The males of most birds are larger than the females, but the opposite is true of birds of prey-the hawks and owls of the orders Falconiformes and Strigiformes. In these females are, with few exceptions, larger than males-sometimes markedly so. These two orders are only distantly related, and one may assume that this reversed sexual dimorphism evolved indepen- dently in
Dean Amadon; H. L. Mencken
Two exotic phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, are commercially available in Japan for the control of thrips and other pest insects. As part of a risk assessment of the non-target effects of releasing these two species, we investigated intraguild predation (IGP) between these exotic phytoseiid mites and an indigenous phytoseiid mite Gynaeseius liturivorus, which is promising as an indigenous natural enemy for the control of thrips in Japan. To understand IGP relations between the exotic and indigenous phytoseiid mites after use of the exotic mites for biological control, we investigated IGP between them in the absence of their shared prey. When an IG prey was offered to an IG predator, both exotic and indigenous females consumed the IG prey at all immature stages (egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph), especially at its larval stages. The propensity for IGP in a no-choice test was measured by the survival time of IG prey corrected using the survival time of thrips offered to the IG predator. There was no significant difference in the propensity for IGP between N. cucumeris and G. liturivorus, but the propensity was significantly higher in A. swirskii than G. liturivorus. The propensity for IGP in a choice test was measured by the prey choice of the IG predator when a conspecific and a heterospecific larva were offered simultaneously as IG prey. Both exotic females consumed the heterospecific larva only. The indigenous female preferentially consumed the heterospecific larva when the heterospecific larva was N. cucumeris, but consumed the conspecific larva when the heterospecific larva was A. swirskii. We concluded that further investigation would be necessary for the exotic mites' risk assessment, since the propensity for IGP of the two exotic females was similar to or higher than that of the indigenous female in both the no-choice and choice tests. PMID:21465332
Sato, Yukie; Mochizuki, Atsushi
Summary 1. In heterogeneous environments, the risk of predation and parasitism for phytophagous insects varies among different microhabitats. Adult females can escape natural enemies by depositing their eggs on sites unfavourable for prey-searching predators or parasitoids. Host plant characteristics can determine the availability of such spatial refuges. 2. We assessed the importance of host plant exposure for the predation probability
B. TSCHANZ; E. SCHMID; S. BACHER
The Prey application is quite invaluable and it is a fine way to locate a missing phone or computer. After downloading Prey, users can gather information regarding the device's location, hardware, and network status. Also, users can grab a screenshot of what the device is doing at that moment and they can also even take a picture of the potential thief with the device's webcam. This particular version is compatible with those computers running Mac OS X 10.4 and newer, Windows 2000 and newer, and Linux.
In birds with bi-parental care, the provisioning link between prey capture and delivery to dependent offspring is regarded as often symmetric between the mates. However, in raptors, the larger female usually broods and feeds the nestlings, while the smaller male provides food for the family, assisted by the female in the latter part of the nestling period, if at all. Prey items are relatively large and often impossible for nestlings to handle without extended maternal assistance. We video-recorded prey delivery and handling in nests of a raptor with a wide diet, the Eurasian kestrel Falco tinnunculus, and simultaneously observed prey transfer from male to female outside the nest. The male selectively allocated larger items, in particular birds and larger mammals, to the female for further processing and feeding of nestlings, and smaller items, in particular lizards and smaller mammals, directly to the nestlings for unassisted feeding. Hence, from the video, the female appeared to have captured larger prey than the male, while in reality no difference existed. The female's size-biased interception of the male's prey provisioning line would maximize the male's foraging time, and maximize the female's control of the allocation of food between her own need and that of the offspring. The male would maximize his control of food allocation by capturing smaller prey. This conflict would select for larger dominant females and smaller energy-efficient males, and induce stronger selection the longer the female depends on the male for self-feeding, as a proportion of the offspring dependence period. PMID:23073637
Sonerud, Geir A; Steen, Ronny; Løw, Line M; Røed, Line T; Skar, Kristin; Selås, Vidar; Slagsvold, Tore
Cells of the endocervix are responsible for the secretion of mucins, which provide an additional layer of protection to the female reproductive tract (FRT). This barrier is likely fortified with IgA as has previously been shown in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs of mice. Mucus associated IgA can facilitate clearance of bacteria. While a similar function for IgG has been proposed, an association with mucus has not yet been demonstrated. Here we find that IgA and IgG are differentially associated with the different types of mucus of the FRT. We observed that while both IgA and IgG are stably associated with cervical mucus, only IgG is associated with cervicovaginal mucus. These findings reveal that antibodies can bind tightly to mucus, where they can play a significant role in the fortification of the mucus barriers of the FRT. It may be possible to harness this interaction in the development of vaccines designed to protect the FRT mucosal barriers from sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV.
Fahrbach, Kelly M.; Malykhina, Olga; Stieh, Daniel J.; Hope, Thomas J.
Permanent female mimicry, in which adult males express a female phenotype, is known only from two bird species. A likely benefit of female mimicry is reduced intrasexual competition, allowing female-like males to access breeding resources while avoiding costly fights with typical territorial males. We tested this hypothesis in a population of marsh harriers Circus aeruginosus in which approximately 40 per cent of sexually mature males exhibit a permanent, i.e. lifelong, female plumage phenotype. Using simulated territorial intrusions, we measured aggressive responses of breeding males towards conspecific decoys of females, female-like males and typical males. We show that aggressive responses varied with both the type of decoys and the type of defending male. Typical males were aggressive towards typical male decoys more than they were towards female-like male decoys; female-like male decoys were attacked at a rate similar to that of female decoys. By contrast, female-like males tolerated male decoys (both typical and female-like) and directed their aggression towards female decoys. Thus, agonistic responses were intrasexual in typical males but intersexual in female-like males, indicating that the latter not only look like females but also behave like them when defending breeding resources. When intrasexual aggression is high, permanent female mimicry is arguably adaptive and could be seen as a permanent ‘non-aggression pact’ with other males.
Sternalski, Audrey; Mougeot, Francois; Bretagnolle, Vincent
IgG is a major Ig subclass in mucosal secretions of the human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about where and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role local IgG plays in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. We demonstrate here that the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is expressed in female genital tract epithelial cells of humans and mice and binds IgG in a pH-dependent manner. In vitro we show that FcRn mediates bidirectional IgG transport across polarized human endometrial HEC-1-A monolayers and primary human genital epithelial cells. Furthermore, endosomal acidification appears to be a prerequisite for FcRn-mediated IgG transcytosis; IgG transcytosis was demonstrated in vivo by translocation of systemically administered IgG into the genital lumen in WT but not FcRn-KO mice. The biological relevance of FcRn-transported IgG was demonstrated by passive immunization using herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)-specific polyclonal serum, which conferred significantly higher protection against intravaginal challenge infection by the HSV-2 186 strain in WT mice than in FcRn-KO mice. These studies demonstrate that FcRn-mediated transport is a mechanism by which IgG can act locally in the female genital tract in immune surveillance and in host defense against sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:21368166
Li, Zili; Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zeng, Rongyu; Tuo, Wenbin; Roopenian, Derry C; Zhu, Xiaoping
We report on the case of a girl with an immune deficiency characterized by recurrent infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, low IgG and IgA serum levels as well as deficiency of the in vivo antibody response. Since this patient is the sister of a boy affected with a hyper-IgM syndrome due to a defect in CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression, the involvement of CD40L in this phenotypic expression was investigated. A very low fraction of activated T cells (5%) in this female patient expressed CD40L. This resulted from the presence of a heterozygous CD40L nonsense mutation associated with a skewed pattern of X chromosome inactivation as determined by methylation pattern analysis. Although carriers of X-linked hyper-IgM are considered to be asymptomatic, this study indicates that extreme lyonization of the normal X can lead to a mild expression of the hyper-IgM syndrome which is similar to common variable immune deficiency (CVID). Therefore, it is possible that some cases of CVID in females represent partial deficiency of CD40L expression in carriers of the CD40L mutation. PMID:9933119
de Saint Basile, G; Tabone, M D; Durandy, A; Phan, F; Fischer, A; Le Deist, F
Using Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to develop the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions and a two-populaton version of Eulers Method for solving a system of differential equations.
English walnuts are implicated in severe, IgE-mediated food allergy in humans. We sought to determine if polyphenolic compounds extracted from the edible nut could promote IgE production to a coadministered allergen. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) with or without alum (AL) or polyphenolic-enriched extract via intraperitoneal injection. Serum was analyzed for total IgE and OVA-specific IgE, IgG(1,) and IgG(2a/2b). Coadministration of walnut polyphenolic-enriched extract with antigen and AL increased serum concentrations of antigen-specific IgE and IgG(1). When AL was excluded from the injections, polyphenolic extract tended to enhance OVA-specific IgE and IgG(1) over levels induced by OVA alone, but the increase did not reach significance. Serum IgG(2a/2b) levels were similar between mice receiving OVA/AL and OVA/AL with polyphenolics. Thus, walnut polyphenolic extract enhanced the Th2-skewing effect of an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. This indicates that walnut polyphenolic compounds may play a role in allergic sensitization of genetically predisposed individuals. PMID:20388137
Comstock, Sarah S; Gershwin, Laurel J; Teuber, Suzanne S
We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection.
Elbroch, L. Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E.; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek
Summary This study examines the responses of the predatory mite,Phytoseiulus persimilis, to the density and distribution of its prey,Tetranychus urticae. It is divided into three parts. Firstly, the functional responses of protonymph, deutonymph and adult females towards different\\u000a prey stages are displayed. The great majority of the responses are of the type II form, and the variations in the values of
M. H. J. P. Pernando; M. P. Hassell
Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops and explores the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions as a prototypical first-order system of differential equations. This is part of a larger collection of modules hosted by Duke University.
Moore, Lang; Smith, David
We study the survival of a prey that is hunted by N predators. The predators perform independent random walks on a square lattice with V sites and start a direct chase whenever the prey appears within their sighting range. The prey is caught when a predator jumps to the site occupied by the prey. We analyze the efficacy of a lazy, minimal-effort evasion strategy according to which the prey tries to avoid encounters with the predators by making a hop only when any of the predators appears within its sighting range; otherwise the prey stays still. We show that if the sighting range of such a lazy prey is equal to 1 lattice spacing, at least 3 predators are needed in order to catch the prey on a square lattice. In this situation, we establish a simple asymptotic relation lnP ev(t) ? (N/V)2lnP imm(t) between the survival probabilities of an evasive and an immobile prey. Hence, when the density ? = N/V of the predators is low, ? ? 1, the lazy evasion strategy leads to the spectacular increase of the survival probability. We also argue that a short-sighting prey (its sighting range is smaller than the sighting range of the predators) undergoes an effective superdiffusive motion, as a result of its encounters with the predators, whereas a far-sighting prey performs a diffusive-type motion.
Oshanin, G.; Vasilyev, O.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Klafter, J.
The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.
Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Bjorn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich
The International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics (IGS) supports and helps coordinate GPS data production and parameters useful for generating more accurate data products. The IGS has operated a GPS tracking system for several years. It contains more than 100 stations worldwide and has produced a combined GPS ephemeris that has become the standard for geodesists and geophysicists worldwide. IGS data and products are freely available to all, thanks to the cooperation and participation of all the IGS members. This directory provides data on the stations and provides names and contact information with personnel involved with the IGS.
We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission.
Fouda, Genevieve G. A.; Amos, Joshua D.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A.; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J.; Staats, Herman F.; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; LaBranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L.; Haynes, Barton F.
This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…
Background Little is known about the impact of prey sexual dimorphism on predator-prey dynamics and the impact of sex-selective harvesting and trophy hunting on long-term stability of exploited populations. Methodology and Principal Findings We review the quantitative evidence for sex-selective predation and study its long-term consequences using several simple predator-prey models. These models can be also interpreted in terms of feedback between harvesting effort and population size of the harvested species under open-access exploitation. Among the 81 predator-prey pairs found in the literature, male bias in predation is 2.3 times as common as female bias. We show that long-term effects of sex-selective predation depend on the interplay of predation bias and prey mating system. Predation on the ‘less limiting’ prey sex can yield a stable predator-prey equilibrium, while predation on the other sex usually destabilizes the dynamics and promotes population collapses. For prey mating systems that we consider, males are less limiting except for polyandry and polyandrogyny, and male-biased predation alone on such prey can stabilize otherwise unstable dynamics. On the contrary, our results suggest that female-biased predation on polygynous, polygynandrous or monogamous prey requires other stabilizing mechanisms to persist. Conclusions and Significance Our modelling results suggest that the observed skew towards male-biased predation might reflect, in addition to sexual selection, the evolutionary history of predator-prey interactions. More focus on these phenomena can yield additional and interesting insights as to which mechanisms maintain the persistence of predator-prey pairs over ecological and evolutionary timescales. Our results can also have implications for long-term sustainability of harvesting and trophy hunting of sexually dimorphic species.
Boukal, David S.; Berec, Ludek; Krivan, Vlastimil
Adult female bolas spiders have a unique hunting tactic that combines aggressive chemical mimicry of the sex pheromone blends of their prey moths with a specialized weapon (the bolas) and behaviors to capture attracted male moths. This report shows that female bolas spiders can release the attractive allomone before they make the bolas and that females detect moth wing vibrations
K. F. Haynes; K. V. Yeargan; C. Gemeno
Suppression of a target prey by a predator can depend on its surrounding community, including the presence of nontarget, alternative prey. Basic theoretical models of two prey species that interact only via a shared predator predict that adding an alternative prey should increase predator numbers and ultimately lower target pest densities as compared to when the target pest is the
Jason P. HARMON; D. A. Andow
The effects of a behavioral refuge caused either by the predator optimal foraging or prey adaptive antipredator behavior on the Gause predator-prey model are studied. It is shown that both of these mechanisms promote predator-prey coexistence either at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle. Adaptive prey refuge use leads to hysteresis in prey antipredator behavior which allows predator-prey coexistence along a limit cycle. Similarly, optimal predator foraging leads to sigmoidal functional responses with a potential to stabilize predator-prey population dynamics at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle. PMID:23291567
SUMMARY Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification.
Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.
A discrete chemotactic predator-prey model is proposed in which the prey secrets a diffusing chemical which is sensed by the predator and vice versa. Two dynamical states corresponding to catching and escaping are identified and it is shown that steady hunting is unstable. For the escape process, the predator-prey distance is diffusive for short times but exhibits a transient subdiffusive behavior which scales as a power law t1/3 with time t and ultimately crosses over to diffusion again. This allows us to classify the motility and dynamics of various predatory microbes and phagocytes. In particular, there is a distinct region in the parameter space where they prove to be infallible predators.
Sengupta, Ankush; Kruppa, Tobias; Löwen, Hartmut
Illustrations of predator-prey interactions looking at different prey distributions, structural complexity of the environment, prey's reproductive rate,and both predator-prey reproduction in a complex environment.
James Waddell (University of Maine at Orono;)
The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.
Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.
The predator\\/prey domain is utilized to conduct research in Distributed Artificial Intelligence. Genetic Programming is used to evolve behavioral strategies for the predator agents. To further the utility of the predator strategies, the prey population is allowed to evolve at the same time. The expected competitive learning cycle did not surface. This failing is investigated, and a simple prey algorithm
Thomas Haynes; Sandip Sen
Sand scorpions and many other arachnids locate their prey through highly sensitive slit sensilla at the tips (tarsi) of their eight legs. This sensor array responds to vibrations with stimulus-locked action potentials encoding the target direction. We present a neuronal model to account for stimulus angle determination using a population of second-order neurons, each receiving excitatory input from one tarsus
W. Stürzl; R. Kempter; J. L. van Hemmen
Many traits in animals reduce the rate of attack from visually hunting predators, including camouflage, warning signals and mimicry. In addition, some animal markings may reduce the likelihood that an attack ends in successful capture. These might include dazzle markings, high-contrast patterns that make the estimation of speed and trajectory difficult. However, until now, no study has experimentally tested whether some markings may achieve such an effect. We developed a computer ‘game’ where human ‘predators’ have to capture computer-generated prey moving across a background. In two experiments, we find that although uniform camouflaged targets were among the hardest to capture, so were a range of high-contrast conspicuous patterns, such as bands and zigzags. Prey were also more difficult to capture against more heterogeneous than uniform backgrounds, and at faster speeds of movement. As such, we find the first experimental evidence that conspicuous patterns, similar to those found in a wide range of real animals, make the capture of moving prey more challenging. Various anti-predator markings may work prey during motion, and some animals may combine such dazzle patterns with other functions, such as camouflage, thermoregulation, sexual and warning signals.
Stevens, Martin; Yule, Daniella H; Ruxton, Graeme D
Many traits in animals reduce the rate of attack from visually hunting predators, including camouflage, warning signals and mimicry. In addition, some animal markings may reduce the likelihood that an attack ends in successful capture. These might include dazzle markings, high-contrast patterns that make the estimation of speed and trajectory difficult. However, until now, no study has experimentally tested whether some markings may achieve such an effect. We developed a computer 'game' where human 'predators' have to capture computer-generated prey moving across a background. In two experiments, we find that although uniform camouflaged targets were among the hardest to capture, so were a range of high-contrast conspicuous patterns, such as bands and zigzags. Prey were also more difficult to capture against more heterogeneous than uniform backgrounds, and at faster speeds of movement. As such, we find the first experimental evidence that conspicuous patterns, similar to those found in a wide range of real animals, make the capture of moving prey more challenging. Various anti-predator markings may work prey during motion, and some animals may combine such dazzle patterns with other functions, such as camouflage, thermoregulation, sexual and warning signals. PMID:18700203
Stevens, Martin; Yule, Daniella H; Ruxton, Graeme D
Transgenic plants producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can control some major insect pests and reduce reliance on sprayed insecticides. However, large scale adoption of this technology has raised concerns about potential negative effects, including evolution of pest resistance to Bt toxins, transgene flow from Bt crops to other plants, and harm to non-target beneficial organisms. Furthermore, concern has also been expressed over the effects this technology may have on biodiversity in general. Ecologically relevant risk assessment is therefore required (Risk = Hazard x Exposure). Transgenic plants that produce Bt toxins to kill insect pests could harm beneficial predators. This might occur directly by transmission of toxin via prey, or indirectly by toxin-induced reduction in prey quality (Hazard). To test these hypotheses, we determined the effects of Bt-producing canola on a predatory ground beetle (Pterostichus madidus) fed larvae of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) that were either susceptible or resistant to the Bt toxin. Survival, weight gain, and adult reproductive fitness did not differ between beetles fed prey reared on Bt-producing plants and those fed prey from control plants. Furthermore, while Bt-resistant prey was shown to deliver high levels of toxin to the beetle when they were consumed, no significant impact upon the beetle was observed. Subsequent investigation showed that in choice tests (Exposure), starved and partially satiated female beetles avoided Bt-fed susceptible prey, but not Bt-fed resistant prey. However, in the rare cases when starved females initially selected Bt-fed susceptible prey, they rapidly rejected them after beginning to feed. This prey type was shown to provide sufficient nutrition to support reproduction in the bioassay suggesting that Bt-fed susceptible prey is acceptable in the absence of alternative prey, however adults possess a discrimination ability based on prey quality. These results suggest that the direct effects of Bt-producing canola on predator life history was minimal, and that predators' behavioural preferences may mitigate negative indirect effects of reduced quality of prey caused by consumption of Bt-producing plants. The results presented here therefore suggest that cultivation of Bt canola may lead to conservation of non-target predatory and scavenging organisms beneficial in pest control, such as carabids, and may therefore provide more sustainable agricultural systems than current practices. In addition, minimal impacts on beneficial carabids in agro-ecosystems suggest that Bt canola crops are likely to be compatible with integrated pest management (IPM) systems. PMID:16906450
Ferry, Natalie; Mulligan, Evan A; Stewart, C Neal; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Port, Gordon R; Gatehouse, Angharad M R
The aims of this study were: (a) determine the prey stage preference of female Euseius hibisci (Chant) (Phytoseiidae) at constant densities of different stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), (b) assess the functional response of the predator females to the varying densities of eggs, larvae, or protonymphs of T. urticae, and (c) estimate the functional response of E. hibisci when pollen of Ligustrum ovalifolium was present as well. We conducted experiments on excised pieces of strawberry leaf arenas (Fragaria ananassa) under laboratory conditions of 25+/-2 degrees C, 60+/-5% RH and 12 h photophase. Our results indicated that the predator consumed significantly more prey eggs than other prey stages. Consumption of prey deutonymphs and adults was so low that they were excluded from the non-choice functional response experiments. The functional response on all food items was of type II. The two parameters of the functional response were estimated for each prey type by means of the adjusted non-linear regression model. The highest estimated value a' (instantaneous rate of discovery) and the lowest value of Th (handling time, including digestion) were found for the predator feeding on prey eggs, and a' was lowest and Th highest when fed protonymphs. Using the jack-knife method, the values for the functional response parameters were estimated. The values of a' and Th produced by the model were similar among all prey types except for the eggs, which were different. Using pollen simultaneously with prey larvae decreased the consumption of the latter over the full range of prey densities The suitability of this predator for biological control of T. urticae on strawberry is discussed. PMID:15651524
Badii, Mohammad H; Hernández-Ortiz, Emilio; Flores, Adriana E; Landeros, Jerónimo
Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.
Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.
That predators attack and prey defend is an oversimplified view. When size changes during development, large prey may be invulnerable to predators, and small juvenile predators vulnerable to attack by prey. This in turn may trigger a defensive response in adult predators to protect their offspring. Indeed, when sizes overlap, one may wonder ‘who is the predator and who is the prey’! Experiments with ‘predatory’ mites and thrips ‘prey’ showed that young, vulnerable prey counterattack by killing young predators and adult predators respond by protective parental care, killing young prey that attack their offspring. Thus, young individuals form the Achilles' heel of prey and predators alike, creating a cascade of predator attack, prey counterattack and predator defence. Therefore, size structure and relatedness induce multiple ecological role reversals.
Magalhaes, Sara; Janssen, Arne; Montserrat, Marta; Sabelis, Maurice W
We investigated the influence of prey species and nutritional value, in terms of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, on prey selection by the predatory microflagellate Paraphysomonas vestita. Experiments were conducted with two phytoplankton prey species of similar diameter to remove size-specific grazing effects. Live cells of both low and high C:N ratio (ranging from 4.8 to 14; N-replete and N-deplete, respectively) were offered to the predator either individually or in combination. By utilising analytical flow cytometry, we were able to enumerate the two prey species and, hence, study selective predation in the mixed-prey assemblage. In single prey experiments, the maximum observed ingestion rates were found to be higher, at all prey C:N ratios, when Isochrysis galbana was the prey item when compared to Pavlova lutheri, whilst maximum specific predator division rates were similar for both prey. Ingestion rates were influenced by prey nutrient status, higher values being observed with N-replete than N-deplete prey. When the two prey species were presented to P. vestita as a mixture, I. galbana was ingested more rapidly than P. lutheri, although ingestion was found to be suppressed when compared to when this was the sole prey species. Conversely, the presence of I. galbana did not influence the rate of ingestion of P. lutheri. P. vestita was, therefore, able to modify its rate of ingestion on the basis of prey type and prey C:N ratio and to discriminate between alternative prey of similar size in mixed-prey assemblages. PMID:11358573
John, E H.; Davidson, K
It is generally assumed that the choice of oviposition sites in arthropods is affected by the presence of food for the offspring on the one hand and by predation risk on the other hand. But where should females oviposit when the food itself poses a predation risk for their offspring? Here, we address this question by studying the oviposition behaviour of the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii in reaction to the presence of its counterattacking prey, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. We offered the mites a choice between two potential oviposition sites, one with and one without food. We used two types of food: thrips larvae, which are predators of eggs of predatory mite but are consumed by older predator stages, and pollen, a food source that poses no risk to the predators. With pollen as food, the predators preferred ovipositing on the site with food. This might facilitate the foraging for food by the immature offspring that will emerge from the eggs. With thrips as food, female predators preferred ovipositing on the site without thrips. Predators that oviposited more on the site with thrips larvae killed more thrips larvae than females that oviposited on the site without food, but this did not result in higher oviposition. This suggests that the females killed thrips to protect their offspring. Our results show that predators display complex anti-predator behaviour in response to the presence of counter-attacking prey. PMID:22923143
de Almeida, Ângela Alves; Janssen, Arne
A hallmark of Lotka-Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator-prey interactions, is that in predator-prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator-prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka-Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage-cholera, mink-muskrat, and gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator-prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator-prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689
Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S
This paper deals with a prey-predator model incorporating a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…
Kar, Tapan Kumar
Explaining the coexistence of multiple species in the competition and predation theatre has proven a great challenge. Traditional intraguild predation (IGP) models have only relatively small regions of stable coexistence of all species. Here, we investigate potential additional mechanisms that extend these regions of stable coexistence. We used a 3-species Lotka-Volterra system to which we added an interaction term to model a unidirectional facilitative relationship between the two predators in the IGP. In this modelling study the IG predator was able to precondition a part of the common resource by an instantaneous manipulation, which resulted in the immobilization of the resource species. This mechanism of immobilization facilitated the resource uptake by the IG prey and thus increased its growth rates even in the presence of the common predator. The facilitative relationship of the IG prey by the IG predator produced a stable coexistence of both predators even though the IG prey was an inferior competitor for a common resource, which cannot be attained with the traditional IGP models. Furthermore, our model predicted a 3-species stable coexistence even at high enrichment where no coexistence was found in the basic IGP model. Thus, we showed that diversity of resource traits could significantly alter emergent community patterns via shifts in exploitative competition of IGP-related predators. The described mechanism could potentially lead to a higher efficiency in exploitation of common resources and thus promote higher diversity in a real community. PMID:24325813
Shchekinova, Elena Y; Löder, Martin G J; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H
Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator–prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host–one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ?20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host–parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator–prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature.
Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu
Several management strategies for ecosystems with biological interaction are discussed, including predator removal, predator-prey coexistence, prey exploitation, overexploitation, and introduction of sanctuaries. Some case studies related to ecosystem management are briefly presented; these describe Lakes Victoria and Tanganyika, discarding from shrimp trawl fisheries and the development in the North Sea that led to introduction of multispecies analysis. The concept of
Villy Christensen; Lake Victoria; Lake Tanganyika
Although almost all prey live with many types of predator, most experimental studies of predation have examined the effects of only one predator at a time. Recent work has revealed new insights into the emergent impacts of multiple predators on prey and experimental studies have identified statistical methods for evaluating them. These studies suggest two main types of emergent effect—risk
Andrew Sih; Goran Englund; David Wooster
In situations of aggressive mimicry, predators adapt their color to that of the substrate on which they sit for hunting, a behavior that is presumed to hide them from prey as well as from their own predators. Females of few crab-spider species encounter such situations when lying on flowers to ambush pollinators. To evaluate the efficiency of spider camouflage on
Marc Théry; Martine Debut; Doris Gomez; Jérôme Casas
Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs has created a human health concern for anglers who consume fish. Variability in sport fish Hg concentration adds to the uncertainty of the amount of fish an angler can safely consume, so predicting where variability arises is useful. We evaluated the relative influence of diet (prey Hg concentration and energy density) and sex on sport fish Hg concentrations using a bioenergetics approach. Our results indicated that sport fish diets (prey Hg concentration followed by energy density) were the most important factors for determining sport fish Hg concentration followed by sex. Although physiological and behavioral differences based on sex may lead to differences in gross growth efficiency, resulting in different Hg concentrations in male and female sport fish, evaluating the relative importance of these differences will require sex-specific parameterization of bioenergetics models. Our results support previous findings that knowledge of sport fish diets (prey Hg concentration followed by energy density) and sex could aid in the prediction of sport fish Hg concentrations. Thus, basic knowledge of system-specific food web structure could provide valuable information for developing sport fish consumption advisories to better protect anglers and their families from Hg contamination. PMID:22922134
Stacy, W L; Lepak, J M
Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm. PMID:23696970
Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B
In the study of behavioral predator–prey interactions, predators have been treated as abstract sources of risk to which prey respond, rather than participants in a larger behavioral interaction. When predators are put back into the picture by allowing them to respond strategically to prey behavior, expectations about prey behavior can change. Something as simple as allowing predators to move in
Steven L. Lima
Several conceptual models describing patterns of prey selection by predators have been proposed, but such models rarely have been tested empirically, particularly with terrestrial carnivores. We examined patterns of prey selection by sympatric wolves (Canis lupus) and cougars (Puma concolor) to determine i) if both predators selected disadvantaged prey disproportionately from the prey population, and ii) if the specific nature
Jason S. Husseman; Dennis L. Murray; Gary Power; Curt Mack; C. R. Wenger; Howard Quigley
Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a “space race”, where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing
Tyler B. Muhly; Christina Semeniuk; Alessandro Massolo; Laura Hickman; Marco Musiani; Matjaz Perc
Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs’ index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group “medium Bovidae” are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs’ index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour.
Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Hunt, Jane E.; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W.
A total of 170 birds of prey admitted to two Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Centers of Italy were examined. Birds were divided by diurnal (n = 15) and nocturnal (n = 7) species, sampled by cloacal swabs, and examined for Campylobacter spp. by cultural and molecular methods. Campylobacter spp. were isolated in 43 out of the 170 (25.3%) birds of prey examined. Among these, 43/43 (100%) were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and 10/43 (23.3%) were identified as Campylobacter coli recovered from mixed infections. Diurnal birds of prey showed a significantly higher prevalence value (P = 0.0006) for Campylobacter spp. than did nocturnal birds of prey. PMID:25055637
Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Cutino, Eridania Annalisa; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Menna, Lucia Francesca; Fioretti, Alessandro
The foraging strategies of wading birds may be influenced by their degree of crypsis to aquatic prey. White plumage has been hypothesized to be adaptive for herons hunting in open water habitats. We tested this hypothesis with laboratory and field experiments with multiple prey species. We investigated the response of crayfish, Procambarus spp., and mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, to white- and
M. Clay Green; Paul L. Leberg
Understanding the interspecific interactions of Procambarus clarkii with other aquatic macroinvertebrates will help to unveil the mechanisms and processes underlying biological invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate predator-prey interactions of two ontogenic phases of P. clarkii with native and exotic species of aquatic macroinvertebrates at a single and multiple prey level. We performed laboratory experiments to determine the consumption and the behavioral responses of Chironomus riparius, Physa acuta and Corbicula fluminea to P. clarkii. The presence of P. clarkii significantly affected the abundance of C. riparius and P. acuta, but not of C. fluminea whether prey species were provided singly or simultaneously. The consumption of C. riparius by P. clarkii was higher than P. acuta for both crayfish sizes and situations (single/multiple prey systems) and C. fluminea was never consumed. Physa acuta was the only species that exhibited an anti-predator behavior to P. clarkii. Our results show that P. clarkii can have strong consumptive and trait effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate prey at a single and multiple prey level, resulting in differential impacts on different prey species. This study clarifies some aspects of the predator-prey interactions between P. clarkii and native as well as other exotic macroinvertebrate species that have invaded freshwater biocenosis worldwide.
Correia, Alexandra Marçal; Bandeira, Nuno; Anastácio, Pedro Manuel
The lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata De Geer is an omnivorous predator that could help suppress aphid and spider mite populations on plants in greenhouses, plantscapes or interiorscapes. We are assessing the nutritional requirements and feeding behavior of C. maculata on target prey (spider mites) and factitious (unnatural) food. Our ultimate goal is to develop an efficacious diet to mass produce C. maculata. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Tetranychus urticae Koch (two-spotted spider mite) is not suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve C. maculata (i.e., with no prior exposure to T. urticae). Our objectives were to (i) provide baseline data on the effects of consuming T. urticae on C. maculata life history, (ii) to compare the effects of consuming all stages of T. urticae versus eggs of Musca domestica L. (common housefly), and (iii) to determine if the consumption of plant products was beneficial. We used C. maculata from a colony reared only on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Mediterranean flour moth) eggs. In experiments, C. maculata larvae were reared from the first instar to adult stage with prey/food in replicated arenas; adult females were paired with a single male with prey/food. The results showed that naïve C. maculata readily attacked and consumed T. urticae. Nevertheless, T. urticae was less suitable than M. domestica eggs for C. maculata development and reproduction. Applying a synthetic pollen-Chlorella alga powder (SPCA) in arenas containing T. urticae appeared to boost C. maculata female development and reproduction. PMID:23955814
Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin; Rojas, M Guadalupe
Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.
Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA detection success in centipede predators. Due to metabolic rates increasing with body size, we hypothesized that prey DNA detection intervals will be shorter in large predators than in smaller ones. Moreover, we hypothesized that prey detection intervals of high-quality prey, defined by low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio will be shorter than in low-quality prey due to faster assimilation. Small, medium and large individuals of centipedes Lithobius spp. (Lithobiidae, Chilopoda) were fed Collembola and allowed to digest prey for up to 168 h post-feeding. To test our second hypothesis, medium-sized lithobiids were fed with either Diptera or Lumbricidae. No significant differences in 50% prey DNA detection success time intervals for a 272-bp prey DNA fragment were found between the predator size groups, indicating that body size does not affect prey DNA detection success. Post-feeding detection intervals were significantly shorter in Lumbricidae and Diptera compared to Collembola prey, apparently supporting the second hypothesis. However, sensitivity of diagnostic PCR differed between prey types, and quantitative PCR revealed that concentration of targeted DNA varied significantly between prey types. This suggests that both DNA concentration and assay sensitivity need to be considered when assessing prey quality effects on prey DNA detection success. PMID:24383982
Eitzinger, B; Unger, E M; Traugott, M; Scheu, S
In the species-specific and obligate mutualism between the fig (Ficus carica) and its pollinator (the fig wasps Blastophaga psenes), a third participant, the ant Crematogaster scutellaris, is a predator of the wasps. Here, we ask how ant workers can rapidly localise such prey, whose availability is limited in time and space. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, we tested ant response to odours emitted by different types of figs (receptive female, ripe female or male figs) and by fig wasps (pollinators or non-pollinators). We demonstrate that ants were significantly attracted only to odours emitted by pollinators, either alone or associated with odours of male figs (releasing wasps). Detection of prey odour by ants is an important trait that can explain their observed high rate of predation on pollinators, and could have important implications on the stability of the fig/fig wasp mutualism. PMID:14564404
Schatz, Bertrand; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Out, Welmoed; Hossaert-McKey, Martine
The majority of individuals in a community belong to a small number of abundant species. Understanding why some species are rare and others are common has been a long-held goal for ecologists. Africa's large carnivore guild preferentially preys on a small number of species within a limited weight range. Within this weight range however, some species that are expected to be significantly preferred as prey are not. I tested whether these species avoid preferential predation through their low densities. Records of over 40,000 kills from up to 48 different communities were used to test if non-preferred species within the expected prey weight ranges of each large predator avoid preferential predation and why. Species expected to be prey of Africa's large predators based on their body mass, that are preferred are preyed upon significantly more frequently at low densities than non-preferred prey. This results in a negative relationship between relative abundance and preference for preferred prey, but a positive relationship for non-preferred prey. The non-preferred prey species that are within the expected prey weight ranges of Africa's large predators are significantly less abundant within the prey community than significantly preferred prey. Rarity in African ungulates may convey an anti-predator benefit in that it was suboptimal for predators to evolve morphological or behavioral strategies to optimally forage on them or in that prey species can avoid predators by existing in habitats with low carrying capacity.
Hayward, Matt W.
Predator-prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b) detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation) experiments using a fish predator and (dead) chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water) led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues), aggregated (large groups) and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey-including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators. PMID:24918032
Johannesen, Asa; Dunn, Alison M; Morrell, Lesley J
Predator–prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b) detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation) experiments using a fish predator and (dead) chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water) led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues), aggregated (large groups) and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey—including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators.
Dunn, Alison M.; Morrell, Lesley J.
Hemimysis anomala is a near-shore mysid native to the Ponto-Caspian region that was discovered to have invaded Great Lakes ecosystems in 2006. We investigated feeding rates and prey preferences of adult and juvenile Hemimysis in laboratory experiments to gain insight on the potential for Hemimysis to disrupt food webs. For both age groups (AGs), we measured feeding rates as a function of prey abundance (Bosmina longirostris as prey), prey type (B. longirostris, Daphnia pulex, and Mesocyclops sp.), and light levels (no light and dim light). Mean feeding rates on Bosmina increased with prey density and reached 23 ind. (2 h)?1 for adults and 17 ind. (2 h)?1 for juveniles. Dim light had little effect on prey selection or feeding rate compared to complete darkness. When feeding rates on alternate prey were compared, both AGs fed at higher rates on Bosmina than Daphnia, but only juveniles fed at significantly higher rates on Bosmina relative to Mesocyclops. No significant differences were observed between feeding rates on Mesocyclops and on Daphnia. Hemimysis feeding rates were on the order of 30–60% of their body weight per day, similar to predatory cladocerans that have been implicated in zooplankton declines in Lakes Huron and Ontario.
Halpin, Kathleen E.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Mureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.
1. We investigated the functional response of wolves (Canis lupus) to varying abundance of ungulate prey to test the hypothesis that switching from alternate prey to preferred prey results in regulation of a caribou (Rangifer tarandus) population at low densities. 2. We determined prey selection, kill rates, and prey abundance for four wolf packs during three 30-day periods in March 1989, March 1990, November 1990, and created a simple discrete model to evaluate the potential for the expected numerical and observed functional responses of wolves to regulate caribou populations. 3. We observed a quickly decelerating type II functional response that, in the absence of numerical response, implicates an anti-regulatory effect of wolf predation on barren-ground caribou dynamics. 4. There was little potential for regulation caused by the multiplicative effect of increasing functional and numerical responses because of presence of alternative prey. This resulted in high wolf:caribou ratios at low prey densities which precluded the effects of an increasing functional response. 5. Inversely density-dependent predation by other predators, such as bears, reduces the potential for predators to regulate caribou populations at low densities, and small reductions in predation by one predator may have disproportionately large effects on the total predation rate.
Dale, B. W.; Adams, Layne. G.; Bowyer, R. T.
Understanding the ecological factors that affect dispersal distances allows us to predict the consequences of dispersal. Although predator avoidance is an important cause of prey dispersal, its effects on dispersal distance have not been investigated. We used simple experimental setups to test dispersal distances of the ambulatory dispersing spider mite (Tetranychus kanzawai) in the presence or absence of a predator (Neoseiulus womersleyi). In the absence of predators, most spider mites settled in adjacent patches, whereas the majority of those dispersing in the presence of predators passed through adjacent patches and settled in distant ones. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that predators induce greater dispersal distance in prey. PMID:24821118
Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi
Stochastic spatial models are becoming a popular tool for understand the ecological and evolution of ecosystem problems. We consider the predator prey interactions in term of stochastic representation of this Lotka-Volterra model and explore the use of stochastic processes to extinction behavior of the interacting populations. Here, we present simulation of stochastic processes of continuous time Lotka-Volterra model. Euler method has been used to solve the predator prey system. The trajectory spiral graph has been plotted based on obtained solution to show the population cycle of predator as a function of time.
Laham, Mohamed Faris; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir
Understanding the ecological factors that affect dispersal distances allows us to predict the consequences of dispersal. Although predator avoidance is an important cause of prey dispersal, its effects on dispersal distance have not been investigated. We used simple experimental setups to test dispersal distances of the ambulatory dispersing spider mite (Tetranychus kanzawai) in the presence or absence of a predator (Neoseiulus womersleyi). In the absence of predators, most spider mites settled in adjacent patches, whereas the majority of those dispersing in the presence of predators passed through adjacent patches and settled in distant ones. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that predators induce greater dispersal distance in prey.
Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi
Understanding the ecological factors that affect dispersal distances allows us to predict the consequences of dispersal. Although predator avoidance is an important cause of prey dispersal, its effects on dispersal distance have not been investigated. We used simple experimental setups to test dispersal distances of the ambulatory dispersing spider mite ( Tetranychus kanzawai) in the presence or absence of a predator ( Neoseiulus womersleyi). In the absence of predators, most spider mites settled in adjacent patches, whereas the majority of those dispersing in the presence of predators passed through adjacent patches and settled in distant ones. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that predators induce greater dispersal distance in prey.
Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi
Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seabirds, marine mammals, and human fisheries concentrate their foraging efforts on a single\\u000a species, Antarctic krill (Euphausiasuperba). Because these predators may have a significant effect on krill abundance, we estimated the energy and prey requirements\\u000a of Adelie (Pygoscelisadeliae), chinstrap (Pygoscelisantarctica), and gentoo (Pygoscelispapua) penguins and female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalusgazella) breeding on the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
D. A. Croll; B. R. Tershy
We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.
Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.
Zooxanthellate cnidarians are trophically complex, relying on both autotrophy and heterotrophy. Although several aspects of heterotrophy have been studied in these organisms, information linking prey capture with digestion is still missing. We used prey-specific PCR-based tools to assess feeding and prey digestion of two zooxanthellate cnidarians - the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and the scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula. Prey DNA disappeared rapidly for the initial 1-3 days, whereas complete digestion of prey DNA required up to 10 days in O. arbuscula and 5 or 6 days in Aiptasia sp. depending on prey species. These digestion times are considerably longer than previously reported from microscopy-based examination of zooxanthellate cnidarians and prey DNA breakdown in other marine invertebrates, but similar to prey DNA breakdown reported from terrestrial invertebrates such as heteroptera and spiders. Deprivation of external prey induced increased digestion rates during the first days after feeding in O. arbuscula, but after 6 days of digestion, there were no differences in the remaining prey levels in fed and unfed corals. This study indicates that prey digestion by symbiotic corals may be slower than previously reported and varies with the type of prey, the cnidarian species and its feeding history. These observations have important implications for bioenergetic and trophodynamic studies on zooxanthellate cnidarians. PMID:24118448
Leal, M C; Nejstgaard, J C; Calado, R; Thompson, M E; Frischer, M E
Aposematic prey often have a coloration that contrasts with the background. One beneficial effect of such conspicuous coloration is that it produces faster and more durable avoidance by predators. Another suggested benefit is that prey that contrast with the background are more quickly discerned and recognized as unpalatable by experienced predators. To further investigate the effects of prey contrast on
To describe a predator–prey relationship, it is necessary to specify the rate of prey consumption by an average predator. This functional response largely determines dynamic stability, responses to environmental influences and the nature of indirect effects in the food web containing the predator–prey pair. Nevertheless, measurements of functional responses in nature are quite rare. Recently, much work has been devoted
Peter A. Abrams; Lev R. Ginzburg
The interaction ofBdellovibrio with its prey can be affected by the presence of other microorganisms regardless of whether they serve as a prey for the bdellovibrios. This was shown in a system in which the fate of one prey could be followed in mixed bacterial populations thanks to a specific trait, bioluminescence. The attacking bdellovibrio causes decay of bioluminescence, and
The presence of prey heterogeneity and weakly interacting prey species is frequently viewed as a stabilizer of predator-prey dynamics, countering the destabilizing effects of enrichment and reducing the amplitude of population cycles. However, prior model explorations have largely focused on long-term, dynamic attractors rather than transient dynamics. Recent theoretical work shows that the presence of prey that are defended from predation can have strongly divergent effects on dynamics depending on time scale: prey heterogeneity can counteract the destabilizing effects of enrichment on predator-prey dynamics at long time scales but strongly destabilize systems during transient phases by creating long periods of low predator/prey abundance and increasing extinction probability (an effect that is amplified with increasing enrichment). We tested these general predictions using a planktonic system composed of a zooplankton predator and multiple algal prey. We first parameterized a model of our system to generate predictions and tested these experimentally. Our results qualitatively supported several model predictions. During transient phases, presence of defended algal prey increased predator extinctions at low and high enrichment levels compared to systems with only a single edible prey. This destabilizing effect was moderated at higher dilution rates, as predicted by our model. When examining dynamics beyond initial oscillations, presence of the defended prey increased predator-prey temporal variability at high nutrient enrichment but had no effect at low nutrient levels. Our results highlight the importance of considering transient dynamics when assessing the role of stabilizing factors on the dynamics of food webs. PMID:22624217
Steiner, Christopher F; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena
Recent concern over persistence of Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) populations in Arizona has stemmed from two long-term demography studies that report substantial yearly fluctuations in productivity and evidence of a declining population. Although many factors could be involved in changes in productivity and population declines, availability of food is one such factor. As part of a demography study on the Sitgreaves portion of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona, we used remote cameras to assess diets of goshawks. Northern Goshawks preyed upon 22 species during two nesting seasons. Adult pairs tended to specialize on particular species of prey. Prey delivery rates decreased throughout the nesting season with a corresponding increase in biomass in the latter stages of the nestling and fledgling periods. Adults appeared to take larger prey as nestlings increased in age.
Rogers, A. S.; DeStefano, S.; Ingraldi, M. F.
Infectious diseases of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic origin are common in wild and captive birds of prey presented to veterinary hospitals for medical care. Veterinarians should be knowledgeable of the infectious agents, clinical signs associated with disease, as well as diagnostic methods and treatment to increase the survival rate of raptors infected with these devastating and fatal diseases. The
Michael P. Jones
In this activity, learners will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. After collecting the data, the learners plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.
Zoo, Minnesota; Eduweb
To determine whether yam-boxthorn noodle, a newly developed functional noodle, has immunomodulatory effects in vivo, we measured the changes in visceral organ weight, immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgE, IgG, IgM serum level and IgA level in the intestinal lavage fluid of female BALB/c mice after continuously consuming the test diet for 5 weeks. We found that body weights and absolute and relative organ weights (lung, heart, liver, spleen and kidney) in female BALB/c mice did not significantly change compared with those from the control group. The IgA and IgG serum levels in the experimental group significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner when the yam-boxthorn noodle concentration in the AIN 76 diet rose from 3% to 30%. However, the IgE and IgM level in the serum and the IgA level in the intestinal lavage fluid did not significantly change. These experiments demonstrate that the functional noodle, yam-boxthorn noodle, exhibits immunomodulatory effects in vivo with increasing serum antibody levels, especially in IgA and IgG. These results are valuable for future nutraceutical and immuno-pharmacological use. PMID:16109455
Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Lu, Shin; Liou, Yi-Lin; Liou, How-Lan
Although diet has traditionally been considered to be a property of the species or populations as a whole, there is nowadays extensive knowledge that individual specialization is widespread among animal populations. Nevertheless, the factors determining the shape of interactions within food webs remain largely undiscovered, especially in predatory insects. We used an aggregation of the digger wasp Bembix merceti to 1) analyse patterns of individual prey use across three flying seasons in a network–based context; and 2) test the effect of four potential factors that might explain network topologies (wasp mass, nest spatial distribution, simultaneous nest-provisioning, prey availability). Inter-individual diet variation was found in all three years, under different predator-prey network topologies: Individuals arranged in dietary clusters and displayed a checkerboard pattern in 2009, but showed nestedness in 2008 and 2010. Network topologies were not fully explained by the tested factors. Larger females consumed a higher proportion of the total number of prey species captured by the population as a whole, in such a way that nested patterns may arise from mass-dependent prey spectrum width. Conversely, individuals with similar body mass didn’t form clusters. Nested patterns seemed to be associated with a greater availability of the main prey species (a proxy for reduced intra-specific competition). Thus, according with theory, clusters seemed to appear when competition increased. On the other hand, the nests of the individuals belonging to a given cluster were not more closely located, and neither did individuals within a cluster provision their nests simultaneously. Thus, a female-female copying behaviour during foraging was unlikely. In conclusion, wasp populations can maintain a considerable individual variation across years under different food web organizations. The tested factors only partially accounted for the shift in network properties, and new analyses should be carried out to elucidate how diet network topologies arise in wasp populations.
Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, Jose; Banos-Picon, Laura; Asis, Josep Daniel
The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.
Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.
The use of space by predators in relation to their prey is a poorly understood aspect of predator-prey interactions. Classic theory suggests that predators should focus their efforts on areas of abundant prey, that is, prey hotspots, whereas game-theoretical models of predator and prey movement suggest that the distribution of predators should match that of their prey's resources. If, however, prey are spatially anchored to one location and these prey have particularly strong antipredator responses that make them difficult to capture with frequent attacks, then predators may be forced to adopt alternative movement strategies to hunt behaviorally responsive prey. We examined the movement patterns of bird-eating sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) in an attempt to shed light on hotspot use by predators. Our results suggest that these hawks do not focus on prey hotspots such as bird feeders but instead maintain much spatial and temporal unpredictability in their movements. Hawks seldom revisited the same area, and the few frequently used areas were revisited in a manner consistent with unpredictable returns, giving prey little additional information about risk. PMID:17211809
Roth, Timothy C; Lima, Steven L
Callitrichids can persist in secondary forests where they may benefit from elevated prey abundance. However, how tamarins forage for prey in secondary forest compared to primary forest has not been examined. Using scan and focal sampling, we compared prey foraging and capture success of two groups of Saguinus nigrifrons in north-eastern Peru: one ranging in primary forest, the other with access to a 10-year-old anthropogenic secondary forest. There was a trend for more prey search in the secondary forest, but prey feeding, capture success and size were lower compared to the primary forest. Tamarins avoided the forest floor, used vertical supports less often and searched on a lower variety of substrates in the secondary forest. In the secondary forest, tamarins did not capture flushed prey, which make up a substantial part of the total prey captures biomass in primary forests. Reduced prey capture success is unlikely to reflect reduced prey availability, since more Orthoptera were found in secondary forest through ultrasonic surveys. Therefore, the prey search activity of S. nigrifrons in young secondary forests seemed rather opportunistic, presumably influenced by altered predation patterns, vegetation structure, as well as prey diversity. PMID:24687729
Kupsch, Denis; Waltert, Matthias; Heymann, Eckhard W
Bats that capture animal prey from substrates often emit characteristic echolocation calls that are short-duration, frequency-modulated (FM) and broadband. Such calls seem to be suited to locating prey in uncluttered habitats, including flying prey, but may be less effective for finding prey among cluttered backgrounds because echoes reflecting from the substrate mask the acoustic signature of prey. Perhaps these call designs serve primarily for spatial orientation. Furthermore, it has been unclear whether the acoustic image conveyed by FM echoes enables fine texture discrimination, or whether gleaning bats that forage in echo-cluttering environments must locate prey by using other cues, such as prey-generated sounds. Here we show that two species of insectivorous gleaning bats perform badly when compelled to detect silent and immobile prey in clutter, but are very efficient at capturing noisy prey items among highly cluttered backgrounds, and both dead or live prey in uncluttered habitats. These findings suggest that the short, broadband FM echolocation calls associated with gleaning bats are not adapted to detecting prey in clutter. PMID:11742397
Arlettaz, R; Jones, G; Racey, P A
Dispersal theory generally predicts kin competition, inbreeding, and temporal variation in habitat quality should select for dispersal, whereas spatial variation in habitat quality should select against dispersal. The effect of predation on the evolution of dispersal is currently not well-known: because predation can be variable in both space and time, it is not clear whether or when predation will promote dispersal within prey. Moreover, the evolution of prey dispersal affects strongly the encounter rate of predator and prey individuals, which greatly determines the ecological dynamics, and in turn changes the selection pressures for prey dispersal, in an eco-evolutionary feedback loop. When taken all together the effect of predation on prey dispersal is rather difficult to predict. We analyze a spatially explicit, individual-based predator-prey model and its mathematical approximation to investigate the evolution of prey dispersal. Competition and predation depend on local, rather than landscape-scale densities, and the spatial pattern of predation corresponds well to that of predators using restricted home ranges (e.g. central-place foragers). Analyses show the balance between the level of competition and predation pressure an individual is expected to experience determines whether prey should disperse or stay close to their parents and siblings, and more predation selects for less prey dispersal. Predators with smaller home ranges also select for less prey dispersal; more prey dispersal is favoured if predators have large home ranges, are very mobile, and/or are evenly distributed across the landscape.
Barraquand, Frederic; Murrell, David J.
Background All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Methodology/Principal Findings By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility.
Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.
Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site.
Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark
Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212
Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a disease of undetermined etiology and pathogenesis. Inflammation is thought to play a key role in many patients, characteristically with an increase in mast cells within the detrusor muscle of the bladder. We observed that some patients with IC had prominent plasma cells in bladder tissue, which elicited our interest in their possible pathogenic role in patients with IC. A total of 44 cases of IC were collected, including 42 bladder biopsies and 2 cystectomies. Patient age ranged from 18 to 92 years (average age of 49.5 years) and included 7 male and 37 female patients. The histology and immunostains for IgG, IgG4 and tryptase were examined, and the results were correlated with clinical and cystoscopic findings. Four cases showed a significant increase in IgG4-positive plasma cells, with greater than 30 IgG4 plasma cells per high-power field and an IgG4/IgG ratio greater than 0.5. In addition, statistically significant differences were found between IC with IgG4-positive plasma cells vs IgG4-negative cases. The IgG4-positive patients were of older age and had increased severe inflammation and decreased bladder capacity as compared with the IgG4-negative patients. We propose that a subset of patients with IC may have an IgG4-related disease, and further study including serum IgG4 measurement is required to better define this relationship. PMID:23732167
Crumley, Suzanne; Ge, Yimin; Zhou, Haijun; Shen, Steven S; Ro, Jae Y
The food uptake of larval carp and pike is described from high speed movies with synchronous lateral and ventral views.During prey intake by larval fishes the velocities of the created suction flow are high relative to their own size: 0.3 m\\/s for carp larvae of 6 mm.Starting from the first feeding carp larvae have morphological adaptations to suction feeding: the
M. R. Drost
The IGS network is a set of permanent, continuously-operating, dual-frequency GPS stations operated by over 100 worldwide agencies. The dataset is pooled at IGS Data Centers for routine use by IGS Analysis Centers in creating precise IGS products, as well...
How does an animal's mechanics and its information acquisition system work together to solve crucial behavioral tasks? We examine this question for the black ghost weakly electric knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons), which is a leading model system for the study of sensory processing in vertebrates. These animals hunt at night by detecting perturbations of a self-generated electric field caused by prey. While the fish searches for prey, it pitches at 30 . Fully resolved Navier-Stokes simulations of their swimming, which occurs through undulations of a long ribbon-like fin along the bottom edge of the body, indicates that this configuration enables maximal thrust while minimizing pitch moment. However, pitching the body also increases drag. Our analysis of the sensory volume for detection of prey shows this volume to be similar to a cylinder around the body. Thus, pitching the body enables a greater swept volume of scanned fluid. Examining the mechanical and information acquisition demands on the animal in this task gives insight into how these sometimes conflicting demands are resolved.
Maciver, Malcolm; Patankar, Neelesh; Curet, Oscar; Shirgaonkar, Anup
Most mammals have deformable bodies, making it difficult to measure the size of living or freshly killed ones accurately. Because small rodents are common prey of many snakes, and because nearly all snakes swallow their prey whole, we explored four methods for determining the ingestible size (the smallest cross-sectional area that the largest part of the rodent can be made into without breaking bones or dislocating joints) of 100 intact rodents, including 50 Musmusculus and 50 Rattus norvegicus. Cross-sectional areas derived from maximal height and width of specimens at rest or the same specimens wrapped snout to pelvic girdle are roughly 1.5× higher than areas calculated either by the height and width of the same specimens rolled into cylinders or by volumetric displacement. Rolling rodents into cylinders reduces cross-sectional area by straightening the vertebral column, lengthening the abdominal cavity, elevating the sternum, compressing the thoracic cavity, and protracting the shoulder joint, that is, changes similar to those seen in rodents eaten by snakes. Reduced major axis regression of the smallest attainable cross-sectional area, y, on mass, x, shows that y (in log mm(2) ) approximates 1.53x (in log grams)(0.69) for rats and 1.63x(0.64) for mice. Our results suggest that visual cues provided by live rodents might lead most predators, like snakes, to overestimate ingestible size and hence rarely attack prey too large to ingest. PMID:22729897
Close, Matthew; Cundall, David
The IGS network is a set of permanent, continuously-operating, dual-frequency GPS stations operated by over 100 worldwide agencies. The dataset is pooled at IGS Data Centers for routine use by IGS Analysis Centers in creating precise IGS products, as well as free access by other analysts around the world. The IGS Central Bureau hosts the IGS Network Coordinator, who assures adherence to standards and provides information regarding the IGS network via the Central Bureau Information System website at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov.
We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study. ?? 2010 US Government.
Palacios, V.; Mech, L. D.
Functional responses play a central role in the nature and stability of predator-prey population dynamics. Here we investigate how induced defenses affect predator functional responses. In experimental communities, prey (Paramecium) expressed two previously undocumented inducible defenses--a speed reduction and a width increase--in response to nonlethal exposure to predatory Stenostomum. Nonlethal exposure also changed the shape of the predator's functional response from Type II to Type III, consistent with changes in the density dependence of attack rates. Handling times were also affected by prey defenses, increasing at least sixfold. These changes show that induced changes in prey have a real defensive function. At low prey densities, induction led to lower attack success; at high prey densities, attack rates were actually higher for induced prey. However, induction increased handling times sufficiently that consumption rates of defended prey were lower than those of undefended prey. Modification of attack rate and handling time has important potential consequences for population dynamics; Type III functional responses can increase the stability of population dynamics and persistence because predation on small populations is low, allowing a relict population to survive. Simulations of a predator-prey population dynamic model revealed the stabilizing potential of the Type III response. PMID:20954890
Hammill, Edd; Petchey, Owen L; Anholt, Bradley R
Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424
Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy
High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754
Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H Martin; Merilaita, Sami
Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.
Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.
Coupling of several predator-prey oscillations can generate intriguing patterns of synchronization and chaos. Theory predicts that prey species will fluctuate in phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through generalist predators, whereas they will fluctuate in anti-phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through competition between prey species. Here, we investigate predator-prey oscillations in a long-term experiment with a marine plankton community. Wavelet analysis of the species fluctuations reveals two predator-prey cycles that fluctuate largely in anti-phase. The phase angles point at strong competition between the phytoplankton species, but relatively little prey overlap among the zooplankton species. This food web architecture is consistent with the size structure of the plankton community, and generates highly dynamic food webs. Continued alternations in species dominance enable coexistence of the prey species through a non-equilibrium 'killing-the-winner' mechanism, as the system shifts back and forth between the two predator-prey cycles in a chaotic fashion. PMID:19845726
Benincà, Elisa; Jöhnk, Klaus D; Heerkloss, Reinhard; Huisman, Jef
It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.
Pekár, Stano; Šedo, On?ej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zden?k
Cuttlefish have a large repertoire of body patterns that are used for camouflage and interspecific signaling. Intraspecific\\u000a signaling by male cuttlefish has been well documented but studies on signaling by females are lacking. We found that females\\u000a displayed a newly described body pattern termed Splotch toward their mirror image and female conspecifics, but not to males,\\u000a prey or inanimate objects.
M. E. Palmer; M. Richard Calvé; Shelley A. Adamo
In a 48-year-old female patient with monoclonal gammopathy and histologically proven plasmocytoma IgE could be demonstrated in bone marrow plasma cells by means of direct immunofluorescence. Immunoelectrophoresis showed a light-chain type chi. Radiographically diffuse osteolytic skeletal lesions were found. Bence-Jones proteinuria and plasma cell leukaemia were absent. This patient represents the fourth recognized case of IgE myeloma. The chi/lambda ratio in IgE myeloma is 1:1 according to present knowledge. PMID:943285
Knedel, M; Fateh-Moghadam, A; Edel, H; Bartl, R; Neumeier, D
Background:Forcipomyia taiwana is a tiny blood-sucking midge whose habitat covers large parts of Taiwan and southern China. Female midges bite during the day, causing intense pruritis and swelling in allergic individuals. In this study, we investigated the immune responses of different allergic reactions to midge bites. Methods:F. taiwana (midge)-specific IgE, -IgG and -IgG subclasses were examined by ELISA in 62
Yi-Hsing Chen; Mey-Fann Lee; Jaw-Ji Tsai; Hsin-Ju Wu; Guang-Yuh Hwang
Predators frequently exert natural selection through differential consumption of their prey. However, predators may also cause prey mortality through nonconsumptive effects, which could cause selection if different prey phenotypes are differentially susceptible to this nonconsumptive mortality. Here we present an experimental test of this hypothesis, which reveals that nonconsumptive mortality imposed by predatory dragonflies causes selection on their damselfly prey favoring increased activity levels. These results are consistent with other studies of predator-driven selection, however, they reveal that consumption alone is not the only mechanism by which predators can exert selection on prey. Uncovering this mechanism also suggests that prey defensive traits may represent adaptations to not only avoid being consumed, but also for dealing with other sources of mortality caused by predators. Demonstrating selection through both consumptive and nonconsumptive predator mortality provides us with insight into the diverse effects of predators as an evolutionary force. PMID:24152082
Siepielski, Adam M; Wang, Jason; Prince, Garrett
Introduction Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female’s attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female’s web. In web-dwelling spiders, little is known about how males solve this conundrum, or about their courtship signals. Here we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the vibrations produced by males and prey (house flies and crickets) on tangle webs of the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus and on sheet webs of the hobo spider Tegenaria agrestis. We recorded the vibrations at the location typically occupied by a hunting female spider. We compared the vibrations produced by males and prey in terms of their waveform, dominant frequency, frequency bandwidth, amplitude and duration. We also played back recorded male and prey vibrations through the webs of female L. hesperus to determine the vibratory parameters that trigger a predatory response in females. Results We found overlap in waveform between male and prey vibrations in both L. hesperus and T. agrestis. In both species, male vibrations were continuous, of long duration (on average 6.35 s for T. agrestis and 9.31 s for L. hesperus), and lacked complex temporal patterning such as repeated motifs or syllables. Prey vibrations were shorter (1.38 - 2.59 s), sporadic and often percussive. Based on the parameters measured, courtship signals of male L. hesperus differed more markedly from prey cues than did those of T. agrestis. Courtship vibrations of L. hesperus males differed from prey vibrations in terms of dominant frequency, amplitude and duration. Vibrations of T. agrestis males differed from prey in terms of duration only. During a playback experiment, L. hesperus females did not respond aggressively to low-amplitude vibrations irrespective of whether the playback recording was from a prey or a male. Conclusions Unlike courtship signals of other spider species, the courtship signals of L. hesperus and T. agrestis males do not have complex temporal patterning. The low-amplitude ‘whispers’ of L. hesperus males at the onset of courtship are less likely to trigger a predatory response in females than the high-amplitude vibrations of struggling prey.
We found that the searching behavior of two acarine predators,Amblyseius fallacis andPhytoseiulus macropilis, for prey,Tetranychus urticae, is affected by the following stimuli: (1) prey silk and associated feces, whose combined physical and chemical properties elicit reduction in the rate of predator movements and longer halts; (2) kairomone extracted from prey silk and associated feces, which, upon contact, elicits frequent predator
Robert G. Hislop; Ronald J. Prokopy
A mathematical model for the interaction ofBdellovibrio and its prey predicted that a relatively high prey density (7×105 cells ml?1) would be required for the establishment of an equilibrium in a mixed population . The present report shows thatBdellovibrio can be maintained in a continuous culture when the prey cell density is much lower (2–5×104 cells ml?1), and closer to
Mazal Varon; Miriam Fine; Anat Stein
By focusing on the caloric composition of hunted prey species, optimal foraging research has shown that hunters usually make\\u000a economically rational prey choice decisions. However, research by meat scientists suggests that the gustatory appeal of wildlife\\u000a meats may vary dramatically. In this study, behavioral research indicates that Mayangna and Miskito hunters in Nicaragua inconsistently\\u000a pursue multiple prey types in the
Jeremy M. Koster; Jennie J. Hodgen; Maria D. Venegas; Toni J. Copeland
Introduction. Percentage of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) relative to total IgA in serum was recently reported to correlate with proteinuria at time of sampling and during follow-up for pediatric and adult patients with IgA nephropathy. We sought to determine whether this association exists in another cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy. Methods. Subjects were younger than 18 years at entry. Blood samples were collected on one or more occasions for determination of serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1. Gd-IgA1 was expressed as serum level and percent of total IgA. Urinary protein/creatinine ratio was calculated for random specimens. Spearman's correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between study variables. Results. The cohort had 29 Caucasians and 11 African-Americans with a male?:?female ratio of 1.9?:?1. Mean age at diagnosis was 11.7 ± 3.7 years. No statistically significant correlation was identified between serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, or percent Gd-IgA1 versus urinary protein/creatinine ratio determined contemporaneously with biopsy or between average serum Gd-IgA1 or average percent Gd-IgA1 and time-average urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusion. The magnitude of proteinuria in this cohort of pediatric patients with IgA nephropathy was influenced by factors other than Gd-IgA1 level, consistent with the proposed multi-hit pathogenetic pathways for this renal disease.
Hastings, M. Colleen; Afshan, Sabahat; Sanders, John T.; Kane, Oulimata; Eison, T. Matthew; Lau, Keith K.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus?HD100 is an obligate predator that invades and grows within the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria, including mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producers such as Pseudomonas putida. We investigated the impact of prey PHA content on the predator fitness and the potential advantages for preying on a PHA producer. Using a new procedure to control P.?putida?KT2442 cell size we demonstrated that the number of Bdellovibrio progeny depends on the prey biomass and not on the viable prey cell number or PHA content. The presence of mcl-PHA hydrolysed products in the culture supernatant after predation on P.?putida?KT42Z, a PHA producing strain lacking PhaZ depolymerase, confirmed the ability of Bdellovibrio to degrade the prey's PHA. Predator motility was higher when growing on PHA accumulating prey. External addition of PHA polymer (latex suspension) to Bdellovibrio preying on the PHA minus mutant P.?putida?KT42C1 restored predator movement, suggesting that PHA is a key prey component to sustain predator swimming speed. High velocities observed in Bdellovibrio preying on the PHA producing strain were correlated to high intracellular ATP levels of the predator. These effects brought Bdellovibrio fitness benefits as predation on PHA producers was more efficient than predation on non-producing bacteria. PMID:23227863
Martínez, Virginia; Jurkevitch, Edouard; García, José Luis; Prieto, María Auxiliadora
Size change over evolutionary time between two interacting species, a predatory naticid gastropod and its bivalve prey, is analyzed. We show that two simultaneous, maximizing algorithms (the predator maximizes energy intake; the prey maximizes reproductive output) result in an endogenous, coevolutionary size increase, to a stable attracting point. In particular, we show that selection for delayed reproduction in a predatorpreay system that is highly size-selective due to the predatory strategy of cost-benefit prey selection, coupled with the relative allometries of cost (prey shell thickness) and benefit (prey biomass) with prey size, and the highly size-dependent probability of successful predation, lead to a coevolutionary size increase for both predator and prey, up to a limit condition dictated by predatory respiration costs. In the absence of predation, the prey species attains a smaller size than in the presence of predation. Addition of the predator results in a delay in the timing of reproduction by the prey, thereby facilitating a size response.
DeAngelis, D.L.; Kitchell, J.A.; Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.
Organisms with complex life histories (CLH) often cross habitat or ecosystem boundaries as they develop from larvae to adults, coupling energy flow between ecosystems as both prey (bottom-up) and consumers (top-down). Predation effects on one stage of this life cycle can therefore cascade across ecosystems, magnifying the impact of local predation. The majority of predation studies have assessed effects only on a local level, within the habitat of the predator. I used large outdoor stream mesocosms to test the hypothesis that predation in an aquatic habitat alters the magnitude and trophic structure of a prey assemblage in a terrestrial habitat. I also tested how a consumer in the terrestrial habitat (web-weaving spiders) responded to these changes in prey export. Two fish species were the predators (red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis and orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile) in an experiment with three treatments: both fish species monocultures plus a fishless control. Fish predation reduced aquatic insect emergence biomass by 50% compared to the fishless control and altered the trophic structure of the emergent community, reducing emerging insect predator biomass by 50%, but had no effect on other insect trophic groups. Spiders captured only insects that were unaffected by fish predation (mostly chironomids) and therefore did not respond numerically to overall changes in insect abundance or biomass. Patterns of insect emergence were largely driven by a strong negative relationship between fish and a predatory dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). The results of this experiment show that predation in one habitat can have strong effects on the biomass and trophic structure of subsidies entering adjacent habitats, resulting in contrasting predictions for the role of these subsidies in recipient food webs. In the absence of fish, aquatic habitats produced terrestrial insect communities with higher biomass (bottom-up potential) and a higher proportion of predators (top-down potential) than when fish were present. PMID:20503875
Wesner, Jeff Scott
We studied the effects of removal of breeding nomadic avian predators (the kestrel, Falco tinnunculus and Tengmalm's owl, Aegolius funereus) on small mammals (voles of the genera Microtus and Clethrionomys and the common shrew, Sorex araneus) during 1989–1992 in western Finland to find out if these predators have a regulating or limiting impact on their prey populations. We removed potential
Kai Norrdahl; Erkki Korpimäki
Although microevolution has been shown to play an important role in pairwise antagonistic species interactions, its importance in more complex communities has received little attention. Here, we used two Pseudomonas fluorescens prey bacterial strains (SBW25 and F113) and Tetrahymena thermophila protist predator to study how rapid evolution affects the structuring of predator-prey communities. Both bacterial strains coexisted in the absence of predation, and F113 was competitively excluded in the presence of both SBW25 and predator during the 24-day experiment, an initially surprising result given that F113 was originally poorer at growing, but more resistant to predation. However, this can be explained by SBW25 evolving greater antipredatory defence with a lower growth cost than F113. These results show that rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities, having different effects depending on the initial composition of the evolving community. From a more applied perspective, our results suggest that the effectiveness of biocontrol bacteria, such as F113, could be weaker in communities characterized by intense bacterial competition and protist predation. PMID:24372926
Friman, V-P; Jousset, A; Buckling, A
Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space. PMID:15846334
Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter
We study the predator-prey model described by the Lotka-Volterra equations (N.S. Goel et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 43 (1971) 231). These coupled non-linear differential equations are solved numerically and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Spectral analysis of the data indicate the presence of a fixed set of frequencies and the absence of power-law behaviour. Features introduced to make the model more realistic, such as age-structures and ageing, are found to have no qualitative effect.
Bradshaw, A. T.; Moseley, L. L.
While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of increased oxidative stress. Here, we test whether predation risk increases oxidative damage in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae. Under predation risk, larvae showed higher lipid peroxidation, which was associated with lower levels of superoxide dismutase, a major antioxidant enzyme in insects, and higher superoxide anion concentrations, a potent reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms underlying oxidative damage are likely to be due to the shunting of energy away from antioxidant defence and to an increased metabolic rate, suggesting that the observed increased oxidative damage under predation risk may be widespread. Given the potentially severe fitness consequences of oxidative damage, this largely overlooked non-consumptive effect of predators may be contributing significantly to prey population dynamics. PMID:23760170
Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby
To investigate whether Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) reproduction is food-limited, we evaluated the reproductive output from 401 goshawk breeding opportunities on the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona during 1999-2002. Concurrently, we estimated densities of 10 goshawk prey species (seven birds, three mammals) using distance sampling. We then assessed the relationship between goshawk produc- tivity (number of fledglings produced) and prey density within
SUSAN R. SALAFSKY; RICHARD T. R EYNOLDS; BARRY R. NOON
Macroperipatus torquatus feeds nocturnally on crickets and a few other invertebrates on the floor of the Trinidadian rain forest. Prey are inspected by gentle application of the antennae and, if suitable, are captured by entangling them in proteinaceous glue squirted from the oral papillae. Entangled prey are bitten through an arthrodial membrane and immobilized by injected saliva, which may also
V. M. St J. Read; R. N. Hughes
Although predator-prey interactions among higher organisms have been studied extensively, only few examples are known for microbes other than protists and viruses. Among the bacteria, the most studied obligate predators are the Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) that prey on many other bacteria. In the macroscopical world, both predator and prey influence the population size of the other's community, and may have a role in selection. However, selective pressures among prey and predatory bacteria have been rarely investigated. In this study, Bacteriovorax, a predator within the group of BALOs, in environmental waters were fed two prey bacteria, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The two prey species yielded distinct Bacteriovorax populations, evidence that selective pressures shaped the predator community and diversity. The results of laboratory experiments confirmed the differential predation of Bacteriovorax phylotypes on the two bacteria species. Not only did Bacteriovorax Cluster IX exhibit the versatility to be the exclusive efficient predator on Vibrio vulnificus, thereby, behaving as a specialist, but was also able to prey with similar efficiency on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, indicative of a generalist. Therefore, we proposed a designation of versatilist for this predator. This initiative should provide a basis for further efforts to characterize the predatory patterns of bacterial predators. The results of this study have revealed impacts of the prey on Bacteriovorax predation and in structuring the predator community, and advanced understanding of predation behavior in the microbial world. PMID:21326335
Chen, Huan; Athar, Rana; Zheng, Guili; Williams, Henry N
The diversity of both the locomotor and feeding systems in fish is extensive, although little is known about the integrated evolution of the two systems. Virtually, all fish swim to ingest prey and all open their buccal cavity during prey capture, but the relationship between these two ubiquitous components of fish feeding strikes is unknown. We predicted that there should
T. E. HIGHAM; C. D. HULSEY; O. RI ´ CAN
Whereas visuomotor behaviors and visual object recognition have been studied in detail, we know relatively little about tactile object representations. We investigate a new model system for the tactile guidance of behavior, namely prey (cricket) capture by one of the smallest mammals, the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus. Because of their high metabolic rate and nocturnal lifestyle, Etruscan shrews are forced to detect, overwhelm, and kill prey in large numbers in darkness. Crickets are exquisitely mechanosensitive, fast-moving prey, almost as big as the shrew itself. Shrews succeed in hunting by lateralized, precise, and fast attacks. Removal experiments demonstrate that both macrovibrissae and microvibrissae are required for prey capture, with the macrovibrissae being involved in attack targeting. Experiments with artificial prey replica show that tactile shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Prey representations are motion- and size-invariant. Shrews distinguish and memorize prey features. Corrective maneuvers and cricket shape manipulation experiments indicate that shrew behavior is guided by Gestalt-like prey descriptions. Thus, tactile object recognition in Etruscan shrews shares characteristics of human visual object recognition, but it proceeds faster and occurs in a 20,000-times-smaller brain.
Anjum, Farzana; Turni, Hendrik; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van der Burg, Johannes; Brecht, Michael
Predators can have positive impacts on their prey through such mechanisms as nutrient mineralization and prey transport. These positive feedbacks have the potential to change predictions based on food web theory, such as the assertion that enrichment is destabilizing. We present a model of a simple food web, consisting of a resource, a consumer, and its predator. We assume that
David H. Brown; Howard Ferris; Shenglei Fu; Richard Planta
In freshwater ecosystems, rotifers and cladocerans are ideal prey for fish larvae whereas copepods, due to their purported low growth rate and predatory tendency, are not. We recently isolated the parthenogenetic Elaphoidella grandidieri (Gueme et Richard, 1893) a benthic freshwater harpacticoid, from a fish farm in the State of Morelos, central Mexico and tested its potential as a live prey organism for larval vertebrates. Population growth and life table demography experiments were conducted, in 100 ml recipients with 50 ml of test medium on a diet of Scenedesmus acutus at a density of 1.0 X 10(6) cell ml(-1); the former on live algae alone while the latter on live algae as well as detritus. We also conducted experiments to document the prey preference for this copepod by the larval Ameca splendens (Pisces: Goodeidae) and Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae), fed the rotifer Plationus patulus, the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens, and the cladocerans Moina macrocopa and Daphnia pulex. Elaphoidella grandidieri is relatively easy to maintain under laboratory conditions, reaching densities (copepodites and adults) of more than 10,000 l(-1). The generation time ranged between 30-45 days, depending on the diet. The net reproductive rate was as high as 60 nauplii female(-1) day (1). Population growth rates ranged between 0.03 and 0.11 d(-1), live algae being the superior diet compared to detritus. Both predators showed no preference for E. grandidieri, but in the absence of alternate prey they consumed 80% of the harpacticoids offered. The data have been discussed in relation to the potential of E. grandidierias live food for aquaculture. PMID:22315830
Nandini, S; Nunez Ortiz, Alma Rosa; Sarma, S S S
We have constructed a synthetic ecosystem consisting of two Escherichia coli populations, which communicate bi-directionally through quorum sensing and regulate each other's gene expression and survival via engineered gene circuits. Our synthetic ecosystem resembles canonical predator–prey systems in terms of logic and dynamics. The predator cells kill the prey by inducing expression of a killer protein in the prey, while the prey rescue the predators by eliciting expression of an antidote protein in the predator. Extinction, coexistence and oscillatory dynamics of the predator and prey populations are possible depending on the operating conditions as experimentally validated by long-term culturing of the system in microchemostats. A simple mathematical model is developed to capture these system dynamics. Coherent interplay between experiments and mathematical analysis enables exploration of the dynamics of interacting populations in a predictable manner.
Balagadde, Frederick K; Song, Hao; Ozaki, Jun; Collins, Cynthia H; Barnet, Matthew; Arnold, Frances H; Quake, Stephen R; You, Lingchong
In a series of experiments, the interspecific predation and cannibalism on immatures by the adult females of Euseius finlandicus, Kampimodromus aberrans and Typhlodromus pyri were examined under laboratory conditions. The three species showed differing tendencies to prey on each other's motile immature stages. Euseius finlandicus females consumed more larvae and protonymphs than the females of T. pyri and K. aberrans.
Background: Determination of reference ranges of each serum protein in normal population of each country is required for studies and clinical interpretation. The aim of this study was defining reference range values of immunoglobulins and complement components in Iranian healthy children. Methods: This study was conducted from June 2003 to June 2006 in Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 in 800 Iranian healthy children from newborn to 18 years of age in four population were measured by nephelometry. Kolmogrov-Smirnov tests and Pearson correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: Our results mainly agree with previous reports, except for some discrepancy that might be due to the ethnic and geographic variety. There was a significant difference between two sexes only with IgA in the group of 1–3 months old, which was higher in male group and IgM in groups of 3–5, 6–8 and 9–11 years old that were higher in female groups. Mean of other serum immunoglobulins and complements was not significantly different between male and female groups. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a local reference for use in laboratories, clinical interpretations, and research for Iranian children.
Kardar, GA; Oraei, M; Shahsavani, M; Namdar, Z; Kazemisefat, GE; Haghi Ashtiani, MT; Shams, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M
Portia fimbriata from Queensland, Australia, is an araneophagic jumping spider (Salticidae) that includes in its predatory strategy a tactic (cryptic stalking) enabling it to prey effectively on a wide range of salticids from other genera. Optical cues used by P. fimbriata to identify the salticid species on which it most commonly preys, Jacksonoides queenslandicus, were investigated experimentally in the laboratory
DUANE P. HARLAND; ROBERT R. JACKSON
Symbiotic temperate corals can supplement prey capture by the coelenterate host with autotrophic carbon production by endosymbiotic zooxanthellae. To test the relationship between heterotrophic consumption and photosynthetic energy, prey capture by symbiotic and aposymbiotic specimens of the temperate scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula (Verrill) was measured in January-April 2001. Corals were tested in a laboratory flume at five flow speeds, using
G. A. Piniak
Understanding how prey capture rates are influenced by feeding ecology and environmental conditions is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts on marine higher predators. We compared how prey capture rates varied in relation to prey size, prey patch distribution and prey density for two species of alcid, common guillemot (Uria aalge) and razorbill (Alca torda) during the chick-rearing period. We developed a Monte Carlo approach parameterised with foraging behaviour from bird-borne data loggers, observations of prey fed to chicks, and adult diet from water-offloading, to construct a bio-energetics model. Our primary goal was to estimate prey capture rates, and a secondary aim was to test responses to a set of biologically plausible environmental scenarios. Estimated prey capture rates were 1.5 ± 0.8 items per dive (0.8 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.6 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for guillemots and 3.7 ± 2.4 items per dive (4.9 ± 3.1 and 7.3 ± 4.0 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for razorbills. Based on species' ecology, diet and flight costs, we predicted that razorbills would be more sensitive to decreases in 0-group sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) length (prediction 1), but guillemots would be more sensitive to prey patches that were more widely spaced (prediction 2), and lower in prey density (prediction 3). Estimated prey capture rates increased non-linearly as 0-group sandeel length declined, with the slope being steeper in razorbills, supporting prediction 1. When prey patches were more dispersed, estimated daily energy expenditure increased by a factor of 3.0 for guillemots and 2.3 for razorbills, suggesting guillemots were more sensitive to patchier prey, supporting prediction 2. However, both species responded similarly to reduced prey density (guillemot expenditure increased by 1.7; razorbill by 1.6), thus not supporting prediction 3. This bio-energetics approach complements other foraging models in predicting likely impacts of environmental change on marine higher predators dependent on species-specific foraging ecologies. PMID:24260318
Thaxter, Chris B; Daunt, Francis; Grémillet, David; Harris, Mike P; Benvenuti, Silvano; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hamer, Keith C; Wanless, Sarah
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) type 1 is commonly associated with simultaneous involvement of extrapancreatic organs. Sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, Sjögren syndrome, and other extrapancreatic lesions are often observed concurrently with AIP. High levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) in the blood serum and affected tissues are typical of this diagnostic entity. We describe a case report of a 58-year-old female with findings of AIP (according to Asian criteria), IgG4-positive mastitis, and histologically verified Mikulicz syndrome. The effect of corticoid therapy supported the diagnosis of AIP and simultaneously led to the eradication of recurrent mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent findings of AIP and IgG4 mastitis. Our case report supports the concept of systemic IgG4 syndrome with multisystem involvement. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy can be effective in a high percentage of patients. PMID:24073323
Dít?, Petr; Trna, Jan; Kinkor, Zden?k; Novotný, Ivo; Lata, Jan; Kiani?ka, Bohuslav; Hermanová, Markéta
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) type 1 is commonly associated with simultaneous involvement of extrapancreatic organs. Sclerosing cholangitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, Sjögren syndrome, and other extrapancreatic lesions are often observed concurrently with AIP. High levels of immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) in the blood serum and affected tissues are typical of this diagnostic entity. We describe a case report of a 58-year-old female with findings of AIP (according to Asian criteria), IgG4-positive mastitis, and histologically verified Mikulicz syndrome. The effect of corticoid therapy supported the diagnosis of AIP and simultaneously led to the eradication of recurrent mastitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of concurrent findings of AIP and IgG4 mastitis. Our case report supports the concept of systemic IgG4 syndrome with multisystem involvement. Timely diagnosis and appropriate therapy can be effective in a high percentage of patients.
Trna, Jan; Kinkor, Zdenek; Novotny, Ivo; Lata, Jan; Kianicka, Bohuslav; Hermanova, Marketa
Among the chronic glomerulonephritides the IgA-nephropathy is one of the most frequent forms. On account of the possibility of the transition into the terminal renal insufficiency new ways for the therapeutic influence on this disease must be found. In the hitherto used therapy methods above all corticosteroids, cytostatic drugs, inhibitors of thrombocyte aggregation and antiphlogistic drugs were applied. According to the recent investigations from the application of eicosapentaenic acid and the use of plasmapheresis possibilities result to favourably influence the course of the disease and thus to prevent a progression of this disease. By the administration of diphenylhydantoin the IgA-level could, indeed, be lowered, but an influence on the course of the disease could not be proved. PMID:3445658
Gläser, M; Schirmer, K
On October 5, the tenth annual Ig Nobel awards ceremony was held at Harvard University. The Ig Nobel awards honor individuals whose achievements "cannot or should not be reproduced." This year's illustrious winners include, in the Physics category, Andre Geim of the University of Nijmegen (the Netherlands) and Sir Michael Berry of Bristol University (UK) for using magnets to levitate a frog and a sumo wrestler, and the Peace award goes to the British Royal Navy, for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang!" A complete list of winners with links to further information is provided at the site, along with previous winners and an archived webcast of this and past year's ceremonies (free registration required).
Background\\/Aims: This study was designed to elucidate the clinical significance of serum uric acid (SUA) and the relationship between hyperuricemia and renal prognosis in IgA nepropathy. Methods: The correlation between SUA and other clinical parameters were examined in 748 IgA nephropathy patients (432 males and 316 females). Among these patients, 226 (144 males and 82 females) who were followed for
Iwao Ohno; Tatsuo Hosoya; Hideho Gomi; Kimiyoshi Ichida; Hideaki Okabe; Miho Hikita
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict between conservation objectives for threatened or protected wildlife where the interaction between affected species can be quantified.
Williams, Rob; Krkosek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss
Working from archaeofaunal trends in the Mediterranean Basin and modern wildlife data, we present a demographic interpretation\\u000a of Paleolithic prey “choice” with the aid of computer simulation modeling. Archaeological indications of expanding dietary\\u000a breadth with the onset of the Upper Paleolithic period associate with increasing exploitation of highly productive small animals\\u000a and smaller ungulate species, despite the higher procurement costs
Mary C. Stiner; Joseph E. Beaver; Natalie D. Munro; Todd A. Surovell
During the examination of 158 birds of prey -- Buteo buteo (85), Falco tinnunculus (30), Accipiter gentilis (19), Accipiter nisus (18), Circus aeruginosus (2), Circus pygargus (1), Pandion haliaetus (1), Pernis apivorus (1), Falco subbuteo (1) and faeces samples of Falco tinnunculus 4 protozoan species, 1 trematode species, 2 cestode species, 13 nematode species, 2 acanthocephalan species and 5 mallophaga species could be detected. In the buzzard, kestrel and goshawk a new species of Capillaria could be found and described as Eucoleus suppereri spec. nov. A new species of Synhimantus, Synhimantus (Dispharynx) falconis spec. nov. was diagnosed. The infestation frequency of endo- and ectoparasites was relatively high, whereas the infestation intensity was small or mediocre on an average. The highest rate of infestation was found with trematodes and cestodes. The significance of the analysis of crop- and stomach-cntents as a guarantee of diagnosis "psuedoparasitism" was pointed out. PMID:7212374
Kutzer, E; Frey, H; Kotremba, J
Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE. PMID:16705980
Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred
Predators use cues associated with their prey to assess prey quality and to avoid consuming poisonous prey. Considerable attention has been given to predators' use of aposematic cues to assess prey quality, but little is known about predators that eavesdrop on prey cues that are not intended for them. Here we investigate the prey-cue/prey-quality associations of a predator that eavesdrops on the sexual advertisement signals of its prey. Stability is expected in prey-cue/prey-quality associations when mistakes in prey assessment are lethal. Conversely, flexibility is possible when mistakes are less costly. Predators that must respond to temporal and spatial fluctuations in prey availability should be more flexible in their assessment of prey quality. Given these predictions, we examined flexibility in the ability of wild-caught bats to reverse prey-cue/prey-quality associations for a preferred prey and a poisonous one. We found that the predatory bat, Trachops cirrhosus, has a heretofore undescribed ability to reverse its evaluations of the cues that signal preferred prey.
Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J
Previous reports proposed that the IgM anti-dsDNA antibody is protective for lupus nephritis. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients positive for IgG anti-dsDNA alone with those presenting both IgG and IgM anti-dsDNA. Anti-dsDNA antibodies, urinary examination and complement levels were assessed in the day of appointment. IgG and IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Fifty-eight SLE patients (93.1% female, 81% European-derived, mean age 42.8±14.7 years, mean duration of disease 10.9±8 years) positive for IgG anti-dsDNA entered the study. Of those, 15 were also positive for the IgM anti-dsDNA isotype. The group with both isotypes showed significant less frequency of active nephritis (sediment changes and proteinuria) when compared to patients with IgG anti-dsDNA alone (6.7% versus 34.9%, p=0.046). These data suggest a nephroprotective role for IgM anti-dsDNA and a distinct biologic behavior for this isotype in SLE.
Keiserman, Briele; Ronchetti, Maria Rita; Monticielo, Odirlei Andre; Keiserman, Mauro Waldemar; Staub, Henrique Luiz
A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior.
Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael
Death-feigning, also called tonic immobility, is found in a number of animal species across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. To date, five hypotheses have been proposed for the adaptive significance of tonic immobility. These are that tonic immobility is effective for prey because (i) avoiding dead prey is safer for predators, (ii) immobility plays a role in physical defence, (iii) immobility plays a role in concealment and/or background matching, (iv) predators lose interest in unmoving prey, and (v) the characteristic immobilization posture signals a bad taste to predators. The fourth and fifth hypotheses have been considered suitable explanations for tonic immobility of the red flour beetle against its predator, the jumping spider. In the present study, we used chemical analyses of secretions by the red flour beetles under attack by the jumping spider to reject the fifth hypothesis for this system. More importantly, we tested a selfish-prey hypothesis for the adaptive significance of death-feigning as an anti-predator strategy, in which individuals adopting tonic immobility survive by sacrificing neighbours. Findings showed that survival rates of feigners were higher when in the presence of non-feigners or prey of a different species, compared to when alone, thus confirming our selfish-prey hypothesis. In summary, our results suggest that immobility following a spider attack is selfish; death-feigning prey increase their probability of survival at the expense of more mobile neighbours.
Miyatake, Takahisa; Nakayama, Satoshi; Nishi, Yusuke; Nakajima, Shuhei
The intrinsic growth rate of non-selective microbivores increases asymptotically with increasing prey biomass, but we do not know how intrinsic growth rate is affected by prey richness. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of prey richness on the growth kinetics of nematode predators while grazing on mixed bacterial lawns. We found that the intrinsic growth rate of Caenorhabditis elegans in laboratory culture increased asymptotically with prey richness. The mechanism of this pattern was primarily due to the best available prey species in the mixture: the intrinsic growth rate of the consumer feeding on a mixture of prey was approximately equal to the intrinsic growth rate of the predator when feeding on the single best prey in monoculture. This was analogous to the selection effect observed in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships. Generation time, and not reproductive output, was the life history trait component that was most consistent with the pattern of intrinsic growth rate. Our results suggest that in order to link invertebrate consumers' growth rates to their microbial species composition in the field, it will be necessary to determine the ability of microbivorous invertebrates to selectively forage in natural environments and to better understand the micro-scale distribution of microbial communities in their natural environments. PMID:24453006
Darby, Brian J; Herman, Michael A
1.?Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2.?To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3.?The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4.?The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5.?Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological communities. Second, kill rate is the primary statistic for many traditional models of predation. However, our work suggests that kill rate and PR are similarly important for understanding why predation is such a complex process. PMID:21569029
Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O
Dynamical behavior of a food web comprising two predators competing over a single prey has been investigated. The analysis of the food web model shows that the persistence is not possible for two competing predators sharing a single prey species in the cases when any one of the boundary prey-predator planes has a stable equilibrium point. The principle of competitive exclusion holds in such cases. However, numerical simulations exhibit persistence in the presence of periodic solutions in the boundary planes. The system exhibits quasi-periodic behavior in the positive octant. The co-existence in the form of a limit cycle is also possible in some cases. PMID:17574733
Gakkhar, Sunita; Singh, Brahampal; Naji, Raid Kamel
Striped bass Morone saxatilis and hybrid bass M. saxatilis x M. chrysops have been stocked to establish fisheries in many US reservoirs, but success has been limited by a poor understanding of relations between prey biomass and predator growth and survival. To define sizes of prey that are morphologically available, we developed predictive relationships between predator length, mouth dimensions, and expected maximum prey size; predictions were then validated using published data on sizes of clupeid prey (Dorosoma spp.) in five US reservoirs. Further, we compared the biomass of prey considered available to predators using two forms of a length-based consumption model - a previously published AP/P ratio and a revised model based on our results. Predictions of maximum prey size using predator GW were consistent with observed prey sizes in US reservoirs. Length of consumed Dorosoma was significantly, but weakly, correlated with predator length in four of the five reservoirs (r2 = 0.006-0.336, P 150 mm TL) were abundant. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
Dennerline, D. E.; Van Den, Avyle, M. J.
In mutual intraguild predation (IGP), the role of individual guild members is strongly context dependent and, during ontogeny, can shift from an intraguild (IG) prey to a food competitor or to an IG predator. Consequently, recognition of an offspring's predator is more complex for IG than classic prey females. Thus, IG prey females should be able to modulate their oviposition decisions by integrating multiple IG predator cues and by experience. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as prey and passing through ontogenetic role shifts in mutual IGP, we assessed the effects of single and combined direct cues of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni (eggs and traces left by a female on the substrate) on prey patch selection and oviposition behaviour of naïve and IG predator-experienced IG prey females of Phytoseiulus persimilis. The IG prey females preferentially resided in patches without predator cues when the alternative patch contained traces of predator females or the cue combination. Preferential egg placement in patches without predator cues was only apparent in the choice situation with the cue combination. Experience increased the responsiveness of females exposed to the IG predator cue combination, indicated by immediate selection of the prey patch without predator cues and almost perfect oviposition avoidance in patches with the cue combination. We argue that the evolution of the ability of IG prey females to evaluate offspring's IGP risk accurately is driven by the irreversibility of oviposition and the functionally complex relationships between predator guild members. PMID:23264692
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
In mutual intraguild predation (IGP), the role of individual guild members is strongly context dependent and, during ontogeny, can shift from an intraguild (IG) prey to a food competitor or to an IG predator. Consequently, recognition of an offspring's predator is more complex for IG than classic prey females. Thus, IG prey females should be able to modulate their oviposition decisions by integrating multiple IG predator cues and by experience. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as prey and passing through ontogenetic role shifts in mutual IGP, we assessed the effects of single and combined direct cues of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni (eggs and traces left by a female on the substrate) on prey patch selection and oviposition behaviour of naïve and IG predator-experienced IG prey females of Phytoseiulus persimilis. The IG prey females preferentially resided in patches without predator cues when the alternative patch contained traces of predator females or the cue combination. Preferential egg placement in patches without predator cues was only apparent in the choice situation with the cue combination. Experience increased the responsiveness of females exposed to the IG predator cue combination, indicated by immediate selection of the prey patch without predator cues and almost perfect oviposition avoidance in patches with the cue combination. We argue that the evolution of the ability of IG prey females to evaluate offspring's IGP risk accurately is driven by the irreversibility of oviposition and the functionally complex relationships between predator guild members.
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
The incidence of primary urinary tract infection (UTI) is greatest in the first month of life and decreases with age throughout childhood. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) is an important component of mucosal immunity. The changes in secretory IgA, IgA and free secretory component (FSC) during the first year of life were examined in relation to age, sex and in infants, feeding practice. These constituents were further compared between healthy children and those with acute and recurrent UTI. Urine was collected from 41 healthy infants (16 female: 25 male) at intervals (mean age 1.4, 9.1, 44, 91, 210 and 412 days), 139 healthy children (75 female: 64 male), 29 children with histories of recurrent UTI (25 female: 4 male) and 10 with acute UTI (8 female: 2 male). sIgA, IgA and FSC were measured by enzyme linked immunoassay. In the majority of children sIgA and IgA were undetectable at birth. SIgA and IgA rose significantly during the first year then levelled off throughout childhood. FSC was detectable from birth (geometric mean [mean of logged values]-GOM at day 1.4, 362.2 ng/ml). No sex differences were apparent for any of the three constituents at any age. Breast feeding was associated with higher levels of sIgA and IgA than bottle feeding. This was highly significant at 9.1 days when sIgA and IgA levels of breast fed compared with bottle fed infants were 64.6 ng/ml vs 21.2 and 56.2 ng/ml vs 18.7 ng/ml respectively, giving a GOM ratio of 3.04 for sIgA and 3.0 for IgA (p < 0.001 for both). No significant difference in the three parameters were demonstrable when children with recurrent UTI-with normal or abnormal renal tracts-were compared with controls. Acute UTI resulted in raised sIgA, IgA and FSC compared with controls (GOM ratio of 4.9 [p < 0.002], 4.2 [p < 0.005] and 2.7 [p < 0.001] respectively). The proportion of total IgA present as sIgA (sIgA/total IgA) was not significantly different in the acute vs control groups. Urinary sIgA and IgA may be important for the observed variation with age in infant UTI and the reduced incidence in breast fed infants but does not appear to contribute to the sex associated difference in susceptibility to infection at any age. PMID:9285142
James-Ellison, M Y; Roberts, R; Verrier-Jones, K; Williams, J D; Topley, N
Predation is a central feature of ecological communities. Most theoretical and empirical studies of predation focus on the consequences of predators consuming their prey. Predators reduce prey population densities through direct consumption (a density- mediated interaction, DMI), a process that may indirectly affect the prey's resources, com- petitors, and other predators. However, predators can also affect prey population density by
Evan L. Preisser; Daniel I. Bolnick; Michael F. Benard
Summary The kinematics of feeding on two prey types is studied quantitatively in the common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, to provide a description of prey capture mechanisms and to determine whether kinematic patterns can be altered in response to prey that vary in escape capability. High-speed video recordings of prey capture (200 fields s\\
G. V. LAUDER; T. PRENDERGAST
We present a complete parametric analysis of a predator–prey system influenced by a top predator. We study ecosystems with abundant nutrient supply for the prey where the prey multiplication can be considered as proportional to its density. The main questions we examine are the following: (1) Can the top predator stabilize such a system at low densities of prey? (2)
Andrew Y. Morozov; Bai-Lian Li
Components of the IGS[International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for geodynamics], have operated a GPS tracking system for several years. The network now contains more than 100 stations and has produced a combined GPS ephemeris that has become the standard for geodesists and geophysicists worldwide. IGS data and products are freely available to all thanks to the cooperation and participation of all the IGS members. The IGS has initiated development of several new products, and technical issues permitting greater accuracy of IGS products have been identified. The IGS convened a workshop on March 1996 in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, to coordinate these developments and to examine technical problems and solutions. The following topics were addressed: orbit/clock combination; Earth orientation; antenna calibration; SINEX and densification of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) using the GPS; receiver standards and performance; and atmospheric topics.
Neilan, R. E. (Editor); VanScoy, P. A. (Editor); Zumberge, J. F. (Editor)
A ratio-dependent predator-prey model with infection in prey population is proposed and analysed. The behaviour of the system near the biological feasible equilibria is observed. The conditions for which no trajectory can reach the origin following any fixed direction or spirally are worked out. We investigate the criteria for which the system will persist. It is observed that the introduction of an infected population in the classical ratio-dependent predator-prey model may act as a biological control to save the population from extinction.
Arino, O.; El abdllaoui, A.; Mikram, J.; Chattopadhyay, J.
As part of an investigation determining the trophically available fraction of metals in a model terrestrial food web, i.e., invertebrate prey to Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), we evaluated the ability of several invertebrate prey to bioaccumulate lead and to form metals-rich granules, which are hypothesized to be non-available to predators. Crickets (Acheta domestica), tenebroid beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor), and isopods (Porcellio scaber) were selected as model prey organisms. Lack of standard exposure methodologies for these species has presented a barrier to trophic transfer evaluations, as each species has particular requirements that create challenges for designing exposure conditions. We were able to devise exposure conditions for all three species that allow long-term exposure studies. All prey organisms accumulated lead from contaminated food, and for all species the majority of the accumulated Pb was associated with the exoskeleton (>50%), with metals-rich granules accounting for most of the remaining accumulated lead. PMID:17490716
Inouye, Laura S; Yoo, Leslie J; Talent, Larry G; Clarke, Joan U; Jones, Robert P; Steevens, Jeffery A; Boyd, Robert E
This paper deals with the question of global stability of the positive locally asymp- totically stable equilibrium in a class of predator-prey systems. The Dulac's criterion is applied and Liapunov functions are constructed to establish the global stability.
Sze-bi Hsu; Tzy-wei Huang
The current extinction of many of Earth's large terrestrial carnivores has left some extant prey species lacking knowledge about contemporary predators, a situation roughly parallel to that 10,000 to 50,000 years ago, when naive animals first encountered colonizing human hunters. Along present-day carnivore recolonization fronts, brown (also called grizzly) bears killed predator-naive adult moose at disproportionately high rates in Scandinavia, and moose mothers who lost juveniles to recolonizing wolves in North America's Yellowstone region developed hypersensitivity to wolf howls. Although prey that had been unfamiliar with dangerous predators for as few as 50 to 130 years were highly vulnerable to initial encounters, behavioral adjustments to reduce predation transpired within a single generation. The fact that at least one prey species quickly learns to be wary of restored carnivores should negate fears about localized prey extinction. PMID:11161215
Berger, J; Swenson, J E; Persson, I L
Background Vertebrate predators use a broad arsenal of behaviors and weaponry for overcoming fractious and potentially dangerous prey. A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical modes of constriction and jaw-holding in non-venomous snakes, to a chemical means, venom, for quickly dispatching prey. However, even among venomous snakes, different prey handling strategies are utilized, varying from the strike-and-hold behaviors exhibited by highly toxic elapid snakes to the rapid strike-and-release envenomation seen in viperid snakes. For vipers, this mode of envenomation represents a minimal risk predatory strategy by permitting little contact with or retaliation from prey, but it adds the additional task of relocating envenomated prey which has wandered from the attack site. This task is further confounded by trails of other unstruck conspecific or heterospecific prey. Despite decades of behavioral study, researchers still do not know the molecular mechanism which allows for prey relocation. Results During behavioral discrimination trials (vomeronasal responsiveness) to euthanized mice injected with size-fractionated venom, Crotalus atrox responded significantly to only one protein peak. Assays for enzymes common in rattlesnake venoms, such as exonuclease, L-amino acid oxidase, metalloproteinase, thrombin-like and kallikrein-like serine proteases and phospholipase A2, showed that vomeronasal responsiveness was not dependent on enzymatic activity. Using mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing, we identified the proteins responsible for envenomated prey discrimination as the non-enzymatic disintegrins crotatroxin 1 and 2. Our results demonstrate a novel and critical biological role for venom disintegrins far beyond their well-established role in disruption of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Conclusions These findings reveal the evolutionary significance of free disintegrins in venoms as the molecular mechanism in vipers allowing for effective relocation of envenomated prey. The presence of free disintegrins in turn has led to evolution of a major behavioral adaptation (strike-and-release), characteristic of only rattlesnakes and other vipers, which exploits and refines the efficiency of a pre-existing chemical means of predation and a highly sensitive olfaction system. This system of a predator chemically tagging prey represents a novel trend in the coevolution of predator-prey relationships.
We tested whether specialist and generalist phytoseiid mites differ in aggressiveness and prey choice in cannibalism and intraguild predation. Specialists tested were Galendromus occidentalis, Neoseiulus longispinosus, Phytoseiulus persimilis, and P. macropilis; generalists tested were Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, E. hibisci, Kampimodromus aberrans, Neoseiulus barkeri, N. californicus, N. cucumeris, NM fallacis, and Typhlodromus pyri. Aggressiveness of cannibalistic females against larvae was not related to diet specialization except that highly aggressive species were exclusively generalists. Seldom to moderately cannibalizing species occurred in both generalist and specialist phytoseiids. In contrast to aggressiveness in cannibalism, generalists and specialists differed in aggressiveness in intraguild predation. Adult females of specialists were only slightly aggressive against heterospecific larvae, whereas adult females of all generalists except T. pyri were highly aggressive. Adult females of generalists were able to discriminate between con- and heterospecific larvae and preferentially consumed the latter when given a choice. Adult females of specialists except G. occidentalis showed no preference when given a choice between con- and heterospecific larvae. We conclude that aggressiveness in intraguild predation, species recognition and subsequent preferential consumption of heterospecifics when given a choice is common in generalist but not specialist phytoseiids. We discuss the evolutionary pathways that might have led to the difference between specialists and generalists in species discrimination. PMID:11227828
Schausberger, P; Croft, B A
Mathematical models1-3, field observations4,5, and laboratory studies6 all suggest that habitat patchiness (or 'fragmentation') profoundly affects species interactions. One especially widely cited idea is that patchiness stabilizes predator-prey dynamics7,8. I performed the first test of this idea in a natural community by experimentally manipulating the degree of patchiness in goldenrod fields that were the setting for a predator-prey interaction between
Landscapes are increasingly fragmented, and conservation programs have started to look at network approaches for maintaining\\u000a populations at a larger scale. We present an agent-based model of predator–prey dynamics where the agents (i.e. the individuals\\u000a of either the predator or prey population) are able to move between different patches in a landscaped network. We then analyze\\u000a population level and coexistence
Jacopo A. Baggio; Kehinde Salau; Marco A. Janssen; Michael L. Schoon; Örjan Bodin
Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:23964194
Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel
Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication.
Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel
While aquatic environments have long been thought to be more moderate environments than their terrestrial cousins, environmental data demonstrate that for some systems this is not so. Numerous important environmental parameters can fluctuate dramatically, notably dissolved oxygen, turbidity and temperature. The roles of dissolved oxygen and turbidity on predator-prey interactions have been discussed in detail elsewhere within this issue and will be considered only briefly here. Here, we will focus primarily on the role of temperature and its potential impact upon predator-prey interactions. Two key properties are of particular note. For temperate aquatic ecosystems, all piscine and invertebrate piscivores and their prey are ectothermic. They will therefore be subject to energetic demands that are significantly affected by environmental temperature. Furthermore, the physical properties of water, particularly its high thermal conductivity, mean that thermal microenvironments will not exist so that fine-scale habitat movements will not be an option for dealing with changing water temperature in lentic environments. Unfortunately, there has been little experimental analysis of the role of temperature on such predator-prey interactions, so we will instead focus on theoretical work, indicating that potential implications associated with thermal change are unlikely to be straightforward and may present a greater threat to predators than to their prey. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in the thermal environment can result in a net benefit to cold-adapted species through the mechanism of predator-prey interactions. PMID:17472922
Abrahams, Mark V; Mangel, Marc; Hedges, Kevin
Many species of snakes use constriction-the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk-to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accordingly. We monitored pressure generated by snakes as they struck and constricted warm cadaveric rats instrumented with a simulated heart. Snakes responded to the beating heart by constricting longer and with greater total pressure than when constricting rats with no heartbeat. When the heart was stopped midway through the constriction, snakes abandoned constriction shortly after the heartbeat ceased. Furthermore, snakes naive to live prey also responded to the simulated heart, suggesting that this behaviour is at least partly innate. These results are an example of how snakes integrate physiological cues from their prey to modulate a complex and ancient behavioural pattern. PMID:22258447
Boback, Scott M; Hall, Allison E; McCann, Katelyn J; Hayes, Amanda W; Forrester, Jeffrey S; Zwemer, Charles F
We studied the production of immunoglobulins by lymphocytes separated from the blood of 15 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, of 12 patients suffering from other connective tissue diseases (CTD), and of 18 healthy controls. The production of IgM, IgG and IgA in pokeweed-mitogen-stimulated cultures was measured by counting the number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) and by determining the concentration of secreted
K Poikonen; M Oka; T Möttönen; I Jokinen; H Arvilommi
Intraguild (IG) prey is commonly confronted with multiple IG predator species. However, the IG predation (IGP) risk for prey is not only dependent on the predator species, but also on inherent (intraspecific) characteristics of a given IG predator such as its life-stage, sex or gravidity and the associated prey needs. Thus, IG prey should have evolved the ability to integrate multiple IG predator cues, which should allow both inter- and intraspecific threat-sensitive anti-predator responses. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing spider mites as prey, we evaluated the effects of single and combined cues (eggs and/or chemical traces left by a predator female on the substrate) of the low risk IG predator Neoseiulus californicus and the high risk IG predator Amblyseius andersoni on time, distance and path shape parameters of the larval IG prey Phytoseiulus persimilis. IG prey discriminated between traces of the low and high risk IG predator, with and without additional presence of their eggs, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. The behavioural changes were manifest in distance moved, activity and path shape of IG prey. The cue combination of traces and eggs of the IG predators conveyed other information than each cue alone, allowing intraspecific threat-sensitive responses by IG prey apparent in changed velocities and distances moved. We argue that graded responses to single and combined IG predator cues are adaptive due to minimization of acceptance errors in IG prey decision making.
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
Intraguild (IG) prey is commonly confronted with multiple IG predator species. However, the IG predation (IGP) risk for prey is not only dependent on the predator species, but also on inherent (intraspecific) characteristics of a given IG predator such as its life-stage, sex or gravidity and the associated prey needs. Thus, IG prey should have evolved the ability to integrate multiple IG predator cues, which should allow both inter- and intraspecific threat-sensitive anti-predator responses. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing spider mites as prey, we evaluated the effects of single and combined cues (eggs and/or chemical traces left by a predator female on the substrate) of the low risk IG predator Neoseiulus californicus and the high risk IG predator Amblyseius andersoni on time, distance and path shape parameters of the larval IG prey Phytoseiulus persimilis. IG prey discriminated between traces of the low and high risk IG predator, with and without additional presence of their eggs, indicating interspecific threat-sensitivity. The behavioural changes were manifest in distance moved, activity and path shape of IG prey. The cue combination of traces and eggs of the IG predators conveyed other information than each cue alone, allowing intraspecific threat-sensitive responses by IG prey apparent in changed velocities and distances moved. We argue that graded responses to single and combined IG predator cues are adaptive due to minimization of acceptance errors in IG prey decision making. PMID:23750040
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
Plant quality can directly and indirectly affect the third trophic level. The predation by all the instars of green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (S.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) on the cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), and Sitobion avenae (F.) at varying nitrogen fertilizer levels was calculated under laboratory conditions. Wheat plants were grown on four nitrogen fertilizer levels and aphids were fed on these plants and subsequently offered as food to the C. carnea. Aphid densities of 10, 30, and 90 were offered to first, second, and third instar larvae of green lacewing. Increased nitrogen application improved nitrogen contents of the plants and also the body weight of cereal aphids feeding on them. Aphid consumption by green lacewings was reduced with the increase in nitrogen content in the host plants of aphids. Predation of both aphid species by first, second, and third instars larvae of C. carnea was highest on aphids reared on plants with the lowest rate of fertilization, suggesting a compensatory consumption to overcome reduced biomass (lower aphid size). Total biomass devoured by C. carnea on all nitrogen fertilizer treatments was not statistically different. Additionally, the heavier host prey influenced by the plant nutrition had an effect on the life history characteristics of green lacewings. The larval duration, pupal weight, pupal duration, fecundity, and male and female longevity were significantly affected by the level of nitrogen fertilization to the aphid's host plants, except for pupal duration when fed on S. avenae. This study showed that quantity of prey supplied to the larvae affects the prey consumption and thereafter the life history characteristics of green lacewings. PMID:23956127
Aqueel, Muhammad A; Collins, Catherine M; Raza, Abu-bakar M; Ahmad, Shahbaz; Tariq, Muhammad; Leather, Simon R
Anthropogenic disturbances have been demonstrated to affect animal behavior, distribution, and abundance, but assessment of their impacts on fitness-related traits has received little attention. We hypothesized that human activities and infrastructure cause a decrease in the individual performance of preys because of anthropogenically enhanced predation risk. We evaluated the impacts of commercial logging and road networks on the fitness of a large herbivore known to be sensitive to human disturbance: the forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). For 8 consecutive years (2004–2011) we monitored 59 individuals using GPS telemetry in the Charlevoix region of Québec, Canada. We also used Very High Frequency telemetry locations collected on 28 individuals from 1999–2000. We related habitat selection of adult caribou at various spatio-temporal scales to their probability of dying from predation, and to indices of their reproductive success and energy expenditure. The probability that adult caribou died from predation increased with the proportion of recent disturbances (including cutblocks ?5 years old) in their annual home range. The respective effects of increasing paved and forestry road densities depended upon the overall road density within the home range of caribou. At a finer scale of 10 to 15 days before their death, caribou that were killed by a predator selected for recent disturbances more than individuals that survived, and avoided old mature conifer stands. The home range area of caribou increased with road density. Finally, the composition of the home range of females had no effect on their reproductive success. We show that human activities and infrastructure may influence the individual performance of large prey species in highly managed regions. We outline the need to consider the full set of impacts that human development may have on threatened animal populations, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships and population dynamics.
Leblond, Mathieu; Dussault, Christian; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against B19 virus (B19V) in Makkah and Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: B19V-specific IgG antibodies were detected by a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of 400 paediatric patients (185 males and 215 females) aged 1–17 years. Results: Of the 400 patients, 80 (20%) had sera positive for B19V-specific IgG. The difference
A mechanistic understanding of goal-directed behavior in vertebrates is hindered by the relative inaccessibility and size of their nervous systems. Here, we have studied the kinematics of prey capture behavior in a highly accessible vertebrate model organism, the transparent larval zebrafish (Danio rerio), to assess whether they use visual cues to systematically adjust their movements. We found that zebrafish larvae scale the speed and magnitude of turning movements according to the azimuth of one of their standard prey, paramecia. They also bias the direction of subsequent swimming movements based on prey azimuth and select forward or backward movements based on the prey's direction of travel. Once within striking distance, larvae generate either ram or suction capture behaviors depending on their distance from the prey. From our experimental estimations of ocular receptive fields, we ascertained that the ultimate decision to consume prey is likely a function of the progressive vergence of the eyes that places the target in a proximal binocular 'capture zone'. By repeating these experiments in the dark, we demonstrate that paramecia are only consumed if they contact the anterior extremities of larvae, which triggers ocular vergence and tail movements similar to close proximity captures in lit conditions. These observations confirm the importance of vision in the graded movements we observe leading up to capture of more distant prey in the light, and implicate somatosensation in captures in the absence of light. We discuss the implications of these findings for future work on the neural control of visually guided behavior in zebrafish. PMID:23619412
Patterson, Bradley W; Abraham, Aliza O; MacIver, Malcolm A; McLean, David L
Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator's ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors.
Page, Rachel A.; Schnelle, Tanja; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Bunge, Thomas; Bernal, Ximena E.
Little is known about the accumulation and effects of selenium in reptiles. We developed a simplified laboratory food chain where we fed commercial feed laden with seleno-D,L-methionine (30 microg/g dry mass) to crickets (Acheta domestica) for 5-7 d. Se-enriched crickets (approximately 15 microg/g Se [dry mass]) were fed to juvenile male and female lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) for 98 d while conspecifics were fed uncontaminated crickets. Lizards fed contaminated prey accumulated Se concentrations ranging from 9.3 (in female carcass) to 14.1 (in female gonad) microg/g compared to <1.5 microg/g in tissues of controls. Female gonad concentrations approached the highest of thresholds for reproductive toxicity in oviparous vertebrates. However, we observed no consistent effect of dietary treatment on sublethal parameters or survival. Our simplified food chain proved to be an ecologically relevant method of exposing lizards to Se, and forms the foundation for future studies on maternal transfer and teratogenicity of Se. PMID:15620590
Hopkins, William A; Staub, Brandon P; Baionno, Jennifer A; Jackson, Brian P; Talent, Larry G
Summary We investigated the retention of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in phototrophic dinoflagellates arising from mixotrophy by estimating the cellular content of DMSP in Karlodinium veneficum (mixotrophic growth) fed for 7–10 days on either DMSP-rich Amphidinium carterae (phototrophic growth only) or DMSP-poor Teleaulax sp. (phototrophic growth only). In K. veneficum fed on DMSP-poor prey, the cellular content of DMSP remained almost unchanged regardless of the rate of feeding, whereas the cellular content of DMSP in cells of K. veneficum fed on DMSP-rich prey increased by as much as 21 times the cellular concentration derived exclusively from phototrophic growth. In both cases, significant fractions (10–32% in the former case and 55–65% in the latter) of the total DMSP ingested by K. veneficum were transformed into dimethylsulfide and other biochemical compounds. The results may indicate that the DMSP content of prey species affects temporal variations in the cellular DMSP content of mixotrophic dinoflagellates, and that mixotrophic dinoflagellates produce DMS through grazing on DMSP-rich preys. Additional studies should be performed to examine the universality of our finding in other mixotrophic dinoflagellates feeding on diverse prey species.
Lee, Hyunwoo; Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Jeong, Hae Jin; Yoo, Yeong Du
Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606
Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J
I studied the predatory behavior of Platythyrea conradti, an arboreal ponerine ant, whereas most species in this subfamily are ground-dwelling. The workers, which hunt solitarily only around dusk, are able to capture a wide range of prey, including termites and agile, nocturnal insects as well as diurnal insects that are inactive at that moment of the Nyctemeron, resting on tree branches or under leaves. Prey are captured very rapidly, and the antennal palpation used by ground-dwelling ponerine species is reduced to a simple contact; stinging occurs immediately thereafter. The venom has an instant, violent effect as even large prey (up to 30 times the weight of a worker) never struggled after being stung. Only small prey are not stung. Workers retrieve their prey, even large items, singly. To capture termite workers and soldiers defending their nest entrances, ant workers crouch and fold their antennae backward. In their role as guards, the termites face the crouching ants and end up by rolling onto their backs, their legs batting the air. This is likely due to volatile secretions produced by the ants' mandibular gland. The same behavior is used against competing ants, including territorially-dominant arboreal species that retreat further and further away, so that the P. conradti finally drive them from large, sugary food sources.
In the United States, another set of awards were passed out this week: the Ig Nobels. Awarded by humor rag The Annals of Improbable Research, the Ig Nobels honor people whose achievements "cannot or should not be reproduced." This year's illustrious Ig Nobel laureates include, for Medicine, the publisher of "Injuries Due to Falling Coconuts," in the Journal of Trauma, the founder of the Apostrophe Protection Society (Literature), and the Peace Prize goes to the Lithuanian who built an amusement park known colloquially as "Stalin World."
Immunoglobulin G (IgG)4-related sclerosing disease is a recently described syndrome characterized by mass-forming lesions in various organs due to dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and stromal sclerosis, elevated serum IgG4 titer, increased tissue IgG4 plasma cells, and favorable clinical outcome. We describe 4 patients with IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis, which represents a new member of this family of diseases. All patients were female with a mean age of 47.5 years, presenting with painless masses in 1 or both breasts. One patient had concurrent IgG4-related lymphadenopathy, and another had eyelid swelling of undetermined cause. The serum IgG4 titer was elevated in 1 tested patient, and circulating autoantibodies were found in 3 tested patients. All patients were well with no recurrence after excision or biopsy of the mass. Histologically, the breast masses featured dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, prominent stromal sclerosis and loss of breast lobules. Phlebitis was present in 1 case. IgG4 cells ranged from 272 to 495 per high-power field, constituting 49% to 85% of all IgG cells. IgG4 cells were scarce in 9 of 9 cases of lymphocytic mastitis and 6 of 7 cases of granulomatous mastitis studied as controls. In summary, IgG4-related sclerosing mastitis appears to be a distinctive form of mastitis, sometimes accompanied by other components of IgG4-related sclerosing disease, and shows a favorable clinical outcome. PMID:19384187
Cheuk, Wah; Chan, Alexander C L; Lam, Wai-Lung; Chow, Sheung-Ming; Crowley, Peter; Lloydd, Richard; Campbell, Ian; Thorburn, Murray; Chan, John K C
Background and Objectives: Although immunoglobulin (Ig) preparations including RhIg have been noted for their record of safety, recent reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission by some Ig preparations have raised concern. This analysis examined the safety of RhIg manufactured in the US by comparing the prevalence and incidence of viral markers in Rh–negative and Rh–positive female blood donors. Materials
Kevin K. Watanabe; Michael P. Busch; George B. Schreiber; Thomas F. Zuck
The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or 'bill'. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey. PMID:24759865
Domenici, P; Wilson, A D M; Kurvers, R H J M; Marras, S; Herbert-Read, J E; Steffensen, J F; Krause, S; Viblanc, P E; Couillaud, P; Krause, J
Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.
Halstead, B. J.; Mushinsky, H. R.; McCoy, E. D.
Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ?10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs.
Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars
Background Prior studies have shown relationships between serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and asthma. Objective To investigate relationships between total and allergen-specific IgE concentrations and lung function in young adults. Methods Measurements of total IgE, allergen-specific IgE to 6 common allergens, and spirometry (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], FEV1/FVC, and percent change in FEV1 after bronchodilation) were used to calculate correlations between the logarithmically transformed IgE values and measures of lung function among participants in a birth cohort not selected for risk of allergic disease stratified by current asthma, prior asthma, or no asthma. Results The 428 participants were 51.6% female, 93% white, and 18.4 (standard deviation = 0.6) years old. Forty-eight (11.2%) had current asthma, 55 (12.9%) had a history of asthma, and 325 (75.9%) never had asthma. For males with current asthma, correlations between total IgE and FEV1% and FVC% were ?0.51 (P =.06) and ?0.70 (P = .005), respectively. For females with current asthma, the only significant correlation was between total IgE and the FEV1/FVC ratio (?0.55, P = .001). After excluding smokers and individuals without detectable allergen-specific IgE, the negative correlations for both males and females remained statistically significant. The correlations among males or females with prior asthma or no history of asthma were minimal and not statistically significant. The sum of the allergen-specific IgEs showed the same pattern of relationships to lung function as did total IgE. Conclusions Our results show significant negative correlations that vary by gender between both total and allergen-specific IgE and measurements of lung function in young adults with current asthma.
Rajendra, Chathruckan; Zoratti, Edward; Havstad, Suzanne; Nicholas, Charlotte; Wegienka, Ganesa; Cross, M. Todd; Johnson, Christine C.; Ownby, Dennis
Formylated rocket electrophoresis has been investigated as a means of measuring the serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, and IgM. This procedure is simpler to carry out than carbamylation. Comparison of formylated rocket results with those from the automated immunoprecipitin (A.I.P.) system and single radial immunodiffusion (S.R.D.) gives correlation coefficients of 0.92 to 0.98 and reproducibility comparable with the AI.P. system and better than S.R.D. The procedure is recommended for use in laboratories when the number of requests for immunoglobulins does not warrant a specific protein analyser. PMID:15637933
An extensive diversity of nuptial gifts is known in invertebrates, but prey wrapped in silk is a unique type of gift present in few insects and spiders. Females from spider species prefer males offering a gift accepting more and longer matings than when males offered no gift. Silk wrapping of the gift is not essential to obtain a mating, but appears to increase the chance of a mating evidencing a particularly intriguing function of this trait. Consequently, as other secondary sexual traits, silk wrapping may be an important trait under sexual selection, if it is used by females as a signal providing information on male quality. We aimed to understand whether the white color of wrapped gifts is used as visual signal during courtship in the spider Paratrechalea ornata. We studied if a patch of white paint on the males' chelicerae is attractive to females by exposing females to males: with their chelicerae painted white; without paint; and with the sternum painted white (paint control). Females contacted males with white chelicerae more often and those males obtained higher mating success than other males. Thereafter, we explored whether silk wrapping is a condition-dependent trait and drives female visual attraction. We exposed good and poor condition males, carrying a prey, to the female silk. Males in poor condition added less silk to the prey than males in good condition, indicating that gift wrapping is an indicator of male quality and may be used by females to acquire information of the potential mate.
Trillo, Mariana C.; Melo-González, Valentina; Albo, Maria J.
BackgroundMost ecological models assume that predator and prey populations interact solely through consumption: predators reduce prey densities by killing and consuming individual prey. However, predators can also reduce prey densities by forcing prey to adopt costly defensive strategies.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe build on a simple Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model to provide a heuristic tool for distinguishing between the demographic effects of consumption (consumptive
Evan L. Preisser; Daniel I. Bolnick; Andy Hector
Species that sequester toxins from prey for their own defense against predators may exhibit population-level variation in their chemical arsenal that reflects the availability of chemically defended prey in their habitat. Rhabdophis tigrinus is an Asian snake that possesses defensive glands in the skin of its neck (‘nuchal glands’), which typically contain toxic bufadienolide steroids that the snakes sequester from consumed toads. In this study, we compared the chemistry of the nuchal gland fluid of R. tigrinus from toad-rich and toad-free islands in Japan and determined the effect of diet on the nuchal gland constituents. Our findings demonstrate that captive-hatched juveniles from toad-rich Ishima Island that had not been fed toads possess defensive bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, presumably due to maternal provisioning of these sequestered compounds. Wild-caught juveniles from Ishima possess large quantities of bufadienolides, which could result from a combination of maternal provisioning and sequestration of these defensive compounds from consumed toads. Interestingly, juvenile females from Ishima possess larger quantities of bufadienolides than do juvenile males, whereas a small sample of field-collected snakes suggests that adult males contain larger quantities of bufadienolides than do adult females. Captive-born hatchlings from Kinkasan Island lack bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, reflecting the absence of toads on that island, but they can sequester bufadienolides by feeding on toads (Bufo japonicus) in captivity. The presence of large quantities of bufadienolides in the nuchal glands of R. tigrinus from Ishima may reduce the risk of predation by providing an effective chemical defense, whereas snakes on Kinkasan may experience increased predation due to the lack of defensive compounds in their nuchal glands.
Hutchinson, D A; Savitzky, A H; Burghardt, G M; Nguyen, C; Meinwald, J; Schroeder, F C; Mori, A
Although biologists routinely label animals as predators and prey, the ecological role of individuals is often far from clear. There are many examples of role reversals in predators and prey, where adult prey attack vulnerable young predators. This implies that juvenile prey that escape from predation and become adult can kill juvenile predators. We show that such an exposure of juvenile prey to adult predators results in behavioural changes later in life: after becoming adult, these prey killed juvenile predators at a faster rate than prey that had not been exposed. The attacks were specifically aimed at predators of the species to which they had been exposed. This suggests that prey recognize the species of predator to which they were exposed during their juvenile stage. Our results show that juvenile experience affects adult behaviour after a role reversal.
Choh, Yasuyuki; Ignacio, Maira; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Janssen, Arne
This paper investigates the dynamics of a competitive single-prey n-predators model of integrated pest management, which is subject to periodic and impulsive controls, from the viewpoint of finding sufficient conditions for the extinction of prey and for prey and predator permanence. The per capita death rates of prey due to predation are given in abstract, unspecified forms, which encompass large classes of death rates arising from usual predator functional responses, both prey-dependent and predator-dependent. The stability and permanence conditions are then expressed as balance conditions between the cumulative death rate of prey in a period, due to predation from all predator species and to the use of control, and to the cumulative birth rate of prey in the same amount of time. These results are then specialized for the case of prey-dependent functional responses, their biological significance being also discussed. PMID:23123675
Georgescu, Paul; Zhang, Hong
Foraging theory predicts that predators should prefer foraging in habitat patches with higher prey densities. However, density depends on the spatial scale at which a "patch" is defined by an observer. Ecologists strive to measure prey densities at the same scale that predators do, but many natural landscapes lack obvious, well-defined prey patches. Thus one must determine the scale at which predators define patches of prey. We estimated the scale at which guppies, Poecilia reticulata, selected patches of zooplankton prey using a behavioral assay. Guppies could choose between two prey arrays, each manipulated to have a density that depended on the spatial scale at which density was calculated. We estimated the scale of guppy foraging by comparing guppy preferences across a series of trials in which we systematically varied the scale associated with "high" prey density. This approach enables the application of foraging theory to non-discrete habitats and prey landscapes. PMID:24241641
Birk, Matthew A; White, J Wilson
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with a poor prognosis in terms of the optic-spinal function. Recently, a serum autoantibody (NMO-IgG) binding to the blood-brain barrier region was detected exclusively in patients with NMO and its high risk group. We treated six NMO-IgG-positive patients (all female; age 21-67 years old, median 41;
S. Watanabe; I. Nakashima; T. Misu; I. Miyazawa; Y. Shiga; K. Fujihara; Y. Itoyama
Claw morphology, and claw-closing forces of four species of intertidal crabs from San Juan Island, Washington were compared and related these findings were related to prey size selection, shell breaking times and total handling times on their snail prey, Littorina sitkana Philippi. Two functional groups of crabs emerged: generalists and specialists on hard-shelled prey. The generalist, Hemigrapsus nudus (Dana), has
Sylvia Behrens Yamada; Elizabeth G. Boulding
Inducible defences are widely used for studying phenotypic plasticity, yet frequently we know little about the cues that induce these defences. For aquatic prey, defences are induced by chemical cues from predators (kairomones) and injured prey (alarm cues). Rarely has anyone determined the separate and combined effects of these cues, particularly across phylogenetically diverse prey types. We examined how tadpoles
Nancy M. Schoeppner; A. Relyea
This paper develops a mathematical model for the nonselective harvesting of a prey-predator system in which both the prey and the predator obey the Gompertz law of growth and some prey avoid predation by hiding. The steady states of the system are determined, and the dynamical behaviour of both species is examined. The possibility of existence of…
Purohit, D.; Chaudhuri, K. S.
In this paper we derive some results to ensure the global stability of a predator-prey system. The results cover most of the models which have been proposed in the ecological literature for predator-prey systems. The first result is very geometric and it is very easy to check from the graph of prey and predator isoclines. The second one is purely
Kuo-Shung Cheng; Sze-Bi Hsu; Song-Sun Lin
Virtual plant models of plant architecture have been developed to examine the impact of canopy structure and connectedness on the location of prey by randomly moving predators. The results show that as canopy connectedness increases, the time to locate a static prey decreases, but that the time to prey location increases with the complexity of the canopy. These results are
Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a famously fast, flagellate predatory bacterium, preying upon Gram-negative bacteria in liquids; how it interacts with prey on surfaces such as in medical biofilms is unknown. Here we report that Bdellovibrio bacteria "scout" for prey bacteria on solid surfaces, using slow gliding motility that is present in flagellum-negative and pilus-negative strains. PMID:21515772
Lambert, Carey; Fenton, Andrew K; Hobley, Laura; Sockett, R Elizabeth
Crappies Pomoxis spp. are popular sport fishes but often fail to achieve sizes that are acceptable to anglers. While many factors may contribute to episodes of suboptimal growth in crappies, insufficient densities of prey fish and high summer water temperatures (>27°C) have been considered to be key underlying causes. We examined the influences of prey fish size, prey availability, and
Paul H. Michaletz; Przemyslaw G. Bajer; Robert S. Hayward
Whether predators can limit their prey has been a topic of scientific debate for decades. Traditionally it was believed that predators take only wounded, sick, old or otherwise low-quality individuals, and thus have little impact on prey populations. However, there is increasing evidence that, at least under certain circumstances, vertebrate predators may indeed limit prey numbers. This potential role of
Jari Valkama; Erkki Korpimäki; Beatriz Arroyo; Pedro Beja; Vincent Bretagnolle; Elisabeth Bro; Robert Kenward; Santi Mañosa; Stephen M. Redpath; Simon Thirgood; Javier Viñuela
Laboratory studies on population growth and life table demography of Asplanchna girodi were conducted at 25±1 °c using Anuraeopsis fissa as prey at four (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ind ml-1) densities. A prey density of 100 ind ml-1 per predator per day did not support A. girodi, while at the highest prey concentration, A. girodi reached a peak of
H. J. Dumont; S. S. S. Sarma
The accuracies of examining uneaten prey remains collected at feeding sites and of directly observing fish captured while birds forage, common methods of determining the species composition and size structure of prey in the diets of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), were tested during the summer of 1992 at two shallow lakes in northeastern Scotland. Prey remains were collected below feeding perches
DAVID N. CARSS; J. D. GODFREY
Theoretical investigations of competitive dynamics have noted that numbers of predator and prey influence each other. However, few empirical studies have demonstrated how a life-history trait of the prey (such as fecundity) can be affected simultaneously by its own density and the density of predators. For instance, density dependence can reduce fecundity with increasing number of prey, while inverse density dependence or Allee effects may occur especially when the prey is a social organism. Here we analysed an intraguild predator–prey system of two seabird species at a large spatio-temporal scale. As expected, we found that fecundity of prey was negatively affected by predator density. Nevertheless, fecundity of prey also increased nonlinearly with its own density and strikingly with the prey–predator ratio. Small groups of prey were probably not able to defend their nests especially against large number of predators. At the highest prey densities (i.e. when anti-predator strategies should be most efficient), prey fecundity also lowered, suggesting the appearance of density dependence mediated by food competition. Allee effects and density dependence occurred across a broad range of population sizes of both the prey and the predator at several local populations facing different ecological environments.
Oro, Daniel; Martinez-Abrain, Alejandro; Paracuellos, Mariano; Nevado, Juan Carlos; Genovart, Meritxell
We compared intraoral prey transport in venomous snake species from four families (two atractaspidids, nine elapids, three colubrids, 44 viperids) with that in eight non-venomous colubrid species, most feeding on similar mammalian prey. The morphology of the venom delivery system suggests that intraoral prey transport performance should be slightly decreased in atractaspidids, unmodified in most elapids and venomous colubrids, and
David Cundall; Alexandra Deufel
Predators are an important source of mortality for animals that lay their eggs in buried nests. We asked how depth alters the process of predation for buried prey. We outlined a general model of predation risk where depth may alter both prey detection and subsequent capture: deeper prey are detected less often because the strength of olfactory cues decreases with
Patrick A. Leighton; Julia A. Horrocks; Donald L. Kramer
Understanding and predicting the consequences of trophic interactions for community processes requires knowledge of the role of food availability, which is often wrongly conflated with prey abundance. For prey animals in groups, this is not fully understood. Previous work has shown that oystercatchers more frequently attack solitary rather than aggregated limpets and are more successful in predation attempts on singletons. It has also been demonstrated that an attack on one limpet in a group alerts the entire group, all of which then clamp down and become unavailable. I show that Eurasian Oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus L.) attack only one limpet in a group and then move on to attack another individual limpet, and I also demonstrate that the distance they move is greater than the distance at which groups of limpets have been known to detect attacks. Thus in the oystercatcher-limpet predator-prey system on rocky shores, groups of limpets are actually one prey item independently of the number of limpets in the group. This has implications for assessment of food supply for avian predators on rocky shores, with consequences for our understanding of previously documented trophic cascades. PMID:18705365
Coleman, Ross A
The hypothesis that carnivores can significantly suppress prey populations after they collapse during drought was tested by predator-removal experiments. Low populations of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) responded with significantly accelerated growth where foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) were continually shot. Experiments in years of good pasture and poor were confirmatory. After only 14 months, the rabbits were well
A. E. Newsome; I. Parer; P. C. Catling
Sufficient conditions for both local and global stability of the positive equilibrium in a predator-prey system with time delays are obtained by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. A remark on the mistake by K. N. Murty and M. A. S. Srinivas (J. Math. Anal. Appl.158,1991, 333–341) is also included.
1. Intraguild predation is widespread in nature despite its potentially destabilizing effect on food web dynamics. 2. Anti-predator inducible defences affect both birth and death rates of populations and have the potential to substantially modify food web dynamics and possibly increase persistence of intraguild prey. 3. In a chemostat experiment, we investigated the long-term effects of inducible defences on the dynamics of aquatic microbial food webs consisting of an intraguild predator, intraguild prey, and a basal resource. We controlled environmental conditions and selected strains of intraguild prey that varied in the strength of expressed inducible defences. 4. We found that intraguild prey with a stronger tendency to induce an anti-predator morphology persist for significantly longer periods of time. In addition, model selection analysis implied that flexibility in defensive phenotype (inducibility itself) is most likely the factor responsible for the enhanced persistence. 5. As patterns at the community level often emerge as a result of the life-history traits of individuals, we propose that inducible defences increase the persistence of populations and may contribute to the widespread occurrence of theoretically unstable intraguild predation systems in nature. PMID:20487090
Kratina, Pavel; Hammill, Edd; Anholt, Bradley R
The stability of ecological communities depends strongly on quantitative characteristics of population interactions (type-II vs. type-III functional responses) and the distribution of body masses across species. Until now, these two aspects have almost exclusively been treated separately leaving a substantial gap in our general understanding of food webs. We analysed a large data set of arthropod feeding rates and found that all functional-response parameters depend on the body masses of predator and prey. Thus, we propose generalised functional responses which predict gradual shifts from type-II predation of small predators on equally sized prey to type-III functional-responses of large predators on small prey. Models including these generalised functional responses predict population dynamics and persistence only depending on predator and prey body masses, and we show that these predictions are strongly supported by empirical data on forest soil food webs. These results help unravelling systematic relationships between quantitative population interactions and large-scale community patterns. PMID:23819684
Kalinkat, Gregor; Schneider, Florian D; Digel, Christoph; Guill, Christian; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich
Larvae of striped bass Morone saxatilis from the Shubenacadie River, Nova Scotia, exhibited a good nonvisual feeding mechanism that may be valuable for survival in their turbid estuarine nursery habitat. Their capture of brine shrimp Artemia salina nauplii during 60-min feeding trials in darkness was significantly affected by the interaction between prey density and larval age. Mean capture rate among
J. Duston; T. Astatkie
Background Predator attraction to prey social signals can force prey to trade-off the social imperatives to communicate against the profound effect of predation on their future fitness. These tradeoffs underlie theories on the design and evolution of conspecific signalling systems and have received much attention in visual and acoustic signalling modes. Yet while most territorial mammals communicate using olfactory signals and olfactory hunting is widespread in predators, evidence for the attraction of predators to prey olfactory signals under field conditions is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings To redress this fundamental issue, we examined the attraction of free-roaming predators to discrete patches of scents collected from groups of two and six adult, male house mice, Mus domesticus, which primarily communicate through olfaction. Olfactorily-hunting predators were rapidly attracted to mouse scent signals, visiting mouse scented locations sooner, and in greater number, than control locations. There were no effects of signal concentration on predator attraction to their prey's signals. Conclusions/Significance This implies that communication will be costly if conspecific receivers and eavesdropping predators are simultaneously attracted to a signal. Significantly, our results also suggest that receivers may be at greater risk of predation when communicating than signallers, as receivers must visit risky patches of scent to perform their half of the communication equation, while signallers need not.
Hughes, Nelika K.; Price, Catherine J.; Banks, Peter B.
Summary. A total of 1149 free-living birds of prey from Germany were examined for blood parasites. The prevalence of infection was 11% (adult birds 18%, immature birds 16%, nestlings 4%). Among the Falconiformes 11% of 976 birds were infected, and 13% of 173 Strigiformes. Out of 17 falconiform species nine were infected with blood parasites whereas the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo
Oliver KRONE; Jrgen PRIEMER; Jrgen STREICH; Paul S ÷ MMER; Torsten LANGGEMACH; Olaf LESSOW
In the 4 year period 1971–74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red?headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one
H. P. Chu; E. W. Trow; A. G. Greenwood; A. R. Jennings; I. F. Keymer
Lateralisation, the different use of one or other side or appendix of the body, is basically determined by brain asymmetry which, in turn, is likely to be due to adaptive reasons. Several studies have been carried out on birds in general. However, birds of prey in particular, although they are very good candidates, have not been investigated from the sensory
It is well-established that including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions invalidates the classical deterministic Lotka-Volterra picture of neutral population cycles. In contrast, stochastic models yield long-lived, but ultimately decaying erratic population oscillations, which can be understood through a resonant amplification mechanism for density fluctuations. In Monte Carlo simulations of spatial stochastic predator-prey systems, one observes striking complex spatio-temporal structures. These spreading activity fronts induce persistent correlations between predators and prey. In the presence of local particle density restrictions (finite prey carrying capacity), there exists an extinction threshold for the predator population. The accompanying continuous non-equilibrium phase transition is governed by the directed-percolation universality class. We employ field-theoretic methods based on the Doi-Peliti representation of the master equation for stochastic particle interaction models to (i) map the ensuing action in the vicinity of the absorbing state phase transition to Reggeon field theory, and (ii) to quantitatively address fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the population oscillation frequency, damping, and diffusion coefficients in the species coexistence phase. [See Preprint arXiv:1105.4242, and further refs. therein.
Tauber, Uwe C.
It is well-established that including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions invalidates the classical deterministic Lotka-Volterra picture of neutral population cycles. In contrast, stochastic models yield long-lived, but ultimately decaying erratic population oscillations, which can be understood through a resonant amplification mechanism for density fluctuations. In Monte Carlo simulations of spatial stochastic predator-prey systems, one observes striking complex spatio-temporal structures. These spreading activity fronts induce persistent correlations between predators and prey. In the presence of local particle density restrictions (finite prey carrying capacity), there exists an extinction threshold for the predator population. The accompanying continuous non-equilibrium phase transition is governed by the directed-percolation universality class. We employ field-theoretic methods based on the Doi-Peliti representation of the master equation for stochastic particle interaction models to (i) map the ensuing action in the vicinity of the absorbing state phase transition to Reggeon field theory, and (ii) to quantitatively address fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the population oscillation frequency, damping, and diffusion coefficients in the species coexistence phase.
Täuber, Uwe C.
The competitive exclusion principle (CEP) states that no equilibrium is possible if n species exploit fewer than n resources. This principle does not appear to hold in nature, where high biodiversity is commonly observed, even in seemingly homogenous habitats. Although various mechanisms, such as spatial heterogeneity or chaotic fluctuations, have been proposed to explain this coexistence, none of them invalidates this principle. Here we evaluate whether principles of ecological stoichiometry can contribute to the stable maintenance of biodiverse communities. Stoichiometric analysis recognizes that each organism is a mixture of multiple chemical elements such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) that are present in various proportions in organisms. We incorporate these principles into a standard predator-prey model to analyze competition between two predators on one autotrophic prey. The model tracks two essential elements, C and P, in each species. We show that a stable equilibrium is possible with two predators on this single prey. At this equilibrium both predators can be limited by the P content of the prey. The analysis suggests that chemical heterogeneity within and among species provides new mechanisms that can support species coexistence and that may be important in maintaining biodiversity. PMID:14642340
Loladze, Irakli; Kuang, Yang; Elser, James J; Fagan, William F
Choanoflagellates are unicellular and colonial aquatic microeukaryotes that capture bacteria using an apical flagellum surrounded by a feeding collar composed of actin-filled microvilli. Flow produced by the apical flagellum drives prey bacteria to the feeding collar for phagocytosis. We report here on the cell biology of prey capture in rosette-shaped colonies and unicellular “thecate” or substrate attached cells from the choanoflagellate S. rosetta. In thecate cells and rosette colonies, phagocytosis initially involves fusion of multiple microvilli, followed by remodeling of the collar membrane to engulf the prey, and transport of engulfed bacteria into the cell. Although both thecate cells and rosette colony cells produce ?70 nm “collar links” that connect and potentially stabilize adjacent microvilli, only thecate cells were observed to produce a lamellipod-like “collar skirt” that encircles the base of the collar. This study offers insight into the process of prey ingestion by S. rosetta, and provides a context within which to consider potential ecological differences between solitary cells and colonies in choanoflagellates.
Dayel, Mark J.; King, Nicole
Camouflage is a prevalent feature of the natural world and as such has a ready appeal to students; however, it is a difficult subject to study using real predators and prey. This paper focuses how one fundamental type of camouflage, disruptive colouration (bold markings that break up the outline of the organism), can be tested using paper…
Todd, Peter A.
To investigate whether the formation of IgE is linked in vivo to an IgG subclass, mice were infected with four helminth parasites, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (Nbr), Mesocestoides corti, Taenia crassiceps and Trichinella spiralis, and the changes in the serum levels of the different Ig isotypes as well as the antibody response to M. corti and T. crassiceps antigen extracts were determined by radioimmunoassays. All four parasites induced a concomitant increase of the IgE and IgG1 serum levels and usually a decrease of the IgG2a level. They also induced an increase of the IgM level but had little effect on the IgG2b, IgG3, and IgA serum levels. The specific antibodies to an M. corti antigen extract were mainly of the IgG1 subclass, whereas it was of both IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses to T. crassiceps. Injections of dead M. corti induced an increase of all IgG subclasses and similar levels of IgG1 and IgG2a anti-parasite antibodies. Subcutaneous instead of intraperitoneal infection with T. crassiceps induced higher IgG2a than IgG1 levels and 10-fold lower IgE levels than the natural ip infection; however, despite the greater IgG2a polyclonal response, anti-parasite antibodies were predominantly of the IgG1 subclass. The data demonstrate that natural infection with four different helminth parasites induces a concomitant polyclonal IgG1 and IgE response. These in vivo observations corroborate the recent in vitro findings demonstrating that interleukin-4 induces lipopolysaccharide-activated murine B cells to secrete both IgG1 and IgE, suggesting that the regulation of these two isotypes is linked. PMID:2522026
Zakroff, S G; Beck, L; Platzer, E G; Spiegelberg, H L
Predictable prey locations reduce search time and energetic costs of foraging; thus marine predators often exploit locations where prey concentrations persist. In our study, we examined whether this association is influenced by differences among predator species in foraging modes (travel cost, surface feeder or diver) or whether the predator species is a central place forager or not. We examined distributions of two seabird species during their nesting period, the surface-feeding black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and the pursuit-diving thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), and two baleen whale species, the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), in relation to two key prey, age-1 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and euphausiids (Euphausiidae). Prey surveys were conducted once each year during 2004 and 2006-2010. Concurrent predator surveys were conducted in 2006-2010 (seabirds) and 2008 and 2010 (whales). We compared the seabird and whale foraging locations to where age-1 pollock and euphausiids were concentrated and considered the persistence of these concentrations, where the time-scale of persistence is year (i.e., a comparison among surveys that are conducted once each year). Euphausiids were widespread and concentrations often were reliably found within specific 37 km×37 km blocks ('persistent hot spots of prey'). In contrast, age-1 pollock were more concentrated and their hot spots were persistent only on coarser scales (>37 km). Both seabird species, regardless of foraging mode, were associated with age-1 pollock but not with euphausiids, even though age-1 pollock were less persistent than euphausiids. The higher travel cost central place foragers, thick-billed murres, foraged at prey concentrations nearer their island colonies than black-legged kittiwakes, which were more widespread foragers. Humpback whales were not tied to a central place and mostly were located only where euphausiids were concentrated, and further, often in locations where these concentrations were persistent. Fin whales were associated with locations where age-1 pollock were more likely, similar to black-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres, but their association with euphausiids was unclear. Our results suggest that a predator's foraging mode and their restrictions during breeding affect their response to prey persistence.
Sigler, Michael F.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ressler, Patrick H.; Friday, Nancy A.; Wilson, Christopher D.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.
We describe a prey-predator system incorporating constant prey refuge through provision of alternative food to predators. The proposed model deals with a problem of non-selective harvesting of a prey-predator system in which both the prey and the predator species obey logistic law of growth. The long-run sustainability of an exploited system is discussed through provision of alternative food to predators. We have analyzed the variability of the system in presence of constant prey refuge and examined the stabilizing effect on predator-prey system. The steady states of the system are derived and dynamical behavior of the system is extensively analyzed around steady states. The optimal harvesting policy is formulated and solved with the help of Pontryagin's maximal principle. Our objective is to maximize the monetary social benefit through protecting the predator species from extinction, keeping the ecological balance. Results finally illustrated with the help of numerical examples. PMID:24770902
Chakraborty, Kunal; Das, Sankha Subhra
The maximum consumption of the larvae of the pest and vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus by the predatory mosquito Culex (Lutzia) raptor was studied at various instars of both the predator and the prey. The prey preferences of the predator when given lavae of different instars were also investigated. The IVth instar of the predator consumed the maximum number of Ist instar and the maximum biomass of IVth instar larvae of the prey. Instars I and II of the predator preferred the Ist of the prey; instars III and IV of the predator preferred instars II and III of the prey respectively. The predator consumed an average of 157.1 larvae during its whole larval period, when each instar of the predator was given its preferred instar of the prey. PMID:8620943
Thangam, T S; Kathiresan, K
There has been considerable development and implementation of new contraceptive methods over the last 15 years. However, sterilization has remained the most widely used method around the world. Ideally, the procedure should be safe, have a high efficacy, be readily accessible, and be personally and culturally acceptable. The cost for each procedure would be low and the method would be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. A transuterine method of female sterilization has long been the ideal for the gynecologist. The Essure system fulfils many of the criteria, and is the first one to be approved by the US FDA. However, there is still a need for further research to find a device with the success rate of the Essure but without its irreversibility. PMID:18573050
Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam
Background The mechanism(s) responsible for the acquisition of maternal antibody isotypes other than IgG are not fully understood. Objective To define the ability of the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG uptake (FcRn) to mediate intestinal absorption of IgG1 anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes. Methods C57BL/6 allergic ovalbumin (OVA)-immune foster mothers were generated to nurse naïve FcRn+/? or FcRn?/? progeny. At the time of weaning, serum levels of OVA-specific antibodies and IgG1 anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes were determined in allergic foster mothers and FcRn+/+, FcRn+/?, or FcRn?/? breastfed offspring. In separate experiments, FcRn+/? or FcRn?/? neonatal mice were gavage fed TNP-specific IgE as IgG1 anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes, IgG1 isotype control and IgE, or IgE alone. Mice were sacrificed 2 hours after feeding to determine serum levels and biologic activity of absorbed TNP-specific IgE. Results As expected, the absorption of maternal OVA-specific IgG1 in FcRn?/? offspring was at levels 103–104 less than observed in FcRn+/+ or FcRn+/? offspring. Surprisingly, FcRn expression also influenced the absorption of maternal IgE. OVA-specific IgE was detected in FcRn+/+ and FcRn+/? offspring, but not in FcRn?/? offspring. IgG1 anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes were detected in allergic foster mothers and correlated strongly with levels in FcRn+/+ and FcRn+/? offspring (rho=0.88, P <0.0001). Furthermore, FcRn expression was required for neonatal mice to absorb TNP-specific IgE when fed as IgG1 anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes. When immune complexes were generated with IgG1 anti-IgE directed against the C?4 domain, the absorbed IgE was able to function in antigen-dependent basophil degranulation. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance These data demonstrate a novel mechanism by which FcRn may facilitate absorption of maternal antibodies other than IgG. These findings are clinically relevant because FcRn mediates the transplacental passage of maternal IgG to the fetus. This raises the possibility that FcRn could mediate the transplacental passage of maternal IgE as IgG anti-IgE/IgE immune complexes.
Paveglio, Sara; Puddington, Lynn; Rafti, Ektor; Matson, Adam P.
Nineteen sera from patients suffering from extrinsic allergic alveolitis (bird fancier's lung, farmer's lung) and 19 sera from asymptomatic persons demonstrating IgG-antibodies were examined for IgA-antibodies against pigeon serum, Micropolyspora faeni and Aspergillus fumigatus. The IgA-antibodies against pigeon serum and Micropolyspora faeni were less of ten false-positive than the corresponding IgG-antibodies. Hence the IgA-antibodies were more specific than the IgG-antibodies. However, the sensitivity of the IgA-antibodies was lower than that of the IgG-antibodies. On the other hand IgA-antibodies against Aspergillus fumigatus were scarcely more specific than the corresponding IgG-antibodies against pigeon and M. faeni. It would thus seem that IgA-antibodies can supplement the IgG-serodiagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis. PMID:2367456
Sennekamp, J; Rust, M; Kroidl, R; Spyra, M
Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato.
Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anais; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas
Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646
Jaworski, Coline C; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas
While foraging theory predicts that predatory responses should be determined by the energy content and size of prey, it is becoming increasingly clear that carnivores regulate their intake of specific nutrients. We tested the hypothesis that prey nutrient composition and predator nutritional history affects foraging intensity, consumption, and prey selection by the wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. By altering the rearing environment for fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, we produced high quality flies containing more nitrogen and protein and less lipid than low quality fruit flies. In one experiment, we quantified the proportion of flies taken and consumption across a range of densities of either high or low quality flies and, in a second experiment, we determined the prey capture and consumption of spiders that had been maintained on contrasting diets prior to testing. In both cases, the proportion of prey captured declined with increasing prey density, which characterizes the Type II functional response that is typical of wolf spiders. Spiders with similar nutritional histories killed similar numbers of each prey type but consumed more of the low quality prey. Spiders provided high quality prey in the weeks prior to testing killed more prey than those on the low quality diet but there was no effect of prior diet on consumption. In the third experiment, spiders were maintained on contrasting diets for three weeks and then allowed to select from a mixture of high and low quality prey. Interestingly, feeding history affected prey preferences: spiders that had been on a low quality diet showed no preference but those on the high quality diet selected high quality flies from the mixture. Our results suggest that, even when prey size and species identity are controlled, the nutritional experience of the predator as well as the specific content of the prey shapes predator-prey interactions.
Schmidt, Jason M.; Sebastian, Peter; Wilder, Shawn M.; Rypstra, Ann L.
IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized autoimmune systemic disorder that has been described in various organs. The disease is characterized histologically by a dense lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate of IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis and can be associated with tumefactive lesions. IgG4-related disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and only two previous case reports have reported IgG4-related esophageal disease. We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of severe dysphagia and odynophagia with an initial diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. Symptoms persisted despite anti-acid therapy and control esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed endoscopic images consistent with esophagitis dissecans superficialis (sloughing esophagitis). An underlying autoimmune process was suspected and immunosuppressant agents were tried to control her disease. The patient eventually developed disabling dysphagia secondary to multiple chronic esophageal strictures. A diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was eventually made after reviewing esophageal biopsies and performing an immunohistochemical study with an anti-IgG4 antibody. Treatment attempts with corticosteroids and rituximab was not associated with a significant improvement of the symptoms of dysphagia and odynophagia, possibly because of the chronic nature of the disease associated with a high fibrotic component. Our case report describes this unique case of IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as chronic esophagitis dissecans with strictures. We also briefly review the main histopathological features and treatment options in IgG4-related disease.
Dumas-Campagna, Myriam; Bouchard, Simon; Soucy, Genevieve; Bouin, Mickael
Using rotifer–algal microcosms, we tracked rapid evolution resulting from temporally changing natural selection in ecological predator–prey dynamics. We previously demonstrated that predator–prey oscillations in rotifer–algal laboratory microcosms are qualitatively altered by the presence of genetic variation within the prey. In that study, changes in algal gene frequencies were inferred from their effects on population dynamics but not observed directly. Here, we document rapid prey evolution in this system by directly observing changes in Chlorella vulgaris genotype frequencies as the abundances of these algae and their consumer, Brachionus calyciflorus, change through time. We isolated a group of algal clones that we could distinguish by using microsatellite-DNA markers, and developed an allele-specific quantitative PCR technique (AsQ-PCR) to quantify the frequencies of pairs of clones in mixed culture. We showed that two of these genotypes exhibited a fitness tradeoff in which one was more resistant to predation (more digestion-resistant), and the other had faster population growth under limiting nitrogen concentrations. A fully specified mathematical model for the rotifer–algal population and evolutionary dynamics predicted that these two clones would undergo a single oscillation in clonal frequencies followed by asymptotic fixation of the more resistant clone, rather than the recurrent oscillations previously observed with other algal clones. We used AsQ-PCR to confirm this prediction: the superior competitor dominated initially, but as rotifer densities increased, the more predator-resistant clone predominated.
Meyer, Justin R.; Ellner, Stephen P.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Jones, Laura E.; Yoshida, Takehito
Marble goby (Oxyeleotris marmorata), a carnivorous fish native to freshwater in Asia-Pacific region, is a high-valued species in many Asian countries. The present study consisting of three experiments was conducted to determine the appropriate density, size and ingestion time of marble goby fingerlings on rice field prawn (Macrobrachium lanchesteri) as prey. Results showed that the ingestion rate of marble goby
Nguyen Phu Hoa; Yang Yi
Schistosoma haematobium antigen recognition profiles of the human isotypes IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 were compared by image analysis of western blots. Adult worm antigens separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were probed with pooled sera from Zimbabweans resident in a S. haematobium endemic area, followed by the identification of individual antigenic parasite proteins using mass spectrometry. Overall, IgG1 reacted with the largest number of antigens, followed by IgE and IgA which detected the same number, while IgG4 detected the fewest antigens. IgE recognized all antigens reactive with IgG4 as well as an additional four antigens, an isoform of 28-kDa GST, phosphoglycerate kinase, actin 1 and calreticulin. IgG1 additionally recognized fatty acid–binding protein, triose-phosphate isomerase and heat shock protein 70, which were not recognized by IgA. Recognition patterns varied between some isoforms, e.g. the two fructose 1-6-bis-phosphate aldolase isoforms were differentially recognized by IgA and IgG1. Although the majority of S. haematobium adult worm antigens are recognized by all of the four isotypes, there are clear restrictions in antibody recognition for some antigens. This may partly explain differences observed in isotype dynamics at a population level. Differential recognition patterns for some isoforms indicated in the study have potential importance for vaccine development.
MUTAPI, F; BOURKE, C; HARCUS, Y; MIDZI, N; MDULUZA, T; TURNER, C M; BURCHMORE, R; MAIZELS, R M
Predation intensity depends on factors that affect both the predator's ability to locate prey as well as defensive responses by prey to approaching predators. The interactive effects of short-term hypoxia and predation were tested on the survival of two bivalves ( Tapes philippinarum and Musculista senhousia) through laboratory experiments using the crab Carcinus aestuarii as predator. We found M. senhousia to be a focal prey of C. aestuarii but, after non-lethal hypoxia, the crabs' preference for the focal prey was influenced by the presence of the other prey, T. philippinarum. We observed an environmentally-mediated, non-reciprocal indirect interaction between the two prey species, probably caused by differences in specific traits. Identifying the influence of short-term disturbance on predator-prey relationships is critical for predicting the effects of changes in water quality on trophic interactions and food web dynamics in transitional systems.
Munari, Cristina; Mistri, Michele
We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822
Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein
Foragers of the ant Formica schaufussi recruit nestmates to large anthropod prey and cooperatively transport the prey to the nest. The size of the group of ants retrieving prey is significantly correlated with the prey mass at the point at which the retrieval group reaches the nest entrance. To understand the mechanism involved in this “size matching” process, the regulation
Simon K. Robson; James F. A. Traniello
Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured.
Geraldi, Nathan R.; Macreadie, Peter I.
Mice transgenic for human Ig loci are an invaluable resource for the production of human Abs. However, such mice often do not yield human mAbs as effectively as conventional mice yield mouse mAbs. Suboptimal efficacy in delivery of human Abs might reflect imperfect interaction between the human membrane IgH chains and the mouse cellular signaling machinery. To obviate this problem, in this study we generated a humanized rat strain (OmniRat) carrying a chimeric human/rat IgH locus (comprising 22 human VHs, all human D and JH segments in natural configuration linked to the rat CH locus) together with fully human IgL loci (12 V?s linked to J?-C? and 16 V?s linked to J?-C?). The endogenous Ig loci were silenced using designer zinc finger nucleases. Breeding to homozygosity resulted in a novel transgenic rat line exclusively producing chimeric Abs with human idiotypes. B cell recovery was indistinguishable from wild-type animals, and human V(D)J transcripts were highly diverse. Following immunization, the OmniRat strain performed as efficiently as did normal rats in yielding high-affinity serum IgG. mAbs, comprising fully human variable regions with subnanomolar Ag affinity and carrying extensive somatic mutations, are readily obtainable, similarly to conventional mAbs from normal rats.
Osborn, Michael J.; Ma, Biao; Avis, Suzanne; Binnie, Ashleigh; Dilley, Jeanette; Yang, Xi; Lindquist, Kevin; Menoret, Severine; Iscache, Anne-Laure; Ouisse, Laure-Helene; Rajpal, Arvind; Anegon, Ignacio; Neuberger, Michael S.
The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function. PMID:24740904
Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J
The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502
The current extinction of many of Earth's large terrestrial carnivores has left some extant prey species lacking knowledge about contemporary predators, a situation roughly parallel to that 10,000 to 50,000 years ago, when naïve animals first encountered colonizing human hunters. Along present-day carnivore recolonization fronts, brown (also called grizzly) bears killed predator-naïve adult moose at disproportionately high rates in Scandinavia,
Joel Berger; Jon E. Swenson; Inga-Lill Persson
In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation. PMID:11852683
Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R
The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of five species of birds of prey was investigated by gas liquid\\u000a chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique, and the results are discussed from the chemotaxonomical point of view. The secretion\\u000a is a complex mixture of monoester waxes, the fatty acids of which are mainly dimethyl-branched, with the first substituent\\u000a in 2 position and the
Jürgen Jacob; Jens Poltz
Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction – the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and reduced pH on olfactory
Ingrid L. Cripps; Philip L. Munday; Mark I. McCormick
The Ig Nobel Prizes honor achievements that first make people laugh, then make them think. Marc Abrahams, father of the Ig Nobel Prize ceremony and editor of the magazine Annals of Improbable Research, will show us some of the most outstanding Ig Nobel winners. He will also discuss why Ohio has been such a good producer of Ig Nobel Prize winners, and of improbable research.
A variable region (Id)-matched set of genetically engineered human IgG1, -2, -3, and -4 subclass molecules was analyzed by electron microscopy for hinge-mediated differences in flexibility. The hinge-mediated bending was studied, as was the ability of the subclasses to form immune complexes with two anti-Id mAbs. The data show that the rank order (most to least flexible) of the IgG subclasses for hinge-folding mode of flexibility between Fab arms is IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG4 > IgG2. The mean Fab-Fab angles for the subclasses are IgG3, 136 degrees; IgG4, 128 degrees; IgG2, 127 degrees; and IgG1, 117 degrees. Fab-Fc angles were similarly analyzed. By sampling of equimolar mixtures of Id-bearing IgGs and each of two anti-Id mAb after incubation over time (1.5 min to 3.5 h), different kinetic profiles of immune complex formation of defined geometry were documented. Both anti-Id mAbs displayed unique kinetic profiles when complexed with the four IgG subclass molecules but also shared important features. Most notable was the higher propensity to form closed bivalent ring Id-anti-Id dimers with IgG3 than with IgG2 and IgG4. IgG1 was intermediate in its ability to form such dimers. PMID:9317136
Roux, K H; Strelets, L; Michaelsen, T E
BACKGROUND: Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. METHODS: We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG,
The subtidal predators Leptasterias polaris and Asterias vulgaris strongly overlap in their size, distribution and use of prey resources. We evaluate the factors determining their use of prey (feeding rate and prey selection) by comparing prey use in the laboratory and in the field. Both seastars have the same preferred prey, the mussel Mytilus edulis, select medium-sized mussels (1.5–3.0 cm),
Carlos F Gaymer; John H Himmelman; Ladd E Johnson
Chlamydia trachomatis oculogenital infection is a common disease in western societies. Despite the fact that diabetes is accompanied by increased risk for infections, no data on chlamydial infections in the non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) patient exist. In our study Chlamydia antibodies were determined using an immunoperoxidase reaction in NIDDM patients (n = 79) and in a local nondiabetic control population (n = 125) which was randomly invited to a medical control visit without any preselection criteria. In total, 46% of diabetics and 55% of controls were IgG-Chlamydia antibody positive (ns). Using IgA-Chlamydia antibodies to define 'seroactive' chlamydial infection, 22% of NIDDM patients and 14% of controls were positive. Thus seroactive chlamydial infection of all patients with proven contact to Chlamydia (IgG-Chlamydia antibody positive) was 47% in diabetics versus 25% in controls, respectively (P < 0.05). Forming subgroups, significance was reached in females (52% vs. 32%, P < 0.05) only, but a similar trend was observed in males (36% vs. 21%, ns). Seroactivity was neither correlated with HbA1c nor with nephelometrically determined total serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA). Additionally we observed significantly elevated total IgM and IgA-levels in NIDDM patients whereas IgG-levels were comparable in both groups. In conclusion, seroactive chlamydial infections in subjects with proven contact to Chlamydia are more frequent in NIDDM patients than in nondiabetic controls. Additionally, higher IgM and IgA serum levels might indicate a higher susceptibility to active surface infections in NIDDM. PMID:8803487
Toplak, H; Haller, E M; Lauermann, T; Weber, K; Bahadori, B; Reisinger, E C; Tilz, G P; Wascher, T C
Genetic linkage of IgA deficiency to the major histocompatibility complex: evidence for allele segregation distortion, parent-of-origin penetrance differences, and the role of anti-IgA antibodies in disease predisposition.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is characterized by a defect of terminal lymphocyte differentiation, leading to a lack of IgA in serum and mucosal secretions. Familial clustering, variable population prevalence in different ethnic groups, and a predominant inheritance pattern suggest a strong genetic predisposition to IgAD. The genetic susceptibility to IgAD is shared with a less prevalent, but more profound, defect called "common variable immunodeficiency" (CVID). Here we show an increased allele sharing at 6p21 in affected members of 83 multiplex IgAD/CVID pedigrees and demonstrate, using transmission/diseqilibrium tests, family-based associations indicating the presence of a predisposing locus, designated "IGAD1," in the proximal part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The recurrence risk of IgAD was found to depend on the sex of parents transmitting the defect: affected mothers were more likely to produce offspring with IgAD than were affected fathers. Carrier mothers but not carrier fathers transmitted IGAD1 alleles more frequently to the affected offspring than would be expected under random segregation. The differential parent-of-origin penetrance is proposed to reflect a maternal effect mediated by the production of anti-IgA antibodies tentatively linked to IGAD1. This is supported by higher frequency of anti-IgA-positive females transmitting the disorder to children, in comparison with female IgAD nontransmitters, and by linkage data in the former group. Such pathogenic mechanisms may be shared by other MHC-linked complex traits associated with the production of specific autoantibodies, parental effects, and a particular MHC haplotype.
Vorechovsky, I; Webster, A D; Plebani, A; Hammarstrom, L
The long rostrum of the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), a Mississippi river inhabitant, supports an extensive array of ampullary electroreceptors that are used to locate its favorite prey, water fleas, in dark and muddy water. Neuronal coding of such real-world events is often considered to be optimal in the sense of minimizing a mean-square reconstruction error or maximizing likelihood. Implementation of these theoretically motivated optimality criteria is, however, computationally very costly. For the juvenile paddlefish we exhibit  a computationally cheap and geometrically simple algorithm with the neuronal activity ?n of its electroreceptors 1<= n <= N as input and evaluating the turning direction \\varphi required to catch the prey through the so-called population-vector code \\varphi^estimate = arg [sumn ?n exp(i \\varphi_n)]. This explains experimentally found prey-detection statistics more convincingly than minimization of the mean-square reconstruction error. The only assumption concerns the neuronal time scale of the sensory organs.  C. Leibold, K.B. Reuter, L. Voigts, W. Wojtenek, and J.L. van Hemmen, manuscript in preparation.
van Hemmen, J. Leo
We investigated the energy source fuelling the post-feeding metabolic upregulation (specific dynamic action, SDA) in pythons (Python regius). Our goal was to distinguish between two alternatives: (i) snakes fuel SDA by metabolizing energy depots from their tissues; or (ii) snakes fuel SDA by metabolizing their prey. To characterize the postprandial response of pythons we used transcutaneous ultrasonography to measure organ-size changes and respirometry to record oxygen consumption. To discriminate unequivocally between the two hypotheses, we enriched mice (= prey) with the stable isotope of carbon (13C). For two weeks after feeding we quantified the CO2 exhaled by pythons and determined its isotopic 13C/12C signature. Ultrasonography and respirometry showed typical postprandial responses in pythons. After feeding, the isotope ratio of the exhaled breath changed rapidly to values that characterized enriched mouse tissue, followed by a very slow change towards less enriched values over a period of two weeks after feeding. We conclude that pythons metabolize their prey to fuel SDA. The slowly declining delta13C values indicate that less enriched tissues (bone, cartilage and collagen) from the mouse become available after several days of digestion. PMID:15255044
Starck, J Matthias; Moser, Patrick; Werner, Roland A; Linke, Petra
Only five species of sharks have been recorded in the Southern Ocean, where their biology is essentially unknown. We investigated the feeding habits of the three commonest species from stomach content analysis of specimens taken as bycatches of the fishery targeting the Patagonian toothfish ( Dissostichus eleginoides) in upper slope waters of the Kerguelen Archipelago. The three species prey upon a diversity of fishes and cephalopods. They segregate by feeding on different species of squids of different sizes. The small lanternsharks ( Etmopterus cf. granulosus; 0.3 m on average) feed on small-sized Mastigoteuthis psychrophila, while the large porbeagles ( Lamna nasus; 1.9 m) feed on small-sized histioteuthids ( Histioteuthis atlantica and H. eltaninae) and on medium-sized juvenile ommastrephids of the genus Todarodes. Finally, the huge sleeper sharks ( Somniosus cf. microcephalus; 3.9 m) prey upon large-sized cephalopods ( Kondakovia longimana and Taningia danae) and giant squids ( Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni and Architeuthis dux). Thus sleeper shark is a fish with sperm whale-like feeding habits and, hence, the second top predator known to science to rely significantly on giant squids. Prey species and biology indicate that porbeagles are pelagic predators in the entire water column, while sleeper sharks are mainly benthic top predators and scavengers. The present study also underlines the diversity and biomass of the poorly known cephalopod fauna, including giant squids, occurring in outer shelf and upper slope waters surrounding subantarctic islands.
Cherel, Yves; Duhamel, Guy
The effectiveness of antipredator defenses is greatly influenced by the environment in which an organism lives. In aquatic ecosystems, the chemical composition of the water itself may play an important role in the outcome of predator-prey interactions by altering the ability of prey to detect predators or to implement defensive responses once the predator's presence is perceived. Here, we demonstrate that low calcium concentrations (<1.5 mg/L) that are found in many softwater lakes and ponds disable the ability of the water flea, Daphnia pulex to respond effectively to its predator, larvae of the phantom midge, Chaoborus americanus. This low-calcium environment prevents development of the prey's normal array of induced defenses, which include an increase in body size, formation of neck spines, and strengthening of the carapace. We estimate that this inability to access these otherwise effective defenses results in a 50-186% increase in the vulnerability of the smaller juvenile instars of Daphnia, the stages most susceptible to Chaoborus predation. Such a change likely contributes to the observed lack of success of daphniids in most low-calcium freshwater environments, and will speed the loss of these important zooplankton in lakes where calcium levels are in decline. PMID:22949653
Riessen, Howard P; Linley, Robert Dallas; Altshuler, Ianina; Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian; Yan, Norman D
We investigated the energy source fuelling the post-feeding metabolic upregulation (specific dynamic action, SDA) in pythons (Python regius). Our goal was to distinguish between two alternatives: (i) snakes fuel SDA by metabolizing energy depots from their tissues; or (ii) snakes fuel SDA by metabolizing their prey. To characterize the postprandial response of pythons we used transcutaneous ultrasonography to measure organ-size changes and respirometry to record oxygen consumption. To discriminate unequivocally between the two hypotheses, we enriched mice (= prey) with the stable isotope of carbon (13C). For two weeks after feeding we quantified the CO2 exhaled by pythons and determined its isotopic 13C/12C signature. Ultrasonography and respirometry showed typical postprandial responses in pythons. After feeding, the isotope ratio of the exhaled breath changed rapidly to values that characterized enriched mouse tissue, followed by a very slow change towards less enriched values over a period of two weeks after feeding. We conclude that pythons metabolize their prey to fuel SDA. The slowly declining delta13C values indicate that less enriched tissues (bone, cartilage and collagen) from the mouse become available after several days of digestion.
Starck, J. Matthias; Moser, Patrick; Werner, Roland A.; Linke, Petra
We have previously shown that human B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system, composed of an anti-CD40 mAb presented by a CD32-transfected fibroblastic cell line, proliferate but do not secrete antibodies. However, the addition of particles of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan (SAC) induces B cell differentiation even in the absence of exogenous cytokines (CD40/SAC system). Additionally, B lymphocytes cultured in the CD40 system in the presence of human IL-10, produce IgM, IgG, and IgA, and Ig levels are further increased by SAC. Here, we have studied the capacity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with IgA deficiency (IgA-D) to secrete Igs, particularly IgA after CD40 triggering. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from IgA-D patients cultured in the CD40/SAC system produced IgM and IgG, but not IgA. The addition of IL-10 to the cultures, enhanced the production of IgM and IgG and most strikingly induced the production of high amounts of IgA. The addition of IL-10 to PBMNC from IgA-D patients activated through CD40 alone resulted in the production of IgA. Thus, SAC and anti-CD40 mAb stimulate B cells to differentiate into cells secreting IgG and IgM whereas IL-10 plays a central role in inducing B cells from IgA-D patients to differentiate into IgA secreting cells.
Briere, F; Bridon, J M; Chevet, D; Souillet, G; Bienvenu, F; Guret, C; Martinez-Valdez, H; Banchereau, J
Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases may sabotage the protective effects of IgA. In vitro, both exogenous and endogenously produced IgA1 protease inhibited phagocytic killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capsule-specific IgA1 human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) but not IgA2. These IgA1 proteases cleaved and reduced binding of the the effector Fc?1 heavy chain but not the antigen-binding F(ab)/light chain to pneumococcal surfaces. In vivo, IgA1 protease-resistant IgA2, but not IgA1 protease-sensitive IgA1, supported 60% survival in mice infected with wild-type S. pneumoniae. IgA1 hMAbs protected mice against IgA1 protease-deficient but not -producing pneumococci. Parallel mouse sera with human IgA2 showed more efficient complement-mediated reductions in pneumococci with neutrophils than did IgA1, particularly with protease-producing organisms. After natural human pneumococcal bacteremia, purified serum IgG inhibited IgA1 protease activity in 7 of 11 patients (64%). These observations provide the first evidence in vivo that IgA1 protease can circumvent killing of S. pneumoniae by human IgA. Acquisition of IgA1 protease-neutralizing IgG after infection directs attention to IgA1 protease both as a determinant of successful colonization and infection and as a potential vaccine candidate. PMID:23820749
Janoff, E N; Rubins, J B; Fasching, C; Charboneau, D; Rahkola, J T; Plaut, A G; Weiser, J N
We developed an ELISA test using leishmania antigenic extracts to detect antigen-specific antibody responses, including subclass and isotype analysis, in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients from the Sudan. A total of 92 parasitologically proven patients were compared with cutaneous leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, malaria, onchocerciasis and tuberculosis patients, as well as with healthy endemic and non-endemic controls. Some VL patients were examined before and after chemotherapy. VL patients showed significantly higher IgG responses compared with all other groups (93.4% sensitivity, 93.7% specificity), and higher (but not significantly) IgM responses. All groups showed low IgA levels. All IgG subclasses, IgG1, 2, 3, and 4, showed higher levels in patients than all other groups, with IgG1 and IgG3 levels being significantly reduced following treatment. The rank order for specificity and sensitivity for IgG subclasses was IgG3 > IgG1 > IgG2 > IgG4.
Elassad, A M; Younis, S A; Siddig, M; Grayson, J; Petersen, E; Ghalib, H W
IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) is a comprehensive term for renal lesions associated with IgG4-related disease, which is a recently recognized clinical entity characterized by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells with fibrosis affecting several organs. Tubulointerstitial nephritis with increased IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis is the most dominant feature of IgG4-RKD and may cause acute or chronic renal dysfunction, although some glomerular lesions such as membranous nephropathy are sometimes evident. Radiologically, several characteristic abnormalities are often demonstrated, sometimes mimicking malignancies. IgG4-RKD predominantly affects middle-aged to elderly men, and most patients have accompanying IgG4-related extrarenal lesions such as sialadenitis, lymphadenopathy, or type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis. Serology usually demonstrates high levels of serum total IgG and IgG4, and high levels of serum IgE and hypocomplementemia are also frequent features. Corticosteroid therapy is usually quite effective, leading to amelioration of the renal dysfunction and radiological and serological abnormalities. However, as any delay in treatment may result in irreversible renal failure, early diagnosis and appropriate therapy are very important. Despite these distinctive clinicopathological features of IgG4-RKD, its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Awareness of this condition and accumulation of more cases worldwide are necessary. PMID:24107849
Saeki, Takako; Kawano, Mitsuhiro
The purpose of this paper is, on one hand, to show the present performance of the combined final and rapid IGS global ionosphere maps (GIMs), and on the other hand to inform the geodetic community on new product - predicted IGS GIMs. In addition, information on future development of IGS ionospheric products will be also presented. Nowadays, the Ionosphere Working
Andrzej Krankowski; Pawel Wielgosz; Manuel Hernández-Pajares; Alberto García-Rigo
Goats, guinea pigs and rabbits were immunized with bovine IgM or with intact molecules, heavy chains, Fc portions or light chains of bovine IgG1 and IgG2. Rabbits and guinea pigs were immunized with bovine secretory IgA. Goats and guinea pigs produced heavy chain specific antisera to intact IgM whereas rabbits produced anti-light chain antibody and in one instance anti-alpha 2-macroglobulin antibody in addition to the anti-mu response. Goats and guinea pigs produced antisera to bovine IgG1 and IgG2 and their Fc portions that needed little absorption to render them monospecific for the heavy chain. In addition to antibody to the heavy chains, rabbits produced anti-light chain antibody when immunized with intact IgG1 or IgG2 molecules. These latter sera, and those produced by rabbits immunized with Fc portions of IgG1 or IgG2 required extensive absorption before they were monospecific for their respective heavy chains. Heavy chains were poor immunogens in all three species. Rabbits immunized with IgA produced both anti-alpha and anti-light chain antibodies while guinea pigs produced sera with antibody activity to the alpha chain only. PMID:3937323
Nielsen, K; Duncan, J R; Stemshorn, B
Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Blood Test: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Print A A A Text Size ... An IgA test measures the blood level of immunoglobulin A, one of the most common antibodies in ...
The paper deals with the semantics of hunting calendars from northern Eurasia and Siberia. It is shown that traditional economic and hunting activities were based on observations of seasonal changes in nature and animal life, as well as of the Sun's and Moon's yearly or monthly movement and several stars' positions. There is reason to assume that in the world view of the ancient populaton of Eurasia the winter season corresponding to the southern part of the Sun's yearly motion on the ecliptic was related to the images of beasts of prey (a bear, wolf, dog, fox, felines) and birds of prey (crow, eagle) with male personification, underworld symbolism, and mediatory functions. The summer period, associated with images of horned hoofed animals (deer, elk, cow, etc.) or with functionally similar characters (horse, aquatic birds - ducks, geese, swans; ermine, weasel, etc.) that have female personification, symbolises the upper part of the model of the Universe.
Lushnikova, A. V.
The ability of a predator fish to capture a prey fish depends on the hydrodynamics of the prey and its behavioral response to the predator's strike. Despite the importance of this predator-prey interaction to the ecology and evolution of a diversity of fish, it is unclear what factors dictate a fish's ability to evade capture. The present study evaluated how the specific gravity of a prey fish's body affects the kinematics of prey capture and the signals detected by the lateral line system of the prey during the strike of a suction-feeding predator. The specific gravity of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae was measured with high precision from recordings of terminal velocity in solutions of varying density. This novel method found that specific gravity decreased by ?5% (from 1.063, N=8, to 1.011, N=35) when the swim bladder inflates. To examine the functional consequences of this change, we developed a mathematical model of the hydrodynamics of prey in the flow field created by a suction-feeding predator. This model found that the observed decrease in specific gravity due to swim bladder inflation causes an 80% reduction of the flow velocity around the prey's body. Therefore, swim bladder inflation causes a substantial reduction in the flow signal that may be sensed by the lateral line system to evade capture. These findings demonstrate that the ability of a prey fish to sense a predator depends crucially on the specific gravity of the prey. PMID:21037055
Stewart, William J; McHenry, Matthew J
The prey range of the invasive Asian paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis, was studied using molecular diagnostics. Nests of paper wasps were collected from urban residential and salt marsh habitats, larvae were removed and dissected, and DNA in the gut of the paper wasp larvae was amplified and sequenced with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Seventy percent of samples (211/299) yielded medium-to high-quality sequences, and prey identification was achieved using BLAST searches in BOLD. A total of 42 taxa were identified from 211 samples. Lepidoptera were the majority of prey, with 39 taxa from 91% of samples. Diptera was a relatively small component of prey (three taxa, 19 samples). Conclusive species-level identification of prey was possible for 67% of samples, and genus-level identification, for another 12% of samples. The composition of prey taken was different between the two habitats, with 2.5× more native prey species being taken in salt marsh compared with urban habitats. The results greatly extend the prey range of this invasive species. The technique is a more effective and efficient approach than relying on the collection of “prey balls”, or morphological identification of prey, for the study of paper wasps.
Ward, Darren F; Ramon-Laca, Ana
Theoretical and empirical evidence in a one-predator two-prey system consistently indicates a regular trend that the less profitable (therefore, less vulnerable) prey increases in abundance with enrichment. The response in the abundance of the more profitable (more vulnerable) prey to enrichment has, however, remained unclear. Previous theoretical models have assumed the less profitable prey as inedible, though its actual profitability is unknown. Here, relaxing this assumption, we show that the response of the more profitable prey abundance to enrichment depends critically on the profitability of the less profitable prey. Specifically, the more profitable prey increases in abundance with enrichment if the profitability of the less profitable prey is lower than a critical value so that it cannot support the predator population by itself even at high densities (in this case, the prey is referred to as 'unpalatable') and decreases otherwise. This establishes a more general rule which unifies the previous works and resolves the indeterminacy on the response of the more profitable prey.
Genkai-Kato, M; Yamamura, N
We propose an optimal control framework to describe intra-seasonal predator-prey interactions, which are characterized by a continuous-time dynamical model comprising predator and prey density, as well as the energy budget of the prey over the length of a season. The model includes a time-dependent decision variable for the prey, representing the portion of the prey population in time that is active, as opposed to diapausing (a state of physiological rest). The predator follows autonomous dynamics and accordingly it remains active during the season. The proposed model is a generalization of the classical Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model towards non-autonomous dynamics that furthermore includes the effect of an energy variable. The model has been inspired by a specific biological system of predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and prey mites (so-called fruit-tree red spider mites) (Acari: Tetranychidae) that feed on leaves of apple trees--its parameters have been instantiated based on laboratory and field studies. The goal of the work is to understand the decisions of the prey mites to enter diapause (a state of physiological rest) given the dynamics of the predatory mites: this is achieved by solving an optimization problem hinging on the maximization of the prey population contribution to the next season. The main features of the optimal strategy for the prey are shown to be that (1) once in diapause, the prey does not become active again within the same season and hence diapause is an irreversible process; (2) for the vast majority of parameter space, the portion of prey individuals entering diapause within the season does not decrease in time; (3) with an increased number of predators, the optimal population strategy for the prey is to start diapause earlier and to enter diapause more gradually. This optimal population strategy will be studied for its ESS properties in a sequel to the work presented in this article. PMID:23070213
Sta?ková, Kate?ina; Abate, Alessandro; Sabelis, Maurice W
A two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of protein distribution followed by identification of selected proteins by mass spectrometry was performed on fresh bdellovibrio cultures containing attack phase cells of the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strain 109J-1 and the remains of an Escherichia coli or a Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato prey. Cleavage of the peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane proteins (OMPs) OmpA in E. coli
Gilli Barel; Alexandra Sirota; Hanne Volpin; Edouard Jurkevitch
We examined distributional patterns of a pursuit-diving seabird, the common murre Uria aalge, and its fish prey, capelin Mallotus villosus, within the avian foraging range of the largest murre colony in eastern North America: Funk Island, Newfoundland. During chick-rearing, the foraging habitat was previously partitioned into: (1) a high-quality area, 45 km from the colony where energy- rich capelin schools
Gail K. Davoren; William A. Montevecchi; John T. Anderson
We report the case of a woman, who initially presented with an IgG?-type monoclonal gammopathy. An IgD-secreting myeloma was diagnosed 2 years later. The patient died of severe renal failure and infection. The discrepancy between the immunoglobulin concentration estimated from the electrophoresis pattern and the immunonephelometric measurement of IgG, IgA and IgM led us to investigate the existence of an
P. Franck; N. Petitpain; A. P. Guerci; S. Denisart; C. Jacob; J. L. Guéant
The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions. PMID:23879370
Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L
At its 18th meeting held December 09, 2001 in San Francisco, the IGS Governing Board recommended the formation of a working group to focus on data center issues. This working group will tackle many of the problems facing the IGS data centers as well as develop new ideas to aid users both internal and external to the IGS. The direction of the IGS has changed since its start in 1992 and many new working groups, projects, data sets, and products have been created and incorporated into the service since that time. Therefore, this may be an appropriate time to revisit the requirements of data centers within the IGS.
Noll, Carey E.
Cellular releasability of mediators, as termed by Lichtenstein and Conroy (1), can be triggered by interaction with allergens, anti-IgE antibodies or other agonists. Genetic factors can also influence the cell releasability. We studied 104 subjects, including 92 atopic patients (62 sensitive to D. pteronyssinus and 54 sensitive to Lolium perenne) and 12 healthy controls. Sulphidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured after allergen and anti-IgE stimulus with CAST-ELISA, and histamine release using a fluorometric method. We found a significant sLT production after anti-IgE stimulation, higher than in basal conditions with medium alone. The sLT production was also significantly higher in sensitive patients than in healthy controls. We found 14.5% of healthy and atopic subjects to be non-responders to anti-IgE stimulus. We also found a positive and significant correlation between sLT production and histamine release. Moreover, we observed a significant positive correlation between IgE-dependent and antigen-specific sLT release. We also noticed a decrease in sLT production and a decrease in histamine release with aging. Male patients had a sLT production significantly higher than female patients. With respect to clinical diagnosis, the group of patients with rhinitis had the highest mediator production. Finally, pollinic patients studied during the spring had a higher sLT production to anti-IgE than those studied out of this season. We conclude that quantification of sLT production after anti-IgE stimulation is a useful method to study cell releasability of mediators and that such releasability is higher in atopic patients than in healthy donors. We must emphasize the usefulness in allergy diagnosis of relying not only on the use of methods demonstrating the existence of sensitization to an allergen, but also of techniques able to quantify the ability to respond to that allergen. In this way we would be able to evaluate the clinical and immunological evolution of patients and to follow up the efficacy of their treatment. PMID:9555614
Ferrer, M; Sanz, M L; Prieto, I; Vila, L; Oehling, A
Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females.
Rabaneda-Bueno, Ruben; Rodriguez-Girones, Miguel A.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernandez-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Larano, Jordi
We examined the prey selection and behavioral responses of tiger frog Hoplobatrachus chinensis larvae exposed to unpalatable and palatable sympatric prey tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus and Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found that after a short exposure to the toxic toad tadpoles B. melanostictus, predators may learn to decrease going after unpalatable prey, subsequently it seems they may express short-term behavioral memory in order to avoid the toxic prey. In general, H. chinensis showed no preference for either any of the two prey species, which may be the result of P. nigromaculatus using behavioral performance and chemical defense as antipredatation strategies. These results facilitate further investigation of other aspects of the behavioral ecology of these three anuran species and hint at some potentially interesting possibilities of memory in choice of prey which may suggest further study. PMID:23775997
Wei, Li; Lin, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Ren-You; Chen, Shi-Tong
We created a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) to investigate ecosystem relationships between the physical ecosystem (sea ice extent), a prey measure (krill density), predator behaviors (diving and foraging effort of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, with pups) and predator characteristics (mass of maternal fur seals and pups). We collected data on Antarctic fur seals from 1987/1988 to 1994/1995 at Seal Island, Antarctica. The BHM allowed us to link together predators and prey into a model that uses all the data efficiently and accounts for major sources of uncertainty. Based on the literature, we made hypotheses about the relationships in the model, which we compared with the model outcome after fitting the BHM. For each BHM parameter, we calculated the mean of the posterior density and the 95% credible interval. Our model confirmed others' findings that increased sea ice was related to increased krill density. Higher krill density led to reduced dive intensity of maternal fur seals, as measured by dive depth and duration, and to less time spent foraging by maternal fur seals. Heavier maternal fur seals and lower maternal foraging effort resulted in heavier pups at 22 d. No relationship was found between krill density and maternal mass, or between maternal mass and foraging effort on pup growth rates between 22 and 85 days of age. Maternal mass may have reflected environmental conditions prior to the pup provisioning season, rather than summer prey densities. Maternal mass and foraging effort were not related to pup growth rates between 22 and 85 d, possibly indicating that food was not limiting, food sources other than krill were being used, or differences occurred before pups reached age 22 d. PMID:22611863
Hiruki-Raring, Lisa M; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Boveng, Peter L; Bengtson, John L
The International GNSS Service (IGS) generally aims to provide ~1 cm satellite orbits and ~1 mm terrestrial frame products to meet the most demanding user needs. While the goal has not yet been met, the IGS has made good progress. The current Global Positioning System (GPS) Final orbits have accuracies better than 2.5 cm; the Rapids are of similar quality; and the near real-time parts of the Ultra-rapids have an accuracy of ~3.0 cm, while the real-time parts have an accuracy of about 5 cm. About half of the total error in the GPS orbits can be attributed to systematic time-varying rotational misalignment of the orbital frames; the other half is dominated by sub-daily tidal variations in Earth orientation. Near-field multi-path errors, anthropogenic changes at tracking stations, and the presence of uncalibrated GNSS antenna radomes at multi-technique sites continue to be a significant source of error in the terrestrial frame products. While recent model and analysis changes have reduced some errors, others will remain for the foreseeable future. This paper will summarize the current quality state of the IGS Final, Rapid and Ultra-rapid products as preparations for the next reprocessing campaign continue.
We studied whether long-lived IgE+ memory B cells develop following three types of primary IgE immune responses. Immunization of mice with anti-IgD antibody induced a T cell-dependent, interleukin (IL)-4-dependent primary IgE response and the formation of IgE isotype switched (IgE+) memory B cells. These IgE+ memory B cells could be stimulated in vivo by injection with goat anti-IgE antibodies to produce a profound IL-4-independent memory IgE response. By contrast, both infection of mice with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or repeated immunization with benzylpenicilloyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (BPO-KLH) in alum stimulated good primary IgE responses and profound memory T cell-dependent antigen-specific IgE responses, but failed to induce the development of long lived IgE+ memory B cells because they could not be recalled with goat anti-IgE antibodies. Mice receiving double immunizations combining anti-IgD with either N. brasiliensis infection or BPO-KLH immunization mounted significant goat anti-IgE-induced secondary IgE responses, but no N. brasiliensis or BPO-KLH-specific IgE could be detected. This indicates that the N. brasiliensis and BPO-KLH induced immune responses do not suppress the development of IgE+ B cells, but rather, do not provide the necessary conditions for their formation. Taken together these data indicate that long-lived IgE+ B cells fail to develop during the primary IgE response to N. brasiliensis infection or BPO-KLH immunization. By contrast, significant numbers of IgE+ memory B cells form during the primary IgE immune response induced by anti-IgD immunization. Our observations suggest that immunization protocols involving membrane IgD cross-linking and limited duration of cognate T cell help are necessary for the formation of IgE+ memory B cells. It will be important to determine the relevance of membrane IgD interaction with allergens, as this would influence the design of new therapies for the treatment of allergy and asthma. PMID:8977302
Le Gros, G; Schultze, N; Walti, S; Einsle, K; Finkelman, F; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Heusser, C
Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%), and negative predictive value (%) than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.
To investigate whether patients with IgA nephropathy have an exaggerated serum IgA response to ubiquitous food antigens we measured serum IgA antibodies to gliadin, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), beta-lactoglobulin and casein in 120 patients and 53 normal controls, using ELISA. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in serum IgA antibodies against each of the antigens tested. Moreover, no correlation was found between serum IgA antibodies and IgA-immune complexes (IgA CIC). However, nine patients but no controls had an association of two or more IgA antibodies to dietary antigens. Sixty-six per cent of these patients (vs 24% in the remaining population) had IgA CIC, suggesting a possible involvement of these antibodies in the constitution of IgA CIC. Analysis of sera by HPLC revealed that both monomeric and higher molecular forms of IgA antibodies were present, the latter being coincident with the peak of IgA CIC. Preincubation of sera with serial concentrations of the specific antigen decreased significantly IgA CIC, suggesting that in this subgroup of patients IgA antibodies to food antigens (mainly BSA) are involved in the formation of IgA CIC. BSA-containing IgA CIC were in fact demonstrated by ELISA using rabbit IgG anti-BSA coated plates and peroxidase-conjugated anti-human IgA. The role of these CIC in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy needs to be further elucidated. PMID:3147415
Fornasieri, A; Sinico, R A; Maldifassi, P; Paterna, L; Benuzzi, S; Colasanti, G; D'Amico, G
Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity.
Capsule Population sizes of Common Guillemots Uria aalge, Razorbills Alca torda and Lesser Black?backed Gulls Larus fuscus were associated with prey abundance but not prey quality.Aims To examine how the abundance and quality of prey fish affects seabird population size and to test the ‘junk?food’ or nutritional stress hypothesis.Methods Analysis of long?term seabird population size data and Sprat Sprattus sprattus
Björn Hjernquist; MÅrten B. Hjernquist
. ?Ratio-dependent predator–prey models are favored by many animal ecologists recently as more suitable ones for predator–prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves searching process. However, such models are not well studied in the sense that most\\u000a results are local stability related. In this paper, we consider the global behaviors of solutions of a ratio-dependent predator–prey\\u000a systems. Specifically, we shall show that ratio
Yang Kuang; Edoardo Beretta
. Recently, ratio-dependent predator-prey systems have been regarded by some researchers to be more appropriate for predator-prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves serious searching processes. However, such models have set up a challenging issue regarding\\u000a their dynamics near the origin since these models are not well-defined there. In this paper, the qualitative behavior of a\\u000a class of ratio-dependent predator-prey system at
Dongmei Xiao; Shigui Ruan
Platydemus manokwari is a broadly distributed invasive terrestrial flatworm that preys heavily on land snails and has been credited with the demise\\u000a of numerous threatened island faunas. We examined whether P. manokwari tracks the mucus trails of land snail prey, investigated its ability to determine trail direction, and evaluated prey preference\\u000a among various land snail species. A plastic treatment plate
Noriko Iwai; Shinji Sugiura; Satoshi Chiba
We examined the effects of variation in swimming speed, or ‘ram speed’, on the feeding kinematics of juvenile Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides. Tarpon were filmed feeding on non-elusive prey at 500imagess?1. Prey items were offered at one end of the filming tank, the opposite end where tarpon grouped, to encourage them to use a ram strategy to capture their prey.
Hoang Q. Tran; Rita S. Mehta; Peter C. Wainwright
Perillus bioculatus(F.) is sometimes considered a generalist but has most often been recorded as predator of Colorado potato beetle (CPB),Leptinotarsa decemlineata.(Say). This study was designed to analyze prey selection inP. bioculatuswith respect to factors that may lead to specialization. To establish if parental prey determines preference in na??ve progeny, prey selection experiments were conducted with the CPB and two unusual
Jean-François Saint-Cyr; Conrad Cloutier
It is suspected that phagotrophic marine protozoa might possess feeding receptors that enable them to discern the nutritional\\u000a quality of individual prey items (during prey-handling) on the basis of their cell-surface biochemistry. This article reviews\\u000a advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate the biorecognition and selection of nonself (microalgal)\\u000a prey items by the microplanktonic marine phagotroph Oxyrrhis
Claire M. Martel
Predation can regulate prey numbers but predator behaviour in multiple-prey systems can complicate understanding of control\\u000a mechanisms. We investigate killer whale (Orcinus orca) predation in an ocean system where multiple marine mammal prey coexist. Using stochastic models with Monte-Carlo simulations,\\u000a we test the most likely outcome of predator selection and compare scenarios where killer whales: (1) focus predation on larger
Steven H. FergusonMichael; Michael C. S. Kingsley; Jeff W. Higdon
In dealing with the spatial and temporal variability of prey species, predators may be able to forage optimally if they have\\u000a flexible and rapid behavioral plasticity rather than predetermined responses. For predators that learn to focus attention\\u000a on the cryptic prey type most frequently encountered during recent searching (termed a “search image”), rare prey types may\\u000a be overlooked because of
Yumiko Ishii; Masakazu Shimada
Summary Traditional methods of assessing population viability ignore both genetic—demographic interactions as well as community level dynamics. We address these deficiencies by presenting a model that investigates the effects of predation on a prey population experiencing inbreeding depression. Beginning with a simple Lotka—Volterra predator—prey system, we rewrite prey per capita mortality as a function of inbreeding. Inbreeding varies as a
Laura Hartt; James W. Haefner
The impact of predation on prey populations has long been a focus of ecologists, but a firm understanding of the factors influencing prey selection, a key predictor of that impact, remains elusive. High levels of variability observed in prey selection may reflect true differences in the ecology of different communities but might also reflect a failure to deal adequately with uncertainties in the underlying data. Indeed, our review showed that less than 10% of studies of European wolf predation accounted for sampling uncertainty. Here, we relate annual variability in wolf diet to prey availability and examine temporal patterns in prey selection; in particular, we identify how considering uncertainty alters conclusions regarding prey selection. Over nine years, we collected 1,974 wolf scats and conducted drive censuses of ungulates in Alpe di Catenaia, Italy. We bootstrapped scat and census data within years to construct confidence intervals around estimates of prey use, availability and selection. Wolf diet was dominated by boar (61.5±3.90 [SE] % of biomass eaten) and roe deer (33.7±3.61%). Temporal patterns of prey densities revealed that the proportion of roe deer in wolf diet peaked when boar densities were low, not when roe deer densities were highest. Considering only the two dominant prey types, Manly's standardized selection index using all data across years indicated selection for boar (mean?=?0.73±0.023). However, sampling error resulted in wide confidence intervals around estimates of prey selection. Thus, despite considerable variation in yearly estimates, confidence intervals for all years overlapped. Failing to consider such uncertainty could lead erroneously to the assumption of differences in prey selection among years. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in relative prey availability and accounting for sampling uncertainty when interpreting the results of dietary studies.
Davis, Miranda L.; Stephens, Philip A.; Willis, Stephen G.; Bassi, Elena; Marcon, Andrea; Donaggio, Emanuela; Capitani, Claudia; Apollonio, Marco
This study was an immunohistological study of IgG4-positive cell infiltration in 6 cases of hypertrophic pachymeningitis excluding secondary hypertrophic pachymeningitis caused by infectious diseases such as aspergillosis. The cases included 5 males and 1 female, ranging in age from 36 to 82 years (mean, 55 years). A biopsy was performed in all of the cases for diagnostic purposes, revealing fibrous dural hyperplasia with nonspecific inflammatory cell infiltration histologically. Two of the 6 patients had been treated with steroids before the biopsy, which was taken for poor response to steroid treatment. In these two cases, some IgG-positive cell infiltration of the thickened dura was observed; however, most of the cells were IgG4-negative. In the remaining four cases, many IgG- and IgG4-positive cells infiltrated the thickened dura and the IgG4-positive/IgG-positive cell ratio exceeded 40%. One of these patients was finally diagnosed with IgG4-related sclerosing disease, since he was diagnosed subsequently with retroperitoneal fibrosis. There was no evidence of any other lesions associated with IgG4-related sclerosing disease, other than in the dura. It is not rare for IgG4-positive cells to appear in the dura in cases of hypertrophic pachymeningitis; however, no IgG4-related systemic disease is present in these cases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis with IgG4-positive cells may have some kind of relation to other systemic autoimmune diseases. PMID:23211431
Utsuki, Satoshi; Kijima, Chihiro; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Miyakawa, Saori; Iizuka, Takahiro; Hara, Atsuko
Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (?i ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The ?i values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. PMID:23437887
Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K
Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming. PMID:23504827
De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby
A total of 44 bacterial species subdivided into 10 trial experiments have been used as prey for the recovery of bdellovibrios from samples of water from a brackish tidal pond and an aquarium saltwater tank. In an initial investigation, the recovery efficiency of each of the test bacterial species was compared with that of a designated standard prey, Vibrio parahaemolyticus P-5. The results revealed that in each case strain P-5 yielded an equal or significantly greater number of plaques of bdellovibrios than the test prey with but a single exception, strain CS5. In repeat experiments, CS5 yielded fewer plaques than P-5. To determine whether the use of multiple bacterial species compared with a single species as prey would increase the number of PFU of bdellovibrios recovered, material from plaques appearing on each of the test prey in the respective trials was sequentially subcultured onto two respective agar plates, the first containing as prey V. parahaemolyticus P-5 and the second containing the initial test organism. In nearly every case, subculture of plaques from lawns of the test prey to P-5 resulted in plaque formation. On the basis of the results, the use of several test prey and P-5 did not result in the recovery of any more bdellovibrio PFU than the use of P-5 alone. In this study, V. parahaemolyticus P-5 was observed to be the most efficient prey for the recovery of bdellovibrios from moderate salt water.
Schoeffield, A. J.; Williams, H. N.
This study assessed the dynamics of predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD 100. Predation tests with two different bioluminescent strains of Escherichia coli, one expressing a heat-labile bacterial luciferase and the other a heat-stable form, showed near identical losses from both, indicating that protein expression and stability are not responsible for the "shutting-off" of the prey bioluminescence (BL). Furthermore, it was found that the loss in the prey BL was not proportional with the predator-to-prey ratio (PPR), with significantly greater losses seen as this value was increased. This suggests that other factors also play a role in lowering the prey BL. The loss in BL, however, was very consistent within nine independent experiments to the point that we were able to reliably estimate the predator numbers within only 1 h when present at a PPR of 6 or higher, Using a fluorescent prey, we found that premature lysis of the prey occurs at a significant level and was more prominent as the PPR ratio increased. Based upon the supernatant fluorescent signal, even a relatively low PPR of 10-20 led to approximately 5% of the prey population being prematurely lysed within 1 h, while a PPR of 90 led to nearly 15% lysis. Consequently, we developed a modified Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model that accounted for this lysis and is able to reliably estimate the prey and bdelloplast populations for a wide range of PPRs. PMID:24272279
Im, Hansol; Kim, Dasol; Ghim, Cheol-Min; Mitchell, Robert J
Gastropods are often the top predators in marine benthic environments, and trophic transfer is the predominant route by which metals are accumulated in these predators. In the present study, the potential influences of prey composition on the trophic transfer, accumulation, subcellular distribution and metallothionein induction of six metals (Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in a predator Nassarius siquijorensis were investigated. The snails were fed venerid clams Ruditapes philippinarum, mussels Perna viridis, oysters Crassostrea angulata or barnacles Fistulobalanus albicostatus, each differing greatly in their metal accumulation and handling patterns. N. siquijorensis showed prey-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of the six metals. In general, the body burdens of metals in the viscera and muscles of N. siquijorensis increased with increasing exposure period and metal concentration in the four prey. The calculated trophic transfer factors (TTFs) of the metals in different prey varied and were the highest for clams and mussels prey, indicating that metal bioavailability from these prey was higher than that from barnacles and oysters. All the studied metals except Pb were enriched during transfer to the snails. The subcellular metal distribution in the viscera was affected by prey composition. Exposure to the four natural prey induced MTs, which may be used as a better biomarker for muscle than for viscera for metal stress. Our results imply that metals from different natural prey have different bioavailability and may help better understand the trophic transfer of metals in marine benthic food chain. PMID:23121886
Guo, Feng; Yang, Yubo; Wang, Wen-Xiong
Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported.
Vyas, Nimish B.; Hulse, Craig S.; Rice, Clifford P.
Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported. PMID:22865654
Vyas, Nimish B; Hulse, Craig S; Rice, Clifford P
The prey choice behavior and predatory strategies of two East African assassin bugs, Scipinnia repax (Stäl 1961) and Nagusta sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were investigated in the field and the laboratory. Both of these species are from the subfamily Harpactorinae and specialize in eating spiders. They prey especially often on social jumping spiders (Salticidae) that build nest complexes (nests connected by silk) in vegetation near the shoreline of Lake Victoria. Both reduviid species associate with these nest complexes and prey on the resident salticids. Nagusta sp., but not S. repax, form groups on nest complexes with 2–3 individuals of Nagusta sometimes feeding together on a single salticid. In addition to social salticids, Nagusta sp. preys on Portia africana, an araneophagic salticid that often invades the same nest complexes. S. repax preys on salticid eggs and also on Nagusta. Although they avoid ants, Nagusta and especially S. repax prey on ant-mimicking salticids, suggesting that sensory modalities other than vision play a dominant role in prey detection.
Jackson, Robert R.; Salm, Kathryn; Nelson, Ximena J.
The concentrations of IgM and IgA circulating immune complexes (CIC) were determined in 82 dogs with naturally acquired leishmania infection and in a control group of 25 healthy dogs. The mean serum IgM and IgA CIC concentration in infected dogs were significantly (IgM; P < 0.004; IgA; P < 0.000) higher than in the control group. An increase in IgM and IgA CIC concentration was found in 47.6 and 95.1%, respectively, of the leishmania-infected dogs. The serum IgM and IgA CIC concentrations in infected dogs showing hypercreatininaemia were not statistically higher than those of sick dogs with normal creatininaemia. When hypercreatininaemia (> or = 1.30 mg/dl) was used as an indicator for CIC disease, the positive predictive value obtained with 0.368 for IgM CIC and 0.894 for IgA CIC, indicating that renal function impairment was associated with the high serum IgM and IgA CIC concentrations in 36.8 and 89.4%, respectively, of the infected dogs. PMID:9673577
Margarito, J M; Lucena, R; López, R; Molleda, J M; Martín, E; Ginel, P J
While predators such as dragonflies are dependent on visual detection of moving prey, social interactions make conspecific detection equally important for many non-predatory insects. Specialized 'acute zones' associated with target detection have evolved in several insect groups and are a prominent male-specific feature in many dipteran flies. The physiology of target selective neurons associated with these specialized eye regions has previously been described only from male flies. We show here that female hoverflies (Eristalis tenax) have several classes of neurons within the third optic ganglion (lobula) capable of detecting moving objects smaller than 1 degrees . These neurons have frontal receptive fields covering a large part of the ipsilateral world and are tuned to a broad range of target speeds and sizes. This could make them suitable for detecting targets under a range of natural conditions such as required during predator avoidance or conspecific interactions. PMID:16720393
Nordström, Karin; O'Carroll, David C
We studied the ranging behavior and habitat selection of radio-tagged Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) during the breeding season in southwestern Idaho. The distribution and numbers of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), the primary prey of Prairie Falcons in our study area, varied in response to drought during the study period. Prairie Falcons ranged over large areas (ca. 300 km2) and increased their foraging ranges in response to declining ground squirrels. Reptiles and birds were preyed upon most frequently when squirrels were rare. Males and females differed little in their use of space. Successful pairs ranged over smaller areas than non-nesters and unsuccessful pairs. Falcons nesting near habitat most suitable for ground squirrels ranged over smaller areas than those nesting farther from such habitat. Home ranges contained significantly more winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) and native perennial grasses (especially Poa secunda), and significantly less salt desert shrubs and exotic annual grasses than expected based on availability. Salt desert shrubs were found less than expected, based on availability in core areas within home ranges. Selection for winterfat and bluegrass in core areas was contingent upon selection at the larger scale of the home range; falcons with home ranges containing more winterfat and bluegrass than expected based on availability were less selective in their placement of core areas with respect to these habitats. We believe salient features of Prairie Falcon home ranges result largely from patchy distribution of landscape features associated with different densities and availabilities of Townsend's ground squirrels.
Marzluff, J. M.; Kimsey, Bryan A.; Schueck, Linda S.; McFadzen, Mary E.; Vekasy, M. S.; Bednarz, James C.
The prey capture behavior by jumping Archer fish (Toxotes microlepisis) was investigated using high speed imaging and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Archer fish are renowned for their ability to spit jets of water at insects and also to jump out of the water to capture their prey. Our investigations reveal that the fish typically fail to reach their prey by jumping when the bait is placed at a height above 3.5 body lengths. After jumping and failing, the fish do not typically jump again, only spit. For our experiments bait was placed between 0.5 and 3.5 body lengths (BL) above the free surface, within reach of jumping, and thus the fish rarely spit unless they missed first by jumping. It is observed that the fish typically position their bodies under the bait with a slight angle, hover momentarily, snap in their pectoral fins, and then flap their tail in an "S-start"-type maneuver with a fixed number of cycles, which increases as a function of bait height. High speed imaging, including time-resolved PIV, was used to capture the kinematics of the jumping behavior and compare the fluid impulse generated during the fast start, jump maneuver with the total change in momentum of the fish body. Maximum acceleration was observed in the early stages of the jump maneuver and was often on the order of 5 to 15 times gravity. Correlations between the maximum energy, power in, number of tail beats, jump height and overall jumping kinematics will be discussed.
Techet, A. H.; Shih, A. M.
It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit specific behaviors among individuals. PMID:24602365
Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B
It is well-known that weakly electric fish can exhibit extreme temporal acuity at the behavioral level, discriminating time intervals in the submicrosecond range. However, relatively little is known about the spatial acuity of the electrosense. Here we use a recently developed model of the electric field generated by Apteronotus leptorhynchus to study spatial acuity and small signal extraction. We show that the quality of sensory information available on the lateral body surface is highest for objects close to the fish's midbody, suggesting that spatial acuity should be highest at this location. Overall, however, this information is relatively blurry and the electrosense exhibits relatively poor acuity. Despite this apparent limitation, weakly electric fish are able to extract the minute signals generated by small prey, even in the presence of large background signals. In fact, we show that the fish's poor spatial acuity may actually enhance prey detection under some conditions. This occurs because the electric image produced by a spatially dense background is relatively "blurred" or spatially uniform. Hence, the small spatially localized prey signal "pops out" when fish motion is simulated. This shows explicitly how the back-and-forth swimming, characteristic of these fish, can be used to generate motion cues that, as in other animals, assist in the extraction of sensory information when signal-to-noise ratios are low. Our study also reveals the importance of the structure of complex electrosensory backgrounds. Whereas large-object spacing is favorable for discriminating the individual elements of a scene, small spacing can increase the fish's ability to resolve a single target object against this background. PMID:17335346
Babineau, David; Lewis, John E; Longtin, André
It is well-known that weakly electric fish can exhibit extreme temporal acuity at the behavioral level, discriminating time intervals in the submicrosecond range. However, relatively little is known about the spatial acuity of the electrosense. Here we use a recently developed model of the electric field generated by Apteronotus leptorhynchus to study spatial acuity and small signal extraction. We show that the quality of sensory information available on the lateral body surface is highest for objects close to the fish's midbody, suggesting that spatial acuity should be highest at this location. Overall, however, this information is relatively blurry and the electrosense exhibits relatively poor acuity. Despite this apparent limitation, weakly electric fish are able to extract the minute signals generated by small prey, even in the presence of large background signals. In fact, we show that the fish's poor spatial acuity may actually enhance prey detection under some conditions. This occurs because the electric image produced by a spatially dense background is relatively “blurred” or spatially uniform. Hence, the small spatially localized prey signal “pops out” when fish motion is simulated. This shows explicitly how the back-and-forth swimming, characteristic of these fish, can be used to generate motion cues that, as in other animals, assist in the extraction of sensory information when signal-to-noise ratios are low. Our study also reveals the importance of the structure of complex electrosensory backgrounds. Whereas large-object spacing is favorable for discriminating the individual elements of a scene, small spacing can increase the fish's ability to resolve a single target object against this background.
Babineau, David; Lewis, John E; Longtin, Andre
IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701
Allergic diseases result from the interaction with IgE bound to cell surface receptors. Therefore, rational therapeutic approaches to allergic diseases would be aimed at decreasing IgE and/or at blocking the binding of IgE to effector cells such as mast cells and monocytes. Our investigation of the mechanism of IgE synthesis in man shows that IgE synthesis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) absolutely requires the presence of IL-4 and requires endogenous IL-6, because antibody to IL-6 inhibits IgE production completely. IgE synthesis requires T/B cell contact and involves interactions between B cell surface MHC Class II molecules and T cell surface receptors, as antibodies to both of these cell surface molecules inhibit IgE synthesis. Furthermore, alloreactive T cell clones which are unable to engage the B cell MHC Class II molecules fail to induce IgE synthesis in spite of their ability to secrete IL-4. Studies on the immunoglobulin sites that are involved in IgE binding to high affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils have used recombinant fragments of IgE to block mast cell binding. These studies suggest that a stretch of 76 amino acids which straddles the C epsilon 2 and C epsilon 3 domains is essential for this binding. Parallel studies on IgE binding to low affinity receptors on monocytes and B cells suggest that sequences within C epsilon 3 are involved in this binding. Peptides or analogues that inhibit IgE binding to its cellular receptors may be useful in the treatment of allergic diseases. PMID:8691043
Vercelli, D; Jabara, H H; Geha, R S
The influence of prey animals on the supercooling ability of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum, was studied by feeding spiders with field-collected and laboratory-cultured prey animals. Irrespective of the prey species supplied, spiders given field-collected prey had a higher supercooling point than those given laboratory-cultured counterparts. This means that (1) the field prey animals contained some efficient ice nucleators, whereas the laboratory animals were free from such substances and (2) the ice nucleators must be of external origin. Several lines of evidence also suggest that, under natural conditions, potential prey animals for the house spider are highly contaminated with ice nucleators.
The influence of prey animals on the supercooling ability of the house spider, Achaearanea tepidariorum, was studied by feeding spiders with field-collected and laboratory-cultured prey animals. Irrespective of the prey species supplied, spiders given field-collected prey had a higher supercooling point than those given laboratory-cultured counterparts. This means that (1) the field prey animals contained some efficient ice nucleators, whereas the laboratory animals were free from such substances and (2) the ice nucleators must be of external origin. Several lines of evidence also suggest that, under natural conditions, potential prey animals for the house spider are highly contaminated with ice nucleators. PMID:11729810
We report that the Japanese sea catfish Plotosus japonicus senses local pH-associated increases in H(+)/CO2 equating to a decrease of ?0.1 pH unit in ambient seawater. We demonstrated that these sensors, located on the external body of the fish, detect undamaged cryptic respiring prey, such as polychaete worms. Sensitivity is maximal at the natural pH of seawater (pH 8.1 to 8.2) and decreases dramatically in seawater with a pH <8.0. PMID:24904164
Caprio, John; Shimohara, Mami; Marui, Takayuki; Harada, Shuitsu; Kiyohara, Sadao
IgA from normal human serum, a myeloma IgA and human colostral IgA were found to inhibit the IgG-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans (CA) blastospores by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from normal human subjects. The inhibition was dependent on the Fc portion of IgA, was enhanced by heat treatment (56°C for 20 min) and depended on binding to the PMN, but not to the opsonized particle. Binding of CA to the PMN IgG Fc receptor was inhibited, whilst the binding to the PMN C3b receptor was unaffected.
Wilton, J. M. A.
The hallmarks of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) are lymphoplasmacytic tissue infiltration with a predominance of IgG4-positive plasma cells, accompanied by fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis, dacryoadenitis, and elevated levels of IgG4. In a recent issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Tsuboi and colleagues demonstrated that regulatory T (Treg) cell-and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-derived cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of Mikulicz's disease, an activation pathway that appears to be common for IgG4-RD. Additional organ-specific factors may account for the different organ involvement of IgG4-RD.
Spatial coherence between predators and prey has rarely been observed in pelagic marine ecosystems. We used measures of the environment, prey abundance, prey quality, and prey distribution to explain the observed distributions of three co-occurring predator species breeding on islands in the southeastern Bering Sea: black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia), and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Predictions of statistical models were tested using movement patterns obtained from satellite-tracked individual animals. With the most commonly used measures to quantify prey distributions - areal biomass, density, and numerical abundance - we were unable to find a spatial relationship between predators and their prey. We instead found that habitat use by all three predators was predicted most strongly by prey patch characteristics such as depth and local density within spatial aggregations. Additional prey patch characteristics and physical habitat also contributed significantly to characterizing predator patterns. Our results indicate that the small-scale prey patch characteristics are critical to how predators perceive the quality of their food supply and the mechanisms they use to exploit it, regardless of time of day, sampling year, or source colony. The three focal predator species had different constraints and employed different foraging strategies – a shallow diver that makes trips of moderate distance (kittiwakes), a deep diver that makes trip of short distances (murres), and a deep diver that makes extensive trips (fur seals). However, all three were similarly linked by patchiness of prey rather than by the distribution of overall biomass. This supports the hypothesis that patchiness may be critical for understanding predator-prey relationships in pelagic marine systems more generally.
Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Heppell, Scott A.; Hoover, Brian; Irons, David; Jones, Nathan; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Nordstrom, Chad A.; Paredes, Rosana; Suryan, Robert M.; Waluk, Chad M.; Trites, Andrew W.
The hallmark of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, is the presence of mesangial deposits containing IgA, specifically the IgA1 subclass, as the most prominent component. The deposited IgA is considered to be part of an immune complex. The family of enzymes known as bacterial IgA proteases exhibits substrate specificity that is essentially limited to the hinge region of IgA1. Here we demonstrate the ability of systemically administered IgA protease to remove glomerular IgA immune complexes, both the antigen and antibody components, in a passive mouse model of IgAN. Thus, IgA protease may have potential as a therapeutic agent for human IgAN.
Lamm, Michael E.; Emancipator, Steven N.; Robinson, Janet K.; Yamashita, Michifumi; Fujioka, Hisashi; Qiu, Jiazhou; Plaut, Andrew G.
1. Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed to improve models attempting to predict food web structure and dynamics from known species traits. 2. We carried out laboratory experiments with common freshwater macroinvertebrate predators (diving beetles, dragonfly and damselfly larvae and water bugs) and their prey to assess how body size and traits related to foraging (microhabitat use, feeding mode and foraging mode) and to prey vulnerability (microhabitat use, activity and escape behaviour) affect predation strength. 3. The underlying predator-prey body mass allometry characterizing mean prey size and total predation pressure was modified by feeding mode of the predators (suctorial or chewing). Suctorial predators fed upon larger prey and had ˜3 times higher mass-specific predation rate than chewing predators of the same size and may thus have stronger effect on prey abundance. 4. Strength of individual trophic links, measured as mortality of the focal prey caused by the focal predator, was determined jointly by the predator and prey body mass and their foraging and vulnerability traits. In addition to the feeding mode, interactions between prey escape behaviour (slow or fast), prey activity (sedentary or active) and predator foraging mode (searching or ambush) strongly affected prey mortality. Searching predators was ineffective in capturing fast-escape prey in comparison with the remaining predator-prey combinations, while ambush predators caused higher mortality than searching predators and the difference was larger in active prey. 5. Our results imply that the inclusion of the commonly available qualitative data on foraging traits of predators and vulnerability traits of prey could substantially increase biological realism of food web descriptions. PMID:23869526
Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S
More than 20 prey taxa were identified from gut contents of Stomolophus meleagris medusae in the north-eastern Gulf of Mexico; seven taxa formed over 98% of the total. Bivalve veligers (mostly Crassostrea virginica) dominated, constituting 56% of the total. Other significant prey were copepod eggs, nauplii, copepodites and adults, gastropod veligers, and Oikopleura sp. Mean numbers of prey in the guts of S. meleagris medusae (bell height ranged from 1·5 to 10 cm) varied from 400 to 9300. Numbers of prey were an exponential function of medusan biomass, increasing from 700 prey at 9 g wet weight to 6000 prey at 325 g wet weight. Mean numbers of ingested prey ranged from 4000 to > 65000 prey day -1 medusa -1. Bivalve veligers made up 47% of the daily ration. The daily ration was estimated to range from 20 to 100 mg C medusa -1, depending on size of the medusa. Bivalve veligers were selected over all other kinds of prey. Fish eggs were the next preferred prey followed by harpacticoids, larvaceans and tintinnids, all with selectivities near zero. Lowest selectivity values were for copepod nauplii, and cyclopoid and calanoid copepods. Estimated in situ clearance rates were highly variable depending on the prey and size of the medusa, and ranged from < 1 to 135 l h -1 medusa -1. A description of the possible mechanism of feeding and mode of prey selection is presented. Filter-feeding in rhizostomes probably evolved in response to small prey size in tropical waters.
Larson, Ronald J.
A modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey system with two delays is investigated. By choosing ?1 and ?2 as bifurcation parameters, we show that the Hopf bifurcations occur when time delay crosses some critical values. Moreover, we derive the equation describing the flow on the center manifold; then we give the formula for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results and chaotic behaviors are observed. Finally, using a global Hopf bifurcation theorem for functional differential equations, we show the global existence of the periodic solutions.
Liu, Qingsong; Lin, Yiping; Cao, Jingnan
Interspecific threat-sensitivity allows prey to maximize the net benefit of antipredator strategies by adjusting the type and intensity of their response to the level of predation risk. This is well documented for classical prey-predator interactions but less so for intraguild predation (IGP). We examined threat-sensitivity in antipredator behaviour of larvae in a predatory mite guild sharing spider mites as prey. The guild consisted of the highly vulnerable intraguild (IG) prey and weak IG predator Phytoseiulus persimilis, the moderately vulnerable IG prey and moderate IG predator Neoseiulus californicus and the little vulnerable IG prey and strong IG predator Amblyseius andersoni. We videotaped the behaviour of the IG prey larvae of the three species in presence of either a low- or a high-risk IG predator female or predator absence and analysed time, distance, path shape and interaction parameters of predators and prey. The least vulnerable IG prey A. andersoni was insensitive to differing IGP risks but the moderately vulnerable IG prey N. californicus and the highly vulnerable IG prey P. persimilis responded in a threat-sensitive manner. Predator presence triggered threat-sensitive behavioural changes in one out of ten measured traits in N. californicus larvae but in four traits in P. persimilis larvae. Low-risk IG predator presence induced a typical escape response in P. persimilis larvae, whereas they reduced their activity in the high-risk IG predator presence. We argue that interspecific threat-sensitivity may promote co-existence of IG predators and IG prey and should be common in predator guilds with long co-evolutionary history. PMID:23104106
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
The purpose of this paper is, on one hand, to show the present performance of the combined final and rapid IGS global ionosphere maps (GIMs), and on the other hand to inform the geodetic community on new product - predicted IGS GIMs. In addition, information on future development of IGS ionospheric products will be also presented. Nowadays, the Ionosphere Working Group of IGS generates three types of ionospheric products: final, rapid and predicted, respectively. There are currently four IGS Associate Analysis Centres (IAACs) for the ionospheric products: CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe, University of Berne, Switzerland), ESA/ESOC (European Space Operations Center of ESA, Darmstadt, Germany), JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, U.S.A) and gAGE/UPC (Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain). These centres provide ionosphere maps computed with different approaches. Their maps are uploaded to IGS Ionosphere Product Coordinator, who computes official IGS combined products. Since January 2008, this coordination is carried out by the GRL/UWM (Geodynamics Research Laboratory of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland). The IGS GIMs are provided in Ionosphere Exchange (IONEX) format with spatial resolution of 5.0 degrees in longitude and 2.5 degrees in latitude, and temporal resolution of 2 hours. Latency of the final and rapid GIMs is 10 days and 1 day, respectively. In November 2009, the IGS Iono WG started to generate predicted ionospheric products 1 and 2 days in advance (requested for ESA's SMOS mission). These new IGS products are currently based on predicted ionosphere maps prepared by UPC and ESA. During period of more than 10 years of continuous IGS ionosphere operation, the techniques used by the IAACs and the strategies of combination have improved in such a way that the combined IGS GIMs are now significantly more accurate and robust. Future plans include, among others, increasing temporal resolution to 1 hour and studies on taking advantage of COSMIC occultation data.
Krankowski, Andrzej; Wielgosz, Pawel; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; García-Rigo, Alberto
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is an immune-complex-mediated glomerulonephritis characterized by the presence of immunoglobulin A deposits in mesangial and paramesangial regions. The patients with IgA nephropathy present with varying clinical symptoms (eg, microhematuria with preserved renal function or progressive deterioration of renal functions resulting in end-stage renal disease). The factors involved in the pathogenetic mechanisms of IgA nephropathy include (1)
Jun Wada; Hitoshi Sugiyama; Hirofumi Makino
Variation in the sensory physiologies of organisms can bias the receptions of signals, driving the direction of signal evolution. Sensory drive in the evolution of signals may be particularly important for organisms that confront trade-offs in signal design between the need for conspicuousness to allow effective transfer of information and the need for crypsis of the signal to unintended receivers. Several genera of orb-weaving spiders include conspicuous silk designs, stabilimenta, in the centre of their webs. Stabilimenta can be highly visible signals to predators, warning them of the presence of a noxious, sticky silk web. However, stabilimenta can also be used by prey as a signal in avoidance of webs, creating a trade-off in signal visibility. I argue that the derived spectral properties of stabilimentum silk have resulted in part from this conflict. The innate colour preferences of insects, their ability to learn colours, and the spectral properties of flowers all suggest that the reflectance spectra of stabilimenta renders them relatively cryptic to many insect prey, while maintaining their visibility to vertebrate predators.
Blackledge, T. A.
We present the analysis of two reaction-diffusion systems modelling predator-prey interactions, where the predator displays the Holling type II functional response, and in the absence of predators, the prey growth is logistic. The local analysis is based on the application of qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations and dynamical systems, while the global well-posedness depends on invariant sets and differential inequalities. The key result is an L(?)-stability estimate, which depends on a polynomial growth condition for the kinetics. The existence of an a priori L(p)-estimate, uniform in time, for all p ? 1, implies L(?)-uniform bounds, given any nonnegative L(?)-initial data. The applicability of the L(?)-estimate to general reaction-diffusion systems is discussed, and how the continuous results can be mimicked in the discrete case, leading to stability estimates for a Galerkin finite-element method with piecewise linear continuous basis functions. In order to verify the biological wave phenomena of solutions, numerical results are presented in two-space dimensions, which have interesting ecological implications as they demonstrate that solutions can be 'trapped' in an invariant region of phase space. PMID:22881204
Garvie, Marcus R; Trenchea, C
Predator-prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. We purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species indicates enriched 2-phenylethylamine production by numerous carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores examined. Calcium imaging of neuronal responses in mouse olfactory tissue slices identified dispersed carnivore odor-selective sensory neurons that also responded to 2-phenylethylamine. Two prey species, rat and mouse, avoid a 2-phenylethylamine odor source, and loss-of-function studies involving enzymatic depletion of 2-phenylethylamine from a carnivore odor indicate it to be required for full avoidance behavior. Thus, rodent olfactory sensory neurons and chemosensory receptors have the capacity for recognizing interspecies odors. One such cue, carnivore-derived 2-phenylethylamine, is a key component of a predator odor blend that triggers hard-wired aversion circuits in the rodent brain. These data show how a single, volatile chemical detected in the environment can drive an elaborate danger-associated behavioral response in mammals. PMID:21690383
Ferrero, David M; Lemon, Jamie K; Fluegge, Daniela; Pashkovski, Stan L; Korzan, Wayne J; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Spehr, Marc; Fendt, Markus; Liberles, Stephen D
Predator–prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. We purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species indicates enriched 2-phenylethylamine production by numerous carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores examined. Calcium imaging of neuronal responses in mouse olfactory tissue slices identified dispersed carnivore odor-selective sensory neurons that also responded to 2-phenylethylamine. Two prey species, rat and mouse, avoid a 2-phenylethylamine odor source, and loss-of-function studies involving enzymatic depletion of 2-phenylethylamine from a carnivore odor indicate it to be required for full avoidance behavior. Thus, rodent olfactory sensory neurons and chemosensory receptors have the capacity for recognizing interspecies odors. One such cue, carnivore-derived 2-phenylethylamine, is a key component of a predator odor blend that triggers hard-wired aversion circuits in the rodent brain. These data show how a single, volatile chemical detected in the environment can drive an elaborate danger-associated behavioral response in mammals.
Ferrero, David M.; Lemon, Jamie K.; Fluegge, Daniela; Pashkovski, Stan L.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Spehr, Marc; Fendt, Markus; Liberles, Stephen D.
Paddlefish,Polyodon spathula, is a threatened species which inhabits major mid-western river systems. Paddlefishes are plankton feeders, preying on small crustaceans including Daphnia sp.. Their rostrum is elongated and flattened into a paddle shape on which many electro-sensitive ampullary receptor cells are located. We demonstrate that the paddlefishes use their electrical sense to locate prey in its food searching behavior. Our experiments show that both Daphnia and the related brine shrimp Artemia produce weak low-frequency electric fields, which are capable of evoking responses in ampullary electroreceptor cells, which were recorded in responses from the primary afferents. The response characteristics of the sensory afferents are low-frequency band pass, which overlap the frequencies of the electric fields produced by the aforementioned plankton. Behavioral experiments also show that the paddlefish detect and strike at dipole -electrodes (0.25uA-1uA) operating at 5 to 10 Hz frequencies. This result supports the hypothesis(Wilkens L, Cox M and Russell D. Amer. Zool. 34, 43 (1994)) that the paddlefish uses its paddle as an antenna to sense the outside world.
Pei, Xing; Wilkens, Lon; Russell, David; Moss, Frank
I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.
Ferguson, Steven H.
Age and sex dependence of subclass specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc N-glycosylation was evaluated for 1709 individuals from two isolated human populations. IgGs were obtained from plasma by affinity purification using 96-well protein G monolithic plates and digested with trypsin. Fc N-glycopeptides were purified and analyzed by negative-mode MALDI-TOF-MS with 4-chloro-?-cyanocinnamic acid (Cl-CCA) matrix. Age-associated glycosylation changes were more pronounced in younger individuals (<57 years) than in older individuals (>57 years) and in females than in males. Galactosylation and sialylation decreased with increasing age and showed significant sex dependence. Interestingly, the most prominent drop in the levels of galactosylated and sialylated glycoforms in females was observed around the age of 45 to 60 years when females usually enter menopause. The incidence of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine increased in younger individuals and reached a plateau at older age. Furthermore, we compared the results to the total IgG N-glycosylation of the same populations recently analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Significant differences were observed in the levels of galactosylation, bisecting N-acetylglucosamine and particularly sialylation, which were shown to be higher in HILIC analysis. Age and sex association of glycosylation features was, to a large extent, comparable between MALDI-TOF-MS and HILIC IgG glycosylation profiling. PMID:23298168
Bakovi?, Maja Pu?i?; Selman, Maurice H J; Hoffmann, Marcus; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Deelder, André M; Lauc, Gordan; Wuhrer, Manfred
IgG4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is the hepatobiliary manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD), a systemic fibroinflammatory disorder with a wide variety of clinical presentations and organ manifestations. IgG4-RD predominantly affects the hepatobiliary tract (IAC) and pancreas (autoimmune pancreatitis) and mimics hepatobiliary, pancreatic and other malignancies. Patients typically are 60-80 years old and 80-85% are male. They often present with painless obstructive jaundice and organ swelling that can be mistaken for pancreatic or bile duct cancer, as well as primary or secondary sclerosing cholangitis. An accurate diagnostic marker is lacking and extensive surgery for presumed malignant hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease leads to the diagnosis of IgG4-RD in 1 of 3 patients. Early effective immunosuppressive treatment is often missed. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD has been enigmatic. We recently identified dominant IgG4+ B-cell receptor clones in blood and tissue of patients with IAC, but not in healthy or disease controls, and hypothesized that specific B-cell responses are pivotal to the pathogenesis of IAC and IgG4-RD. Analysis of our Amsterdam cohort and blinded extramural validation of the Oxford cohort of patients with IgG4-RD disclosed a remarkable association with 'blue-collar work'. Thus, long-term exposure to solvents and other organic agents might predispose to IgG4-RD. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25034294
Beuers, Ulrich; Maillette de Buy Wenniger, Lucas J; Doorenspleet, Marieke; Hubers, Lowiek; Verheij, Joanne; van Gulik, Thomas; van de Graaf, Stan F J; de Vries, Niek
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) can present in any anatomic site, but breast involvement is rarely reported. Recently, a relationship between RDD and IgG4-related sclerosing disease has been suggested. Here we report another case of RDD with overlapping features of IgG4-related sclerosing disease occurring in a right breast of a 62-year-old female. On microscopic examination, the mass demonstrated a characteristic zonal pattern of proliferation of large polygonal histiocytes and lymphoplasma cells with stromal fibrosis. Emperipolesis was observed in histiocytes with abundant cytoplasm, which showed immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and CD68; the diagnosis of RDD was made. Sheets of plasma cells in the fibrotic stroma demonstrated positive reactions for IgG and IgG4. The mean count of IgG4-positive plasma cells was 100.2/high power field, and the ratio of IgG4/IgG was 56.7%. Additional findings of stromal fibrosis and obliteration of preexisting breast lobules suggested overlapping features with IgG4-related sclerosing disease.
Cha, Yoon Jin; Yang, Woo Ick; Park, Se Ho
Objective. To study the clinical and pathologic features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that has atypical lupus nephritis (LN) with mainly IgA deposits. Methods. We searched the SLE patients who had nephritis with mainly IgA deposits in our hospital and selected the information including clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments, and prognosis. Results. From January 2009 to June 2012, 5 patients were definitely diagnosed as SLE according to both 1982 and 2009 ACR classification criteria. But renal biopsy showed that all cases had mainly IgA deposits and were free of IgG, C1q, and fibrinogen-related antigen deposits under immunofluorescent microscopy, which did not match with typical LN. There were 2 males and 3 females, aging from 31 to 64 years and with an average of (42.20 ± 13.59) years. The 5 cases had multiple-system involvements, mainly the renal system. Compared to primary IgAN, the atypical LN showed some differences: older than primary IgAN, more women than men, no previous infection history, lower incidence of serum IgA elevation, and ACL positive rate as high as 100%. Conclusion. Nephritis with mainly IgAN deposits, as an atypical LN, may be a special subtype of SLE.
Hongyan, Liu; Yi, Zheng; Bao, Dong; Yuewu, Lu; Juan, Meng
IgG4-related sclerosing disease is an established disease entity with characteristic clinicopathological features. Some recent reports have demonstrated that this disease can occur in the respiratory system including the pleura. Herein, we describe the first documented case of concomitant occurrence of IgG4-related pleuritis and periaortitis. A 71-year-old Japanese female with a history of essential thrombocythemia presented with persistent cough and difficulty in breathing. Computed tomography demonstrated thickening of the right parietal pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue and pleural and cardiac effusions. Histopathological study of the surgical biopsy specimen of the parietal pleura revealed marked fibrous thickening with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Phlebitis was noted, however, only a few eosinophils had infiltrated. Immunohistochemical study revealed abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration and high ratio of IgG4-/IgG-positive plasma cells (84%). Therefore, a diagnosis of IgG4-related pleuritis was made with consideration of the elevated serum IgG4 level (684 mg/dL). Recently, the spectrum of IgG4-related sclerosing disease has expanded, and this disease can occur in the pleura, pericardium, and periaortic tissue. Although histopathological analysis of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was not performed in the present case, it was suspected that thickening of the pericardium and periaortic tissue was clinically due to IgG4-related sclerosing disease. Our clinicopathological analyses of IgG4-related pleuritis and pericarditis reveal that this disease can present as dyspnea and pleural and pericardial effusion as seen in the present case, therefore, it is important to recognize that IgG4-related sclerosing disease can occur in these organs for accurate diagnosis and treatment.
Ishida, Mitsuaki; Hodohara, Keiko; Furuya, Aya; Fujishiro, Aya; Okuno, Hiroko; Yoshii, Miyuki; Horinouchi, Akiko; Shirakawa, Ayaka; Harada, Ayumi; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Okabe, Hidetoshi
General models of two predator-prey systems are considered in which the prey are linked through competition and the predators are not directly linked. The persistence criteria based upon a technique developed by Gard is obtained. In addition, a condition for the global asymptotic stability of the interior equilibrium is discussed. PMID:2134513
Mukherjee, D; Roy, A B
Recent studies have demonstrated that orb-weaving spiders may alter web structures, foraging localities or silk output in response to prey variations. In this study we conducted field surveys and food manipulations to examine whether orb-weaving spiders may also adjust the protein of silk to prey variations. A comparison of dragline silks collected from nine giant wood spider Nephila pilipes populations
I-Min Tso; Hsuan-Chen Wu; In-Ru Hwang
1.The back swimmerNotonecta glauca discriminates between prey and nonprey (including conspecifics) by means of surface waves. Waves generated by aquatic, semiaquatic, and terrestrial insect prey of the back swimmer were recorded and analyzed. Their relative spectra were statistically compared with those of waves elicited during ‘swimming,’ ‘diving,’ ‘emerging,’ ‘turning,’ ‘grooming,’ or ‘paddling’ by adult back swimmers, with swimming waves of
Horst H. Lang; Universitgt Konstanz
Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of
Matthew J. Kauffman; Nathan Varley; Douglas W. Smith; Daniel R. Stahler; Daniel R. MacNulty; Mark S. Boyce
It has long been held that Falconiformes and Strigiformes possess a strong similarity in their claws due to their adaptive convergence for preying specialisation and that claws differ from those of other bird species, justifying the usual name of talons, instead of claws. It is subjectively felt that talons in birds of prey are very similar and somewhat different from
D. Csermely; O. Rossi; F. Nasi
Predator-prey interactions were studied among a small prey fish (the johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum) and two predators (crayfish Orconectes rusticus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui) with complementary foraging behaviors. When only smallmouth bass were present, darters reduced activity to 6% of control rates and spent most of the time hiding under tile shelters. When only crayfish were present, darter activity
Frank J. Rahel; Roy A. Stein
This paper studies the asymptotoc behavior of a predator-prey model with stage structure. It is found that an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic orbit exists in that model. When time delay due to gestation of predator and time delay from crowding effect of prey are incorporated, we establish the condition for the permanence of populations and sufficient conditions under which positive
With the help of differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, we first propose a discrete analogue of continuous time ratio-dependent predator-prey system, which is governed by nonautonomous difference equations, modeling the dynamics of the prey and the predator having nonoverlapping generations. Then, easily verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions. The approach is based on
Meng Fan; Ke Wang
The phase distribution and bioavailability of both essential and toxic trace metals can be profoundly impacted by trophic transfer in microbial food webs. A model microbial predator-prey system was used to elucidate the possible transformations of biogenic manganese oxides as they were consumed by protozoan predators along with their bacterial prey. The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and the Mn-oxidizing bacterium
Carolyn A. Zeiner; Leonard W. Lion; Michael L. Shuler; William C. Ghirose; Anthony Hay
The flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Tricladida: Rhynchodemidae) preys on various species of land snail, and its introduction to areas outside of its native\\u000a range is thought to have caused the extinction of native land snails on several Pacific islands. Platydemus manokwari occurs in areas where land snails have been absent since its invasion, suggesting that the flatworm can prey on animals
We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20-25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially "selfish" genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small "transcriptional scream", but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a "living antibiotic". PMID:20024656
Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel; Sockett, Renee Elizabeth
We study interactions of predators and prey that are characterized by a scale difference in their use of space. Prey are assumed to occupy patches, forming a metapopulation with low migration among patches. Predators are homogeneously distributed over these patches, due to broad-scale foraging behavior or long-range juvenile dispersal. The predator population thus exerts a globally uniform predation pressure on
André M de Roos; William G. Wilson
The exceptionally high speed at which syngnathid fishes are able to rotate their snout towards prey and capture it by suction is potentially caused by a catapult mechanism in which the energy previously stored in deformed elastic elements is suddenly released. According to this hypothesis, tension is built up in tendons of the post-cranial muscles before prey capture is initiated.
Sam Van Wassenbergh; James A. Strother; Brooke E. Flammang; Lara A. Ferry-Graham; Peter Aerts
Object play may be a mechanism by which young predators acquire skills in manipulating prey, as well as physical strength and endurance. It has also been proposed that fledgling raptors play with live or dead prey if available, but would play with surrogates such as sticks or grass if not. Different objects were offered to captive fledgling American kestrels,Falco sparverius,
JUAN JOSÉ NEGRO; JAVIER BUSTAMANTE; JANE MILWARD; DAVID M. BIRD
Co-evolution between phenotypic variation and other traits is of paramount importance for our understanding of the origin and maintenance of polymorphism in natural populations. We tested whether the evolution of plumage polymorphism in birds of prey and owls was supported by the apostatic selection hypothesis using ecological and life-history variables in birds of prey and owls and performing both cross
M. K. Fowlie; O. Kruger
Four hundred forty-eight blood plasma samples from free-living birds of prey from Berlin and the Brandenburg area in eastern Germany were tested for antibodies against New- castle disease virus (NDV), falcon herpesvirus (FHV), owl herpesvirus (OHV), and Chlamydia psittaci. Antibodies to NDV were detected in 6 (2%) of 346 tested diurnal birds of prey, whereas none of the owls (n
Elvira Schettler; Torsten Langgemach; Paul Sommer; Jurgen Streich; Kai Frolich
Suction feeding is the most commonly used mechanism of prey capture among aquatic vertebrates. Most previous models of the fluid flow caused by suction feeders involve making several untested assumptions. In this paper, a Chimera overset grids approach is used to solve the governing equations of fluid dynamics in order to investigate the assumptions that prey do not interact with
Tyler Skorczewski; Angela Cheer; Samson Cheung
We have transcriptionally profiled the genes differentially expressed in E. coli prey cells when predatorily attacked by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus just prior to prey cell killing. This is a brief, approximately 20–25 min period when the prey cell is still alive but contains a Bdellovibrio cell in its periplasm or attached to and penetrating its outer membrane. Total RNA was harvested and labelled 15 min after initiating a semi-synchronous infection with an excess of Bdellovibrio preying upon E. coli and hybridised to a macroarray spotted with all predicted ORFs of E. coli. SAM analysis and t-tests were performed on the resulting data and 126 E. coli genes were found to be significantly differentially regulated by the prey upon attack by Bdellovibrio. The results were confirmed by QRT-PCR. Amongst the prey genes upregulated were a variety of general stress response genes, potentially “selfish” genes within or near prophages and transposable elements, and genes responding to damage in the periplasm and osmotic stress. Essentially, the presence of the invading Bdellovibrio and the resulting damage to the prey cell elicited a small “transcriptional scream”, but seemingly no specific defensive mechanism with which to counter the Bdellovibrio attack. This supports other studies which do not find Bdellovibrio resistance responses in prey, and bodes well for its use as a “living antibiotic”.
Lambert, Carey; Ivanov, Pavel
To evaluate the current diet of alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and interactions with their prey in light of recent changes in Lake Michigan, we determined the seasonal diet and prey selectivity of large (>100 mm total length) and small (<100 mm) alewives in southeastern Lake Michigan. Selectivity and diet were evaluated on a biomass basis for alewives collected near Muskegon, Michigan,
Steven A. Pothoven; Henry A. Vanderploeg
Analysis of prey capture ability of mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) from a mercury-polluted tidal creek compared with conspecifics from an uncontaminated environment showed that the latter captured the prey organism Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis at a significantly faster rate and had significantly lower levels of mercury in their brain tissues. Exposure of uncontaminated fish to conditions similar to those of the
Graeme M. Smith; Judith S. Weis
While numerous studies have examined the effects of increased primary production on higher trophic levels, most studies have focused primarily on the grazing food web and have not considered the importance of alternate prey channels. This has happened despite the fact that fertilization not only increases grazing herbivore abundance, but other types of consumers such as detritivores that serve as alternate prey for generalist predators. Alternate prey channels can sustain generalist predators at times when prey abundance in the grazing food web is low, thus increasing predator densities and the potential for trophic cascades. Using arthropod data from a fertilization experiment, we constructed a hierarchical Bayesian model to examine the direct and indirect effects of plant production and alternate prey channels on predators in a salt marsh. We found that increased plant production positively affected the density of top predators via effects on lower trophic level herbivores and mesopredators. Additionally, while the abundance of algivores and detritivores positively affected mesopredators and top predators, respectively, the effects of alternate prey were relatively weak. Because previous studies in the same system have found that mesopredators and top predators rely on alternate prey such as algivores and detritivores, future studies should examine whether fertilization shifts patterns of prey use by predators from alternate channels to the grazing channel. Finally, the hierarchical Bayesian model used in this study provided a useful method for exploring trophic relationships in the salt marsh food web, especially where causal relationships among trophic groups were unknown. PMID:23604861
Arab, Ali; Wimp, Gina M
Predator-prey dynamics are an important concept in ecology, often serving as an introduction to the field of community ecology. However, these dynamics are difficult for students to observe directly. We describe a methodology that employs model caterpillars made of clay to estimate rates of predator attack on a prey species. This approach can be…
Curtis, Rachel; Klemens, Jeffrey A.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Wood, Steve; Carlson, Jason A.; Stratford, Jeffrey A.; Steele, Michael A.
Popular culture can play a significant role in shaping the acceptance of evolving technologies, with nanotechnology likely to be a case in point. The most popular fiction work to date in this arena has been Michael Crichton's techno-thriller "Prey," which fuses together nanotechnology science with science fiction. Within the context of "Prey,"…
Bowman, Diana M.; Hodge, Graeme A.; Binks, Peter
Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds that mistake it for prey or incidentally ingest it with prey. Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and seabirds that feed at the water's surface ingest the most plastic. This can cause health issues, including satiety that possibly leads to inefficient foraging. The objectives of this study were to examine fulmar body condition, identify cephalopod diet and
Erica Lynn Donnelly-Greenan
In mammalian predators, prey size typically increases with body size, such that most carnivores weighing .21.5 kg specialize on prey weighing? 45% of their own mass. By hunting in packs, endangered African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are able to feed primarily on ungulates weighing .100% of their own individual mass and, in most populations, wild dogs specialize on such large
Rosie Woodroffe; Peter A. Lindsey; Stephanie S. Romañach; Symon M. K. ole Ranah
Movements of wide-ranging top predators can now be studied effectively using satellite and archival telemetry. However, the motivations underlying movements remain difficult to determine because trajectories are seldom related to key biological gradients, such as changing prey distributions. Here, we use a dynamic prey landscape of zooplankton biomass in the north-east Atlantic Ocean to examine active habitat selection in the plankton-feeding basking shark Cetorhinus maximus. The relative success of shark searches across this landscape was examined by comparing prey biomass encountered by sharks with encounters by random-walk simulations of ‘model’ sharks. Movements of transmitter-tagged sharks monitored for 964 days (16?754?km estimated minimum distance) were concentrated on the European continental shelf in areas characterized by high seasonal productivity and complex prey distributions. We show movements by adult and sub-adult sharks yielded consistently higher prey encounter rates than 90% of random-walk simulations. Behavioural patterns were consistent with basking sharks using search tactics structured across multiple scales to exploit the richest prey areas available in preferred habitats. Simple behavioural rules based on learned responses to previously encountered prey distributions may explain the high performances. This study highlights how dynamic prey landscapes enable active habitat selection in large predators to be investigated from a trophic perspective, an approach that may inform conservation by identifying critical habitat of vulnerable species.
Sims, David W; Witt, Matthew J; Richardson, Anthony J; Southall, Emily J; Metcalfe, Julian D
We used direct observations to quantify prey types, prey delivery rate, and adult and nestling behavior at nests of Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus) in suburban southwestern Ohio. Twenty-one nests were observed for a total of 256 hr in 1997-2001. Small mammals made up the ...
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of renal failure worldwide. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown factors favoring IgA1 deposition in the glomerular mesangium. IgA receptor abnormalities are implicated, including circulating IgA–soluble CD89 (sCD89) complexes and overexpression of the mesangial IgA1 receptor, TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1). Herein, we show that although mice expressing both human IgA1 and CD89 displayed circulating and mesangial deposits of IgA1–sCD89 complexes resulting in kidney inflammation, hematuria, and proteinuria, mice expressing IgA1 only displayed endocapillary IgA1 deposition but neither mesangial injury nor kidney dysfunction. sCD89 injection into IgA1-expressing mouse recipients induced mesangial IgA1 deposits. sCD89 was also detected in patient and mouse mesangium. IgA1 deposition involved a direct binding of sCD89 to mesangial TfR1 resulting in TfR1 up-regulation. sCD89–TfR1 interaction induced mesangial surface expression of TGase2 (transglutaminase 2), which in turn up-regulated TfR1 expression. In the absence of TGase2, IgA1–sCD89 deposits were dramatically impaired. These data reveal a cooperation between IgA1, sCD89, TfR1, and TGase2 on mesangial cells needed for disease development. They demonstrate that TGase2 is responsible for a pathogenic amplification loop facilitating IgA1–sCD89 deposition and mesangial cell activation, thus identifying TGase2 as a target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.
Berthelot, Laureline; Papista, Christina; Maciel, Thiago T.; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Tissandie, Emilie; Wang, Pamela H.M.; Tamouza, Houda; Jamin, Agnes; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Gestin, Aurelie; Boumediene, Ahmed; Arcos-Fajardo, Michelle; England, Patrick; Pillebout, Evangeline; Walker, Francine; Daugas, Eric; Vrtosvnik, Francois; Flamant, Martin; Benhamou, Marc; Cogne, Michel; Moura, Ivan C.
We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos. PMID:20218501
Honeyfield, Dale C; Fitzsimons, John D; Tillitt, Donald E; Brown, Scott B
IMPORTANCE Studies focused on recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (rLETM) are lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) IgG detection rate using recombinant human APQ4-based assays in sequential serum specimens collected from patients with rLETM categorized as negative by first-generation tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay and to define the clinical characteristics and motor disability outcomes in AQP4-IgG–positive rLETM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A search of the Mayo Clinic computerized central diagnostic index (October 1, 2005, through November 30, 2011), cross-linked with the Neuroimmunology Laboratory database, identified 48 patients with rLETM, of whom 36 (75%) were positive and 12 (25%) negative for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) IgG (per IIF of serial serum specimens). Stored serum specimens from “seronegative” patients were retested with recombinant human AQP4-based assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent, transfected cell-based, and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting assays. Control patients included 140 AQP4-IgG–positive patients with NMO, of whom a subgroup of 20 initially presented with 2 attacks of transverse myelitis (rLETM-onset NMO). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP4-IgG serostatus, clinical characteristics, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. RESULTS Six patients with negative IIF results were reclassified as AQP4-IgG positive, yielding an overall AQP4-IgG seropositivity rate of 89%. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting, cell-based, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays improved the detection rate to 89%, 85%, and 81%, respectively. The female to male ratio was 2:3 for AQP4-IgG–negative rLETM and 5:1 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients. The AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM or rLETM-onset NMO were similar in age at onset, sex ratio, attack severity, relapse rate, and motor disability. From Kaplan-Meier analyses, 36% of AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM are anticipated to need a cane to walk within 5 years after onset. For patients with rLETM-onset NMO, the median time from onset to first optic neuritis attack (54 months) was similar to the median disease duration for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (59 months). The median number of attacks was 3 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (range, 2-22), and the first optic neuritis attack for those with rLETM-onset NMO followed a median of 3 myelitis attacks (range, 2-19). Immunosuppressant therapy reduced the relapse rate in both AQP4-IgG–positive and AQP4-IgG–negative patients with rLETM. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Recombinant antigen–based assays significantly increase AQP4-IgG detection in patients with rLETM, and AQP4-IgG–negative adults with rLETM are rare. Evolution to NMO can be anticipated in AQP4-IgG–positive patients. Early initiation of immunotherapy may result in a more favorable motor outcome.
Jiao, Yujuan; Fryer, James P.; Lennon, Vanda A.; McKeon, Andrew; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Smith, Carin Y.; Quek, Amy M. L.; Weinshenker, Brian G.; Wingerchuk, Dean M.; Shuster, Elizabeth A.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Pittock, Sean J.
Little is known about the impact of ocean acidification on predator-prey dynamics. Herein, we examined the effect of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) on both prey and predator by letting one predatory reef fish interact for 24 h with eight small or large juvenile damselfishes from four congeneric species. Both prey and predator were exposed to control or elevated levels of CO(2). Mortality rate and predator selectivity were compared across CO(2) treatments, prey size and species. Small juveniles of all species sustained greater mortality at high CO(2) levels, while large recruits were not affected. For large prey, the pattern of prey selectivity by predators was reversed under elevated CO(2). Our results demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative consumptive effects of CO(2) on small and larger damselfish recruits respectively, resulting from CO(2)-induced behavioural changes likely mediated by impaired neurological function. This study highlights the complexity of predicting the effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:21936880
Ferrari, Maud C O; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Meekan, Mark G; Dixson, Danielle L; Lonnstedt, Öona; Chivers, Douglas P
Optimal foraging models predict that large predators should concentrate on large prey in order to maximize their net gain of energy intake. Here, we show that the largest species of sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, does not strictly adhere to this general pattern. Field observations combined with a theoretical model suggest that a 300 kg leatherback turtle would meet its energetic requirements by feeding for 3-4 h a day on 4 g jellyfish, but only if prey were aggregated in high-density patches. Therefore, prey abundance rather than prey size may, in some cases, be the overriding parameter for foraging leatherbacks. This is a classic example where the presence of small prey in the diet of a large marine predator may reflect profitable foraging decisions if the relatively low energy intake per small individual prey is offset by high encounter rates and minimal capture and handling costs. This study provides, to our knowledge, the first quantitative estimates of intake rate for this species. PMID:22090203
Fossette, Sabrina; Gleiss, Adrian C; Casey, James P; Lewis, Andrew R; Hays, Graeme C
Circulating immune complexes containing aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. A portion of IgA1 secreted by IgA1-producing cells in patients with IgAN is galactose-deficient and consequently recognized by anti-glycan IgG or IgA1 antibodies. Some of the resultant immune complexes in the circulation escape normal clearance mechanisms, deposit in the renal mesangium, and induce glomerular injury. Recent studies of the origin of these aberrant molecules, their glycosylation profiles, and mechanisms of biosynthesis have provided new insight into the autoimmune nature of the pathogenesis of this common renal disease. An imbalance in the activities of the pertinent glycosyltransferases in the IgA1-producing cells favors production of molecules with galactose-deficient O-linked glycans at specific sites in the hinge region of the alpha heavy chains. Using sophisticated analytical methods, it may be possible to define biomarkers for diagnostic purposes and identify new therapeutic targets for a future disease-specific therapy.
Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.; Tomana, Milan; Mestecky, Jiri
Little is known about the effects of different prey species on lizard growth. We conducted a 6-week study to determine the relative effects of prey species on growth parameters of hatchling western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Lizards were fed house cricket nymphs, Acheta domesticus, or mealworm larvae, Tenebrio molitor. The effects of prey species on growth were determined by measuring prey consumption, gross conversion efficiency of food [gain in mass (g)/food consumed (g)], gain in mass, and gain in snout-vent length. Lizards grew well on both the prey species. However, lizards that fed on crickets consumed a significantly higher percentage of their body mass per day than those fed mealworms. Nevertheless, lizards that consumed mealworms ingested significantly more metabolizable energy, had significantly higher food conversion efficiencies, significantly higher daily gains in mass, and significantly greater total growth in mass than lizards that fed on crickets. PMID:19360616
Rich, C Nelson; Talent, Larry G
In a recent paper, Brodie and Brodie provide a very detailed description of advances and counter-measures among predator-prey communities with a poisonous prey that closely parallel an arms race in modern society. In this work, we provide a mathematical model and simulations that provide a theory as to how this might work. The model is built on a two-dimensional classical predator-prey model that is then adapted to account for the genetics and random mating. The deterministic formulation for the genetics for the prey population has been developed and used in other contexts. Adapting the model to allow for genetic variation in the predator is much more complicated. The model allows for the evolution of the poisonous prey and for the evolution of the resistant predator. The biological paradigm is that of the poisonous newt and the garter snake which has been studied extensively although the models are broad enough to cover other examples. PMID:12297070
Waltman, Paul; Braselton, James; Braselton, Lorraine
Prey-specific anti-predatory behaviour under different degrees of structural complexity determines foraging success of predators. The behaviour of piscivorous fish (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides and northern pike, Esox lucius) and their prey (bluegills, Lepomis macrochirus, and fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas) were quantified in 60-min experiments in laboratory pools (2 multiplied by 4 m in diameter, 0 multiplied by 5 m deep) with artificial vegetation at densities of 0, 50, 250, and 1000 stems/m2. Largemouth bass switched predatory tactics from searching to ambushing as plant density increased whereas northern pike always used ambushing. At high plant density, both predators captured minnows, but not bluegills. Bluegills modified their behaviour more than minnows in response to predators, thereby avoiding predation at high plant densities. Structural complexity alone did not always provide refuge for prey; prey must use the structure to avoid predators. Predators may seek vegetated areas if appropriate, vulnerable prey are present.
Savino, Jacqueline F.; Stein, Roy A.
Studies of adaptive divergence have traditionally focused on the ecological causes of trait diversification, while the ecological consequences of phenotypic divergence remain relatively unexplored. Divergence in predator foraging traits, in particular, has the potential to impact the structure and dynamics of ecological communities. To examine the effects of predator trait divergence on prey communities, we exposed zooplankton communities in lake mesocosms to predation from either anadromous or landlocked (freshwater resident) alewives, which have undergone recent and rapid phenotypic differentiation in foraging traits (gape width, gill raker spacing, and prey size-selectivity). Anadromous alewives, which exploit large prey items, significantly reduced the mean body size, total biomass, species richness, and diversity of crustacean zooplankton relative to landlocked alewives, which exploit smaller prey. The zooplankton responses observed in this experiment are consistent with patterns observed in lakes. This study provides direct evidence that phenotypic divergence in predators, even in its early stages, can play a critical role in determining prey community structure. PMID:19323211
Palkovacs, Eric P; Post, David M
Background & aim: Aortic aneurysms represent one of the major causes of cardiovascular surgery. Their etiology varies greatly based on patient’s age and other clinicopathologic determinants. In addition to common atherosclerotic vascular diseases, an inflammatory etiology, in particular IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has increasingly emerged as a cause of dissecting inflammatory aortic aneurysms (IAA). Methods: To assess the frequency and types of IAA, we reviewed all cases of aortic aneurysms resected at our Erlangen Heart Center during 2000-2013. Results: 376 patients underwent resection of aortic aneurysms in the study period. These are further categorized as ascending aortic aneurysms (45%), aortic arch aneurysm (2%), descending aortic aneurysm (3%), type A dissection (46%) and type B dissection (4%). Fifteen cases (4%) showed variable lymphoplasmacytic inflammation thus qualifying as IAA. Affected were 9 females and 6 males (female to male ratio = 1.5:1; age range: 52-80 yrs; mean: 70 yrs; median: 72 yrs). None was known to have IgG4-RD and serum IgG4 and/or IgG levels (known in 6 cases) were normal. Variable sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was seen either confined to the adventitia (periaortitis; mainly in males) or extending through all layers (mainly in females). A wide range of IgG4 plasma cells (range: 3-182/HPF; mean: 51/HPF) and IgG4: IgG ratios (range: 0.02 to 0.91; mean: 0.37) were detected. All but one of the cases with at least focally transmural inflammation showed a higher IgG4: IgG ratios in excess of 0.3 (range, 0.32-0.91; median, 0.62). Lymphoid follicle and variable fibrosis were common but obliterative phlebitis was not seen. Conclusion: IgG4-rich sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic thoracic aortitis is a constant histological feature of thoracic IAA. Normal serum IgG4 in most patients, predilection for women and absence of other features of IgG4-RD all suggest a tissue-specific localized autoimmunological process and argue against a systemic disorder. The relationship (if any) of IgG4-rich lymphoplasmacytic thoracic aortitis in those patients with IAA lacking other organ manifestations or an elevated serum IgG4 level to systemic IgG4-RD remains unclear and merit further studies.
Agaimy, Abbas; Weyand, Michael; Strecker, Thomas
In the last few years many investigators have reported the recurrence of primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) or the presence of persistent microhaematuria and/or proteinuria in family members of patients with IgAN. Our study was undertaken to investigate the relevance of abnormalities in the regulation of the IgA and IgM immune system in microhaematuric and asymptomatic family members of IgAN patients. Fifty-four out of 120 members of nine unrelated pedigrees were examined by urinalysis; polymeric IgA (pIgA), IgA rheumatoid factor (IgARF), IgA1-IgG immune complexes (IgA 1-IgG IC) and IgA 1-IgM IC, and other immunoglobulins were measured in serum samples. Moreover, we studied the production of immunoglobulins, pIgA and IgARF by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in basal conditions and after pokeweed mitogen (PWM) stimulation. Our data demonstrate that persistent microhaematuria was present in 24% of relatives. High serum levels of IgA, mainly pIgA and IgARF, IgA 1-IgG IC and IgA 1-IgM IC occurred in 66% of relatives. Abnormal spontaneous production of IgA by PBMC and after PWM stimulation was present in 64% of family members. Interestingly, high serum levels of IgM and abnormal production of this immunoglobulin by PBMC were observed in relatives. However, the immunological abnormalities did not correlate in any way with the presence of urinary abnormalities such as microhaematuria, which was most likely determined by an underlying glomerular alteration.
Schena, F P; Scivittaro, V; Ranieri, E; Sinico, R; Benuzzi, S; Di Cillo, M; Aventaggiato, L
IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized autoimmune systemic disorder that has been described in various organs. The disease is characterized histologically by a dense lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate of IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis and can be associated with tumefactive lesions. IgG4-related disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and only two previous case reports have reported IgG4-related esophageal disease. We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of severe dysphagia and odynophagia with an initial diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. Symptoms persisted despite anti-acid therapy and control esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed endoscopic images consistent with esophagitis dissecans superficialis (sloughing esophagitis). An underlying autoimmune process was suspected and immunosuppressant agents were tried to control her disease. The patient eventually developed disabling dysphagia secondary to multiple chronic esophageal strictures. A diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was eventually made after reviewing esophageal biopsies and performing an immunohistochemical study with an anti-IgG4 antibody. Treatment attempts with corticosteroids and rituximab was not associated with a significant improvement of the symptoms of dysphagia and odynophagia, possibly because of the chronic nature of the disease associated with a high fibrotic component. Our case report describes this unique case of IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as chronic esophagitis dissecans with strictures. We also briefly review the main histopathological features and treatment options in IgG4-related disease. PMID:24883156
Dumas-Campagna, Myriam; Bouchard, Simon; Soucy, Genevieve; Bouin, Mickael
Waders (Charadrii) provide biologists with an astonishing variety of mating systems to study . Male and female birds establish breeding units in which behaviour varies from monogamy, polygyny, polyandry, double clutching, lekking and serial monogamy to sex role reversal, and many mixed mating systems exist . This diversity is currently explained by the costs and benefits of males and females
Dik Heg; Rob Van Treuren
Broad-scale models describing predator prey preferences serve as useful departure points for understanding predator-prey interactions at finer scales. Previous analyses used a subjective approach to identify prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores, hence their accuracy is questionable. This study uses a segmented model of prey weight versus prey preference to objectively quantify the prey weight preferences of the five large African carnivores. Based on simulations of known predator prey preference, for prey species sample sizes above 32 the segmented model approach detects up to four known changes in prey weight preference (represented by model break-points) with high rates of detection (75% to 100% of simulations, depending on number of break-points) and accuracy (within 1.3±4.0 to 2.7±4.4 of known break-point). When applied to the five large African carnivores, using carnivore diet information from across Africa, the model detected weight ranges of prey that are preferred, killed relative to their abundance, and avoided by each carnivore. Prey in the weight ranges preferred and killed relative to their abundance are together termed “accessible prey”. Accessible prey weight ranges were found to be 14–135 kg for cheetah Acinonyx jubatus, 1–45 kg for leopard Panthera pardus, 32–632 kg for lion Panthera leo, 15–1600 kg for spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta and 10–289 kg for wild dog Lycaon pictus. An assessment of carnivore diets throughout Africa found these accessible prey weight ranges include 88±2% (cheetah), 82±3% (leopard), 81±2% (lion), 97±2% (spotted hyaena) and 96±2% (wild dog) of kills. These descriptions of prey weight preferences therefore contribute to our understanding of the diet spectrum of the five large African carnivores. Where datasets meet the minimum sample size requirements, the segmented model approach provides a means of determining, and comparing, the prey weight range preferences of any carnivore species.
Clements, Hayley S.; Tambling, Craig J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Kerley, Graham I. H.
The feeding behaviour ofClupea harengus L. in the light is dependent primarily on prey concentration. In the laboratory the fish feed by biting at low prey concentrations and by filtering at high concentrations. With the brine shrimpArtemia sp. as prey, the concentration required for the onset of filter-feeding was directly dependent on prey size, but the concentration at which 50%
R. N. Gibson; I. A. Ezzi
Penguins are major consumers in the southern oceans although quantification of this has been problematic. One suggestion proposes the use of points of inflection in diving profiles (‘wiggles’) for this, a method that has been validated for the estimation of prey consumption by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) by Simeone and Wilson (2003). Following them, we used wiggles from 31 depth logger-equipped Magellanic penguins foraging from four Patagonian colonies; Punta Norte (PN), Bahía Bustamente (BB), Puerto Deseado (PD) and Puerto San Julián (PSJ), all located in Argentina between 42–49° S, to estimate the prey captured and calculate the catch per unit time (CPUT) for birds foraging during the early chick-rearing period. Numbers of prey caught and CPUT were significantly different between colonies. Birds from PD caught the highest number of prey per foraging trip, with CPUT values of 68±19 prey per hour underwater (almost two times greater than for the three remaining colonies). We modeled consumption from these data and calculate that the world Magellanic penguin population consumes about 2 million tons of prey per year. Possible errors in this calculation are discussed. Despite this, the analysis of wiggles seems a powerful and simple tool to begin to quantify prey consumption by Magellanic penguins, allowing comparison between different breeding sites. The total number of wiggles and/or CPUT do not reflect, by themselves, the availability of food for each colony, as the number of prey consumed by foraging trip is strongly associated with the energy content and wet mass of each colony-specific ‘prey type’. Individuals consuming more profitable prey could be optimizing the time spent underwater, thereby optimizing the energy expenditure associated with the dives.
Sala, Juan E.; Wilson, Rory P.; Quintana, Flavio
Pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes capture a wide range of arthropod prey for nutritional benefit, using complex combinations of visual and olfactory signals and gravity-driven pitfall trapping mechanisms. In many localities throughout Southeast Asia, several Nepenthes different species occur in mixed populations. Often, the species present at any given location have strongly divergent trap structures and preliminary surveys indicate that different species trap different combinations of arthropod prey, even when growing at the same locality. On this basis, it has been proposed that co-existing Nepenthes species may be engaged in niche segregation with regards to arthropod prey, avoiding direct competition with congeners by deploying traps that have modifications that enable them to target specific prey types. We examined prey capture among 3 multi-species Nepenthes populations in Borneo, finding that co-existing Nepenthes species do capture different combinations of prey, but that significant interspecific variations in arthropod prey combinations can often be detected only at sub-ordinal taxonomic ranks. In all lowland Nepenthes species examined, the dominant prey taxon is Formicidae, but montane Nepenthes trap few (or no) ants and 2 of the 3 species studied have evolved to target alternative sources of nutrition, such as tree shrew feces. Using similarity and null model analyses, we detected evidence for niche segregation with regards to formicid prey among 5 lowland, sympatric Nepenthes species in Sarawak. However, we were unable to determine whether these results provide support for the niche segregation hypothesis, or whether they simply reflect unquantified variation in heterogeneous habitats and/or ant communities in the study sites. These findings are used to propose improvements to the design of field experiments that seek to test hypotheses about targeted prey capture patterns in Nepenthes.
Chin, Lijin; Chung, Arthur YC; Clarke, Charles
Ig? serine 191 and 197 and threonine 203, which are located in proximity of the Ig? immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM), dampen Ig? ITAM tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we show that mice with targeted mutations of Ig? S191, 197 and T203 displayed elevated serum IgG2c and IgG2b concentrations and had elevated numbers of IgG2c and IgG2b secreting cells in the bone marrow. BCR induced Ig? tyrosine phosphorylation was slightly increased in splenic B cells. Our results suggest that Ig? serine/threonines limit formation of IgG2c and IgG2b secreting bone marrow plasma cells, possibly by fine-tuning Ig? tyrosine mediated BCR signaling.
Patterson, Heide Christine; Kraus, Manfred; Wang, Donghai; Shahsafaei, Aliakbar; Henderson, Joel M.; Seagal, Jane; Otipoby, Kevin L.; Thai, To-Ha; Rajewsky, Klaus
The zebrafish is an emerging model for comparative immunology and biomedical research. In contrast to the five heavy chain isotype system of mice and human (IgD, IgM, IgA, IgG, IgE), zebrafish harbor gene segments for IgD, IgM, and novel heavy chain isotype called IgZ/T which appears restricted to bony fishes. The purpose of this study was to design and validate a suite of quantitative real time RT-PCR protocols to measure IgH expression in a vertebrate model which has considerable promise for modelling both pathogenic infection and chronic conditions leading to immune dysfunction. Specific primers were designed and following verification of their specificty, relative expression levels of IgD, IgM, and IgZ/T were measured in triplicate for zebrafish raised under standard laboratory conditions. During embryonic stages, low levels of each heavy chain isotype (IgH) were detected with each increasing steadily between 2 and 17 weeks post fertilization. Overall IgM>IgZ>IgD throughout zebrafish development with the copy number of IgM being several fold higher than that of IgD or IgZ/T. IgD exon usage was also characterized, as its extremely long size and presence of a stop codon in the second IgD exon in zebrafish, raised questions as to how this antibody might be expressed. Zebrafish IgD was found to be a chimeric immunoglobulin, with the third IgD exon spliced to the first IgM constant exon thereby circumventing the first and second IgD exons. Collectively, the qRT-PCR results represent the first comparative profile of IgD, IgM, IgZ/T expression over the lifespan of any fish species and the primers and assay parameters reported should prove useful in enabling researchers to rapidly quantify changes in IgH expression in zebrafish models of disease where altered IgH expression is manifested.
Zimmerman, Anastasia M.; Moustafa, Farah M.; Romanowski, Kryzstof E.; Steiner, Lisa A.
A nonlinear periodic predator-prey model with m-preys and (n-m)-predators and delays is proposed in this paper, which can be seen as the modification of the traditional Lotka-Volterra prey-competition model. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a unique globally attractive positive periodic solution of the system are obtained.
Chen, Fengde; Xie, Xiangdong; Shi, Jinlin
Observations of the feeding biology of Meyenaster gelatinosus (Meyen) were made between Horcón and the southern Golfo de Penas, Chile. Of 811 sea stars examined, 436 were feeding on individuals representing 30 prey species. M. gelatinosus preys upon almost all the echinoderms and molluscs in its habitat, yet most of the prey species have extremely effective running escape behaviour in
P. K. Dayton; R. J. Rosenthal; L. C. Mahen; T. Antezana
A prey concentration dependent random walk model of feeding behavior in larval anchovy based on behavioral experiments was used in conjunction with an experimentally verified Markov chain prey attack rate model to evaluate the relationship between anchovy larval growth from 0.4 to 2.0 cm at various levels of contagion and temperature in the food prey environment. Contagion was regarded as
William J. Vlymen
Linyphiid spiders, as part of the community of natural enemies that frequent agroecosystems, can exert significant pressure on prey populations. Many aspects of linyphiid feeding ecology remain understudied, including temporal and seasonal patterns of prey utilization. To quantify the diversity, quantity, and spatial pattern of availability over diel and seasonal gradients, we monitored prey in an alfalfa crop, using web-site
Susan A. Romero; James D. Harwood
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has become a serious epidemic in Korean children. We aimed to investigate the association between vitamin C, E and other nutrients, and serum total IgE/specific IgE levels in children with AD. A total of 119 children (0-24 mo) diagnosed with AD were recruited for this cross-sectional study from a medical center in Seoul. A 24 h recall was used to assess dietary intakes. Serum total and six food-allergen specific IgE levels were measured by CAP-FEIA. Serum vitamin E was also measured but only in 25 out of the total 119 participants. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the coefficients between serum IgE levels and dietary intake as well as serum vitamin E. Serum vitamin E levels showed a significantly inverse association with serum total IgE and all specific IgE levels (P < 0.05). Fat intake was inversely related with specific-IgEs for egg whites, milk, buck wheat, soy, and peanuts (P < 0.05). Positive associations were found between carbohydrate (CHO) intake and total IgE and specific IgEs to egg whites, milk, soy, and peanuts (P < 0.05). Vitamin C, E and n-3/n-6 fatty acids were not related with serum total IgE and specific IgE levels except for the association between buck wheat and vitamin E. In addition, there were no significant differences between males and females in dietary intake and serum IgE levels by student's t-test. Although dietary vitamin E showed no association with serum IgE levels, serum vitamin E drew a significant inverse relationship with serum IgE levels. The evidence seems to suggest that vitamin E may possibly lower total and specific-IgEs in children with AD, and that it is important to maintain a relatively high serum vitamin E level in children with AD.
Lee, Sangeun; Ahn, Kangmo; Paik, Hee Young
This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future.
Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo Jr., Faustino C.; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu
The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…
Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.
The spondyloarthropathies (SA) implicate bacterial infections of mucosal origin. IgA synthesis capacity in vitro is normal in AS. IgA increase is secondary to a specific immune response to the bacterial antigens implicated in the disease's pathogenesis. IgA participate to immune complex formation, which may lead to some extraarticular features of the disease (e.g. renal, cutaneous or vascular). There is also an increase of secretory IgA reflecting the activation of the two compartments of this humoral immune response, part of a coherent pathophysiological scheme of the disease. In a practical point of view, IgA serum levels may be considered as a biological parameter of SA activity. PMID:8052756
The hyper-IgE (HIE) syndrome is characterized by high IgE serum levels, chronic dermatitis, and recurrent infections. The mechanisms responsible for hyperproduction of IgE in HIE patients are presently unknown. We investigated whether spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis by PBMC from seven HIE patients was sensitive to signals (cell adhesion, T/B cell cognate interaction and lymphokines: IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-gamma) known to regulate IgE induction in normals. Our results show that, unlike IL-4 dependent IgE synthesis induced in normals, spontaneous IgE production by PBMC from HIE patients was not blocked by monoclonal antibodies to CD2, CD4, CD3, and MHC class II antigens. Furthermore, antibodies to IL-4 and IL-6 did not significantly suppress IgE production. IFN-gamma had no significant effects on spontaneous in vitro IgE synthesis. To test whether an imbalance in lymphokine production might underlie hyperproduction of IgE in HIE patients, mitogen-induced secretion of IL-4 and IFN-gamma by PBMC was assessed. No significant difference was detected between HIE patients and normal controls. Thus, ongoing IgE synthesis in the HIE syndrome is largely independent of cell-cell interactions and endogenous lymphokines, and is due to a terminally differentiated B cell population, no longer sensitive to regulatory signals. PMID:2110192
Vercelli, D; Jabara, H H; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Abrams, J S; Lewis, D B; Meyer, J; Schneider, L C; Leung, D Y; Geha, R S
Circulating IgA-antigliadin antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in four of 121 patients (3%) who had IgA mesangial nephropathy and 14 of 17 children (82%) who had untreated coeliac disease. No positive cases were present in the 54 healthy subjects of the control group. Three patients who had IgA nephropathy and IgA-antigliadin antibodies underwent jejunal biopsy, and two showed mucosal atrophy. In these two patients urinary abnormalities, together with the IgA-antigliadin antibodies, disappeared completely after three months and five months, respectively, of following a gluten free diet. Circulating IgA immune complexes were found in most patients who had coeliac disease and Berger's disease associated with IgA-antigliadin antibodies, suggesting overactivity of the B cells producing IgA in both conditions. By contrast, a circulating IgA rheumatoid factor was detectable in three of the four patients who had IgA nephropathy and asymptomatic coeliac disease but was always absent in children who had coeliac disease but did not show signs of renal disease. These results suggest that a more complex abnormality in the IgA immune response is necessary for renal disease to become manifest in patients who have gluten enteropathy. PMID:3113643
Fornasieri, A; Sinico, R A; Maldifassi, P; Bernasconi, P; Vegni, M; D'Amico, G
Circulating IgA-antigliadin antibodies were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in four of 121 patients (3%) who had IgA mesangial nephropathy and 14 of 17 children (82%) who had untreated coeliac disease. No positive cases were present in the 54 healthy subjects of the control group. Three patients who had IgA nephropathy and IgA-antigliadin antibodies underwent jejunal biopsy, and two showed mucosal atrophy. In these two patients urinary abnormalities, together with the IgA-antigliadin antibodies, disappeared completely after three months and five months, respectively, of following a gluten free diet. Circulating IgA immune complexes were found in most patients who had coeliac disease and Berger's disease associated with IgA-antigliadin antibodies, suggesting overactivity of the B cells producing IgA in both conditions. By contrast, a circulating IgA rheumatoid factor was detectable in three of the four patients who had IgA nephropathy and asymptomatic coeliac disease but was always absent in children who had coeliac disease but did not show signs of renal disease. These results suggest that a more complex abnormality in the IgA immune response is necessary for renal disease to become manifest in patients who have gluten enteropathy.
Fornasieri, A; Sinico, R A; Maldifassi, P; Bernasconi, P; Vegni, M; D'Amico, G
Low plasma IgA concentrations are commonly found in clinically normal dogs. In order to ascertain the relative importance of local and systemic IgA concentrations as factors determining the absence of clinical signs, IgA concentrations in plasma and tears were assayed in clinically normal dogs with a deficiency of IgA (10.33 +/- 0.63 mg/dl). The IgA levels in tears (25.28 +/- 1.91 mg/dl) did not differ significantly from those of control dogs or from previously published data for dogs. Thus, low systemic levels did not imply a significant reduction in local IgA levels. The absence of clinical signs in dogs with low plasma IgA concentrations may therefore be explained by the presence of normal secretory levels and an effective immune response against local pathogens. PMID:8480398
Ginel, P J; Novales, M; Lozano, M D; Molleda, J M; Lopez, R
The reproduction of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos was studied in southwestern Idaho for 23 years, and the relationship between eagle reproduction and jackrabbit Lepus californicus abundance, weather factors, and their interactions, was modelled using general linear models. Backward elimination procedures were used to arrive at parsimonious models. 2. The number of golden eagle pairs occupying nesting territories each year showed a significant decline through time that was unrelated to either annual rabbit abundance or winter severity. However, eagle hatching dates were significantly related to both winter severity and jackrabbit abundance. Eagles hatched earlier when jackrabbits were abundant, and they hatched later after severe winters. 3. Jackrabbit abundance influenced the proportion of pairs that laid eggs, the proportion of pairs that were successful, mean brood size at fledging, and the number of young fledged per pair. Weather interacted with prey to influence eagle reproductive rates. 4. Both jackrabbit abundance and winter severity were important in predicting the percentage of eagle pairs that laid eggs. Percentage laying was related positively to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to winter severity. 5. The variables most useful in predicting percentage of laying pairs successful were rabbit abundance and the number of extremely hot days during brood-rearing. The number of hot days and rabbit abundance were also significant in a model predicting eagle brood size at fledging. Both success and brood size were positively related to jackrabbit abundance and inversely related to the frequency of hot days in spring. 6. Eagle reproduction was limited by rabbit abundance during approximately twothirds of the years studied. Weather influenced how severely eagle reproduction declined in those years. 7. This study demonstrates that prey and weather can interact to limit a large raptor population's productivity. Smaller raptors could be affected more strongly, especially in colder or wetter climates.
Steenhof, Karen; Kochert, Michael N.; McDonald, T. L.
Dolphins and porpoises have excellent biosonar ability, which they use for navigation, ranging and foraging. However, the role of biosonar in free-ranging small cetaceans has not been fully investigated. The biosonar behaviour and body movements of 15 free-ranging finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) were observed using electronic tags attached to the animals. The porpoises often rotated their bodies more than 60 deg., on average, around the body axis in a dive bout. This behaviour occupied 31% of the dive duration during 186 h of effective observation time. Rolling dives were associated with extensive searching effort, and 23% of the rolling dive time was phonated, almost twice the phonation ratio of upright dives. Porpoises used short inter-click interval sonar 4.3 times more frequently during rolling dives than during upright dives. Sudden speed drops, which indicated that an individual turned around, occurred 4.5 times more frequently during rolling dives than during upright dives. Together, these data suggest that the porpoises searched extensively for targets and rolled their bodies to enlarge the search area by changing the narrow beam axis of the biosonar. Once a possible target was detected, porpoises frequently produced short-range sonar sounds. Continuous searching for prey and frequent capture trials appeared to occur during rolling dives of finless porpoises. In contrast, head movements ranging +/-2 cm, which can also change the beam axis, were regularly observed during both dives. Head movements might assist in instant assessment of the arbitrary direction by changing the beam axis rather than prey searching and pursuit. PMID:20008371
Akamatsu, T; Wang, D; Wang, K; Li, S; Dong, S
Predator-prey interactions are thought by many researchers to define both modern ecosystems and past macroevolutionary events. In modern ecosystems, experimental removal or addition of taxa is often used to determine trophic relationships and predator identity. Both characteristics are notoriously difficult to infer in the fossil record, where evidence of predation is usually limited to damage from failed attacks, individual stomach contents, one-sided escalation, or modern analogs. As a result, the role of predation in macroevolution is often dismissed in favor of competition and abiotic factors. Here we show that the end-Devonian Hangenberg event (359 Mya) was a natural experiment in which vertebrate predators were both removed and added to an otherwise stable prey fauna, revealing specific and persistent trophic interactions. Despite apparently favorable environmental conditions, crinoids diversified only after removal of their vertebrate consumers, exhibiting predatory release on a geological time scale. In contrast, later Mississippian (359-318 Mya) camerate crinoids declined precipitously in the face of increasing predation pressure from new durophagous fishes. Camerate failure is linked to the retention of obsolete defenses or "legacy adaptations" that prevented coevolutionary escalation. Our results suggest that major crinoid evolutionary phenomena, including rapid diversification, faunal turnover, and species selection, might be linked to vertebrate predation. Thus, interactions observed in small ecosystems, such as Lotka-Volterra cycles and trophic cascades, could operate at geologic time scales and higher taxonomic ranks. Both trophic knock-on effects and retention of obsolete traits might be common in the aftermath of predator extinction. PMID:21536875
Sallan, Lauren Cole; Kammer, Thomas W; Ausich, William I; Cook, Lewis A
Background Aquatic tentacled snakes (Erpeton tentaculatus) can take advantage of their prey's escape response by startling fish with their body before striking. The feint usually startles fish toward the snake's approaching jaws. But when fish are oriented at a right angle to the jaws, the C-start escape response translates fish parallel to the snake's head. To exploit this latter response, snakes must predict the future location of the fish. Adult snakes can make this prediction. Is it learned, or are tentacled snakes born able to predict future fish behavior? Methods and Findings Laboratory-born, naïve snakes were investigated as they struck at fish. Trials were recorded at 250 or 500 frames per second. To prevent learning, snakes were placed in a water container with a clear transparency sheet or glass bottom. The chamber was placed over a channel in a separate aquarium with fish below. Thus snakes could see and strike at fish, without contact. The snake's body feint elicited C-starts in the fish below the transparency sheet, allowing strike accuracy to be quantified in relationship to the C-starts. When fish were oriented at a right angle to the jaws, naïve snakes biased their strikes to the future location of the escaping fish's head, such that the snake's jaws and the fish's translating head usually converged. Several different types of predictive strikes were observed. Conclusions The results show that some predators have adapted their nervous systems to directly compensate for the future behavior of prey in a sensory realm that usually requires learning. Instead of behavior selected during their lifetime, newborn tentacled snakes exhibit behavior that has been selected on a different scale—over many generations. Counter adaptations in fish are not expected, as tentacled snakes are rare predators exploiting fish responses that are usually adaptive.
Catania, Kenneth C.