; Erkki Korpimäki

1995-01-01

189

Prey detection of aquatic predators: Assessing the identity of chemical cues eliciting prey behavioral plasticity  

E-print Network

Dragonfly larvae a b s t r a c t Chemical cues transmitted through the environment are thought to underlie of such cues, their basic composition are poorly understood. Using anuran tadpoles (prey) and dragonfly larvae spectrometry of the extracts. We found that dragonfly larvae predators consistently produced a negative ion, m

190

Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.  

PubMed

Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space. PMID:15846334

Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

2005-04-21

191

Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

Vojdani, Aristo

2009-01-01

192

Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

2014-01-01

193

Histologically confirmed isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis: two case reports in young women  

PubMed Central

Summary IgG4-related hypophysitis is a recently described entity belonging to the group of IgG4-related diseases. Many other organs can also be affected, and it is more common in older men. To date, 32 cases of IgG4-related hypophysitis have been reported in the literature, 11 of which included confirmatory tissue biopsy and the majority affecting multiple organs. The aim of this report is to present two cases of biopsy-proven IgG4-related hypophysitis occurring in two young female patients with no evidence of involvement of other organs at the time of diagnosis. Learning points IgG4-related hypophysitis belongs to the group of IgG4-related diseases, and is a fibro-inflammatory condition characterized by dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and storiform fibrosis.It is more common in older men, but young women may also present this type of hypophysitis.Although involvement of other organs is frequent, isolated pituitary disease is possible.Frequent clinical manifestations include anterior hypopituitarism and/or diabetes insipidus.The diagnosis may be confirmed with any of the following criteria: a pituitary biopsy with lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, with more than ten IgG4-positive cells; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and a biopsy-proven involvement of another organ; a sellar mass and/or thickened pituitary stalk and IgG4 serum levels >140?mg/dl and sellar mass reduction and symptom improvement after corticosteroid treatment.Glucocorticoids are recommended as first-line therapy. PMID:25298883

Sosa, Gabriela Alejandra; Bell, Soledad; Christiansen, Silvia Beatriz; Pietrani, Marcelo; Glerean, Mariela; Loto, Monica; Lovazzano, Soledad; Carrizo, Antonio; Ajler, Pablo

2014-01-01

194

Elaphoidella grandidieri (Harpacticoida: Copepoda): demographic characteristics and possible use as live prey in aquaculture.  

PubMed

In freshwater ecosystems, rotifers and cladocerans are ideal prey for fish larvae whereas copepods, due to their purported low growth rate and predatory tendency, are not. We recently isolated the parthenogenetic Elaphoidella grandidieri (Gueme et Richard, 1893) a benthic freshwater harpacticoid, from a fish farm in the State of Morelos, central Mexico and tested its potential as a live prey organism for larval vertebrates. Population growth and life table demography experiments were conducted, in 100 ml recipients with 50 ml of test medium on a diet of Scenedesmus acutus at a density of 1.0 X 10(6) cell ml(-1); the former on live algae alone while the latter on live algae as well as detritus. We also conducted experiments to document the prey preference for this copepod by the larval Ameca splendens (Pisces: Goodeidae) and Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae), fed the rotifer Plationus patulus, the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, and the cladocerans Moina macrocopa and Daphnia pulex. Elaphoidella grandidieri is relatively easy to maintain under laboratory conditions, reaching densities (copepodites and adults) of more than 10,000 l(-1). The generation time ranged between 30-45 days, depending on the diet. The net reproductive rate was as high as 60 nauplii female(-1) day (1). Population growth rates ranged between 0.03 and 0.11 d(-1), live algae being the superior diet compared to detritus. Both predators showed no preference for E. grandidieri, but in the absence of alternate prey they consumed 80% of the harpacticoids offered. The data have been discussed in relation to the potential of E. grandidierias live food for aquaculture. PMID:22315830

Nandini, S; Nunez Ortiz, Alma Rosa; Sarma, S S S

2011-07-01

195

Effects of intraguild predators on nest-site selection by prey.  

PubMed

Nest-site selection involves tradeoffs between the risk of predation (on females and/or nests) and nest-site quality (microenvironment), and consequently suitable nesting sites are often in limited supply. Interactions with "classical" predators (e.g., those not competing for shared resources) can strongly influence nest-site selection, but whether intraguild predation also influences this behavior is unknown. We tested whether risk of predation from an intraguild predator [the diurnal scincid lizard Eutropis (Mabuya) longicaudata] influences nest-site selection by its prey (the nocturnal gecko Gekko hokouensis) on Orchid Island, Taiwan. These two species putatively compete for shared resources, including invertebrate prey and nesting microhabitat, but the larger E. longicaudata also predates G. hokouensis (but not its hard-shelled eggs). Both species nested within a concrete wall containing a series of drainage holes that have either one ("closed-in") or two openings ("open"). In allopatry, E. longicaudata preferred to nest within holes that were plugged by debris (thereby protecting eggs from water intrusion), whereas G. hokouensis selected holes that were open at both ends (facilitating escape from predators). When we experimentally excluded E. longicaudata from its preferred nesting area, G. hokouensis not only nested in higher abundances, but also modified its nest-site selection, such that communal nesting was more prevalent and both open and closed-in holes were used equally. Egg viability was unaffected by the choice of hole type, but was reduced slightly (by 7%) in the predator exclusion area (presumably due to higher local incubation temperatures). Our field experiment demonstrates that intraguild predators can directly influence the nest density of prey by altering maternal nest-site selection behavior, even when the predator and prey are active at different times of day and the eggs are not at risk of predation. PMID:21739239

Huang, Wen-San; Pike, David A

2012-01-01

196

Predation risk causes oxidative damage in prey  

PubMed Central

While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of increased oxidative stress. Here, we test whether predation risk increases oxidative damage in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae. Under predation risk, larvae showed higher lipid peroxidation, which was associated with lower levels of superoxide dismutase, a major antioxidant enzyme in insects, and higher superoxide anion concentrations, a potent reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms underlying oxidative damage are likely to be due to the shunting of energy away from antioxidant defence and to an increased metabolic rate, suggesting that the observed increased oxidative damage under predation risk may be widespread. Given the potentially severe fitness consequences of oxidative damage, this largely overlooked non-consumptive effect of predators may be contributing significantly to prey population dynamics. PMID:23760170

Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

2013-01-01

197

Piscivore-Prey Fish Interactions: Mechanisms behind Diurnal Patterns in Prey Selectivity in Brown and Clear Water  

PubMed Central

Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters. PMID:25379665

Ranĺker, Lynn; Persson, Jens; Jönsson, Mikael; Nilsson, P. Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2014-01-01

198

Behavioral response races, predator-prey shell games, ecology of fear, and patch use of pumas and their ungulate prey.  

PubMed

The predator-prey shell game predicts random movement of prey across the landscape, whereas the behavioral response race and landscape of fear models predict that there should be a negative relationship between the spatial distribution of a predator and its behaviorally active prey. Additionally, prey have imperfect information on the whereabouts of their predator, which the predator should incorporate in its patch use strategy. I used a one-predator-one-prey system, puma (Puma concolor)-mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to test the following predictions regarding predator-prey distribution and patch use by the predator. (1) Pumas will spend more time in high prey risk/low prey use habitat types, while deer will spend their time in low-risk habitats. Pumas should (2) select large forage patches more often, (3) remain in large patches longer, and (4) revisit individual large patches more often than individual smaller ones. I tested these predictions with an extensive telemetry data set collected over 16 years in a study area of patchy forested habitat. When active, pumas spent significantly less time in open areas of low intrinsic predation risk than did deer. Pumas used large patches more than expected, revisited individual large patches significantly more often than smaller ones, and stayed significantly longer in larger patches than in smaller ones. The results supported the prediction of a negative relationship in the spatial distribution of a predator and its prey and indicated that the predator is incorporating the prey's imperfect information about its presence. These results indicate a behavioral complexity on the landscape scale that can have far-reaching impacts on predator-prey interactions. PMID:21058559

Laundré, John W

2010-10-01

199

Piscivore-prey fish interactions: mechanisms behind diurnal patterns in prey selectivity in brown and clear water.  

PubMed

Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters. PMID:25379665

Ranĺker, Lynn; Persson, Jens; Jönsson, Mikael; Nilsson, P Anders; Brönmark, Christer

2014-01-01

200

The impact on tigers of poaching versus prey depletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. There exists a continuing dilemma in prioritizing conservation actions for large carnivores. Habitat loss, poaching, and prey depletion have often been cited as the three primary threats, but there is debate over the relative importance of each. 2. We assess the relative importance of poaching and prey depletion rates, and use existing information in the literature and multi-type

Guillaume Chapron; Dale G. Miquelle; Amaury Lambert; John M. Goodrich; Stéphane Legendre; Jean Clobert

2008-01-01

201

PATTERNS OF TEMPORAL VARIATION IN GOSHAWK REPRODUCTION AND PREY RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) reproduction is food-limited, we evaluated the reproductive output from 401 goshawk breeding opportunities on the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona during 1999-2002. Concurrently, we estimated densities of 10 goshawk prey species (seven birds, three mammals) using distance sampling. We then assessed the relationship between goshawk produc- tivity (number of fledglings produced) and prey density within

SUSAN R. SALAFSKY; RICHARD T. R EYNOLDS; BARRY R. NOON

202

Prey bacteria shape the community structure of their predators.  

PubMed

Although predator-prey interactions among higher organisms have been studied extensively, only few examples are known for microbes other than protists and viruses. Among the bacteria, the most studied obligate predators are the Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) that prey on many other bacteria. In the macroscopical world, both predator and prey influence the population size of the other's community, and may have a role in selection. However, selective pressures among prey and predatory bacteria have been rarely investigated. In this study, Bacteriovorax, a predator within the group of BALOs, in environmental waters were fed two prey bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The two prey species yielded distinct Bacteriovorax populations, evidence that selective pressures shaped the predator community and diversity. The results of laboratory experiments confirmed the differential predation of Bacteriovorax phylotypes on the two bacteria species. Not only did Bacteriovorax Cluster IX exhibit the versatility to be the exclusive efficient predator on Vibrio vulnificus, thereby, behaving as a specialist, but was also able to prey with similar efficiency on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, indicative of a generalist. Therefore, we proposed a designation of versatilist for this predator. This initiative should provide a basis for further efforts to characterize the predatory patterns of bacterial predators. The results of this study have revealed impacts of the prey on Bacteriovorax predation and in structuring the predator community, and advanced understanding of predation behavior in the microbial world. PMID:21326335

Chen, Huan; Athar, Rana; Zheng, Guili; Williams, Henry N

2011-08-01

203

Dynamics of Prey Capture and Escape Wednesday, March 6th  

E-print Network

-selective visual neurons in the dragonfly 12:00 pm Anthony Leonardo, Janelia Farm Research Campus/HHMI Guidance laws underlying prey capture in the dragonfly 12:25 pm Jérôme Casas, UMR CNRS Search games in predator general are predator-prey interactions? Comparative flight mechanics and strategy of dragonflies pursuing

Eddy, Sean

204

Dynamics of Prey Capture and Escape Wednesday, March 6th  

E-print Network

-selective visual neurons in the dragonfly 12:00 pm Anthony Leonardo, Janelia Farm Research Campus/HHMI Guidance laws underlying prey capture in the dragonfly 12:25 pm Jérôme Casas, UMR CNRS Search games in predator flight mechanics and strategy of dragonflies pursuing dipteran prey 10:40 am Break 11:10 am Session 6

Eddy, Sean

205

RELATIONSHIPS OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND NON-PREY FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are very few entomophagous species so maladapted as to rely on prey as their sole nutritional resource. Although a rich source of nutrients, prey/host availability to predators and parasitoids is restricted temporally by ephemeral population dynamics, spatial differences in microclimate, struc...

206

Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey?  

PubMed Central

Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.

2013-01-01

207

Avian prey-dropping behavior. II. American crows and walnuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex and energetically expensive foraging tasks should be shaped by natural selection to be efficient. Many species of birds open hard-shelled prey by dropping the prey repeatedly onto the ground from considerable heights. Urban-dwelling American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) forage in this way on two species of walnuts in central California, USA. As predicted from a theoretical model, crows dropped nuts

Daniel A. Cristola; Paul V. Switzer

208

Prey behavior, age-dependent vulnerability, and predation rates.  

PubMed

Variation in the temporal pattern of vulnerability can provide important insights into predator-prey relationships and the evolution of antipredator behavior. We illustrate these points with a system that has coyotes (Canis latrans) as a predator and two species of congeneric deer (Odocoileus spp.) as prey. The deer employ different antipredator tactics (aggressive defense vs. flight) that result in contrasting patterns of age-dependent vulnerability in their probability of being captured when encountered by coyotes. We use long-term survival data and a simple mathematical model to show that (1) species differences in age-dependent vulnerability are reflected in seasonal predation rates and (2) seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and predator hunt activity, which can be associated with the availability of alternative prey, interact to shape seasonal and annual predation rates for each prey species. Shifting hunt activity from summer to winter, or vice versa, alleviated annual mortality on one species and focused it on the other. Our results indicate that seasonal variation in prey vulnerability and hunt activity interact to influence the impact that a predator has on any particular type of prey. Furthermore, these results indicate that seasonal variation in predation pressure is an important selection pressure shaping prey defenses. PMID:18840071

Lingle, Susan; Feldman, Alex; Boyce, Mark S; Wilson, W Finbarr

2008-11-01

209

Energy and protein content of coyote prey in southeastern Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Gross energy, digestible energy, crude protein, and digestible crude protein were estimated for two leporids and five rodents that were the primary prey of coyotes (Canis latrans) in southeastern Idaho. Digestible protein estimates differed (38%-54%) more than digestible energy (3.5-4.4 kcal), in the prey examined. 15 references, 1 table.

MacCracken, J.G.; Hansen, R.M.

1986-04-30

210

Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey.  

PubMed

Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

Chatelain, M; Halpin, C G; Rowe, C

2013-10-01

211

Density-dependent effects of prey defenses and predator offenses.  

PubMed

Defenses protect prey, while offenses arm predators. Some defenses and offenses are constitutive (e.g. tortoise shells), while others are phenotypically plastic and not always expressed (e.g. neckteeth in water fleas). All of them are costly and only adaptive at certain prey densities. Here, I analyse such density-dependent effects, applying a functional response model to categorize defenses and offenses and qualitatively predict at which prey densities each category should evolve (if it is constitutive) or be expressed (if it is phenotypically plastic). The categories refer to the step of the predation cycle that a defense or offense affects: (1) search, (2) encounter, (3) detection, (4) attack, or (5) meal. For example, prey warning signals such as red coloration prevent predator attacks and are hence step 4 defenses, while sharp predator eyes enhance detection and are step 3 offenses. My theoretical analyses predict that step 1 defenses, which prevent predators from searching for their next meal (e.g. toxic substances), evolve or are expressed at intermediate prey densities. Other defenses, however, should be most beneficial at low prey densities. Regarding predators, step 1 offenses (e.g. immunity against prey toxins) are predicted to evolve or be expressed at high prey densities, other offenses at intermediate densities. I provide evidence from the literature that supports these predictions. PMID:16842823

Jeschke, Jonathan M

2006-10-21

212

Dietary shifts of sympatric buteos during a prey decline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diets of nesting Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Ferruginous Hawks (Buteo regalis) were sampled before and after a decline in the hawks' principal prey species. Diets of pairs that shared their foraging ranges with interspecifics were contrasted with those of pairs whose home ranges did not overlap with interspecifics. Current theory predicts that diets should diverge during prey shortages and

K. Steenhof; M. N. Kochert

1985-01-01

213

IgA deficiency and autoimmunity.  

PubMed

IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in the human body, and performs a very specialized role which involves mucosal immunity, development of tolerance and protection against infection. IgA is the key immunoglobulin in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, which provide the most intimate interface between the environment and self. Normal levels of IgA are based on early studies consisting of only small numbers of patients. The international consensus definition of IgA deficiency is a level of 0.07g/l after the age of four years in the absence of IgG and IgM deficiencies. The epidemiology of IgA deficiency reveals interesting variances between geographical regions - the incidence in Caucasians being much higher than that in Asians. IgA deficiency has also been found to co-exist with autoimmune diseases, allergies and malignancies. The association with autoimmunity is particularly interesting because it suggests a common genetic linkage that could potentially also explain the diversity in geoepidemiology. Both MHC and non-MHC associations have been described and the 8.1 haplotype has been significantly associated with autoimmunity in IgA deficiency patients over controls. Non-MHC genetic associations include IFIH1 and CLEC16A. The mutations leading to IgA deficiency have not been defined, but in some cases of IgA deficiency it has been suggested that the pathogenesis involves a failure in switched memory B cells that can lead to this cohort experiencing an increased incidence of recurrent bacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Attempts to investigate the role of cytokines that can induce IgA synthesis in cells of patients with IgA deficiency, such as IL21 or the combination of CD40L/anti-CD40, IL-4 and IL10, are underway. PMID:24157629

Singh, Karmtej; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

2014-02-01

214

Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric\\/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that,

Lynn L Rumfelt; Rebecca L Lohr; Helen Dooley; Martin F Flajnik

2004-01-01

215

Predatory Bacteriovorax Communities Ordered by Various Prey Species  

PubMed Central

The role of predation in altering microbial communities has been studied for decades but few examples are known for bacterial predators. Bacteriovorax are halophilic prokaryotes that prey on susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. We recently reported novel observations on the differential selection of Bacteriovorax phylotypes by two different prey, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. However, the conclusion is restricted by the limited number of prey tested. In this study, we have conducted two independent investigations involving eight species of prey bacteria while using V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolytics as reference strains. Water samples collected from Dry Bar, Apalachicola Bay were used to establish microcosms which were respectively spiked with prey strains Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli or Pseudomonas putida to examine the response of native Bacteriovorax to freshwater bacteria. Indigenous Vibrio sp., Pseudoalteromonas sp., Photobacterium sp. and a clinical strain of V. vulnificus were also tested for the impact of saltwater prey on the Bacteriovorax community. At 24 hour intervals, optical density of the microcosm samples and the abundance of Bacteriovorax were measured over five days. The predominant Bacteriovorax plaques were selected and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. In addition, the impacts of prey on predator population and bacterial community composition were investigated using culture independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Strikingly, Cluster IV was found consistently as the predominant phylotype produced by the freshwater prey. For all saltwater prey, subgroups of Bacteriovorax phylotype IX were the major predators recovered. The results suggest that prey is an important factor along with temperature, salinity and other environmental parameters in shaping Bacteriovorax communities in aquatic systems. PMID:22461907

Chen, Huan; Young, Shanterial; Berhane, Timkhite-Kulu; Williams, Henry N.

2012-01-01

216

Effects of Predation by Nonnative Smallmouth Bass on Native Salmonid Prey: The Role of Predator and Prey Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of predators that consume the most fish and the size of prey fish that are the most vulnerable to predation are important factors to consider when assessing the predation risks to valued prey fish such as Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Pacific Northwest. We found that native salmonids' risk of predation by nonnative smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu

Anthony L. Fritts; Todd N. Pearsons

2006-01-01

217

Effects of Prey and Predator Abundances on Prey Consumption and Growth of Walleyes in Western Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining growth and delayed age at maturity of walleye Stizostedion vitreum from 1965 to 1984 indicated that the species' large Lake Erie population was taxing the capacity of the prey fish community to support it. We examined the effects of prey and predator abundances on walleye diets and estimated the total predatory demand of age-0 through age-6 walleyes in western

Kyle J. Hartman; F. Joseph Margraf

1992-01-01

218

Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.  

PubMed

We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage. PMID:23028569

Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

2012-01-01

219

Birth Timing for Mountain Lions (Puma concolor); Testing the Prey Availability Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June–August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April–June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1st litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage. PMID:23028569

Jansen, Brian D.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

2012-01-01

220

Negotiating a noisy, information-rich environment in search of cryptic prey: olfactory predators need patchiness in prey cues.  

PubMed

1. Olfactory predator search processes differ fundamentally to those based on vision, particularly when odour cues are deposited rather than airborne or emanating from a point source. When searching for visually cryptic prey that may have moved some distance from a deposited odour cue, cue context and spatial variability are the most likely sources of information about prey location available to an olfactory predator. 2. We tested whether the house mouse (Mus domesticus), a model olfactory predator, would use cue context and spatial variability when searching for buried food items; specifically, we tested the effect of varying cue patchiness, odour strength, and cue-prey association on mouse foraging success. 3. Within mouse- and predator-proof enclosures, we created grids of 100 sand-filled Petri dishes and buried peanut pieces in a set number of these patches to represent visually cryptic 'prey'. By adding peanut oil to selected dishes, we varied the spatial distribution of prey odour relative to the distribution of prey patches in each grid, to reflect different levels of cue patchiness (Experiment 1), odour strength (Experiment 2) and cue-prey association (Experiment 3). We measured the overnight foraging success of individual mice (percentage of searched patches containing prey), as well as their foraging activity (percentage of patches searched), and prey survival (percentage of unsearched prey patches). 4. Mouse foraging success was highest where odour cues were patchy rather than uniform (Experiment 1), and where cues were tightly associated with prey location, rather than randomly or uniformly distributed (Experiment 3). However, when cues at prey patches were ten times stronger than a uniformly distributed weak background odour, mice did not improve their foraging success over that experienced when cues were of uniform strength and distribution (Experiment 2). 5. These results suggest that spatial variability and cue context are important means by which olfactory predators can use deposited odour cues to locate visually cryptic prey. They also indicate that chemical crypsis can disrupt these search processes as effectively as background matching in visually based predator-prey systems. PMID:21401592

Carthey, Alexandra J R; Bytheway, Jenna P; Banks, Peter B

2011-07-01

221

Modelling the Effects of Prey Size and Distribution on Prey Capture Rates of Two Sympatric Marine Predators  

PubMed Central

Understanding how prey capture rates are influenced by feeding ecology and environmental conditions is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts on marine higher predators. We compared how prey capture rates varied in relation to prey size, prey patch distribution and prey density for two species of alcid, common guillemot (Uria aalge) and razorbill (Alca torda) during the chick-rearing period. We developed a Monte Carlo approach parameterised with foraging behaviour from bird-borne data loggers, observations of prey fed to chicks, and adult diet from water-offloading, to construct a bio-energetics model. Our primary goal was to estimate prey capture rates, and a secondary aim was to test responses to a set of biologically plausible environmental scenarios. Estimated prey capture rates were 1.5±0.8 items per dive (0.8±0.4 and 1.1±0.6 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for guillemots and 3.7±2.4 items per dive (4.9±3.1 and 7.3±4.0 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for razorbills. Based on species' ecology, diet and flight costs, we predicted that razorbills would be more sensitive to decreases in 0-group sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) length (prediction 1), but guillemots would be more sensitive to prey patches that were more widely spaced (prediction 2), and lower in prey density (prediction 3). Estimated prey capture rates increased non-linearly as 0-group sandeel length declined, with the slope being steeper in razorbills, supporting prediction 1. When prey patches were more dispersed, estimated daily energy expenditure increased by a factor of 3.0 for guillemots and 2.3 for razorbills, suggesting guillemots were more sensitive to patchier prey, supporting prediction 2. However, both species responded similarly to reduced prey density (guillemot expenditure increased by 1.7; razorbill by 1.6), thus not supporting prediction 3. This bio-energetics approach complements other foraging models in predicting likely impacts of environmental change on marine higher predators dependent on species-specific foraging ecologies. PMID:24260318

Thaxter, Chris B.; Daunt, Francis; Grémillet, David; Harris, Mike P.; Benvenuti, Silvano; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah

2013-01-01

222

Treatment of IgA nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an important cause of progressive kidney disease with 25–30% of patients developing end-stage renal disease within 20 years of diagnosis. There is still no treatment to modify mesangial IgA deposition and available treatments are those extrapolated from the management of other patterns of chronic glomerulonephritis. There remains no consensus on the use of immunosuppressive agents for

J Barratt; J Feehally

2006-01-01

223

Suppression of murine IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE antibody responses by alveolar macrophages.  

PubMed Central

Freshly recovered pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) and the AM-derived established cell line, MH-S, have previously been shown to be highly suppressive of in vitro IgM anti-sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) responses. Supernatants obtained from cultures of AM incubated with antigen-stimulated lymphocytes or from the MH-S cell line alone have also been shown to be suppressive when added to the in vitro antibody-forming system. In order to determine if AM and MH-S cells, owing to their mucosal location, could differentially regulate antibody responses including immunoglobulin isotypes other than IgM, an in vitro system for the detection of cells producing IgG, IgA and IgE anti-2,4 dinitrophenol (DNP) antibody was developed. These studies demonstrate that AM, MH-S cells, and MH-S culture supernatants suppress the in vitro generation of IgM, IgG, IgA and IgE anti-DNP spot-forming cells (SFC). No apparent differential regulation of any of the four murine IgG anti-DNP antibody subclasses was observed. Time-course experiments suggested that optimal AM- and MH-S-mediated suppression occurred 18 hr after culture initiation. Both AM and MH-S cells suppressed IgM and IgG anti-DNP antibody responses in a dose-related manner, suggesting that MH-S is a good model for the study of AM-mediated immunoregulation. PMID:8244465

Steele, M G; Herscowitz, H B

1993-01-01

224

Female condoms.  

PubMed

Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will prove to be, in terms of sexual health and contraception, will also depend largely on its long-term user-acceptability. As is generally the case with new methods, initial public interest in Femidom is expected to be high, as was documented in numerous surveys, and there undoubtedly exists a sub-group of women who view the product as their most appropriate contraceptive/sexually transmitted disease prevention option. However, more information on the product's acceptability, based on continuation rates, as is usually applied to other contraceptive techniques, is urgently needed to permit a more reliable assessment of Femidom's position among current methods. The arrival of a female condom represents a welcome addition to the range of female-controlled barrier contraceptives and, because of its numerous potential advantages over the male condom, may play an important role in the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:9678099

Bounds, W

1997-06-01

225

Galactose-deficient IgA1 in sera of IgA nephropathy patients is present in complexes with IgG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galactose-deficient IgA1 in sera of IgA nephropathy patients is present in complexes with IgG. IgA1 proteins from sera of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are galactosylated to a lesser degree than those from healthy controls. The increased reactivity of intact or de-sialylated serum IgA1 with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectins, Helix aspersa (HAA) and Caragana arborescens (CAA) and de-sialylated IgA1 with Helix

Milan Tomana; Karel Matousovic; Bruce A Julian; Jiri Radl; Karel Konecny; Jiri Mestecky

1997-01-01

226

Cannibalism and intraguild predation among phytoseiid mites: are aggressiveness and prey preference related to diet specialization?  

PubMed

We tested whether specialist and generalist phytoseiid mites differ in aggressiveness and prey choice in cannibalism and intraguild predation. Specialists tested were Galendromus occidentalis, Neoseiulus longispinosus, Phytoseiulus persimilis, and P. macropilis; generalists tested were Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, E. hibisci, Kampimodromus aberrans, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, N. cucumeris, NM fallacis, and Typhlodromus pyri. Aggressiveness of cannibalistic females against larvae was not related to diet specialization except that highly aggressive species were exclusively generalists. Seldom to moderately cannibalizing species occurred in both generalist and specialist phytoseiids. In contrast to aggressiveness in cannibalism, generalists and specialists differed in aggressiveness in intraguild predation. Adult females of specialists were only slightly aggressive against heterospecific larvae, whereas adult females of all generalists except T. pyri were highly aggressive. Adult females of generalists were able to discriminate between con- and heterospecific larvae and preferentially consumed the latter when given a choice. Adult females of specialists except G. occidentalis showed no preference when given a choice between con- and heterospecific larvae. We conclude that aggressiveness in intraguild predation, species recognition and subsequent preferential consumption of heterospecifics when given a choice is common in generalist but not specialist phytoseiids. We discuss the evolutionary pathways that might have led to the difference between specialists and generalists in species discrimination. PMID:11227828

Schausberger, P; Croft, B A

2000-01-01

227

Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.  

PubMed

Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict between conservation objectives for threatened or protected wildlife where the interaction between affected species can be quantified. PMID:22096495

Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

2011-01-01

228

Degraded Environments Alter Prey Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Elevated water temperatures, a decrease in ocean pH, and an increasing prevalence of severe storms have lead to bleaching and death of the hard corals that underpin coral reef ecosystems. As coral cover declines, fish diversity and abundance declines. How degradation of coral reefs affects behavior of reef inhabitants is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that risk assessment behaviors of prey are severely affected by coral degradation. Juvenile damselfish were exposed to visual and olfactory indicators of predation risk in healthy live, thermally bleached, and dead coral in a series of laboratory and field experiments. While fish still responded to visual cues in all habitats, they did not respond to olfactory indicators of risk in dead coral habitats, likely as a result of alteration or degradation of chemical cues. These cues are critical for learning and avoiding predators, and a failure to respond can have dramatic repercussions for survival and recruitment. PMID:23403754

Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P

2013-01-01

229

[Parasites of Austrian birds of prey (Falconiformes)].  

PubMed

During the examination of 158 birds of prey -- Buteo buteo (85), Falco tinnunculus (30), Accipiter gentilis (19), Accipiter nisus (18), Circus aeruginosus (2), Circus pygargus (1), Pandion haliaetus (1), Pernis apivorus (1), Falco subbuteo (1) and faeces samples of Falco tinnunculus 4 protozoan species, 1 trematode species, 2 cestode species, 13 nematode species, 2 acanthocephalan species and 5 mallophaga species could be detected. In the buzzard, kestrel and goshawk a new species of Capillaria could be found and described as Eucoleus suppereri spec. nov. A new species of Synhimantus, Synhimantus (Dispharynx) falconis spec. nov. was diagnosed. The infestation frequency of endo- and ectoparasites was relatively high, whereas the infestation intensity was small or mediocre on an average. The highest rate of infestation was found with trematodes and cestodes. The significance of the analysis of crop- and stomach-cntents as a guarantee of diagnosis "psuedoparasitism" was pointed out. PMID:7212374

Kutzer, E; Frey, H; Kotremba, J

1980-11-01

230

The Effect of Structural Complexity, Prey Density, and “Predator-Free Space” on Prey Survivorship at Created Oyster Reef Mesocosms  

PubMed Central

Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats. PMID:22145037

Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

2011-01-01

231

Breast-feeding, maternal IgE, and total serum IgE in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is controversy regarding the relationship of the effect of breast-feeding on markers of allergy such as total serum IgE in childhood. Objective: This study, using longitudinal data, tested the hypothesis that the relation of breast-feeding to IgE in childhood differs depending on maternal total IgE level. Methods: Total serum IgE was assessed with the paper radioimmunosorbent test at

Anne L. Wright; Duane Sherrill; Catharine J. Holberg; Marilyn Halonen; Fernando D. Martinez

1999-01-01

232

Exposed peptide core of IgA1 hinge region in IgA nephropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ized by the predominant deposition of the IgA1 Background. The human IgA1 hinge region is a very subclass in the mesangial area (1,2). It is well known unique O-linked glycopeptide, and its sialylation and that the serum IgA level is increased in patients with galactosylation recently were reported to be defective IgAN, and thus many investigators have suggested the in

Tohru Kokubo; Yoshiyuki Hiki; Hitoo Iwase; Atsushi Tanaka; Joji Nishikido; Kyoko Hotta; Yutaka Kobayashi

233

Flexibility in assessment of prey cues: frog-eating bats and frog calls  

PubMed Central

Predators use cues associated with their prey to assess prey quality and to avoid consuming poisonous prey. Considerable attention has been given to predators' use of aposematic cues to assess prey quality, but little is known about predators that eavesdrop on prey cues that are not intended for them. Here we investigate the prey-cue/prey-quality associations of a predator that eavesdrops on the sexual advertisement signals of its prey. Stability is expected in prey-cue/prey-quality associations when mistakes in prey assessment are lethal. Conversely, flexibility is possible when mistakes are less costly. Predators that must respond to temporal and spatial fluctuations in prey availability should be more flexible in their assessment of prey quality. Given these predictions, we examined flexibility in the ability of wild-caught bats to reverse prey-cue/prey-quality associations for a preferred prey and a poisonous one. We found that the predatory bat, Trachops cirrhosus, has a heretofore undescribed ability to reverse its evaluations of the cues that signal preferred prey. PMID:15888417

Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J

2005-01-01

234

Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts as visual signal for female attraction in a crepuscular spider  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An extensive diversity of nuptial gifts is known in invertebrates, but prey wrapped in silk is a unique type of gift present in few insects and spiders. Females from spider species prefer males offering a gift accepting more and longer matings than when males offered no gift. Silk wrapping of the gift is not essential to obtain a mating, but appears to increase the chance of a mating evidencing a particularly intriguing function of this trait. Consequently, as other secondary sexual traits, silk wrapping may be an important trait under sexual selection, if it is used by females as a signal providing information on male quality. We aimed to understand whether the white color of wrapped gifts is used as visual signal during courtship in the spider Paratrechalea ornata. We studied if a patch of white paint on the males' chelicerae is attractive to females by exposing females to males: with their chelicerae painted white; without paint; and with the sternum painted white (paint control). Females contacted males with white chelicerae more often and those males obtained higher mating success than other males. Thereafter, we explored whether silk wrapping is a condition-dependent trait and drives female visual attraction. We exposed good and poor condition males, carrying a prey, to the female silk. Males in poor condition added less silk to the prey than males in good condition, indicating that gift wrapping is an indicator of male quality and may be used by females to acquire information of the potential mate.

Trillo, Mariana C.; Melo-González, Valentina; Albo, Maria J.

2014-02-01

235

IGS News, Vol. 28, No. 2 (2012) 2 President's Corner  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 28, No. 2 (2012) 2 President's Corner: The Council of the IGS Dear Members of the IGS, The IGS is not a society of societies; it is a society of singular members. Let me clarify this because it is crucial to how the IGS operates. The member- ship of the majority of our sister

Zornberg, Jorge G.

236

President's Corner: The Regional Conferences of the IGS  

E-print Network

President's Corner: The Regional Conferences of the IGS Dear IGS member, the conferences of the IGS are the international conferences of the IGS, which are held every four years. This series of conferences has been of ICG events, which are regularly held every four years, the chapters of the IGS regularly organize

Zornberg, Jorge G.

237

IGS News, Vol. 29, No. 3 (2013) 2 President's Corner  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 29, No. 3 (2013) 2 President's Corner: 30 Years of the International Geosynthetics Society Dear Member of the IGS, 2013 marks the 30 th anniversary of the International Geosynthetics Society (IGS). Over its 30 years of existence, the IGS has grown remarkably. As of November 2013, the IGS

Zornberg, Jorge G.

238

A link between water availability and nesting success mediated by predator-prey interactions in the Arctic.  

PubMed

Although water availability is primarily seen as a factor affecting food availability (a bottom-up process), we examined its effect on predator-prey interactions through an influence on prey behavior (a top-down process). We documented a link between water availability, predation risk, and reproductive success in a goose species (Chen caerulescens atlantica) inhabiting an Arctic environment where water is not considered a limited commodity. To reach water sources during incubation recesses, geese nesting in mesic tundra (low water availability) must move almost four times as far from their nest than those nesting in wetlands, which reduced their ability to defend their nest against predators and led to a higher predation rate. Nesting success was improved in high rainfall years due to increased water availability, and more so for geese nesting in the low water availability habitat. Likewise, nesting success was improved in years where the potential for evaporative water loss (measured by the atmospheric water vapor pressure) was low, presumably because females had to leave their nest less often to drink. Females from water-supplemented nests traveled a shorter distance to drink, and their nesting success was enhanced by 20% compared to the control. This shows that water availability and rainfall can have a strong effect on predator-prey dynamics and that changes in precipitation brought by climate change could have an impact on some Arctic species through a top-down effect. PMID:19323230

Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François

2009-02-01

239

Increase of IgA-specific switch T cells in patients with IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed

Enumeration and functional analysis of CD4+ T cells with receptors for the Fc portion of IgA (i.e. T alpha 4 cells) in the peripheral blood of patients with IgA nephropathy, their relatives and age-matched controls were performed to elucidate polyclonal activation of IgA production in this disease. Enumeration of T alpha 4 cells was performed by a fluorescence activated cell sorter, and functional analysis was carried out by separation of T alpha 4 cells, and IgM-, IgA- and IgG-bearing lymphocytes using panning methods followed by cultures of these cells for 7 days with pokeweed mitogen. There was a significant increase in the amount of peripheral blood T alpha 4 cells in patients with IgA nephropathy and their relatives. T alpha 4 cells specifically enhanced the switch of IgM-bearing cells to IgA-bearing cells, and this switch activity was inhibited by addition of human myeloma IgA. It is suggested that T alpha 4 cells may be responsible for polyclonal activation of IgA production in IgA nephropathy. PMID:2575472

Sakai, H; Miyazaki, M; Endoh, M; Nomoto, Y

1989-12-01

240

Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews  

PubMed Central

A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

2012-01-01

241

Acoustic mirror effect increases prey detection distance in trawling bats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many different and phylogenetically distant species of bats forage for insects above water bodies and take insects from and close to the surface; the so-called ‘trawling behaviour’. Detection of surface-based prey by echolocation is facilitated by acoustically smooth backgrounds such as water surfaces that reflect sound impinging at an acute angle away from the bat and thereby render a prey object acoustically conspicuous. Previous measurements had shown that the echo amplitude of a target on a smooth surface is higher than that of the same target in mid-air, due to an acoustic mirror effect. In behavioural experiments with three pond bats (Myotis dasycneme), we tested the hypothesis that the maximum distances at which bats can detect prey are larger for prey on smooth surfaces than for the same prey in an airborne situation. We determined the moment of prey detection from a change in echolocation behaviour and measured the detection distance in 3D space from IR-video recordings using stereo-photogrammetry. The bats showed the predicted increase in detection distance for prey on smooth surfaces. The acoustic mirror effect therefore increases search efficiency and contributes to the acoustic advantages encountered by echolocating bats when foraging at low heights above smooth water surfaces. These acoustic advantages may have favoured the repeated evolution of trawling behaviour.

Siemers, Björn M.; Baur, Eric; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

2005-06-01

242

Predator size, prey size and threshold food densities of diving ducks: does a common prey base support fewer large animals?  

PubMed

1. Allometry predicts that a given habitat area or common prey biomass supports fewer numbers of larger than smaller predators; however, birds from related taxa or the same feeding guild often deviate from this pattern. In particular, foraging costs of birds may differ among locomotor modes, while intake rates vary with accessibility, handling times and energy content of different-sized prey. Such mechanisms might affect threshold prey densities needed for energy balance, and thus relative numbers of different-sized predators in habitats with varying prey patches. 2. We compared the foraging profitability (energy gain minus cost) of two diving ducks: smaller lesser scaup (Aythya affinis, 450-1090 g) and larger white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca, 950-1800 g). Calculations were based on past measurements of dive costs with respirometry, and of intake rates of a common bivalve prey ranging in size, energy content and burial depth in sediments. 3. For scaup feeding on small prey <12 mm long, all clams buried deeper than 5 cm were unprofitable at realistic prey densities. For clams buried in the top 5 cm, the profitability threshold decreased from 216 to 34 clams m(-2) as energy content increased from 50 to 300 J clam(-1). 4. For larger scoters feeding on larger prey 18-24 mm long, foraging was profitable for clams buried deeper than 5 cm, with a threshold density of 147 m(-2) for clams containing 380 J clam(-1). For clams <5 cm deep, the threshold density decreased from 86 to 36 clams m(-2) as energy content increased from 380 to 850 J clam(-1). If scoters decreased dive costs by swimming with wings as well as feet (not an option for scaup), threshold prey densities were 11-12% lower. 5. Our results show that threshold densities of total prey numbers for different-sized ducks depend on prey size structure and depth in the sediments. Thus, heterogeneity in disturbance regimes and prey population dynamics can create a mosaic of patches favouring large or small predators. Whether a given area or total prey biomass will support greater numbers of larger or smaller predators will vary with these effects. PMID:19426253

Richman, Samantha E; Lovvorn, James R

2009-09-01

243

Study of circulating IgG antibodies to peptide antigens derived from BIRC5 and MYC in cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to detect circulating IgG antibodies to peptide antigens derived from baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 5 isoform 2 (BIRC5) and myc proto-oncogene protein (MYC) in cervical cancer. A total of 107 female patients with cervical cancer of stages I and II, and 130 healthy female subjects were recruited for analysis of circulating IgG antibodies to BIRC5 and MYC. Student’s t-test showed significant differences in circulating levels of anti-BIRC5 IgG (t = ?4.27, df = 235, P < 0.0001) and anti-MYC IgG (t = 3.51, df = 232, P = 0.0005) between the patient group and the control group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.67 with sensitivity of 23.4% against specificity of 90% for the anti-BIRC5 IgG assay and an AUC of 0.66 with sensitivity of 9.4% against specificity of 90.6% for the anti-MYC IgG assay. Analysis of quality control samples gave an inter-assay deviation of 8.9% in the anti-BIRC5 IgG assay and 9.0% in the anti-MYC IgG assay. This work suggests that anti-BIRC5 IgG could serve as a biomarker for early diagnosis of cervical cancer although a panel of such tumor-associated antigens is needed to develop a highly sensitive test.

Xu, Yangchun; Jin, Yonglong; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Yubing; Wei, Jun

2015-01-01

244

IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells in cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

The protein A plaque assay was used to enumerate IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells per 20 X 10(3) lymphocytes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood (PB) from 37 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and in PB from healthy controls. Fifty-seven percent of the MS patients displayed in CSF cells producing IgM, 70% IgA and 89% IgG. IgM or IgA producing cells predominated in CSF from 10 patients, IgG in 27. Immunoglobulin producing cells were often present when the corresponding CSF Ig index was normal, confirming that enumeration of Ig producing cells is a more sensitive variable of the intrathecal immune status. No Ig producing cells were found in CSF from four patients with tension headache, indicating absence of intrathecal Ig synthesis in healthy individuals. The patients with MS had higher numbers of IgM, IgA and IgG producing cells in PB than healthy controls, confirming occurrence of an extrathecal B cell response in MS. Active and stable MS patients did not differ regarding Ig producing cells in CSF nor in PB, which speaks in favour of continuous immune activity within as well as outside the CNS independent of clinical symptoms. PMID:4064372

Henriksson, A; Kam-Hansen, S; Link, H

1985-01-01

245

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... egg or sperm. Continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ... estrogen and progesterone. Back Continue What the Female Reproductive System Does The female reproductive system enables a woman ...

246

Female Reproductive System  

MedlinePLUS

... female reproductive systems. Continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ... reason other than pregnancy. Infections of the Female Reproductive System Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Also called sexually transmitted ...

247

Dynamical behavior of two predators competing over a single prey.  

PubMed

Dynamical behavior of a food web comprising two predators competing over a single prey has been investigated. The analysis of the food web model shows that the persistence is not possible for two competing predators sharing a single prey species in the cases when any one of the boundary prey-predator planes has a stable equilibrium point. The principle of competitive exclusion holds in such cases. However, numerical simulations exhibit persistence in the presence of periodic solutions in the boundary planes. The system exhibits quasi-periodic behavior in the positive octant. The co-existence in the form of a limit cycle is also possible in some cases. PMID:17574733

Gakkhar, Sunita; Singh, Brahampal; Naji, Raid Kamel

2007-01-01

248

Pathogenetic significance of aberrant glycosylation of IgA1 in IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed

IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, is defined by predominant IgA1 deposits in the glomerular mesangium. Among abnormalities of the IgA immune system reported so far in IgAN, aberrant O-linked glycosylation in the hinge region of IgA1 is the most consistent finding. IgA1 molecules bearing abnormal glycosylation have been found in serum, in tonsillar lymphocytes, and in eluate from mesangial deposits, and characterized by decreased O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues with or without alteration in the terminal sialylation of the O-linked sugars. IgA1 with incomplete galactosylation has a tendency to accumulate in glomerular mesangium by self-aggregation or immune complex formation. Glomerular mesangial cells exposed to immune complexes of these IgA1 can proliferate and secrete cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components promoting inflammatory reactions in the glomeruli. Although genes encoding enzymes involved in the O-glycosylation process, such as C1GALT1, have been reported to be responsible for susceptibility to IgAN, recent evidence suggests that the abnormality is restricted to a small fraction of B cell populations and arises from dysregulated IgA1 production and secretion in mucosal immune system. This review will focus on and discuss the role of incompleteness of IgA1 O-galactosylation in the pathogenesis of IgAN and propose a possible mechanism in which abnormal IgA1 occurs in IgAN. PMID:18404247

Narita, Ichiei; Gejyo, Fumitake

2008-10-01

249

Social Familiarity Governs Prey Patch-Exploitation, - Leaving and Inter-Patch Distribution of the Group-Living Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis  

PubMed Central

Background In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. Conclusions/Significance We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression. PMID:22900062

Zach, Gernot J.; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

2012-01-01

250

Sensory exploitation of prey: manipulation of the initial direction of prey escapes by a conspicuous "rare enemy".  

PubMed

The painted redstart (Myioborus pictus) represents a group of non-cryptic predators, the flush pursuers, who visually trigger prey escapes by spreading and pivoting their conspicuously patterned tails and wings. The prey are then chased in aerial pursuits. Such an exploitation of prey may be possible because the predation risk from redstarts is smaller than that from the predatory guild of insectivores and their neural pathways are adapted to helping prey avoid common predators rather than "rare enemies". I propose that the pivoting movements of flush pursuers direct insect escapes across the central field of vision of a predator, where it is easier to track and intercept the prey. Eighty per cent of chases by wild redstarts were in a direction suggesting that prey were entering the birds' area of stereoscopic vision. The redstart's fanned and raised tail creates a stronger visual stimulus than a redstart's head. Flies escaped away from the section of the fly's field of vision in which the model's tail was located and towards the area where the predator's stereoscopic vision is likely to be located, in front of a bird's forehead. The experiments suggested that redstarts may not only exploit the sensitivity of typical neural escape pathways, which are non-directionally sensitive, but that they may also exploit the sensitivity of some directionally sensitive neural pathways in prey. PMID:11375085

Jab?onski, P G

2001-05-22

251

Sensory exploitation of prey: manipulation of the initial direction of prey escapes by a conspicuous "rare enemy".  

PubMed Central

The painted redstart (Myioborus pictus) represents a group of non-cryptic predators, the flush pursuers, who visually trigger prey escapes by spreading and pivoting their conspicuously patterned tails and wings. The prey are then chased in aerial pursuits. Such an exploitation of prey may be possible because the predation risk from redstarts is smaller than that from the predatory guild of insectivores and their neural pathways are adapted to helping prey avoid common predators rather than "rare enemies". I propose that the pivoting movements of flush pursuers direct insect escapes across the central field of vision of a predator, where it is easier to track and intercept the prey. Eighty per cent of chases by wild redstarts were in a direction suggesting that prey were entering the birds' area of stereoscopic vision. The redstart's fanned and raised tail creates a stronger visual stimulus than a redstart's head. Flies escaped away from the section of the fly's field of vision in which the model's tail was located and towards the area where the predator's stereoscopic vision is likely to be located, in front of a bird's forehead. The experiments suggested that redstarts may not only exploit the sensitivity of typical neural escape pathways, which are non-directionally sensitive, but that they may also exploit the sensitivity of some directionally sensitive neural pathways in prey. PMID:11375085

Jab?onski, P. G.

2001-01-01

252

IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

2006-01-01

253

Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics  

PubMed Central

This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future. PMID:23319156

Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo Jr., Faustino C.; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

2013-01-01

254

Shore crabs are able to transfer learned handling skills to novel prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used shore crabs, Carcinus maenas, feeding on molluscan prey as a model system for investigating the effects of previously learned handling skills on a predator's ability to subjugate novel prey. From transfer theory, we predicted that crabs experienced with previous prey (dogwhelks, Nucella lapillus) requiring similar handling techniques to the novel prey (mussels, Mytilus edulis) should show positive skill

R. N. Hughes; N. O'brien

2001-01-01

255

Apostatic selection by blue jays produces balanced polymorphism in virtual prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apostatic selection, in which predators overlook rare prey types while consuming an excess of abundant ones, has been assumed to contribute to the maintenance of prey polymorphisms. Such an effect requires predators to respond to changes in the relative abundance of prey, switching to alternatives when a focal prey type becomes less common,. Apostatic selection has often been investigated using

Alan B. Bond; Alan C. Kamil

1998-01-01

256

KINEMATICS OF AQUATIC PREY CAPTURE IN THE SNAPPING TURTLE CHELYDRA SERPENTINA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The kinematics of feeding on two prey types is studied quantitatively in the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to provide a description of prey capture mechanisms and to determine whether kinematic patterns can be altered in response to prey that vary in escape capability. High-speed video recordings of prey capture (200 fields s\\

G. V. LAUDER; T. PRENDERGAST

1992-01-01

257

Capture Success and Efficiency of Dragonflies Pursuing Different Types of Prey  

E-print Network

SYMPOSIUM Capture Success and Efficiency of Dragonflies Pursuing Different Types of Prey S. A of libelluid dragonflies pursuing 4 types of dipteran prey, spanning a range of sizes. We quantified and the distance flown in pursuit of prey (capture efficiency). Our results show that dragonfly prey

Combes, Stacey A.

258

Neuro-Evolution for competitive co-evolution of biologically canonical predator and prey behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a simulation of predator (pursuer) and prey (evader) agents operating within a competitive co-evolution process. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different resource (food for the prey) distributions and amounts on the adaptation of predator (pursuit) and prey (evasion) behaviors. Predator and prey use Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controllers to simulate behavior,

Geoff S. Nitschke; Leo H. Langenhoven

2010-01-01

259

Host Plants Mediate Omnivore-Herbivore Interactions and Influence Prey Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted laboratory and field experiments to determine the effects of plant quality and prey abundance on the intensity of interactions involving an omnivorous insect, its two herbivorous prey, and their shared host plant. We found that variation in plant quality, prey abundance, and presence of alternative prey altered the functional re- sponse of the omnivorous big-eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes

Micky D. Eubanks; Robert F. Denno

2000-01-01

260

Territory size in wintering Sanderlings: the effects of prey abundance and intruder density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter territory size in the Sanderling (Calidris alba) on marine beaches varies inversely with prey density. Multivariate analyses suggest that the inverse correlation results indirectly because more intruders are attracted to areas of higher prey density, and increased intruder frequency makes territorial defense more costly. Once the interaction between prey density and intruder density is controlled statistically, prey density has

J. P. Myers; P. G. Connors; F. A. Pitelka

1979-01-01

261

Prey abundance and food habits of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California  

SciTech Connect

Prey abundance and food habits of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. The sampling methods initially used to assess abundance of prey species resulted in indices too low to be of value. Because of this, the relationship between relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of prey species could not be examined. Six hundred forty-nine fecal samples (scats) were analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of prey items. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and lagomorphs primarily desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) were the most frequently occurring mammalian prey items found in scats (35.0% and 12.2%, respectively). The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel (but not lagomorph) remains in scats collected from juveniles was significantly higher than in scats collected from adults. The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel and lagomorph remains in scats collected from males was not significant different than in scats collected from females. There were significant variations in the frequency of ground squirrel remains among the years 1989--1991 and during the June--November periods between 1989 and 1990 and between 1990 and 1991. The frequency of lagomorph remains collected during the June--November period differed significantly among the years 1989--1991 and between 1990 and 1991.

Logan, C.G.; Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; Kato, T.T.

1992-09-01

262

IgG4-related ophthalmic disease  

PubMed Central

IgG4-related disease is a fibro-inflammatory condition with tendency to form tumors with inflammatory infiltrate with IgG4 rich plasma cells and elevation of IgG4 level in serum, which may affect virtually every organ and tissue in the organism. IgG4-related ophthalmic disease may present as dacryoadenitis, myositis, other orbital tissues, hypophysitis or pachymeningitis causing cranial neuropathies. The diagnosis of IgG4-related disease is based on a typical clinical scenario, supportive laboratory data, expected radiological characteristics and distinct histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Corticosteroid followed by the use of long-term immunosuppressive therapy is the most commonly attempted treatment.

Mejico, Luis J.

2014-01-01

263

[IgG4-related sclerosing disease].  

PubMed

IgG4-related sclerosing disease (IgG4-RSD) is a systemic one in which IgG4-positive plasma cells and T lymphocytes extensively infiltrate various organs. The clinical manifestations of the disease include autoimmune pancreatitis, sclerosing cholangitis, cholecystitis, sialodenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, tubulointestitial nephritis, interstitial pneumonia, prostatitis, inflammatory pseudotumors and lymphadenopathy, all related with significantly elevated serum IgG4 levels. Tissue fibrosis with obliterative phlebitis of the affected organs is pathologically induced. The disease occurs predominantly in elderly men and responds well to steroid therapy. Since malignant tumors are frequently suspected on initial presentation, IgG4-RSD should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:21853923

Kazantsev, I A; Lishchuk, S V

2011-01-01

264

Long-Term Treatment and Transfusion of Normal Blood Components Following Tolerance Induction in Patients with Anti-IgA Anaphylactic Reactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Background In general, patients with significant anti-Ig-A do not tolerate intravenous (i.v.) administration of normal blood products. Here, we present our experiences in the induction of immune tolerance (IIT) and long-term treatment in a series of such patients affected in such a way. The question whether blood components from IgA-deficient donors are required will be discussed. Methods Ten adult patients (4 females and 6 males; age ranging from 36 to 75 years) with anti-IgA were included in this study. All patients required long-term treatment with blood components. One patient had IgA deficiency and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and all other patients had common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). The particle gel immunoassay was used for the detection of anti-IgA. Immune tolerance to IgA was induced by controlled subcutaneous (s.c.) and/or i.v. infusions of IgG preparations. Results Prior to IIT, anti-IgA was detectable in plasma samples of all patients and significantly diminished or abolished by controlled s.c. and/or i.v. infusions of IgG. Multiple transfusions with normal blood components could be repeatedly performed with the patient suffering from PNH without any complications. As long as i.v. IgG (IVIgG) infusions were consequently administered as individually required (intervals 2–8 weeks), none of the patients developed reactions during observation (up to 10 years). However, interruption of treatment and re-exposure to IVIgG resulted in adverse reactions. Conclusion Patients with significant anti-IgA can be safely desensitized and tolerate long-term IgG substitutions independent of the IgA concentration of the used blood component. PMID:25538541

Salama, Abdulgabar; Kardashi, Romina; Arbach, Olga

2014-01-01

265

Dear IGS Colleague, As a member of the IGS you should have received an invitation to vote in the important 2010 IGS  

E-print Network

Dear IGS Colleague, As a member of the IGS you should have received an invitation to vote in the important 2010 IGS Election. I would like to encourage you to take the time to vote and I hope that you will cast your vote for me, Prof. Jorge Zornberg, for IGS President. Please allow me to explain my vision

Zornberg, Jorge G.

266

Galactose-deficient IgA1 in sera of IgA nephropathy patients is present in complexes with IgG.  

PubMed

IgA1 proteins from sera of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) are galactosylated to a lesser degree than those from healthy controls. The increased reactivity of intact or de-sialylated serum IgA1 with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectins, Helix aspersa (HAA) and Caragana arborescens (CAA) and de-sialylated IgA1 with Helix pomatia (HPA) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA) indicated that the Gal deficiency is in glycans located in the hinge region of IgA1 molecules. De-sialylated IgA from sera of 81 IgAN patients bound biotin-labeled lectin HAA more effectively than did de-sialylated IgA from 56 healthy controls (P < 0.0001). Similar results were observed for 67 IgAN patients and 52 controls with second lectin, CAA (P < 0.001). The binding patterns for 9 patients with mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis of non-IgA origin were similar to those for controls. Incompletely galactosylated IgA1 capable of binding GalNAc-specific lectins was detected in complexes with IgG as demonstrated by ELISA, size-exclusion chromatography and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The formation of IgA1-IgG complexes may affect the serum level of IgA1 by reducing the rate of its elimination and catabolic degradation by the liver. PMID:9264010

Tomana, M; Matousovic, K; Julian, B A; Radl, J; Konecny, K; Mestecky, J

1997-08-01

267

Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects  

PubMed Central

Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana). Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naďve (lab-reared) females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught) females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a) predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection), and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b) Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c) Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators. PMID:21726456

2011-01-01

268

Tonsillectomy and IgA nephritis.  

PubMed

IgA nephritis (IgAN) is an autoimmune disease characterized by deposits of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. Clinically, the disease may be punctuated by episodes of macroscopic haematuria often associated with pharingotonsillitis or may be oligosyntomatic with microscopic haematuria and mild proteinuria. The natural course of IgAN may be indolent and benign; however, some 30-50% of patients may progress to end-stage renal disease when follow-up is extended to ?20 years. In patients with IgAN, circulating IgA1 molecules have an aberrant structure of O-glycans in the hinge region, which is characterized by abbreviated glycans composed of N-acetylgalactosamine, with or without sialic acid. These aberrant IgA1 trigger the production of autoantibodies, with formation of immune complexes that deposit in the mesangium causing inflammation and production of extracellular matrix. A number of experimental and clinical data outlined a possible pathogenetic role of tonsillitis. As a consequence, tonsillectomy has been frequently performed in Japan. Observational studies, made in patients with normal renal function and mild proteinuria, reported that tonsillectomy could reduce the episodes of macrohaematuria as well as the entity of microhaematuria and proteinuria. However, the available studies had short-term follow-up and could not asses the role of tonsillectomy in protecting from renal function deterioration. In a longitudinal retrospective study, Isseki et al. compared the outcome of tonsillectomized patients with IgAN with that of IgAN patients who did not receive tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomized patients had a higher number of remissions and a better slope of glomerular filtration rate in comparison with controls. These data are interesting and suggest that tonsillectomy may prevent renal dysfunction in patients with IgAN and normal renal function. However, the retrospective nature of the study and the presence of some confounding factors require further investigations to confirm these promising data. PMID:22802576

Ponticelli, Claudio

2012-07-01

269

ORIGINAL PAPER Prey selection and dietary response by wolves  

E-print Network

2011 # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract Studies on predation by the wolf (Canis lupus) have often reported temperate forests. Keywords Age-specific selection . Canis lupus . Prey vulnerability. Wild boar. Wolf diet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Testing the odontocete acoustic prey debilitation hypothesis: No stunning results  

E-print Network

- mately 70 species in six families, are predators that feed on a range of prey including cephalopods negative results have been reported for some cephalopods Mackay and Pegg, 1988 . An airgun ex- posing fish

271

Assessment of lead uptake in reptilian prey species.  

PubMed

As part of an investigation determining the trophically available fraction of metals in a model terrestrial food web, i.e., invertebrate prey to Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), we evaluated the ability of several invertebrate prey to bioaccumulate lead and to form metals-rich granules, which are hypothesized to be non-available to predators. Crickets (Acheta domestica), tenebroid beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor), and isopods (Porcellio scaber) were selected as model prey organisms. Lack of standard exposure methodologies for these species has presented a barrier to trophic transfer evaluations, as each species has particular requirements that create challenges for designing exposure conditions. We were able to devise exposure conditions for all three species that allow long-term exposure studies. All prey organisms accumulated lead from contaminated food, and for all species the majority of the accumulated Pb was associated with the exoskeleton (>50%), with metals-rich granules accounting for most of the remaining accumulated lead. PMID:17490716

Inouye, Laura S; Yoo, Leslie J; Talent, Larry G; Clarke, Joan U; Jones, Robert P; Steevens, Jeffery A; Boyd, Robert E

2007-07-01

272

Craniodental indicators of prey size preference in the Felidae  

E-print Network

and dentition to explore the association between craniodental shape and prey size among 35 species of living: crania ­ dentition ­ morphology. INTRODUCTION Subsequent to their first appearance in the fossil record

Meachen-Samuels, Julie

273

IgA and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

Background Hypogammaglobulinemia is common in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. The etiology of this finding remains unclear, but it has been speculated to be based on tumor-induced suppression of the ‘uninvolved’ immunoglobulin production Design and Methods We evaluated the incidence of IgA and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia in 207 untreated patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and investigated the associated clinicopathological findings and impact of therapy. We also sequenced eight genes (AICDA, BTK, CD40, CD154, NEMO, TACI, SH2D1A, UNG) implicated in immunoglobulin deficiency in 19 Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients with IgA and/or IgG hypogammaglobulinemia. Results At baseline 63.3%, 58.0% and 49.3% of the 207 patients had abnormally low serum levels of IgA, IgG, or both. No association between IgA and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia and disease burden, serum IgM levels, ?2-microglobulin, International Prognostic Scoring System score, or incidence of recurrent infections was observed, although the presence of adenopathy and/or splenomegaly was associated with a lower incidence of hypogammaglobulinemia. Lower IgA and IgG levels were associated with disease progression in patients managed with a ‘watch and wait’ strategy. IgA and/or IgG levels remained abnormally low despite response to treatment, including complete remissions. A missense mutation in the highly conserved catalytic site of UNG was observed in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia, warranting further study of this pathway in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia. Conclusions IgA and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia is common in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia and persists despite therapeutic intervention and response. IgA and IgG hypogammaglobulinemia does not predict the risk of recurrent infections in patients with Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia, although lower levels of serum IgA and IgG are associated with disease progression in Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia patients being managed with a ‘watch and wait’ strategy. PMID:19903677

Hunter, Zachary R.; Manning, Robert J.; Hanzis, Christine; Ciccarelli, Bryan T.; Ioakimidis, Leukothea; Patterson, Christopher J.; Lewicki, Megan C.; Tseng, Hsuiyi; Gong, Ping; Liu, Xia; Zhou, Yangsheng; Yang, Guang; Sun, Jenny; Xu, Lian; Sheehy, Patricia; Morra, Massimo; Treon, Steven P.

2010-01-01

274

Molecular basis for prey relocation in viperid snakes  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebrate predators use a broad arsenal of behaviors and weaponry for overcoming fractious and potentially dangerous prey. A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical modes of constriction and jaw-holding in non-venomous snakes, to a chemical means, venom, for quickly dispatching prey. However, even among venomous snakes, different prey handling strategies are utilized, varying from the strike-and-hold behaviors exhibited by highly toxic elapid snakes to the rapid strike-and-release envenomation seen in viperid snakes. For vipers, this mode of envenomation represents a minimal risk predatory strategy by permitting little contact with or retaliation from prey, but it adds the additional task of relocating envenomated prey which has wandered from the attack site. This task is further confounded by trails of other unstruck conspecific or heterospecific prey. Despite decades of behavioral study, researchers still do not know the molecular mechanism which allows for prey relocation. Results During behavioral discrimination trials (vomeronasal responsiveness) to euthanized mice injected with size-fractionated venom, Crotalus atrox responded significantly to only one protein peak. Assays for enzymes common in rattlesnake venoms, such as exonuclease, L-amino acid oxidase, metalloproteinase, thrombin-like and kallikrein-like serine proteases and phospholipase A2, showed that vomeronasal responsiveness was not dependent on enzymatic activity. Using mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing, we identified the proteins responsible for envenomated prey discrimination as the non-enzymatic disintegrins crotatroxin 1 and 2. Our results demonstrate a novel and critical biological role for venom disintegrins far beyond their well-established role in disruption of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Conclusions These findings reveal the evolutionary significance of free disintegrins in venoms as the molecular mechanism in vipers allowing for effective relocation of envenomated prey. The presence of free disintegrins in turn has led to evolution of a major behavioral adaptation (strike-and-release), characteristic of only rattlesnakes and other vipers, which exploits and refines the efficiency of a pre-existing chemical means of predation and a highly sensitive olfaction system. This system of a predator chemically tagging prey represents a novel trend in the coevolution of predator-prey relationships. PMID:23452837

2013-01-01

275

Who's for dinner? High-throughput sequencing reveals bat dietary differentiation in a biodiversity hotspot where prey taxonomy is largely undescribed.  

PubMed

Effective management and conservation of biodiversity requires understanding of predator-prey relationships to ensure the continued existence of both predator and prey populations. Gathering dietary data from predatory species, such as insectivorous bats, often presents logistical challenges, further exacerbated in biodiversity hot spots because prey items are highly speciose, yet their taxonomy is largely undescribed. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatic analyses to phylogenetically group DNA sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) to examine predator-prey dynamics of three sympatric insectivorous bat species in the biodiversity hotspot of south-western Australia. We could only assign between 4% and 20% of MOTUs to known genera or species, depending on the method used, underscoring the importance of examining dietary diversity irrespective of taxonomic knowledge in areas lacking a comprehensive genetic reference database. MOTU analysis confirmed that resource partitioning occurred, with dietary divergence positively related to the ecomorphological divergence of the three bat species. We predicted that bat species' diets would converge during times of high energetic requirements, that is, the maternity season for females and the mating season for males. There was an interactive effect of season on female, but not male, bat species' diets, although small sample sizes may have limited our findings. Contrary to our predictions, females of two ecomorphologically similar species showed dietary convergence during the mating season rather than the maternity season. HTS-based approaches can help elucidate complex predator-prey relationships in highly speciose regions, which should facilitate the conservation of biodiversity in genetically uncharacterized areas, such as biodiversity hotspots. PMID:24118181

Burgar, Joanna M; Murray, Daithi C; Craig, Michael D; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Stokes, Vicki; Bunce, Michael

2014-08-01

276

Transfer of selenium from prey to predators in a simulated terrestrial food chain.  

PubMed

Little is known about the accumulation and effects of selenium in reptiles. We developed a simplified laboratory food chain where we fed commercial feed laden with seleno-D,L-methionine (30 microg/g dry mass) to crickets (Acheta domestica) for 5-7 d. Se-enriched crickets (approximately 15 microg/g Se [dry mass]) were fed to juvenile male and female lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) for 98 d while conspecifics were fed uncontaminated crickets. Lizards fed contaminated prey accumulated Se concentrations ranging from 9.3 (in female carcass) to 14.1 (in female gonad) microg/g compared to <1.5 microg/g in tissues of controls. Female gonad concentrations approached the highest of thresholds for reproductive toxicity in oviparous vertebrates. However, we observed no consistent effect of dietary treatment on sublethal parameters or survival. Our simplified food chain proved to be an ecologically relevant method of exposing lizards to Se, and forms the foundation for future studies on maternal transfer and teratogenicity of Se. PMID:15620590

Hopkins, William A; Staub, Brandon P; Baionno, Jennifer A; Jackson, Brian P; Talent, Larry G

2005-04-01

277

The effect of background cuing on prey detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays,Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for twoCatocalamoths:C.ilia, which is cryptic on oak, andC.relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays

HENRY KONO; PAMELA J. REID; ALAN C. KAMIL

1998-01-01

278

Prey capture kinematics of ant-eating lizards.  

PubMed

While morphological and behavioral feeding specializations are obvious in many vertebrate groups, among lizards there appear to be few dietary specialists. By comparing the prey capture kinematics and overall feeding behavior in two highly specialized ant-eating lizards (Moloch horridus and Phrynosoma platyrhinos) with those of two closely related dietary generalists (Pogona vitticeps and Uma notata), we investigate whether dietary specialization has been accompanied by changes in the function and use of the feeding system. We quantified kinematic variables from high-speed video recordings (200-250 frames s(-1)) of each species feeding on ants. Prey capture was strikingly different in M. horridus to that of other species, being characterized by a suite of unusual behaviors including the lack of a body lunge, faster tongue protrusion, reduced prey processing and, most notably, the ability to modulate the slow open phase of the gape cycle. In concert, these traits make a single feeding event in M. horridus faster than that in any other iguanian lizard studied to date. Prey capture behavior in P. platyrhinos is kinematically more similar to U. notata and P. vitticeps than to M. horridus, but the ant specialists are similar in that both lack distinct prey processing behaviors, resulting in faster overall capture and feeding events. While ant feeding in P. vitticeps is faster than feeding on other prey, the duration of a single feeding event is still four times longer than in either ant specialist, because of extensive prey processing. Additionally, a phylogenetic comparison of ant specialist lizards with dietary generalists revealed that ant-eating lizards require significantly less time to capture and process prey. Thus there are not only significant behavioral modifications in these ant-eating lizards, but also multiple strategies among specialists, suggesting differing selective pressures or phylogenetic constraints in the evolution of ant eating in lizards. PMID:15601883

Meyers, Jay J; Herrel, Anthony

2005-01-01

279

Novel predator-prey interactions: is resistance futile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Premise: Prey species may possess inappropriate behavioural, morphological, and\\/or physiological responses to introduced, novel predators. Thus, introduced predators may exert strong selection on prey species. Organisms: Black-capped vireo, Vireo atricapilla, and the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Data: Behavioural response of and time-energy budget for parental vireo defence against nest predation by fire ants. Field site: Fort Hood, Texas, an 88,500-hectare

Jennifer E. Smith; Christopher J. Whelan; Steven J. Taylor; Michael L. Denight; Mike M. Stake

2007-01-01

280

Prey size selection and distance estimation in foraging adult dragonflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine whether perching dragonflies visually assess the distance to potential prey items, we presented artificial prey,\\u000a glass beads suspended from fine wires, to perching dragonflies in the field. We videotaped the responses of freely foraging\\u000a dragonflies (Libellula luctuosa and Sympetrum vicinum—Odonata, suborder Anisoptera) to beads ranging from 0.5 mm to 8 mm in diameter, recording whether or not the dragonflies\\u000a took

R. M. Olberg; A. H. Worthington; J. L. Fox; C. E. Bessette; M. P. Loosemore

2005-01-01

281

Interactions between the leech Glossiphonia complanata and its gastropod prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey interactions between the predatory leech, Glossiphonia complanata, and its gastropod prey were investigated in laboratory experiments, including behavioural observations with the aid of time-lapse video technique. Six gastropod species were investigated, viz. Lymnaea peregra, Planorbis planorbis, Physa fontinalis, Ancylus fluviatilis, Bithynia tentaculata, and Theodoxus fluviatilis. The species studied exhibited anti-predator defences, which had their maximum efficiency at different stages

Christer Briinmark; Bjiirn Malmqvist

1986-01-01

282

Winter Prey Selection of Canada Lynx in Northwestern Montana  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The roles that diet and prey abundance,play in habitat selection of Canada,lynx (Lynx canadensis) in the contiguous,United States is poorly understood. From 1998–2002, we back-tracked radiocollared lynx (6 F, 9 M) for a distance of 582 km and we located 86 kills in northwestern Montana, USA. Lynx preyed on 7 species that included blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), spruce grouse

JOHN R. SQUIRES; LEONARD F. RUGGIERO

2007-01-01

283

Shiga toxin-induced apoptosis is more efficiently inhibited by dimeric recombinant hybrid-IgG/IgA immunoglobulins than by the parental IgG monoclonal antibodies.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a virulence factor of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains such as O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae. To prevent entry of Stx1 from the mucosal surface, an immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific for Stx1 would be useful. Due to the difficulty of producing IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against the binding subunit of Stx1 (Stx1B) in mice, we took advantage of recombinant technology that combines the heavy chain variable region from Stx1B-specific IgG1 mAb and the Fc region from IgA. The resulting hybrid IgG/IgA was stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells as a dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA. We separated the dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA from the monomeric one by size-exclusion chromatography. The dimer fraction, confirmed by immunoblot analyses, was used for toxin neutralization assays. The dimeric IgG/IgA was shown to neutralize Stx1 toxicity toward Vero cells by assaying their viability. To compare the relative effectiveness of the dimeric hybrid IgG/IgA and parental IgG1 mAb, Stx1-induced apoptosis was examined using 2 different cell lines, Ramos and Vero cells. The hybrid IgG/IgA inhibited apoptosis more efficiently than the parental IgG1 mAb in both cases. The results indicated that the use of high affinity binding sites as variable regions of IgA would increase the utility of IgA specific for virulence factors. PMID:25469594

Kurohane, Kohta; Nagano, Kyoko; Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Koki; Miyake, Masaki; Imai, Yasuyuki

2014-11-17

284

Horned lizards (Phrynosoma) incapacitate dangerous ant prey with mucus.  

PubMed

Horned lizards (Iguanidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosoma) are morphologically specialized reptiles characterized by squat, tank-like bodies, short limbs, blunt snouts, spines and cranial horns, among other traits. They are unusual among lizards in the degree to which they specialize on a diet of ants, but exceptional in the number of pugnacious, highly venomous, stinging ants they consume, especially harvester ants (genus Pogonomyrmex). Like other iguanian lizards, they capture insect prey on the tongue, but unlike other lizards, they neither bite nor chew dangerous prey before swallowing. Instead, they employ a unique kinematic pattern in which prey capture, transport and swallowing are combined. Nevertheless, horned lizards consume dozens of harvester ants without harm. We show that their derived feeding kinematics are associated with unique, mucus-secreting pharyngeal papillae that apparently serve to immobilize and incapacitate dangerous ants as they are swallowed by compacting them and binding them in mucus strands. Radially branched esophageal folds provide additional mucus-secreting surfaces the ants pass through as they are swallowed. Ants extracted from fresh-killed horned lizard stomachs are curled ventrally into balls and bound in mucus. We conclude that the pharyngeal papillae, in association with a unique form of hyolingual prey transport and swallowing, are horned lizard adaptations related to a diet of dangerous prey. Harvester ant defensive weapons, along with horned lizard adaptations against such weapons, suggest a long-term, predator-prey, co-evolutionary arms race between Phrynosoma and Pogonomyrmex. PMID:18570329

Sherbrooke, Wade C; Schwenk, Kurt

2008-10-01

285

Naďve prey exhibit reduced antipredator behavior and survivorship  

PubMed Central

Prey naiveté has been hypothesized to be one of the major driving forces behind population declines following the introduction of novel predators or release of inexperienced prey into predator rich environments. In these cases, naďve prey may lack sufficient antipredator behavior and, as a result, suffer increased mortality. Despite this, some evidence suggests that many prey utilize a generalized response to predators. Here, the naiveté hypothesis is tested using a predator–prey pair sharing an evolutionary history: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1852) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépčde, 1802). Using farm-reared, naďve crayfish and wild-caught, experienced individuals, laboratory experiments demonstrated that naďve, farmed crayfish lack behavioral responses to chemical cues from bass, both in terms of movement and use of structural refuge. In contrast, experienced crayfish responded strongly to the same cues. In a subsequent field tethering experiment, these naďve individuals suffered a three-fold increase in predation rate. Based on these results, recognition of predators may not be innate in all prey, and previous experience and learning likely play a key role in the development of antipredator behavior. PMID:25392763

2014-01-01

286

Honest signaling and the uses of prey coloration.  

PubMed

Abstract Although signal reliability is of fundamental importance to the understanding of animal communication, the extent of signal honesty in relation to antipredator warning signals has received relatively little attention. A recent theoretical model that assumed a physiological linkage between pigmentation and toxicity suggested that (aposematic) warning signals may often be reliable, in the sense that brightness and toxicity are positively correlated within prey populations. Two shortcomings of the model were (1) the requirement among predators for an innate aversion to brightly colored prey and (2) the assumption that prey can generate only bright coloration and not cryptic coloration. We evaluated the generality of predictions of reliable signaling when these shortcomings were removed. Without innate avoidance of bright prey, we found a positive brightness-toxin correlation when conspicuous prey coloration provided an additional fitness benefit unrelated to predation. Initially, this correlation could evolve for reasons unrelated to prey signaling; hence, aposematism might represent a striking example of exaptation. Given a choice between using pigmentation for bright or for cryptic coloration, crypsis was favored only in conditions of very low or very high resource levels. In the latter case, toxicity correlated positively with degree of cryptic coloration. Predictions of toxin-signal correlation appear robust, but we can identify interesting conditions in which signal reliability is not predicted. PMID:21670571

Lee, Thomas J; Speed, Michael P; Stephens, Philip A

2011-07-01

287

Naďve prey exhibit reduced antipredator behavior and survivorship.  

PubMed

Prey naiveté has been hypothesized to be one of the major driving forces behind population declines following the introduction of novel predators or release of inexperienced prey into predator rich environments. In these cases, naďve prey may lack sufficient antipredator behavior and, as a result, suffer increased mortality. Despite this, some evidence suggests that many prey utilize a generalized response to predators. Here, the naiveté hypothesis is tested using a predator-prey pair sharing an evolutionary history: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1852) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépčde, 1802). Using farm-reared, naďve crayfish and wild-caught, experienced individuals, laboratory experiments demonstrated that naďve, farmed crayfish lack behavioral responses to chemical cues from bass, both in terms of movement and use of structural refuge. In contrast, experienced crayfish responded strongly to the same cues. In a subsequent field tethering experiment, these naďve individuals suffered a three-fold increase in predation rate. Based on these results, recognition of predators may not be innate in all prey, and previous experience and learning likely play a key role in the development of antipredator behavior. PMID:25392763

Martin, Charles W

2014-01-01

288

Domain-Specific Anti-IgE Antibodies Interfere with IgE Binding to FcεRII  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human anti-IgE autoantibodies have been identified and implicated in the regulation of IgE-mediated reactions and IgE synthesis. In order to study the potential regulatory role of anti-IgE antibodies on IgE binding to the FcεRII we used a panel of IgE-specific monoclonal antibodies that were mapped by Western blotting against a series of recombinant ε domain peptides. Antibodies specific for all

Sylvia Miescher; Monique Vogel; Martin R. Stämpfli; Erich Wasserbauer; Franz Kricek; Stefan Vorburger; Beda M. Stadler

1994-01-01

289

Pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in birds of prey.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of gentamicin, including half-life, apparent volume of distribution, total body clearance, and fraction of drug absorbed from IM injection sites, were determined in 3 species of birds of prey (red-tailed hawks, great horned owls, and golden eagles). Significant differences (P less than 0.05) between species were found for the half-life and total body clearance values for this broad-spectrum antibiotic. The values for apparent volume of distribution and fraction absorbed did not differ among species and were similar to those reported in mammals. Rapid and relatively complete absorption from IM injection sites resulted in high bioavailability. After IV administration of 10 mg of gentamicin/kg of body weight, serum concentrations greater than 12 micrograms/ml were present for at least 2 hours and greater than 2 micrograms/ml for 4 to 6 hours. On the basis of the various determinations, an IM dose of 2.5 mg of gentamicin/kg given every 8 hours should provide therapeutic serum concentrations of gentamicin in the 3 species. PMID:6881663

Bird, J E; Miller, K W; Larson, A A; Duke, G E

1983-07-01

290

Prey preference by Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effects of host plant and prey stages.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Host plant and insect host stage preference were studied in the predator Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (= pusillus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) feeding on the silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). To study host plant preference, immature whitefly prey...

291

Evaluation of Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM, and IgA in Mothers with Spontaneous Abortion in Zanjan, Northwest Iran  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major agents of infectious abortions and due to its worldwide distribution can threat healthy pregnant women who had no previous exposure to this parasite. The present study was designed to investigate the contribution of T. gondii to spontaneous abortions in Zanjan, Northwest of Iran, using ELISA method. Blood Samples were collected from 264 mothers referred to the provincial hospitals of Zanjan due to spontaneous abortion. The sera were isolated and subjected to evaluate the anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The results showed IgG positive (IgG+) in 99 cases (37.5%). A total of 68 women (25.8%) showed seroconversion with IgM or IgA or both IgM and IgA. They included: IgM+ in 21 (8.0%), IgA+ in 23 (8.7%) and both IgM+ and IgA+ in 24 (9.1%) subjects. In 23 cases, positive titers of IgM and IgG were accompanied. In general, the analysis of anti-Toxoplasma antibody patterns, showed that about 17% of the spontaneous abortions were associated with serological patterns of acute infection. According to these findings, a considerable proportion of spontaneous abortions can be attributed to T. gondii in the study area. PMID:23230339

Amin, Abbas; Mazloomzadeh, S.; Haniloo, A.; Mohammadian, F.

2012-01-01

292

Space-use strategies of female polar bears in a dynamic sea ice habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In environments with high spatiotemporal variability in resources, animals may exhibit nomadic movements for resource tracking as opposed to long-term area fidelity. Polar bears ( Ursus maritimus) inhabit the dynamic sea ice, preying on seals, and demonstrate considerable intraspecific variation in space use. We studied patterns of fidelity and annual range size for 74 adult female polar bears captured in

Mette Mauritzen; Andrew E. Derocher; Řystein Wiig

2001-01-01

293

Do the Color and Pattern of Micrathena gracilis (Araneae: Araneidae) Attract Prey? Examination of the Prey Attraction Hypothesis and Crypsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have provided evidence that spiders’ color and pattern may attract prey items to their webs, thus increasing\\u000a their foraging success. However, these studies were conducted on tropical spiders, and no studies have examined this phenomenon\\u000a in temperate spiders. We examined the role of color and pattern in a North American spiny orb-weaver, Micrathena gracilis. We found that prey

E. Natasha Vanderhoff; Catherine J. Byers; Chadwick J. Hanna

2008-01-01

294

IgY pharmacokinetics in rabbits: implications for IgY use as antivenoms.  

PubMed

This paper presents the first study of chicken IgY pharmacokinetics (PK) in rabbits. We measured IgY blood serum concentrations using a specific high sensitivity ELISA method. The fast initial component observed when studying horse Fab, F(ab')2 or IgG was absent from IgY PK. During the first 80 min of observation there was only a single slow exponential decay, which sped up afterward to the point that IgY became undetectable after 216 h of observation; due to this time course, PK parameters were determined with trapezoidal integration. The most significant IgY pharmacokinetic parameters determined were (all presented as medians and their 95% confidence interval): Area Under the Curve = 183.8 (135.2, 221.5) mg·h·L(-1); Distribution volume of the central compartment·[Body Weight (BW)](-1) = 46.0 (21.7, 70.3) mL·kg(-1); Distribution volume in steady state·BW(-1) = 56.8 (44.4, 68.5) mLkg(-1); Mean Residence Time = 40.1 (33.6, 48.5) h; Total plasma clearance·BW(-1) = 1.44 (1.15, 1.66) mL·h(-1)·kg(-1). Anti IgY IgG titers determined by ELISA increased steadily after 72 h, and reached 2560 (1920, 5760) dilution(-1) at 264 h; anti-chicken IgG concentrations rose up to 3.19 (2.31, 6.17) ?g/mL in 264 h. Our results show that IgY PK lacks the fast initial decay observed in other PK studies using horse IgG, F(ab')2 or Fab, remains in the body 39.0 (28.7, 47.2) % much as IgG and is ?3 times more immunogenic that horse IgG in rabbits. PMID:25111201

Díaz, Patricia; Malavé, Caridad; Zerpa, Noraida; Vázquez, Hilda; D'Suze, Gina; Montero, Yuyibeth; Castillo, Cecilia; Alagón, Alejandro; Sevcik, Carlos

2014-11-01

295

Fate of predator and prey proteins during growth of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae prey.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of protein distribution followed by identification of selected proteins by mass spectrometry was performed on fresh bdellovibrio cultures containing attack phase cells of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strain 109J-1 and the remains of an Escherichia coli or a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato prey. Cleavage of the peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OmpA in E. coli and OprF in P. syringae occurred in both prey. The tryptic peptides obtained from the cleavage products of OmpA and OprF were all located within the 19-kDa pronase-resistant N-terminal parts of the corresponding proteins. The predator cell fraction was separated from the prey ghosts in fresh bdellovibrio cultures by centrifugation on a Percoll-sucrose cushion. Proteins from each fraction were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by mass spectrometric analysis. As no prey OMP could be detected in the predator cell fraction, it was concluded that prey OMPs are not transferred to the predator, as had been suggested previously. However, a protein from the predator was found bound to ghost cell envelopes. This protein may correspond to a protein earlier suggested to be associated with the prey outer or cytoplasmic membranes. Along with recently described polypeptides from B. bacteriovorus strains 100 and 114, it forms a new family of putative outer membrane proteins. PMID:15601717

Barel, Gilli; Sirota, Alexandra; Volpin, Hanne; Jurkevitch, Edouard

2005-01-01

296

Do Lions Panthera leo Actively Select Prey or Do Prey Preferences Simply Reflect Chance Responses via Evolutionary Adaptations to Optimal Foraging?  

PubMed Central

Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success. PMID:21915261

Hayward, Matt W.; Hayward, Gina J.; Tambling, Craig J.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

2011-01-01

297

Differentiation of acute and chronic hepatitis B in IgM anti-HBc positive patients  

PubMed Central

AIM: To identify the factors that differentiate acute hepatitis B (AHB) from chronic hepatitis B with acute exacerbation (CHB-AE). METHODS: From 2004 to 2013, a total of 82 patients (male n = 52, 63.4%; female n = 30, 36.6%) with clinical features of acute hepatitis with immunoglobulin M antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (IgM anti-HBc) were retrospectively enrolled and divided into two groups; AHB (n = 53) and CHB-AE (n = 29). The AHB group was defined as patients without a history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection before the episode and with loss of hepatitis B surface antigen within 6 mo after onset of acute hepatitis. Biochemical and virological profiles and the sample/cutoff (S/CO) ratio of IgM anti-HBc were compared to determine the differential diagnostic factors. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis demonstrated that, the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were meaningful factors. The S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc was significantly higher in the AHB group, while the HBV DNA level was significantly higher in the CHB-AE group. The optimal cutoff values of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels for differentiating the two conditions were 8 S/CO ratio and 5.5 log10 IU/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity were 96.2% and 89.7% for the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and 81.1% and 72.4% for HBV DNA levels, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves of both the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels were not significantly different (0.933 vs 0.844, P = 0.105). When combining IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA, the diagnostic power significantly improved compared to HBV DNA alone (P = 0.0056). The combination of these factors yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 98.1% and 86.2%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The combination of the S/CO ratio of IgM anti-HBc and HBV DNA levels was a useful tool for differentiating AHB from CHB-AE in patients with positive IgM anti-HBc.

Park, Ji Won; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Jang, Myoung Kuk; Kim, Dong Joon; Lee, Myung Seok; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Choong Kee

2015-01-01

298

Predators choose prey over prey habitats: evidence from a lynx-hare system.  

PubMed

Resource selection is grounded in the understanding that animals select resources based on fitness requirements. Despite uncertainty in how mechanisms relate to the landscape, resource selection studies often assume, but rarely demonstrate, a relationship between modeled variables and fitness mechanisms. Using Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) and snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) as a model system, we assess whether prey habitat is a viable surrogate for encounters between predators and prey. We simultaneously collected winter track data for lynx and hare in two study areas. We used information criteria to determine whether selection by lynx is best characterized by a hare resource selection probability function (RSPF) or by the amount of hare resource use. Results show that lynx selection is better explained by the amount of hare use (SIC = -21.9; Schwarz's Information Criterion) than by hare RSPF (SIC = -16.71), and that hare RSPF cannot be assumed to reveal the amount of resource use, a primary mechanism of predator selection. Our study reveals an obvious but important distinction between selection and use that is applicable to all resource selection studies. We recommend that resource selection studies be coupled with mechanistic data (e.g., metrics of diet, forage, fitness, or abundance) when investigating mechanisms of resource selection. PMID:21774407

Keim, Jonah L; DeWitt, Philip D; Lele, Subhash R

2011-06-01

299

Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.  

PubMed

Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

2015-01-01

300

The purification and characterisation of cervine IgM and IgG.  

PubMed

A procedure is described for the isolation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) from hyperimmune cervine serum. Hybrids of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wapiti (Cervus canadensis) were immunised with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). An immunoglobulin-containing fraction was precipitated from the hyperimmune serum using ammonium sulphate. The antigen-specific immunoglobulins were purified by KLH-conjugated sepharose affinity chromatography and further separated into IgM and IgG by gel-filtration chromatography. Purified immunoglobulin was analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weights and isoelectric points of the composite chains of cervine IgG and IgM are presented. PMID:2075697

Hibma, M H; Griffin, J F

1990-12-01

301

Visually guided gradation of prey capture movements in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A mechanistic understanding of goal-directed behavior in vertebrates is hindered by the relative inaccessibility and size of their nervous systems. Here, we have studied the kinematics of prey capture behavior in a highly accessible vertebrate model organism, the transparent larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), to assess whether they use visual cues to systematically adjust their movements. We found that zebrafish larvae scale the speed and magnitude of turning movements according to the azimuth of one of their standard prey, paramecia. They also bias the direction of subsequent swimming movements based on prey azimuth and select forward or backward movements based on the prey's direction of travel. Once within striking distance, larvae generate either ram or suction capture behaviors depending on their distance from the prey. From our experimental estimations of ocular receptive fields, we ascertained that the ultimate decision to consume prey is likely a function of the progressive vergence of the eyes that places the target in a proximal binocular ‘capture zone’. By repeating these experiments in the dark, we demonstrate that paramecia are only consumed if they contact the anterior extremities of larvae, which triggers ocular vergence and tail movements similar to close proximity captures in lit conditions. These observations confirm the importance of vision in the graded movements we observe leading up to capture of more distant prey in the light, and implicate somatosensation in captures in the absence of light. We discuss the implications of these findings for future work on the neural control of visually guided behavior in zebrafish. PMID:23619412

Patterson, Bradley W.; Abraham, Aliza O.; MacIver, Malcolm A.; McLean, David L.

2013-01-01

302

Demonstration of IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests.  

PubMed

Serologic characterization of autoantibodies helps in the management and monitoring of the course of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate gel centrifugation test (GCT) cards for immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and determination of IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 and their influence on hemolysis. Eighty direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive patients were examined with the help of GCT cards for IgG titer and IgG subclasses. The results were correlated with the presence and absence of hemolysis. A statistically significant (p < 0.005) association of hemolysis with increasing anti-IgG titer was observed. When IgG titer was 30 or less, 28 (50.91%) patients had no hemolysis, whereas 15 (93.75%) patients had features of hemolysis when titer was at least 300. Statistically significant (p < 0.005) association of subclass of IgG (IgG1, IgG3) coating the red blood cells with intravascular hemolysis was also seen. Twenty-nine (80.56%) patients had evidence of hemolysis when IgG1 or IgGl-IgG3 both were present. Gel technology is helpful to demonstrate red blood cell-bound autoantibodies and their characterization with regard to class, subclass, and titer. This information is useful to identify patients with AIHA who are at risk of severe hemolysis with adverse prognosis. PMID:25238241

Singh, A; Solanki, A; Chaudhary, R

2014-01-01

303

Differential regulation of IgG1 and IgE synthesis by interleukin 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of studies using rIL-4 concentrations substantially higher than those previously reported, we observed a number of new and interesting prop- erties of IL-4 in the promotion of IgGI and IgE production by murine B cells stimulated by bacterial LPS in vitro . We report here that the IL-4 dose\\/IgGI response curve is bimodal with peaks at 100

C. M. Snapper; F. D. FINKELMAN; W. E. PAUL

1988-01-01

304

IgA Deficiency and Psoriasis: Relevance of IgA in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psoriatic patient with absolute deficiency of IgA is reported. The manifestations of poriasis appeared at the age of 6 months and proved to be resistant to various treatments. The present case report and the data available in the literature on IgA and psoriasis all converge on the hypothesis that IgA is a systemic factor which belongs to the ‘off

P. M. Steijlen

1995-01-01

305

Sequential assessment of prey through the use of multiple sensory cues by an eavesdropping bat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator's ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors.

Page, Rachel A.; Schnelle, Tanja; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Bunge, Thomas; Bernal, Ximena E.

2012-06-01

306

Comparative Growth and Development of Spiders Reared on Live and Dead Prey  

PubMed Central

Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific. PMID:24386248

Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C.

2013-01-01

307

“Auto-anti-IgE”: Naturally occurring IgG anti-IgE antibodies may inhibit allergen-induced basophil activation  

PubMed Central

Background Naturally occurring IgE-specific IgG autoantibodies have been identified in patients with asthma and other diseases, but their spectrum of functions is poorly understood. Objective Address the hypothesis that: (i) IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies are detectable in the serum of all subjects but elevated in asthmatic patients regardless of atopic status as compared with controls; (ii) some activate IgE-sensitized basophils; and (iii) some inhibit allergen-induced basophil activation. Methods IgE-specific IgG autoantibodies were detected and quantified in sera using ELISA. Sera were examined for their ability to activate IgE-sensitized human blood basophils in the presence and absence of allergen using a basophil activation test, and to inhibit allergen binding to specific IgE on a rat basophilic cell line stably expressing human Fc?RI. Results IgG autoantibodies binding to both free and Fc?RI-bound IgE were detected in patients with atopic and non-atopic asthma, as well as controls. While some were able to activate IgE-sensitised basophils, others inhibited allergen-induced basophil activation, at least partly by inhibiting binding of IgE to specific allergen. Conclusion Naturally occurring IgG anti-IgE autoantibodies may inhibit, as well as induce, basophil activation. They act in a manner distinct from therapeutic IgG anti-IgE antibodies such as omalizumab. They may at least partly explain why atopic subjects who make allergen-specific IgE never develop clinical symptoms, and why omalizumab therapy is of variable clinical benefit in severe atopic asthma. PMID:25112697

Chan, Yih-Chih; Ramadani, Faruk; Santos, Alexandra F.; Pillai, Prathap; Ohm-Laursen, Line; Harper, Clare E.; Fang, Cailong; Dodev, Tihomir S.; Wu, Shih-Ying; Ying, Sun; Corrigan, Christopher J.; Gould, Hannah J.

2014-01-01

308

Central MHC genes affect IgA levels in the human: reciprocal effects in IgA deficiency and IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed

This study investigates the hypothesis that alternative alleles of one or more genes in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) predispose carriers to IgA deficiency (IgAD) or IgA Nephropathy (IgAN). Australian caucasian IgAD, IgAN patients, and controls were typed at HLA loci, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and microsatellites in the MHC. Alleles of the D6S273 microsatellite exhibited strong associations with IgAD and IgAN. D6S273*129 and *139 were more frequent in IgAD and less frequent in IgAN patients than controls. The reverse was true for D6S273*133 and *131. Alleles of other microsatellites exhibited weak associations with IgAD or IgAN. D6S273*129 is found on the 65.1 ancestral haplotype [HLA-B14(65),DR1], which has been reported to be increased in IgAD, but the majority of IgAD patients with D6S273*129 did not have other alleles of the haplotype. D6S273*139 is characteristic of the 8.1 ancestral haplotype (HLA-A1,B8,DR3), which was common in IgAD and rare in IgAN patients. Further studies of the 8.1 haplotype in Australian, German and Spanish caucasian subjects revealed that HLA-DR3, in the absence of -B8, is not associated with IgAD. However -B8 is associated with IgAD in the absence of -DR3, consistent with a susceptibility locus in the central MHC. Provisional mapping within this region is discussed. PMID:11975987

Matthews, Vance B; Witt, Campbell S; French, Martyn A H; Machulla, Helmut K G; De la Concha, Emilio G; Cheong, Karey Y; Vigil, Patricia; Hollingsworth, Peter N; Warr, Kevin J; Christiansen, Frank T; Price, Patricia

2002-05-01

309

IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in <65% of the sera. No significant correlation was observed between plant food allergy and increased or reduced levels of IgE, IgG1, IgG4 or IgA specific to most Bet v 1-related allergens. Api g 1-specific IgE was significantly (P = 0.01) elevated in celeriac-allergic compared with celeriac-tolerant patients. Likewise, frequencies of IgE (71% vs 15%; P = 0.01) and IgA (86% vs 38%; P = 0.04) binding to Api g 1.01 were increased. Conclusion Measurements of allergen-specific immunoglobulins are not suitable for diagnosing Bet v 1-mediated plant food allergy to hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

2015-01-01

310

Expression of homing receptors on IgA1 and IgA2 plasmablasts in blood reflects differential distribution of IgA1 and IgA2 in various body fluids.  

PubMed

Although secretory IgA is the most abundantly produced Ig isotype, the mechanisms underlying the differential distribution of IgA subclasses in various body fluids remain unclear. To explore these mechanisms, we examined the distribution of IgA subclasses, the influence of the nature and sites of encounters with antigens, and the correlation between IgA subclass distribution and homing potentials of circulating IgA plasmablasts. IgA1 predominated in serum, tears, nasal wash fluid, and saliva; the levels of IgA1 and IgA2 were comparable in vaginal wash fluid; and IgA2 predominated in intestinal lavage fluids. Seventy-one percent of circulating IgA plasmablasts secreted IgA1. The intestinal homing receptor (HR), alpha4beta7, was expressed more frequently on IgA2 than on IgA1 plasmablasts, with no differences in the expression of other HRs. IgA subclass distribution among circulating antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) was dependent on the nature of the antigen: following vaccination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide, or Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate, the proportions of specific IgA1 ASC were 74%, 47%, 56%, and 80%, respectively. HR expression depended on the route of administration: expression of HRs was different after oral than after parenteral vaccination, while no difference was seen between HR expression of antigen-specific IgA1 and IgA2 ASC induced via the same route. The key factors determining IgA subclass distribution in a given secretion are the nature of the antigens encountered at a particular site and the site-specific homing instructions given to lymphocytes at that site. These two factors are reflected as differences in the homing profiles of the total populations of circulating IgA1 and IgA2 plasmablasts. PMID:20089794

Pakkanen, Sari H; Kantele, Jussi M; Moldoveanu, Zina; Hedges, Spencer; Häkkinen, Miikka; Mestecky, Jiri; Kantele, Anu

2010-03-01

311

Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy  

MedlinePLUS

... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy View/Download: Small: 720x756 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive ...

312

IGS News, Vol. 28, No. 3 (2012) 2 President's Corner  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 28, No. 3 (2012) 2 President's Corner: "Educate the Educator" (on Geosynthetics) Dear Members of the IGS, The big audacious goal that the IGS Council adopted during the 2010 strat- egy in mind, a specific objective established for the IGS 4 year-plan is to "Begin our ef- forts to increase

Zornberg, Jorge G.

313

IGS News, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2013) 2 President's Corner  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 29, No. 1 (2013) 2 President's Corner: Back in Africa Dear Members of the IGS, We of the International Geosynthetics So- ciety (IGS), GeoAfrica 2013. The event is organized by the Ghanaian Chap- ter of the IGS and will be held in Accra, Ghana from 18 to 20 November 2013 (geoafrica2013.com). Ghana represents

Zornberg, Jorge G.

314

Production of Hybrid-IgG/IgA Plantibodies with Neutralizing Activity against Shiga Toxin 1  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as the O157:H7 strain. In the intestines, secretory IgA (SIgA) is a major component of the immune defense against pathogens and toxins. To form SIgA, the production of dimeric IgA that retains biological activity is an important step. We previously established hybrid-IgG/IgA having variable regions of the IgG specific for the binding subunit of Stx1 (Stx1B) and the heavy chain constant region of IgA. If hybrid-IgG/IgA cDNAs can be expressed in plants, therapeutic or preventive effects may be expected in people eating those plants containing a “plantibody”. Here, we established transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing dimeric hybrid-IgG/IgA. The heavy and light chain genes were placed under the control of a bidirectional promoter and terminator of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (expression cassette). This expression cassette and the J chain gene were subcloned into a single binary vector, which was then introduced into A. thaliana by means of the Agrobacterium method. Expression and assembly of the dimeric hybrid-IgG/IgA in plants were revealed by ELISA and immunoblotting. The hybrid-IgG/IgA bound to Stx1B and inhibited Stx1B binding to Gb3, as demonstrated by ELISA. When Stx1 holotoxin was pre-treated with the resulting plantibody, the cytotoxicity of Stx1 was inhibited. The toxin neutralization was also demonstrated by means of several assays including Stx1-induced phosphatidylserine translocation on the plasma membrane, caspase-3 activation and 180 base-pair DNA ladder formation due to inter-nucleosomal cleavage. These results indicate that edible plants containing hybrid-IgG/IgA against Stx1B have the potential to be used for immunotherapy against Stx1-caused food poisoning. PMID:24312238

Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Narimatsu, Sanshiro; Ichikawa, Shiori; Tobisawa, Yuki; Kurohane, Kohta; Niwa, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Imai, Yasuyuki

2013-01-01

315

Intra-Golgi formation of IgM-glycosaminoglycan complexes promotes Ig deposition.  

PubMed

Immune complexes arise from interactions between secreted Ab and Ags in the surrounding milieu. However, it is not known whether intracellular Ag-Ab interactions also contribute to the formation of extracellular immune complexes. In this study, we report that certain murine B cell hybridomas accumulate intracellular IgM and release large, spherical IgM complexes. The complexes (termed "spherons") reach 2 ?m in diameter, detach from the cell surface, and settle out of solution. The spherons contain IgM multimers that incorporate the J chain and resist degradation by endoglycosidase H, arguing for IgM passage through the Golgi. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of proteoglycan synthesis, or incubation of spherons with chondroitinase ABC, degrades spherons, indicating that spheron formation and growth depend on interactions between IgM and glycosaminoglycans. This inference is supported by direct binding of IgM to heparin and hyaluronic acid. We conclude that, as a consequence of IgM binding to glycosaminoglycans, multivalent IgM-glycan complexes form in transit of IgM to the cell surface. Intra-Golgi formation of immune complexes could represent a new pathogenic mechanism for immune complex deposition disorders. PMID:21841132

Khan, Salar N; Cox, John V; Nishimoto, Satoru K; Chen, Ching; Fritzler, Marvin J; Hendershot, Linda M; Weigert, Martin; Radic, Marko

2011-09-15

316

IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin4 (IgG4)-related disease is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by elevation of serum IgG4. It involves various organs such as the pancreas (autoimmune pancreatitis), lacrimal gland (Mikulicz's disease), retroperitoneum (retroperitoneal fibrosis), aorta (aortic aneurysm and aortitis), heart (constrictive pericarditis), and pseudotumors around the coronary arteries. These disorders often coexist in accordance with progression of the disease. Because IgG4-related cardiovascular disorder affects the patient's prognosis, early detection and treatment is important. Coronary CT imaging and echocardiography accidentally detect IgG4-related disorders and (18)FDG-PET imaging can identify active inflammation in the lesions. Measurement of serum IgG4 levels and tissue biopsy are necessary for diagnosis. Minor salivary gland biopsy is recommended even though (18)FDG uptake is not detected when it is difficult to obtain a biopsy specimen from IgG4-related cardiovascular lesions. The first-line treatment is high-dose corticosteroid therapy, however, relapse is often reported. Corticosteroids suppress the development of active inflammatory diseases such as aortitis, pericarditis, and pseudotumors, but already-developed lesions do not respond. A large developed aneurysm can rupture even during or after corticosteroid therapy, therefore, additional surgical treatment may be needed. Treatment of IgG4-related cardiovascular disorders might require higher doses of corticosteroids than IgG4-related extracardiovascular disorders. The adequate dose of corticosteroid, type and dose of immunosuppressant, and surgical intervention should be carefully considered on a case-by-case basis. PMID:24898599

Tajima, Miyu; Nagai, Ryozo; Hiroi, Yukio

2014-01-01

317

Immunogenicity of a multi-component recombinant human acrosomal protein vaccine in female Macaca fascicularis  

PubMed Central

A vaccine formula comprised of five recombinant human intra-acrosomal sperm proteins was innoculated into female monkeys to test whether specific antibodies to each component immunogen could be elicited in sera and whether antibodies elicited by the vaccine affected in vitro fertilization. Acrosomal proteins, ESP, SLLP-1, SAMP 32, SP-10 and SAMP 14, were expressed with his-tags, purified by nickel affinity chromatography and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. Five female cynomolgus monkeys were inoculated intramuscularly 3 times at monthly intervals. All five monkeys developed both IgG and IgA serum responses to each recombinant immunogen on Western blots. Each serum stained the acrosome of human sperm and bound to the cognate native protein on Western blots of human sperm extracts. By ELISA, all monkeys developed IgG to each immunogen, with the highest average absorbance values to ESP, SAMP 32 and SP-10, followed by lower values for SLLP-1 and SAMP 14. IgA was also generated to each component immunogen with the highest average absorbance values to SLLP-1 and SP-10. For antigens that induced an IgA response, the duration of the IgA response was longer than the IgG response to the same antigens. This study supports the concept that a multivalent contraceptive vaccine may be administered to female primates evoking both peripheral (IgG) and mucosal (IgA) responses to each component immunogen following an intramuscular route of inoculation with a mild adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide, approved for human use. PMID:17643494

Kurth, Barbara E.; Digilio, Laura; Snow, Phillip; Ann Bush, Leigh; Wolkowicz, Michael; Shetty, Jagathpala; Mandal, Arabinda; Hao, Zhonglin; Reddi, P. Prabhakara; Flickinger, Charles J.; Herr, John C.

2008-01-01

318

Predator-prey relationships on Apiaceae at an organic farm.  

PubMed

Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606

Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J

2012-06-01

319

A dedicated visual pathway for prey detection in larval zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish larvae show characteristic prey capture behavior in response to small moving objects. The neural mechanism used to recognize objects as prey remains largely unknown. We devised a machine learning behavior classification system to quantify hunting kinematics in semi-restrained animals exposed to a range of virtual stimuli. Two-photon calcium imaging revealed a small visual area, AF7, that was activated specifically by the optimal prey stimulus. This pretectal region is innervated by two types of retinal ganglion cells, which also send collaterals to the optic tectum. Laser ablation of AF7 markedly reduced prey capture behavior. We identified neurons with arbors in AF7 and found that they projected to multiple sensory and premotor areas: the optic tectum, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) and the hindbrain. These findings indicate that computations in the retina give rise to a visual stream which transforms sensory information into a directed prey capture response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04878.001 PMID:25490154

Semmelhack, Julia L; Donovan, Joseph C; Thiele, Tod R; Kuehn, Enrico; Laurell, Eva; Baier, Herwig

2014-01-01

320

Prey-dependent retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) by mixotrophic dinoflagellates  

PubMed Central

Summary We investigated the retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in phototrophic dinoflagellates arising from mixotrophy by estimating the cellular content of DMSP in Karlodinium veneficum (mixotrophic growth) fed for 7–10 days on either DMSP-rich Amphidinium carterae (phototrophic growth only) or DMSP-poor Teleaulax sp. (phototrophic growth only). In K. veneficum fed on DMSP-poor prey, the cellular content of DMSP remained almost unchanged regardless of the rate of feeding, whereas the cellular content of DMSP in cells of K. veneficum fed on DMSP-rich prey increased by as much as 21 times the cellular concentration derived exclusively from phototrophic growth. In both cases, significant fractions (10–32% in the former case and 55–65% in the latter) of the total DMSP ingested by K. veneficum were transformed into dimethylsulfide and other biochemical compounds. The results may indicate that the DMSP content of prey species affects temporal variations in the cellular DMSP content of mixotrophic dinoflagellates, and that mixotrophic dinoflagellates produce DMS through grazing on DMSP-rich preys. Additional studies should be performed to examine the universality of our finding in other mixotrophic dinoflagellates feeding on diverse prey species. PMID:21958033

Lee, Hyunwoo; Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du

2012-01-01

321

Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females. PMID:18941517

Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Larańo, Jordi

2008-01-01

322

Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.  

PubMed

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

2013-01-01

323

Chemical defense of an Asian snake reflects local availability of toxic prey and hatchling diet  

PubMed Central

Species that sequester toxins from prey for their own defense against predators may exhibit population-level variation in their chemical arsenal that reflects the availability of chemically defended prey in their habitat. Rhabdophis tigrinus is an Asian snake that possesses defensive glands in the skin of its neck (‘nuchal glands’), which typically contain toxic bufadienolide steroids that the snakes sequester from consumed toads. In this study, we compared the chemistry of the nuchal gland fluid of R. tigrinus from toad-rich and toad-free islands in Japan and determined the effect of diet on the nuchal gland constituents. Our findings demonstrate that captive-hatched juveniles from toad-rich Ishima Island that had not been fed toads possess defensive bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, presumably due to maternal provisioning of these sequestered compounds. Wild-caught juveniles from Ishima possess large quantities of bufadienolides, which could result from a combination of maternal provisioning and sequestration of these defensive compounds from consumed toads. Interestingly, juvenile females from Ishima possess larger quantities of bufadienolides than do juvenile males, whereas a small sample of field-collected snakes suggests that adult males contain larger quantities of bufadienolides than do adult females. Captive-born hatchlings from Kinkasan Island lack bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, reflecting the absence of toads on that island, but they can sequester bufadienolides by feeding on toads (Bufo japonicus) in captivity. The presence of large quantities of bufadienolides in the nuchal glands of R. tigrinus from Ishima may reduce the risk of predation by providing an effective chemical defense, whereas snakes on Kinkasan may experience increased predation due to the lack of defensive compounds in their nuchal glands. PMID:23853424

Hutchinson, D A; Savitzky, A H; Burghardt, G M; Nguyen, C; Meinwald, J; Schroeder, F C; Mori, A

2013-01-01

324

Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep  

PubMed Central

Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

2013-01-01

325

Failure of IgG production due to a defect in the opening of the chromatin structure of I gamma 1 region in a patient with IgG and IgA deficiency.  

PubMed Central

Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) display reduced levels of two or all three of the major immunoglobulin isotypes, and the deficiency is characterized by failure of B cells to differentiate into plasma cells in many cases. A patient (14 years old, female) showed normal serum IgM levels and low serum IgG and IgA levels, including low levels of all IgG subclasses. Northern blot analysis suggested that the patient's B cells may be defective at the immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype switch. The germ-line C gamma 1 transcript was amplified from cDNA of healthy controls by the addition of recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) to pokeweed mitogen-stimulated peripheral mononuclear cells or Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I (SAC)-stimulated IgM-producing lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) transformed by Epstein-Barr virus, while it was not amplified from cDNA of the patient. In the I gamma 1 region of LCL cultured with SAC plus rIL-2, the inner cytosine in the 5' C-C-G-G 3' sequence nearest the 3' site of the I gamma 1 region, at least, was not completely unmethylated in the patient. Moreover, the DNase I hypersensitive site was not induced in the patient's LCL by SAC plus rIL-2. These results indicate that the defects of the immunoglobulin heavy chain isotype switch in the patient's B cells are due to failure in the synthesis of germ-line C gamma transcripts, and this may be caused by defects in opening of the chromatin structures of specific switch regions. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:7813107

Kondo, N; Inoue, R; Kasahara, K; Kaneko, H; Kameyama, T; Orii, T

1995-01-01

326

IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis: expanding the morphological spectrum of IgG4 related diseases.  

PubMed

IgG4 related disease (IgG4RD) is a recently recognised condition characterised by mass forming lesions associated with storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4 positive plasma cells and elevated serum IgG4 levels. Although rare, mammary involvement has been reported as IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis, the morphological counterpart of a growing family of IgG4 related diseases. A total of 17 cases belonging to mass forming benign inflammatory breast lesions such as plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis, non-specific mastitis and inflammatory pseudotumour were investigated as a possible member of IgG4 related sclerosing mastitis. Clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemistry findings were noted in all cases. Cases diagnosed as inflammatory pseudotumour showed all the histopathological features of IgG4RD along with increased number of IgG4 positive plasma cells and IgG4/IgG ratio >40%. However, only a few IgG4 positive cells were seen in plasma cell mastitis, granulomatous lobular mastitis and non-specific mastitis cases. These cases also did not fulfill the morphological criteria for the diagnosis of IgG4 related diseases. IgG4RD should be excluded in plasma cell rich lesions diagnosed on core biopsies by IgG4 immunostaining. This can avoid unnecessary surgery as IgG4 related diseases respond to simple and effective steroid treatment. PMID:25474510

Chougule, Abhijit; Bal, Amanjit; Das, Ashim; Singh, Gurpreet

2015-01-01

327

Circulating IgA Complexes in Patients with Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sera of 21 patients with psoriasis were examined for the presence of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (CIC) using the Raji IgA radioimmunoassay. In addition, the Raji IgG radioimmunoassay and 125I-Clq binding assay were used to detect IgG- and IgM-containing CIC. Twenty five patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders were studied as controls. Patients were studied before institution of systemic

Russell P. Hall; Gary L. Peck; Thomas J. Lawley

1983-01-01

328

Potential impact of different cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM assays on an algorithm requiring IgM reactivity as a criterion for measuring CMV IgG avidity.  

PubMed

The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity is a powerful tool for identifying individuals with recent CMV infection. Because such patients are expected to be positive for CMV IgM, several investigators have suggested that CMV IgG-positive sera first be screened for CMV IgM and then only the IgM-reactive sera be tested for avidity. We investigated the impact of different CMV IgM assays on such a reflexing algorithm using a panel of 369 consecutive IgG-positive serum samples submitted for avidity testing. A bead-based immunofluorescent assay (BIFA) identified 105 IgM-positive serum samples, whereas an IgM-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) identified 48 IgM-positive serum samples; this marked difference led us to evaluate additional CMV IgM assays. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) were used to test all sera with discordant BIFA/EIA results, all sera with concordant positive results, and selected sera with concordant negative results. The findings indicated that the ELFA would identify 74 CMV IgM-positive samples and the CIA would identify 64. Of the 23 low-avidity serum samples, 2 were IgM negative by BIFA, 3 by ELFA and CIA, and 4 by EIA; of the 23 intermediate-avidity serum samples, 6 were IgM negative by BIFA, 10 by ELFA, and 15 by EIA and CIA. In both these avidity groups, BIFA IgM-negative sera were also negative by the other 3 assays. These findings demonstrate that an algorithm requiring CMV IgM reactivity as a criterion for CMV IgG avidity testing does not identify all low-avidity sera and thus misses some cases of acute CMV infection. PMID:24671558

Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Brenner, Andrew; Pitstick, Nancy; Couturier, Marc Roger

2014-06-01

329

Do IgA, IgE, and IgG avidity tests have any value in the diagnosis of toxoplasma infection in pregnancy?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the value of tests for specific IgA, IgE, and IgG avidity in diagnosing Toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. METHODS: In a retrospective study, current serological tests (dye test and three IgM assays with different sensitivities) were compared with immunosorbent agglutination assays (ISAGA) for specific IgA and IgE and an IgG avidity enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patient group 1 comprised six women with definite or probable infection during pregnancy determined by congenital toxoplasmosis or laboratory results. Group 2 comprised seven women infected during or before 11 pregnancies (two consecutive pregnancies in two patients and three in a third). RESULTS: One patient in group 1 seroconverted during pregnancy. IgA ISAGA and avidity confirmed acute infection when confirmatory IgM ELISA remained negative. In five of six patients from group 1, IgA and IgE ISAGA and avidity confirmed acute infection. In group 2, the dye test titre was raised in seven of 11 pregnancies (six of seven patients). Specific IgM and IgA were positive during all 11 pregnancies. IgE ISAGA was positive in only four of 11 pregnancies (three of seven patients), but negative results in the remainder may exclude acute infection. High avidity antibodies indicative of past infection were found in four of 11 pregnancies (two of seven patients). CONCLUSIONS: Each test improved diagnosis or timing of infection but no single test was ideal. The IgA ISAGA was sensitive and detected seroconversion. Positive IgE ISAGA and low avidity both confirmed infection, whereas negative IgE may exclude acute infection. High avidity diagnosed past infection but persistence of low avidity reduced its value to differentiate acute and past infection. Further studies with larger patient groups are needed to determine the optimum diagnostic strategy. These techniques are valuable in complementing existing tests. PMID:9659246

Ashburn, D; Joss, A W; Pennington, T H; Ho-Yen, D O

1998-01-01

330

Dynamics of a predator-prey model with Allee effect and prey group defense  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical properties of a Gauss type of planar predator-prey system with Allee effect and non-monotonic response function are discussed. We are interested in persistent features lying in the first quadrant, which amount to structurally stable phase portraits. We show that all positive solutions are uniformly bounded. It is also proved that the system has at most two equilibria in the interior of the first quadrant and can exhibit interesting bifurcation phenomena, including Bogdanov-Takens, Hopf, transcritical and saddle-node bifurcations. The system may have a stable periodic orbit, or a homoclinic loop, or a heteroclinic connection, a saddle point, or a stable focus, depending on parameter values. Biologically, both populations may survive for certain values of parameters. Computer simulations are also given in support of the conclusions.

Saleh, Khairul

2015-02-01

331

High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types  

PubMed Central

Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

2014-01-01

332

Genistein Enhancement of Respiratory Allergen Trimellitic Anhydride-induced IgE Production by Adult B6C3F1 Mice Following In Utero and Postnatal Exposure  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) during immune development had any effects on the production of IgE by adult mice following dermal treatment with trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory allergen. B6C3F1 mice were exposed to GEN either by feeding at 500 ppm or by gavage (20 mg/kg) for varied periods from gestation day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 84. In utero exposure to GEN by feeding increased the production of IgE at PND84 in male mice but not in female mice. In male mice, continuous exposure to GEN postnatally diminished the in utero exposure-induced enhancement in serum total IgE production. However, continuous exposure to GEN from GD14 to PND84 was required to increase serum total IgE production in female mice. In utero exposure to GEN by gavage increased the production of IgE at PND84 in female mice but not in male mice when the mice were maintained on the NIH-07 rodent diet in which a medium level of phytoestrogens was present. The enhancement in IgE production following GEN exposure in females but not in males was associated with decreases in the percentages of CD4+CD25+ T suppressor cells, and increases in the NK cell activity, the basal splenocyte proliferation, the expression of CD86 by B cells and the production of IL-2 and IL-4. Overall, the results demonstrated that GEN differentially modulated the developing immune system in male and female mice, and that more IgE was produced upon exposure to TMA in the adult. PMID:16049267

Guo, Tai L.; Auttachoat, W.; Chi, Rui P.

2005-01-01

333

IgA related disorders in rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Serum monomeric and polymeric IgA, IgA rheumatoid factor (IgA-RF) and IgA containing circulating immune complexes (IgA-CIC) were studied in 192 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to explore the relationships among IgA related abnormalities and to investigate their potential associations with disease activity, immunoregulatory disorders and effect of treatments. Total serum IgA and polymeric IgA (p-IgA) levels were elevated in 23 and 11% of patients with RA, respectively. Their respective mean concentrations in serum were significantly elevated compared to normal values (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.004). A preferential increase in polymeric rather than monomeric IgA was observed. IgA-RF, detected by a solid phase ELISA, was found in 71% and was associated with decreased grip strength (p less than 0.005), active disease (p less than 0.05), increased p-IgA level (p less than 0.001), elevated p-IgA:total IgA ratio (p less than 0.05), the presence of IgA-CIC (p less than 0.005) and IgM-RF (p less than 0.005). Complement fixing IgA-CIC were detected in 40% of patients by IgA specific conglutinin and anti-C3 binding solid phase ELISA. High molecular weight IgA species precipitated by 2.5% polyethylene glycol from RA sera positive for IgA-CIC were shown to be IgA-RF complexed to IgG. Taken together, our results suggest that IgA-RF are essentially polymeric in nature and circulate as IgA-RF-IgG immune complexes. Although the presence of IgA-CIC was not associated with disease activity, IgA-CIC activated C3 and thus are potentially pathogenic.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2963127

Pillemer, S R; Reynolds, W J; Yoon, S J; Perera, M; Newkirk, M; Klein, M

1987-10-01

334

Cholangiocarcinoma with respect to IgG4 Reaction  

PubMed Central

IgG4 reactions marked by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in affected organs occur in cancer patients and in patients with IgG4-related diseases. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas including gall bladder cancer are often accompanied by significant IgG4 reactions; these reactions show a negative correlation with CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells, suggesting that the evasion of immune surveillance is associated with cytotoxic T cells. The regulatory cytokine IL-10 may induce IgG4-positive plasma cell differentiation or promote B cell switching to IgG4 in the presence of IL-4. Cholangiocarcinoma cells may function as nonprofessional antigen presenting cells that indirectly induce IgG4 reactions via the IL-10-producing cells and/or these may act as Foxp3-positive and IL-10-producing cells that directly induce IgG4 reactions. Moreover, IgG4-related disease is a high-risk factor for cancer development; IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) cases associated with cholangiocarcinoma or its precursor lesion biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) have been reported. IgG4-positive cell infiltration is an important finding of IgG4-SC but is not a histological hallmark of IgG4-SC. For the diagnosis of IgG4-SC, its differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma remains important. PMID:25132998

Nakanuma, Yasuni

2014-01-01

335

How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey.  

PubMed

The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or 'bill'. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey. PMID:24759865

Domenici, P; Wilson, A D M; Kurvers, R H J M; Marras, S; Herbert-Read, J E; Steffensen, J F; Krause, S; Viblanc, P E; Couillaud, P; Krause, J

2014-06-01

336

Predation and disturbance interact to shape prey species diversity.  

PubMed

Though predation, productivity (nutrient richness), spatial heterogeneity, and disturbance regimes are known to influence species diversity, interactions between these factors remain largely unknown. Predation has been shown to interact with productivity and with spatial heterogeneity, but few experimental studies have focused on how predation and disturbance interact to influence prey diversity. We used theory and experiments to investigate how these factors influence diversification of Pseudomonas fluorescens by manipulating both predation (presence or absence of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus) and disturbance (frequency and intensity of disturbance). Our results show that in a homogeneous environment, predation is essential to promote prey species diversity. However, in most but not all treatments, elevated diversity was transitory, implying that the effect of predation on diversity was strongly influenced by disturbance. Both our experimental and theoretical results suggest that disturbance interacts with predation by modifying the interplay of resource and apparent competition among prey. PMID:17853998

Gallet, Romain; Alizon, Samuel; Comte, Pierre-Arnaud; Gutierrez, Arnaud; Depaulis, Frantz; van Baalen, Minus; Michel, Eric; Müller-Graf, Christine D M

2007-07-01

337

Biomechanics (Communication arising): prey attack by a large theropod dinosaur.  

PubMed

Prey-capture strategies in carnivorous dinosaurs have been inferred from the biomechanical features of their tooth structure, the estimated bite force produced, and their diet. Rayfield et al. have used finite-element analysis (FEA) to investigate such structure-function relationships in Allosaurus fragilis, and have found that the skull was designed to bear more stress than could be generated by simple biting. They conclude that this large theropod dinosaur delivered a chop-and-slash 'hatchet' blow to its prey, which it approached with its mouth wide open before driving its upper tooth row downwards. We argue that this mode of predation is unlikely, and that the FEA results, which relate to an 'overengineered' skull, are better explained by the biomechanical demands of prey capture. Understanding the mechanics of predation is important to our knowledge of the feeding habits of carnivorous dinosaurs and for accurate reconstruction their lifestyles. PMID:11919619

Frazzetta, T H; Kardong, Kenneth V

2002-03-28

338

The stabilizing effects of genetic diversity on predator-prey dynamics  

PubMed Central

Heterogeneity among prey in their susceptibility to predation is a potentially important stabilizer of predator-prey interactions, reducing the magnitude of population oscillations and enhancing total prey population abundance. When microevolutionary responses of prey populations occur at time scales comparable to population dynamics, adaptive responses in prey defense can, in theory, stabilize predator-prey dynamics and reduce top-down effects on prey abundance. While experiments have tested these predictions, less explored are the consequences of the evolution of prey phenotypes that can persist in both vulnerable and invulnerable classes. We tested this experimentally using a laboratory aquatic system composed of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus as a predator and the prey Synura petersenii, a colony-forming alga that exhibits genetic variation in its propensity to form colonies and colony size (larger colonies are a defense against predators). Prey populations of either low initial genetic diversity and low adaptive capacity or high initial genetic diversity and high adaptive capacity were crossed with predator presence and absence. Dynamics measured over the last 127 days of the 167-day experiment revealed no effects of initial prey genetic diversity on the average abundance or temporal variability of predator populations. However, genetic diversity and predator presence/absence interactively affected prey population abundance and stability; diversity of prey had no effects in the absence of predators but stabilized dynamics and increased total prey abundance in the presence of predators. The size structure of the genetically diverse prey populations diverged from single strain populations in the presence of predators, showing increases in colony size and in the relative abundance of cells found in colonies. Our work sheds light on the adaptive value of colony formation and supports the general view that genetic diversity and intraspecific trait variation of prey can play a vital role in the short-term dynamics and stability of planktonic predator-prey systems. PMID:25339982

Steiner, Christopher F; Masse, Jordan

2013-01-01

339

Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

2008-01-01

340

Omalizumab may decrease IgE synthesis by targeting membrane IgE+ human B cells  

E-print Network

Omalizumab, is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody used to treat allergic asthma. Decreased serum IgE levels, lower eosinophil and B cell counts have been noted as a result of treatment. In vitro studies and animal models support the hypothesis...

Chan, Marcia A.; Gigliotti, Nicole M.; Dotson, Abby Louise; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.

2013-09-02

341

Comparison of Antiviral Activity between IgA and IgG Specific to Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin: Increased Potential of IgA for Heterosubtypic Immunity  

PubMed Central

Both IgA and IgG antibodies are known to play important roles in protection against influenza virus infection. While IgG is the major isotype induced systemically, IgA is predominant in mucosal tissues, including the upper respiratory tract. Although IgA antibodies are believed to have unique advantages in mucosal immunity, information on direct comparisons of the in vitro antiviral activities of IgA and IgG antibodies recognizing the same epitope is limited. In this study, we demonstrate differences in antiviral activities between these isotypes using monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies obtained from hybridomas of the same origin. Polymeric IgA-producing hybridoma cells were successfully subcloned from those originally producing monoclonal antibody S139/1, a hemaggulutinin (HA)-specific IgG that was generated against an influenza A virus strain of the H3 subtype but had cross-neutralizing activities against the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. These monoclonal S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies were assumed to recognize the same epitope and thus used to compare their antiviral activities. We found that both S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies strongly bound to the homologous H3 virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and there were no significant differences in their hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activities against the H3 virus. In contrast, S139/1 IgA showed remarkably higher cross-binding to and antiviral activities against H1, H2, and H13 viruses than S139/1 IgG. It was also noted that S139/1 IgA, but not IgG, drastically suppressed the extracellular release of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that S139/1 IgA deposited newly produced viral particles on the cell surface, most likely by tethering the particles. These results suggest that anti-HA IgA has greater potential to prevent influenza A virus infection than IgG antibodies, likely due to increased avidity conferred by its multivalency, and that this advantage may be particularly important for heterosubtypic immunity. PMID:24465606

Yokoyama, Ayaka; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Manzoor, Rashid; Takada, Ayato

2014-01-01

342

Comparison of antiviral activity between IgA and IgG specific to influenza virus hemagglutinin: increased potential of IgA for heterosubtypic immunity.  

PubMed

Both IgA and IgG antibodies are known to play important roles in protection against influenza virus infection. While IgG is the major isotype induced systemically, IgA is predominant in mucosal tissues, including the upper respiratory tract. Although IgA antibodies are believed to have unique advantages in mucosal immunity, information on direct comparisons of the in vitro antiviral activities of IgA and IgG antibodies recognizing the same epitope is limited. In this study, we demonstrate differences in antiviral activities between these isotypes using monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies obtained from hybridomas of the same origin. Polymeric IgA-producing hybridoma cells were successfully subcloned from those originally producing monoclonal antibody S139/1, a hemaggulutinin (HA)-specific IgG that was generated against an influenza A virus strain of the H3 subtype but had cross-neutralizing activities against the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. These monoclonal S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies were assumed to recognize the same epitope and thus used to compare their antiviral activities. We found that both S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies strongly bound to the homologous H3 virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and there were no significant differences in their hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activities against the H3 virus. In contrast, S139/1 IgA showed remarkably higher cross-binding to and antiviral activities against H1, H2, and H13 viruses than S139/1 IgG. It was also noted that S139/1 IgA, but not IgG, drastically suppressed the extracellular release of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that S139/1 IgA deposited newly produced viral particles on the cell surface, most likely by tethering the particles. These results suggest that anti-HA IgA has greater potential to prevent influenza A virus infection than IgG antibodies, likely due to increased avidity conferred by its multivalency, and that this advantage may be particularly important for heterosubtypic immunity. PMID:24465606

Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Yokoyama, Ayaka; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Manzoor, Rashid; Takada, Ayato

2014-01-01

343

Presence of IgE suppressor factors in human colostrum.  

PubMed

In spite of intensive investigations, the ability of breast feeding to delay and to attenuate atopic diseases in children remains debatable. This study documents a mechanism whereby breast feeding might interfere with the synthesis of IgE by breast-fed infants. Indeed, we show that colostrum contains IgE-binding factors (IgE-BF) capable of suppressing the in vitro synthesis of human IgE. Colostrum obtained from 15 donors was successively depleted of lipids and casein, filtered through Amicon XM50 membrane (mol. mass cut-off 50 kDa) and lyophilized. IgE-BF was demonstrated in such preparations by two different approaches, i.e. a classical rosette inhibition assay and Western blot analysis. In the first instance, lyophilized preparations of colostrum inhibited the binding of IgE-coated bovine erythrocytes to IgE recovered on the surface of RPMI 8866 lymphoblastoid cells. The rosette-inhibiting activity could be absorbed on IgE- but not on IgG-Sepharose 4B and it could be recovered in the eluate of IgE-Sepharose 4B. The molecular mass of IgE-BF was comprised between 10 to 20 kDa as estimated by gel filtration through a calibrated Sephadex G-75 column. After fractionation on 12% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to nitrocellulose membrane, colostrum displayed one band of 14 kDa and reacted with radiolabeled IgE but not with IgG nor IgM. This 14-kDa band could be removed by absorbing colostrum with IgE- but not with IgG-Sepharose 4B. Most importantly, the colostrum IgE-BF suppressed the spontaneous in vitro synthesis of IgE by B lymphocytes derived from allergic donors without altering the production of IgM. PMID:3743629

Sarfati, M; Vanderbeeken, Y; Rubio-Trujillo, M; Duncan, D; Delespesse, G

1986-08-01

344

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

Tokunaga, Koki [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Uto, Hirofumi, E-mail: hirouto@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan); Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)] [Department of Digestive and Life-Style Related Disease, Health Research Course, Human and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520 (Japan)

2010-08-20

345

Respiratory infection risk in athletes: association with antigen-stimulated IL-10 production and salivary IgA secretion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in 18-35-year-old men and women engaged in endurance-based physical activity during the winter months. Eighty individuals (46 males, 34 females) provided resting blood and saliva samples for determination of markers of systemic immunity. Weekly training and illness logs were kept for the following 4 months. Thirty subjects did not experience an URTI episode and 24 subjects experienced 3 or more weeks of URTI symptoms. These illness-prone subjects had higher training loads and had ?2.5-fold higher interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 production by antigen-stimulated whole blood culture than the illness-free subjects. Illness-prone subjects also had significantly lower saliva S-IgA secretion rate and higher plasma IgM (but not IgA or IgG) concentration than the illness-free subjects. There were no differences in circulating numbers of leukocyte subtypes or lymphocyte subsets between the illness-prone and illness-free subjects. The production of IL-10 was positively correlated and the S-IgA secretion rate was negatively correlated with the number of weeks with infection symptoms. It is concluded that high IL-10 production in response to antigen challenge and low S-IgA secretion are risk factors for development of URTI in physically active individuals. PMID:21385218

Gleeson, M; Bishop, N; Oliveira, M; McCauley, T; Tauler, P; Muhamad, A S

2012-06-01

346

Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis  

PubMed Central

Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively. The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330). Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD), 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE < 300 kU/l a reduction of total serum IgE was significantly correlated with age. In contrast, patients with IgE levels > 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age. Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis. PMID:15927080

Mediaty, Anja; Neuber, Karsten

2005-01-01

347

Total and specific serum IgE decreases with age in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma and insect allergy but not in patients with atopic dermatitis.  

PubMed

Concerning allergic diseases, the incidence of allergic symptoms, as well as their severity, seems to decrease with age. The decline of onset of allergic symptoms observed in ageing might result from a decrease of serum total and specific IgE. Atopic disorders are complex diseases that involve interactions among several physiological systems, e.g. skin, lung, mucosae, and the immune system. It was the aim of this study to compare the effects of age on total and specific IgE in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis or asthma, and insect allergy, respectively.The study population consisted of 559 individuals (male: 229 and female: 330). Total and allergen specific IgE was measured in every individual. From the whole study population, 113 patients suffered from atopic dermatitis (AD), 132 had allergic rhinitis or asthma, and 314 were tested because of insect allergy. Total and specific serum IgE was significantly decreased as a function of age in patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma and with insect allergy. In contrast, no significant decrease of total and specific serum IgE in old individuals with AD was observed. Additionally, in the group of patients with a total IgE < 300 kU/l a reduction of total serum IgE was significantly correlated with age. In contrast, patients with IgE levels > 300 kU/l showed no correlation with age.Immunosenescence does not affect increased IgE levels in atopic patients with AD and/or high serum IgE levels indicating that in these subgroups of patients the atopic propensity remains into advanced age. One may hypothesize that either onset of allergic sensitization during life or the kind of atopic disease influences the correlation between age and IgE synthesis. PMID:15927080

Mediaty, Anja; Neuber, Karsten

2005-05-31

348

IgH loci of American alligator and saltwater crocodile shed light on IgA evolution.  

PubMed

Immunoglobulin loci of two representatives of the order Crocodylia were studied from full genome sequences. Both Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus have 13 genes for the heavy chain constant regions of immunoglobulins. The IGHC locus contains genes encoding four immunoglobulins M (IgM), one immunoglobulin D (IgD), three immunoglobulins A (IgA), three immunoglobulins Y (IgY), and two immunoglobulins D2 (IgD2). IgA and IgD2 genes were found in reverse transcriptional orientation compared to the other Ig genes. The IGHD gene contains 11 exons, four of which containing stop codons or sequence alterations. As described in other reptiles, the IgD2 is a chimeric Ig with IgA- and IgD-related domains. This work clarifies the origin of bird IgA and its evolutionary relationship with amphibian immunoglobulin X (IgX) as well as their links with mammalian IgA. PMID:23558556

Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

2013-07-01

349

Immune tolerance induction in patients with IgA anaphylactoid reactions following long-term intravenous IgG treatment  

PubMed Central

To date, there is very little information regarding the pathomechanism of IgA anaphylactoid reactions and the management of affected patients. Five adult patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and a history of anaphylactic reactions due to the administration of immunoglobulin preparations were studied. The activity of anti-IgA was determined by the gel agglutination technique using IgA-coated beads. Antibodies to IgA were detected in the serum of all five patients. Initially, IgA ‘depleted’ intravenous (i.v.) IgG preparations were infused carefully into the patients until the activity of anti-IgA was decreased significantly or became undetectable. Subsequently, unselected i.v. IgG preparations were infused, and the activity of anti-IgA was abolished in all cases. Intravenous IgG long-term administration results in tolerance induction in patients with IgA anaphylactoid reactions. This tolerance appears to be related to antibody blockage in the circulation and an inhibition of antibody production. Most importantly, IgA appears to play an important role in the treatment of CVID. Patients with IgA anaphylactoid reactions can be treated safely with IgA containing i.v. IgG preparations following tolerance induction. PMID:18234056

Ahrens, N; Höflich, C; Bombard, S; Lochs, H; Kiesewetter, H; Salama, A

2008-01-01

350

Uncoupling of Glomerular IgA Deposition and Disease Progression in Alymphoplasia Mice with IgA Nephropathy  

PubMed Central

Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM). Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly) independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN) contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6). Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC) as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition. PMID:24743510

Aizawa, Masashi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Pang, Huihua; Kihara, Masao; Nakata, Junichiro; Yamaji, Kenji; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

2014-01-01

351

IGS News, Vol. 26, No.3, November 2010 2 President's Corner  

E-print Network

IGS News, Vol. 26, No.3, November 2010 2 President's Corner The Technical Committees of the IGS Jorge Zornberg Dear IGS member, exciting new IGS technical initiatives are looming. This is because in addi- tion to the many technical activities of the IGS Chapters, IGS Confer- ences, and IGS Journals

Zornberg, Jorge G.

352

OIKOS 101: 591601, 2003 Assessing differential prey selection patterns between two  

E-print Network

. Elk (Cer6us elephus) were the primary prey for both predators, followed by mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Both predators preyed disproportionately on elk calves and old individu- als; among mule deer

353

Testing the effects of resource distribution and inherent habitat riskiness on simultaneous habitat selection by predators and prey  

E-print Network

dace Phoxinus eos predation risk predator­prey interaction Semotilus atromaculatus structural habitat laboratory experiments in which both predators (creek chub, Semotilus atromaculatus) and prey (northern

Sorenson, Michael

354

Regionalization in hereditary IgA nephropathy.  

PubMed Central

The genealogies of 80 patients with IgA nephropathy who were born in central or eastern Kentucky or whose parents were born in this region were researched. At a minimum, 48 of these patients were related to at least one other patient. On the basis of presence or absence of established kinships, the patients were divided into three groups. Twenty-nine patients in group 1 belonged to one large pedigree. Their birthplaces and those of their parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents clustered in the extreme eastern portion of the state. Seventeen other patients, group 2, were related to at least one other patient but not to a patient in group 1. Their birthplaces and those of their ancestors did not show significant clustering. With the exception of two siblings, the 34 patients of group 3 had no family members with IgA nephropathy. The birthplaces for these patients and ancestors were widely scattered. These data suggest that one or more genetically determined factors are important in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy in some patients. A founder effect, whereby a gene(s) conveying susceptibility to IgA nephropathy was carried into eastern Kentucky by one or more of the early settlers, would explain the geographic clustering of the birthplaces of the patients in group 1 and their ancestors. The characteristic immunopathology of IgA nephropathy may represent the histologic result of separate disease processes, one or more of which could be genetically influenced. PMID:3605095

Wyatt, R J; Rivas, M L; Julian, B A; Quiggins, P A; Woodford, S Y; McMorrow, R G; Baehler, R W

1987-01-01

355

[IgA nephropathy in pediatrics].  

PubMed

IgA nephropathy is a primitive cronic idiopatic glomerulonephritis, characterized by diffuse depositis of IgA in the glomeruler mesangium. Familial cases are also descripted. IgA nephropaty is more frequent in males and in white rase. In Italy it's the most frequently recognized glomerulonephritis in renal biopsia (20%), especially in patients with dismorfic micro or macroematuria and nephrotic proteinuria. Clinical presentation is often in association with respiratory tract or gastrointestinal disorders. The most relevant pathogenetic hypothesis suggest an IgA abnormal glycosilation, with mesangial IgA aggregation, increased mesangial reactivity and release of inflammatory mediators and fibrotic agents. Treatment is considered in rapidly progressing forms. At the present, there is no treatment of proven value in all patients, althoug interesting results have been published with prednison, ACE-inhibitors or fish-oil in decresing renal deterioration rate. Natural history varies in different series. Renal survival at 10 years is 85% in Italy, 94% in France, 97% in the USA. Poor prognostic factor are heavy proteinuria and hypertension. However a wide inter-individual variability is observed. PMID:15279364

Marinaki, M; Benini, D; Fasoli, E; Fanos, V

2003-01-01

356

Metabolic Syndrome in IgA Glomerulonephritis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS) may have an independent impact on the development of chronic kidney disease. This study examines the prevalence of MetS in subjects with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN) and its impact on disease progression in a retrospective fashion. Patients and Methods Altogether, 174 subjects (104 males) were examined 11 years (first visit) after IgAGN diagnosis and again after 16 years (second visit; 144 subjects responded). Different glomerular filtration markers were utilized. The MetS criteria by Alberti et al. [Circulation 2009;120:1640-1645] were applied, in which the presence of any three of five risk factors (elevated waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, existence of hypertension, or reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) constitutes the diagnosis. Results The prevalence of MetS at the first visit was 39%, corresponding to that of the general Finnish population. In univariate analyses, MetS was significantly associated with the progression of IgAGN at the second visit. However, in multivariate analyses, the existence of MetS was not a significant prognostic determinant. Conclusion The number of subjects with MetS among IgAGN patients and the general population is equal in Finland. MetS does not seem to be an independent prognostic variable. PMID:25337083

Kaartinen, Kati; Syrjänen, Jaana; Pörsti, Ilkka; Harmoinen, Aimo; Huhtala, Heini; Mustonen, Jukka

2014-01-01

357

Comparison of the specificities of IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM reactivities in African and European HIV-infected individuals with an HIV-1 clade C proteome-based array.  

PubMed

A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

2015-01-01

358

Comparison of the Specificities of IgG, IgG-Subclass, IgA and IgM Reactivities in African and European HIV-Infected Individuals with an HIV-1 Clade C Proteome-Based Array  

PubMed Central

A comprehensive set of recombinant proteins and peptides of the proteome of HIV-1 clade C was prepared and purified and used to measure IgG, IgG-subclass, IgA and IgM responses in HIV-infected patients from Sub-Saharan Africa, where clade C is predominant. As a comparison group, HIV-infected patients from Europe were tested. African and European patients showed an almost identical antibody reactivity profile in terms of epitope specificity and involvement of IgG, IgG subclass, IgA and IgM responses. A V3-peptide of gp120 was identified as major epitope recognized by IgG1>IgG2 = IgG4>IgG3, IgA>IgM antibodies and a C-terminal peptide represented another major peptide epitope for the four IgG subclasses. By contrast, gp41-derived-peptides were mainly recognized by IgG1 but not by the other IgG subclasses, IgA or IgM. Among the non-surface proteins, protease, reverse transcriptase+RNAseH, integrase, as well as the capsid and matrix proteins were the most frequently and strongly recognized antigens which showed broad IgG subclass and IgA reactivity. Specificities and magnitudes of antibody responses in African patients were stable during disease and antiretroviral treatment, and persisted despite severe T cell loss. Using a comprehensive panel of gp120, gp41 peptides and recombinant non-surface proteins of HIV-1 clade C we found an almost identical antibody recognition profile in African and European patients regarding epitopes and involved IgG-sublass, IgA- and IgM-responses. Immune recognition of gp120 peptides and non-surface proteins involved all four IgG subclasses and was indicative of a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response. The HIV-1 clade C proteome-based test allowed diagnosis and monitoring of antibody responses in the course of HIV-infections and assessment of isotype and subclass responses. PMID:25658330

Gallerano, Daniela; Ndlovu, Portia; Makupe, Ian; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Fauland, Kerstin; Wollmann, Eva; Puchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter; Sibanda, Elopy; Valenta, Rudolf

2015-01-01

359

IgG4-related kidney disease – an update  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized systemic inflammatory disorder that can affect most organs/tissues such as sarcoidosis. The kidney is a frequently affected organ with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN), the representative lesion of IgG4-RD. This review focuses on the latest knowledge of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Recent findings A wide range of renal manifestations of IgG4-RD, that is TIN, membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) and other glomerular lesions, and pyelitis, are collectively referred to as IgG4-RKD. Clinically, decreased renal function, or characteristic imaging findings such as multiple low-density lesions on contrast-enhanced computed tomography or diffuse thickening of the renal pelvic wall, are typical presenting features. Although a rapid response to corticosteroid therapy is a very important feature of IgG4-TIN, in cases in which renal function is moderately to severely decreased before therapy, only partial recovery of renal function is obtained. Summary TIN with characteristic imaging findings is a typical manifestation of IgG4-RKD in the interstitium, while MGN is a representative manifestation of the glomerular lesions. Although IgG4 is a central feature of IgG4-RD, the recent discovery of IgG4-negative IgG4-RD raises questions about the causative role of the IgG4 molecule in this context. PMID:25594543

Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Saeki, Takako

2015-01-01

360

Diagnostic significance of combined detection of Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, VCA/IgA, EA/IgA, Rta/IgG and EBNA1/IgA for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic significance of EBV antibody combined detection for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in a high incidence region of southern China. Two hundred and eleven untreated NPC patients, 203 non-NPC ENT patients, and 210 healthy controls were recruited for the study. The titers of VCA/IgA and EA/IgA were assessed by immunoenzyme assay, and the levels of Rta/IgG and EBNA1/IgA were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of VCA/IgA, EA/IgA, Rta/IgG and EBNA1/ IgA demonstrated no association with gender or age (p>0.05). The receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve were used to evaluate the diagnostic value. The sensitivity of VCA/IgA (98.1%) and the specificity of EA/IgA (98.5%) were the highest. When a logistic regression model was used to combine the results from multiple antibodies to increase the accuracy, the combination of VCA/IgA+Rta/IgG, whose area under the curve was 0.99, had the highest diagnostic efficiency, and its sensitivity, specificity and Youden index were 94.8%, 98.0% and 0.93 respectively. The data suggest that the combination of VCA/IgA+Rta/IgG may be most suitable for NPC serodiagnosis. PMID:24716925

Cai, Yong-Lin; Li, Jun; Lu, Ai-Ying; Zheng, Yu-Ming; Zhong, Wei-Ming; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jian-Quan; Zeng, Hong; Cheng, Ji-Ru; Tang, Min-Zhong

2014-01-01

361

Scleroderma and IgG4-related disease.  

PubMed

IgG4-related disease is a syndrome which involves lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and soft tissue sclerosis, elevated serum IgG4 titer, and increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in a variety of tissues. Scleroderma is also characterized by fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presence of IgG4-positive cells has not been well characterized in scleroderma. A retrospective review of scleroderma and related disorders (calcinosis, raynaud's syndrome, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome, progressive systemic sclerosis, morphea) was performed. Thirty-four cases of scleroderma and related disorders were identified; IgG4-positive and IgG-positive plasma cells were counted in 10 HPF and an IgG4:IgG ratio determined. A cutoff ratio of 0.3 was used to define significant elevation. Three of the scleroderma cases had IgG4:IgG greater than 0. Only 1 case had a significant elevation. Of the 3 cases with elevated ratio, IgG4-positive cells ranged from 2 to 64 (median = 14), with an IgG4:IgG ranging from 0.06 to 0.34 (median = 0.22). Similar results were produced with the other sclerosing disorders. These results suggest that scleroderma is not part of the IgG4-related disease spectrum. PMID:23563250

Reddi, Deepti M; Cardona, Diana M; Burchette, James L; Puri, Puja K

2013-06-01

362

IgG4-Sclerosing Cholangitis in a Pediatric Patient.  

PubMed

IgG4 sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is an immune-mediated process that results in inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreatobiliary tract. Although IgG4-SC is predominantly associated with autoimmune pancreatitis, IgG4-SC as its own entity can be difficult to diagnose. Patients with IgG4-SC are typically men over the age of 60, and present clinically with obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, and weight loss. The diagnosis of IgG4-SC may be difficult to differentiate from primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) or cholangiocarcinoma. IgG4-SC is morphologically characterized by dense lymphoplasmacellular infiltration, particularly IgG4+ plasma cells and CD4+ T cells, extensive fibrosis in bile duct walls, and obliterative phlebitis. In contrast to PSC, those with IgG4-SC often have elevated serum IgG4 and can be successfully treated with immunosuppression. Here, we present the first reported case of IgG4-SC in a pediatric patient with asymptomatic elevation in liver enzymes, bile duct strictures on imaging, characteristic pathology findings, elevated serum IgG4, and excellent response to corticosteroids. Pediatric gastroenterologists and hepatologists, as well as pediatric hepatopathologists, need to be aware of IgG4-SC as a disease entity. Although certain clinical and imaging findings mimic PSC, diagnosis of IgG4-SC and its appropriate treatment with corticosteroids often lead to remission and reversal of disease. PMID:25632939

Rosen, Danya; Thung, Swan; Sheflin-Findling, Shari; Lai, Joanne; Rosen, Ally; Arnon, Ronen; Chu, Jaime

2015-02-01

363

Cellular Signaling and Production of Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in IgA Nephropathy, an Autoimmune Disease  

PubMed Central

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN), the leading cause of primary glomerulonephritis, is characterized by IgA1-containing immunodeposits in the glomeruli. IgAN is a chronic disease, with up to 40% of patients progressing to end-stage renal disease, with no disease-specific treatment. Multiple studies of the origin of the glomerular immunodeposits have linked elevated circulating levels of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 (galactose-deficient in some O-glycans; Gd-IgA1) with formation of nephritogenic Gd-IgA1-containing immune complexes. Gd-IgA1 is recognized as an autoantigen in susceptible individuals by anti-glycan autoantibodies, resulting in immune complexes that may ultimately deposit in the kidney and induce glomerular injury. Genetic studies have revealed that an elevated level of Gd-IgA1 in the circulation of IgAN patients is a hereditable trait. Moreover, recent genome-wide association studies have identified several immunity-related loci that associated with IgAN. Production of Gd-IgA1 by IgA1-secreting cells of IgAN patients has been attributed to abnormal expression and activity of several key glycosyltransferases. Substantial evidence is emerging that abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells is related to the production of Gd-IgA1. As Gd-IgA1 is the key autoantigen in IgAN, understanding the genetic, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the abnormal signaling in IgA1-producing cells will provide insight into possible targets for future disease-specific therapy. PMID:25152896

Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Mestecky, Jiri; Julian, Bruce A.

2014-01-01

364

Abnormal IgD and IgA1 O-glycosylation in hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome.  

PubMed

In order to determine the glycosylation pattern for IgD, and to examine whether there are changes in the pattern of IgD and IgA1 O-glycosylation in patients with hyperimmunoglobulinaemia D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) during acute febrile attacks and during periods of quiescence, serum was obtained from 20 patients with HIDS and 20 control subjects. In the HIDS group, serum was obtained either during an acute febrile episode (n = 9) or during a period of quiescence (n = 11). The O-glycosylation profiles of native and desialylated IgA1 and IgD were measured in an ELISA-type system using the lectins Helix aspersa and peanut agglutinin, which bind to alternative forms of O-glycan moieties. IgD is more heavily O-galactosylated and less O-sialylated than IgA1 in healthy subjects. HIDS is associated with more extensive O-galactosylation of IgD and a reduction in O-sialylation of both IgD and IgA1. These changes are present both during acute febrile attacks and periods of quiescence. The T cell IgD receptor is a lectin with binding affinity for the O-glycans of both IgD and IgA1. The observed changes in IgD and IgA1 O-glycosylation are likely to have a significant effect on IgD/IgA1-T cell IgD receptor interactions including basal immunoglobulin synthesis, and possibly myeloid IgD receptor-mediated cytokine release. PMID:19543954

de Wolff, Jacob F; Dickinson, Stephen J; Smith, Alice C; Molyneux, Karen; Feehally, John; Simon, Anna; Barratt, Jonathan

2009-12-01

365

Eye movements and target fixation during dragonfly prey-interception flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capture of flying insects by foraging dragonflies is a highly accurate, visually guided behavior. Rather than simply aiming\\u000a at the prey’s position, the dragonfly aims at a point in front of the prey, so that the prey is intercepted with a relatively\\u000a straight flight trajectory. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying this behavior, we used high-speed video\\u000a to

R. M. Olberg; R. C. Seaman; M. I. Coats; A. F. Henry

2007-01-01

366

Cannibalism in a Zoophytophagous Omnivore is Mediated by Prey Availability and Plant Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannibalism is a dietary option, the frequency of which, in most predator-prey systems, is inversely proportional to the abundance of primary prey. Under conditions of prey scarcity, in food webs involving plant-feeding omnivores, cannibals may choose to feed on either conspecifics or on the continuously-available but less nourishing plant substrate. We tested the effects of prey limitation and plant species

Amie Laycock; Edith Camm; Sherah Van Laerhoven; Dave Gillespie

2006-01-01

367

Prey morphology constrains the feeding ecology of an aquatic generalist predator.  

PubMed

Resource availability and accessibility are primary factors guiding the distribution and abundance of organisms. For generalists, prey availability reflects both prey abundance and differences in quality among prey taxa. Although some aspects of prey quality, such as nutritional composition, are well studied, our understanding of how prey morphology contributes to overall prey quality is limited. Because snakes cannot reduce prey size by mastication, many aspects of their feeding ecology (e.g., maximum prey size, feeding performance, and the degree of postprandial locomotor impairment) may be affected by prey shape. We conducted a uniquely comprehensive comparison of prey quality for a generalist species, the banded watersnake (Nerodia fasciata), using prey that were similar in mass and presumably similar in nutritional composition but different in shape and habitat association. Specifically, we compared nutritional composition and shape of paedomorphic salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum) and sunfish (Lepomis MARGINATUS) and used a series of repeated-measures experiments to examine feeding performance (number of prey consumed, maximum prey size, and intra-oral transport time), digestive metabolism (specific dynamic action, SDA), and postprandial locomotor performance of snakes fed Ambystoma and Lepomis. Cost of digestion was similar between the prey types, likely reflecting their similar nutritional composition. However, snakes consumed larger Ambystoma than Lepomis and intra-oral transport time was much shorter for Ambystoma. Snakes fed Lepomis also suffered greater reduction in crawling speed than those fed Ambystoma. These differences highlight the need for behaviorally integrated approaches to understanding prey quality and support field observations of the importance of amphibian prey for juvenile watersnakes. PMID:21608482

Willson, John D; Hopkins, William A

2011-03-01

368

Small object detection neurons in female hoverflies  

PubMed Central

While predators such as dragonflies are dependent on visual detection of moving prey, social interactions make conspecific detection equally important for many non-predatory insects. Specialized ‘acute zones’ associated with target detection have evolved in several insect groups and are a prominent male-specific feature in many dipteran flies. The physiology of target selective neurons associated with these specialized eye regions has previously been described only from male flies. We show here that female hoverflies (Eristalis tenax) have several classes of neurons within the third optic ganglion (lobula) capable of detecting moving objects smaller than 1°. These neurons have frontal receptive fields covering a large part of the ipsilateral world and are tuned to a broad range of target speeds and sizes. This could make them suitable for detecting targets under a range of natural conditions such as required during predator avoidance or conspecific interactions. PMID:16720393

Nordström, Karin; O'Carroll, David C

2006-01-01

369

Small object detection neurons in female hoverflies.  

PubMed

While predators such as dragonflies are dependent on visual detection of moving prey, social interactions make conspecific detection equally important for many non-predatory insects. Specialized 'acute zones' associated with target detection have evolved in several insect groups and are a prominent male-specific feature in many dipteran flies. The physiology of target selective neurons associated with these specialized eye regions has previously been described only from male flies. We show here that female hoverflies (Eristalis tenax) have several classes of neurons within the third optic ganglion (lobula) capable of detecting moving objects smaller than 1 degrees . These neurons have frontal receptive fields covering a large part of the ipsilateral world and are tuned to a broad range of target speeds and sizes. This could make them suitable for detecting targets under a range of natural conditions such as required during predator avoidance or conspecific interactions. PMID:16720393

Nordström, Karin; O'Carroll, David C

2006-05-22

370

IgG1 Is Pathogenic in Leishmania mexicana Infection  

PubMed Central

There are over 2 million new cases of leishmaniasis annually, and no effective vaccine has been developed to prevent infection. In murine infection, Leishmania mexicana, which lives intracellularly in host macrophages, has developed pathways to hijack host IgG to induce a suppressive IL-10 response through Fc?Rs, the cell-surface receptors for IgG. To guide vaccine development away from detrimental Ab responses, which can accompany attempts to induce cell-mediated immunity, it is crucial to know which isotypes of IgG are pathogenic in this infection. We have found that IgG1 and IgG2a/c induce IL-10 from macrophages in vitro equally well but through different Fc?R subtypes: IgG1 through Fc?RIII, and IgG2a/c through Fc?RI primarily, but also through Fc?RIII. In sharp contrast, mice lacking IgG1 develop earlier and stronger IgG2a/c, IgG3, and IgM responses to L. mexicana infection and yet are more resistant to the infection. Thus, IgG1, but not IgG2a/c or IgG3, is pathogenic in vivo, in agreement with prior studies indicating that Fc?RIII is required for chronic disease. This calls into question the assumption that macrophages, which should secrete IL-10 in response to both IgG1 and IgG2a/c immune complexes, are the most important source of IL-10 generated by IgG-Fc?R engagement in L. mexicana infection. Further investigations are required to better determine the cell type responsible for this immunosuppressive Fc?RIII-induced IL-10 pathway and whether IgG2a/c is protective. PMID:21037092

Chu, Niansheng; Thomas, Bolaji N.; Patel, Supriya R.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.

2010-01-01

371

Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Řystein

2011-02-01

372

Annual prey consumption of a dominant seabird, Common Murre, in the California Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

We collated information on population size, diet composition, energy requirements, energy densities of prey species, and assimilation efficiency from the literature to estimate annual prey consumption by Common Murres (Uria aalge) between Cape Blanco, Oregon and Point Conception, California in 2004. We estimated that the population consumed approximately 242,250 metric tons of prey, including 70,500 metric tons consumed by breeding

Jennifer E. Roth; Nadav Nur; Pete Warzybok; William J. Sydeman

373

Influence of the venom delivery system on intraoral prey transport in snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared intraoral prey transport in venomous snake species from four families (two atractaspidids, nine elapids, three colubrids, 44 viperids) with that in eight non-venomous colubrid species, most feeding on similar mammalian prey. The morphology of the venom delivery system suggests that intraoral prey transport performance should be slightly decreased in atractaspidids, unmodified in most elapids and venomous colubrids, and

David Cundall; Alexandra Deufel

2006-01-01

374

Energetic and physiological correlates of prey handling and ingestion in lizards and snakes.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarize the energetic and physiological correlates of prey handling and ingestion in lizards and snakes. There were marked differences in the magnitude of aerobic metabolism during prey handling and ingestion between these two groups, although they show a similar pattern of variation as a function of relative prey mass. For lizards, the magnitude of aerobic metabolism during prey handling and ingestion also varied as a function of morphological specializations for a particular habitat, prey type, and behavior. For snakes, interspecific differences in aerobic metabolism during prey handling seem to be correlated with adaptations for prey capture (venom injection vs. constriction). During ingestion by snakes, differences in aerobic metabolism might be due to differences in cranial morphology, although allometric effects might be a potentially confounded effect. Anaerobic metabolism is used for prey handling and ingestion, but its relative contribution to total ATP production seems to be more pronounced in snakes than in lizards. The energetic costs of prey handling and ingestion are trivial for both groups and cannot be used to predict patterns of prey-size selection. For lizards, it seems that morphological and ecological factors set the constraints on prey handling and ingestion. For snakes, besides these two factors, the capacity of the cardio-respiratory system may also be an important factor constraining the capacity for prey handling and ingestion. PMID:11246042

Cruz-Neto, A P; Andrade, D V; Abe, A S

2001-03-01

375

Energetic and physiological correlates of prey handling and ingestion in lizards and snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarize the energetic and physiological correlates of prey handling and ingestion in lizards and snakes. There were marked differences in the magnitude of aerobic metabolism during prey handling and ingestion between these two groups, although they show a similar pattern of variation as a function of relative prey mass. For lizards, the magnitude of aerobic metabolism

Ariovaldo P Cruz-Neto; Denis V Andrade; Augusto S Abe

2001-01-01

376

Water shrews detect movement, shape, and smell to find prey underwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

American water shrews (Sorex palustris) are aggressive predators that feed on a variety of terrestrial and aquatic prey. They often forage at night, diving into streams and ponds in search of food. We investigated how shrews locate submerged prey using high-speed videography, infrared lighting, and stimuli designed to mimic prey. Shrews attacked brief water movements, indicating motion is an important

Kenneth C. Catania; James F. Hare; Kevin L. Campbell

2008-01-01

377

Predatory Bdellovibrio bacteria use gliding motility to scout for prey on surfaces.  

PubMed

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a famously fast, flagellate predatory bacterium, preying upon Gram-negative bacteria in liquids; how it interacts with prey on surfaces such as in medical biofilms is unknown. Here we report that Bdellovibrio bacteria "scout" for prey bacteria on solid surfaces, using slow gliding motility that is present in flagellum-negative and pilus-negative strains. PMID:21515772

Lambert, Carey; Fenton, Andrew K; Hobley, Laura; Sockett, R Elizabeth

2011-06-01

378

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE BLUE SHARK, PRZONACE GLAUCA, AND ITS PREY SPECIES NEAR SANTA CATALINA ISLAND, CALIFORNIA'  

E-print Network

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE BLUE SHARK, PRZONACE GLAUCA, AND ITS PREY SPECIES NEAR SANTA CATALINA ISLAND the major prey for the blue shark, Prionace glauca, near Santa Catalina Island, Calif. The northern anchovy, Engraulis mordm, was the predominant prey for sharks in the immediate study area while at least 13 speciesof

Tricas, Timothy C.

379

Claw morphology, prey size selection and foraging efficiency in generalist and specialist shell-breaking crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Claw morphology, and claw-closing forces of four species of intertidal crabs from San Juan Island, Washington were compared and related these findings were related to prey size selection, shell breaking times and total handling times on their snail prey, Littorina sitkana Philippi. Two functional groups of crabs emerged: generalists and specialists on hard-shelled prey. The generalist, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), has

Sylvia Behrens Yamada; Elizabeth G. Boulding

1998-01-01

380

The Return of the Wolf Effects on Prey, Competitors and Scavengers  

E-print Network

The Return of the Wolf Effects on Prey, Competitors and Scavengers Camilla Wikenros Faculty on Prey, Competitors and Scavengers Abstract Apex predators may have both direct and indirect effects) on prey species, competitors (including humans) and the scavenging guild after the re- colonization

381

On the Galton-Watson predator-prey process Gerold Alsmeyer  

E-print Network

1 On the Galton-Watson predator-prey process Gerold Alsmeyer Mathematisches Seminar Universit¨at Kiel Ludewig-Meyn-Straße 4 D-24098 Kiel We consider a probabilistic, discrete-time predator-prey model evolves according to an ordinary supercritical Galton-Watson process. Each prey is either killed

Alsmeyer, Gerold

382

Aposematic coloration enhances chemosensory recognition of noxious prey in the garter snake Thamnophis radix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable recent research has suggested that predators learn to avoid noxious or unpalatable prey more rapidly if those prey have conspicuous (aposematic) colour patterns. However, the precise psychological mechanisms by which predators associate conspicuous coloration with unpalatability remain poorly understood. In this study, the relative importance of visual and chemosensory information in learned aversions to noxious prey was examined by

TIMOTHY D. TERRICK; RONALD L. MUMME; GORDON M. BURGHARDT

1995-01-01

383

Diet and Prey Selection by Lake Superior Lake Trout during Spring, 1986–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the diet and prey selectivity of lean (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) and siscowet lake trout (S. n. siscowet) collected during spring (April–June) from Lake Superior during 1986–2001. We estimated prey selectivity by comparing prey numerical abundance estimates from spring bottom trawl surveys and lake trout diet information in similar areas from spring gill net surveys conducted annually in Lake

Bradley A. Ray; Thomas R. Hrabik; Mark P. Ebener; Owen T. Gorman; Donald R. Schreiner; Stephen T. Schram; Shawn P. Sitar; William P. Mattes; Charles R. Bronte

2007-01-01

384

A Predator-Prey system with viral infection and anorexia response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generalized Gause model of Predator–Prey system is proposed with an introduction of viral infection on prey population and anorexia response on predator population. By using the comparison theorem and constructing suitable Lyapunov function, we study such modified Predator–Prey system with almost periodic coefficients. Some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic solution. Numerical simulations

Zhenkun Huang; Fengde Chen; Xinghua Wang

2006-01-01

385

The evolution of crypsis in replicating populations of web-based prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the evolution of background matching (crypsis) when prey are viewed against uniform and heterogeneous (alternating) backgrounds, we conducted some web-based experiments. Visitors to our experimental web site were rewarded for finding artificial prey, thereby providing a measure of their detectability. We first compared the ''survivorship'' of a range of pixilated prey phenotypes presented against both light green and

Thomas N. Sherratt; David Pollitt; David M. Wilkinson

2007-01-01

386

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the  

E-print Network

Functional feeding responses of coyotes, Canis latrans, to fluctuating prey abundance in the Curlew interactions between coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) and prey in the Curlew Valley, Utah, by comparing prey coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) et leurs proies dans la vallée Curlew, Utah, en comparant l

Bartel, Becky

387

Predator versus prey: on aerial hunting and escape strategies in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator and prey attack-escape performance is likely to be the outcome of an evolutionary arms race. Predatory birds are typically larger than their prey, suggesting different flight performances. We analyze three idealized attack-escape situations between predatory and prey birds: climbing flight escape, horizontal speeding, and turning and escape by diving. Generally a smaller bird will outclimb a larger predator and

Anders Hedenstrom; Mikael Rosen

2001-01-01

388

Along Came a Spider: Using Live Arthropods in a Predator-Prey Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We developed a predator-prey activity with eighth-grade students in which they used wolf spiders ("Lycosa carolinensis"), house crickets ("Acheta domestica"), and abiotic factors to address how (1) adaptations in predators and prey shape their interaction and (2) abiotic factors modify the interaction between predators and prey. We tested student…

Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

2011-01-01

389

Foraging Decision Rules and Prey Species Preferences of Northwestern Crows (Corvus caurinus)  

E-print Network

they select heavier prey items when feeding on hard-shelled prey requiring similar handling techniques advantage of novel resources (Micheli 1995). Such behavioural flexibility has been demonstrated in crabs feeding on clams: prey size preferences of crabs varied according to their previous experience

Dawson, Russell D.

390

The genetics and immunobiology of IgA nephropathy  

PubMed Central

IgA nephropathy (IgAN) represents the leading cause of kidney failure among East Asian populations and the most frequent form of primary glomerulonephritis among Europeans. Patients with IgAN develop characteristic IgA1-containing immune complexes that deposit in the glomerular mesangium, producing progressive kidney injury. Recent studies define IgAN as an autoimmune trait of complex architecture with a strong genetic determination. This Review summarizes new insights into the role of the O-glycosylation pathway, anti-glycan immune response, mucosal immunity, antigen processing and presentation, and the alternative complement pathway in the pathogenesis of IgAN. PMID:24892706

Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Novak, Jan

2014-01-01

391

Detection of Serum IgG4 Levels in Patients with IgG4-Related Disease and Other Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated serum IgG4 levels are an important hallmark for diagnosing IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but can also be observed in other diseases. This study aimed to compare two different testing methods for IgG4: ELISA and nephelometric assay. Both assays were used to measure serum IgG4 concentrations, and to assess the prevalence of high serum IgG4 levels in both IgG4-RD and non-IgG4-RD diseases. Methods A total of 80 serum samples were tested using the nephelometric assay and ELISA method that we established. Serum IgG4 concentrations were determined by ELISA for 957 patients with distinct diseases, including 12 cases of IgG4-RD and 945 cases of non-IgG4-RD. Results IgG4 levels from 80 selected serum samples examined by ELISA were in agreement with those detected using the nephelometry assay. Meanwhile, the serum IgG4 concentrations measured by ELISA were also consistent with the clinical diagnoses of patients with IgG4-RD during the course of disease. The Elevated levels of serum IgG4 (>1.35 g/L) were detected in all IgG4-RD (12/12) patients, and the prevalence of high IgG4 serum levels was 3.39% in non-IgG4-RD cases. Among them, the positive rates of serum IgG4 were 2.06% in patients with carcinoma and 6.3% in patients with other non-IgG4 autoimmune diseases. Conclusion Our established ELISA method is a reliable and convenient technique, which could be extensively used in the clinic to measure serum IgG4 levels. High levels of IgG4 were observed in IgG4-RD. However, this phenomenon could also be observed in other diseases, such as carcinomas and other autoimmune diseases. Thus, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease cannot only be dependent on the detection of elevated serum IgG4 levels. PMID:25885536

Wang, Chenqiong; Wu, Xuefen; Miao, Ye; Xiong, Hui; Bai, Lin; Dong, Lingli

2015-01-01

392

CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON POLLUTANTS IN ALASKAN GYRFALCONS AND THEIR PREY  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTACT.---Analyses of biopsy fat samples and addled eggs of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and selected prey items collected during 1970 and 1971 from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska show that all samples contained both industrial and agricultural contaminants. A pathway of aerial transport to this remote arctic ecosystem is indicated. Geometric mean levels of DDE, the principal insec- ticide derivative in both

WAYMAN WALKER

393

Prey odor discrimination by ingestively naive coachwhip snakes (Masticophis flagellum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ingestively naive hatchling coachwhip snakes(Masticophis flagellum) detected integumentary chemicals from several potential prey species and discriminated them from chemical stimuli from other animals and from distilled water, strongly suggesting a genetic basis for these abilities. The strongest responses were to lizard and snake stimuli, which form a major part of the diet. Variable responses to chemical cues from other

William E. Cooper; Donald G. Buth; Laurie J. Vitt

1990-01-01

394

Extra Exercises for Chapter 20 on Predator-Prey Cycles  

E-print Network

has come to be known as the competitive exclusion principle (Hardin 1960) or Gause's principle (after environmental modeling class dealt with the competitive exclusion principle, and they helpedExtra Exercises for Chapter 20 on Predator-Prey Cycles Confirming the Competitive Exclusion

Ford, Andrew

395

Competition and stoichiometry: coexistence of two predators on one prey.  

PubMed

The competitive exclusion principle (CEP) states that no equilibrium is possible if n species exploit fewer than n resources. This principle does not appear to hold in nature, where high biodiversity is commonly observed, even in seemingly homogenous habitats. Although various mechanisms, such as spatial heterogeneity or chaotic fluctuations, have been proposed to explain this coexistence, none of them invalidates this principle. Here we evaluate whether principles of ecological stoichiometry can contribute to the stable maintenance of biodiverse communities. Stoichiometric analysis recognizes that each organism is a mixture of multiple chemical elements such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) that are present in various proportions in organisms. We incorporate these principles into a standard predator-prey model to analyze competition between two predators on one autotrophic prey. The model tracks two essential elements, C and P, in each species. We show that a stable equilibrium is possible with two predators on this single prey. At this equilibrium both predators can be limited by the P content of the prey. The analysis suggests that chemical heterogeneity within and among species provides new mechanisms that can support species coexistence and that may be important in maintaining biodiversity. PMID:14642340

Loladze, Irakli; Kuang, Yang; Elser, James J; Fagan, William F

2004-02-01

396

Visual predators select for crypticity and polymorphism in virtual prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptically coloured animals commonly occur in several distinct pattern variants. Such phenotypic diversity may be promoted by frequency-dependent predation, in which more abundant variants are attacked disproportionately often, but the hypothesis has never been explicitly tested. Here we report the first controlled experiment on the effects of visual predators on prey crypticity and phenotypic variance, in which blue jays (Cyanocitta

Alan B. Bond; Alan C. Kamil

2002-01-01

397

Visual Detection of Cryptic Prey by Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue jays learned to respond differentially to the presence or absence of Catocala moths in slides. This detection of the moths by the jays was affected by the background upon which the moth was placed and its body orientation, thus providing an objective measure of crypticity. These procedures are useful for the study of visual detection of prey.

Alexandra T. Pietrewicz; Alan C. Kamil

1977-01-01

398

Visual Detection of Cryptic Prey by Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata).  

PubMed

Blue jays learned to respond differentially to the presence or absence of Catocala moths in slides. This detection of the moths by the jays was affected by the background upon which the moth was placed and its body orientation, thus providing an objective measure of crypticity. These procedures are useful for the study of visual detection of prey. PMID:17732294

Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

1977-02-11

399

PRAIRIE FALCON PREY IN THE MOJAVE DESERT, CALIFORNIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of birds, 9 species of mammals, 5 species of reptiles and 1 species of insect were represented in prey remains and castings from 19 Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus) nests in the Mojave Desert, California, during 1977 and 1978. Reptiles represented a greater proportion in the diet than is reported in most other Prairie Falcon food studies in the

DOUGLAS A. BOYCE

400

Antarctic jaws: cephalopod prey of sharks in Kerguelen waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only five species of sharks have been recorded in the Southern Ocean, where their biology is essentially unknown. We investigated the feeding habits of the three commonest species from stomach content analysis of specimens taken as bycatches of the fishery targeting the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) in upper slope waters of the Kerguelen Archipelago. The three species prey upon a

Yves Cherel; Guy Duhamel

2004-01-01

401

Prey Capture and Phagocytosis in the Choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta  

PubMed Central

Choanoflagellates are unicellular and colonial aquatic microeukaryotes that capture bacteria using an apical flagellum surrounded by a feeding collar composed of actin-filled microvilli. Flow produced by the apical flagellum drives prey bacteria to the feeding collar for phagocytosis. We report here on the cell biology of prey capture in rosette-shaped colonies and unicellular “thecate” or substrate attached cells from the choanoflagellate S. rosetta. In thecate cells and rosette colonies, phagocytosis initially involves fusion of multiple microvilli, followed by remodeling of the collar membrane to engulf the prey, and transport of engulfed bacteria into the cell. Although both thecate cells and rosette colony cells produce ?70 nm “collar links” that connect and potentially stabilize adjacent microvilli, only thecate cells were observed to produce a lamellipod-like “collar skirt” that encircles the base of the collar. This study offers insight into the process of prey ingestion by S. rosetta, and provides a context within which to consider potential ecological differences between solitary cells and colonies in choanoflagellates. PMID:24806026

Dayel, Mark J.; King, Nicole

2014-01-01

402

Prey capture and phagocytosis in the choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta.  

PubMed

Choanoflagellates are unicellular and colonial aquatic microeukaryotes that capture bacteria using an apical flagellum surrounded by a feeding collar composed of actin-filled microvilli. Flow produced by the apical flagellum drives prey bacteria to the feeding collar for phagocytosis. We report here on the cell biology of prey capture in rosette-shaped colonies and unicellular "thecate" or substrate attached cells from the choanoflagellate S. rosetta. In thecate cells and rosette colonies, phagocytosis initially involves fusion of multiple microvilli, followed by remodeling of the collar membrane to engulf the prey, and transport of engulfed bacteria into the cell. Although both thecate cells and rosette colony cells produce ? 70 nm "collar links" that connect and potentially stabilize adjacent microvilli, only thecate cells were observed to produce a lamellipod-like "collar skirt" that encircles the base of the collar. This study offers insight into the process of prey ingestion by S. rosetta, and provides a context within which to consider potential ecological differences between solitary cells and colonies in choanoflagellates. PMID:24806026

Dayel, Mark J; King, Nicole

2014-01-01

403

Does colour polymorphism enhance survival of prey populations?  

PubMed

That colour polymorphism may protect prey populations from predation is an old but rarely tested hypothesis. We examine whether colour polymorphic populations of prey exposed to avian predators in an ecologically valid visual context were exposed to increased extinction risk compared with monomorphic populations. We made 2976 artificial pastry prey, resembling Lepidoptera larvae, in four different colours and presented them in 124 monomorphic and 124 tetramorphic populations on tree trunks and branches such that they would be exposed to predation by free-living birds, and monitored their 'survival'. Among monomorphic populations, there was a significant effect of prey coloration on survival, confirming that coloration influenced susceptibility to visually oriented predators. Survival of polymorphic populations was inferior to that of monomorphic green populations, but did not differ significantly from monomorphic brown, yellow or red populations. Differences in survival within polymorphic populations paralleled those seen among monomorphic populations; the red morph most frequently went extinct first and the green morph most frequently survived the longest. Our findings do not support the traditional protective polymorphism hypothesis and are in conflict with those of earlier studies. As a possible explanation to our findings, we offer a competing 'giveaway cue' hypothesis: that polymorphic populations may include one morph that attracts the attention of predators and that polymorphic populations therefore may suffer increased predation compared with some monomorphic populations. PMID:19324729

Wennersten, Lena; Forsman, Anders

2009-06-22

404

The prey of owls from Koichab Pan in the  

E-print Network

gerbils (50 %) and golden moles (30 %), while geckoes (16 %) were the other most important prey is to present the results of an analysis of the contents of pellets dropped by the spotted eagle owl Bubo a by spotted eagle owls and, although the occupants of another three nearby roosts were not identified

Pretoria, University of

405

Testing for Camouflage Using Virtual Prey and Human "Predators"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Camouflage is a prevalent feature of the natural world and as such has a ready appeal to students; however, it is a difficult subject to study using real predators and prey. This paper focuses how one fundamental type of camouflage, disruptive colouration (bold markings that break up the outline of the organism), can be tested using paper…

Todd, Peter A.

2009-01-01

406

Aphid prey suitability as environmental effect on Adalia bipunctata reproduction.  

PubMed

Secondary plant metabolites (allelochemicals) play a major role in plant-insect interactions. Glucosinolates (GLS) and their degradation products from Brassica species are attractants and feeding stimulants for Brassicaceae specialist insects but are generally repellent and toxic for generalist herbivores. The impact of these compounds on crucifer specialist insects are well known but their effect on generalist predators is still not well documented. Prey host plant influence on reproduction of an aphidophagous beneficial, the two spot ladybird, was determined using the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae reared on a crucifer plant, namely Brassica napus containing low GLS levels. As ladybird developmental and reproductive parameters were already shown to be strongly affected by the allelochemical presence in its preys, the unsuitable aphid and host plant combination was only momentary used to feed the A. bipunctata adults. A strong impact of the diet was observed on the beetle fecundity and the emerging offspring. Changing B. brassicae aphid to a suitable prey slowly improved the temporary negative effect of the former diet. These results enhance the food environmental effect and the importance of tritrophic relations in pest management strategies by predators. Indeed, more than the choice of the beneficial species, the prey host plant has a major influence on the potential efficacy of biological agent to control herbivore species such as aphids. PMID:12696423

Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Gaspar, Charles; Francis, Frédéric

2002-01-01

407

Detection of Zooplankton Prey in Squid Paralarvae with Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable management of economically important squid requires monitoring of changes in their abundance, which are related inter alia, to their success in the food chain. the highest mortality is expected in the paralarval stages, which are prone to starvation. Causes of starvation may be linked to the lack of suitable prey. A multiple detection system was developed for the simultaneous

J. D. Venter; S. van Wyngaardt; J. A. Verschoor; M. R. Lipi?ski; H. M. Verheye

1999-01-01

408

Prey-size selection by freshwater flagellated protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planktonic bacteria may represent a substantial nutrient resource available to support the next higher trophic level in the microbial loop (heterotrophic flagellates). In this work we examined the utilization of different size classes of bacteria by flagellated protozoan predators of various sizes. The emphasis was to determine if prey-size selection was a function of predator size. Pseudomonas sp. was grown

THOMAS H. CHRZANOWSKI; KAREL SIMEK

1990-01-01

409

Population dynamics, production, and prey consumption of fathead minnows (Pimephales  

E-print Network

Population dynamics, production, and prey consumption of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in prairie wetlands and developed a bioenergetics model to estimate-de-boules (Pimephales promelas) dans les milieux humides des prairies et mis au point un modèle de bioénergétique pour

410

Prolonged prey suppression by carnivores — predator-removal experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that carnivores can significantly suppress prey populations after they collapse during drought was tested by predator-removal experiments. Low populations of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) responded with significantly accelerated growth where foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) were continually shot. Experiments in years of good pasture and poor were confirmatory. After only 14 months, the rabbits were well

A. E. Newsome; I. Parer; P. C. Catling

1989-01-01

411

FE SPOTLIGHT Cognitive dysfunction and risk assessment by prey  

E-print Network

FE SPOTLIGHT Cognitive dysfunction and risk assessment by prey: predictable changes in global of cognitive processing of the information within decision-making processes in the brain of the fish strongly suggest that the effect of CO2 is impairment of higher cognitive function where input of sensory

Wisenden, Brian D.

412

ORIGINAL PAPER Range expansion and prey use of American mink  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Range expansion and prey use of American mink in Argentinean Patagonia: dilemmas of American mink as an introduced species in Patagonia and elsewhere, together with our own survey, we discuss the implications of this invasion for biodiversity conservation in Argentinean Patagonia and the associated

Boyer, Edmond

413

Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris  

E-print Network

Cooperative prey herding by the pelagic dolphin, Stenella longirostris Kelly J. Benoit dimensions. Spinner dolphins foraged at night in highly coordinated groups of 16­28 individuals using strict avoidance behavior to achieve food densities not observed otherwise. Pairs of dolphins then took turns

Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

414

Conservation Status of North America's Birds of Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the conservation status of 20 species of North American birds of prey by examining historical and recent estimates of trends in counts of raptors at migration watchsites. We compared these trend estimates with trends in Breeding Bird Surveys (BBSs), Christmas Bird Counts (CBCs) (terms in italics are defi ned in the book's glossary), and other available population indexes

Christopher J. Farmer; Laurie J. Goodrich; Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Jeff P. Smith

415

Signal conict in spider webs driven by predators and prey  

E-print Network

Signal conŻict in spider webs driven by predators and prey Todd A. Blackledge Department silk designs, stabilimenta, in the centre of their webs. Stabilimenta can be highly visible signals to predators, warning them of the presence of a noxious, sticky silk web. However, stabilimenta can also

Blackledge, Todd

416

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey  

E-print Network

Ecological Role of Sea Lions as Predators, Competitors, and Prey · Sea Lion Species · California Sea Lions (not listed) - increasing · Steller Sea Lions eDPS (threatened) ­ increasing (delisting review under way, June 2010) · Steller Sea Lions wDPS (endangered) - decreasing · Predators ­ varied diet

417

Changes in water chemistry can disable plankton prey defenses  

PubMed Central

The effectiveness of antipredator defenses is greatly influenced by the environment in which an organism lives. In aquatic ecosystems, the chemical composition of the water itself may play an important role in the outcome of predator–prey interactions by altering the ability of prey to detect predators or to implement defensive responses once the predator’s presence is perceived. Here, we demonstrate that low calcium concentrations (<1.5 mg/L) that are found in many softwater lakes and ponds disable the ability of the water flea, Daphnia pulex to respond effectively to its predator, larvae of the phantom midge, Chaoborus americanus. This low-calcium environment prevents development of the prey’s normal array of induced defenses, which include an increase in body size, formation of neck spines, and strengthening of the carapace. We estimate that this inability to access these otherwise effective defenses results in a 50–186% increase in the vulnerability of the smaller juvenile instars of Daphnia, the stages most susceptible to Chaoborus predation. Such a change likely contributes to the observed lack of success of daphniids in most low-calcium freshwater environments, and will speed the loss of these important zooplankton in lakes where calcium levels are in decline. PMID:22949653

Riessen, Howard P.; Linley, Robert Dallas; Altshuler, Ianina; Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian; Yan, Norman D.

2012-01-01

418

Non-classical forms of pemphigus: pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus*  

PubMed Central

The pemphigus group comprises the autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases classically divided into two major types: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous. Pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus are rarer forms that present some clinical, histological and immunopathological characteristics that are different from the classical types. These are reviewed in this article. Future research may help definitively to locate the position of these forms in the pemphigus group, especially with regard to pemphigus herpetiformis and the IgG/ IgA pemphigus. PMID:24626654

Porro, Adriana Maria; Caetano, Livia de Vasconcelos Nasser; Maehara, Laura de Sena Nogueira; Enokihara, Milvia Maria dos Santos

2014-01-01

419

The Hyper IgE Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) are rare primary immune deficiencies characterized by elevated serum IgE, rash and recurrent bacterial infections of the skin and lung. Autosomal dominant HIES, the most common disease in this group, results from STAT3 mutations and has a variety of connective tissue and skeletal abnormalities. The genetic etiologies of the more rare autosomal recessive form(s) still need delineation. Treatment of these syndromes has relied on prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobials and aggressive skin care. The new and evolving genetic and immunologic understandings of this previously elusive set of diseases should lead to more effective disease-specific therapies. PMID:18424333

Freeman, Alexandra F; Holland, Steven M

2009-01-01

420

IgG4-Related Nasal Pseudotumor.  

PubMed

IgG4-related disease is recognized as one form of autoimmune pancreatitis. During the last ten years, it has also been described in several other organs. We present two patients with lesions showing a histological picture of fibrosis and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations with abundant IgG4 positive plasma cells at hitherto unreported symmetrical nasal locations. The symmetrical complex consisted of one central lesion in the anterior nasal septum and the two others in each of the lateral nasal walls. The lesions extended from the anterior part of the inferior concha into the vestibulum and caused severe nasal obstruction. PMID:25767730

Dřsen, L K; Jebsen, P; Dingsřr, B; Haye, R

2015-01-01