Science.gov

Sample records for ig prey females

  1. A spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing female mosquitoes as prey.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Nelson, Ximena J; Sune, Godfrey O

    2005-10-18

    Spiders do not feed directly on vertebrate blood, but a small East African jumping spider (Salticidae), Evarcha culicivora, feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing as preferred prey female mosquitoes that have had recent blood meals. Experiments show that this spider can identify its preferred prey by sight alone and by odor alone. When presented with two types of size-matched motionless lures, E. culicivora consistently chose blood-fed female mosquitoes in preference to nonmosquito prey, male mosquitoes, and sugar-fed female mosquitoes (i.e., females that had not been feeding on blood). When the choice was between mosquitoes of different sizes (both blood- or both sugar-fed), small juveniles chose the smaller prey, whereas adults and larger juveniles chose the larger prey. However, preference for blood took precedence over preference for size (i.e., to get a blood meal, small individuals took prey that were larger than the preferred size, and larger individuals took prey that were smaller than the preferred size). When presented with odor from two prey types, E. culicivora approached the odor from blood-fed female mosquitoes significantly more often the odor of the prey that were not carrying blood. PMID:16217015

  2. Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, D.B.; Thomas, S.E.; Stein, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores ('capital' spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an 'income'-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely 'skipped' spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies.

  3. [A female case of hyper-IgM immunodeficiency syndrome with uncommon skin manifestations].

    PubMed

    Asashima, Nobuko; Fujimoto, Manabu; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kikuchi, Kanako; Takamizawa, Masaru; Tamaki, Kunihiko

    2004-10-01

    A 11-year-old female admitted to our hospital because of erythema of the face and the trunk, and a wide and dense cluster of verruca vulgaris on the right sole. She had no family history of immunodeficiency, no perinatal abnormality, no growth abnormality, or no history of severe infections. From the age of 4 years, she noticed erythema around her nose. At the age of 9 years, small erythema and papules appeared on her chest. In January, 2003, erythema around her nose and papules of the trunk spread rapidly, and she also felt fatigue and effort dyspnea. Laboratory examinations revealed near absence of serum IgG, and IgE, high serum IgM (525 mg/dl), and normal IgA and IgD. Thl/Th2 ratio was 36.9. We diagnosed her as having hyper-IgM syndrome. Histological examinations of a skin biopsy showed the infiltration composed of mainly histiocytes,and mildly atypical CD8 + T cells around the blood vessels in the dermis. We concluded her skin manifestations as reactive lymphohistiocytic infiltration at the base of immunodeficiency and durable stimulation of various antigens. Her skin manifestations improved transiently by the intravenous immunogrobulin and corticosteroids therapy. PMID:15559325

  4. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  5. Evaluation of semi-quantitative PCR and IgG & IgM ELISA in diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in females with miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Dina M; Hassanein, Omayma

    2004-08-01

    One hundred female (age 20-42 yrs) patients were classified into group I: 40 patients presented with abortion in the first trimester; group II: 33 patients with abortion in the second trimester and group III: 27 patients with intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). The positive percentages of semi-quantitative PCR and both IgG & IgM ELISA were 38% and 35% respectively. Ten (26.3%) cases out of 38 were positive for toxoplasmosis by both PCR and ELISA-IgG, while 5 (13.2%) cases out of 38 were positive by both PCR and ELISA-IgM, whereas 16 (42.1%) cases out of 38 PCR positive cases were positive by both ELISA IgG & IgM. Sensitivity and specificity of both ELISA IgG and IgM were 81.57% & 93.54% respectively. False negative by ELISA were found in 7 cases out of 38 positive toxoplasmosis cases detected by semi-quantitative PCR. Three cases out of the 7 cases with false negative by ELISA were detected with a trophozoite copy load of 10(1) trophozoite /mL in the blood sample by semi-quantitative PCR. So, the semi-quantitative PCR detected low levels of parasite DNA recommending its usefulness especially in the early stages of the disease when low amount of antibodies can't be detected by serological method or even by the conventional PCR. PMID:15287178

  6. New parasitoid-predator associations: female parasitoids do not avoid competition with generalist predators when sharing invasive prey.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Wajnberg, Eric; Zhou, Yuxiang; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations. PMID:25331170

  7. New parasitoid-predator associations: female parasitoids do not avoid competition with generalist predators when sharing invasive prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Wajnberg, Eric; Zhou, Yuxiang; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    Optimal habitat selection is essential for species survival in ecosystems, and interspecific competition is a key ecological mechanism for many observed species association patterns. Specialized animal species are commonly affected by resource and interference competition with generalist and/or omnivorous competitors, so avoidance behavior could be expected. We hypothesize that specialist species may exploit broad range cues from such potential resource competitors (i.e., cues possibly common to various generalist and/or omnivorous predators) to avoid costly competition regarding food or reproduction, even in new species associations. We tested this hypothesis by studying short-term interactions between a native larval parasitoid and a native generalist omnivorous predator recently sharing the same invasive host/prey, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta. We observed a strong negative effect of kleptoparasitism (food resource stealing) instead of classical intraguild predation on immature parasitoids. There was no evidence that parasitoid females avoided the omnivorous predator when searching for oviposition sites, although we studied both long- and short-range known detection mechanisms. Therefore, we conclude that broad range cue avoidance may not exist in our biological system, probably because it would lead to too much oviposition site avoidance which would not be an efficient and, thus, beneficial strategy. If confirmed in other parasitoids or specialist predators, our findings may have implications for population dynamics, especially in the current context of increasing invasive species and the resulting creation of many new species associations.

  8. Specific IgA and IgG antibodies in the secretions of the female reproductive tract: effects of immunization and estradiol on expression of this response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wira, C R; Sandoe, C P

    1987-06-15

    Uterine and vaginal secretions collected from intact adult female rats were analyzed to determine whether immunization at sites distal to the reproductive tract had any effect on the presence of specific IgA and IgG antibodies in genital tract secretions. Peyer's patch and i.p. immunization and boost with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) stimulated the appearance of specific IgA antibodies in uterine and vaginal secretions of uterine-ligated animals. IgG antibodies were also induced in uterine but not in vaginal secretions. In contrast, subcutaneous immunization and boost elicited a weak IgA uterine and IgG vaginal response. To establish the role of estradiol in regulating the presence of specific antibodies in the female genital tract, ovariectomized rats received primary and/or secondary Peyer's patch immunizations with hormone treatment. Administration of estradiol daily for 3 days before sacrifice resulted in a significant accumulation of IgA and IgG antibodies to SRBC in uterine secretions. In the absence of estradiol, antibody content was negligible. Vaginal antibody levels were also clearly influenced by estradiol. In contrast to the uterus, however, specific IgA and IgG antibodies were present in the vaginal secretions of saline-injected immunized animals and were markedly inhibited in animals treated with estradiol. These results indicate that antibodies in genital tract secretions can be induced by immunization of the Peyer's patches and that their presence in uterine secretions is clearly dependent on estradiol. Further, they indicate that gut-derived specific antibodies enter the vagina in the absence of hormone stimulation and that estradiol exerts an inhibitory effect on their presence in vaginal secretions. PMID:3584972

  9. IgG avidity antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in high risk females of reproductive age group in India.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Naushaba; Shujatullah, Fatima; Khan, Haris M; Rabbani, Tamkin; Khan, Parvez A

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan that is distributed worldwide. Recently, several tests for avidity of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies have been introduced to help discriminate between recently acquired and distant infections. The study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, India from February 2011 to September 2012. Serum specimens were subjected to Toxoplasma IgM ELISA and IgG avidity ELISA test. Out of 48 patients with abortions, 17 (35.4%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 8 (16.6%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Out of 48 patients with other obstetric problems, 23 (47.9%) were positive for IgM ELISA, and 17 (35.4%) had low IgG avidity antibodies. Combining both groups on avidity test, only 25 of 40 (62.5%) IgM-positive women had low-avidity IgG antibodies suggesting a recent T. gondii infection in these women. More importantly, 15 (37.5%) of the IgM-positive women had high-avidity antibodies suggesting that the infection was acquired before gestation The relation of IgM seropositivity with the following risk factors was not found to be statistically significant; contact with cats (0.13), non-vegetarian food habits (0.05), and low socio-economic status (0.49). While, for IgG avidity ELISA, only contact with cats (0.01) was significantly associated with seropositivity. All other risk factors have P-values of >0.05 (not significant). IgG avidity test when used in combination with IgM test was a valuable assay for diagnosis of ongoing or recently acquired T. gondii infection in India. PMID:25352696

  10. Intraguild Predation in Heteroptera: Effects of Density and Predator Identity on Dipteran Prey.

    PubMed

    Brahma, S; Sharma, D; Kundu, M; Saha, N; Saha, G K; Aditya, G

    2015-08-01

    In tropical freshwaters, different species of water bugs (Heteroptera) constitute a guild sharing similar prey resources including chironomid and mosquito larvae. Assuming possibilities of intraguild predation (IGP) among the constituent members, an attempt was made to evaluate the effects of prey and predator density on the mortality of mosquito and chironomid larvae (shared prey), using Laccotrephes griseus Guérin-Méneville (Hemiptera: Nepidae) and Ranatra filiformis Fabricius (Hemiptera: Nepidae) as IG predators and Anisops bouvieri Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Notonectidae) as IG prey. The predation on mosquito and chironomid larvae varied with the density and combinations of the predators. When present as conspecific IG predators, L. griseus exhibited greater effect on the prey mortality than R. filiformis. The effects on shared prey suggest that the two predators are not substitutable in terms of the effect on the shared prey mortality. The mortality of A. bouvieri (IG prey) at low shared prey density was significantly different (p?prey density. In view of predatory effect of the heteropteran predators on the dipteran larvae, the results suggest possible interference by the presence of A. bouvieri as an intermediate predator. It seems that the presence of heteropteran predators including A. bouvieri as IG prey may benefit the dipteran prey under situations when the density is low in tropical waters. The intensity of the predatory effect may differ based on the species composition at IG predator level. For mosquito biological control, the interactions between the predators may not be substitutable and are independent in their effects. PMID:26174962

  11. Unique dose-dependent effects of the human pregnancy hormone estriol on the ratio of blood IgM to IgG in female mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Zhu, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the dose-dependent modulating effect of estriol (E3), an estrogen predominantly produced during human pregnancy, on antigen?induced production of specific antibodies in female BALB/c mice. The animals were immunized either with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or the pneumococcal polysaccharide serotype-14 (PPS-14), and the levels of specific serum antibodies were determined using ELISA kits. E3 was found to have very different effects on antigen-induced production of specific antibodies in animals immunized with these two antigens. While E3 stimulated the production of PPS-14-specific antibodies, it suppressed the production of BSA-specific antibodies. The results also demonstrated that the modulating effect of E3 on the production of antigen?specific antibodies depends on the dose of E3 used. For BSA?induced antibody production, E3 had a dose?dependent inhibitory effect, whereas for PPS?14?specific antibody (Ab) production, E3 exerted the strongest stimulation at a lower dose, and produced less stimulation at higher doses. E3 caused thymus atrophy in animals immunized with either PPS?14 or BSA, but only induced spleen atrophy in BSA?injected mice. These observations suggest that E3 increases the ability of a pregnant female to avoid bacterial infections while decreasing the incidence of autoimmune responses against circulating components from either the fetus or pregnant female. PMID:26531070

  12. AN IMMUNOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFYING MULTIPLE PREDATOR—PREY INTERACTIONS IN A COMPLEX ARTHROPOD ASSEMBLAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory feeding study was conducted to determine if predation events could be detected from predators that consumed prey marked with foreign protein. In laboratory feeding trials I determined that large and small rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) marked prey can be detected by a rabbit IgG-specifi...

  13. IGS Directory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for Geodynamics (IGS) supports and helps coordinate GPS data production and parameters useful for generating more accurate data products. The IGS has operated a GPS tracking system for several years. It contains more than 100 stations worldwide and has produced a combined GPS ephemeris that has become the standard for geodesists and geophysicists worldwide. IGS data and products are freely available to all, thanks to the cooperation and participation of all the IGS members. This directory provides data on the stations and provides names and contact information with personnel involved with the IGS.

  14. L-shaped prey isocline in the Gause predator-prey experiments with a prey refuge.

    PubMed

    K?ivan, Vlastimil; Priyadarshi, Anupam

    2015-04-01

    Predator and prey isoclines are estimated from data on yeast-protist population dynamics (Gause et al., 1936). Regression analysis shows that the prey isocline is best fitted by an L-shaped function that has a vertical and a horizontal part. The predator isocline is vertical. This shape of isoclines corresponds with the Lotka-Volterra and the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey models that assume a prey refuge. These results further support the idea that a prey refuge changes the prey isocline of predator-prey models from a horizontal to an L-shaped curve. Such a shape of the prey isocline effectively bounds amplitude of predator-prey oscillations, thus promotes species coexistence. PMID:25644756

  15. Seasonal foraging ecology of non-migratory cougars in a system with migrating prey.

    PubMed

    Elbroch, L Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

    2013-01-01

    We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection. PMID:24349498

  16. Seasonal Foraging Ecology of Non-Migratory Cougars in a System with Migrating Prey

    PubMed Central

    Elbroch, L. Mark; Lendrum, Patrick E.; Newby, Jesse; Quigley, Howard; Craighead, Derek

    2013-01-01

    We tested for seasonal differences in cougar (Puma concolor) foraging behaviors in the Southern Yellowstone Ecosystem, a multi-prey system in which ungulate prey migrate, and cougars do not. We recorded 411 winter prey and 239 summer prey killed by 28 female and 10 male cougars, and an additional 37 prey items by unmarked cougars. Deer composed 42.4% of summer cougar diets but only 7.2% of winter diets. Males and females, however, selected different proportions of different prey; male cougars selected more elk (Cervus elaphus) and moose (Alces alces) than females, while females killed greater proportions of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and small prey than males. Kill rates did not vary by season or between males and females. In winter, cougars were more likely to kill prey on the landscape as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, 3) distance to large bodies of water decreased, and 4) steepness increased, whereas in summer, cougars were more likely to kill in areas as: 1) elevation decreased, 2) distance to edge habitat decreased, and 3) distance from large bodies of water increased. Our work highlighted that seasonal prey selection exhibited by stationary carnivores in systems with migratory prey is not only driven by changing prey vulnerability, but also by changing prey abundances. Elk and deer migrations may also be sustaining stationary cougar populations and creating apparent competition scenarios that result in higher predation rates on migratory bighorn sheep in winter and pronghorn in summer. Nevertheless, cougar predation on rare ungulates also appeared to be influenced by individual prey selection. PMID:24349498

  17. Effect of prior diet on consumption and digestion of prey and non-prey food by adults of the generalist predator Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coleomegilla maculata adults fed on prey (Colorado potato beetle eggs) or non-prey (corn pollen) food following 7 days of feeding on a mixed diet, showed differences in ingestion, with females consuming greater quantities of pollen, and males consuming greater quantities of eggs, under no-choice con...

  18. Indirect effects of primary prey population dynamics on alternative prey.

    PubMed

    Barraquand, Frédéric; New, Leslie F; Redpath, Stephen; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2015-08-01

    We develop a theory of generalist predation showing how alternative prey species are affected by changes in both mean abundance and variability (coefficient of variation) of their predator's primary prey. The theory is motivated by the indirect effects of cyclic rodent populations on ground-breeding birds, and developed through progressive analytic simplifications of an empirically-based model. It applies nonetheless to many other systems where primary prey have fast life-histories and can become superabundant, thus facilitating impact on alternative prey species and generating highly asymmetric interactions. Our results suggest that predator effects on alternative prey should generally decrease with mean primary prey abundance, and increase with primary prey variability (low to high CV)-unless predators have strong aggregative responses, in which case these results can be reversed. Approximations of models including predator dynamics (general numerical response with possible delays) confirm these results but further suggest that negative temporal correlation between predator and primary prey is harmful to alternative prey. Finally, we find that measurements of predator numerical responses are crucial to predict-even qualitatively-the response of ecosystems to changes in the dynamics of outbreaking prey species. PMID:25930160

  19. IGS 2000 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Contents: The IGS Governing Board 2000; Central Bureau Status 2000; Growth of the IGS Network in 2000; Analysis Activities; Data Center Activities 2000; The International Terrestrial Reference Frame; IGS Reference Frame Coordination and Working Group Activities; The IGS/BIPM Time and Frequency Pilot Project; IGS Activities in the Area of the Ionosphere 2000; IGS Tropospheric Products; IGS International GLONASS Service Pilot Project; IGS LEO Pilot Project; Continuous GPS Positioning of Tide Gauges.

  20. Advantage of specialism: reproductive output is related to prey choice in a small raptor.

    PubMed

    Otterbeck, Andreas; Lindén, Andreas; Roualet, Éric

    2015-09-01

    Predatory species' usage of different prey types is affected by both prey availability and selectivity. The diet during the breeding season may affect the reproductive success of individual pairs. We studied the prey use of a small reversed size-dimorphic raptor, the Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, with respect to prey weight on two organizational levels. Using 13 years of data from southern Norway, we related reproductive output of individual breeding events to prey size taken. Further, we assessed the regional variation in prey usage between five Fennoscandian populations. This was done by fitting optimum-type functions to the prey species' numbers or relative predation risks. Pairs that successfully completed the season with more fledglings displayed less variation in prey size, suggesting a possible adaptive benefit of diet specialism, or possibly a correlative effect due to higher prey availability or lower female hunting effort. This finding contrasts with earlier raptor studies, which have suggested benefits of dietary (and hence nutritional) diversity. Indeed, our results might be limited to nutritionally substitutable prey items. We also found a tendency suggesting that older females raised more fledglings than 1-year-old females. In the population-level analysis, we found that optimum-type functions with constant width and spatially variable average best described the relationship between relative predation risk and log weight. This can reflect local conditions, such as prey availability. Our findings and new methodological tools could apply to a broader spectrum of predators. They also highlight the role of viewing usage or choice of prey at several spatial scales. PMID:25943192

  1. Predator-prey systems depend on a prey refuge.

    PubMed

    Chivers, W J; Gladstone, W; Herbert, R D; Fuller, M M

    2014-11-01

    Models of near-exclusive predator-prey systems such as that of the Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare have included factors such as a second prey species, a Holling Type II predator response and climatic or seasonal effects to reproduce sub-sets of six signature patterns in the empirical data. We present an agent-based model which does not require the factors or constraints of previous models to reproduce all six patterns in persistent populations. Our parsimonious model represents a generalised predator and prey species with a small prey refuge. The lack of the constraints of previous models, considered to be important for those models, casts doubt on the current hypothesised mechanisms of exclusive predator-prey systems. The implication for management of the lynx, a protected species, is that maintenance of an heterogeneous environment offering natural refuge areas for the hare is the most important factor for the conservation of this species. PMID:25058806

  2. Ecoepidemic predator-prey model with feeding satiation, prey herd behavior and abandoned infected prey.

    PubMed

    Kooi, Bob W; Venturino, Ezio

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we analyse a predator-prey model where the prey population shows group defense and the prey individuals are affected by a transmissible disease. The resulting model is of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey type with an SI (susceptible-infected) disease in the prey. Modeling prey group defense leads to a square root dependence in the Holling type II functional for the predator-prey interaction term. The system dynamics is investigated using simulations, classical existence and asymptotic stability analysis and numerical bifurcation analysis. A number of bifurcations, such as transcritical and Hopf bifurcations which occur commonly in predator-prey systems will be found. Because of the square root interaction term there is non-uniqueness of the solution and a singularity where the prey population goes extinct in a finite time. This results in a collapse initiated by extinction of the healthy or susceptible prey and thereafter the other population(s). When also a positive attractor exists this leads to bistability similar to what is found in predator-prey models with a strong Allee effect. For the two-dimensional disease-free (i.e. the purely demographic) system the region in the parameter space where bistability occurs is marked by a global bifurcation. At this bifurcation a heteroclinic connection exists between saddle prey-only equilibrium points where a stable limit cycle together with its basin of attraction, are destructed. In a companion paper (Gimmelli et al., 2015) the same model was formulated and analysed in which the disease was not in the prey but in the predator. There we also observed this phenomenon. Here we extend its analysis using a phase portrait analysis. For the three-dimensional ecoepidemic predator-prey system where the prey is affected by the disease, also tangent bifurcations including a cusp bifurcation and a torus bifurcation of limit cycles occur. This leads to new complex dynamics. Continuation by varying one parameter of the emerging quasi-periodic dynamics from a torus bifurcation can lead to its destruction by a collision with a saddle-cycle. Under other conditions the quasi-periodic dynamics changes gradually in a trajectory that lands on a boundary point where the prey go extinct in finite time after which a total collapse of the three-dimensional system occurs. PMID:26874217

  3. Birds of Prey of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamerstrom, Frances

    This copiously illustrated document is designed to be a field quide to birds of prey that are common to Wisconsin, as well as to some that enter the state occasionally. An introduction discusses birds of prey with regard to migration patterns, the relationship between common names and the attitudes of people toward certain birds, and natural signs…

  4. Attraction of two lacewing species to volatiles produced by host plants and aphid prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Obrycki, J. J.; Ochieng, Samuel A.; Baker, Thomas C.; Pickett, J. A.; Smiley, D.

    2005-06-01

    It is well documented that host-related odors enable many species of parasitoids and predatory insects to locate their prey and prey habitats. This study reports the first characterization of prey and prey host odor reception in two species of lacewings, Chrysoperla carnea (Say) and Chrysopa oculata L. 2-Phenylethanol, one of the volatiles emitted from their prey’s host plants (alfalfa and corn) evoked a significant EAG response from antennae of C. carnea. Traps baited with this compound attracted high numbers of adult C. carnea, which were predominantly females. One of the sex pheromone components (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol of an aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) attracted only C. oculata adults. Single sensillum recordings showed that the olfactory neurons of C. carnea responded to both 2-phenylethanol and aphid sex pheromone components, but those of C. oculata only responded to the latter.

  5. The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Ximena J; Jackson, Robert R

    2012-07-01

    Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification. PMID:22675186

  6. The discerning predator: decision rules underlying prey classification by a mosquito-eating jumping spider

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by choosing blood-fed female Anopheles mosquitoes as prey. Previous studies have shown that this predator can identify its preferred prey even when restricted to using only visual cues. Here, we used lures and virtual mosquitoes to investigate the optical cues underlying this predator's prey-choice behaviour. We made lures by dissecting and then reconstructing dead mosquitoes, combining the head plus thorax with different abdomens. Depending on the experiment, lures were either moving or motionless. Findings from the lure experiments suggested that, for E. culicivora, seeing a blood-fed female mosquito's abdomen on a lure was a necessary, but not sufficient, cue by which preferred prey was identified, as cues from the abdomen needed to be paired with cues from the head and thorax of a mosquito. Conversely, when abdomens were not visible or were identical, spiders based their decisions on the appearance of the head plus thorax of mosquitoes, choosing prey with female characteristics. Findings from a subsequent experiment using animated 3D virtual mosquitoes suggest that it is specifically the mosquito's antennae that influence E. culicivora's prey-choice decisions. Our results show that E. culicivora uses a complex process for prey classification. PMID:22675186

  7. Detection of immunoglobulin IgA and IgG against human papilloma virus.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; de Souza, Luanda Canário; Costa, Ana Paula Ferreira; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia Lopes; Crispim, Janaina Oliveira; Eleutério, Jose; Giraldo, Paulo César

    2014-11-01

    The interest in human papilloma virus (HPV) seropositivity has increased considerably since HPV vaccines have become available worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in analyzing serum samples provided from women with and without genital DNA-HPV infection confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detection of specific antibodies of the isotypes IgG and IgA recognizing HPV-16 and -18, as well as virus-like particles (VLPs). From August to December 2013, 50 sexually active female patients between 18 and 35 years of age from the outpatient clinic at the university hospital were enrolled. In order to test them, positive controls were obtained from patients with HPV-induced lesions and who were DNA-HPV positive confirmed by PCR. A specific assay was used to identify antibodies to HPV VLPs by ELISA. The samples were divided into HPV positive and negative, and an ELISA detecting IgA and IgG anti-HPV-VLP was carried out. The effectiveness of ELISA and the kappa (k) index was obtained from the values entered in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for IgG and IgA. IgG-VLP-HPV-16 showed a good correlation between ELISA and PCR (k=0.75), and IgG-VLP-HPV-18 showed a very good correlation between ELISA and PCR (k=0.84). While the IgA antibody correlation was also positive, although weaker, IgA-VLP-HPV-16 was moderate (k=0.45) and IgA-VLP-HPV-18 good (k=0.66). The efficacy of the assay concerning IgG was: sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 82.3%, 92%, and 88% to IgG-VLP-HPV-16, and 100%, 92%, and 94% to IgG-VLP-HPV-18. The assay concerning IgA was: sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 64.7%, 80%, and 73.8% to IgA-VLP-HPV-16, and 100%, 80%, and 84.8% to IgA-VLP-HPV-18. IgG and IgA antibodies against HPV-16 and -18 can be detected in unvaccinated individuals by using the VLP that serve as the basis for bivalent HPV vaccine. The values for ELISA assays and the values found for IgG correlate good/very good with HPV-16/18 detected by PCR. PMID:25191973

  8. Relating wolf scat content to prey consumed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Floyd, T.J.; Mech, L.D.; Jordan, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    In 9 trials, captive wolves (Canis lupus) were fed prey varying in size from snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) to adult deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the resulting scats were counted. Field-collectible scats were distinguished from liquid, noncollectible stools. I n collectible scats, the remains of small prey occurred in greater proportion relative to the prey's weight, and in lesser proportion relative to the prey's numbers, than did the remains of larger prey. A regression equation with an excellent, fit to the data (r2 = 0.97) was derived to estimate the weight of prey eaten per collectible scat for any prey. With this information and average prey weights, the relative numbers of different prey eaten also can be calculated.

  9. Top carnivores increase their kill rates on prey as a response to human-induced fear.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justine A; Wang, Yiwei; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    The fear induced by predators on their prey is well known to cause behavioural adjustments by prey that can ripple through food webs. Little is known, however, about the analogous impacts of humans as perceived top predators on the foraging behaviour of carnivores. Here, we investigate the influence of human-induced fear on puma foraging behaviour using location and prey consumption data from 30 tagged individuals living along a gradient of human development. We observed strong behavioural responses by female pumas to human development, whereby their fidelity to kill sites and overall consumption time of prey declined with increasing housing density by 36 and 42%, respectively. Females responded to this decline in prey consumption time by increasing the number of deer they killed in high housing density areas by 36% over what they killed in areas with little residential development. The loss of food from declines in prey consumption time paired with increases in energetic costs associated with killing more prey may have consequences for puma populations, particularly with regard to reproductive success. In addition, greater carcass availability is likely to alter community dynamics by augmenting food resources for scavengers. In light of the extensive and growing impact of habitat modification, our study emphasizes that knowledge of the indirect effects of human activity on animal behaviour is a necessary component in understanding anthropogenic impacts on community dynamics and food web function. PMID:25608884

  10. Top carnivores increase their kill rates on prey as a response to human-induced fear

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justine A.; Wang, Yiwei; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The fear induced by predators on their prey is well known to cause behavioural adjustments by prey that can ripple through food webs. Little is known, however, about the analogous impacts of humans as perceived top predators on the foraging behaviour of carnivores. Here, we investigate the influence of human-induced fear on puma foraging behaviour using location and prey consumption data from 30 tagged individuals living along a gradient of human development. We observed strong behavioural responses by female pumas to human development, whereby their fidelity to kill sites and overall consumption time of prey declined with increasing housing density by 36 and 42%, respectively. Females responded to this decline in prey consumption time by increasing the number of deer they killed in high housing density areas by 36% over what they killed in areas with little residential development. The loss of food from declines in prey consumption time paired with increases in energetic costs associated with killing more prey may have consequences for puma populations, particularly with regard to reproductive success. In addition, greater carcass availability is likely to alter community dynamics by augmenting food resources for scavengers. In light of the extensive and growing impact of habitat modification, our study emphasizes that knowledge of the indirect effects of human activity on animal behaviour is a necessary component in understanding anthropogenic impacts on community dynamics and food web function. PMID:25608884

  11. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis adjusts patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs.

    PubMed

    Vanas, V; Enigl, M; Walzer, A; Schausberger, P

    2006-01-01

    Integration of optimal foraging and optimal oviposition theories suggests that predator females should adjust patch leaving to own and progeny prey needs to maximize current and future reproductive success. We tested this hypothesis in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and its patchily distributed prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. In three separate experiments we assessed (1) the minimum number of prey needed to complete juvenile development, (2) the minimum number of prey needed to produce an egg, and (3) the ratio between eggs laid and spider mites left when a gravid P. persimilis female leaves a patch. Experiments (1) and (2) were the pre-requirements to assess the fitness costs associated with staying or leaving a prey patch. Immature P. persimilis needed at least 7 and on average 14+/-3.6 (SD) T. urticae eggs to reach adulthood. Gravid females needed at least 5 and on average 8.5+/-3.1 (SD) T. urticae eggs to produce an egg. Most females left the initial patch before spider mite extinction, leaving prey for progeny to develop to adulthood. Females placed in a low density patch left 5.6+/-6.1 (SD) eggs per egg laid, whereas those placed in a high density patch left 15.8+/-13.7 (SD) eggs per egg laid. The three experiments in concert suggest that gravid P. persimilis females are able to balance the trade off between optimal foraging and optimal oviposition and adjust patch-leaving to own and progeny prey needs. PMID:16680562

  12. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.; Link, W.A.; Hines, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995-2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2-16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science.

  13. Tigers and their prey: Predicting carnivore densities from prey abundance

    PubMed Central

    Karanth, K. Ullas; Nichols, James D.; Kumar, N. Samba; Link, William A.; Hines, James E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of ecology is to understand interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. In principle, ecologists should be able to identify a small number of limiting resources for a species of interest, estimate densities of these resources at different locations across the landscape, and then use these estimates to predict the density of the focal species at these locations. In practice, however, development of functional relationships between abundances of species and their resources has proven extremely difficult, and examples of such predictive ability are very rare. Ecological studies of prey requirements of tigers Panthera tigris led us to develop a simple mechanistic model for predicting tiger density as a function of prey density. We tested our model using data from a landscape-scale long-term (1995–2003) field study that estimated tiger and prey densities in 11 ecologically diverse sites across India. We used field techniques and analytical methods that specifically addressed sampling and detectability, two issues that frequently present problems in macroecological studies of animal populations. Estimated densities of ungulate prey ranged between 5.3 and 63.8 animals per km2. Estimated tiger densities (3.2–16.8 tigers per 100 km2) were reasonably consistent with model predictions. The results provide evidence of a functional relationship between abundances of large carnivores and their prey under a wide range of ecological conditions. In addition to generating important insights into carnivore ecology and conservation, the study provides a potentially useful model for the rigorous conduct of macroecological science. PMID:15041746

  14. Dazzle coloration and prey movement

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin; Yule, Daniella H; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2008-01-01

    Many traits in animals reduce the rate of attack from visually hunting predators, including camouflage, warning signals and mimicry. In addition, some animal markings may reduce the likelihood that an attack ends in successful capture. These might include dazzle markings, high-contrast patterns that make the estimation of speed and trajectory difficult. However, until now, no study has experimentally tested whether some markings may achieve such an effect. We developed a computer ‘game’ where human ‘predators’ have to capture computer-generated prey moving across a background. In two experiments, we find that although uniform camouflaged targets were among the hardest to capture, so were a range of high-contrast conspicuous patterns, such as bands and zigzags. Prey were also more difficult to capture against more heterogeneous than uniform backgrounds, and at faster speeds of movement. As such, we find the first experimental evidence that conspicuous patterns, similar to those found in a wide range of real animals, make the capture of moving prey more challenging. Various anti-predator markings may work prey during motion, and some animals may combine such dazzle patterns with other functions, such as camouflage, thermoregulation, sexual and warning signals. PMID:18700203

  15. Dazzle coloration and prey movement.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin; Yule, Daniella H; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2008-11-22

    Many traits in animals reduce the rate of attack from visually hunting predators, including camouflage, warning signals and mimicry. In addition, some animal markings may reduce the likelihood that an attack ends in successful capture. These might include dazzle markings, high-contrast patterns that make the estimation of speed and trajectory difficult. However, until now, no study has experimentally tested whether some markings may achieve such an effect. We developed a computer 'game' where human 'predators' have to capture computer-generated prey moving across a background. In two experiments, we find that although uniform camouflaged targets were among the hardest to capture, so were a range of high-contrast conspicuous patterns, such as bands and zigzags. Prey were also more difficult to capture against more heterogeneous than uniform backgrounds, and at faster speeds of movement. As such, we find the first experimental evidence that conspicuous patterns, similar to those found in a wide range of real animals, make the capture of moving prey more challenging. Various anti-predator markings may work prey during motion, and some animals may combine such dazzle patterns with other functions, such as camouflage, thermoregulation, sexual and warning signals. PMID:18700203

  16. Innate prey preference overridden by familiarisation with detrimental prey in a specialised myrmecophagous predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekár, Stano; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    Prey-specialised spiders often do not have brood care and may not deposit eggs in the proximity of the preferred prey. Thus, naïve spiderlings are left to their own to find their focal prey. Our aim was to reveal whether the choice of a specific prey is innate and whether familiarisation with a certain prey will condition prey choice. We used the myrmecophagous spider Euryopis episinoides, which specialises on Messor ants. It finds ants using chemical cues deposited on the substrate. Naïve spiderlings were offered chemical cues from Messor and Myrmica ants and Drosophila flies. They chose significantly more chemical cues from Messor ants than those from Drosophila flies. Then spiderlings were assigned to three prey treatments: fed with Messor ants only (optimal prey), fed with Myrmica ants only (suboptimal prey) or fed with Drosophila flies only (detrimental prey) until adulthood. Every 2 weeks, all spiders from all treatments were offered chemical cues from the three prey types and the frequency of choice and latency to assuming a posture were recorded. Experienced spiderlings preferred chemical cues from the prey in which they were raised. They suffered high mortality on Drosophila flies and attained largest size on the optimal prey. We show here that majority of spiderlings are born with an innate preference to their focal prey, which can be altered by familiarisation with alternative prey, irrespective of whether such a prey is beneficial.

  17. Active foraging for toxic prey during gestation in a snake with maternal provisioning of sequestered chemical defences.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yosuke; Mori, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Many animals sequester dietary defensive compounds and incorporate them into the offspring, which protects the young against predation. One possible but poorly investigated question is whether females of such species actively prey upon toxic diets. The snake Rhabdophis tigrinus sequesters defensive steroids from toads consumed as prey; it also feeds on other amphibians. Females produce chemically armed offspring in direct proportion to their own level of toad-derived toxins by provisioning the toxins to their eggs. Our field observations of movements and stomach contents of radio-tracked R. tigrinus showed that gravid snakes preyed upon toads by actively foraging in the habitat of toads, even though toads were a scarce resource and toad-searching may incur potential costs. Our Y-maze experiments demonstrated that gravid females were more likely to trail the chemical cues of toads than were males or non-gravid females. These results showed behavioural switching in females and active foraging for scarce, toxic prey during gestation. Because exploitation of toads by gravid females results in their offspring being more richly endowed with prey-derived toxins, active foraging for toxic prey is expected to be an adaptive antipredator trait, which may enhance chemical defence in offspring. PMID:25392472

  18. Active foraging for toxic prey during gestation in a snake with maternal provisioning of sequestered chemical defences

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Yosuke; Mori, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Many animals sequester dietary defensive compounds and incorporate them into the offspring, which protects the young against predation. One possible but poorly investigated question is whether females of such species actively prey upon toxic diets. The snake Rhabdophis tigrinus sequesters defensive steroids from toads consumed as prey; it also feeds on other amphibians. Females produce chemically armed offspring in direct proportion to their own level of toad-derived toxins by provisioning the toxins to their eggs. Our field observations of movements and stomach contents of radio-tracked R. tigrinus showed that gravid snakes preyed upon toads by actively foraging in the habitat of toads, even though toads were a scarce resource and toad-searching may incur potential costs. Our Y-maze experiments demonstrated that gravid females were more likely to trail the chemical cues of toads than were males or non-gravid females. These results showed behavioural switching in females and active foraging for scarce, toxic prey during gestation. Because exploitation of toads by gravid females results in their offspring being more richly endowed with prey-derived toxins, active foraging for toxic prey is expected to be an adaptive antipredator trait, which may enhance chemical defence in offspring. PMID:25392472

  19. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Caroline E; Conner, Mary M; Hobbs, N Thompson; Hunter, Don O; Miller, Michael W

    2010-04-23

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (> or =2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1-0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3-30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1-10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

  20. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Caroline E.; Conner, Mary M.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Hunter, Don O.; Miller, Michael W.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility that predators choose prey selectively based on age or condition has been suggested but rarely tested. We examined whether mountain lions (Puma concolor) selectively prey upon mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) infected with chronic wasting disease, a prion disease. We located kill sites of mountain lions in the northern Front Range of Colorado, USA, and compared disease prevalence among lion-killed adult (?2 years old) deer with prevalence among sympatric deer taken by hunters in the vicinity of kill sites. Hunter-killed female deer were less likely to be infected than males (odds ratios (OR) = 0.2, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.1–0.6; p = 0.015). However, both female (OR = 8.5, 95% CI = 2.3–30.9) and male deer (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1–10) killed by a mountain lion were more likely to be infected than same-sex deer killed in the vicinity by a hunter (p < 0.001), suggesting that mountain lions in this area actively selected prion-infected individuals when targeting adult mule deer as prey items. PMID:19864271

  1. Prey attack and predators defend: counterattacking prey trigger parental care in predators

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Sara; Janssen, Arne; Montserrat, Marta; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2005-01-01

    That predators attack and prey defend is an oversimplified view. When size changes during development, large prey may be invulnerable to predators, and small juvenile predators vulnerable to attack by prey. This in turn may trigger a defensive response in adult predators to protect their offspring. Indeed, when sizes overlap, one may wonder ‘who is the predator and who is the prey’! Experiments with ‘predatory’ mites and thrips ‘prey’ showed that young, vulnerable prey counterattack by killing young predators and adult predators respond by protective parental care, killing young prey that attack their offspring. Thus, young individuals form the Achilles' heel of prey and predators alike, creating a cascade of predator attack, prey counterattack and predator defence. Therefore, size structure and relatedness induce multiple ecological role reversals. PMID:16191599

  2. Prey attack and predators defend: counterattacking prey trigger parental care in predators.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Sara; Janssen, Arne; Montserrat, Marta; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2005-09-22

    That predators attack and prey defend is an oversimplified view. When size changes during development, large prey may be invulnerable to predators, and small juvenile predators vulnerable to attack by prey. This in turn may trigger a defensive response in adult predators to protect their offspring. Indeed, when sizes overlap, one may wonder "who is the predator and who is the prey"! Experiments with "predatory" mites and thrips "prey" showed that young, vulnerable prey counterattack by killing young predators and adult predators respond by protective parental care, killing young prey that attack their offspring. Thus, young individuals form the Achilles' heel of prey and predators alike, creating a cascade of predator attack, prey counterattack and predator defence. Therefore, size structure and relatedness induce multiple ecological role reversals. PMID:16191599

  3. Resource partitioning in a ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus: function of body size and prey density.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, D D; Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, resource partitioning by natural conspecific size variants (small and large) of ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) females, in response to varying prey densities was assessed using functional and numerical responses as measures of prey density. The prey provided was small (second) and large (fourth) instars of Aphis craccivora Koch. Results revealed that under choice condition, small and large females of M. sexmaculatus consumed higher number of small and large instars, respectively. Small females exhibited a modified Type II functional response on small aphid instars and a Type II functional response on fourth aphid instars. Large females exhibited a Type II functional response when provided either second or fourth aphid instars. Numerical response in terms of numbers of eggs laid by both the females increased with increase in the density of either of the aphid instars. However, in small females, oviposition had a positive correlation with the numbers of small and large aphid instars consumed; being strong for the small aphid instars. While in large females, oviposition was positively correlated with the numbers of large aphid instars consumed and not small aphid instars. It therefore seems that intraspecific resource partitioning in M. sexmaculatus occurs prominently in large females than the small females. PMID:25467186

  4. When Optimal Strategy Matters to Prey Fish.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alberto; Stewart, William J; McHenry, Matthew J

    2015-07-01

    Predator-prey interactions are commonly studied with an interest in determining the optimal strategy for prey. However, the implications of deviating from optimal strategy are often unclear. The present study considered these consequences by studying how the direction of an escape response affects the strategy of prey fish. We simulated these interactions with numerical and analytical mathematics and compared our predictions with measurements in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio), which are preyed upon by adults of the same species. Consistent with existing theory, we treated the minimum distance between predator and prey as the strategic payoff that prey aim to maximize. We found that these interactions may be characterized by three strategic domains that are defined by the speed of predator relative to the prey. The "fast predator" domain occurs when the predator is more than an order of magnitude faster than the prey. The escape direction of the prey had only a small effect on the minimum distance under these conditions. For the "slow predator" domain, when the prey is faster than the predator, we found that differences in direction had no effect on the minimum distance for a broad range of escape angles. This was the regime in which zebrafish were found to operate. In contrast, the optimal escape angle offers a large benefit to the minimum distance in the intermediate strategic domain. Therefore, optimal strategy is most meaningful to prey fish when predators are faster than prey by less than a factor of 10. This demonstrates that the strategy of a prey animal does not matter under certain conditions that are created by the behavior of the predator. PMID:25964496

  5. Prey selectivity and the influence of prey carbon:nitrogen ratio on microflagellate grazing.

    PubMed

    John, E H.; Davidson, K

    2001-05-31

    We investigated the influence of prey species and nutritional value, in terms of carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, on prey selection by the predatory microflagellate Paraphysomonas vestita. Experiments were conducted with two phytoplankton prey species of similar diameter to remove size-specific grazing effects. Live cells of both low and high C:N ratio (ranging from 4.8 to 14; N-replete and N-deplete, respectively) were offered to the predator either individually or in combination. By utilising analytical flow cytometry, we were able to enumerate the two prey species and, hence, study selective predation in the mixed-prey assemblage. In single prey experiments, the maximum observed ingestion rates were found to be higher, at all prey C:N ratios, when Isochrysis galbana was the prey item when compared to Pavlova lutheri, whilst maximum specific predator division rates were similar for both prey. Ingestion rates were influenced by prey nutrient status, higher values being observed with N-replete than N-deplete prey. When the two prey species were presented to P. vestita as a mixture, I. galbana was ingested more rapidly than P. lutheri, although ingestion was found to be suppressed when compared to when this was the sole prey species. Conversely, the presence of I. galbana did not influence the rate of ingestion of P. lutheri. P. vestita was, therefore, able to modify its rate of ingestion on the basis of prey type and prey C:N ratio and to discriminate between alternative prey of similar size in mixed-prey assemblages. PMID:11358573

  6. Coevolution can reverse predator-prey cycles.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

    2014-05-20

    A hallmark of Lotka-Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator-prey interactions, is that in predator-prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator-prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka-Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage-cholera, mink-muskrat, and gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator-prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator-prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

  7. Coevolution can reverse predator–prey cycles

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Michael H.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of Lotka–Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator–prey interactions, is that in predator–prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator–prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka–Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage–cholera, mink–muskrat, and gyrfalcon–rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator–prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator–prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

  8. Deterministic and Stochastic Analysis of a Prey-Dependent Predator-Prey System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiti, Alakes; Samanta, G. P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the deterministic and stochastic behaviours of a predator-prey system with prey-dependent response function. The first part of the paper deals with the deterministic analysis of uniform boundedness, permanence, stability and bifurcation. In the second part the reproductive and mortality factors of the prey and…

  9. Prey capture kinematics in batoids using different prey types: investigating the role of the cephalic lobes.

    PubMed

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2014-11-01

    Cephalic lobes are novel structures found in some myliobatid stingrays. While undulatory batoids utilize the pectoral fins for prey capture and locomotion, lobed species partition locomotion to the pectoral fins, utilizing the lobes exclusively for prey capture. We investigated the use of the anterior pectoral fins and cephalic lobes in prey capture in five batoid species. The purpose of this study was to investigate the: (1) prey capture kinematics and use of the cephalic lobes in lobed and lobeless batoids; (2) role of the cephalic lobes in modulating capture behavior based on prey type. It was hypothesized that lobed species would display unique capture behaviors resulting in faster and more successful capture of prey, and display greater modulation in capture behavior. Findings showed that lobed species used only the head region for capture, were faster at pouncing and tenting, but slower at mouth opening. The cephalic lobes were more movable than the anterior pectoral fins of lobeless species. Modulation occurred in all species. Elusive prey increased tent duration for the lobeless species, increased mouth opening duration in the lobed Aetobatus narinari, and were farther away from the mouth than non-elusive prey during biting for all species. All species had few prey escapes. Overall, species with cephalic lobes captured prey faster but did not display increased modulatory ability or feeding success. The cephalic lobes help localize prey capture to the head region, speeding up the prey capture event and maintaining an efficient capture rate despite having less flexible pectoral fins. PMID:25074721

  10. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  11. Availability of prey resources drives evolution of predator–prey interaction

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Ville-Petri; Hiltunen, Teppo; Laakso, Jouni; Kaitala, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Productivity is predicted to drive the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of predator–prey interaction through changes in resource allocation between different traits. Here we report results of an evolutionary experiment where prey bacteria Serratia marcescens was exposed to predatory protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila in low- and high-resource environments for approximately 2400 prey generations. Predation generally increased prey allocation to defence and caused prey selection lines to become more diverse. On average, prey became most defensive in the high-resource environment and suffered from reduced resource use ability more in the low-resource environment. As a result, the evolution of stronger prey defence in the high-resource environment led to a strong decrease in predator-to-prey ratio. Predation increased temporal variability of populations and traits of prey. However, this destabilizing effect was less pronounced in the high-resource environment. Our results demonstrate that prey resource availability can shape the trade-off allocation of prey traits, which in turn affects multiple properties of the evolving predator–prey system. PMID:18430643

  12. Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator Model Incorporating a Prey Refuge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kar, Tapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a prey-predator model incorporating a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…

  13. Controllability and Optimal Harvesting of a Prey-Predator Model Incorporating a Prey Refuge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kar, Tapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a prey-predator model incorporating a prey refuge and harvesting of the predator species. A mathematical analysis shows that prey refuge plays a crucial role for the survival of the species and that the harvesting effort on the predator may be used as a control to prevent the cyclic behaviour of the system. The optimal…

  14. Deterministic and Stochastic Analysis of a Prey-Dependent Predator-Prey System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiti, Alakes; Samanta, G. P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on studies of the deterministic and stochastic behaviours of a predator-prey system with prey-dependent response function. The first part of the paper deals with the deterministic analysis of uniform boundedness, permanence, stability and bifurcation. In the second part the reproductive and mortality factors of the prey and…

  15. "Prey Play": Learning about Predators and Prey through an Interactive, Role-Play Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia C. M.; Dodd, Kristen; Drennon, Katherine; Nagle, Jack

    2012-01-01

    "Prey Play" is an interactive role-play activity that provides fifth-grade students with opportunities to examine predator-prey interactions. This four-part, role-play activity allows students to take on the role of a predator and prey as they reflect on the behaviors animals exhibit as they collect food and interact with one another, as well as…

  16. Consequences of size structure in the prey for predator-prey dynamics: the composite functional response.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Volker H W

    2008-05-01

    1. Current formulations of functional responses assume that the prey is homogeneous and independent of intraspecific processes. Most prey populations consist of different coexisting size classes that often engage in asymmetrical intraspecific interactions, including cannibalism, which can lead to nonlinear interaction effects. This may be important as the size structure with the prey could alter the overall density-dependent predation rates. 2. In a field experiment with damselfly and dragonfly larvae, 16 treatments manipulated the density of a small prey stage, the presence of large conspecific prey and the presence of heterospecific predators. 3. Size structure in the prey (i.e. when both prey stages were present) decreased the impact of the predator on overall prey mortality by 25-48% at mid and high prey densities, possibly due to density-dependent size-structured cannibalism in the prey. The predation rates on small prey stages were determined by the interaction of large prey and predators. Predation rates increased with prey density in the absence of large prey, but predation rates were constant across densities when large conspecifics were present. 4. The functional response for unstructured prey followed a Holling type III model, but the predation rate for size-structured prey was completely different and followed a complex pattern that could not be explained with any standard functional response. 5. Using additional laboratory experiments, a mortality model was developed and parameterized. It showed that the overall prey mortality of size-structured prey can be adequately predicted with a composite functional response model that modelled the individual functional responses of each prey stage separately and accounted for their cannibalistic interaction. 6. Thus, treating a prey population as a homogeneous entity will lead to erroneous predictions in most real-world food webs. However, if we account for the effects of size structure and the intraspecific interactions on functional responses by treating size classes as different functional groups, it is possible to reliably predict the dynamics of size-structured predator-prey systems. PMID:18284478

  17. Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  18. 2D immunoblots show differential response of mouse IgG and IgM antibodies to antigens of mammary carcinoma 4 T1 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunosuppression in breast cancer has been reported in women and in the highly metastatic mouse mammary tumor model 4 T1. The immunosuppressive environment complicates the use of the humoral response against the tumor as an immunodiagnostic tool. IgM has not been used in immunodiagnostic in part because its antitumor responses, both innate and adaptive, have not been studied in function of time in breast cancer. We show a new approach to analyzing the mouse humoral immune response, and compare the evolution with time of IgG and IgM responses against the antigens of 4 T1 cells. Methods The study is based on 2-dimensional immunoblotting detection of antigens from 4 T1 cells by the IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum of female mice injected with 4 T1 cells. Results There was a high variability in the intra-and inter-mouse response. Variability in the IgM response was manifested as a pattern of spots that could become a multibinomial variable of 0 and 1, which could represent a signature of the immune response. Different numbers of spots was found in the IgG and IgM responses from week 1 to 5. On average, the IgM had more but the IgG response decrease with the time. The natural IgM at t = 0 responds stronger than w1; the adaptive response of both IgM and IgG were elicited where, with the former being stronger better than the latter. Antigens that are recognized by some female mice in the first week are also recognized by other female mice at time 0. Contamination of the natural IgM makes difficult use the adaptive IgM as a tool for immunodiagnostic. Conclusions IgM and IgG response varied with the time and individuals. Spot variation in 2D pattern for the natural IgM could be expressed as a binomial signature, which opens up the way to correlate a particular pattern with resistance or susceptibility. This uncovers a battery of IgMs for each individual to confront cancer or infections. The possibility to differentiate between adaptive IgM antibodies from the natural IgM will allow investigation of the adaptive IgM for early immunodiagnosis. PMID:24467921

  19. Shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman; Mills, M G L

    2008-04-01

    Shifting prey selection has been identified as a mechanism potentially regulating predator-prey interactions, but it may also lead to different outcomes, especially in more complex systems with multiple prey species available. We assessed changing prey selection by lions, the major predator for 12 large herbivore species in South Africa's Kruger National Park. The database was provided by records of found carcasses ascribed to kills by lions assembled over 70 years, coupled with counts of changing prey abundance extending over 30 years. Wildebeest and zebra constituted the most favored prey species during the early portion of the study period, while selection for buffalo rose in the south of the park after a severe drought increased their vulnerability. Rainfall had a negative influence on the proportional representation of buffalo in lion kills, but wildebeest and zebra appeared less susceptible to being killed under conditions of low rainfall. Selection by lions for alternative prey species, including giraffe, kudu, waterbuck, and warthog, was influenced by the changing relative abundance and vulnerability of the three principal prey species. Simultaneous declines in the abundance of rarer antelope species were associated with a sharp increase in selection for these species at a time when all three principal prey species were less available. Hence shifting prey selection by lions affected the dynamics of herbivore populations in different ways: promoting contrasting responses by principal prey species to rainfall variation, while apparently being the main cause of sharp declines by alternative prey species under certain conditions. Accordingly, adaptive responses by predators, to both the changing relative abundance of the principal prey species, and other conditions affecting the relative vulnerability of various species, should be taken into account to understand the interactive dynamics of multispecies predator-prey webs. PMID:18481536

  20. Prey perception of predation risk: volatile chemical cues mediate non-consumptive effects of a predator on a herbivorous insect.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Sara L; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey in two ways-by reducing their density (consumptive effects) or by changing their behavior, physiology or other phenotypic traits (non-consumptive effects). Understanding the cues and sensory modalities prey use to detect predators is critical for predicting the strength of non-consumptive effects and the outcome of predator-prey encounters. While predator-associated cues have been well studied in aquatic systems, less is known about how terrestrial prey, particularly insect larvae, detect their predators. We evaluated how Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, larvae perceive predation risk by isolating cues from its stink bug predator, the spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris. When exposed to male "risk" predators that were surgically manipulated so they could hunt but not kill, beetles reduced feeding 29% compared to controls. Exposure to risk females caused an intermediate response. Beetles ate 24% less on leaves pre-exposed to predators compared to leaves never exposed to predators, indicating that tactile and visual cues are not required for the prey's response. Volatile odor cues from predators reduced beetle feeding by 10% overall, although male predators caused a stronger reduction than females. Finally, visual cues from the predator had a weak effect on beetle feeding. Because multiple cues appear to be involved in prey perception of risk, and because male and female predators have differential effects, beetle larvae likely experience tremendous variation in the information about risk from their local environment. PMID:25234373

  1. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm. PMID:23696970

  2. IgA nephropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worse slowly over many years (chronic glomerulonephritis). Risk factors include: A personal or family history of IgA nephropathy or Henoch Schonlein purpura , a form of vasculitis that affects many parts of the body Caucasian or Asian ...

  3. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, Vicente; Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.

  4. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    PubMed

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. PMID:26026881

  5. IGS Network Coordinator Report - 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Angelyn

    2004-01-01

    The IGS network is a set of permanent, continuously-operating, dual-frequency GPS stations operated by over 100 worldwide agencies. The dataset is pooled at IGS Data Centers for routine use by IGS Analysis Centers in creating precise IGS products, as well as free access by other analysts around the world. The IGS Central Bureau hosts the IGS Network Coordinator, who assures adherence to standards and provides information regarding the IGS network via the Central Bureau Information System website at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov.

  6. Predators' decisions to eat defended prey depend on the size of undefended prey.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2013-06-01

    Predators that have learned to associate warning coloration with toxicity often continue to include aposematic prey in their diet in order to gain the nutrients and energy that they contain. As body size is widely reported to correlate with energetic content, we predicted that prey size would affect predators' decisions to eat aposematic prey. We used a well-established system of wild-caught European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, foraging on mealworms, Tenebrio molitor, to test how the size of undefended (water-injected) and defended (quinine-injected) prey, on different coloured backgrounds, affected birds' decisions to eat defended prey. We found that birds ate fewer defended prey, and less quinine, when undefended prey were large compared with when they were small, but that the size of the defended prey had no effect on the numbers eaten. Consequently, we found no evidence that the mass of the defended prey or the overall mass of prey ingested affected the amount of toxin that a predator was willing to ingest, and instead the mass of undefended prey eaten was more important. This is a surprising finding, challenging the assumptions of state-dependent models of aposematism and mimicry, and highlighting the need to understand better the mechanisms of predator decision making. In addition, the birds did not learn to discriminate visually between defended and undefended prey based on size, but only on the basis of colour. This suggests that colour signals may be more salient to predators than size differences, allowing Batesian mimics to benefit from aposematic models even when they differ in size. PMID:23814280

  7. Predators' decisions to eat defended prey depend on the size of undefended prey?

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Christina G.; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2013-01-01

    Predators that have learned to associate warning coloration with toxicity often continue to include aposematic prey in their diet in order to gain the nutrients and energy that they contain. As body size is widely reported to correlate with energetic content, we predicted that prey size would affect predators' decisions to eat aposematic prey. We used a well-established system of wild-caught European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, foraging on mealworms, Tenebrio molitor, to test how the size of undefended (water-injected) and defended (quinine-injected) prey, on different coloured backgrounds, affected birds’ decisions to eat defended prey. We found that birds ate fewer defended prey, and less quinine, when undefended prey were large compared with when they were small, but that the size of the defended prey had no effect on the numbers eaten. Consequently, we found no evidence that the mass of the defended prey or the overall mass of prey ingested affected the amount of toxin that a predator was willing to ingest, and instead the mass of undefended prey eaten was more important. This is a surprising finding, challenging the assumptions of state-dependent models of aposematism and mimicry, and highlighting the need to understand better the mechanisms of predator decision making. In addition, the birds did not learn to discriminate visually between defended and undefended prey based on size, but only on the basis of colour. This suggests that colour signals may be more salient to predators than size differences, allowing Batesian mimics to benefit from aposematic models even when they differ in size. PMID:23814280

  8. Predator-prey molecular ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Teruo; Rondelez, Yannick

    2013-01-22

    Biological organisms use intricate networks of chemical reactions to control molecular processes and spatiotemporal organization. In turn, these living systems are embedded in self-organized structures of larger scales, for example, ecosystems. Synthetic in vitro efforts have reproduced the architectures and behaviors of simple cellular circuits. However, because all these systems share the same dynamic foundations, a generalized molecular programming strategy should also support complex collective behaviors, as seen, for example, in animal populations. We report here the bottom-up assembly of chemical systems that reproduce in vitro the specific dynamics of ecological communities. We experimentally observed unprecedented molecular behaviors, including predator-prey oscillations, competition-induced chaos, and symbiotic synchronization. These synthetic systems are tailored through a novel, compact, and versatile design strategy, leveraging the programmability of DNA interactions under the precise control of enzymatic catalysis. Such self-organizing assemblies will foster a better appreciation of the molecular origins of biological complexity and may also serve to orchestrate complex collective operations of molecular agents in technological applications. PMID:23176248

  9. Are lemmings prey or predators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchin, P.; Oksanen, L.; Ekerholm, P.; Oksanen, T.; Henttonen, H.

    2000-06-01

    Large oscillations in the populations of Norwegian lemmings have mystified both professional ecologists and lay public. Ecologists suspect that these oscillations are driven by a trophic mechanism: either an interaction between lemmings and their food supply, or an interaction between lemmings and their predators. If lemming cycles are indeed driven by a trophic interaction, can we tell whether lemmings act as the resource (`prey') or the consumer (`predator')? In trophic interaction models, peaks of resource density generally have a blunt, rounded shape, whereas peaks of consumer density are sharp and angular. Here we have applied several statistical tests to three lemming datasets and contrasted them with comparable data for cyclic voles. We find that vole peaks are blunt, consistent with their cycles being driven by the interaction with predators. In contrast, the shape of lemming peaks is consistent with the hypothesis that lemmings are functional predators, that is, their cycles are driven by their interaction with food plants. Our findings suggest that a single mechanism, such as interaction between rodents and predators, is unlikely to provide the `universal' explanation of all cyclic rodent dynamics.

  10. Visual illusions in predator-prey interactions: birds find moving patterned prey harder to catch.

    PubMed

    Hämäläinen, Liisa; Valkonen, Janne; Mappes, Johanna; Rojas, Bibiana

    2015-09-01

    Several antipredator strategies are related to prey colouration. Some colour patterns can create visual illusions during movement (such as motion dazzle), making it difficult for a predator to capture moving prey successfully. Experimental evidence about motion dazzle, however, is still very scarce and comes only from studies using human predators capturing moving prey items in computer games. We tested a motion dazzle effect using for the first time natural predators (wild great tits, Parus major). We used artificial prey items bearing three different colour patterns: uniform brown (control), black with elongated yellow pattern and black with interrupted yellow pattern. The last two resembled colour patterns of the aposematic, polymorphic dart-poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius. We specifically tested whether an elongated colour pattern could create visual illusions when combined with straight movement. Our results, however, do not support this hypothesis. We found no differences in the number of successful attacks towards prey items with different patterns (elongated/interrupted) moving linearly. Nevertheless, both prey types were significantly more difficult to catch compared to the uniform brown prey, indicating that both colour patterns could provide some benefit for a moving individual. Surprisingly, no effect of background (complex vs. plain) was found. This is the first experiment with moving prey showing that some colour patterns can affect avian predators' ability to capture moving prey, but the mechanisms lowering the capture rate are still poorly understood. PMID:25947086

  11. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour. PMID:23405121

  12. Seasonal Diet and Prey Preference of the African Lion in a Waterhole-Driven Semi-Arid Savanna

    PubMed Central

    Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Hunt, Jane E.; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs’ index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group “medium Bovidae” are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs’ index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour. PMID:23405121

  13. IgE immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gould, Hannah J; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    The importance of antibodies in activating immune responses against tumors is now better appreciated with the emergence of checkpoint blockade antibodies and with engineered antibody Fc domains featuring enhanced capacity to focus potent effector cells against cancer cells. Antibodies designed with Fc regions of the IgE class can confer natural, potent, long-lived immune surveillance in tissues through tenacious engagement of high-affinity cognate Fc receptors on distinct, often tumor-resident immune effector cells, and through ability to activate these cells under tumor-induced Th2-biased conditions. Here, we review the properties that make IgE a contributor to the allergic response and a critical player in the protection against parasites, which also support IgE as a novel anti-cancer modality. We discuss IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches in disparate in vitro and in vivo model systems, collectively suggesting the potential of IgE immunotherapies in oncology. Translation toward clinical application is now in progress. PMID:24423620

  14. Secondary IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Pouria, Shideh; Barratt, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common pattern of primary glomerulonephritis seen in the Western world. In the majority of cases the cause remains unknown. Cases of familial IgAN and secondary IgAN have been reported and these have provided insights into underlying genetic and environmental triggers for this common glomerular disease. Secondary IgAN is seen most commonly in patients with liver disease or mucosal inflammation, in particular affecting the gastrointestinal tract. A number of dietary and microbial antigens have been identified in circulating IgA immune complexes and mesangial IgA deposits, suggesting that environmental factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of IgAN. There is an increasing literature reporting associations between IgAN and other diseases. Whether these reports represent chance associations or genuine shared pathophysiology is discussed. PMID:18222344

  15. Cross-modality effects of prey odour during the intraspecific interactions of a mosquito-specialist predator.

    PubMed

    Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

    2014-06-01

    One of the predictions from evolutionary game theory is that individuals will increase their willingness (i.e., become primed) to escalate aggression when they detect the presence of a limiting resource. Here we test this prediction in the context of prey odour priming escalation decisions during vision-based encounters by Evarcha culicivora. This East African jumping spider (Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Unlike many salticid species, it also expresses pronounced mutual mate choice. As predicted, we show here that, in the presence of odour from their preferred prey, both sexes of E. culicivora escalate during vision-based same-sex encounters. This is further evidence that the odour of blood-carrying mosquitoes is salient to this salticid. For both sexes of E. culicivora, this particular prey may be a resource that matters in the context of intrasexual selection. PMID:24839338

  16. Cross-modality effects of prey odour during the intraspecific interactions of a mosquito-specialist predator

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Fiona R.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    One of the predictions from evolutionary game theory is that individuals will increase their willingness (i.e., become primed) to escalate aggression when they detect the presence of a limiting resource. Here we test this prediction in the context of prey odour priming escalation decisions during vision-based encounters by Evarcha culicivora. This East African jumping spider (Salticidae) feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by actively choosing blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Unlike many salticid species, it also expresses pronounced mutual mate choice. As predicted, we show here that, in the presence of odour from their preferred prey, both sexes of E. culicivora escalate during vision-based same-sex encounters. This is further evidence that the odour of blood-carrying mosquitoes is salient to this salticid. For both sexes of E. culicivora, this particular prey may be a resource that matters in the context of intrasexual selection. PMID:24839338

  17. [IgM myeloma].

    PubMed

    Roujeau, J C; Bisson, M; Segond, P; Massias, P

    1976-11-23

    The authors report the case of a 62 year old woman in whom bony pain led to the discovery of lacunar osteolytic appearances, in particular in the skull, abnormal medullary plasmacytosis and serum monoclonal immunoglobulin with Bence-Jones proteinuria. The case was unusual as the immunoglobulin observed was an IgM. This finding led the authors to a critical revision of the distinctive characteristics of multiple myeloma and Waldenström's macro-globulinemia, emphasizing the distinguishing value of the cytological criterion. The authors recall the various neoplastic proliferations of the B lymphocytes at the various stages of their maturation and emphasize the predominance of monoclonal IgM during proliferations affecting the early stages of maturation of the B lymphocytes and the rareness of these IgM during plasma cell neoplasms. PMID:188179

  18. Porpoises: From predators to prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leopold, Mardik F.; Begeman, Lineke; Heße, Eileen; van der Hiele, Jaap; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Keijl, Guido; Meesters, Erik H.; Mielke, Lara; Verheyen, Dorien; Gröne, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Along the Dutch shores hundreds of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena are stranded each year. A recurrent phenomenon in the Netherlands is a surge of strandings in late winter and early spring of severely mutilated porpoises, that are mostly in good nutritional body condition (thick blubber layer). These mutilated porpoises have parts of the skin and blubber, and sometimes of the muscle tissue missing. By reviewing photographs of stranded animals taken at the stranding sites as well as autopsy results we found 273 mutilated animals from 2005 to 2012. Mutilations could be classified into several categories, but wounds had been mostly inflicted to the sides of these animals, in a zigzag fashion, or to the throat/cheek region. The stomach contents of 31 zigzags, 12 throats/cheeks and 31 control animals that were not mutilated, from the same age and blubber thickness categories were compared; all these animals had stranded between December and April, 2006-2012. The diet of individuals with zigzag lesions to their sides consisted for a large part of gobies, while animals that had wounds at the throat/cheek had been feeding predominately on clupeids. In comparison, animals without mutilations had a more varied diet, including gobies and clupeids, but also a large proportion of sandeels and gadoids. The finding that the type of mutilation corresponds to a certain diet suggests that porpoises that were feeding on different prey, or in different micro-habitats, were hit in different ways. Animals feeding at the sea floor (on gobies) apparently run a risk of being hit from the side, while animals supposedly feeding higher in the water column (on schooling clupeids), were predominantly hit from below, in the throat region. The wider variation in the diets of non-mutilated porpoises is suggestive of them using a larger variety of micro-habitats.

  19. IGS Data Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey

    2006-01-01

    The IGS analysis centers and user community in general need to be assured that the data centers archive a consistent set of files. Changes to the archives can occur because of the re-publishing of data, the transmission of historic data, and the resulting re-distribution (or lack thereof) of these data from data center to data center. To ensure the quality of the archives, a defined data flow and method of archive population needs to be established. This poster will diagram and review the current IGS data flow, discuss problems that have occurred, and provide recommendations for improvement.

  20. Predator prey interactions of Procambarus clarkii with aquatic macroinvertebrates in single and multiple prey systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Alexandra Marçal; Bandeira, Nuno; Anastácio, Pedro Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Understanding the interspecific interactions of Procambarus clarkii with other aquatic macroinvertebrates will help to unveil the mechanisms and processes underlying biological invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate predator-prey interactions of two ontogenic phases of P. clarkii with native and exotic species of aquatic macroinvertebrates at a single and multiple prey level. We performed laboratory experiments to determine the consumption and the behavioral responses of Chironomus riparius, Physa acuta and Corbicula fluminea to P. clarkii. The presence of P. clarkii significantly affected the abundance of C. riparius and P. acuta, but not of C. fluminea whether prey species were provided singly or simultaneously. The consumption of C. riparius by P. clarkii was higher than P. acuta for both crayfish sizes and situations (single/multiple prey systems) and C. fluminea was never consumed. Physa acuta was the only species that exhibited an anti-predator behavior to P. clarkii. Our results show that P. clarkii can have strong consumptive and trait effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate prey at a single and multiple prey level, resulting in differential impacts on different prey species. This study clarifies some aspects of the predator-prey interactions between P. clarkii and native as well as other exotic macroinvertebrate species that have invaded freshwater biocenosis worldwide.

  1. Restructuring fundamental predator-prey models by recognising prey-dependent conversion efficiency and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Montagnes, David J S

    2015-05-01

    Incorporating protozoa into population models (from simple predator-prey explorations to complex food web simulations) is of conceptual, ecological, and economic importance. From theoretical and empirical perspectives, we expose unappreciated complexity in the traditional predator-prey model structure and provide a parsimonious solution, especially for protistologists. We focus on how prey abundance alters two key components of models: predator conversion efficiency (e, the proportion of prey converted to predator, before mortality loss) and predator mortality (?, the portion of the population lost though death). Using a well-established model system (Paramecium and Didinium), we collect data to parameterize a range of existing and novel population models that differ in the functional forms of e and ?. We then compare model simulations to an empirically obtained time-series of predator-prey population dynamics. The analysis indicates that prey-dependent e and ? should be considered when structuring population models and that both prey and predator biomass also vary with prey abundance. Both of these impact the ability of the model to predict population dynamics and, therefore, should be included in theoretical model evaluations and assessment of ecosystem dynamics associated with biomass flux. PMID:25819465

  2. Role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Ma, Jian-Min; Ge, Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the role of IgG4 serology in identifying common orbital lymphoproliferative disorders. METHODS Eighty-one patients with orbital lymphoproliferative diseases were treated in the Department of Ocular Oncology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University between September 2010 and December 2012. Serum IgG4 levels were measured in 46 cases of idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (IOIP), 17 benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL), 12 cases of orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), and 6 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) using immuno-scatter turbidmetry (ISTM). RESULTS The frequency of elevated IgG4 levels in patients with IOIP, BLEL, MALT, and DLBL was 30.43% (14/46), 76.47% (13/17), 8.33% (1/12), and 0.00 (0/6), respectively. Among the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels, all IgG-IOIP patients were male, and 92.31% of the IgG4-BLEL patients were female (12/13). The mean serum IgG4 level of IgG4-IOIP patients was lower than that of individuals with IgG4-BLEL, but the variation in serum IgG4 levels was larger in IgG4-IOIP than IgG4-BLEL patients. Only one case of IgG4-MALT with elevated serum IgG4 levels had a medical history >10y, which was significantly longer than the MALT patients with normal serum IgG4 levels. There was no significant elevation of serum IgG4 levels in patients with DLBL. CONCLUSION Detecting serum IgG4 levels plays an important role in the differential diagnosis of orbital lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:26949650

  3. Is Tetranychus urticae suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve Coleomegilla maculata?

    PubMed

    Riddick, Eric W; Wu, Zhixin; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2014-02-01

    The lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata De Geer is an omnivorous predator that could help suppress aphid and spider mite populations on plants in greenhouses, plantscapes or interiorscapes. We are assessing the nutritional requirements and feeding behavior of C. maculata on target prey (spider mites) and factitious (unnatural) food. Our ultimate goal is to develop an efficacious diet to mass produce C. maculata. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that Tetranychus urticae Koch (two-spotted spider mite) is not suitable prey for development and reproduction of naïve C. maculata (i.e., with no prior exposure to T. urticae). Our objectives were to (i) provide baseline data on the effects of consuming T. urticae on C. maculata life history, (ii) to compare the effects of consuming all stages of T. urticae versus eggs of Musca domestica L. (common housefly), and (iii) to determine if the consumption of plant products was beneficial. We used C. maculata from a colony reared only on Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Mediterranean flour moth) eggs. In experiments, C. maculata larvae were reared from the first instar to adult stage with prey/food in replicated arenas; adult females were paired with a single male with prey/food. The results showed that naïve C. maculata readily attacked and consumed T. urticae. Nevertheless, T. urticae was less suitable than M. domestica eggs for C. maculata development and reproduction. Applying a synthetic pollen-Chlorella alga powder (SPCA) in arenas containing T. urticae appeared to boost C. maculata female development and reproduction. PMID:23955814

  4. An impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey for integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruiqing; Chen, Lansun

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey is investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. In the first part of the main results, we get the sufficient condition for the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the pest will be doomed. In the second part of the main results, we also get the sufficient condition for the permanence of the system. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the prey and the predator will coexist. In the last section, we interpret our mathematical results. We also point out some possible future work.

  5. Prey responses to predator chemical cues: disentangling the importance of the number and biomass of prey consumed.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael W; Touchon, Justin C; Landberg, Tobias; Warkentin, Karen M; Vonesh, James R

    2012-01-01

    To effectively balance investment in predator defenses versus other traits, organisms must accurately assess predation risk. Chemical cues caused by predation events are indicators of risk for prey in a wide variety of systems, but the relationship between how prey perceive risk in relation to the amount of prey consumed by predators is poorly understood. While per capita predation rate is often used as the metric of relative risk, studies aimed at quantifying predator-induced defenses commonly control biomass of prey consumed as the metric of risk. However, biomass consumed can change by altering either the number or size of prey consumed. In this study we determine whether phenotypic plasticity to predator chemical cues depends upon prey biomass consumed, prey number consumed, or both. We examine the growth response of red-eyed treefrog tadpoles (Agalychnis callidryas) to cues from a larval dragonfly (Anax amazili). Biomass consumed was manipulated by either increasing the number of prey while holding individual prey size constant, or by holding the number of prey constant and varying individual prey size. We address two questions. (i) Do prey reduce growth rate in response to chemical cues in a dose dependent manner? (ii) Does the magnitude of the response depend on whether prey consumption increases via number or size of prey? We find that the phenotypic response of prey is an asymptotic function of prey biomass consumed. However, the asymptotic response is higher when more prey are consumed. Our findings have important implications for evaluating past studies and how future experiments should be designed. A stronger response to predation cues generated by more individual prey deaths is consistent with models that predict prey sensitivity to per capita risk, providing a more direct link between empirical and theoretical studies which are often focused on changes in population sizes not individual biomass. PMID:23082171

  6. Prey Responses to Predator Chemical Cues: Disentangling the Importance of the Number and Biomass of Prey Consumed

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Michael W.; Touchon, Justin C.; Landberg, Tobias; Warkentin, Karen M.; Vonesh, James R.

    2012-01-01

    To effectively balance investment in predator defenses versus other traits, organisms must accurately assess predation risk. Chemical cues caused by predation events are indicators of risk for prey in a wide variety of systems, but the relationship between how prey perceive risk in relation to the amount of prey consumed by predators is poorly understood. While per capita predation rate is often used as the metric of relative risk, studies aimed at quantifying predator-induced defenses commonly control biomass of prey consumed as the metric of risk. However, biomass consumed can change by altering either the number or size of prey consumed. In this study we determine whether phenotypic plasticity to predator chemical cues depends upon prey biomass consumed, prey number consumed, or both. We examine the growth response of red-eyed treefrog tadpoles (Agalychnis callidryas) to cues from a larval dragonfly (Anax amazili). Biomass consumed was manipulated by either increasing the number of prey while holding individual prey size constant, or by holding the number of prey constant and varying individual prey size. We address two questions. (i) Do prey reduce growth rate in response to chemical cues in a dose dependent manner? (ii) Does the magnitude of the response depend on whether prey consumption increases via number or size of prey? We find that the phenotypic response of prey is an asymptotic function of prey biomass consumed. However, the asymptotic response is higher when more prey are consumed. Our findings have important implications for evaluating past studies and how future experiments should be designed. A stronger response to predation cues generated by more individual prey deaths is consistent with models that predict prey sensitivity to per capita risk, providing a more direct link between empirical and theoretical studies which are often focused on changes in population sizes not individual biomass. PMID:23082171

  7. Predator functional response and prey survival: direct and indirect interactions affecting a marked prey population.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A; Grand, James B; Fondell, Thomas F; Anthony, Michael

    2006-01-01

    1. Predation plays an integral role in many community interactions, with the number of predators and the rate at which they consume prey (i.e. their functional response) determining interaction strengths. Owing to the difficulty of directly observing predation events, attempts to determine the functional response of predators in natural systems are limited. Determining the forms that predator functional responses take in complex systems is important in advancing understanding of community interactions. 2. Prey survival has a direct relationship to the functional response of their predators. We employed this relationship to estimate the functional response for bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocepalus predation of Canada goose Branta canadensis nests. We compared models that incorporated eagle abundance, nest abundance and alternative prey presence to determine the form of the functional response that best predicted intra-annual variation in survival of goose nests. 3. Eagle abundance, nest abundance and the availability of alternative prey were all related to predation rates of goose nests by eagles. There was a sigmoidal relationship between predation rate and prey abundance and prey switching occurred when alternative prey was present. In addition, predation by individual eagles increased as eagle abundance increased. 4. A complex set of interactions among the three species examined in this study determined survival rates of goose nests. Results show that eagle predation had both prey- and predator-dependent components with no support for ratio dependence. In addition, indirect interactions resulting from the availability of alternative prey had an important role in mediating the rate at which eagles depredated nests. As a result, much of the within-season variation in nest survival was due to changing availability of alternative prey consumed by eagles. 5. Empirical relationships drawn from ecological theory can be directly integrated into the estimation process to determine the mechanisms responsible for variation in observed survival rates. The relationship between predator functional response and prey survival offers a flexible and robust method to advance our understanding of predator-prey interactions in many complex natural systems where prey populations are marked and regularly visited. PMID:16903047

  8. Predator functional response and prey survival: Direct and indirect interactions affecting a marked prey population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Fondell, T.F.; Anthony, M.

    2006-01-01

    1. Predation plays an integral role in many community interactions, with the number of predators and the rate at which they consume prey (i.e. their functional response) determining interaction strengths. Owing to the difficulty of directly observing predation events, attempts to determine the functional response of predators in natural systems are limited. Determining the forms that predator functional responses take in complex systems is important in advancing understanding of community interactions. 2. Prey survival has a direct relationship to the functional response of their predators. We employed this relationship to estimate the functional response for bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocepalus predation of Canada goose Branta canadensis nests. We compared models that incorporated eagle abundance, nest abundance and alternative prey presence to determine the form of the functional response that best predicted intra-annual variation in survival of goose nests. 3. Eagle abundance, nest abundance and the availability of alternative prey were all related to predation rates of goose nests by eagles. There was a sigmoidal relationship between predation rate and prey abundance and prey switching occurred when alternative prey was present. In addition, predation by individual eagles increased as eagle abundance increased. 4. A complex set of interactions among the three species examined in this study determined survival rates of goose nests. Results show that eagle predation had both prey- and predator-dependent components with no support for ratio dependence. In addition, indirect interactions resulting from the availability of alternative prey had an important role in mediating the rate at which eagles depredated nests. As a result, much of the within-season variation in nest survival was due to changing availability of alternative prey consumed by eagles. 5. Empirical relationships drawn from ecological theory can be directly integrated into the estimation process to determine the mechanisms responsible for variation in observed survival rates. The relationship between predator functional response and prey survival offers a flexible and robust method to advance our understanding of predator-prey interactions in many complex natural systems where prey populations are marked and regularly visited. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  9. Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

  10. Active Touch During Shrew Prey Capture

    PubMed Central

    Munz, Martin; Brecht, Michael; Wolfe, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Although somatosensation in multiple whisker systems has been studied in considerable detail, relatively little information is available regarding whisker usage and movement patterns during natural behaviors. The Etruscan shrew, one of the smallest mammals, relies heavily on its whisker system to detect and kill its highly mobile insect prey. Here, we tracked whisker and body motion during prey capture. We found that shrews made periodic whisker movements (whisking) with frequencies ranging from 12 to 17?Hz. We compared shrew and rat whisking and found that shrew whisking was smaller amplitude and higher frequency than rat whisking, but that the shrew and rat whisking cycle were similar in that the velocity was higher during retraction than protraction. We were able to identify four phases during the shrew hunting behavior: (i) an immobile phase often preceding hunting, (ii) a search phase upon the initiation of hunting, (iii) a contact phase defined by whisker-to-cricket contact, and (iv) an attack phase, characterized by a rapid head movement directed toward the cricket. During the searching phase, whisking was generally rhythmic and whiskers were protracted forward. After prey contact, whisking amplitude decreased and became more variable. The final strike was associated with an abrupt head movement toward the prey with high head acceleration. Prey capture proceeded extremely fast and we obtained evidence that shrews can initiate corrective maneuvers with a minimal latency <30?ms. While the shrew's rostrum is straight and elongated during most behaviors, we show for the first time that shrews bend their rostrum during the final strike and grip their prey with a parrot beak shaped snout. PMID:21283557

  11. Effects of prey quality and predator body size on prey DNA detection success in a centipede predator.

    PubMed

    Eitzinger, B; Unger, E M; Traugott, M; Scheu, S

    2014-08-01

    Predator body size and prey quality are important factors driving prey choice and consumption rates. Both factors might affect prey detection success in PCR-based gut content analysis, potentially resulting in over- or underestimation of feeding rates. Experimental evidence, however, is scarce. We examined how body size and prey quality affect prey DNA detection success in centipede predators. Due to metabolic rates increasing with body size, we hypothesized that prey DNA detection intervals will be shorter in large predators than in smaller ones. Moreover, we hypothesized that prey detection intervals of high-quality prey, defined by low carbon-to-nitrogen ratio will be shorter than in low-quality prey due to faster assimilation. Small, medium and large individuals of centipedes Lithobius spp. (Lithobiidae, Chilopoda) were fed Collembola and allowed to digest prey for up to 168 h post-feeding. To test our second hypothesis, medium-sized lithobiids were fed with either Diptera or Lumbricidae. No significant differences in 50% prey DNA detection success time intervals for a 272-bp prey DNA fragment were found between the predator size groups, indicating that body size does not affect prey DNA detection success. Post-feeding detection intervals were significantly shorter in Lumbricidae and Diptera compared to Collembola prey, apparently supporting the second hypothesis. However, sensitivity of diagnostic PCR differed between prey types, and quantitative PCR revealed that concentration of targeted DNA varied significantly between prey types. This suggests that both DNA concentration and assay sensitivity need to be considered when assessing prey quality effects on prey DNA detection success. PMID:24383982

  12. Effect of light, prey density, and prey type on the feeding rates of Hemimysis anomala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halpin, Kathleen E.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Mureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala is a near-shore mysid native to the Ponto-Caspian region that was discovered to have invaded Great Lakes ecosystems in 2006. We investigated feeding rates and prey preferences of adult and juvenile Hemimysis in laboratory experiments to gain insight on the potential for Hemimysis to disrupt food webs. For both age groups (AGs), we measured feeding rates as a function of prey abundance (Bosmina longirostris as prey), prey type (B. longirostris, Daphnia pulex, and Mesocyclops sp.), and light levels (no light and dim light). Mean feeding rates on Bosmina increased with prey density and reached 23 ind. (2 h)−1 for adults and 17 ind. (2 h)−1 for juveniles. Dim light had little effect on prey selection or feeding rate compared to complete darkness. When feeding rates on alternate prey were compared, both AGs fed at higher rates on Bosmina than Daphnia, but only juveniles fed at significantly higher rates on Bosmina relative to Mesocyclops. No significant differences were observed between feeding rates on Mesocyclops and on Daphnia. Hemimysis feeding rates were on the order of 30–60% of their body weight per day, similar to predatory cladocerans that have been implicated in zooplankton declines in Lakes Huron and Ontario.

  13. Functional response of wolves preying on barren-ground caribou in a multiple-prey ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dale, B.W.; Adams, Layne G.; Bowyer, R.T.

    1994-01-01

    1. We investigated the functional response of wolves (Canis lupus) to varying abundance of ungulate prey to test the hypothesis that switching from alternate prey to preferred prey results in regulation of a caribou (Rangifer tarandus) population at low densities. 2. We determined prey selection, kill rates, and prey abundance for four wolf packs during three 30-day periods in March 1989, March 1990, November 1990, and created a simple discrete model to evaluate the potential for the expected numerical and observed functional responses of wolves to regulate caribou populations. 3. We observed a quickly decelerating type II functional response that, in the absence of numerical response, implicates an anti-regulatory effect of wolf predation on barren-ground caribou dynamics. 4. There was little potential for regulation caused by the multiplicative effect of increasing functional and numerical responses because of presence of alternative prey. This resulted in high wolf:caribou ratios at low prey densities which precluded the effects of an increasing functional response. 5. Inversely density-dependent predation by other predators, such as bears, reduces the potential for predators to regulate caribou populations at low densities, and small reductions in predation by one predator may have disproportionately large effects on the total predation rate.

  14. Nutrition for optimal predatory performance of adult female Orius insidiosus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in a female predator, Orius insidiosus, is a nutritionally stringent process. Adult females acquire the nutrition needed for egg development from their prey, and rates of egg development are dependent on nutrients acquired in that life stage. When released as a biological control agen...

  15. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice. PMID:25691089

  16. Prey aggregation is an effective olfactory predator avoidance strategy.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, Asa; Dunn, Alison M; Morrell, Lesley J

    2014-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b) detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation) experiments using a fish predator and (dead) chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water) led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues), aggregated (large groups) and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey-including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators. PMID:24918032

  17. Intrafamilial correlation analysis for IgM serum levels.

    PubMed Central

    Guízar-Vázquez, J; Saint-Martin, F P; Rostenberg, I; Suárez, P E; Armendares, S

    1977-01-01

    The IgM serum level was determined in the members of 29 healthy families. The IgM mean concentrations between fathers and mothers and between sons and daughters were significantly different (P less than .01), with higher serum IgM levels in females than in males. Simple linear regression analysis was done for the following intrafamilial combinations: son-father, daughter-father, son-mother, and daughter-mother. Significant correlation coefficients (P less than .05) were obtained in all four combinations, which does not support the X-linked gene hypothesis (i.e., that the X chromosome carries quantitative genes for immunoglobulin M). An alternative explanation for the differences between sexes for IgM serum concentration is considered. PMID:930923

  18. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism. PMID:24356181

  19. Arctic skate Amblyraja hyperborea preys on remarkably large glacial eelpouts Lycodes frigidus.

    PubMed

    Byrkjedal, I; Christiansen, J S; Karamushko, O V; Langhelle, G; Lynghammar, A

    2015-01-01

    During scientific surveys on the continental slopes north-west of Spitsbergen and off north-east Greenland (c. 600 and 1000?m depths), two female Arctic skates Amblyraja hyperborea were caught while swallowing extraordinary large individuals of glacial eelpout Lycodes frigidus. The total length (LT) of the prey constituted 50 and 80% of the LT of the skates, which reveal that A. hyperborea are capable predators of fishes of surprisingly large relative size. PMID:25413102

  20. Learning predator promotes coexistence of prey species in host-parasitoid systems.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu

    2012-03-27

    Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator-prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host-one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ∼20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host-parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator-prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature. PMID:22411808

  1. Learning predator promotes coexistence of prey species in host–parasitoid systems

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Yumiko; Shimada, Masakazu

    2012-01-01

    Ecological theory suggests that frequency-dependent predation, in which more common prey types are disproportionately favored, promotes the coexistence of competing prey species. However, many of the earlier empirical studies that investigated the effect of frequency-dependent predation were short-term and ignored predator–prey dynamics and system persistence. Therefore, we used long-term observation of population dynamics to test how frequency-dependent predation influences the dynamics and coexistence of competing prey species using insect laboratory populations. We established two-host–one-parasitoid populations with two bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis and C. maculatus, as the hosts and the pteromalid wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae as their common parasitoid. When the parasitoid was absent, C. chinensis was competitively excluded in ∼20 wk. Introducing the parasitoid greatly enhanced the coexistence time to a maximum of 118 wk. In the replicates of long-lasting coexistence, the two host species C. maculatus and C. chinensis exhibited periodic antiphase oscillations. Behavioral experiments showed frequency-dependent predation of A. calandrae that was caused by learning. Females of A. calandrae learned host-related olfactory cues during oviposition and increased their preference for the common host species. Numerical simulations showed that parasitoid learning was the essential mechanism that promoted persistence in this host–parasitoid system. Our study is an empirical demonstration that frequency-dependent predation has an important role in greatly enhancing the coexistence of prey populations, suggesting that predator learning affects predator–prey population dynamics and shapes biological communities in nature. PMID:22411808

  2. Human Activity Helps Prey Win the Predator-Prey Space Race

    PubMed Central

    Muhly, Tyler B.; Semeniuk, Christina; Massolo, Alessandro; Hickman, Laura; Musiani, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a “space race”, where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing predation risk, a trait-mediated indirect effect of humans that spatially decouples predators from prey. The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that high-human activity was displacing predators and thus indirectly creating spatial refuge for prey species, helping prey win the “space race”. We measured the occurrence of eleven large mammal species (including humans and cattle) at 43 camera traps deployed on roads and trails in southwest Alberta, Canada. We tested species co-occurrence at camera sites using hierarchical cluster and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) analyses; and tested whether human activity, food and/or habitat influenced predator and prey species counts at camera sites using regression tree analysis. Cluster and NMS analysis indicated that at camera sites humans co-occurred with prey species more than predator species and predator species had relatively low co-occurrence with prey species. Regression tree analysis indicated that prey species were three times more abundant on roads and trails with >32 humans/day. However, predators were less abundant on roads and trails that exceeded 18 humans/day. Our results support the hypothesis that high-human activity displaced predators but not prey species, creating spatial refuge from predation. High-human activity on roads and trails (i.e., >18 humans/day) has the potential to interfere with predator-prey interactions via trait-mediated direct and indirect effects. We urge scientist and managers to carefully consider and quantify the trait-mediated indirect effects of humans, in addition to direct effects, when assessing human impacts on wildlife and ecosystems. PMID:21399682

  3. Reference Intervals for Serum Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA, IgM and Complements C3 and C4 in Iranian Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Kardar, GA; Oraei, M; Shahsavani, M; Namdar, Z; Kazemisefat, GE; Haghi Ashtiani, MT; Shams, S; Pourpak, Z; Moin, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Determination of reference ranges of each serum protein in normal population of each country is required for studies and clinical interpretation. The aim of this study was defining reference range values of immunoglobulins and complement components in Iranian healthy children. Methods: This study was conducted from June 2003 to June 2006 in Immunology, Asthma and Allergy Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, C3 and C4 in 800 Iranian healthy children from newborn to 18 years of age in four population were measured by nephelometry. Kolmogrov-Smirnov tests and Pearson correlation tests were used for analysis. Results: Our results mainly agree with previous reports, except for some discrepancy that might be due to the ethnic and geographic variety. There was a significant difference between two sexes only with IgA in the group of 1–3 months old, which was higher in male group and IgM in groups of 3–5, 6–8 and 9–11 years old that were higher in female groups. Mean of other serum immunoglobulins and complements was not significantly different between male and female groups. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a local reference for use in laboratories, clinical interpretations, and research for Iranian children. PMID:23113211

  4. Size-dependent suitability of two mirids as prey for the cursorial spider Hibana futilis (Araneae: Anyphaenidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of 2nd and 4th instars and adult females of the cursorial spider, Hibana futilis (Banks), to prey on different stages of two mirid pests of cotton was examined. Small nymphs, large nymphs, and adults of the cotton fleahopper, Pseudomatoscelis seriatus (Reuter) and Creontiades signatus (...

  5. Prey escaping wolves, Canis lupus, despite close proximity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe attacks by wolf (Canis lupus) packs in Minnesota on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and a moose (Alces alces) in which wolves were within contact distance of the prey but in which the prey escaped.

  6. Foraging technique and prey-handling time in black-necked stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus).

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Gopinathan; Rahmani, Asad R

    2008-12-01

    The foraging technique and prey-handling time of the black-necked stork (Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus) was studied in Dudhwa National Park, India, from January 1996 to June 1997. The habitat in which the storks foraged played an important role in selecting a particular technique to procure food. Black-necked storks mostly foraged using a tactile technique (>90%), but sometimes foraged visually. When the water level was estimated to be less than 60 cm, the storks foraged using tactile techniques. There was no difference in the feeding techniques of male and female storks. Foraging attempt rates varied between the sexes in summer (May) and during late winter (February) in 1997. The search time for prey increased when the water level was high and fish were widely distributed. Decreases in water level resulted in concentration offish in certain areas and this contributed to high fish-catching rates by black-necked storks. Males had a higher success rate offish capture than females. However, females captured longer fish than males. Prey-handling time increased in both sexes as fish length increased. Fish 4-6 cm long were most frequently taken by the foraging storks. PMID:21396077

  7. Diet, prey delivery rates, and prey biomass of Northern Goshawks in East-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, A.S.; DeStefano, S.; Ingraldi, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    Recent concern over persistence of Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) populations in Arizona has stemmed from two long-term demography studies that report substantial yearly fluctuations in productivity and evidence of a declining population. Although many factors could be involved in changes in productivity and population declines, availability of food is one such factor. As part of a demography study on the Sitgreaves portion of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in Arizona, we used remote cameras to assess diets of goshawks. Northern Goshawks preyed upon 22 species during two nesting seasons. Adult pairs tended to specialize on particular species of prey. Prey delivery rates decreased throughout the nesting season with a corresponding increase in biomass in the latter stages of the nestling and fledgling periods. Adults appeared to take larger prey as nestlings increased in age.

  8. Strong antiapostatic selection against novel rare aposematic prey

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Leena; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Lyytinen, Anne; Mappes, Johanna

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of aposematism, a phenomenon where prey species conspicuously advertise their unprofitability to predators, is puzzling. How did conspicuousness evolve, if it simultaneously increased the likelihood of an inexperienced predator to detect the prey and presumably kill it? Antiapostatic selection, where rare prey is predated relatively more often, is considered as another major difficulty for aposematism to evolve. However, the risk of being conspicuous in low frequencies has not been experimentally tested. We designed an experiment to test how frequency (4%, 12%, 32%) of conspicuous aposematic prey and its dispersion type (solitary vs. aggregated) affect an initial predation risk of the prey and in avoidance learning of predators. Wild great tits (Parus major) were predators on artificial prey in a “novel world.” The relative mortality of aposematic prey was antiapostatic, thus the frequency-dependent predation was most severe at low frequencies. In all frequencies, aggregated aposematic prey survived better than solitary prey. Surprisingly, learning was not determined by a fixed number of unpalatable prey eaten, but at low frequencies fewer aposematic individuals eaten generated predators' avoidance learning. However, per-capita risk for the prey remained highest at low frequencies. Our results underscore the problems of initial evolution of rare conspicuous morphs. Aggregated prey suffered less from predation, indicating selective advantage of aggregation over solitary living for a conspicuous individual. PMID:11459937

  9. Transient dynamics and the destabilizing effects of prey heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Christopher F; Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena

    2012-03-01

    The presence of prey heterogeneity and weakly interacting prey species is frequently viewed as a stabilizer of predator-prey dynamics, countering the destabilizing effects of enrichment and reducing the amplitude of population cycles. However, prior model explorations have largely focused on long-term, dynamic attractors rather than transient dynamics. Recent theoretical work shows that the presence of prey that are defended from predation can have strongly divergent effects on dynamics depending on time scale: prey heterogeneity can counteract the destabilizing effects of enrichment on predator-prey dynamics at long time scales but strongly destabilize systems during transient phases by creating long periods of low predator/prey abundance and increasing extinction probability (an effect that is amplified with increasing enrichment). We tested these general predictions using a planktonic system composed of a zooplankton predator and multiple algal prey. We first parameterized a model of our system to generate predictions and tested these experimentally. Our results qualitatively supported several model predictions. During transient phases, presence of defended algal prey increased predator extinctions at low and high enrichment levels compared to systems with only a single edible prey. This destabilizing effect was moderated at higher dilution rates, as predicted by our model. When examining dynamics beyond initial oscillations, presence of the defended prey increased predator-prey temporal variability at high nutrient enrichment but had no effect at low nutrient levels. Our results highlight the importance of considering transient dynamics when assessing the role of stabilizing factors on the dynamics of food webs. PMID:22624217

  10. Prey aggregation is an effective olfactory predator avoidance strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Alison M.; Morrell, Lesley J.

    2014-01-01

    Predator–prey interactions have a major effect on species abundance and diversity, and aggregation is a well-known anti-predator behaviour. For immobile prey, the effectiveness of aggregation depends on two conditions: (a) the inability of the predator to consume all prey in a group and (b) detection of a single large group not being proportionally easier than that of several small groups. How prey aggregation influences predation rates when visual cues are restricted, such as in turbid water, has not been thoroughly investigated. We carried out foraging (predation) experiments using a fish predator and (dead) chironomid larvae as prey in both laboratory and field settings. In the laboratory, a reduction in visual cue availability (in turbid water) led to a delay in the location of aggregated prey compared to when visual cues were available. Aggregated prey suffered high mortality once discovered, leading to better survival of dispersed prey in the longer term. We attribute this to the inability of the dead prey to take evasive action. In the field (where prey were placed in feeding stations that allowed transmission of olfactory but not visual cues), aggregated (large groups) and semi-dispersed prey survived for longer than dispersed prey—including long term survival. Together, our results indicate that similar to systems where predators hunt using vision, aggregation is an effective anti-predator behaviour for prey avoiding olfactory predators. PMID:24918032

  11. Molecular assessment of heterotrophy and prey digestion in zooxanthellate cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Leal, M C; Nejstgaard, J C; Calado, R; Thompson, M E; Frischer, M E

    2014-08-01

    Zooxanthellate cnidarians are trophically complex, relying on both autotrophy and heterotrophy. Although several aspects of heterotrophy have been studied in these organisms, information linking prey capture with digestion is still missing. We used prey-specific PCR-based tools to assess feeding and prey digestion of two zooxanthellate cnidarians - the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and the scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula. Prey DNA disappeared rapidly for the initial 1-3 days, whereas complete digestion of prey DNA required up to 10 days in O. arbuscula and 5 or 6 days in Aiptasia sp. depending on prey species. These digestion times are considerably longer than previously reported from microscopy-based examination of zooxanthellate cnidarians and prey DNA breakdown in other marine invertebrates, but similar to prey DNA breakdown reported from terrestrial invertebrates such as heteroptera and spiders. Deprivation of external prey induced increased digestion rates during the first days after feeding in O. arbuscula, but after 6 days of digestion, there were no differences in the remaining prey levels in fed and unfed corals. This study indicates that prey digestion by symbiotic corals may be slower than previously reported and varies with the type of prey, the cnidarian species and its feeding history. These observations have important implications for bioenergetic and trophodynamic studies on zooxanthellate cnidarians. PMID:24118448

  12. Tennis, incidence of URTI and salivary IgA.

    PubMed

    Novas, A M P; Rowbottom, D G; Jenkins, D G

    2003-04-01

    Tennis played at an elite level requires intensive training characterized by repeated bouts of brief intermittent high intensity exercise over relatively long periods of time (1 - 3 h or more). Competition can place additional stress on players. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal association between specific components of tennis training and competition, the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), and salivary IgA, in a cohort of seventeen elite female tennis players. Timed, whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after selected 1-h training sessions at 2 weekly intervals, over 12 weeks. Salivary IgA concentration was measured by ELISA and IgA secretion rate calculated (microg IgA x ml -1 x ml saliva x min -1). Players reported URTI symptoms and recorded training and competition in daily logs. Data analysis showed that higher incidence of URTI was significantly associated with increased training duration and load, and competition level, on a weekly basis. Salivary IgA secretion rate (S-IgA) dropped significantly after 1 hour of tennis play. Over the 12-week period, pre-exercise salivary IgA concentration and secretion rate were directly associated with the amount of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). However, the decline in S-IgA after 1 h of intense tennis play was also positively related to the duration and load of training undertaken during the previous day and week (p < 0.05). Although exercise-induced suppression of salivary IgA may be a risk factor, it could not accurately predict the occurrence of URTI in this cohort of athletes. PMID:12740744

  13. CSF IgA NMDAR antibodies are potential biomarkers for teratomas in anti-NMDAR encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Desestret, Virginie; Chefdeville, Aude; Viaccoz, Aurélien; Bost, Chloe; Ducray, François; Picard, Géraldine; Rogemond, Veronique; Chaffois, Marie-Oceane; Blanc, Charlotte; Bardel, Claire; Treilleux, Isabelle; Pascual, Olivier; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) subtype of anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antibodies (IgA-NMDAR-Abs) in the CSF of patients with immunoglobulin G (IgG)-NMDAR-Ab encephalitis and to describe the potential association with a specific clinical pattern. Methods: The retrospective analysis for the presence of IgA-NMDAR-Abs in 94 CSF samples from patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis diagnosed between October 2007 and February 2014 was conducted at the French Reference Centre on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome. This observational study compared 39 patients with both IgA- and IgG-NMDAR-Abs to 55 patients with only IgG-NMDAR-Abs. Results: In the retrospective cohort, 41% of the patients with NMDAR-Ab encephalitis had both CSF IgG- and IgA-NMDAR-Abs. Approximately half of the IgA-NMDAR-Ab-positive patients (18/38, 49%) definitively possessed associated tumors, primarily ovarian teratomas (17/18, 94%), compared with only 5% (3/55) of the patients in the IgA-NMDAR-Ab-negative group (p < 0.001). In the adult female population at risk for ovarian teratoma, the detection of CSF IgA-NMDAR-Ab positivity showed 85% sensitivity, 70% specificity, a 57% positive predictive value, and a 90% negative predictive value for the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma. No other specific clinical features or clinical outcome were associated with CSF IgA-NMDAR-Ab positivity. Conclusion: These results suggest that in patients with IgG-NMDAR-Ab encephalitis, CSF IgA-NMDAR-Abs could be used as a biological marker for the presence of an ovarian teratoma. PMID:26568967

  14. A predator-prey model with diseases in both prey and predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xubin; Pan, Qiuhui; He, Mingfeng; Kang, Yibin

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze a predator-prey model, in which both predator and prey can be infected. Each of the predator and prey is divided into two categories, susceptible and infected. The epidemics cannot be transmitted between prey and predator by predation. The predation ability of susceptible predators is stronger than infected ones. Likewise, it is more difficult to catch a susceptible prey than an infected one. And the diseases cannot be hereditary in both of the predator and prey populations. Based on the assumptions above, we find that there are six equilibrium points in this model. Using the base reproduction number, we discuss the stability of the equilibrium points qualitatively. Then both of the local and global stabilities of the equilibrium points are analyzed quantitatively by mathematical methods. We provide numerical results to discuss some interesting biological cases that our model exhibits. Lastly, we discuss how the infectious rates affect the stability, and how the other parameters work in the five possible cases within this model.

  15. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  16. Complex-to-Predict Generational Shift between Nested and Clustered Organization of Individual Prey Networks in Digger Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Yolanda; Polidori, Carlo; Tormos, José; Baños-Picón, Laura; Asís, Josep Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Although diet has traditionally been considered to be a property of the species or populations as a whole, there is nowadays extensive knowledge that individual specialization is widespread among animal populations. Nevertheless, the factors determining the shape of interactions within food webs remain largely undiscovered, especially in predatory insects. We used an aggregation of the digger wasp Bembix merceti to 1) analyse patterns of individual prey use across three flying seasons in a network–based context; and 2) test the effect of four potential factors that might explain network topologies (wasp mass, nest spatial distribution, simultaneous nest-provisioning, prey availability). Inter-individual diet variation was found in all three years, under different predator-prey network topologies: Individuals arranged in dietary clusters and displayed a checkerboard pattern in 2009, but showed nestedness in 2008 and 2010. Network topologies were not fully explained by the tested factors. Larger females consumed a higher proportion of the total number of prey species captured by the population as a whole, in such a way that nested patterns may arise from mass-dependent prey spectrum width. Conversely, individuals with similar body mass didn’t form clusters. Nested patterns seemed to be associated with a greater availability of the main prey species (a proxy for reduced intra-specific competition). Thus, according with theory, clusters seemed to appear when competition increased. On the other hand, the nests of the individuals belonging to a given cluster were not more closely located, and neither did individuals within a cluster provision their nests simultaneously. Thus, a female-female copying behaviour during foraging was unlikely. In conclusion, wasp populations can maintain a considerable individual variation across years under different food web organizations. The tested factors only partially accounted for the shift in network properties, and new analyses should be carried out to elucidate how diet network topologies arise in wasp populations. PMID:25019164

  17. Individual variation in space use by female spotted hyenas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large carnivores range more widely than many other terrestrial mammals, and this behavior tends to bring them into frequent conflict with humans. Within any carnivore population, individual variation in patterns of space use should be expected to make some animals more vulnerable than others to risks of mortality from humans and other sources. In this study, our goal was to document variation among individuals in space use by female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta). We examined predictions of hypotheses suggesting that space use by female hyenas is affected by reproductive state, social rank, and local prey abundance. Home-range size, distance at which females were found from the current communal den, and distance at which they were found from the nearest territorial boundary all varied significantly with the 3 independent variables. Females with den-dwelling cubs had smaller home ranges, were found closer to the communal den, and were found farther from the territorial boundary than were females with no den-dwelling cubs. Neither social rank nor prey availability significantly influenced the space-use patterns of females with den-dwelling cubs. Among females with no den-dwelling cubs, high-ranking females had smaller home ranges, were closer to the communal den, and were farther from the territorial boundary than were low-ranking females. The females ranging most widely were low-ranking individuals with no den-dwelling cubs when they were observed during periods of prey scarcity.

  18. IGS 1996 Analysis Center Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, R. E. (Editor); VanScoy, P. A. (Editor); Zumberge, J. F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Components of the IGS[International GPS (Global Positioning System) Service for geodynamics], have operated a GPS tracking system for several years. The network now contains more than 100 stations and has produced a combined GPS ephemeris that has become the standard for geodesists and geophysicists worldwide. IGS data and products are freely available to all thanks to the cooperation and participation of all the IGS members. The IGS has initiated development of several new products, and technical issues permitting greater accuracy of IGS products have been identified. The IGS convened a workshop on March 1996 in Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, to coordinate these developments and to examine technical problems and solutions. The following topics were addressed: orbit/clock combination; Earth orientation; antenna calibration; SINEX and densification of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) using the GPS; receiver standards and performance; and atmospheric topics.

  19. Serum Concentrations of IgG4 in the Spanish Adult Population: Relationship with Age, Gender, and Atopy

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Iago; Alvela, Lucía; Pérez, Luis-Fernando; Gude, Francisco; Vidal, Carmen; Alonso, Manuela; Sopeña, Bernardo; Gonzalez-Quintela, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Serum IgG4 concentrations are commonly measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate serum IgG4 concentrations in adults and their potential relationship with demographic, lifestyle, metabolic, and allergy-related factors. Methods Serum IgG4 concentrations were measured with a commercial assay in 413 individuals (median age 55 years, 45% males) who were randomly selected from a general adult population. Results Median IgG4 concentration was 26.8 mg/dL. Five out of the 413 individuals (1.2%) exhibited IgG4 concentrations >135 mg/dL, and 17 out of 411 (4.1%) exhibited an IgG4/total IgG ratio >8%. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females and decreased with age. After adjusting for age and sex, serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly influenced by alcohol consumption, smoking or common metabolic abnormalities (obesity and the related metabolic syndrome). Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation markers. Serum IgG4 concentrations were significantly correlated with IgE concentrations. Serum IgG4 concentrations tended to be higher in atopics (individuals with IgE-mediated sensitization to aeroallergens) than in non-atopics, particularly among atopics without respiratory symptoms. Serum IgG4 concentrations were not significantly correlated with total eosinophil blood count. Cases of IgG4-related disease were neither present at baseline nor detected after a median of 11 years of follow-up. Conclusions Studies aimed at defining reference IgG4 values should consider partitioning by age and sex. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential influence of atopy status on serum IgG4 concentrations. PMID:26910567

  20. Receptors for IgE.

    PubMed

    Bonnefoy, J Y; Aubry, J P; Gauchat, J F; Graber, P; Life, P; Flores-Romo, L; Mazzei, G

    1993-12-01

    Following advances during the past 5 years in our understanding of the molecular structure of receptors for IgE, progress has been made in elucidating the structure and function of IgE receptors and the signalling events through these receptors. IgE is not the only ligand for some of these receptors, leading to their having unexpected and interesting biological activities. PMID:8297528

  1. Intense or Spatially Heterogeneous Predation Can Select against Prey Dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Barraquand, Frederic; Murrell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Dispersal theory generally predicts kin competition, inbreeding, and temporal variation in habitat quality should select for dispersal, whereas spatial variation in habitat quality should select against dispersal. The effect of predation on the evolution of dispersal is currently not well-known: because predation can be variable in both space and time, it is not clear whether or when predation will promote dispersal within prey. Moreover, the evolution of prey dispersal affects strongly the encounter rate of predator and prey individuals, which greatly determines the ecological dynamics, and in turn changes the selection pressures for prey dispersal, in an eco-evolutionary feedback loop. When taken all together the effect of predation on prey dispersal is rather difficult to predict. We analyze a spatially explicit, individual-based predator-prey model and its mathematical approximation to investigate the evolution of prey dispersal. Competition and predation depend on local, rather than landscape-scale densities, and the spatial pattern of predation corresponds well to that of predators using restricted home ranges (e.g. central-place foragers). Analyses show the balance between the level of competition and predation pressure an individual is expected to experience determines whether prey should disperse or stay close to their parents and siblings, and more predation selects for less prey dispersal. Predators with smaller home ranges also select for less prey dispersal; more prey dispersal is favoured if predators have large home ranges, are very mobile, and/or are evenly distributed across the landscape. PMID:22247764

  2. Body size matters for aposematic prey during predator aversion learning.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen E; Halpin, Christina G; Rowe, Candy

    2014-11-01

    Aposematic prey advertise their toxicity to predators using conspicuous warning signals, which predators learn to use to reduce their intake of toxic prey. Like other types of prey, aposematic prey often differ in body size, both within and between species. Increasing body size can increase signal size, which make larger aposematic prey more detectable but also gives them a more effective and salient deterrent. However, increasing body size also increases the nutritional value of prey, and larger aposematic prey may make a more profitable meal to predators that are trading off the costs of eating toxins with the benefits of ingesting nutrients. We tested if body size, independent of signal size, affected predation of toxic prey as predators learn to reduce their attacks on them. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) learned to discriminate between defended (quinine-injected) and undefended (water-injected) mealworm prey (Tenebrio molitor) using visual signals. During this process, we found that birds attacked and ate more defended prey the larger they were. Body size does affect the probability that toxic prey are attacked and eaten, which has implications for the evolutionary dynamics of aposematism and mimicry (where species share the same warning pattern). PMID:25256160

  3. Effects of uniform rotational flow on predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Rotational flow is often observed in lotic ecosystems, such as streams and rivers. For example, when an obstacle interrupts water flowing in a stream, energy dissipation and momentum transfer can result in the formation of rotational flow, or a vortex. In this study, I examined how rotational flow affects a predator-prey system by constructing a spatially explicit lattice model consisting of predators, prey, and plants. A predation relationship existed between the species. The species densities in the model were given as S (for predator), P (for prey), and G (for plant). A predator (prey) had a probability of giving birth to an offspring when it ate prey (plant). When a predator or prey was first introduced, or born, its health state was assigned an initial value of 20 that subsequently decreased by one with every time step. The predator (prey) was removed from the system when the health state decreased to less than zero. The degree of flow rotation was characterized by the variable, R. A higher R indicates a higher tendency that predators and prey move along circular paths. Plants were not affected by the flow because they were assumed to be attached to the streambed. Results showed that R positively affected both predator and prey survival, while its effect on plants was negligible. Flow rotation facilitated disturbances in individuals’ movements, which consequently strengthens the predator and prey relationship and prevents death from starvation. An increase in S accelerated the extinction of predators and prey.

  4. IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Ralph C.; Abramowsky, Carlos R.; Tisher, C. Craig

    1974-01-01

    From a series of 470 specimens of renal tissue examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, 20 specimens were identified and studied in detail from patients without evidence of systemic disease in which IgA was the predominant localizing immunoglobulin. All patients presented with hematuria which was recurrent or persistent, often being exacerbated by upper respiratory infection. Most of the group pursued a benign clinical course with little evidence of decline in renal function. Histopathologic changes in renal biopsy specimens of most of the group consisted of a proliferative glomerulonephritis of variable intensity. Characteristic alterations were seen by electron microscopy which included the presence of electron-dense deposits within the mesangium, the hilar regions of the glomerulus and the basement membrane of Bowman's capsule. Evidence for activation of complement by the alternate pathway at C3 was found with properdin localization in 14 of 15 specimens and with the absence of detectable Clq and C4 in 15 specimens studied for these early acting components. It is concluded that the combined clinical, morphologic and immunologic findings warrant consideration of IgA nephropathy as a distinct clinicopathologic entity. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:4601708

  5. IgG4-Related Systemic Disease Can Be Easily Mistaken as a Uroepithelial Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Song Yi; Lee, Seung Ik; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Ae Jin; Lim, Hye Jin; Ro, Han; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Chung, Wookyung

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic syndrome characterized by elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and tumefaction or tissue infiltration by IgG4-positive plasma cells. We experienced a case of IgG4-RD involving multiple organs in a 64-year-old female who was referred for a suspected uroepithelial tumor. A mass biopsy confirmed dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration with an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells. We discuss this case and review the literature to bring IgG4-RD to the attention to clinicians because it responds dramatically well to steroid therapy and should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:25914879

  6. Preparing the perfect cuttlefish meal: complex prey handling by dolphins.

    PubMed

    Finn, Julian; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Dolphins are well known for their complex social and foraging behaviours. Direct underwater observations of wild dolphin feeding behaviour however are rare. At mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish (Sepia apama) in the Upper Spencer Gulf in South Australia, a wild female Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) was observed and recorded repeatedly catching, killing and preparing cuttlefish for consumption using a specific and ordered sequence of behaviours. Cuttlefish were herded to a sand substrate, pinned to the seafloor, killed by downward thrust, raised mid-water and beaten by the dolphin with its snout until the ink was released and drained. The deceased cuttlefish was then returned to the seafloor, inverted and forced along the sand substrate in order to strip the thin dorsal layer of skin off the mantle, thus releasing the buoyant calcareous cuttlebone. This stepped behavioural sequence significantly improves prey quality through 1) removal of the ink (with constituent melanin and tyrosine), and 2) the calcareous cuttlebone. Observations of foraging dolphin pods from above-water at this site (including the surfacing of intact clean cuttlebones) suggest that some or all of this prey handling sequence may be used widely by dolphins in the region. Aspects of the unique mass spawning aggregations of giant cuttlefish in this region of South Australia may have contributed to the evolution of this behaviour through both high abundances of spawning and weakened post-spawning cuttlefish in a small area (>10,000 animals on several kilometres of narrow rocky reef), as well as potential long-term and regular visitation by dolphin pods to this site. PMID:19156212

  7. Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply.

    PubMed

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A; Smart, Jennifer; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-06-01

    In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a 'phenotype-limited' distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually dimorphic shorebird), that has to reach buried prey with a probing bill of fixed length. The main prey of female bar-tailed godwits is buried deeper in winter than in summer. Using sightings of individually marked females, we found that in winter only longer-billed individuals remained in the Dutch Wadden Sea, while the shorter-billed individuals moved away to an estuary with a more benign climate such as the Wash. Although longer-billed individuals have the widest range of options in winter and could therefore be selected for, counterselection may occur during the breeding season on the tundra, where surface-living prey may be captured more easily with shorter bills. Phenotype-limited distributions could be a widespread phenomenon and, when associated with assortative migration and mating, it may act as a precursor of phenotypic evolution. PMID:26543585

  8. Phenotype-limited distributions: short-billed birds move away during times that prey bury deeply

    PubMed Central

    Duijns, Sjoerd; van Gils, Jan A.; Smart, Jennifer; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    In our seasonal world, animals face a variety of environmental conditions in the course of the year. To cope with such seasonality, animals may be phenotypically flexible, but some phenotypic traits are fixed. If fixed phenotypic traits are functionally linked to resource use, then animals should redistribute in response to seasonally changing resources, leading to a ‘phenotype-limited’ distribution. Here, we examine this possibility for a shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica; a long-billed and sexually dimorphic shorebird), that has to reach buried prey with a probing bill of fixed length. The main prey of female bar-tailed godwits is buried deeper in winter than in summer. Using sightings of individually marked females, we found that in winter only longer-billed individuals remained in the Dutch Wadden Sea, while the shorter-billed individuals moved away to an estuary with a more benign climate such as the Wash. Although longer-billed individuals have the widest range of options in winter and could therefore be selected for, counterselection may occur during the breeding season on the tundra, where surface-living prey may be captured more easily with shorter bills. Phenotype-limited distributions could be a widespread phenomenon and, when associated with assortative migration and mating, it may act as a precursor of phenotypic evolution. PMID:26543585

  9. A Predator from East Africa that Chooses Malaria Vectors as Preferred Prey

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Ximena J.; Jackson, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Background All vectors of human malaria, a disease responsible for more than one million deaths per year, are female mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles. Evarcha culicivora is an East African jumping spider (Salticidae) that feeds indirectly on vertebrate blood by selecting blood-carrying female mosquitoes as preferred prey. Methodology/Principal Findings By testing with motionless lures made from mounting dead insects in lifelike posture on cork discs, we show that E. culicivora selects Anopheles mosquitoes in preference to other mosquitoes and that this predator can identify Anopheles by static appearance alone. Tests using active (grooming) virtual mosquitoes rendered in 3-D animation show that Anopheles' characteristic resting posture is an important prey-choice cue for E. culicivora. Expression of the spider's preference for Anopheles varies with the spider's size, varies with its prior feeding condition and is independent of the spider gaining a blood meal. Conclusions/Significance This is the first experimental study to show that a predator of any type actively chooses Anopheles as preferred prey, suggesting that specialized predators having a role in the biological control of disease vectors is a realistic possibility. PMID:17205136

  10. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, V.; Mech, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

  12. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey

    PubMed Central

    Halpin, Christina G.; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-01-01

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey ‘educated’ predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424

  13. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-05-22

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  14. Increased predation of nutrient-enriched aposematic prey.

    PubMed

    Halpin, Christina G; Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy

    2014-04-22

    Avian predators readily learn to associate the warning coloration of aposematic prey with the toxic effects of ingesting them, but they do not necessarily exclude aposematic prey from their diets. By eating aposematic prey 'educated' predators are thought to be trading-off the benefits of gaining nutrients with the costs of eating toxins. However, while we know that the toxin content of aposematic prey affects the foraging decisions made by avian predators, the extent to which the nutritional content of toxic prey affects predators' decisions to eat them remains to be tested. Here, we show that European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increase their intake of a toxic prey type when the nutritional content is artificially increased, and decrease their intake when nutritional enrichment is ceased. This clearly demonstrates that birds can detect the nutritional content of toxic prey by post-ingestive feedback, and use this information in their foraging decisions, raising new perspectives on the evolution of prey defences. Nutritional differences between individuals could result in equally toxic prey being unequally predated, and might explain why some species undergo ontogenetic shifts in defence strategies. Furthermore, the nutritional value of prey will likely have a significant impact on the evolutionary dynamics of mimicry systems. PMID:24598424

  15. Concealed by conspicuousness: distractive prey markings and backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova, Marina; Stobbe, Nina; Schaefer, H. Martin; Merilaita, Sami

    2009-01-01

    High-contrast markings, called distractive or dazzle markings, have been suggested to draw and hold the attention of a viewer, thus hindering detection or recognition of revealing prey characteristics, such as the body outline. We tested this hypothesis in a predation experiment with blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) and artificial prey. We also tested whether this idea can be extrapolated to the background appearance and whether high-contrast markings in the background would improve prey concealment. We compared search times for a high-contrast range prey (HC-P) and a low-contrast range prey (LC-P) in a high-contrast range background (HC-B) and a low-contrast range background (LC-B). The HC-P was more difficult to detect in both backgrounds, although it did not match the LC-B. Also, both prey types were more difficult to find in the HC-B than in the LC-B, in spite of the mismatch of the LC-P. In addition, the HC-P was more difficult to detect, in both backgrounds, when compared with a generalist prey, not mismatching either background. Thus, we conclude that distractive prey pattern markings and selection of microhabitats with distractive features may provide an effective way to improve camouflage. Importantly, high-contrast markings, both as part of the prey coloration and in the background, can indeed increase prey concealment. PMID:19324754

  16. The effect of background cuing on prey detection.

    PubMed

    Kono; Reid; Kamil

    1998-10-01

    Studies of prey detection have typically focused on how search image affects the capture of cryptic items. This study also considers how background vegetation influences cryptic prey detection. Blue jays, Cyanocitta cristata, searched digitized images for two Catocala moths: C. ilia, which is cryptic on oak, and C. relicta, which is cryptic on birch. Some images contained moths while others did not. The ability of blue jays to detect prey during repeated presentations of one prey type within a session was compared with their performance during randomly alternating presentations of both prey types within a session to examine search-image formation under two background conditions (informative and ambiguous). In the informative background condition, both trees in the image were of the same species and therefore, the background was a reliable indicator of which prey type might be present. In the ambiguous background condition, there was one tree of each species in the image and either prey type could be present. The results indicate that: (1) a search-image effect was observed only for the more cryptic prey type and only when the background was informative; (2) as accuracy on prey images (those with moths) increased, response latency remained unchanged; (3) performance on nonprey images (those without moths) was primarily determined by the difficulty of searching the background and not by the prey type in the accompanying prey images; and (4) search-image effects disappeared with extended practice. These results suggest that the ability to detect prey is influenced by background and that the presence of either multiple backgrounds or multiple prey types interferes with search-image formation. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:9790707

  17. David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekár, Stano; Šedo, Onřej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zdeněk

    2014-07-01

    It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey.

  18. David and Goliath: potent venom of an ant-eating spider (Araneae) enables capture of a giant prey.

    PubMed

    Pekár, Stano; Šedo, On?ej; Líznarová, Eva; Korenko, Stanislav; Zdráhal, Zden?k

    2014-07-01

    It is rare to find a true predator that repeatedly and routinely kills prey larger than itself. A solitary specialised ant-eating spider of the genus Zodarion can capture a relatively giant prey. We studied the trophic niche of this spider species and investigated its adaptations (behavioural and venomic) that are used to capture ants. We found that the spider captures mainly polymorphic Messor arenarius ants. Adult female spiders captured large morphs while tiny juveniles captured smaller morphs, yet in both cases ants were giant in comparison with spider size. All specimens used an effective prey capture strategy that protected them from ant retaliation. Juvenile and adult spiders were able to paralyse their prey using a single bite. The venom glands of adults were more than 50 times larger than those of juvenile spiders, but the paralysis latency of juveniles was 1.5 times longer. This suggests that this spider species possesses very potent venom already at the juvenile stage. Comparison of the venom composition between juvenile and adult spiders did not reveal significant differences. We discovered here that specialised capture combined with very effective venom enables the capture of giant prey. PMID:24879352

  19. Indigenous Aphid Predators Show High Levels of Preadaptation to a Novel Prey, Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Colares, Felipe; Michaud, J P; Bain, Clint L; Torres, Jorge B

    2015-12-01

    The performance of four aphid predators, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens and Orius insidiosus Say was compared on three prey species: Schizaphis graminum Rondani, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Species predatory in both life stages (all except Ch. carnea) were reared on E. kuehniella eggs and switched to aphid prey for assessment of reproduction. Differences were greater between the E. kuehniella and aphid diets than between the two aphid species. Juvenile survival was high for all predators on all prey, except for O. insidiosus, which had survival on E. kuehniella?>?S. graminum?>?M. sacchari. The fastest development of Ch. carnea and O. insidiosus was obtained on E. kuehniella, whereas H. convergens developed fastest on S. graminum, and C. maculata did not differ among diets. S. graminum also yielded the largest H. convergens adults, whereas the largest adults of other predators were obtained on E. kuehniella. Female fecundity and egg viability were similarly high on both aphid diets for H. convergens and C. maculata, whereas, on E. kuehniella, 50% of the former entered reproductive diapause and the latter species had reduced fecundity. Reproductive success of Ch. carnea was S. graminum?=?M. sacchari?>?E. kuehniella, but it was similar among treatments for O. insidiosus, although female infertility ranged from 25 to 37.5%. We concluded that all the predators studied are preadapted to utilize sugarcane aphid as prey and have excellent potential to provide sustainable biological control of this newly invasive pest. PMID:26470381

  20. Signal transduction by immunoglobulin is mediated through Ig alpha and Ig beta

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) antigen receptors are composed of a noncovalently- associated complex of Ig and two other proteins, Ig alpha and Ig beta. The cytoplasmic domain of both of these Ig associated proteins contains a consensus sequence that is shared with the signaling proteins of the T cell and Fc receptor. To test the idea that Ig alpha-Ig beta heterodimers are the signaling components of the Ig receptor, we have studied Ig mutations that interfere with signal transduction. We find that specific mutations in the transmembrane domain of Ig that inactivate Ca2+ and phosphorylation responses also uncouple IgM from Ig alpha-Ig beta. These results define amino acid residues that are essential for the assembly of the Ig receptor. Further, receptor activity can be fully reconstituted in Ca2+ flux and phosphorylation assays by fusing the cytoplasmic domain of Ig alpha with the mutant Igs. In contrast, fusion of the cytoplasmic domain of Ig beta to the inactive Ig reconstitutes only Ca2+ responses. Thus, Ig alpha and Ig beta are both necessary and sufficient to mediate signal transduction by the Ig receptor in B cells. In addition, our results suggest that Ig alpha and Ig beta can activate different signaling pathways. PMID:7688784

  1. The biomechanics of fast prey capture in aquatic bladderworts

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit K.; Prabhakar, Sunil; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2011-01-01

    Carnivorous plants match their animal prey for speed of movements and hence offer fascinating insights into the evolution of fast movements in plants. Here, we describe the mechanics of prey capture in aquatic bladderworts Utricularia stellaris, which prey on swimming insect larvae or nematodes to supplement their nitrogen intake. The closed Utricularia bladder develops lower-than-ambient internal pressures by pumping out water from the bladder and thus setting up an elastic instability in bladder walls. When the external sensory trigger hairs on their trapdoor are mechanically stimulated by moving prey, the trapdoor opens within 300–700 ?s, causing strong inward flows that trap their prey. The opening time of the bladder trapdoor is faster than any recorded motion in carnivorous plants. Thus, Utricularia have evolved a unique biomechanical system to gain an advantage over their animal prey. PMID:21389013

  2. Divergent outcomes following transcytosis of IgG targeting intracellular and extracellular chlamydial antigens

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Charles W; O’Meara, Connor P; Harvie, Marina CG; Timms, Peter; Blumberg, Richard S; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies can have a protective but non-essential role in natural chlamydial infections dependent on antigen specificity and antibody isotype. IgG is the dominant antibody in both male and female reproductive tract mucosal secretions, and is bi-directionally trafficked across epithelia by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). Using pH-polarized epididymal epithelia grown on Transwells, IgG specifically targeted at an extracellular chlamydial antigen; the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), enhanced uptake and translocation of infection at pH 6–6.5 but not at neutral pH. This was dependent on FcRn expression. Conversely, FcRn-mediated transport of IgG targeting the intracellular chlamydial inclusion membrane protein A (IncA), induced aberrant inclusion morphology, recruited autophagic proteins independent of lysosomes and significantly reduced infection. Challenge of female mice with MOMP-specific IgG-opsonized Chlamydia muridarum delayed infection clearance but exacerbated oviduct occlusion. In male mice, MOMP-IgG elicited by immunization afforded no protection against testicular chlamydial infection, whereas the transcytosis of IncA-IgG significantly reduced testicular chlamydial burden. Together these data show that the protective and pathological effects of IgG are dependent on FcRn-mediated transport as well as the specificity of IgG for intracellular or extracellular antigens. PMID:24445600

  3. Temporal, spatial, sex-ratio and body-size heterogeneity of prey species taken by the beewolf Philanthus sanbornii (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Stubblefield, J W; Seger, J; Wenzel, J W; Heisler, M M

    1993-03-29

    More than 3000 prey representing 108 species of bees and wasps were identified from exoskeletal remains taken from nests of the beewolf Philanthus sanbornii at a site in eastern Massachusetts over a period of five years. Quantitative reference samples totalling more than 4000 items were collected from flowers at the same site over a period of four years. These data give a uniquely detailed view of the way in which a generalist predator exploits a diverse prey community. Most species show striking year-to-year variation in relative abundance, in both the prey and reference collections, but the overall abundances of species tend to be similar in the two collections, as do their sex ratios. This shows: (i) that P. sanbornii takes virtually every bee and wasp species found at flowers during its flight season (except for the relatively small number of species too large to handle); (ii) that prey are taken at rates roughly proportional to their local abundances (with a few exceptions); and (iii) that the local bee and wasp communities have lively dynamics (at least on spatial scales equivalent to the flight ranges of P. sanbornii females). Prey species are non-randomly distributed among nests of individual females within years, and among cells within nests, in a pattern suggesting that females often return repeatedly to hunting sites at which they have had success; the pattern does not suggest that individual females develop preferences for particular prey taxa. The size-abundance distributions of female bees appear to be trimodal at both the individual and species levels, most strongly so when cleptoparasitic species are removed from the sample. Such patterns are seen weakly or not at all in the size-abundance distributions of male bees, male wasps, and female wasps. Bees and wasps of both sexes visit flowers for nectar, but only non-parasitic female bees harvest pollen; this suggests that the multimodality may be caused by aspects of pollen collection that tend to scale with size. The seven Philanthus species of eastern North America vary greatly in size, but they share a common set of relatively small prey species. As in other parts of North America, larger species of Philanthus tend to have relatively broad diets because they also take larger prey that are not available to their smaller congeners. However, long-tongued bees appear to be under-represented in the diets of most North American Philanthus outside the zebratus species group. PMID:8098871

  4. Egg Load Decreases Mobility and Increases Predation Risk in Female Black-Horned Tree Crickets (Oecanthus nigricornis)

    PubMed Central

    Ercit, Kyla; Martinez-Novoa, Andrew; Gwynne, Darryl T.

    2014-01-01

    Female-biased predation is an uncommon phenomenon in nature since males of many species take on riskier behaviours to gain more mates. Several species of sphecid wasps have been observed taking more female than male prey, and it is not fully understood why. The solitary sphecid Isodontia mexicana catches more adult female tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricornis) prey. Previous work has shown that, although female tree crickets are larger and thus likely to be more valuable as prey than males, body size alone cannot fully explain why wasps take more females. We tested the hypothesis that wasps catch adult female tree crickets more often because bearing eggs impedes a female’s ability to escape predation. We compared female survivors to prey of I. mexicana, and found that females carrying more eggs were significantly more likely to be caught by wasps, regardless of their body size and jumping leg mass. We also conducted laboratory experiments where females’ jumping responses to a simulated attack were measured and compared to her egg load and morphology. We found a significant negative relationship between egg load and jumping ability, and a positive relationship between body size and jumping ability. These findings support the hypothesis that ovarian eggs are a physical handicap that contributes to female-biased predation in this system. Predation on the most fecund females may have ecological-evolutionary consequences such as collapse of prey populations or selection for alternate life history strategies and behaviours. PMID:25330090

  5. Nash Equilibria in Noncooperative Predator-Prey Games

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, Angel Manuel Roubicek, Tomas

    2007-09-15

    A noncooperative game governed by a distributed-parameter predator-prey system is considered, assuming that two players control initial conditions for predator and prey, respectively. Existence of a Nash equilibrium is shown under the condition that the desired population profiles and the environmental carrying capacity for the prey are sufficiently small. A conceptual approximation algorithm is proposed and analyzed. Finally, numerical simulations are performed, too.

  6. Aquatic predation alters a terrestrial prey subsidy.

    PubMed

    Wesner, Jeff Scott

    2010-05-01

    Organisms with complex life histories (CLH) often cross habitat or ecosystem boundaries as they develop from larvae to adults, coupling energy flow between ecosystems as both prey (bottom-up) and consumers (top-down). Predation effects on one stage of this life cycle can therefore cascade across ecosystems, magnifying the impact of local predation. The majority of predation studies have assessed effects only on a local level, within the habitat of the predator. I used large outdoor stream mesocosms to test the hypothesis that predation in an aquatic habitat alters the magnitude and trophic structure of a prey assemblage in a terrestrial habitat. I also tested how a consumer in the terrestrial habitat (web-weaving spiders) responded to these changes in prey export. Two fish species were the predators (red shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis and orangethroat darter, Etheostoma spectabile) in an experiment with three treatments: both fish species monocultures plus a fishless control. Fish predation reduced aquatic insect emergence biomass by 50% compared to the fishless control and altered the trophic structure of the emergent community, reducing emerging insect predator biomass by 50%, but had no effect on other insect trophic groups. Spiders captured only insects that were unaffected by fish predation (mostly chironomids) and therefore did not respond numerically to overall changes in insect abundance or biomass. Patterns of insect emergence were largely driven by a strong negative relationship between fish and a predatory dragonfly (Pantala flavescens). The results of this experiment show that predation in one habitat can have strong effects on the biomass and trophic structure of subsidies entering adjacent habitats, resulting in contrasting predictions for the role of these subsidies in recipient food webs. In the absence of fish, aquatic habitats produced terrestrial insect communities with higher biomass (bottom-up potential) and a higher proportion of predators (top-down potential) than when fish were present. PMID:20503875

  7. Molecular prey identification in Central European piscivores.

    PubMed

    Thalinger, Bettina; Oehm, Johannes; Mayr, Hannes; Obwexer, Armin; Zeisler, Christiane; Traugott, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diet analysis is an important aspect when investigating the ecology of fish-eating animals and essential for assessing their functional role in food webs across aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The identification of fish remains in dietary samples, however, can be time-consuming and unsatisfying using conventional morphological analysis of prey remains. Here, we present a two-step multiplex PCR system, comprised of six assays, allowing for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of fish DNA in dietary samples. This approach encompasses 78 fish and lamprey species native to Central European freshwaters and enables the identification of 31 species, six genera, two families, two orders and two fish family clusters. All targeted taxa were successfully amplified from 25 template molecules, and each assay was specific when tested against a wide range of invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting aquatic environments. The applicability of the multiplex PCR system was evaluated in a feeding trial, wherein it outperformed morphological prey analysis regarding species-specific prey identification in faeces of Eurasian otters. Additionally, a wide spectrum of fish species was detected in field-collected faecal samples and regurgitated pellets of Common Kingfishers and Great Cormorants, demonstrating the broad applicability of the approach. In conclusion, this multiplex PCR system provides an efficient, easy to use and cost-effective tool for assessing the trophic ecology of piscivores in Central Europe. Furthermore, the multiplex PCRs and the primers described therein will be applicable wherever DNA of the targeted fish species needs to be detected at high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26053612

  8. Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C

    2007-09-01

    Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels. PMID:17724339

  9. Risky prey behavior evolves in risky habitats

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Mark C.

    2007-01-01

    Longstanding theory in behavioral ecology predicts that prey should evolve decreased foraging rates under high predation threat. However, an alternative perspective suggests that growth into a size refuge from gape-limited predation and the future benefits of large size can outweigh the initial survival costs of intense foraging. Here, I evaluate the relative contributions of selection from a gape-limited predator (Ambystoma opacum) and spatial location to explanations of variation in foraging, growth, and survival in 10 populations of salamander larvae (Ambystoma maculatum). Salamander larvae from populations naturally exposed to intense A. opacum predation risk foraged more actively under common garden conditions. Higher foraging rates were associated with low survival in populations exposed to free-ranging A. opacum larvae. Results demonstrate that risky foraging activity can evolve in high predation-risk habitats when the dominant predators are gape-limited. This finding invites the further exploration of diverse patterns of prey foraging behavior that depends on natural variation in predator size-selectivity. In particular, prey should adopt riskier behaviors under predation threat than expected under existing risk allocation models if foraging effort directly reduces the duration of risk by growth into a size refuge. Moreover, evidence from this study suggests that foraging has evolved over microgeographic scales despite substantial modification by regional gene flow. This interaction between local selection and spatial location suggests a joint role for adaptation and maladaptation in shaping species interactions across natural landscapes, which is a finding with implications for dynamics at the population, community, and metacommunity levels. PMID:17724339

  10. Prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Krijestorac, Belma; Sanford, Christopher P J; Boistel, Renauld; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-07-01

    We studied prey processing in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), involving slow, easily observed head-bobbing movements, which were compared with prey processing in other aquatic feeding vertebrates. We hypothesized that head-bobbing is a unique prey-processing behaviour, which alternatively could be structurally and functionally analogous with raking in basal teleosts, or with pharyngognathy in neoteleosts. Modulation of head-bobbing was elicited by prey with different motility and toughness. Head-bobbing involved sustained mouth occlusion and pronounced cranial elevation, similar to raking. However, the hyoid and pectoral girdle were protracted, and not retracted as in both raking and pharyngognathy. High-speed videofluoroscopy of hyoid movements confirmed that head-bobbing differs from other known aquatic prey-processing behaviours. Nevertheless, head-bobbing and other prey-processing behaviours converge on a recurrent functional theme in the trophic ecology of aquatic feeding vertebrates; the use of intraoral and oropharyngeal dentition surfaces to immobilize, reduce and process relatively large, tough or motile prey. Prey processing outside the pharyngeal region has not been described for neoteleosts previously, but morphological evidence suggests that relatives of Betta might use similar processing behaviours. Thus, our results suggest that pharyngognathy did not out-compete ancestral prey-processing mechanisms completely during the evolution of neoteleosts. PMID:23612845

  11. Assassin bug uses aggressive mimicry to lure spider prey

    PubMed Central

    Wignall, Anne E.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2011-01-01

    Assassin bugs (Stenolemus bituberus) hunt web-building spiders by invading the web and plucking the silk to generate vibrations that lure the resident spider into striking range. To test whether vibrations generated by bugs aggressively mimic the vibrations generated by insect prey, we compared the responses of spiders to bugs with how they responded to prey, courting male spiders and leaves falling into the web. We also analysed the associated vibrations. Similar spider orientation and approach behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from bugs and prey, whereas different behaviours were observed in response to vibrations from male spiders and leaves. Peak frequency and duration of vibrations generated by bugs were similar to those generated by prey and courting males. Further, vibrations from bugs had a temporal structure and amplitude that were similar to vibrations generated by leg and body movements of prey and distinctly different to vibrations from courting males or leaves, or prey beating their wings. To be an effective predator, bugs do not need to mimic the full range of prey vibrations. Instead bugs are general mimics of a subset of prey vibrations that fall within the range of vibrations classified by spiders as ‘prey’. PMID:20980305

  12. Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.

    PubMed

    Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

    2005-04-21

    Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space. PMID:15846334

  13. Rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities.

    PubMed

    Friman, V-P; Jousset, A; Buckling, A

    2014-02-01

    Although microevolution has been shown to play an important role in pairwise antagonistic species interactions, its importance in more complex communities has received little attention. Here, we used two Pseudomonas fluorescens prey bacterial strains (SBW25 and F113) and Tetrahymena thermophila protist predator to study how rapid evolution affects the structuring of predator-prey communities. Both bacterial strains coexisted in the absence of predation, and F113 was competitively excluded in the presence of both SBW25 and predator during the 24-day experiment, an initially surprising result given that F113 was originally poorer at growing, but more resistant to predation. However, this can be explained by SBW25 evolving greater antipredatory defence with a lower growth cost than F113. These results show that rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities, having different effects depending on the initial composition of the evolving community. From a more applied perspective, our results suggest that the effectiveness of biocontrol bacteria, such as F113, could be weaker in communities characterized by intense bacterial competition and protist predation. PMID:24372926

  14. The Coevolution of "Tyrannosaurus" & Its Prey: Could "Tyrannosaurus" Chase down & Kill a "Triceratops" for Lunch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, S. Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Students will analyze the coevolution of the predator-prey relationships between "Tyrannosaurus rex" and its prey species using analyses of animal speeds from fossilized trackways, prey-animal armaments, adaptive behaviors, bite marks on prey-animal fossils, predator-prey ratios, and scavenger competition. The students will be asked to…

  15. The Coevolution of "Tyrannosaurus" & Its Prey: Could "Tyrannosaurus" Chase down & Kill a "Triceratops" for Lunch?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, S. Randolph

    2014-01-01

    Students will analyze the coevolution of the predator-prey relationships between "Tyrannosaurus rex" and its prey species using analyses of animal speeds from fossilized trackways, prey-animal armaments, adaptive behaviors, bite marks on prey-animal fossils, predator-prey ratios, and scavenger competition. The students will be asked to…

  16. Global existence of solutions and uniform persistence of a diffusive predator-prey model with prey-taxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sainan; Shi, Junping; Wu, Boying

    2016-04-01

    This paper proves the global existence and boundedness of solutions to a general reaction-diffusion predator-prey system with prey-taxis defined on a smooth bounded domain with no-flux boundary condition. The result holds for domains in arbitrary spatial dimension and small prey-taxis sensitivity coefficient. This paper also proves the existence of a global attractor and the uniform persistence of the system under some additional conditions. Applications to models from ecology and chemotaxis are discussed.

  17. Prey size structure diminishes cascading effects by increasing interference competition and predation among prey.

    PubMed

    Geraldii, Nathan R

    2015-09-01

    The size of an organism can change by orders of magnitude during its lifespan. Size can determine whether an individual consumes, is consumed, competes, or avoids individuals of the same or different species. Two complementary mesocosm experiments with a tri-trophic food chain (top predator, toadfish, Opsanus tau; intermediate prey, mud crab, family Xanthidae; basal resource, oyster, Crassostrea virginica) were conducted to measure how the size of both the top predator and the intermediate prey affects consumptive and behavioral interactions in trophic cascades. In the first experiment, I systematically varied the sizes of predators and prey, respectively. The amount of crab biomass consumed was dependent on crab size and not toadfish size, but the effect of crab size did not cascade to alter oyster survival. Increased oyster survival from crab interference competition in the absence of toadfish was similar to oyster survival,from predator-avoidance behavior in the presence of a toadfish. When all crab size classes were present, crab mortality was similar in the presence and absence of toadfish, highlighting the importance of intraguild predation in food-web dynamics. The second experiment separated crab mortality by other crabs from crab mortality by predatory toadfish and found that crab mortality generally switched from intra- to interguild predation when a toadfish was present. In addition, field surveys indicated mud crab abundance and size was primarily influenced by mud crab recruitment, but not by toadfish abundance, which supports our experimental results that interactions among mud crabs have similar effects to predator-prey interactions. These findings indicate that changes in size or abundance of intermediate prey may be comparable to changes in top predator abundance in terms of trophic interactions and their transmission to lower levels, which suggests that certain types of relatively simple food chains can be resilient to the loss of higher trophic levels. PMID:26594709

  18. Hyper-IgM Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Hyper-Immunoglobulin M (Hyper-IgM) Syndromes Section of lung tissue (green) with Pneumocystis jiroveci cysts (dark spheres) stained with ...

  19. Predation risk causes oxidative damage in prey

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-01-01

    While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of increased oxidative stress. Here, we test whether predation risk increases oxidative damage in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae. Under predation risk, larvae showed higher lipid peroxidation, which was associated with lower levels of superoxide dismutase, a major antioxidant enzyme in insects, and higher superoxide anion concentrations, a potent reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms underlying oxidative damage are likely to be due to the shunting of energy away from antioxidant defence and to an increased metabolic rate, suggesting that the observed increased oxidative damage under predation risk may be widespread. Given the potentially severe fitness consequences of oxidative damage, this largely overlooked non-consumptive effect of predators may be contributing significantly to prey population dynamics. PMID:23760170

  20. Predation risk causes oxidative damage in prey.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2013-08-23

    While there is increasing interest in non-consumptive effects of predators on prey, physiological effects are understudied. While physiological stress responses play a crucial role in preparing escape responses, the increased metabolic rates and shunting of energy away from other body functions, including antioxidant defence, may generate costs in terms of increased oxidative stress. Here, we test whether predation risk increases oxidative damage in Enallagma cyathigerum damselfly larvae. Under predation risk, larvae showed higher lipid peroxidation, which was associated with lower levels of superoxide dismutase, a major antioxidant enzyme in insects, and higher superoxide anion concentrations, a potent reactive oxygen species. The mechanisms underlying oxidative damage are likely to be due to the shunting of energy away from antioxidant defence and to an increased metabolic rate, suggesting that the observed increased oxidative damage under predation risk may be widespread. Given the potentially severe fitness consequences of oxidative damage, this largely overlooked non-consumptive effect of predators may be contributing significantly to prey population dynamics. PMID:23760170

  1. Insect prey foraging strategies in Callicebus oenanthe in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Deluycker, Anneke M

    2012-05-01

    Titi monkeys (genus Callicebus) are small-bodied platyrrhines that supplement their predominantly frugivorous diet with variable amounts of leaves, seeds, and/or arthropod prey. Notable interspecific variation in the amount of insect prey in the diet has been observed in Callicebus, ranging from 0% to 20%. In this study, I investigate the degree and type of prey foraging in a little-known species, Callicebus oenanthe inhabiting a fragmented, secondary forest on the foothills of the Andes in northern Peru. I present data on prey type, prey search and capture techniques, substrate/vegetation use, foraging height, prey capture efficiency, and seasonal variation of insect prey foraging in one group of C. oenanthe observed from January to August 2005. Insect prey accounted for 22% of the diet, the highest amount reported for any Callicebus species to date, and insects from at least six different orders were included. C. oenanthe was mainly an investigative forager of hidden prey, manipulating easy-to-open substrates such as rolled up leaves, and hunted ant swarms and larger insects opportunistically. Insect foraging was predominant during the dry season (26%) and decreased during the wet season (13%). The study group foraged mostly in the understory (2-6 m) within vine-laden shrubs and trees, which may conform to an anti-predator strategy of crypticity. Overall the group had an 83% insect capture success rate. These data suggest that insect prey is an important part of the diet of C. oenanthe and may be especially notable during periods of resource scarcity. This study adds to the knowledge concerning insect prey foraging in Callicebus, which can have an important role in defining ecological strategies in the selection of secondary protein food resources within a given ecosystem. PMID:22311736

  2. Evaluating prey switching in wolf-ungulate systems.

    PubMed

    Garrott, Robert A; Bruggeman, Jason E; Becker, Matthew S; Kalinowski, Steven T; White, P J

    2007-09-01

    Wolf restoration has become a widely accepted conservation and management practice throughout North America and Europe, though the ecosystem effects of returning top carnivores remain both scientific and societal controversies. Mathematical models predicting and describing wolf-ungulate interactions are typically limited to the wolves' primary prey, with the potential for prey switching in wolf-multiple-ungulate systems only suggested or assumed by a number of investigators. We used insights gained from experiments on small taxa and field data from ongoing wolf-ungulate studies to construct a model of predator diet composition for a wolf-elk-bison system in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA. The model explicitly incorporates differential vulnerability of the ungulate prey types to predation, predator preference, differences in prey biomass, and the possibility of prey switching. Our model demonstrates wolf diet shifts with changes in relative abundance of the two prey, with the dynamics of this shift dependent on the combined influences of preference, differential vulnerability, relative abundances of prey, and whether or not switching occurs. Differences in vulnerability between elk and bison, and strong wolf preference for elk, result in an abrupt dietary shift occurring only when elk are very rare relative to bison, whereas incorporating switching initiates the dietary shift more gradually and at higher bison-elk ratios. We demonstrate how researchers can apply these equations in newly restored wolf-two-prey systems to empirically evaluate whether prey switching is occurring. Each coefficient in the model has a biological interpretation, and most can be directly estimated from empirical data collected from field studies. Given the potential for switching to dramatically influence predator-prey dynamics and the wide range of expected prey types and abundances in some systems where wolves are present and/or being restored, we suggest that this is an important and productive line of research that should be pursued by ecologists working in wolf-ungulate systems. PMID:17913125

  3. IgG4-related disease of the ileocecal region mimicking malignancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiyoshi, Yukiharu; Oki, Eiji; Zaitsu, Yoko; Ando, Koji; Ito, Shuhei; Saeki, Hiroshi; Morita, Masaru; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Baba, Hideo; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterized by chronic fibrosing inflammation with abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells, and responds well to steroids. Previous reports of IgG4-RD have focused on pancreatic and extrapancreatic including the gastrointestinal tract, however, the colonic IgG4-RD is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We herein report the case of a 74-year-old female with edematous wall thickening of the terminal ileum to the lower ascending colon confirmed by several preoperative imaging studies, who underwent right hemi-colectomy for suspected malignant lymphoma. The resected specimen showed an irregular wall thickness with subserosal sclerosis, and the lesion was 10 cm in length from the terminal ileum to the ascending colon. The patient was diagnosed with IgG4-RD by pathological examinations, which demonstrated an increased number of IgG4-positive plasma cells (150/HPF), and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio (50%). DISCUSSION Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD appears to be difficult to diagnose prior to surgical resection because of its rarity, and the similarity of its features to malignancy. The measurement of the serum IgG4 levels, immunohistochemical examination of biopsy specimens and use of several imaging modalities might help us to diagnose the disease without surgical resection, and this disease can generally be treated with steroid therapy. However, surgical resection for IgG4-RD may still be also necessary for patients with concerns regarding malignancy or with intractable gastrointestinal obstruction caused by this disease. CONCLUSION Gastrointestinal IgG4-RD often mimics malignancy, and we should therefore consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of colonic lesions in order to optimize the treatment. PMID:25194601

  4. Integration of multiple intraguild predator cues for oviposition decisions by a predatory mite

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In mutual intraguild predation (IGP), the role of individual guild members is strongly context dependent and, during ontogeny, can shift from an intraguild (IG) prey to a food competitor or to an IG predator. Consequently, recognition of an offspring's predator is more complex for IG than classic prey females. Thus, IG prey females should be able to modulate their oviposition decisions by integrating multiple IG predator cues and by experience. Using a guild of plant-inhabiting predatory mites sharing the spider mite Tetranychus urticae as prey and passing through ontogenetic role shifts in mutual IGP, we assessed the effects of single and combined direct cues of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni (eggs and traces left by a female on the substrate) on prey patch selection and oviposition behaviour of naïve and IG predator-experienced IG prey females of Phytoseiulus persimilis. The IG prey females preferentially resided in patches without predator cues when the alternative patch contained traces of predator females or the cue combination. Preferential egg placement in patches without predator cues was only apparent in the choice situation with the cue combination. Experience increased the responsiveness of females exposed to the IG predator cue combination, indicated by immediate selection of the prey patch without predator cues and almost perfect oviposition avoidance in patches with the cue combination. We argue that the evolution of the ability of IG prey females to evaluate offspring's IGP risk accurately is driven by the irreversibility of oviposition and the functionally complex relationships between predator guild members. PMID:23264692

  5. RELATIONSHIPS OF NATURAL ENEMIES AND NON-PREY FOODS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are very few entomophagous species so maladapted as to rely on prey as their sole nutritional resource. Although a rich source of nutrients, prey/host availability to predators and parasitoids is restricted temporally by ephemeral population dynamics, spatial differences in microclimate, struc...

  6. Red fox prey demands and implications to prairie duck production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted during spring and summer with 33 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) to determine prey demands, feeding characteristics, and growth rates using natural foods. Pups began eating prey the 4th week after birth. Then, prey consumption averaged 1.38 and 1.90 kg/pup/week for weeks 5-8 and 9-12 of the denning season respectively, and 2.54 kg/pup/week for the postdenning period. Feeding by adults averaged 2.25 kg/adult/week. Free water was not needed by either pups or adults. About 90 percent of the prey offered to pups on simulated natural diets was consumed, remains varied with prey availability and prey type. Prey biomass required by a typical fox family was estimated at 18.5 kg/km2 for the 12-week denning season and 2.4 kg/km2/week for the postdenning period. Because of the large prey demands, ducks could represent a small part of the foxes' diet and yet be of consequence to the productivity of particular species. An example is provided for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos).

  7. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, M; Halpin, C G; Rowe, C

    2013-10-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

  8. Aggregative response in bats: prey abundance versus habitat.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jörg; Mehr, Milenka; Bässler, Claus; Fenton, M Brock; Hothorn, Torsten; Pretzsch, Hans; Klemmt, Hans-Joachim; Brandl, Roland

    2012-07-01

    In habitats where prey is either rare or difficult to predict spatiotemporally, such as open habitats, predators must be adapted to react effectively to variations in prey abundance. Open-habitat foraging bats have a wing morphology adapted for covering long distances, possibly use information transfer to locate patches of high prey abundance, and would therefore be expected to show an aggregative response at these patches. Here, we examined the effects of prey abundance on foraging activities of open-habitat foragers in comparison to that of edge-habitat foragers and closed-habitat foragers. Bat activity was estimated by counting foraging calls recorded with bat call recorders (38,371 calls). Prey abundance was estimated concurrently at each site using light and pitfall traps. The habitat was characterized by terrestrial laser scanning. Prey abundance increased with vegetation density. As expected, recordings of open-habitat foragers clearly decreased with increasing vegetation density. The foraging activity of edge- and closed-habitat foragers was not significantly affected by the vegetation density, i.e., these guilds were able to forage from open habitats to habitats with dense vegetation. Only open-habitat foragers displayed a significant and proportional aggregative response to increasing prey abundance. Our results suggest that adaptations for effective and low-cost foraging constrains habitat use and excludes the guild of open-habitat foragers from foraging in habitats with high prey abundance, such as dense forest stands. PMID:22218944

  9. Ambient temperature influences birds' decisions to eat toxic prey?

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, M.; Halpin, C.G.; Rowe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aposematic prey warn predators of their toxicity using conspicuous signals. However, predators regularly include aposematic prey in their diets, particularly when they are in a poor energetic state and in need of nutrients. We investigated whether or not an environmental factor, ambient temperature, could change the energetic state of predators and lead to an increased intake of prey that they know to contain toxins. We found that European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, increased their consumption of mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, prey containing quinine (a mild toxin) when the ambient temperature was reduced below their thermoneutral zone from 20 °C to 6 °C. The birds differed in their sensitivity to changes in ambient temperature, with heavier birds increasing the number of toxic prey they ate more rapidly with decreasing temperature compared to birds with lower body mass. This could have been the result of their requiring more nutrients at lower temperatures or being better able to detoxify quinine. Taken together, our results suggest that conspicuous coloration may be more costly at lower temperatures, and that aposematic prey may need to invest more in chemical defences as temperatures decline. Our study also provides novel insights into what factors affect birds' decisions to eat toxic prey, and demonstrates that selection pressures acting on prey defences can vary with changing temperature across days, seasons, climes, and potentially in response to climate change. PMID:24109148

  10. Invasive prey indirectly increase predation on their native competitors.

    PubMed

    Castorani, Max C N; Hovel, Kevin A

    2015-07-01

    Ecological theory predicts that invasive prey can interact with native prey directly by competing for shared resources or indirectly by changing the abundance or behavior of shared native predators. However, both the study and management of invasive prey have historically overlooked indirect effects. In southern California estuaries, introduction of the Asian nest mussel Arcuatula senhousia has been linked to profound changes in native bivalve assemblages, but the mechanisms of these interactions remain unclear. We performed three field experiments to assess the mechanisms of competition between Arcuatula and native bivalves, and evaluated the potential for Arcuatula to indirectly mediate native predator-prey dynamics. We found that Arcuatula reduces the diversity, abundance, and size of native bivalve recruits by preemptively exploiting space in surface sediments. When paired with native shallow-dwelling clams (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum), Arcuatula reduces adult survival through overgrowth competition. However, Arcuatula also attracts native predators, causing apparent competition by indirectly increasing predation of native clams, especially for poorly defended species. Therefore, invasive prey can indirectly increase predation rates on native competitors by changing the behavior of shared native predators, but the magnitude of apparent competition strongly depends on the vulnerability of natives to predation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the vulnerability of invasive prey to predation can greatly exacerbate impacts on their native competitors. Our findings suggest that consideration of both direct and indirect effects of invasive prey, as well as native predator-prey relationships, should lead to more effective invasive species management. PMID:26378313

  11. Tactile guidance of prey capture in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Turni, Hendrik; Mulder, Paul G H; van der Burg, Johannes; Brecht, Michael

    2006-10-31

    Whereas visuomotor behaviors and visual object recognition have been studied in detail, we know relatively little about tactile object representations. We investigate a new model system for the tactile guidance of behavior, namely prey (cricket) capture by one of the smallest mammals, the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus. Because of their high metabolic rate and nocturnal lifestyle, Etruscan shrews are forced to detect, overwhelm, and kill prey in large numbers in darkness. Crickets are exquisitely mechanosensitive, fast-moving prey, almost as big as the shrew itself. Shrews succeed in hunting by lateralized, precise, and fast attacks. Removal experiments demonstrate that both macrovibrissae and microvibrissae are required for prey capture, with the macrovibrissae being involved in attack targeting. Experiments with artificial prey replica show that tactile shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Prey representations are motion- and size-invariant. Shrews distinguish and memorize prey features. Corrective maneuvers and cricket shape manipulation experiments indicate that shrew behavior is guided by Gestalt-like prey descriptions. Thus, tactile object recognition in Etruscan shrews shares characteristics of human visual object recognition, but it proceeds faster and occurs in a 20,000-times-smaller brain. PMID:17060642

  12. Tactile guidance of prey capture in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Turni, Hendrik; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van der Burg, Johannes; Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Whereas visuomotor behaviors and visual object recognition have been studied in detail, we know relatively little about tactile object representations. We investigate a new model system for the tactile guidance of behavior, namely prey (cricket) capture by one of the smallest mammals, the Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus. Because of their high metabolic rate and nocturnal lifestyle, Etruscan shrews are forced to detect, overwhelm, and kill prey in large numbers in darkness. Crickets are exquisitely mechanosensitive, fast-moving prey, almost as big as the shrew itself. Shrews succeed in hunting by lateralized, precise, and fast attacks. Removal experiments demonstrate that both macrovibrissae and microvibrissae are required for prey capture, with the macrovibrissae being involved in attack targeting. Experiments with artificial prey replica show that tactile shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Prey representations are motion- and size-invariant. Shrews distinguish and memorize prey features. Corrective maneuvers and cricket shape manipulation experiments indicate that shrew behavior is guided by Gestalt-like prey descriptions. Thus, tactile object recognition in Etruscan shrews shares characteristics of human visual object recognition, but it proceeds faster and occurs in a 20,000-times-smaller brain. PMID:17060642

  13. Behavioral response races, predator-prey shell games, ecology of fear, and patch use of pumas and their ungulate prey.

    PubMed

    Laundré, John W

    2010-10-01

    The predator-prey shell game predicts random movement of prey across the landscape, whereas the behavioral response race and landscape of fear models predict that there should be a negative relationship between the spatial distribution of a predator and its behaviorally active prey. Additionally, prey have imperfect information on the whereabouts of their predator, which the predator should incorporate in its patch use strategy. I used a one-predator-one-prey system, puma (Puma concolor)-mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) to test the following predictions regarding predator-prey distribution and patch use by the predator. (1) Pumas will spend more time in high prey risk/low prey use habitat types, while deer will spend their time in low-risk habitats. Pumas should (2) select large forage patches more often, (3) remain in large patches longer, and (4) revisit individual large patches more often than individual smaller ones. I tested these predictions with an extensive telemetry data set collected over 16 years in a study area of patchy forested habitat. When active, pumas spent significantly less time in open areas of low intrinsic predation risk than did deer. Pumas used large patches more than expected, revisited individual large patches significantly more often than smaller ones, and stayed significantly longer in larger patches than in smaller ones. The results supported the prediction of a negative relationship in the spatial distribution of a predator and its prey and indicated that the predator is incorporating the prey's imperfect information about its presence. These results indicate a behavioral complexity on the landscape scale that can have far-reaching impacts on predator-prey interactions. PMID:21058559

  14. Piscivore-Prey Fish Interactions: Mechanisms behind Diurnal Patterns in Prey Selectivity in Brown and Clear Water

    PubMed Central

    Ranåker, Lynn; Persson, Jens; Jönsson, Mikael; Nilsson, P. Anders; Brönmark, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Environmental change may affect predator-prey interactions in lakes through deterioration of visual conditions affecting foraging success of visually oriented predators. Environmental change in lakes includes an increase in humic matter causing browner water and reduced visibility, affecting the behavioural performance of both piscivores and prey. We studied diurnal patterns of prey selection in piscivorous pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) in both field and laboratory investigations. In the field we estimated prey selectivity and prey availability during day and night in a clear and a brown water lake. Further, prey selectivity during day and night conditions was studied in the laboratory where we manipulated optical conditions (humic matter content) of the water. Here, we also studied the behaviours of piscivores and prey, focusing on foraging-cycle stages such as number of interests and attacks by the pikeperch as well as the escape distance of the prey fish species. Analyses of gut contents from the field study showed that pikeperch selected perch (Perca fluviatilis) over roach (Rutilus rutilus) prey in both lakes during the day, but changed selectivity towards roach in both lakes at night. These results were corroborated in the selectivity experiments along a brown-water gradient in day and night light conditions. However, a change in selectivity from perch to roach was observed when the optical condition was heavily degraded, from either brown-stained water or light intensity. At longer visual ranges, roach initiated escape at distances greater than pikeperch attack distances, whereas perch stayed inactive making pikeperch approach and attack at the closest range possible. Roach anti-predatory behaviour decreased in deteriorated visual conditions, altering selectivity patterns. Our results highlight the importance of investigating both predator and prey responses to visibility conditions in order to understand the effects of degrading optical conditions on piscivore-prey interaction strength and thereby ecosystem responses to brownification of waters. PMID:25379665

  15. Bioeconomic harvesting of a prey-predator fishery.

    PubMed

    Das, Tapasi; Mukherjee, R N; Chaudhuri, K S

    2009-09-01

    This paper deals with the problem of non-selective harvesting of a prey-predator system by using a reasonable catch-rate function instead of usual catch-per-unit-efforthypothesis. Here both the prey and the predator species obey the law of logistic growth. We have taken the predator functional response to prey density in such a form that each predator's functional response to the prey density approaches a constant as the prey population increases. Boundedness of the exploited system is examined. The existence of its steady states and their stability (local and global) are studied using Eigenvalue analysis. The existence of bionomic equilibria has been illustrated using a numerical example. The problem of determining the optimal harvesting policy is then solved by using Pontryagin's maximum principle. PMID:22880894

  16. Supplementary Feeding, Plumage Documentation and Early Season Prey of Peregrine Falcons at the New Mexico Alpha Eyrie

    SciTech Connect

    Ponton, David A.

    2015-03-20

    A review of what is known about avian physiology and the biological effects of DDE suggests that some benefit to peregrine falcon egg condition could be attained by artificially feeding DDE free prey to the female from the time of her arrival on the nesting grounds until completion of egg laying; the magnitude of potential benefit is unknown. Sporadic efforts in the past demonstrated the need for precision methods of prey delivery. Two methods were developed and tried; providing dead prey items by dropping them in a day perch, and delivery of live prey by remotely controlled release from compartments positioned at the top of the cliff occupied by the falcons. Maintaining quail in the day perch for 21 days resulted in at least one and probably two meals for the female peregrine. Of 16 live birds released (mostly pigeons) 13 were pursued and three caught. Blinding the pigeons with tape proved to be necessary to enable capture. Also, some reluctance of the male peregrine to attack pigeons was observed, and problems with equipment, visibility, and the proximity of the falcons to the release box were encountered. Manpower was the most significant resource requirement. Baiting of great-horned owls, possibly leading to owl attack on the falcons, is judged to be the largest detrimental effect of supplemental feeding. It is recommended that supplemental feeding be reserved for falcons or eyries where complete reproductive failure is expected. Plumage documentation photography was successfully conducted by a remotely controlled camera as an aid to identification of individual falcons. American robin, red-winged blackbird, starling, white-throated swift, bluebird, and mourning dove were among natural prey consumed by the peregrines before completion of egg laying. All activities in close proximity to the cliff were conducted at night to preclude direct disturbance of the falcons.

  17. Cell-cycle progress in obligate predatory bacteria is dependent upon sequential sensing of prey recognition and prey quality cues.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Or; Pasternak, Zohar; Shimoni, Eyal; Belausov, Eduard; Porat, Ziv; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2015-11-01

    Predators feed on prey to acquire the nutrients necessary to sustain their survival, growth, and replication. In Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, an obligate predator of Gram-negative bacteria, cell growth and replication are tied to a shift from a motile, free-living phase of search and attack to a sessile, intracellular phase of growth and replication during which a single prey cell is consumed. Engagement and sustenance of growth are achieved through the sensing of two unidentified prey-derived cues. We developed a novel ex vivo cultivation system for B. bacteriovorus composed of prey ghost cells that are recognized and invaded by the predator. By manipulating their content, we demonstrated that an early cue is located in the prey envelope and a late cue is found within the prey soluble fraction. These spatially and temporally separated cues elicit discrete and combinatory regulatory effects on gene transcription. Together, they delimit a poorly characterized transitory phase between the attack phase and the growth phase, during which the bdelloplast (the invaded prey cell) is constructed. This transitory phase constitutes a checkpoint in which the late cue presumably acts as a determinant of the prey's nutritional value before the predator commits. These regulatory adaptations to a unique bacterial lifestyle have not been reported previously. PMID:26487679

  18. Degraded Environments Alter Prey Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I; Chivers, Douglas P

    2013-01-01

    Elevated water temperatures, a decrease in ocean pH, and an increasing prevalence of severe storms have lead to bleaching and death of the hard corals that underpin coral reef ecosystems. As coral cover declines, fish diversity and abundance declines. How degradation of coral reefs affects behavior of reef inhabitants is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that risk assessment behaviors of prey are severely affected by coral degradation. Juvenile damselfish were exposed to visual and olfactory indicators of predation risk in healthy live, thermally bleached, and dead coral in a series of laboratory and field experiments. While fish still responded to visual cues in all habitats, they did not respond to olfactory indicators of risk in dead coral habitats, likely as a result of alteration or degradation of chemical cues. These cues are critical for learning and avoiding predators, and a failure to respond can have dramatic repercussions for survival and recruitment. PMID:23403754

  19. Female condoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... female condoms at most drugstores, STI clinics, and family planning clinics. You need to plan to have a ... Jensen JT, Mishell DR. Family planning: contraception, ... Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  20. Wave propagation in predator–prey systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng-Chen; Tsai, Je-Chiang

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study a class of predator–prey systems of reaction–diffusion type. Specifically, we are interested in the dynamical behaviour for the solution with the initial distribution where the prey species is at the level of the carrying capacity, and the density of the predator species has compact support, or exponentially small tails near x=+/- ∞ . Numerical evidence suggests that this will lead to the formation of a pair of diverging waves propagating outwards from the initial zone. Motivated by this phenomenon, we establish the existence of a family of travelling waves with the minimum speed. Unlike the previous studies, we do not use the shooting argument to show this. Instead, we apply an iteration process based on Berestycki et al 2005 (Math Comput. Modelling 50 1385–93) to construct a set of super/sub-solutions. Since the underlying system does not enjoy the comparison principle, such a set of super/sub-solutions is not based on travelling waves, and in fact the super/sub-solutions depend on each other. With the aid of the set of super/sub-solutions, we can construct the solution of the truncated problem on the finite interval, which, via the limiting argument, can in turn generate the wave solution. There are several advantages to this approach. First, it can remove the technical assumptions on the diffusivities of the species in the existing literature. Second, this approach is of PDE type, and hence it can shed some light on the spreading phenomenon indicated by numerical simulation. In fact, we can compute the spreading speed of the predator species for a class of biologically acceptable initial distributions. Third, this approach might be applied to the study of waves in non-cooperative systems (i.e. a system without a comparison principle).

  1. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE. PMID:16705980

  2. Competing Conservation Objectives for Predators and Prey: Estimating Killer Whale Prey Requirements for Chinook Salmon

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A.; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S.; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P.; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada–US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict between conservation objectives for threatened or protected wildlife where the interaction between affected species can be quantified. PMID:22096495

  3. Competing conservation objectives for predators and prey: estimating killer whale prey requirements for Chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Krkošek, Martin; Ashe, Erin; Branch, Trevor A; Clark, Steve; Hammond, Philip S; Hoyt, Erich; Noren, Dawn P; Rosen, David; Winship, Arliss

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of marine resources attempts to conserve interacting species. In contrast to single-species fisheries management, EBM aims to identify and resolve conflicting objectives for different species. Such a conflict may be emerging in the northeastern Pacific for southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) and their primary prey, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Both species have at-risk conservation status and transboundary (Canada-US) ranges. We modeled individual killer whale prey requirements from feeding and growth records of captive killer whales and morphometric data from historic live-capture fishery and whaling records worldwide. The models, combined with caloric value of salmon, and demographic and diet data for wild killer whales, allow us to predict salmon quantities needed to maintain and recover this killer whale population, which numbered 87 individuals in 2009. Our analyses provide new information on cost of lactation and new parameter estimates for other killer whale populations globally. Prey requirements of southern resident killer whales are difficult to reconcile with fisheries and conservation objectives for Chinook salmon, because the number of fish required is large relative to annual returns and fishery catches. For instance, a U.S. recovery goal (2.3% annual population growth of killer whales over 28 years) implies a 75% increase in energetic requirements. Reducing salmon fisheries may serve as a temporary mitigation measure to allow time for management actions to improve salmon productivity to take effect. As ecosystem-based fishery management becomes more prevalent, trade-offs between conservation objectives for predators and prey will become increasingly necessary. Our approach offers scenarios to compare relative influence of various sources of uncertainty on the resulting consumption estimates to prioritise future research efforts, and a general approach for assessing the extent of conflict between conservation objectives for threatened or protected wildlife where the interaction between affected species can be quantified. PMID:22096495

  4. Modelling the effects of prey size and distribution on prey capture rates of two sympatric marine predators.

    PubMed

    Thaxter, Chris B; Daunt, Francis; Grémillet, David; Harris, Mike P; Benvenuti, Silvano; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hamer, Keith C; Wanless, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how prey capture rates are influenced by feeding ecology and environmental conditions is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts on marine higher predators. We compared how prey capture rates varied in relation to prey size, prey patch distribution and prey density for two species of alcid, common guillemot (Uria aalge) and razorbill (Alca torda) during the chick-rearing period. We developed a Monte Carlo approach parameterised with foraging behaviour from bird-borne data loggers, observations of prey fed to chicks, and adult diet from water-offloading, to construct a bio-energetics model. Our primary goal was to estimate prey capture rates, and a secondary aim was to test responses to a set of biologically plausible environmental scenarios. Estimated prey capture rates were 1.5 ± 0.8 items per dive (0.8 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.6 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for guillemots and 3.7 ± 2.4 items per dive (4.9 ± 3.1 and 7.3 ± 4.0 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for razorbills. Based on species' ecology, diet and flight costs, we predicted that razorbills would be more sensitive to decreases in 0-group sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) length (prediction 1), but guillemots would be more sensitive to prey patches that were more widely spaced (prediction 2), and lower in prey density (prediction 3). Estimated prey capture rates increased non-linearly as 0-group sandeel length declined, with the slope being steeper in razorbills, supporting prediction 1. When prey patches were more dispersed, estimated daily energy expenditure increased by a factor of 3.0 for guillemots and 2.3 for razorbills, suggesting guillemots were more sensitive to patchier prey, supporting prediction 2. However, both species responded similarly to reduced prey density (guillemot expenditure increased by 1.7; razorbill by 1.6), thus not supporting prediction 3. This bio-energetics approach complements other foraging models in predicting likely impacts of environmental change on marine higher predators dependent on species-specific foraging ecologies. PMID:24260318

  5. Modelling the Effects of Prey Size and Distribution on Prey Capture Rates of Two Sympatric Marine Predators

    PubMed Central

    Thaxter, Chris B.; Daunt, Francis; Grémillet, David; Harris, Mike P.; Benvenuti, Silvano; Watanuki, Yutaka; Hamer, Keith C.; Wanless, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how prey capture rates are influenced by feeding ecology and environmental conditions is fundamental to assessing anthropogenic impacts on marine higher predators. We compared how prey capture rates varied in relation to prey size, prey patch distribution and prey density for two species of alcid, common guillemot (Uria aalge) and razorbill (Alca torda) during the chick-rearing period. We developed a Monte Carlo approach parameterised with foraging behaviour from bird-borne data loggers, observations of prey fed to chicks, and adult diet from water-offloading, to construct a bio-energetics model. Our primary goal was to estimate prey capture rates, and a secondary aim was to test responses to a set of biologically plausible environmental scenarios. Estimated prey capture rates were 1.5±0.8 items per dive (0.8±0.4 and 1.1±0.6 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for guillemots and 3.7±2.4 items per dive (4.9±3.1 and 7.3±4.0 items per minute foraging and underwater, respectively) for razorbills. Based on species' ecology, diet and flight costs, we predicted that razorbills would be more sensitive to decreases in 0-group sandeel (Ammodytes marinus) length (prediction 1), but guillemots would be more sensitive to prey patches that were more widely spaced (prediction 2), and lower in prey density (prediction 3). Estimated prey capture rates increased non-linearly as 0-group sandeel length declined, with the slope being steeper in razorbills, supporting prediction 1. When prey patches were more dispersed, estimated daily energy expenditure increased by a factor of 3.0 for guillemots and 2.3 for razorbills, suggesting guillemots were more sensitive to patchier prey, supporting prediction 2. However, both species responded similarly to reduced prey density (guillemot expenditure increased by 1.7; razorbill by 1.6), thus not supporting prediction 3. This bio-energetics approach complements other foraging models in predicting likely impacts of environmental change on marine higher predators dependent on species-specific foraging ecologies. PMID:24260318

  6. Negotiating a noisy, information-rich environment in search of cryptic prey: olfactory predators need patchiness in prey cues.

    PubMed

    Carthey, Alexandra J R; Bytheway, Jenna P; Banks, Peter B

    2011-07-01

    1. Olfactory predator search processes differ fundamentally to those based on vision, particularly when odour cues are deposited rather than airborne or emanating from a point source. When searching for visually cryptic prey that may have moved some distance from a deposited odour cue, cue context and spatial variability are the most likely sources of information about prey location available to an olfactory predator. 2. We tested whether the house mouse (Mus domesticus), a model olfactory predator, would use cue context and spatial variability when searching for buried food items; specifically, we tested the effect of varying cue patchiness, odour strength, and cue-prey association on mouse foraging success. 3. Within mouse- and predator-proof enclosures, we created grids of 100 sand-filled Petri dishes and buried peanut pieces in a set number of these patches to represent visually cryptic 'prey'. By adding peanut oil to selected dishes, we varied the spatial distribution of prey odour relative to the distribution of prey patches in each grid, to reflect different levels of cue patchiness (Experiment 1), odour strength (Experiment 2) and cue-prey association (Experiment 3). We measured the overnight foraging success of individual mice (percentage of searched patches containing prey), as well as their foraging activity (percentage of patches searched), and prey survival (percentage of unsearched prey patches). 4. Mouse foraging success was highest where odour cues were patchy rather than uniform (Experiment 1), and where cues were tightly associated with prey location, rather than randomly or uniformly distributed (Experiment 3). However, when cues at prey patches were ten times stronger than a uniformly distributed weak background odour, mice did not improve their foraging success over that experienced when cues were of uniform strength and distribution (Experiment 2). 5. These results suggest that spatial variability and cue context are important means by which olfactory predators can use deposited odour cues to locate visually cryptic prey. They also indicate that chemical crypsis can disrupt these search processes as effectively as background matching in visually based predator-prey systems. PMID:21401592

  7. Natal conditions alter age-specific reproduction but not survival or senescence in a long-lived bird of prey.

    PubMed

    Millon, Alexandre; Petty, Steve J; Little, Brian; Lambin, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    1. Natal conditions and senescence are two major factors shaping life-history traits of wild animals. However, such factors have rarely been investigated together, and it remains largely unknown whether they interact to affect age-specific performance. 2. We used 27 years of longitudinal data collected on tawny owls with estimates of prey density (field voles) from Kielder Forest (UK) to investigate how prey density at birth affects ageing patterns in reproduction and survival. 3. Natal conditions experienced by tawny owls, measured in terms of vole density, dramatically varied among cohorts and explained 87% of the deviance in first-year apparent survival (annual estimates ranging from 0·07 to 0·33). 4. We found evidence for senescence in survival for females as well as for males. Model-averaged estimates showed that adult survival probability declined linearly with age for females from age 1. In contrast, male survival probability, lower on average than for female, declined after a plateau at age 1-3. 5. We also found evidence for reproductive senescence (number of offspring). For females, reproductive performance increased until age 9 then declined. Males showed an earlier decline in reproductive performance with an onset of senescence at age 3. 6. Long-lasting effects of natal environmental conditions were sex specific. Female reproductive performance was substantially related to natal conditions (difference of 0·24 fledgling per breeding event between females born in the first or third quartile of vole density), whereas male performance was not. We found no evidence for tawny owls born in years with low prey density having accelerated rates of senescence. 7. Our results, combined with previous findings, suggest the way natal environmental conditions affect senescence varies not only across species but also within species according to gender and the demographic trait considered. PMID:21466554

  8. Acoustic shadows help gleaning bats find prey, but may be defeated by prey acoustic camouflage on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Holderied, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual abilities of animals, like echolocating bats, are difficult to study because they challenge our understanding of non-visual senses. We used novel acoustic tomography to convert echoes into visual representations and compare these cues to traditional echo measurements. We provide a new hypothesis for the echo-acoustic basis of prey detection on surfaces. We propose that bats perceive a change in depth profile and an 'acoustic shadow' cast by prey. The shadow is more salient than prey echoes and particularly strong on smooth surfaces. This may explain why bats look for prey on flat surfaces like leaves using scanning behaviour. We propose that rather than forming search images for prey, whose characteristics are unpredictable, predators may look for disruptions to the resting surface (acoustic shadows). The fact that the acoustic shadow is much fainter on rougher resting surfaces provides the first empirical evidence for 'acoustic camouflage' as an anti-predator defence mechanism. PMID:26327624

  9. Proliferative Glomerulonephritis with Monoclonal IgG Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Satoskar, Anjali; Markowitz, Glen S.; Valeri, Anthony M.; Appel, Gerald B.; Stokes, Michael B.; Nadasdy, Tibor; D'Agati, Vivette D.

    2009-01-01

    Dysproteinemias that result in monoclonal glomerular deposits of IgG are relatively uncommon. Here, we report the largest series of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, a form of renal involvement by monoclonal gammopathy that mimics immune-complex glomerulonephritis. We retrospectively identified 37 patients, most of whom were white (81%), female (62%), or older than 50 yr (65%). At presentation, 49% had nephrotic syndrome, 68% had renal insufficiency, and 77% had hematuria. In 30% of the patients, we identified a monoclonal serum protein with the same heavy- and light-chain isotypes as the glomerular deposits (mostly IgG1 or IgG2), but only one patient had myeloma. Histologic patterns were predominantly membranoproliferative (57%) or endocapillary proliferative (35%) with membranous features. Electron microscopy revealed granular, nonorganized deposits, and immunofluorescence demonstrated glomerular deposits that stained for a single light-chain isotype and a single heavy-chain subtype, most commonly IgG3κ (53%). During an average of 30.3 mo of follow-up for 32 patients with available data, 38% had complete or partial recovery, 38% had persistent renal dysfunction, and 22% progressed to ESRD. Correlates of ESRD on univariate analysis were higher creatinine at biopsy, percentage of glomerulosclerosis, and degree of interstitial fibrosis but not immunomodulatory treatment or presence of a monoclonal spike. On multivariate analysis, higher percentage of glomerulosclerosis was the only independent predictor of ESRD. Only one patient lacking a monoclonal spike at presentation subsequently developed a monoclonal spike and no patient with a monoclonal spike at presentation subsequently developed a hematologic malignancy. We conclude that proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits does not seem to be a precursor of myeloma in the vast majority of patients. PMID:19470674

  10. The Effect of Structural Complexity, Prey Density, and “Predator-Free Space” on Prey Survivorship at Created Oyster Reef Mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats. PMID:22145037

  11. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.

  12. Differential recognition patterns of Schistosoma haematobium adult worm antigens by the human antibodies IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4

    PubMed Central

    MUTAPI, F; BOURKE, C; HARCUS, Y; MIDZI, N; MDULUZA, T; TURNER, C M; BURCHMORE, R; MAIZELS, R M

    2011-01-01

    Schistosoma haematobium antigen recognition profiles of the human isotypes IgA, IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 were compared by image analysis of western blots. Adult worm antigens separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were probed with pooled sera from Zimbabweans resident in a S. haematobium endemic area, followed by the identification of individual antigenic parasite proteins using mass spectrometry. Overall, IgG1 reacted with the largest number of antigens, followed by IgE and IgA which detected the same number, while IgG4 detected the fewest antigens. IgE recognized all antigens reactive with IgG4 as well as an additional four antigens, an isoform of 28-kDa GST, phosphoglycerate kinase, actin 1 and calreticulin. IgG1 additionally recognized fatty acid–binding protein, triose-phosphate isomerase and heat shock protein 70, which were not recognized by IgA. Recognition patterns varied between some isoforms, e.g. the two fructose 1-6-bis-phosphate aldolase isoforms were differentially recognized by IgA and IgG1. Although the majority of S. haematobium adult worm antigens are recognized by all of the four isotypes, there are clear restrictions in antibody recognition for some antigens. This may partly explain differences observed in isotype dynamics at a population level. Differential recognition patterns for some isoforms indicated in the study have potential importance for vaccine development. PMID:21204849

  13. Factors Affecting Growth of Tengmalm’s Owl (Aegolius funereus) Nestlings: Prey Abundance, Sex and Hatching Order

    PubMed Central

    Zárybnická, Markéta; Riegert, Jan; Brejšková, Lucie; Šindelář, Jiří; Kouba, Marek; Hanel, Jan; Popelková, Alena; Menclová, Petra; Tomášek, Václav; Šťastný, Karel

    2015-01-01

    In altricial birds, energy supply during growth is a major predictor of the physical condition and survival prospects of fledglings. A number of experimental studies have shown that nestling body mass and wing length can vary with particular extrinsic factors, but between-year observational data on this topic are scarce. Based on a seven-year observational study in a central European Tengmalm’s owl population we examine the effect of year, brood size, hatching order, and sex on nestling body mass and wing length, as well as the effect of prey abundance on parameters of growth curve. We found that nestling body mass varied among years, and parameters of growth curve, i.e. growth rate and inflection point in particular, increased with increasing abundance of the owl’s main prey (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles), and pooled prey abundance (Apodemus mice, Microtus voles, and Sorex shrews). Furthermore, nestling body mass varied with hatching order and between sexes being larger for females and for the first-hatched brood mates. Brood size had no effect on nestling body mass. Simultaneously, we found no effect of year, brood size, hatching order, or sex on the wing length of nestlings. Our findings suggest that in this temperate owl population, nestling body mass is more sensitive to prey abundance than is wing length. The latter is probably more limited by the physiology of the species. PMID:26444564

  14. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3–4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax—the preferred point of attack in crickets—is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  15. Predator pursuit strategies: how do falcons and hawks chase prey?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Zamani, Marjon; Fulton, Andrew; Rosenthal, Lee

    2014-03-01

    This study reports on experiments on falcons, goshawks and red-tailed hawks wearing miniature videocameras mounted on their backs or heads while pursuing flying or ground-based prey. Videos of hunts recorded by the raptors were analyzed to determine apparent prey positions on their visual fields during pursuits. These video data then were interpreted using computer simulations of pursuit steering laws observed in insects and mammals. A comparison of the empirical and modeling data indicates that falcons use cues due to the apparent motion of prey on the falcon's visual field to track and capture flying prey via a form of motion camouflage. The falcons also were found to maintain their prey's image at visual angles consistent with using their shallow fovea. Results for goshawks and red-tailed hawks were analyzed for a comparative study of how pursuits of ground-based prey by accipeters and buteos differ from those used by falcons chasing flying prey. These results should prove relevant for understanding the coevolution of pursuit and evasion, as well as the development of computer models of predation on flocks,and the integration of sensory and locomotion systems in biomimetic robots.

  16. Interaction of nemertines and their prey on tidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Martin; Reise, Karsten

    Two common nemertines of the European Wadden Sea, Lineus viridis and Amphiporus lactifloreus, occur preferentially in clusters of mussels, spread over sedimentary flats in the upper intertidal near the island of Sylt. The heteronemertine L. viridis preys mainly on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor. The hoplonemertine A. lactifloreus feeds almost exclusively on the amphipod Gammarus locusta. Abundance of both predators and their respective prey in the field showed inverse relationships. Experimentally increased numbers of L. viridis in clusters of mussels caused a gradual decrease of nereid abundance in the sediment underneath over a period of 1 month, suggesting that losses of individuals were caused by prey capture. Experimentally increased numbers of A. lactifloreus were followed by an escape response of gammarids from clusters of mussels within 2 d. In aquaria, both prey species exhibited prolonged swimming activity when their respective predators lurked at the bottom. We conclude that escape behaviour in N. diversicolor may be only effective during its migrant phases, while G. locusta is permanently on the alert to avoid encounters with its predator. This refuging behaviour in response to endobenthic predators has strong implications on prey distribution, while the actual consumption of prey may be relatively modest. Enclosure experiments in the field and in aquaria lead to overestimates of prey capture when refuging behaviour is not accounted for.

  17. Tonically immobilized selfish prey can survive by sacrificing others.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Nakayama, Satoshi; Nishi, Yusuke; Nakajima, Shuhei

    2009-08-01

    Death-feigning, also called tonic immobility, is found in a number of animal species across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. To date, five hypotheses have been proposed for the adaptive significance of tonic immobility. These are that tonic immobility is effective for prey because (i) avoiding dead prey is safer for predators, (ii) immobility plays a role in physical defence, (iii) immobility plays a role in concealment and/or background matching, (iv) predators lose interest in unmoving prey, and (v) the characteristic immobilization posture signals a bad taste to predators. The fourth and fifth hypotheses have been considered suitable explanations for tonic immobility of the red flour beetle against its predator, the jumping spider. In the present study, we used chemical analyses of secretions by the red flour beetles under attack by the jumping spider to reject the fifth hypothesis for this system. More importantly, we tested a selfish-prey hypothesis for the adaptive significance of death-feigning as an anti-predator strategy, in which individuals adopting tonic immobility survive by sacrificing neighbours. Findings showed that survival rates of feigners were higher when in the presence of non-feigners or prey of a different species, compared to when alone, thus confirming our selfish-prey hypothesis. In summary, our results suggest that immobility following a spider attack is selfish; death-feigning prey increase their probability of survival at the expense of more mobile neighbours. PMID:19403540

  18. Tactile experience shapes prey-capture behavior in Etruscan shrews.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Farzana; Brecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A crucial role of tactile experience for the maturation of neural response properties in the somatosensory system is well established, but little is known about the role of tactile experience in the development of tactile behaviors. Here we study how tactile experience affects prey capture behavior in Etruscan shrews, Suncus etruscus. Prey capture in adult shrews is a high-speed behavior that relies on precise attacks guided by tactile Gestalt cues. We studied the role of tactile experience by three different approaches. First, we analyzed the hunting skills of young shrews' right after weaning. We found that prey capture in young animals in most, but not all, aspects is similar to that of adults. Second, we performed whisker trimming for 3-4 weeks after birth. Such deprivation resulted in a lasting disruption of prey capture even after whisker re-growth: attacks lacked precise targeting and had a lower success rate. Third, we presented adult shrews with an entirely novel prey species, the giant cockroach. The shape of this roach is very different from the shrew's normal (cricket) prey and the thorax-the preferred point of attack in crickets-is protected by a heavy cuticle. Initially shrews attacked giant roaches the same way they attack crickets and targeted the thoracic region. With progressive experience, however, shrews adopted a new attack strategy targeting legs and underside of the roaches while avoiding other body parts. Speed and efficiency of attacks improved. These data suggest that tactile experience shapes prey capture behavior. PMID:22701408

  19. Hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dang, Yun; Ren, Jianwen; Guo, Yuanyuan; Geng, Songmei

    2014-01-01

    Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare disorder characterized by eczema, recurrent infections of the skin and lungs, typically with Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and certain viruses, and elevated levels of serum IgE. Other clinical manifestations include characteristic facies (prominent forehead, broad nasal bridge and facial asymmetry), chronic eczematous dermatitis, retained primary dentition, recurrent pathological fractures, hyper-extensibility and scoliosis. The central nervous system (CNS) involvement in HIES has been rarely reported. Here we presented a case of HIES with rare associations of epilepsy in a young patient to raise awareness for this disorder. PMID:24616862

  20. Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems.

    PubMed

    Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O

    2011-11-01

    1.?Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2.?To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3.?The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4.?The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5.?Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological communities. Second, kill rate is the primary statistic for many traditional models of predation. However, our work suggests that kill rate and PR are similarly important for understanding why predation is such a complex process. PMID:21569029

  1. Flexibility in assessment of prey cues: frog-eating bats and frog calls

    PubMed Central

    Page, Rachel A; Ryan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    Predators use cues associated with their prey to assess prey quality and to avoid consuming poisonous prey. Considerable attention has been given to predators' use of aposematic cues to assess prey quality, but little is known about predators that eavesdrop on prey cues that are not intended for them. Here we investigate the prey-cue/prey-quality associations of a predator that eavesdrops on the sexual advertisement signals of its prey. Stability is expected in prey-cue/prey-quality associations when mistakes in prey assessment are lethal. Conversely, flexibility is possible when mistakes are less costly. Predators that must respond to temporal and spatial fluctuations in prey availability should be more flexible in their assessment of prey quality. Given these predictions, we examined flexibility in the ability of wild-caught bats to reverse prey-cue/prey-quality associations for a preferred prey and a poisonous one. We found that the predatory bat, Trachops cirrhosus, has a heretofore undescribed ability to reverse its evaluations of the cues that signal preferred prey. PMID:15888417

  2. Sensorimotor model of bat echolocation and prey capture.

    PubMed

    Kuc, R

    1994-10-01

    A model of the bat sensorimotor system is developed using acoustics, signal processing, and control theory to illustrate the fundamental issues in accomplishing prey capture with echolocation. This model indicates that successful nonpredictive tracking of an ideal prey can be accomplished with a very simple system. Circular apertures approximate the mouth and ears for deriving acoustic beam patterns, using the big brown bat Eptesicus fuscus as a model. Fundamental and overtone frequency components in the emissions allow two simultaneous acoustic beams to be defined. A pair of nonlinear, time-variable, sampled-data controllers alter the bat's heading by applying yaw and pitch heading corrections. The yaw correction attempts to position the prey in the midsagittal plane by nulling the interaural intensity difference of the fundamental component. The pitch correction compares the intensities of the overtone and fundamental components and acts to null their difference. By initiating pitch correction when the overtone intensity first exceeds that of the fundamental, the ambiguity problem is solved and the prey is directed to the capture region. Simulations of passive prey capture indicate that the capture probability decreases as the prey speed increases. Both quick and sluggish prey are considered, with sluggish prey found to be caught with slightly better efficiency. The magnitude of the prey's lateral motion just prior to capture is observed to be an important factor determining capture. The presence of a blind stage is considered, during which the interference of the emission with the echo is assumed to disrupt any sonar information. The presence of such a blind stage is found to have negligible effect on capture efficiency. PMID:7963018

  3. Female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Akpoterabor, C E

    1998-01-01

    The letter on unsafe male circumcision by Dr. H. Gretahun (Africa Health, March 1997) brings into very clear focus the whole issue of genital mutilation. Circumcision, whether male or female, does not per se amount to genital mutilation unless performed unsafely. Female circumcision involves only reducing the rudimentary penis, the clitoris, in order to tuck it neatly and beautifully under the labia majora. When the operation involves slicing off the labia, it ceases to be circumcision. Any scar tissue formed, both in size and location, is never enough to interfere with childbirth, otherwise the Black race would have been extinct millennia ago. Orgasm is not impeded in any way or else the female population of the planet would have been 80% frigid. If an uncircumcised female exhibits greater excitability, it is to be expected; even the constant friction between the clitoris and the underpart sets off some amount of auto-arousal. African female anti-circumcision activists should stop to consider the real issues and recognize the ulterior motives of the Western world, where even males are not circumcised. They should worry more about AIDS, which the West created as a weapon against its Communist opponents using Africans as laboratory animals. Africans should be demanding compensation and free distribution of all available drugs and not condoms. PMID:12321391

  4. Birth Timing for Mountain Lions (Puma concolor); Testing the Prey Availability Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Brian D.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June–August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April–June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1st litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage. PMID:23028569

  5. Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage. PMID:23028569

  6. Peripherin-IgG Association with Neurologic and Endocrine Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Jayne L.; Pittock, Sean J.; Oprescu, Anna-Maria; Dege, Carissa; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Kryzer, Thomas J.; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2010-01-01

    Peripherin-IgG has been reported a pertinent autoantibody in non-obese type 1 diabetic (NOD) mice. However, it has not previously been recognized in any human disease. In blinded evaluation of serum for markers of neurological autoimmunity in a high-volume diagnostic laboratory, we incidentally identified 26 patients (61% female) with an IgG that bound selectively to neural elements in enteric ganglia, sympathetic nerve trunks and discrete nerve tracts in mid-brain and hind-brain. The target antigen was identified as peripherin, a 55 kDa-type III intermediate filament protein. Review of clinical histories revealed that 54% of seropositive patients had dysautonomia (predominantly gastrointestinal dysmotility), 30% had neuropathies with varied sensory symptoms and 35% had clinical or serological evidence of endocrinopathy (type 1 diabetes, thyroiditis or premature ovarian failure). Collectively, 73% had autonomic dysfunction or endocrinopathy. None of 173 healthy subjects was seropositive. Subsequent western blot evaluation of archival sera from patients with small fiber/autonomic neuropathies (with or without endocrinopathy) revealed a 33% seropositivity rate for peripherin IgG. Our further demonstration that peripherin-immunoreactive autonomic fibers in pancreas, thyroid and ovary are juxtaposed to endocrine epithelium, complement our clinical observations in suggesting that neuronal elements may be a pertinent initial target for immune attack in multiple forms of endocrine autoimmunity (intermolecular epitope spreading). It remains to be determined whether or not peripherin-IgG is predictive for development of small fiber neuropathy (autonomic or somatic). PMID:20061119

  7. Evaluation of the new architect cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity assays.

    PubMed

    Lagrou, K; Bodeus, M; Van Ranst, M; Goubau, P

    2009-06-01

    A panel of new cytomegalovirus (CMV) assays for use on the Architect instrument has been developed, including a CMV avidity assay based on a new technology. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the fully automated CMV immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgG avidity tests on the Architect instrument with those of other available assays. A total of 503 consecutive fresh patient serum specimens (routine serum specimens) and 96 serum specimens from 33 pregnant women with a recent CMV primary infection (seroconversion serum specimens) were tested for CMV IgM and IgG by the Architect (Abbott), Vidas (BioMérieux), and Enzygnost (Siemens) assays. The seroconversion sera and 100 preselected serum specimens IgM negative and IgG positive by the AxSYM assay were also tested by the IgG avidity tests on the Architect and Vidas instruments. The relative agreements for CMV IgM determination with routine sera between the Architect assay and the Vidas, Enzygnost, and AxSYM assays were 97%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, for the CMV IgM tests and 99%, 98%, and 98%, respectively, for the CMV IgG tests. The specificities of the CMV IgG avidity test were 98% for the Architect assay and 76% for the Vidas assay. No high CMV IgG avidity test results were found within the first 3 months after seroconversion by either of those assays. The correlation between the results of the newly developed CMV IgM and IgG tests on the Architect instrument with the Vidas and Enzygnost assays was excellent (> or = 94%). The CMV IgG avidity test reliably excluded patients with recent infections and showed an excellent specificity (98%). PMID:19339470

  8. IgG4-related Orbital Disease and Its Mimics in a Western Population.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Judith A; Klepeis, Veronica; Sohani, Aliyah R; Harris, Nancy Lee; Preffer, Frederic I; Stone, John H; Grove, Arthur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Although chronic inflammatory disorders of the ocular adnexa are relatively common, their pathogenesis is in many cases poorly understood. Recent investigation suggests that many cases of sclerosing orbital inflammation are a manifestation of IgG4-related disease; however, most patients reported have been Asian, and it is not clear whether the results of studies from the Far East can be reliably extrapolated to draw conclusions about Western patients. We evaluated 38 cases previously diagnosed as orbital inflammatory pseudotumor or chronic dacryoadenitis to determine whether our cases fulfill the criteria for IgG4-RD (IgG4-related dacryoadenitis when involving the lacrimal gland, and IgG4-related sclerosing orbital inflammation when involving orbital soft tissue). Fifteen patients had IgG4-related dacryoadenitis or orbital inflammation. These patients included 9 men and 6 women, aged 24 to 77 years (median, 64 y). Lesions involved orbital soft tissue (8 cases), lacrimal gland (6 cases), and canthus (1 case). In 1 case, focal in situ follicular neoplasia was seen in a background of IgG4-RD. In another case, a clonal IGH gene rearrangement was detected. Four patients with IgG4-RD had evidence of IgG4-RD in other anatomic sites. Five patients, 1 man and 4 women, aged 26 to 74 years (median 50 y) had orbital lesions (2 involving lacrimal gland, 3 involving soft tissue) suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, IgG4-RD. Of 16 patients with IgG4-RD or probable IgG4-RD with information available regarding the course of their disease, 11 patients experienced recurrent or persistent orbital disease. However, no patient developed lymphoma, and no patient died of complications of IgG4-RD. Eighteen patients had lesions not representing IgG4-RD. They included 6 male and 12 female individuals aged 6 to 77 years (median, 47 y). These patients had a variety of diseases, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (3 cases), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case), nonspecific chronic inflammation and fibrosis involving lacrimal gland or soft tissue (12 cases), and others. Clinical and pathologic findings among our patients with IgG4-RD involving the orbit are similar to those previously described in Asian patients. Careful evaluation of histologic and immunophenotypic features and clinical correlation are required to distinguish orbital IgG4-RD from other sclerosing inflammatory lesions in the orbit. PMID:26379149

  9. Prey location, biomechanical constraints, and motor program choice during prey capture in the tomato frog, Dyscophus guineti.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Jenna A; Nishikawa, Kiisa C

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated how visual information about prey location and biomechanical constraints of the feeding apparatus influence the feeding behavior of the tomato frog, Dyscophus guineti. When feeding on prey at small azimuths (less than +/- 40 degrees), frogs aimed their heads toward the prey but did not aim their tongues relative to their heads. Frogs projected their tongues rapidly by transferring momentum from the lower jaw to the tongue. Storage and recovery of elastic energy by the mouth opening muscles amplified the velocities of mouth opening and tongue projection. This behavior can only occur when the lower jaw and tongue are aligned (i.e., within the range of motion of the neck). When feeding on prey at large azimuths (greater than +/- 40 degrees), frogs aimed both the head and tongue toward the prey and used a muscular hydrostatic mechanism to project the tongue. Hydrostatic elongation allows for frogs to capture prey at greater azimuthal locations. Because the tongue moves independently of the lower jaw, frogs can no longer take advantage of momentum transfer to amplify the speed of tongue projection. To feed on prey at different azimuthal locations, tomato frogs switch between alternative strategies to circumvent these biomechanical constraints. PMID:19657661

  10. Trophic relay and prey switching - A stomach contents and calorimetric investigation of an ambassid fish and their saltmarsh prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, Jack J.; Platell, Margaret E.; Schreider, Maria J.

    2015-12-01

    Trophic relay is an ecological model that involves the movement of biomass and energy from vegetation, such as saltmarshes, within estuaries to the open sea via a series of predator-prey relationships. Any potential for trophic relay is therefore affected by water movements within an estuary and by the ability of a predator to "switch" prey in response to fluctuating abundances of those prey. Saltmarsh-dwelling grapsid crabs, which feed on saltmarsh-derived detritus and microphytobenthos, release zoeae into ebbing tides that inundate saltmarshes during spring-tide cycles within tidally-dominated estuaries, such as Brisbane Water Estuary, therefore providing an opportunity to examine whether prey-switching and/or trophic relay may occur in fish that feed on those zoeae (such as the highly abundant estuarine ambassid, Ambassis jacksoniensis). This model was examined by sampling A. jacksoniensis near saltmarshes in a large, temperate south-eastern Australian estuary during flood and ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation and non-inundation over four spring-tide events in 2012. Stomach fullnesses of A. jacksoniensis were generally highest during ebb tides on days of saltmarsh inundation, implying that feeding was most marked at these times. Caridean decapods dominated diets during flood tides and on days of no saltmarsh inundation, while crab zoeae dominated diets during ebb tides and on days of inundation, suggesting that, when saltmarsh-derived zoeae became abundant, A. jacksoniensis switched to feeding on those prey. Three potential zooplankton prey (calanoid copepods, caridean decapods and crab zoeae) did not differ calorimetrically, indicating that switching of prey by A. jacksoniensis is not directly related to their preying on energetically greater prey, but reflects opportunistic feeding on more abundant and/or less elusive prey. As A. jacksoniensis is able to switch prey from estuarine caridean decapods to saltmarsh-derived crab zoeae, this very abundant ambassid would be well-placed to promote any trophic relay, via further water movements or other predator-prey relationships, to the adjacent marine environment.

  11. Female Caribou

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lincoln Parrett, of the Alaska Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit, restrains a female caribou as her calf looks on. Data collected will be used to assess productivity, survival and distribution of Teshekpuk caribou in the National Petroleum Reserve Alaska.  This project is in cooperation with t...

  12. IgA anaphylactic transfusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Sandler, S G; Mallory, D; Malamut, D; Eckrich, R

    1995-01-01

    IgA anaphylactic transfusion reactions are rare events, estimated to occur in 1 in 20,000 to 47,000 transfusions. The signs and symptoms of these reactions do not differentiate them from other causes of anaphylaxis. The diagnosis of an anaphylactic transfusion reaction is established by showing an IgA-antibody in the patient's serum. Most laboratories that test for IgA antibodies rely on the PHA method, which uses red blood cells that are coated with serologically defined IgA multiple myeloma proteins. We tested sera referred from Red Cross regional blood centers and hospitals from patients with suspected IgA anaphylactic reactions and found an IgA antibody in 76.3% of IgA-deficient patients. However, only 17.5% of all samples referred contained an IgA antibody, indicating that most persons with suspected IgA anaphylactic reactions had experienced acute generalized reactions that were from causes other than anti-IgA transfusion. Using PHIA to measure serum concentrations of IgA and PHA to detect IgA antibodies, we found the frequency of IgA deficiency (< 0.05 mg/dL) and class-specific anti-IgA in random blood donors to be approximately 1 in 1,200. Titers of anti-IgA did not distinguish these seemingly healthy blood donors from patients with a history of an anaphylactic transfusion reaction. Because the frequency of 1 in 1,200 greatly exceeds the observed frequency of anaphylactic reactions in transfused persons, we conclude that using PHA for anti-IgA does not reliably predict risk for an anaphylactic transfusion reaction. Additional research is needed to define a more specific marker to identify those persons who are truly at risk for these serious, but rare, complications of blood transfusion. PMID:7719037

  13. Improbable Research and the Ig Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The Ig Nobel Prizes honor achievements that first make people laugh, then make them think. Marc Abrahams, father of the Ig Nobel Prize ceremony and editor of the magazine Annals of Improbable Research, will show us some of the most outstanding Ig Nobel winners. He will also discuss why Ohio has been such a good producer of Ig Nobel Prize winners, and of improbable research.

  14. Colour Polymorphism Protects Prey Individuals and Populations Against Predation

    PubMed Central

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism. PMID:26902799

  15. Recolonizing carnivores and naïve prey: conservation lessons from Pleistocene extinctions.

    PubMed

    Berger, J; Swenson, J E; Persson, I L

    2001-02-01

    The current extinction of many of Earth's large terrestrial carnivores has left some extant prey species lacking knowledge about contemporary predators, a situation roughly parallel to that 10,000 to 50,000 years ago, when naive animals first encountered colonizing human hunters. Along present-day carnivore recolonization fronts, brown (also called grizzly) bears killed predator-naive adult moose at disproportionately high rates in Scandinavia, and moose mothers who lost juveniles to recolonizing wolves in North America's Yellowstone region developed hypersensitivity to wolf howls. Although prey that had been unfamiliar with dangerous predators for as few as 50 to 130 years were highly vulnerable to initial encounters, behavioral adjustments to reduce predation transpired within a single generation. The fact that at least one prey species quickly learns to be wary of restored carnivores should negate fears about localized prey extinction. PMID:11161215

  16. Colour Polymorphism Protects Prey Individuals and Populations Against Predation.

    PubMed

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Colour pattern polymorphism in animals can influence and be influenced by interactions between predators and prey. However, few studies have examined whether polymorphism is adaptive, and there is no evidence that the co-occurrence of two or more natural prey colour variants can increase survival of populations. Here we show that visual predators that exploit polymorphic prey suffer from reduced performance, and further provide rare evidence in support of the hypothesis that prey colour polymorphism may afford protection against predators for both individuals and populations. This protective effect provides a probable explanation for the longstanding, evolutionary puzzle of the existence of colour polymorphisms. We also propose that this protective effect can provide an adaptive explanation for search image formation in predators rather than search image formation explaining polymorphism. PMID:26902799

  17. A link between water availability and nesting success mediated by predator-prey interactions in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Nicolas; Gauthier, Gilles; Giroux, Jean-François

    2009-02-01

    Although water availability is primarily seen as a factor affecting food availability (a bottom-up process), we examined its effect on predator-prey interactions through an influence on prey behavior (a top-down process). We documented a link between water availability, predation risk, and reproductive success in a goose species (Chen caerulescens atlantica) inhabiting an Arctic environment where water is not considered a limited commodity. To reach water sources during incubation recesses, geese nesting in mesic tundra (low water availability) must move almost four times as far from their nest than those nesting in wetlands, which reduced their ability to defend their nest against predators and led to a higher predation rate. Nesting success was improved in high rainfall years due to increased water availability, and more so for geese nesting in the low water availability habitat. Likewise, nesting success was improved in years where the potential for evaporative water loss (measured by the atmospheric water vapor pressure) was low, presumably because females had to leave their nest less often to drink. Females from water-supplemented nests traveled a shorter distance to drink, and their nesting success was enhanced by 20% compared to the control. This shows that water availability and rainfall can have a strong effect on predator-prey dynamics and that changes in precipitation brought by climate change could have an impact on some Arctic species through a top-down effect. PMID:19323230

  18. Molecular basis for prey relocation in viperid snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vertebrate predators use a broad arsenal of behaviors and weaponry for overcoming fractious and potentially dangerous prey. A unique array of predatory strategies occur among snakes, ranging from mechanical modes of constriction and jaw-holding in non-venomous snakes, to a chemical means, venom, for quickly dispatching prey. However, even among venomous snakes, different prey handling strategies are utilized, varying from the strike-and-hold behaviors exhibited by highly toxic elapid snakes to the rapid strike-and-release envenomation seen in viperid snakes. For vipers, this mode of envenomation represents a minimal risk predatory strategy by permitting little contact with or retaliation from prey, but it adds the additional task of relocating envenomated prey which has wandered from the attack site. This task is further confounded by trails of other unstruck conspecific or heterospecific prey. Despite decades of behavioral study, researchers still do not know the molecular mechanism which allows for prey relocation. Results During behavioral discrimination trials (vomeronasal responsiveness) to euthanized mice injected with size-fractionated venom, Crotalus atrox responded significantly to only one protein peak. Assays for enzymes common in rattlesnake venoms, such as exonuclease, L-amino acid oxidase, metalloproteinase, thrombin-like and kallikrein-like serine proteases and phospholipase A2, showed that vomeronasal responsiveness was not dependent on enzymatic activity. Using mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing, we identified the proteins responsible for envenomated prey discrimination as the non-enzymatic disintegrins crotatroxin 1 and 2. Our results demonstrate a novel and critical biological role for venom disintegrins far beyond their well-established role in disruption of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Conclusions These findings reveal the evolutionary significance of free disintegrins in venoms as the molecular mechanism in vipers allowing for effective relocation of envenomated prey. The presence of free disintegrins in turn has led to evolution of a major behavioral adaptation (strike-and-release), characteristic of only rattlesnakes and other vipers, which exploits and refines the efficiency of a pre-existing chemical means of predation and a highly sensitive olfaction system. This system of a predator chemically tagging prey represents a novel trend in the coevolution of predator-prey relationships. PMID:23452837

  19. Local Bifurcations and Optimal Theory in a Delayed Predator-Prey Model with Threshold Prey Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankam, Israel; Tchinda Mouofo, Plaire; Mendy, Abdoulaye; Lam, Mountaga; Tewa, Jean Jules; Bowong, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the effects of time delay and piecewise-linear threshold policy harvesting for a delayed predator-prey model. It is the first time that Holling response function of type III and the present threshold policy harvesting are associated with time delay. The trajectories of our delayed system are bounded; the stability of each equilibrium is analyzed with and without delay; there are local bifurcations as saddle-node bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation; optimal harvesting is also investigated. Numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate each result.

  20. Predator Dispersal Determines the Effect of Connectivity on Prey Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Limberger, Romana; Wickham, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Linking local communities to a metacommunity can positively affect diversity by enabling immigration of dispersal-limited species and maintenance of sink populations. However, connectivity can also negatively affect diversity by allowing the spread of strong competitors or predators. In a microcosm experiment with five ciliate species as prey and a copepod as an efficient generalist predator, we analysed the effect of connectivity on prey species richness in metacommunities that were either unconnected, connected for the prey, or connected for both prey and predator. Presence and absence of predator dispersal was cross-classified with low and high connectivity. The effect of connectivity on local and regional richness strongly depended on whether corridors were open for the predator. Local richness was initially positively affected by connectivity through rescue of species from stochastic extinctions. With predator dispersal, however, this positive effect soon turned negative as the predator spread over the metacommunity. Regional richness was unaffected by connectivity when local communities were connected only for the prey, while predator dispersal resulted in a pronounced decrease of regional richness. The level of connectivity influenced the speed of richness decline, with regional species extinctions being delayed for one week in weakly connected metacommunities. While connectivity enabled rescue of prey species from stochastic extinctions, deterministic extinctions due to predation were not overcome through reimmigration from predator-free refuges. Prey reimmigrating into these sink habitats appeared to be directly converted into increased predator abundance. Connectivity thus had a positive effect on the predator, even when the predator was not dispersing itself. Our study illustrates that dispersal of a species with strong negative effects on other community members shapes the dispersal-diversity relationship. When connections enable the spread of a generalist predator, positive effects of connectivity on prey species richness are outweighed by regional extinctions through predation. PMID:22194992

  1. IgE, IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) serum antibody levels in offspring of two sires affected with equine recurrent airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Scharrenberg, A; Gerber, V; Swinburne, J E; Wilson, A D; Klukowska-Rötzler, J; Laumen, E; Marti, E

    2010-12-01

    Equine recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a chronic lower airway disease of the horse caused by hypersensitivity reactions to inhaled stable dust, including mould spores such as Aspergillus fumigatus. The goals of this study were to investigate whether total serum IgE levels and allergen-specific IgE and IgG subclasses are influenced by genetic factors and/or RAO and whether quantitative trait loci (QTL) could be identified for these parameters. The offspring of two RAO-affected sires (S1: n=56 and S2: n=65) were grouped by stallion and disease status, and total serum IgE levels and specific IgE, IgGa, IgGb and IgG(T) levels against recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 (rAspf7) were measured by ELISA. A panel of 315 microsatellite markers covering the 31 equine autosomes were used to genotype the stallions and their offspring. A whole-genome scan using half-sib regression interval mapping was performed for each of the IgG and IgE subclasses. There was no significant effect of disease status or sire on total IgE levels, but there was a significant effect of gender and age. rAspf7-specific IgGa levels were significantly higher in RAO-affected than in healthy horses. The offspring of S1 had significantly higher rAspf7-specific IgGa and IgE levels than those of S2. Five QTLs were significant chromosome-wide (P<0.01). QTLs for rAspf7-specific IgGa and IgE were identified on ECA 1, for rAspf7-specific IgGa and IgGb on ECA 24 and for rAspf7 IgGa on ECA 26. These results provide evidence for effects of disease status and genetics on allergen-specific IgGa and IgE. PMID:21070286

  2. Snake modulates constriction in response to prey's heartbeat.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Hall, Allison E; McCann, Katelyn J; Hayes, Amanda W; Forrester, Jeffrey S; Zwemer, Charles F

    2012-06-23

    Many species of snakes use constriction-the act of applying pressure via loops of their trunk-to subdue and kill their prey. Constriction is costly and snakes must therefore constrict their prey just long enough to ensure death. However, it remains unknown how snakes determine when their prey is dead. Here, we demonstrate that boas (Boa constrictor) have the remarkable ability to detect a heartbeat in their prey and, based on this signal, modify the pressure and duration of constriction accordingly. We monitored pressure generated by snakes as they struck and constricted warm cadaveric rats instrumented with a simulated heart. Snakes responded to the beating heart by constricting longer and with greater total pressure than when constricting rats with no heartbeat. When the heart was stopped midway through the constriction, snakes abandoned constriction shortly after the heartbeat ceased. Furthermore, snakes naive to live prey also responded to the simulated heart, suggesting that this behaviour is at least partly innate. These results are an example of how snakes integrate physiological cues from their prey to modulate a complex and ancient behavioural pattern. PMID:22258447

  3. Naïve prey exhibit reduced antipredator behavior and survivorship

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Prey naiveté has been hypothesized to be one of the major driving forces behind population declines following the introduction of novel predators or release of inexperienced prey into predator rich environments. In these cases, naïve prey may lack sufficient antipredator behavior and, as a result, suffer increased mortality. Despite this, some evidence suggests that many prey utilize a generalized response to predators. Here, the naiveté hypothesis is tested using a predator–prey pair sharing an evolutionary history: the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii Girard, 1852) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacépède, 1802). Using farm-reared, naïve crayfish and wild-caught, experienced individuals, laboratory experiments demonstrated that naïve, farmed crayfish lack behavioral responses to chemical cues from bass, both in terms of movement and use of structural refuge. In contrast, experienced crayfish responded strongly to the same cues. In a subsequent field tethering experiment, these naïve individuals suffered a three-fold increase in predation rate. Based on these results, recognition of predators may not be innate in all prey, and previous experience and learning likely play a key role in the development of antipredator behavior. PMID:25392763

  4. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction

    PubMed Central

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator–prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term ‘indirect evolutionary rescue’, has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change. PMID:26366196

  5. Horned lizards (Phrynosoma) incapacitate dangerous ant prey with mucus.

    PubMed

    Sherbrooke, Wade C; Schwenk, Kurt

    2008-10-01

    Horned lizards (Iguanidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosoma) are morphologically specialized reptiles characterized by squat, tank-like bodies, short limbs, blunt snouts, spines and cranial horns, among other traits. They are unusual among lizards in the degree to which they specialize on a diet of ants, but exceptional in the number of pugnacious, highly venomous, stinging ants they consume, especially harvester ants (genus Pogonomyrmex). Like other iguanian lizards, they capture insect prey on the tongue, but unlike other lizards, they neither bite nor chew dangerous prey before swallowing. Instead, they employ a unique kinematic pattern in which prey capture, transport and swallowing are combined. Nevertheless, horned lizards consume dozens of harvester ants without harm. We show that their derived feeding kinematics are associated with unique, mucus-secreting pharyngeal papillae that apparently serve to immobilize and incapacitate dangerous ants as they are swallowed by compacting them and binding them in mucus strands. Radially branched esophageal folds provide additional mucus-secreting surfaces the ants pass through as they are swallowed. Ants extracted from fresh-killed horned lizard stomachs are curled ventrally into balls and bound in mucus. We conclude that the pharyngeal papillae, in association with a unique form of hyolingual prey transport and swallowing, are horned lizard adaptations related to a diet of dangerous prey. Harvester ant defensive weapons, along with horned lizard adaptations against such weapons, suggest a long-term, predator-prey, co-evolutionary arms race between Phrynosoma and Pogonomyrmex. PMID:18570329

  6. Indirect evolutionary rescue: prey adapts, predator avoids extinction.

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Masato; Miner, Brooks E

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have increasingly recognized evolutionary rescue (adaptive evolution that prevents extinction following environmental change) as an important process in evolutionary biology and conservation science. Researchers have concentrated on single species living in isolation, but populations in nature exist within communities of interacting species, so evolutionary rescue should also be investigated in a multispecies context. We argue that the persistence or extinction of a focal species can be determined solely by evolutionary change in an interacting species. We demonstrate that prey adaptive evolution can prevent predator extinction in two-species predator-prey models, and we derive the conditions under which this indirect evolutionary interaction is essential to prevent extinction following environmental change. A nonevolving predator can be rescued from extinction by adaptive evolution of its prey due to a trade-off for the prey between defense against predation and population growth rate. As prey typically have larger populations and shorter generations than their predators, prey evolution can be rapid and have profound effects on predator population dynamics. We suggest that this process, which we term 'indirect evolutionary rescue', has the potential to be critically important to the ecological and evolutionary responses of populations and communities to dramatic environmental change. PMID:26366196

  7. Food wrapping with the postpharyngeal gland secretion by females of the European beewolf Philanthus triangulum.

    PubMed

    Herzner, Gudrun; Schmitt, Thomas; Peschke, Klaus; Hilpert, Andrea; Strohm, Erhard

    2007-04-01

    Ground-nesting animals share their habitat with countless microorganisms that can play important roles as pathogens or competitors for food resources. Thus, species that store food in the soil, either for themselves or for their progeny, must protect these resources against microbial degradation. Females of the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, hunt honeybees as provisions for their brood and store the paralyzed prey in their subterranean nests. A previous study had shown that females lick the surface of prey before oviposition and that this licking treatment delays mold growth. Here, we showed that females apply large amounts of a secretion from their postpharyngeal glands onto the surface of their prey during the licking behavior. Inhibition-zone assays showed that comparatively large amounts of the gland secretion had no direct antimycotic effect. We discuss our findings with regard to other possible mechanisms of the postpharyngeal gland secretion against fungal growth. PMID:17334918

  8. Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-based anti-amyloid-β (Aβ) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

  9. Social Familiarity Governs Prey Patch-Exploitation, - Leaving and Inter-Patch Distribution of the Group-Living Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    PubMed Central

    Zach, Gernot J.; Peneder, Stefan; Strodl, Markus A.; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background In group-living animals, social interactions and their effects on other life activities such as foraging are commonly determined by discrimination among group members. Accordingly, many group-living species evolved sophisticated social recognition abilities such as the ability to recognize familiar individuals, i.e. individuals encountered before. Social familiarity may affect within-group interactions and between-group movements. In environments with patchily distributed prey, group-living predators must repeatedly decide whether to stay with the group in a given prey patch or to leave and search for new prey patches and groups. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the assumption that in group-living animals social familiarity allows to optimize the performance in other tasks, as for example predicted by limited attention theory, we assessed the influence of social familiarity on prey patch exploitation, patch-leaving, and inter-patch distribution of the group-living, plant-inhabiting predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. P. persimilis is highly specialized on herbivorous spider mite prey such as the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is patchily distributed on its host plants. We conducted two experiments with (1) groups of juvenile P. persimilis under limited food on interconnected detached leaflets, and (2) groups of adult P. persimilis females under limited food on whole plants. Familiar individuals of both juvenile and adult predator groups were more exploratory and dispersed earlier from a given spider mite patch, occupied more leaves and depleted prey more quickly than individuals of unfamiliar groups. Moreover, familiar juvenile predators had higher survival chances than unfamiliar juveniles. Conclusions/Significance We argue that patch-exploitation and -leaving, and inter-patch dispersion were more favorably coordinated in groups of familiar than unfamiliar predators, alleviating intraspecific competition and improving prey utilization and suppression. PMID:22900062

  10. Variable prey development time suppresses predator-prey cycles and enhances stability.

    PubMed

    Cronin, James T; Reeve, John D; Xu, Dashun; Xiao, Mingqing; Stevens, Heidi N

    2016-03-01

    Although theoretical models have demonstrated that predator-prey population dynamics can depend critically on age (stage) structure and the duration and variability in development times of different life stages, experimental support for this theory is non-existent. We conducted an experiment with a host-parasitoid system to test the prediction that increased variability in the development time of the vulnerable host stage can promote interaction stability. Host-parasitoid microcosms were subjected to two treatments: Normal and High variance in the duration of the vulnerable host stage. In control and Normal-variance microcosms, hosts and parasitoids exhibited distinct population cycles. In contrast, insect abundances were 18-24% less variable in High- than Normal-variance microcosms. More significantly, periodicity in host-parasitoid population dynamics disappeared in the High-variance microcosms. Simulation models confirmed that stability in High-variance microcosms was sufficient to prevent extinction. We conclude that developmental variability is critical to predator-prey population dynamics and could be exploited in pest-management programs. PMID:26778037

  11. Infant gut immunity: a preliminary study of IgA associations with breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S L; Konya, T; Azad, M B; Sears, M R; Becker, A B; Turvey, S E; Mandhane, P J; Subbarao, P; Scott, J A; Field, C J; Kozyrskyj, A L

    2016-02-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) plays a critical role in gut mucosal immune defense. Initially provided by breastmilk, IgA production by the infant gut is gradually stimulated by developing gut microbiota. This study reports associations between infant fecal IgA concentrations 4 months after birth, breastfeeding status and other pre/postnatal exposures in 47 infants in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development cohort. Breastfed infants and first-born infants had higher median fecal IgA concentrations (23.11 v. 9.34 µg/g protein, P<0.01 and 22.19 v. 8.23 µg/g protein, P=0.04). IgA levels increased successively with exclusivity of breastfeeding (β-coefficient, 0.37, P<0.05). This statistical association was independent of maternal parity and household pets. In the absence of breastfeeding, female sex and pet exposure elevated fecal IgA to levels found in breastfed infants. In addition to breastfeeding, infant fecal IgA associations with pre/postnatal exposures may affect gut immunity and risk of allergic disease. PMID:26690933

  12. [A case of selective IgM deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Kasahara, M; Miyawaki, T; Yahata, K; Hashimoto, H; Sugawara, A; Ueda, S; Matsuo, T; Kuwahara, T

    1996-04-01

    We report a case of selective IgM deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A 34-year-old female suffering from SLE was admitted with proteinuria and general fatigue. Laboratory findings revealed a very low serum IgM level, almost lower than 12 mg/dl. Renal biopsy findings showed diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN). In immunofluorescent microscopy, IgG was the most strongly stained followed by IgA, but IgM staining was only faint. As for the immunophenotype of the T cells, the OKT4/OKT8 ratio was normal. Response to both phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) was normal. However, responses of B cells to both pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and Staphylococcus aureus Cowan strain I (SAC) were significantly reduced. Surface IgM-positive B cells were decreased. These results indicate that the patient had B cell dysfunction, involving impairment of B cell differentiation. In this report, we discuss selective IgM deficiency and SLE documented in the literature. PMID:8709418

  13. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  14. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  15. IgA Nephropathy in a Patient Presenting with Pseudotumor Cerebri

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Umair Syed; Bacaj, Patrick; Iqbal, Hafiz Imran; Onder, Songul

    2016-01-01

    IgA nephropathy is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide and typically has minimal signs for chronicity in histopathology at the time of initial presentation. Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC) is characterized by increased intracranial pressure in the absence of any intracranial lesions, inflammation, or obstruction. PTC has been reported in renal transplant and dialysis patients, but we are unaware of any reports of pseudotumor cerebri in patients with IgA nephropathy. We report a case of a young female who presented with signs and symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri and was subsequently diagnosed with IgA nephropathy and end-stage renal disease. To our knowledge this is the first report of IgA nephropathy presenting as end-stage renal disease in a patient who presented with pseudotumor cerebri. PMID:26989531

  16. Soy- and shrimp-specific IgE responses in orally and intraperitoneally immunized mice.

    PubMed

    Bozelka, B E; Carrow, E; Pahud, J J; Lehrer, S B

    1987-01-01

    Female C3H/HeJ mice were immunized parenterally and/or intragastrically with two important food allergens, soy and shrimp. Although both preparations elicited specific IgE production when administered intraperitoneally, anti-shrimp titers were consistently higher. Soy or shrimp administration, i.g. with Pertussis adjuvant (intraperitoneally or intragastrically) did not induce detectable reaginic antibody. Animals treated with soy intragastrically were unable to produce a soy-specific IgE response upon intraperitoneal immunization. The combination of soy and Pertussis (intragastric) did, however, abrogate this tolerizing effect on IgE synthesis. In contrast to soy, the shrimp antigens (intragastric) did not act as tolerogens and were found to enhance subsequent reaginic responses produced by intraperitoneal immunization. These results are considered with respect to mechanisms operative in food allergy. PMID:3596818

  17. IGS Data Center Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.

    2004-01-01

    At its 18th meeting held December 09, 2001 in San Francisco, the IGS Governing Board recommended the formation of a working group to focus on data center issues. This working group will tackle many of the problems facing the IGS data centers as well as develop new ideas to aid users both internal and external to the IGS. The direction of the IGS has changed since its start in 1992 and many new working groups, projects, data sets, and products have been created and incorporated into the service since that time. Therefore, this may be an appropriate time to revisit the requirements of data centers within the IGS.

  18. Prey abundance and food habits of San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, C.G.; Berry, W.H.; Standley, W.G.; Kato, T.T.

    1992-09-01

    Prey abundance and food habits of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis) were investigated at Camp Roberts Army National Guard Training site, California, from November 1988 through September 1991. The sampling methods initially used to assess abundance of prey species resulted in indices too low to be of value. Because of this, the relationship between relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of prey species could not be examined. Six hundred forty-nine fecal samples (scats) were analyzed to determine the frequency of occurrence of prey items. California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) and lagomorphs primarily desert cottontails (Sylvilagus audubonii) and black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) were the most frequently occurring mammalian prey items found in scats (35.0% and 12.2%, respectively). The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel (but not lagomorph) remains in scats collected from juveniles was significantly higher than in scats collected from adults. The frequency of occurrence of ground squirrel and lagomorph remains in scats collected from males was not significant different than in scats collected from females. There were significant variations in the frequency of ground squirrel remains among the years 1989--1991 and during the June--November periods between 1989 and 1990 and between 1990 and 1991. The frequency of lagomorph remains collected during the June--November period differed significantly among the years 1989--1991 and between 1990 and 1991.

  19. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Volpov, Beth L.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Battaile, Brian C.; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E.; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  20. Identification of Prey Captures in Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Using Head-Mounted Accelerometers: Field Validation with Animal-Borne Video Cameras.

    PubMed

    Volpov, Beth L; Hoskins, Andrew J; Battaile, Brian C; Viviant, Morgane; Wheatley, Kathryn E; Marshall, Greg; Abernathy, Kyler; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated prey captures in free-ranging adult female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) using head-mounted 3-axis accelerometers and animal-borne video cameras. Acceleration data was used to identify individual attempted prey captures (APC), and video data were used to independently verify APC and prey types. Results demonstrated that head-mounted accelerometers could detect individual APC but were unable to distinguish among prey types (fish, cephalopod, stingray) or between successful captures and unsuccessful capture attempts. Mean detection rate (true positive rate) on individual animals in the testing subset ranged from 67-100%, and mean detection on the testing subset averaged across 4 animals ranged from 82-97%. Mean False positive (FP) rate ranged from 15-67% individually in the testing subset, and 26-59% averaged across 4 animals. Surge and sway had significantly greater detection rates, but also conversely greater FP rates compared to heave. Video data also indicated that some head movements recorded by the accelerometers were unrelated to APC and that a peak in acceleration variance did not always equate to an individual prey item. The results of the present study indicate that head-mounted accelerometers provide a complementary tool for investigating foraging behaviour in pinnipeds, but that detection and FP correction factors need to be applied for reliable field application. PMID:26107647

  1. The effects of opportunistic and intentional predators on the herding behavior of prey.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Ross; Garay, Jozsef

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we study how predator behavior influences the aggregation of prey into herds. Game-theoretic models of herd formation are developed based on different survival probabilities of solitary prey and prey that join the herd and on the predator's preference of what type of prey to search for. For an intentional predator that will only pursue its preferred type of prey, a single herd with no solitaries cannot emerge unless the herd acts as a prey refuge. If neither prey choice provides a refuge, it is shown that an equilibrium always exists where there are both types of prey and the predator does not always search for the same type of prey (i.e., a mixed equilibrium exists). On the other hand, if the predator is opportunistic in that it sometimes shifts to pursue the type of prey that is observed first, there may be a single herd equilibrium that does not act as a prey refuge when there is a high level of opportunistic behavior. For low opportunistic levels, a mixed equilibrium is again the only outcome. The evolutionary stability of each equilibrium is tested to see if it predicts the eventual herding behavior of prey in its corresponding model. Our analysis confirms that both predator and prey preferences (for herd or solitary) have strong effects on why prey aggregate. In particular, in our models, only the opportunistic predator can maintain all prey in a single herd that is under predation risk. PMID:21618922

  2. Cues by which Portia fimbriata, an araneophagic jumping spider, distinguishes jumping-spider prey from other prey.

    PubMed

    Harland, D P; Jackson, R R

    2000-11-01

    Portia fimbriata from Queensland, Australia, is an araneophagic jumping spider (Salticidae) that includes in its predatory strategy a tactic (cryptic stalking) enabling it to prey effectively on a wide range of salticids from other genera. Optical cues used by P. fimbriata to identify the salticid species on which it most commonly preys, Jacksonoides queenslandicus, were investigated experimentally in the laboratory using odorless lures made from dead prey on which various combinations of features were altered. P. fimbriata adopted cryptic stalking only against intact salticid lures and modified lures on which the large anterior-median eyes were visible. Ordinary stalking was usually adopted when the lure did not have the anterior-median eyes visible. There was no evidence that cues from the legs of prey salticids influence the choice of stalking style of P. fimbriata, but cues from the legs do appear to influence strongly whether a prey is stalked at all. Cues from the cephalothorax and abdomen also influenced the stalking tendency, but to a lesser degree than cues from the legs. An algorithm to describe the perceptual processes of P. fimbriata when visually discriminating between salticid and non-salticid prey is discussed. PMID:11044386

  3. Asthma phenotypes and IgE responses.

    PubMed

    Froidure, Antoine; Mouthuy, Jonathan; Durham, Stephen R; Chanez, Pascal; Sibille, Yves; Pilette, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of IgE represented a major breakthrough in allergy and asthma research, whereas the clinical interest given to IgE in asthma has been blurred until the arrival of anti-IgE biotherapy. Novel facets of the complex link between IgE and asthma have been highlighted by the effect of this treatment and by basic research. In parallel, asthma phenotyping recently evolved to the concept of endotypes, relying on identified/suspected pathobiological mechanisms to phenotype patients, but has not yet clearly positioned IgE among biomarkers of asthma.In this review, we first summarise recent knowledge about the regulation of IgE production and its main receptor, Fc?RI. In addition to allergens acting as classical IgE inducers, viral infections as well as air pollution may trigger the IgE pathway, notably resetting the threshold of IgE sensitivity by regulating Fc?RI expression. We then analyse the place of IgE in different asthma endo/phenotypes and discuss the potential interest of IgE among biomarkers in asthma. PMID:26677936

  4. Do lions Panthera leo actively select prey or do prey preferences simply reflect chance responses via evolutionary adaptations to optimal foraging?

    PubMed

    Hayward, Matt W; Hayward, Gina J; Tambling, Craig J; Kerley, Graham I H

    2011-01-01

    Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success. PMID:21915261

  5. Do Lions Panthera leo Actively Select Prey or Do Prey Preferences Simply Reflect Chance Responses via Evolutionary Adaptations to Optimal Foraging?

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Matt W.; Hayward, Gina J.; Tambling, Craig J.; Kerley, Graham I. H.

    2011-01-01

    Research on coursing predators has revealed that actions throughout the predatory behavioral sequence (using encounter rate, hunting rate, and kill rate as proxy measures of decisions) drive observed prey preferences. We tested whether similar actions drive the observed prey preferences of a stalking predator, the African lion Panthera leo. We conducted two 96 hour, continuous follows of lions in Addo Elephant National Park seasonally from December 2003 until November 2005 (16 follows), and compared prey encounter rate with prey abundance, hunt rate with prey encounter rate, and kill rate with prey hunt rate for the major prey species in Addo using Jacobs' electivity index. We found that lions encountered preferred prey species far more frequently than expected based on their abundance, and they hunted these species more frequently than expected based on this higher encounter rate. Lions responded variably to non-preferred and avoided prey species throughout the predatory sequence, although they hunted avoided prey far less frequently than expected based on the number of encounters of them. We conclude that actions of lions throughout the predatory behavioural sequence, but particularly early on, drive the prey preferences that have been documented for this species. Once a hunt is initiated, evolutionary adaptations to the predator-prey interactions drive hunting success. PMID:21915261

  6. Impacts of Human Disturbance on Large Prey Species: Do Behavioral Reactions Translate to Fitness Consequences?

    PubMed Central

    Leblond, Mathieu; Dussault, Christian; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances have been demonstrated to affect animal behavior, distribution, and abundance, but assessment of their impacts on fitness-related traits has received little attention. We hypothesized that human activities and infrastructure cause a decrease in the individual performance of preys because of anthropogenically enhanced predation risk. We evaluated the impacts of commercial logging and road networks on the fitness of a large herbivore known to be sensitive to human disturbance: the forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). For 8 consecutive years (2004–2011) we monitored 59 individuals using GPS telemetry in the Charlevoix region of Québec, Canada. We also used Very High Frequency telemetry locations collected on 28 individuals from 1999–2000. We related habitat selection of adult caribou at various spatio-temporal scales to their probability of dying from predation, and to indices of their reproductive success and energy expenditure. The probability that adult caribou died from predation increased with the proportion of recent disturbances (including cutblocks ≤5 years old) in their annual home range. The respective effects of increasing paved and forestry road densities depended upon the overall road density within the home range of caribou. At a finer scale of 10 to 15 days before their death, caribou that were killed by a predator selected for recent disturbances more than individuals that survived, and avoided old mature conifer stands. The home range area of caribou increased with road density. Finally, the composition of the home range of females had no effect on their reproductive success. We show that human activities and infrastructure may influence the individual performance of large prey species in highly managed regions. We outline the need to consider the full set of impacts that human development may have on threatened animal populations, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships and population dynamics. PMID:24040029

  7. Impacts of human disturbance on large prey species: do behavioral reactions translate to fitness consequences?

    PubMed

    Leblond, Mathieu; Dussault, Christian; Ouellet, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances have been demonstrated to affect animal behavior, distribution, and abundance, but assessment of their impacts on fitness-related traits has received little attention. We hypothesized that human activities and infrastructure cause a decrease in the individual performance of preys because of anthropogenically enhanced predation risk. We evaluated the impacts of commercial logging and road networks on the fitness of a large herbivore known to be sensitive to human disturbance: the forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). For 8 consecutive years (2004-2011) we monitored 59 individuals using GPS telemetry in the Charlevoix region of Québec, Canada. We also used Very High Frequency telemetry locations collected on 28 individuals from 1999-2000. We related habitat selection of adult caribou at various spatio-temporal scales to their probability of dying from predation, and to indices of their reproductive success and energy expenditure. The probability that adult caribou died from predation increased with the proportion of recent disturbances (including cutblocks ≤ 5 years old) in their annual home range. The respective effects of increasing paved and forestry road densities depended upon the overall road density within the home range of caribou. At a finer scale of 10 to 15 days before their death, caribou that were killed by a predator selected for recent disturbances more than individuals that survived, and avoided old mature conifer stands. The home range area of caribou increased with road density. Finally, the composition of the home range of females had no effect on their reproductive success. We show that human activities and infrastructure may influence the individual performance of large prey species in highly managed regions. We outline the need to consider the full set of impacts that human development may have on threatened animal populations, with particular emphasis on predator-prey relationships and population dynamics. PMID:24040029

  8. Detection of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens

    PubMed Central

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the first documented case of food allergy to cooked food in 1921 by Prausnitz and Kustner, all commercial food antigens are prepared from raw food. Furthermore, all IgE and IgG antibodies against dietary proteins offered by many clinical laboratories are measured against raw food antigens. Methods We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the measurement of IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against raw and processed food antigens. Sera with low or high reactivity to modified food antigens were subjected to myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, and advanced glycation end products (AGE) such as AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Results Compared to raw food antigens, IgE antibodies showed a 3–8-fold increase against processed food antigens in 31% of the patients. Similarly, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against modified food antigens overall were found at much higher levels than antibody reactions against raw food antigens. Almost every tested serum with high levels of antibodies against modified food antigens showed very high levels of antibodies against myelin basic protein, oxidized low density lipoprotein, AGE-human serum albumin and AGE-hemoglobin. Conclusion We conclude that the determination of food allergy, intolerance and sensitivity would be improved by testing IgE, IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against both raw and processed food antigens. Antibodies against modified food antigens, by reacting with AGEs and tissue proteins, may cause perturbation in degenerative and autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration and neuroautoimmunity. PMID:19435515

  9. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  10. Total IgE plasma levels vary according to gender and age in Brazilian patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Couto, Thaís Amarante Peres; Falsarella, Nelson; de Cássia Brandão de Mattos, Cinara; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis is a disease that affects the upper airways and causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa and it is mediated by IgE antibodies produced after sensitization to environmental allergens. Previous reports have indicated that this disease affects males more often than females. The objective of this study was to verify whether total IgE plasma levels vary between genders in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 171 adult patients suffering from allergic rhinitis (55 males and 116 females) were enrolled. Total IgE plasma levels were determined using commercial kits, with 140 IU/mL considered as a reference value. The mean total IgE plasma levels were compared according to gender and age. RESULTS: The mean age of the overall patient group with allergic rhinitis was 38.4±19.0 years and a significant difference in age was observed between genders (males: 32.2±17.8 years; females: 41.4±18.9 years; p?=?0.0027). Additionally, the mean total IgE plasma levels were higher in males (413.0±143.0 IU/mL) than in females (147.9±98.0 IU/mL) (p<0.0001). These differences persisted even when males and females were stratified by age (up to or older than 20 years of age). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, total IgE plasma levels are higher in young adult males than in females suffering from allergic rhinitis. Evaluating total IgE plasma levels can be useful to identify patients at risk of allergic rhinitis in areas with low industrial pollution. PMID:25518031

  11. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals. PMID:25116637

  12. Who's for dinner? High-throughput sequencing reveals bat dietary differentiation in a biodiversity hotspot where prey taxonomy is largely undescribed.

    PubMed

    Burgar, Joanna M; Murray, Daithi C; Craig, Michael D; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Stokes, Vicki; Bunce, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Effective management and conservation of biodiversity requires understanding of predator-prey relationships to ensure the continued existence of both predator and prey populations. Gathering dietary data from predatory species, such as insectivorous bats, often presents logistical challenges, further exacerbated in biodiversity hot spots because prey items are highly speciose, yet their taxonomy is largely undescribed. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatic analyses to phylogenetically group DNA sequences into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) to examine predator-prey dynamics of three sympatric insectivorous bat species in the biodiversity hotspot of south-western Australia. We could only assign between 4% and 20% of MOTUs to known genera or species, depending on the method used, underscoring the importance of examining dietary diversity irrespective of taxonomic knowledge in areas lacking a comprehensive genetic reference database. MOTU analysis confirmed that resource partitioning occurred, with dietary divergence positively related to the ecomorphological divergence of the three bat species. We predicted that bat species' diets would converge during times of high energetic requirements, that is, the maternity season for females and the mating season for males. There was an interactive effect of season on female, but not male, bat species' diets, although small sample sizes may have limited our findings. Contrary to our predictions, females of two ecomorphologically similar species showed dietary convergence during the mating season rather than the maternity season. HTS-based approaches can help elucidate complex predator-prey relationships in highly speciose regions, which should facilitate the conservation of biodiversity in genetically uncharacterized areas, such as biodiversity hotspots. PMID:24118181

  13. Predator cannibalism can intensify negative impacts on heterospecific prey.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Kunio; Kishida, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    Although natural populations consist of individuals with different traits, and the degree of phenotypic variation varies among populations, the impact of phenotypic variation on ecological interactions has received little attention, because traditional approaches to community ecology assume homogeneity of individuals within a population. Stage structure, which is a common way of generating size and developmental variation within predator populations, can drive cannibalistic interactions, which can affect the strength of predatory effects on the predator's heterospecific prey. Studies have shown that predator cannibalism weakens predatory effects on heterospecific prey by reducing the size of the predator population and by inducing less feeding activity of noncannibal predators. We predict, however, that predator cannibalism, by promoting rapid growth of the cannibals, can also intensify predation pressure on heterospecific prey, because large predators have large resource requirements and may utilize a wider variety of prey species. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment in which we created carnivorous salamander (Hynobius retardatus) populations with different stage structures by manipulating the salamander's hatch timing (i.e., populations with large or small variation in the timing of hatching), and explored the resultant impacts on the abundance, behavior, morphology, and life history of the salamander's large heterospecific prey, Rana pirica frog tadpoles. Cannibalism was rare in salamander populations having small hatch-timing variation, but was frequent in those having large hatch-timing variation. Thus, giant salamander cannibals occurred only in the latter. We clearly showed that salamander giants exerted strong predation pressure on frog tadpoles, which induced large behavioral and morphological defenses in the tadpoles and caused them to metamorphose late at large size. Hence, predator cannibalism arising from large variation in the timing of hatching can strengthen predatory effects on heterospecific prey and can have impacts on various, traits of both predator and prey. Because animals commonly broaden their diet as they grow, such negative impacts of predator cannibalism on the heterospecific prey may be common in interactions between predators and prey species of similar size. PMID:26378311

  14. Prey size selection and cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F F; Qin, J G

    2015-05-01

    This study assessed the cannibalistic behaviour of juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer and examined the relationship between prey size selection and energy gain of cannibals. Prey handling time and capture success by cannibals were used to estimate the ratio of energy gain to energy cost in prey selection. Cannibals selected smaller prey despite its capability of ingesting larger prey individuals. In behavioural analysis, prey handling time significantly increased with prey size, but it was not significantly affected by cannibal size. Conversely, capture success significantly decreased with the increase of both prey and cannibal sizes. The profitability indices showed that the smaller prey provides the most energy return for cannibals of all size classes. These results indicate that L. calcarifer cannibals select smaller prey for more profitable return. The behavioural analysis, however, indicates that L. calcarifer cannibals attack prey of all size at a similar rate but ingest smaller prey more often, suggesting that prey size selection is passively orientated rather than at the predator's choice. The increase of prey escape ability and morphological constraint contribute to the reduction of intracohort cannibalism as fish grow larger. This study contributes to the understanding of intracohort cannibalism and development of strategies to reduce fish cannibalistic mortalities. PMID:25801794

  15. Comparative Growth and Development of Spiders Reared on Live and Dead Prey

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific. PMID:24386248

  16. Sequential assessment of prey through the use of multiple sensory cues by an eavesdropping bat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Rachel A.; Schnelle, Tanja; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Bunge, Thomas; Bernal, Ximena E.

    2012-06-01

    Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator's ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors.

  17. Sequential assessment of prey through the use of multiple sensory cues by an eavesdropping bat.

    PubMed

    Page, Rachel A; Schnelle, Tanja; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Bunge, Thomas; Bernal, Ximena E

    2012-06-01

    Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator's ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors. PMID:22592417

  18. Sequential assessment of prey through the use of multiple sensory cues by an eavesdropping bat.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Page RA; Schnelle T; Kalko EK; Bunge T; Bernal XE

    2012-06-01

    Predators are often confronted with a broad diversity of potential prey. They rely on cues associated with prey quality and palatability to optimize their hunting success and to avoid consuming toxic prey. Here, we investigate a predator's ability to assess prey cues during capture, handling, and consumption when confronted with conflicting information about prey quality. We used advertisement calls of a preferred prey item (the túngara frog) to attract fringe-lipped bats, Trachops cirrhosus, then offered palatable, poisonous, and chemically manipulated anurans as prey. Advertisement calls elicited an attack response, but as bats approached, they used additional sensory cues in a sequential manner to update their information about prey size and palatability. While both palatable and poisonous small anurans were readily captured, large poisonous toads were approached but not contacted suggesting the use of echolocation for assessment of prey size at close range. Once prey was captured, bats used chemical cues to make final, post-capture decisions about whether to consume the prey. Bats dropped small, poisonous toads as well as palatable frogs coated in toad toxins either immediately or shortly after capture. Our study suggests that echolocation and chemical cues obtained at close range supplement information obtained from acoustic cues at long range. Updating information about prey quality minimizes the occurrence of costly errors and may be advantageous in tracking temporal and spatial fluctuations of prey and exploiting novel food sources. These findings emphasize the sequential, complex nature of prey assessment that may allow exploratory and flexible hunting behaviors.

  19. Electric Eels Concentrate Their Electric Field to Induce Involuntary Fatigue in Struggling Prey.

    PubMed

    Catania, Kenneth C

    2015-11-16

    Nature is replete with predator venoms that immobilize prey by targeting ion channels. Electric eels (Electrophorus electricus) take a different tactic to accomplish the same end. Striking eels emit electricity in volleys of 1 ms, high-voltage pulses. Each pulse is capable of activating prey motor neuron efferents, and hence muscles. In a typical attack, eel discharges cause brief, immobilizing tetanus, allowing eels to swallow small prey almost immediately. Here I show that when eels struggle with large prey or fish held precariously, they commonly curl to bring their own tail to the opposite side of prey, sandwiching it between the two poles of their powerful electric organ. They then deliver volleys of high-voltage pulses. Shortly thereafter, eels juggle prey into a favorable position for swallowing. Recordings from electrodes placed within prey items show that this curling behavior at least doubles the field strength within shocked prey, most likely ensuring reliable activation of the majority of prey motor neurons. Simulated pulse trains, or pulses from an eel-triggered stimulator, applied to a prey muscle preparations result in profound muscle fatigue and loss of contractile force. Consistent with this result, video recordings show that formerly struggling prey are temporarily immobile after this form of attack, allowing the manipulation of prey that might otherwise escape. These results reveal a unique use of electric organs to a unique end; eels superimpose electric fields from two poles, ensuring maximal remote activation of prey efferents that blocks subsequent prey movement by inducing involuntary muscle fatigue. PMID:26521183

  20. Development and validation of radioligand binding assays to measure total, IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgM insulin antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed

    Moxness, MichaeI; Foley, Jim; Stene, Mark; Finco-Kent, Deborah; Bedian, Vahe; Krasner, Alan; Kawabata, Thomas

    2003-11-01

    Radioligand binding assays for total and Ig classes of insulin antibodies (IAB) were developed and validated. For each assay, insulin-extracted serum samples were incubated with radiolabeled insulin in the presence and absence of high levels of unlabeled insulin to determine nonspecific binding and total binding, respectively. To measure total IAB, antibody-bound insulin was precipitated with a polyethylene glycol solution, washed, and counted in a gamma-counter. To measure IgG IAB, samples were treated with protein G-Sepharose beads, centrifuged, washed, and counted. For the measurement of IgA, IgE, and IgM IAB, IgG was removed from the samples and treated with anti-IgA, -IgE, or -IgM conjugated to Sepharose beads, centrifuged, washed, and counted. The acid/charcoal extraction of bound and unbound insulin from serum samples was optimized. Specificity and binding capacity of the protein G and antibody-bound beads were evaluated and optimized. The linear region of the total and IgG IAB assays was determined using serum samples containing high levels of insulin antibodies. The limit of quantitation, limit of detection, and precision for all the assays were also determined. PMID:14679073

  1. Diversification of honest signals in a predator-prey system.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D; Blount, Jon D; Stephens, Philip A

    2010-06-01

    Many animals use bright colouration to advertise their toxicity to predators. It is now well established that both toxicity and colouration are often variable within prey populations, yet it is an open question whether or not brighter signals should be used by the more toxic members of the population. We therefore describe a model in which signal honesty can easily be explained. We assumed that prey toxicity is environmentally conferred and variable between individuals, and that signalling bears a cost through attracting the attention of predators. A key assumption is that predators know the mean toxicity associated with each signalling level, so that the probability of attack for each signal value declines as mean toxicity associated with that signal increases. The probability of death given attack for each individual, however, declines with the precise value of its own toxicity, and prey must evolve the optimal level of signal to match the toxicity level that they acquire from their environments. At the start of our simulations there is no signalling system, as neither prey nor predators have biases that favour signal diversification. Over evolutionary time, however, a positive correlation emerges between signal strength and the mean toxicity associated with each signal level. When stability is reached, predators change their behaviour so that they now tend to avoid prey that signal conspicuously. In addition to predicting within-species signal reliability, our model can explain the initial evolution of aposematic displays without the need to assume special biases in predators. PMID:20597158

  2. Prey Capture Ecology of the Cubozoan Carukia barnesi

    PubMed Central

    Sachlikidis, Nik; Jones, Rhondda

    2015-01-01

    Adult Carukia barnesi medusae feed predominantly on larval fish; however, their mode of prey capture seems more complex than previously described. Our findings revealed that during light conditions, this species extends its tentacles and ‘twitches’ them frequently. This highlights the lure-like nematocyst clusters in the water column, which actively attract larval fish that are consequently stung and consumed. This fishing behavior was not observed during dark conditions, presumably to reduce energy expenditure when they are not luring visually oriented prey. We found that larger medusae have longer tentacles; however, the spacing between the nematocyst clusters is not dependent on size, suggesting that the spacing of the nematocyst clusters is important for prey capture. Additionally, larger specimens twitch their tentacles more frequently than small specimens, which correlate with their recent ontogenetic prey shift from plankton to larval fish. These results indicate that adult medusae of C. barnesi are not opportunistically grazing in the water column, but instead utilize sophisticated prey capture techniques to specifically target larval fish. PMID:25970583

  3. Prey Capture Behavior in an Arboreal African Ponerine Ant

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain

    2011-01-01

    I studied the predatory behavior of Platythyrea conradti, an arboreal ponerine ant, whereas most species in this subfamily are ground-dwelling. The workers, which hunt solitarily only around dusk, are able to capture a wide range of prey, including termites and agile, nocturnal insects as well as diurnal insects that are inactive at that moment of the Nyctemeron, resting on tree branches or under leaves. Prey are captured very rapidly, and the antennal palpation used by ground-dwelling ponerine species is reduced to a simple contact; stinging occurs immediately thereafter. The venom has an instant, violent effect as even large prey (up to 30 times the weight of a worker) never struggled after being stung. Only small prey are not stung. Workers retrieve their prey, even large items, singly. To capture termite workers and soldiers defending their nest entrances, ant workers crouch and fold their antennae backward. In their role as guards, the termites face the crouching ants and end up by rolling onto their backs, their legs batting the air. This is likely due to volatile secretions produced by the ants' mandibular gland. The same behavior is used against competing ants, including territorially-dominant arboreal species that retreat further and further away, so that the P. conradti finally drive them from large, sugary food sources. PMID:21589941

  4. Bacterial predator-prey dynamics in microscale patchy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Hol, Felix J H; Rotem, Or; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Dekker, Cees; Koster, Daniel A

    2016-02-10

    Soil is a microenvironment with a fragmented (patchy) spatial structure in which many bacterial species interact. Here, we explore the interaction between the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and its prey Escherichia coli in microfabricated landscapes. We ask how fragmentation influences the prey dynamics at the microscale and compare two landscape geometries: a patchy landscape and a continuous landscape. By following the dynamics of prey populations with high spatial and temporal resolution for many generations, we found that the variation in predation rates was twice as large in the patchy landscape and the dynamics was correlated over shorter length scales. We also found that while the prey population in the continuous landscape was almost entirely driven to extinction, a significant part of the prey population in the fragmented landscape persisted over time. We observed significant surface-associated growth, especially in the fragmented landscape and we surmise that this sub-population is more resistant to predation. Our results thus show that microscale fragmentation can significantly influence bacterial interactions. PMID:26865299

  5. A dedicated visual pathway for prey detection in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Semmelhack, Julia L; Donovan, Joseph C; Thiele, Tod R; Kuehn, Enrico; Laurell, Eva; Baier, Herwig

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae show characteristic prey capture behavior in response to small moving objects. The neural mechanism used to recognize objects as prey remains largely unknown. We devised a machine learning behavior classification system to quantify hunting kinematics in semi-restrained animals exposed to a range of virtual stimuli. Two-photon calcium imaging revealed a small visual area, AF7, that was activated specifically by the optimal prey stimulus. This pretectal region is innervated by two types of retinal ganglion cells, which also send collaterals to the optic tectum. Laser ablation of AF7 markedly reduced prey capture behavior. We identified neurons with arbors in AF7 and found that they projected to multiple sensory and premotor areas: the optic tectum, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF) and the hindbrain. These findings indicate that computations in the retina give rise to a visual stream which transforms sensory information into a directed prey capture response. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04878.001 PMID:25490154

  6. Dynamics of a predator-prey model with Allee effect and prey group defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Khairul

    2015-02-01

    Dynamical properties of a Gauss type of planar predator-prey system with Allee effect and non-monotonic response function are discussed. We are interested in persistent features lying in the first quadrant, which amount to structurally stable phase portraits. We show that all positive solutions are uniformly bounded. It is also proved that the system has at most two equilibria in the interior of the first quadrant and can exhibit interesting bifurcation phenomena, including Bogdanov-Takens, Hopf, transcritical and saddle-node bifurcations. The system may have a stable periodic orbit, or a homoclinic loop, or a heteroclinic connection, a saddle point, or a stable focus, depending on parameter values. Biologically, both populations may survive for certain values of parameters. Computer simulations are also given in support of the conclusions.

  7. IgG4-Related Disease: Dataset of 235 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Dai; Yoshida, Kotaro; Yoneda, Norihide; Ozaki, Kumi; Matsubara, Takashi; Nagai, Keiichi; Okumura, Kenichirou; Toshima, Fumihito; Toyama, Jun; Minami, Tetsuya; Matsui, Osamu; Gabata, Toshifumi; Zen, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently discovered systemic condition, in which various organ manifestations are linked by a similar histological appearance. Our knowledge of this condition is still fragmented, as most studies have examined only a few dozen patients or focused on a particular organ manifestation. This study was conducted to learn the demography and patient characteristics of IgG4-RD using a large cohort. A total of 235 consecutive patients with IgG4-RD, diagnosed in 8 general hospitals in the same medical district, were identified by searching the institutions’ radiology database. Inclusion criteria were histology-proven IgG4-RD according to the Pathology Consensus Statement and/or definitive type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis meeting the International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria. Clinical notes and images of selected patients were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were adults (M/F?=?4/1). The median age was 67 years (range 35–86). Nine tenths were diagnosed in their 50s to 70s. Among 486 manifestations identified in total, the most common was pancreatitis diagnosed in 142 patients (60%), followed by sialadenitis (34%), tubulointerstitial nephritis (23%), dacryoadenitis (23%), and periaortitis (20%). The majority of patients (95%) had at least 1 of the 5 most common manifestations. Male and female patients differed in their organ manifestations (periaortitis more common in males and sialodacryoadenitis more common in females). Serum IgG4 (normal ?135?mg/dL) was elevated to >135?mg/dL in 208 patients (88%) and >270?mg/dL in 167 (71%). The IgG4 value was significantly higher in patients with multiorgan involvement than in those with a single manifestation (median 629?mg/dL vs 299?mg/dL, P?IgG4 and IgG values were available, the IgG4/IgG ratio was raised to >10% in 194 (89%). Corticosteroids were effective, but the relapse rate was estimated to be 24% in the study period (median 37 months). During the follow-up, 15 malignant diseases were diagnosed in 13 patients (6%). This figure is similar to the incidence (12.9 cancers) expected from the Japanese nationwide study for cancer epidemiology (standardized incidence ratio 1.16). In conclusion, this reliable dataset could improve the characterization of IgG4-RD, particularly its unique demography and the frequency of each organ manifestation. PMID:25881845

  8. A Research Standard for Human Serum Immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D. S.; Anderson, S. G.; Grab, B.

    1970-01-01

    A pooled human serum, partly diluted, has been distributed into ampoules and freeze-dried in several batches. The freeze-dried material has been examined in an international collaborative assay and certain properties have also been estimated in individual laboratories. On the basis of these tests this material was considered to be suitable for use as a standard for the estimation of IgG, IgA and IgM for clinical purposes using the single-radial-diffusion or similar techniques. Greater uniformity of results than is obtained at present should be achieved if this material were in general use. Estimates of immunoglobulins from different laboratories using this material as a standard showed small but significant variability. This variability was probably related to the heterogeneity of immunoglobulins and of antisera, and it limits the precision of immunoglobulin estimations by techniques at present in use. Batches of this material have been distributed to various centres. 67/68 has been established as the British research standard for human serum immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM for which the unit of potency is defined as the activity present in 0.8147 mg of dry powder. The average activity per ampoule of 67/86 is 100 units of IgG, IgA and IgM. The average activities of other related preparations have been estimated. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4194813

  9. Silk wrapping of nuptial gifts as visual signal for female attraction in a crepuscular spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trillo, Mariana C.; Melo-González, Valentina; Albo, Maria J.

    2014-02-01

    An extensive diversity of nuptial gifts is known in invertebrates, but prey wrapped in silk is a unique type of gift present in few insects and spiders. Females from spider species prefer males offering a gift accepting more and longer matings than when males offered no gift. Silk wrapping of the gift is not essential to obtain a mating, but appears to increase the chance of a mating evidencing a particularly intriguing function of this trait. Consequently, as other secondary sexual traits, silk wrapping may be an important trait under sexual selection, if it is used by females as a signal providing information on male quality. We aimed to understand whether the white color of wrapped gifts is used as visual signal during courtship in the spider Paratrechalea ornata. We studied if a patch of white paint on the males' chelicerae is attractive to females by exposing females to males: with their chelicerae painted white; without paint; and with the sternum painted white (paint control). Females contacted males with white chelicerae more often and those males obtained higher mating success than other males. Thereafter, we explored whether silk wrapping is a condition-dependent trait and drives female visual attraction. We exposed good and poor condition males, carrying a prey, to the female silk. Males in poor condition added less silk to the prey than males in good condition, indicating that gift wrapping is an indicator of male quality and may be used by females to acquire information of the potential mate.

  10. Predatory capacity and prey selectivity of nymphs of the dragonfly Pantala hymenaea.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto; Rodríguez-Castro, Violeta Ariadna; Solís-Rojas, Carlos; Maldonado-Blanco, María Guadalupe

    2005-09-01

    Predatory capacity and prey selectivity of nymphs of the dragonfly Pantala hymenaea (Odonata: Libellulidae) were evaluated on larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and larvae of the midge Chironomus plumosus (Diptera: Chironomidae) as prey. With functional response methodology, 7 larval densities were exposed to predator individuals in a glass jar under laboratory conditions. The study was performed in 2 experiments. The 1st was a test system with each prey species alone. The 2nd tested a mixture of both prey species in a 1:1 ratio. Prey selectivity and prey capacity were significantly greater on midge larvae than on mosquito larvae. PMID:16252528

  11. Fear on the move: predator hunting mode predicts variation in prey mortality and plasticity in prey spatial response.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer R B; Ament, Judith M; Schmitz, Oswald J

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists have long searched for a framework of a priori species traits to help predict predator-prey interactions in food webs. Empirical evidence has shown that predator hunting mode and predator and prey habitat domain are useful traits for explaining predator-prey interactions. Yet, individual experiments have yet to replicate predator hunting mode, calling into question whether predator impacts can be attributed to hunting mode or merely species identity. We tested the effects of spider predators with sit-and-wait, sit-and-pursue and active hunting modes on grasshopper habitat domain, activity and mortality in a grassland system. We replicated hunting mode by testing two spider predator species of each hunting mode on the same grasshopper prey species. We observed grasshoppers with and without each spider species in behavioural cages and measured their mortality rates, movements and habitat domains. We likewise measured the movements and habitat domains of spiders to characterize hunting modes. We found that predator hunting mode explained grasshopper mortality and spider and grasshopper movement activity and habitat domain size. Sit-and-wait spider predators covered small distances over a narrow domain space and killed fewer grasshoppers than sit-and-pursue and active predators, which ranged farther distances across broader domains and killed more grasshoppers, respectively. Prey adjusted their activity levels and horizontal habitat domains in response to predator presence and hunting mode: sedentary sit-and-wait predators with narrow domains caused grasshoppers to reduce activity in the same-sized domain space; more mobile sit-and-pursue predators with broader domains caused prey to reduce their activity within a contracted horizontal (but not vertical) domain space; and highly mobile active spiders led grasshoppers to increase their activity across the same domain area. All predators impacted prey activity, and sit-and-pursue predators generated strong effects on domain size. This study demonstrates the validity of utilizing hunting mode and habitat domain for predicting predator-prey interactions. Results also highlight the importance of accounting for flexibility in prey movement ranges as an anti-predator response rather than treating the domain as a static attribute. PMID:24028410

  12. Low molecular weight IgM in selective IgA deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Kwitko, A O; Roberts-Thomson, P J; Shearman, D J

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-nine persons with selective IgA deficiency were studied. These comprised 27 subjects found by population screening and 12 by other means. Low molecular weight (LMW) serum IgM was sought in 28 of the 39 persons. Nine of the 28 (32%) had LMW IgM detectable by a sensitive gel filtration technique. Of 17 patients discovered by screening, five (29%) had LMW IgM. In the nine positive persons, LMW IgM constituted up to 17% of the total serum IgM concentration. Eight of the nine IgA deficient persons with LMW IgM, had clinical disease while associated disease in the entire IgA deficient population was less frequent. Serum immune complexes were demonstrated in five of seven subjects with LMW IgM using a C1q-dependent radioimmunoassay; four of these had immune complex associated disorders, three with polyarthritis and one with glomerulonephritis. Because circulating immune complexes are frequently detected in IgA deficient persons without disease, it is proposed that the presence of LMW serum IgM in IgA deficiency may be associated with disease due to the formation of specific pathogenic immune complexes. PMID:7172505

  13. Resilient silk captures prey in black widow cobwebs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argintean, S.; Chen, J.; Kim, M.; Moore, A. M. F.

    2006-02-01

    The gumfoot thread of a black widow ( Latrodectus hesperus) spider’s cob web is a spring-loaded trap that yanks walking insects into the web. Since spider silks are known as energy dissipating materials, we investigated this trap to find out where the energy is stored. Using previously measured material properties, we modeled the gumfoot thread as a damped harmonic oscillator and compared it to high speed video analysis of prey capture. These measurements show that the gumfoot thread is plastically deformed during prey capture and cannot be the site of energy storage. We then measured the material properties of scaffolding silk that makes up the upper portion of the cob web. Scaffolding silk is highly resilient (90%) at strains less than 3%. This energy storage is sufficient to drive the oscillations seen in prey capture and is consistent with the measured kinematics. This study is the first demonstration of energy-storage as a primary biological function for spider silk.

  14. How predation can slow, stop or reverse a prey invasion.

    PubMed

    Owen, M R; Lewis, M A

    2001-07-01

    Observations on Mount St Helens indicate that the spread of recolonizing lupin plants has been slowed due to the presence of insect herbivores and it is possible that the spread of lupins could be reversed in the future by intense insect herbivory [Fagan, W. F. and J. Bishop (2000). Trophic interactions during primary sucession: herbivores slow a plant reinvasion at Mount St. Helens. Amer. Nat. 155, 238-251]. In this paper we investigate mechanisms by which herbivory can contain the spatial spread of recolonizing plants. Our approach is to analyse a series of predator-prey reaction-diffusion models and spatially coupled ordinary differential equation models to derive conditions under which predation pressure can slow, stall or reverse a spatial invasion of prey. We focus on models where prey disperse more slowly than predators. We comment on the types of functional response which give such solutions, and the circumstances under which the models are appropriate. PMID:11497163

  15. Predatory fish select for coordinated collective motion in virtual prey.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, C C; Guttal, V; Couzin, I D

    2012-09-01

    Movement in animal groups is highly varied and ranges from seemingly disordered motion in swarms to coordinated aligned motion in flocks and schools. These social interactions are often thought to reduce risk from predators, despite a lack of direct evidence. We investigated risk-related selection for collective motion by allowing real predators (bluegill sunfish) to hunt mobile virtual prey. By fusing simulated and real animal behavior, we isolated predator effects while controlling for confounding factors. Prey with a tendency to be attracted toward, and to align direction of travel with, near neighbors tended to form mobile coordinated groups and were rarely attacked. These results demonstrate that collective motion could evolve as a response to predation, without prey being able to detect and respond to predators. PMID:22903520

  16. How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey

    PubMed Central

    Domenici, P.; Wilson, A. D. M.; Kurvers, R. H. J. M.; Marras, S.; Herbert-Read, J. E.; Steffensen, J. F.; Krause, S.; Viblanc, P. E.; Couillaud, P.; Krause, J.

    2014-01-01

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or ‘bill’. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to feed on prey. Here, we present the first unequivocal evidence of how the bill is used by Atlantic sailfish (Istiophorus albicans) to attack schooling sardines in the open ocean. Using high-speed video-analysis, we show that (i) sailfish manage to insert their bill into sardine schools without eliciting an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey. PMID:24759865

  17. Aggregation increases prey survival time in group chase and escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sicong; Jiang, Shijie; Jiang, Li; Li, Geng; Han, Zhangang

    2014-08-01

    Recently developed chase-and-escape models have addressed a fascinating pursuit-and-evasion problem that may have both theoretical significance and potential applications. We introduce three aggregation strategies for the prey in a group chase model on a lattice. Simulation results show that aggregation dramatically increases the group survival time, even allowing immortal prey. The average survival time ? and the aggregation probability P have a power-law dependence of \\tau \\sim {{(1-P)}^{-1}} for P\\in [0.9,0.997]. With increasing numbers of predators, there is still a phase transition. When the number of predators is less than the critical point value, the prey group survival time increases significantly.

  18. Acoustic shadows help gleaning bats find prey, but may be defeated by prey acoustic camouflage on rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Elizabeth L; Holderied, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual abilities of animals, like echolocating bats, are difficult to study because they challenge our understanding of non-visual senses. We used novel acoustic tomography to convert echoes into visual representations and compare these cues to traditional echo measurements. We provide a new hypothesis for the echo-acoustic basis of prey detection on surfaces. We propose that bats perceive a change in depth profile and an ‘acoustic shadow’ cast by prey. The shadow is more salient than prey echoes and particularly strong on smooth surfaces. This may explain why bats look for prey on flat surfaces like leaves using scanning behaviour. We propose that rather than forming search images for prey, whose characteristics are unpredictable, predators may look for disruptions to the resting surface (acoustic shadows). The fact that the acoustic shadow is much fainter on rougher resting surfaces provides the first empirical evidence for ‘acoustic camouflage’ as an anti-predator defence mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07404.001 PMID:26327624

  19. Predator-prey interactions, flight initiation distance and brain size.

    PubMed

    Møller, A P; Erritzøe, J

    2014-01-01

    Prey avoid being eaten by assessing the risk posed by approaching predators and responding accordingly. Such an assessment may result in prey-predator communication and signalling, which entail further monitoring of the predator by prey. An early antipredator response may provide potential prey with a selective advantage, although this benefit comes at the cost of disturbance in terms of lost foraging opportunities and increased energy expenditure. Therefore, it may pay prey to assess approaching predators and determine the likelihood of attack before fleeing. Given that many approaching potential predators are detected visually, we hypothesized that species with relatively large eyes would be able to detect an approaching predator from afar. Furthermore, we hypothesized that monitoring of predators by potential prey relies on evaluation through information processing by the brain. Therefore, species with relatively larger brains for their body size should be better able to monitor the intentions of a predator, delay flight for longer and hence have shorter flight initiation distances than species with smaller brains. Indeed, flight initiation distances increased with relative eye size and decreased with relative brain size in a comparative study of 107 species of birds. In addition, flight initiation distance increased independently with size of the cerebellum, which plays a key role in motor control. These results are consistent with cognitive monitoring as an antipredator behaviour that does not result in the fastest possible, but rather the least expensive escape flights. Therefore, antipredator behaviour may have coevolved with the size of sense organs, brains and compartments of the brain involved in responses to risk of predation. PMID:25990564

  20. Ocean Acidification Affects Prey Detection by a Predatory Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Ingrid L.; Munday, Philip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction – the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). Predators were exposed to either current-day CO2 levels or one of two elevated CO2 levels (∼600 µatm or ∼950 µatm) that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO2 and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO2 treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO2 treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO2 treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO2 treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO2 acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality. PMID:21829497

  1. IgG4-related skin disease.

    PubMed

    Tokura, Y; Yagi, H; Yanaguchi, H; Majima, Y; Kasuya, A; Ito, T; Maekawa, M; Hashizume, H

    2014-11-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently established clinical entity characterized by high levels of circulating IgG4, and tissue infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells. IgG4-RD exhibits a distinctive fibroinflammatory change involving multiple organs, such as the pancreas and salivary and lacrimal glands. The skin lesions of IgG4-RD have been poorly characterized and may stem not only from direct infiltration of plasma cells but also from IgG4-mediated inflammation. Based on the documented cases together with ours, we categorized the skin lesions into seven subtypes: (1) cutaneous plasmacytosis (multiple papulonodules or indurations on the trunk and proximal part of the limbs), (2) pseudolymphoma and angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (plaques and papulonodules mainly on the periauricular, cheek and mandible regions), (3) Mikulicz disease (palpebral swelling, sicca syndrome and exophthalmos), (4) psoriasis-like eruption (strikingly mimicking psoriasis vulgaris), (5) unspecified maculopapular or erythematous eruptions, (6) hypergammaglobulinaemic purpura (bilateral asymmetrical palpable purpuric lesions on the lower extremities) and urticarial vasculitis (prolonged urticarial lesions occasionally with purpura) and (7) ischaemic digit (Raynaud phenomenon and digital gangrene). It is considered that subtypes 1-3 are induced by direct infiltration of IgG4(+) plasma cells, while the other types (4-7) are caused by secondary mechanisms. IgG4-related skin disease is defined as IgG4(+) plasma-cell-infiltrating skin lesions that form plaques, nodules or tumours (types 1-3), but may manifest secondary lesions caused by IgG4(+) plasma cells and/or IgG4 (types 4-7). PMID:25065694

  2. Patterns in prey use among fur seals and seabirds in the Pribilof Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, E. H.; Vlietstra, L. S.; Johnson, D. S.; Zeppelin, T. K.; Byrd, G. V.; Springer, A. M.; Ream, R. R.; Hunt, G. L., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    We explored correlation in diet trends for five piscivorous predators that reproduce on the Pribilof Islands as illustrative of the shifting structure of the Bering Sea ecosystem. We evaluated the size and species of prey consumed by adult female and juvenile northern fur seals ( Callorhinus ursinus) and adults and chicks of black-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa tridactyla), red-legged kittiwakes ( Rissa brevirostris), thick-billed murres ( Uria lomvia), and common murres ( Uria aalge) from data collected between July and October 1960-2000. Sample sources included stomachs from seals and seabirds collected on pelagic foraging grounds in the eastern Bering Sea, seal scats from rookeries and seabird regurgitations and whole prey from nest sites on St. Paul and St. George Islands of the Pribilof Island archipelago. Typical prey included small fish and invertebrates (?20 cm for seals and ?12 cm for seabirds) that concentrate along frontal boundaries of the continental shelf/slope and in the epi-pelagic zone. Squids and fishes including walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), capelin ( Mallotus villosus), and sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) were variably important in the diet of all five predators. Some prey, such as capelin, were principal in predator diets during the 1960s (seals) and into the early 1980s (seabirds), but declined or disappeared from all predator diets thereafter while others, such as walleye pollock, occurred with increasing frequency from the 1970s forward. As the number of individuals consuming walleye pollock increased, the overall volume of pollock in seabird diets declined. This decline was coincident with a decrease in the age and body size of pollock consumed by both seabirds and fur seals. Squid and pollock were negatively correlated in the diets of their primary consumers, northern fur seals (Pearson's coefficient -0.71, p=0.016) and thick-billed murres (Pearson's coefficient=-0.74, p=0.015) from the 1970s forward. Inter-island variation in diet was evident to varying degrees for all predators, with a prevalence of fish on St. Paul Island and invertebrates on St. George Island. Bayesian time-series analysis of synthesized data described significant temporal cross-correlation in diet among northern fur seals, red- and black-legged kittiwakes, and thick-billed murres. For all correlated predators except common murres, beta-binomial modeling indicated that trends in the occurrence of four of the five primary prey (sand lance, capelin, squid, and pollock) evaluated, were significantly associated with eastern Bering Sea time-series trends in sea surface temperature, ice retreat or a combination of both. Data synthesis highlighted potential competition and a scenario for the effects of an altered prey field on the population stability of predators. The association between correlated diet changes among predators and indices of oceanographic shifts in the 1970s and the 1990s allow scrutiny of hypotheses concerning causal mechanisms in population declines.

  3. Host plant mediates foraging behavior and mutual interference among adult Stethorus gilvifrons (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) preying on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Osman, Mohamed A; Michaud, J P

    2014-10-01

    Physical plant characteristics can influence predator foraging and their behavioral responses to each other. This study examined the searching efficiency and functional response of adult female Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant foraging for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on castor bean, common bean, and cucumber leaves. Experiments conducted on leaf discs in arenas for 12 h revealed a type II functional response for S. gilvifrons on all host plants. Per capita searching efficiency and killing power decreased with increasing predator density on all plants, but most notably on common bean, the plant with the highest prey consumption rates, due to greater mutual interference. Attack rates were highest on common bean and lowest on castor bean, whereas handling times were shortest on common bean and longest on cucumber, such that the daily predation rate was maximal on common bean. Host plant interacted with predator and prey densities to affect searching efficiency and functional response, the differences in mite consumption among host plants increasing with predator and prey densities. The waxy layers of castor bean leaves and high trichome counts of cucumber leaves appeared to reduce predator foraging efficiency. Thus, the efficacy of S. gilvifrons against T. urticae is likely to be greatest on plants such as Phaeseolus vulgaris L. that have relatively smooth leaves. PMID:25259694

  4. Prey choice and cannibalistic behaviour in the theropod Coelophysis

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Turner, Alan H; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Direct evidence of prey choice in carnivorous dinosaurs is rare in the fossil record. The most celebrated example pertains to purported stomach contents in the carnivorous dinosaur Coelophysis bauri, which besides revealing prey choice, also points to cannibalistic behaviour as being commonplace (Colbert 1989, 1995). Here, we test this hypothesis by conducting the first comprehensive anatomical and histological examination of the famed Coelophysis ‘cannibals’. The results unequivocally show that the gut contents derive from early crocodylomorphs rather than juveniles of Coelophysis. These findings suggest that this taxon is not cannibalistic and bring into question the commonality of this behaviour among non-avian dinosaurs. PMID:17148302

  5. How the owl tracks its prey--II.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Terry T

    2010-10-15

    Barn owls can capture prey in pitch darkness or by diving into snow, while homing in on the sounds made by their prey. First, the neural mechanisms by which the barn owl localizes a single sound source in an otherwise quiet environment will be explained. The ideas developed for the single source case will then be expanded to environments in which there are multiple sound sources and echoes--environments that are challenging for humans with impaired hearing. Recent controversies regarding the mechanisms of sound localization will be discussed. Finally, the case in which both visual and auditory information are available to the owl will be considered. PMID:20889819

  6. The stabilizing effects of genetic diversity on predator-prey dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Christopher F; Masse, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity among prey in their susceptibility to predation is a potentially important stabilizer of predator-prey interactions, reducing the magnitude of population oscillations and enhancing total prey population abundance. When microevolutionary responses of prey populations occur at time scales comparable to population dynamics, adaptive responses in prey defense can, in theory, stabilize predator-prey dynamics and reduce top-down effects on prey abundance. While experiments have tested these predictions, less explored are the consequences of the evolution of prey phenotypes that can persist in both vulnerable and invulnerable classes. We tested this experimentally using a laboratory aquatic system composed of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus as a predator and the prey Synura petersenii, a colony-forming alga that exhibits genetic variation in its propensity to form colonies and colony size (larger colonies are a defense against predators). Prey populations of either low initial genetic diversity and low adaptive capacity or high initial genetic diversity and high adaptive capacity were crossed with predator presence and absence. Dynamics measured over the last 127 days of the 167-day experiment revealed no effects of initial prey genetic diversity on the average abundance or temporal variability of predator populations. However, genetic diversity and predator presence/absence interactively affected prey population abundance and stability; diversity of prey had no effects in the absence of predators but stabilized dynamics and increased total prey abundance in the presence of predators. The size structure of the genetically diverse prey populations diverged from single strain populations in the presence of predators, showing increases in colony size and in the relative abundance of cells found in colonies. Our work sheds light on the adaptive value of colony formation and supports the general view that genetic diversity and intraspecific trait variation of prey can play a vital role in the short-term dynamics and stability of planktonic predator-prey systems. PMID:25339982

  7. Stomach fullness modulates prey size choice in the frillfin goby, Bathygobius soporator.

    PubMed

    Tomida, Leonardo; Lee, James T; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2012-10-01

    Behaviours related to foraging and feeding in predator-prey systems are fundamental to our understanding of food webs. From the perspective of a predator, the selection of prey size depends upon a number of factors including prey vulnerability, prey size, and the predator's motivation to eat. Thus, feeding motivation and prey visual cues are supposed to influence predator decisions and it is predicted that prey selection by visual cues is modulated by the predator's stomach fullness prior to attacking a prey. This study was conducted using an animal model from the rocky shores ecosystem, a predatory fish, the frillfin goby Bathygobius soporator, and a benthic prey, the mottled shore crab Pachygrapsus transversus. Our results demonstrate that frillfin gobies are capable of visually evaluating prey size and that the size evaluation process is modulated by the level of stomach fullness. Predators with an empty stomach (0% fullness) attacked prey that was larger than the predicted optimal size. Partially satiated predators (50% stomach fullness) selected prey close to the optimal size, while fully satiated predators (100% stomach fullness) showed no preference for size. This finding indicates an integrative response of the predator that depends on the input of both internal and external sensory information when choosing prey. Predator perceptions of visual cues (prey size) and stomach fullness modulate foraging decisions. As a result, a flexible feeding behaviour emerges, evidencing a clearly adaptive response in line with optimal foraging theory predictions. PMID:22951273

  8. Large orb-webs adapted to maximise total biomass not rare, large prey

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Aaron M. T.; Clausen, Philip D.; Wroe, Stephen; Madin, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    Spider orb-webs are the ultimate anti-ballistic devices, capable of dissipating the relatively massive kinetic energy of flying prey. Increased web size and prey stopping capacity have co-evolved in a number orb-web taxa, but the selective forces driving web size and performance increases are under debate. The rare, large prey hypothesis maintains that the energetic benefits of rare, very large prey are so much greater than the gains from smaller, more common prey that smaller prey are irrelevant for reproduction. Here, we integrate biophysical and ecological data and models to test a major prediction of the rare, large prey hypothesis, that selection should favour webs with increased stopping capacity and that large prey should comprise a significant proportion of prey stopped by a web. We find that larger webs indeed have a greater capacity to stop large prey. However, based on prey ecology, we also find that these large prey make up a tiny fraction of the total biomass (=energy) potentially captured. We conclude that large webs are adapted to stop more total biomass, and that the capacity to stop rare, but very large, prey is an incidental consequence of the longer radial silks that scale with web size. PMID:26374379

  9. Roles of alternative prey for mesopredators on trophic cascades in intraguild predation systems: a theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Shota; Takimoto, Gaku; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-05-01

    Declines of apex predators can cause dramatic increases of smaller predators and ensuing collapses of their prey. However, recent empirical evidence finds that the disappearance of apex predators does not reduce but can increase prey populations. This poses a great challenge in managing species interactions involving mesopredator release. Here we analyze a mathematical model to explain variable consequences of apex predator loss and to develop management guidelines for prey conservation. The model formulates an intraguild predation system (apex predators, mesopredators, and their shared prey) with mesopredators supplied with additional alternative prey. We show that apex predator loss causes only negative effects on shared prey without alternative prey but has either negative or positive effects with alternative prey. Moreover, when alternative prey is highly abundant, apex predator loss causes strong mesopredator release and reduces shared prey greatly. Finally, the model suggests that a viable management strategy to restore shared prey under much uncertainty about a target system is to allocate a limited control effort not only to both predators but also to alternative prey. Alternative prey for mesopredators may be a crucial ingredient that controls the cascading dynamics of intraguild predation systems and should be considered as an important management target. PMID:24739195

  10. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  11. A meal or a male: the ‘whispers’ of black widow males do not trigger a predatory response in females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female’s attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female’s web. In web-dwelling spiders, little is known about how males solve this conundrum, or about their courtship signals. Here we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the vibrations produced by males and prey (house flies and crickets) on tangle webs of the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus and on sheet webs of the hobo spider Tegenaria agrestis. We recorded the vibrations at the location typically occupied by a hunting female spider. We compared the vibrations produced by males and prey in terms of their waveform, dominant frequency, frequency bandwidth, amplitude and duration. We also played back recorded male and prey vibrations through the webs of female L. hesperus to determine the vibratory parameters that trigger a predatory response in females. Results We found overlap in waveform between male and prey vibrations in both L. hesperus and T. agrestis. In both species, male vibrations were continuous, of long duration (on average 6.35 s for T. agrestis and 9.31 s for L. hesperus), and lacked complex temporal patterning such as repeated motifs or syllables. Prey vibrations were shorter (1.38 - 2.59 s), sporadic and often percussive. Based on the parameters measured, courtship signals of male L. hesperus differed more markedly from prey cues than did those of T. agrestis. Courtship vibrations of L. hesperus males differed from prey vibrations in terms of dominant frequency, amplitude and duration. Vibrations of T. agrestis males differed from prey in terms of duration only. During a playback experiment, L. hesperus females did not respond aggressively to low-amplitude vibrations irrespective of whether the playback recording was from a prey or a male. Conclusions Unlike courtship signals of other spider species, the courtship signals of L. hesperus and T. agrestis males do not have complex temporal patterning. The low-amplitude ‘whispers’ of L. hesperus males at the onset of courtship are less likely to trigger a predatory response in females than the high-amplitude vibrations of struggling prey. PMID:24433544

  12. Density of wild prey modulates lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore-livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

  13. Density of Wild Prey Modulates Lynx Kill Rates on Free-Ranging Domestic Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend B.; Linnell, John D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the factors shaping the dynamics of carnivore–livestock conflicts is vital to facilitate large carnivore conservation in multi-use landscapes. We investigated how the density of their main wild prey, roe deer Capreolus capreolus, modulates individual Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep Ovis aries across a range of sheep and roe deer densities. Lynx kill rates on free-ranging domestic sheep were collected in south-eastern Norway from 1995 to 2011 along a gradient of different livestock and wild prey densities using VHF and GPS telemetry. We used zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models including lynx sex, sheep density and an index of roe deer density as explanatory variables to model observed kill rates on sheep, and ranked the models based on their AICc values. The model including the effects of lynx sex and sheep density in the zero-inflation model and the effect of lynx sex and roe deer density in the negative binomial part received most support. Irrespective of sheep density and sex, we found the lowest sheep kill rates in areas with high densities of roe deer. As roe deer density decreased, males killed sheep at higher rates, and this pattern held for both high and low sheep densities. Similarly, females killed sheep at higher rates in areas with high densities of sheep and low densities of roe deer. However, when sheep densities were low females rarely killed sheep irrespective of roe deer density. Our quantification of depredation rates can be the first step towards establishing fairer compensation systems based on more accurate and area specific estimation of losses. This study demonstrates how we can use ecological theory to predict where losses of sheep will be greatest, and can be used to identify areas where mitigation measures are most likely to be needed. PMID:24278123

  14. Chemical defense of an Asian snake reflects local availability of toxic prey and hatchling diet

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, D A; Savitzky, A H; Burghardt, G M; Nguyen, C; Meinwald, J; Schroeder, F C; Mori, A

    2013-01-01

    Species that sequester toxins from prey for their own defense against predators may exhibit population-level variation in their chemical arsenal that reflects the availability of chemically defended prey in their habitat. Rhabdophis tigrinus is an Asian snake that possesses defensive glands in the skin of its neck (‘nuchal glands’), which typically contain toxic bufadienolide steroids that the snakes sequester from consumed toads. In this study, we compared the chemistry of the nuchal gland fluid of R. tigrinus from toad-rich and toad-free islands in Japan and determined the effect of diet on the nuchal gland constituents. Our findings demonstrate that captive-hatched juveniles from toad-rich Ishima Island that had not been fed toads possess defensive bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, presumably due to maternal provisioning of these sequestered compounds. Wild-caught juveniles from Ishima possess large quantities of bufadienolides, which could result from a combination of maternal provisioning and sequestration of these defensive compounds from consumed toads. Interestingly, juvenile females from Ishima possess larger quantities of bufadienolides than do juvenile males, whereas a small sample of field-collected snakes suggests that adult males contain larger quantities of bufadienolides than do adult females. Captive-born hatchlings from Kinkasan Island lack bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, reflecting the absence of toads on that island, but they can sequester bufadienolides by feeding on toads (Bufo japonicus) in captivity. The presence of large quantities of bufadienolides in the nuchal glands of R. tigrinus from Ishima may reduce the risk of predation by providing an effective chemical defense, whereas snakes on Kinkasan may experience increased predation due to the lack of defensive compounds in their nuchal glands. PMID:23853424

  15. Chemical defense of an Asian snake reflects local availability of toxic prey and hatchling diet.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, D A; Savitzky, A H; Burghardt, G M; Nguyen, C; Meinwald, J; Schroeder, F C; Mori, A

    2013-04-01

    Species that sequester toxins from prey for their own defense against predators may exhibit population-level variation in their chemical arsenal that reflects the availability of chemically defended prey in their habitat. Rhabdophis tigrinus is an Asian snake that possesses defensive glands in the skin of its neck ('nuchal glands'), which typically contain toxic bufadienolide steroids that the snakes sequester from consumed toads. In this study, we compared the chemistry of the nuchal gland fluid of R. tigrinus from toad-rich and toad-free islands in Japan and determined the effect of diet on the nuchal gland constituents. Our findings demonstrate that captive-hatched juveniles from toad-rich Ishima Island that had not been fed toads possess defensive bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, presumably due to maternal provisioning of these sequestered compounds. Wild-caught juveniles from Ishima possess large quantities of bufadienolides, which could result from a combination of maternal provisioning and sequestration of these defensive compounds from consumed toads. Interestingly, juvenile females from Ishima possess larger quantities of bufadienolides than do juvenile males, whereas a small sample of field-collected snakes suggests that adult males contain larger quantities of bufadienolides than do adult females. Captive-born hatchlings from Kinkasan Island lack bufadienolides in their nuchal glands, reflecting the absence of toads on that island, but they can sequester bufadienolides by feeding on toads (Bufo japonicus) in captivity. The presence of large quantities of bufadienolides in the nuchal glands of R. tigrinus from Ishima may reduce the risk of predation by providing an effective chemical defense, whereas snakes on Kinkasan may experience increased predation due to the lack of defensive compounds in their nuchal glands. PMID:23853424

  16. [Salmonella typhi vaccination response study reveals defective antibody production selective IgA deficiency patient].

    PubMed

    Pleguezuelo, Daniel E; Gianelli, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Selective IgA deficiency (SIgAD) is the most prevalent immunodeficiency worldwide, progressing to common variable immunodeficiency only in few reported cases. We report the case of a Spanish female aged 22 and diagnosed of selective IgA deficiency, a long history of bronchitis, several episodes of pneumonia, bilateral bronchiectasis, normal IgG, IgM, IgG subclasses, and detectable pre-vaccination IgG antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae. She was evaluated in our clinic in order to rule out common variable immunodeficiency. We observed good antibody response to tetanus toxoid, absence of circulating switched memory B cells, decreased response to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and a lack of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine. Most SIgAD patients presents with upper respiratory tract infections or mild diarrhea. Those with lower tract infections, pneumonia or untreatable diarrhea should follow B-cell subpopulations' study and antibody response to vaccines. Absence of response to Salmonella typhi vaccine allowed us to expose the defective antibody production. PMID:26556667

  17. An Overlapping Case of Lupus Nephritis and IgG4-Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaarour, Mazen; Weerasinghe, Chanudi; Eter, Ahmad; El-Sayegh, Suzanne; El-Charabaty, Elie

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 71-year-old Filipino female who was admitted to the hospital for abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea of 8 days duration. The patient was found to have marked acute kidney injury (AKI), which required hemodialysis in the next 3 days. Extensive workup revealed hematuria, subnephrotic range proteinuria, elevated anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and elevated total immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels, with normal IgG4 and anti-dsDNA levels. On kidney biopsy, mild membranous glomerulonephritis was found, along with autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with a “full-house” pattern of immune deposits. These findings were suggestive of lupus interstitial nephritis. However, IgG4+ plasma cells were detected in the interstitium by immunostaining, favoring a diagnosis of IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD). Our case highlights the difficulty in differentiating lupus nephritis (LN) from IgG4-RKD in some patients, raising the suspicion that these two entities can co-exist. PMID:26015827

  18. Transglutaminase is essential for IgA nephropathy development acting through IgA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Berthelot, Laureline; Papista, Christina; Maciel, Thiago T.; Biarnes-Pelicot, Martine; Tissandie, Emilie; Wang, Pamela H.M.; Tamouza, Houda; Jamin, Agnès; Bex-Coudrat, Julie; Gestin, Aurelie; Boumediene, Ahmed; Arcos-Fajardo, Michelle; England, Patrick; Pillebout, Evangéline; Walker, Francine; Daugas, Eric; Vrtosvnik, François; Flamant, Martin; Benhamou, Marc; Cogné, Michel; Moura, Ivan C.

    2012-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of renal failure worldwide. Treatment is limited because of a complex pathogenesis, including unknown factors favoring IgA1 deposition in the glomerular mesangium. IgA receptor abnormalities are implicated, including circulating IgA–soluble CD89 (sCD89) complexes and overexpression of the mesangial IgA1 receptor, TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1). Herein, we show that although mice expressing both human IgA1 and CD89 displayed circulating and mesangial deposits of IgA1–sCD89 complexes resulting in kidney inflammation, hematuria, and proteinuria, mice expressing IgA1 only displayed endocapillary IgA1 deposition but neither mesangial injury nor kidney dysfunction. sCD89 injection into IgA1-expressing mouse recipients induced mesangial IgA1 deposits. sCD89 was also detected in patient and mouse mesangium. IgA1 deposition involved a direct binding of sCD89 to mesangial TfR1 resulting in TfR1 up-regulation. sCD89–TfR1 interaction induced mesangial surface expression of TGase2 (transglutaminase 2), which in turn up-regulated TfR1 expression. In the absence of TGase2, IgA1–sCD89 deposits were dramatically impaired. These data reveal a cooperation between IgA1, sCD89, TfR1, and TGase2 on mesangial cells needed for disease development. They demonstrate that TGase2 is responsible for a pathogenic amplification loop facilitating IgA1–sCD89 deposition and mesangial cell activation, thus identifying TGase2 as a target for therapeutic intervention in this disease. PMID:22451718

  19. Organ Correlation in IgG4-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Satomi; Kamisawa, Terumi; Kuruma, Sawako; Tabata, Taku; Chiba, Kazuro; Iwasaki, Susumu; Kuwata, Go; Fujiwara, Takashi; Fujiwara, Junko; Arakawa, Takeo; Koizumi, Koichi; Momma, Kumiko

    2015-06-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a potentially multiorgan disorder. In this study, clinical and serological features from 132 IgG4-RD patients were compared about organ correlations. Underlying pathologies comprised autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) in 85 cases, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) in 12, IgG4-related sialadenitis (IgG4-SIA) in 56, IgG4-related dacryoadenitis (IgG4-DAC) in 38, IgG4-related lymphadenopathy (IgG4-LYM) in 20, IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis (IgG4-RF) in 19, IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-KD) in 6, IgG4-related pseudotumor (IgG4-PT) in 3. Sixty-five patients (49%) had multiple IgG4-RD (two affected organs in 36 patients, three in 19, four in 8, five in 1, and six in 1). Serum IgG4 levels were significantly higher with multiple lesions than with a single lesion (P<0.001). The proportion of association with other IgG4-RD was 42% in AIP, the lowest of all IgG4-RDs. Serum IgG4 level was lower in AIP than in other IgG4-RDs. Frequently associated IgG4-RDs were SIA (25%) and DAC (12%) for AIP; AIP (75%) for IgG4-SC; DAC (57%), AIP (38%) and LYM (27%) for IgG4-SIA; AIP (26%) and LYM (26%) for IgG4-DAC; SIA (75%), DAC (50%) and AIP (45%) for IgG4-LYM; SIA (58%), AIP (42%) and LYM (32%) for IgG4-RF; AIP (100%) and SIA (67%) for IgG4-KID; and DAC (67%) and SIA (67%) for IgG4-PT. Most associated IgG4-RD lesions were diagnosed simultaneously, but IgG4-SIA and IgG4-DAC were sometimes identified before other lesions. About half of IgG4-RD patients had multiple IgG4-RD lesions, and some associations were seen between specific organs. PMID:26028927

  20. Aquaporin 4 IgG Serostatus and Outcome in Recurrent Longitudinally Extensive Transverse Myelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yujuan; Fryer, James P.; Lennon, Vanda A.; McKeon, Andrew; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Smith, Carin Y.; Quek, Amy M. L.; Weinshenker, Brian G.; Wingerchuk, Dean M.; Shuster, Elizabeth A.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Studies focused on recurrent longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (rLETM) are lacking. OBJECTIVES To determine the aquaporin 4 (AQP4) IgG detection rate using recombinant human APQ4-based assays in sequential serum specimens collected from patients with rLETM categorized as negative by first-generation tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay and to define the clinical characteristics and motor disability outcomes in AQP4-IgG–positive rLETM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A search of the Mayo Clinic computerized central diagnostic index (October 1, 2005, through November 30, 2011), cross-linked with the Neuroimmunology Laboratory database, identified 48 patients with rLETM, of whom 36 (75%) were positive and 12 (25%) negative for neuromyelitis optica (NMO) IgG (per IIF of serial serum specimens). Stored serum specimens from “seronegative” patients were retested with recombinant human AQP4-based assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent, transfected cell-based, and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting assays. Control patients included 140 AQP4-IgG–positive patients with NMO, of whom a subgroup of 20 initially presented with 2 attacks of transverse myelitis (rLETM-onset NMO). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES AQP4-IgG serostatus, clinical characteristics, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. RESULTS Six patients with negative IIF results were reclassified as AQP4-IgG positive, yielding an overall AQP4-IgG seropositivity rate of 89%. Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting, cell-based, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays improved the detection rate to 89%, 85%, and 81%, respectively. The female to male ratio was 2:3 for AQP4-IgG–negative rLETM and 5:1 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients. The AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM or rLETM-onset NMO were similar in age at onset, sex ratio, attack severity, relapse rate, and motor disability. From Kaplan-Meier analyses, 36% of AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM are anticipated to need a cane to walk within 5 years after onset. For patients with rLETM-onset NMO, the median time from onset to first optic neuritis attack (54 months) was similar to the median disease duration for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (59 months). The median number of attacks was 3 for AQP4-IgG–positive patients with rLETM (range, 2-22), and the first optic neuritis attack for those with rLETM-onset NMO followed a median of 3 myelitis attacks (range, 2-19). Immunosuppressant therapy reduced the relapse rate in both AQP4-IgG–positive and AQP4-IgG–negative patients with rLETM. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Recombinant antigen–based assays significantly increase AQP4-IgG detection in patients with rLETM, and AQP4-IgG–negative adults with rLETM are rare. Evolution to NMO can be anticipated in AQP4-IgG–positive patients. Early initiation of immunotherapy may result in a more favorable motor outcome. PMID:24248262

  1. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  2. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  3. The three-dimensional prey field of the northern krill, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and the escape responses of their copepod prey.

    PubMed

    Abrahamsen, Mari B; Browman, Howard I; Fields, David M; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit

    2010-01-01

    In the north Atlantic, Meganyctiphanes norvegica feeds predominantly on copepods, including Calanus spp. To quantify its perceptual field for prey, and the sensory systems underlying prey detection, the responses of tethered krill to free-swimming Calanus spp. were observed in 3D using silhouette video imaging. An attack-which occurred despite the krill's being tethered-was characterized by a pronounced movement of the krill's antennae towards the target, followed by a propulsion and opening of the feeding basket. Frequency distributions of prey detection distances were significantly different in the light vs. the dark, with median values of 26.5 mm and 19.5 mm, respectively. There were no significant differences in the angles at which prey were detected by krill (relative to the predator's longitudinal body axis) in the light vs. the dark. Prey detections were symmetrically distributed on either side of the predator, in both light and dark. However, significant asymmetry was found in the dorsal-ventral direction with 80% of the prey detections located below the midline of the krill's body axis and, given the placement and orientation of the compound eyes, presumably outside its visual field of view. This indicates that, at least under these conditions, vision was not the main sensory modality involved in the detection of active prey by M. norvegica. However, under some circumstances, vision may provide supplemental information. Avoidance responses of copepod prey were nearly twice the velocity of their nominal background swimming speed (153 ± 48 and 85 ± 75 mm s(-1), respectively), on average taking them 43 ± 16 mm away from the predator. This is far beyond the krill's perceptual range, suggesting that the escape reaction provides an effective deterrent to predation (although perhaps less so for free-swimming krill). This information can be used to parameterize models that assess the role of krill as predators in marine ecosystems. PMID:24391246

  4. Predator-prey role reversals, juvenile experience and adult antipredator behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Choh, Yasuyuki; Ignacio, Maira; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Janssen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Although biologists routinely label animals as predators and prey, the ecological role of individuals is often far from clear. There are many examples of role reversals in predators and prey, where adult prey attack vulnerable young predators. This implies that juvenile prey that escape from predation and become adult can kill juvenile predators. We show that such an exposure of juvenile prey to adult predators results in behavioural changes later in life: after becoming adult, these prey killed juvenile predators at a faster rate than prey that had not been exposed. The attacks were specifically aimed at predators of the species to which they had been exposed. This suggests that prey recognize the species of predator to which they were exposed during their juvenile stage. Our results show that juvenile experience affects adult behaviour after a role reversal. PMID:23061011

  5. Experimental determination of the spatial scale of a prey patch from the predator's perspective.

    PubMed

    Birk, Matthew A; White, J Wilson

    2014-03-01

    Foraging theory predicts that predators should prefer foraging in habitat patches with higher prey densities. However, density depends on the spatial scale at which a "patch" is defined by an observer. Ecologists strive to measure prey densities at the same scale that predators do, but many natural landscapes lack obvious, well-defined prey patches. Thus one must determine the scale at which predators define patches of prey. We estimated the scale at which guppies, Poecilia reticulata, selected patches of zooplankton prey using a behavioral assay. Guppies could choose between two prey arrays, each manipulated to have a density that depended on the spatial scale at which density was calculated. We estimated the scale of guppy foraging by comparing guppy preferences across a series of trials in which we systematically varied the scale associated with "high" prey density. This approach enables the application of foraging theory to non-discrete habitats and prey landscapes. PMID:24241641

  6. Predator-induced changes of female mating preferences: innate and experiential effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many species males face a higher predation risk than females because males display elaborate traits that evolved under sexual selection, which may attract not only females but also predators. Females are, therefore, predicted to avoid such conspicuous males under predation risk. The present study was designed to investigate predator-induced changes of female mating preferences in Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana). Males of this species show a pronounced polymorphism in body size and coloration, and females prefer large, colorful males in the absence of predators. Results In dichotomous choice tests predator-naïve (lab-reared) females altered their initial preference for larger males in the presence of the cichlid Cichlasoma salvini, a natural predator of P. mexicana, and preferred small males instead. This effect was considerably weaker when females were confronted visually with the non-piscivorous cichlid Vieja bifasciata or the introduced non-piscivorous Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). In contrast, predator experienced (wild-caught) females did not respond to the same extent to the presence of a predator, most likely due to a learned ability to evaluate their predators' motivation to prey. Conclusions Our study highlights that (a) predatory fish can have a profound influence on the expression of mating preferences of their prey (thus potentially affecting the strength of sexual selection), and females may alter their mate choice behavior strategically to reduce their own exposure to predators. (b) Prey species can evolve visual predator recognition mechanisms and alter their mate choice only when a natural predator is present. (c) Finally, experiential effects can play an important role, and prey species may learn to evaluate the motivational state of their predators. PMID:21726456

  7. IgG4-Related Esophageal Disease Presenting as Esophagitis Dissecans Superficialis With Chronic Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Dumas-Campagna, Myriam; Bouchard, Simon; Soucy, Genevieve; Bouin, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently recognized autoimmune systemic disorder that has been described in various organs. The disease is characterized histologically by a dense lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate of IgG4-positive cells, storiform fibrosis and can be associated with tumefactive lesions. IgG4-related disease involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is rare and only two previous case reports have reported IgG4-related esophageal disease. We report the case of a 63-year-old female patient with a long-standing history of severe dysphagia and odynophagia with an initial diagnosis of reflux esophagitis. Symptoms persisted despite anti-acid therapy and control esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed endoscopic images consistent with esophagitis dissecans superficialis (sloughing esophagitis). An underlying autoimmune process was suspected and immunosuppressant agents were tried to control her disease. The patient eventually developed disabling dysphagia secondary to multiple chronic esophageal strictures. A diagnosis of IgG4-related disease was eventually made after reviewing esophageal biopsies and performing an immunohistochemical study with an anti-IgG4 antibody. Treatment attempts with corticosteroids and rituximab was not associated with a significant improvement of the symptoms of dysphagia and odynophagia, possibly because of the chronic nature of the disease associated with a high fibrotic component. Our case report describes this unique case of IgG4-related esophageal disease presenting as chronic esophagitis dissecans with strictures. We also briefly review the main histopathological features and treatment options in IgG4-related disease. PMID:24883156

  8. Inflammatory thoracic aortic aneurysm (lymphoplasmacytic thoracic aortitis): a 13-year-experience at a German Heart Center with emphasis on possible role of IgG4

    PubMed Central

    Agaimy, Abbas; Weyand, Michael; Strecker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background & aim: Aortic aneurysms represent one of the major causes of cardiovascular surgery. Their etiology varies greatly based on patient’s age and other clinicopathologic determinants. In addition to common atherosclerotic vascular diseases, an inflammatory etiology, in particular IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) has increasingly emerged as a cause of dissecting inflammatory aortic aneurysms (IAA). Methods: To assess the frequency and types of IAA, we reviewed all cases of aortic aneurysms resected at our Erlangen Heart Center during 2000-2013. Results: 376 patients underwent resection of aortic aneurysms in the study period. These are further categorized as ascending aortic aneurysms (45%), aortic arch aneurysm (2%), descending aortic aneurysm (3%), type A dissection (46%) and type B dissection (4%). Fifteen cases (4%) showed variable lymphoplasmacytic inflammation thus qualifying as IAA. Affected were 9 females and 6 males (female to male ratio = 1.5:1; age range: 52-80 yrs; mean: 70 yrs; median: 72 yrs). None was known to have IgG4-RD and serum IgG4 and/or IgG levels (known in 6 cases) were normal. Variable sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was seen either confined to the adventitia (periaortitis; mainly in males) or extending through all layers (mainly in females). A wide range of IgG4 plasma cells (range: 3-182/HPF; mean: 51/HPF) and IgG4: IgG ratios (range: 0.02 to 0.91; mean: 0.37) were detected. All but one of the cases with at least focally transmural inflammation showed a higher IgG4: IgG ratios in excess of 0.3 (range, 0.32-0.91; median, 0.62). Lymphoid follicle and variable fibrosis were common but obliterative phlebitis was not seen. Conclusion: IgG4-rich sclerosing lymphoplasmacytic thoracic aortitis is a constant histological feature of thoracic IAA. Normal serum IgG4 in most patients, predilection for women and absence of other features of IgG4-RD all suggest a tissue-specific localized autoimmunological process and argue against a systemic disorder. The relationship (if any) of IgG4-rich lymphoplasmacytic thoracic aortitis in those patients with IAA lacking other organ manifestations or an elevated serum IgG4 level to systemic IgG4-RD remains unclear and merit further studies. PMID:24040436

  9. Role of IgA receptors in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Sebastian M; Papista, Christina; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Berthelot, Laureline; Monteiro, Renato C

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) or Berger's disease is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world and one of the first causes of end-stage renal failure. IgAN is characterized by the accumulation of immune complexes containing polymeric IgA1 in mesangial areas. The pathogenesis of this disease involves the deposition of polymeric and hypogalactosylated IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) in the mesangium. Quantitative and structural changes of Gd-IgA1 play a key role in the development of the disease due to functional abnormalities of two IgA receptors: the Fc?RI (CD89) expressed by blood myeloid cells and the transferrin receptor (CD71) on mesangial cells. Abnormal Gd-IgA1 induces release of soluble CD89, which participates in the formation of circulating IgA1 complexes. These complexes are trapped by CD71 that is overexpressed on mesangial cells in IgAN patients together with the crosslinking enzyme transglutaminase 2 allowing pathogenic IgA complex formation in situ and mesangial cell activation. A humanized mouse model expressing IgA1 and CD89 develops IgAN in a similar manner as patients. In this model, a food antigen, the gliadin, was shown to be crucial for circulating IgA1 complex formation and deposition, which could be prevented by a gluten-free diet. Identification of these new partners opens new therapeutic prospects for IgAN treatment. PMID:26572664

  10. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  11. A coevolutionary predator-prey model with quantitative characters.

    PubMed

    Saloniemi, I

    1993-06-01

    A new model for coevolution in generalized predator-prey systems is presented by incorporating quantitative characters relevant to predation in both prey and predator. Malthusian fitnesses are derived from ecological models, and they include interspecific frequency and density dependence. Both prey and predator characters are under stabilizing selection even without predation, and predation adds an additional linear selection component to both characters. The nonlinear system of differential equations is studied analytically by using local linearization near the equilibrium points. Parameters related to intrinsic growth and death rates and stabilizing selection determine whether there are zero, one, or two equilibria. Additive genetic variances do not have an effect on the equilibrium points, but genetic variability is crucial for determining their stability. Analysis of the linearized model shows that at most one equilibrium can be stable, and stability is achieved when additive genetic variance is high enough in both the prey and predator populations. The stability properties are illustrated by numerical examples of the full dynamics of the original nonlinear model. PMID:19425993

  12. Testing for Camouflage Using Virtual Prey and Human "Predators"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Camouflage is a prevalent feature of the natural world and as such has a ready appeal to students; however, it is a difficult subject to study using real predators and prey. This paper focuses how one fundamental type of camouflage, disruptive colouration (bold markings that break up the outline of the organism), can be tested using paper…

  13. Visual Detection of Cryptic Prey by Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristata).

    PubMed

    Pietrewicz, A T; Kamil, A C

    1977-02-11

    Blue jays learned to respond differentially to the presence or absence of Catocala moths in slides. This detection of the moths by the jays was affected by the background upon which the moth was placed and its body orientation, thus providing an objective measure of crypticity. These procedures are useful for the study of visual detection of prey. PMID:17732294

  14. Direct identification of predator-prey dynamics in gyrokinetic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sumire; Gürcan, Özgür D.; Diamond, Patrick H.

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between spontaneously formed zonal flows and small-scale turbulence in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations is explored in a shearless closed field line geometry. It is found that when clear limit cycle oscillations prevail, the observed turbulent dynamics can be quantitatively captured by a simple Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model. Fitting the time traces of full gyrokinetic simulations by such a reduced model allows extraction of the model coefficients. Scanning physical plasma parameters, such as collisionality and density gradient, it was observed that the effective growth rates of turbulence (i.e., the prey) remain roughly constant, in spite of the higher and varying level of primary mode linear growth rates. The effective growth rate that was extracted corresponds roughly to the zonal-flow-modified primary mode growth rate. It was also observed that the effective damping of zonal flows (i.e., the predator) in the parameter range, where clear predator-prey dynamics is observed, (i.e., near marginal stability) agrees with the collisional damping expected in these simulations. This implies that the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability may be negligible in this range. The results imply that when the tertiary instability plays a role, the dynamics becomes more complex than a simple Lotka-Volterra predator prey.

  15. Testing for Camouflage Using Virtual Prey and Human "Predators"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Camouflage is a prevalent feature of the natural world and as such has a ready appeal to students; however, it is a difficult subject to study using real predators and prey. This paper focuses how one fundamental type of camouflage, disruptive colouration (bold markings that break up the outline of the organism), can be tested using paper…

  16. Marine predators and persistent prey in the southeast Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigler, Michael F.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ressler, Patrick H.; Friday, Nancy A.; Wilson, Christopher D.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.

    2012-06-01

    Predictable prey locations reduce search time and energetic costs of foraging; thus marine predators often exploit locations where prey concentrations persist. In our study, we examined whether this association is influenced by differences among predator species in foraging modes (travel cost, surface feeder or diver) or whether the predator species is a central place forager or not. We examined distributions of two seabird species during their nesting period, the surface-feeding black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) and the pursuit-diving thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), and two baleen whale species, the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), in relation to two key prey, age-1 walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) and euphausiids (Euphausiidae). Prey surveys were conducted once each year during 2004 and 2006-2010. Concurrent predator surveys were conducted in 2006-2010 (seabirds) and 2008 and 2010 (whales). We compared the seabird and whale foraging locations to where age-1 pollock and euphausiids were concentrated and considered the persistence of these concentrations, where the time-scale of persistence is year (i.e., a comparison among surveys that are conducted once each year). Euphausiids were widespread and concentrations often were reliably found within specific 37 km×37 km blocks ('persistent hot spots of prey'). In contrast, age-1 pollock were more concentrated and their hot spots were persistent only on coarser scales (>37 km). Both seabird species, regardless of foraging mode, were associated with age-1 pollock but not with euphausiids, even though age-1 pollock were less persistent than euphausiids. The higher travel cost central place foragers, thick-billed murres, foraged at prey concentrations nearer their island colonies than black-legged kittiwakes, which were more widespread foragers. Humpback whales were not tied to a central place and mostly were located only where euphausiids were concentrated, and further, often in locations where these concentrations were persistent. Fin whales were associated with locations where age-1 pollock were more likely, similar to black-legged kittiwakes and thick-billed murres, but their association with euphausiids was unclear. Our results suggest that a predator's foraging mode and their restrictions during breeding affect their response to prey persistence.

  17. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  18. Oral passive IgY-based immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shofiqur; Van Nguyen, Sa; Icatlo Jr., Faustino C.; Umeda, Kouji; Kodama, Yoshikatsu

    2013-01-01

    This commentary summarizes the laboratory investigations and clinical trials published recently involving per-oral application of IgY supplemented food for specific orogastrointestinal disease prevention and control purposes. The prolonged use and misuse of conventional antibacterial drugs has spawned antibiotic resistant microbes prompting scientists to search for other germ-killing options. In particular, the use of IgY as a novel mode of immunotherapy using oral chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) to confer passive immunity has gained much interest as an inexpensive non-antibiotic alternative for the prophylaxis and treatment of a wide variety of infectious diseases. The stability of IgY in the orogastrointestinal tract and its safety profile has been well-documented. IgY has been used in the treatment or prevention of dental caries, periodontitis and gingivitis, gastritis and gastric ulcer, oral thrush and infant rotavirus diarrhea. The recent clinical trials on IgY with encouraging results has catapulted into the market novel nutraceutical or health supplements for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention based on the consumption of mono-specific or mixed IgY formulations. With recent trends in consumer preference for natural materials to alleviate health concerns, the increasing healthcare costs and the recent advances in drug delivery systems, IgY is likely to shift from its mainly functional food status toward pharmaceuticalization in the foreseeable future. PMID:23319156

  19. IgG4-related sclerosing disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamisawa, Terumi; Okamoto, Atsutake

    2008-01-01

    Based on histological and immunohistochemical examination of various organs of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP), a novel clinicopathological entity of IgG4-related sclerosing disease has been proposed. This is a systemic disease that is characterized by extensive IgG4-positive plasma cells and T-lymphocyte infiltration of various organs. Clinical manifestations are apparent in the pancreas, bile duct, gallbladder, salivary gland, retroperitoneum, kidney, lung, and prostate, in which tissue fibrosis with obliterative phlebitis is pathologically induced. AIP is not simply pancreatitis but, in fact, is a pancreatic disease indicative of IgG4-related sclerosing diseases. This disease includes AIP, sclerosing cholangitis, cholecystitis, sialadenitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, interstitial pneumonia, prostatitis, inflammatory pseudotumor and lymphadenopathy, all IgG4-related. Most IgG4-related sclerosing diseases have been found to be associated with AIP, but also those without pancreatic involvement have been reported. In some cases, only one or two organs are clinically involved, while in others, three or four organs are affected. The disease occurs predominantly in older men and responds well to steroid therapy. Serum IgG4 levels and immunostaining with anti-IgG4 antibody are useful in making the diagnosis. Since malignant tumors are frequently suspected on initial presentation, IgG4-related sclerosing disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:18609677

  20. IgA Antibodies in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichelt, K. L.; Skjeldal, O.

    2006-01-01

    The level of IgA antibodies to gluten and gliadin proteins found in grains and to casein found in milk, as well as the level of IgG to gluten and gliadin, have been examined in 23 girls with Rett syndrome and 53 controls. Highly statistically significant increases were found for the Rett population compared to the controls. The reason for this…

  1. Selective deficiency of IgA

    MedlinePLUS

    Consider genetic counseling if you have a family history of selective IgA deficiency and you plan to have children. If ... Genetic counseling may be of value to prospective parents with a family history of selective IgA deficiency.

  2. Beyond body mass: how prey traits improve predictions of functional response parameters.

    PubMed

    Kalinoski, Ryan M; DeLong, John P

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the factors that determine the strength of predator-prey interactions is essential to understanding community structure and stability. Variation in the strength of predator-prey interactions often can be attributed to predator mass and prey mass, or abiotic factors like temperature. However, even when accounting for these factors, there remains a considerable amount of unexplained variation that may be attributed to other traits. We compiled functional response data from the literature to investigate how predator mass, prey mass, prey type (taxonomic identity), temperature, and prey defenses (hard vs soft integument) contributed to the variation found in the predator-prey interactions between freshwater cyclopoid copepods and their prey. Surprisingly, our results indicate that prey identity (taxonomic group) and defenses (hard vs soft integument) are more important for generating variation in interaction strengths than body mass and temperature. This suggests that allometric functions can only take us so far when attempting to better understand variation in individual predator prey interactions, and that we must evaluate how other traits influence interaction strengths. Identifying additional factors such as prey defenses may enable us to better predict potential changes in the structure and function of planktonic and other food webs by better accounting for the variation in the interactions between generalists and their many prey types. PMID:26552379

  3. Along Came a Spider: Using Live Arthropods in a Predator-Prey Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2011-01-01

    We developed a predator-prey activity with eighth-grade students in which they used wolf spiders ("Lycosa carolinensis"), house crickets ("Acheta domestica"), and abiotic factors to address how (1) adaptations in predators and prey shape their interaction and (2) abiotic factors modify the interaction between predators and prey. We tested student…

  4. Nonselective Harvesting of a Prey-Predator Fishery with Gompertz Law of Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, D.; Chaudhuri, K. S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a mathematical model for the nonselective harvesting of a prey-predator system in which both the prey and the predator obey the Gompertz law of growth and some prey avoid predation by hiding. The steady states of the system are determined, and the dynamical behaviour of both species is examined. The possibility of existence of…

  5. Dietary supplementation with non-prey food enhances fitness of a predatory arthropod

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uncertainties exist about the value of non-prey food for natural enemies that are commonly food limited, and the dietary conditions where non-prey foods are beneficial for carnivorous species. We examined the nutritional role of a non-prey food using a ground dwelling, tangle web-building spider tha...

  6. Along Came a Spider: Using Live Arthropods in a Predator-Prey Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Matthew L.; Hari, Janice

    2011-01-01

    We developed a predator-prey activity with eighth-grade students in which they used wolf spiders ("Lycosa carolinensis"), house crickets ("Acheta domestica"), and abiotic factors to address how (1) adaptations in predators and prey shape their interaction and (2) abiotic factors modify the interaction between predators and prey. We tested student…

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Non-Prey Foods in the Life Histories of Predaceous Coccinellidae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-prey foods are an integral component of the diets of most predaceous coccinellids. Under field conditions, numerous coccinellids consume nectar, honeydew, pollen, fruit, vegetation, and fungus. These non-prey foods are used by coccinellids to increase survival when prey is scarce, reduce mortali...

  8. Predator size and phenology shape prey survival in temporary ponds.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C

    2007-12-01

    Theoretical efforts suggest that the relative sizes of predators and their prey can shape community dynamics, the structure of food webs, and the evolution of life histories. However, much of this work has assumed static predator and prey body sizes. The timing of recruitment and the growth patterns of both predator and prey have the potential to modify the strength of predator-prey interactions. In this study, I examined how predator size dynamics in 40 temporary ponds over a 3-year period affected the survival of spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) larvae. Across communities, gape-limited predator richness, but not size, was correlated with habitat duration (pond permanence). Within communities, mean gape-limited predator size diminished as the growing season progressed. This size reduction occurred because prey individuals grew into a body size refuge and because the largest of the predators left ponds by mid-season. Elevated gape-limited predation risk across time and space was predicted by the occurrence of two large predatory salamanders: marbled salamander larvae (Ambystoma opacum) and red-spotted newt adults (Notophthalmus viridescens). The presence of the largest gape-limited predator, A. opacum, predicted A. maculatum larval survival in the field. The distribution of large predatory salamanders among ponds and across time is expected to lead to differing community dynamics and to generate divergent natural selection on early growth and body size in A. maculatum. In general, a dynamic perspective on predator size often will be necessary to understand the ecology and evolution of species interactions. This will be especially true in frequently disturbed or seasonal habitats where phenology and ontogeny interact to determine body size asymmetries. PMID:17891545

  9. Multimodal cues improve prey localization under complex environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Rhebergen, F; Taylor, R C; Ryan, M J; Page, R A; Halfwerk, W

    2015-09-01

    Predators often eavesdrop on sexual displays of their prey. These displays can provide multimodal cues that aid predators, but the benefits in attending to them should depend on the environmental sensory conditions under which they forage. We assessed whether bats hunting for frogs use multimodal cues to locate their prey and whether their use varies with ambient conditions. We used a robotic set-up mimicking the sexual display of a male túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus) to test prey assessment by fringe-lipped bats (Trachops cirrhosus). These predatory bats primarily use sound of the frog's call to find their prey, but the bats also use echolocation cues returning from the frog's dynamically moving vocal sac. In the first experiment, we show that multimodal cues affect attack behaviour: bats made narrower flank attack angles on multimodal trials compared with unimodal trials during which they could only rely on the sound of the frog. In the second experiment, we explored the bat's use of prey cues in an acoustically more complex environment. Túngara frogs often form mixed-species choruses with other frogs, including the hourglass frog (Dendropsophus ebraccatus). Using a multi-speaker set-up, we tested bat approaches and attacks on the robofrog under three different levels of acoustic complexity: no calling D. ebraccatus males, two calling D. ebraccatus males and five D. ebraccatus males. We found that bats are more directional in their approach to the robofrog when more D. ebraccatus males were calling. Thus, bats seemed to benefit more from multimodal cues when confronted with increased levels of acoustic complexity in their foraging environments. Our data have important consequences for our understanding of the evolution of multimodal sexual displays as they reveal how environmental conditions can alter the natural selection pressures acting on them. PMID:26336176

  10. Regulation of intestinal IgA responses.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Na; Hu, Shaomin

    2015-07-01

    The intestine harbors enormous numbers of commensal bacteria and is under frequent attack from food-borne pathogens and toxins. A properly regulated immune response is critical for homeostatic maintenance of commensals and for protection against infection and toxins in the intestine. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype antibodies function specifically in mucosal sites such as the intestines to help maintain intestinal health by binding to and regulating commensal microbiota, pathogens and toxins. IgA antibodies are produced by intestinal IgA antibody-secreting plasma cells generated in gut-associated lymphoid tissues from naïve B cells in response to stimulations of the intestinal bacteria and components. Research on generation, migration, and maintenance of IgA-secreting cells is important in our effort to understand the biology of IgA responses and to help better design vaccines against intestinal infections. PMID:25837997

  11. Amphibians have immunoglobulins similar to ancestral IgD and IgA from Amniotes.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Olivia; Garet, Elina; Olivieri, David; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We studied the immunoglobulin genes from either the genomes or RNAs of amphibians. In particular, we obtained data from one frog genome (Nanorana parkeri) and three transcriptomes of the Caudata order (Andrias davidianus, Notophthalmus viridescens and Cynops pyrrhogaster). Apart from the immunoglobulins IgM and IgY previously described, we identified several IgD related immunoglobulins. The species N. parkeri, N. viridescens and C. pyrrhogaster have two IgD genes, while Andrias davidianus has three such genes. The three Caudata species have long IgD immunoglobulins similar to IgD of reptiles, and could be an ancient relic from the common ancestor of IgD of all mammals and reptiles. We also found two IgA isotypes. The results suggest that one of the IgA may be the ancestor of IgA in crocodiles and birds, while the other could be the ancestor IgA found in mammals. These results provide information that could help understand the evolution of immunoglobulins in terrestrial vertebrates. PMID:26675067

  12. Prey availability influences the ontogeny and timing of chemoreception-based prey shifting in the striped crayfish snake, Regina alleni.

    PubMed

    Waters, R Mark; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2013-02-01

    Striped crayfish snakes (Regina alleni) undergo a dietary shift from dragonfly larvae to crayfish during ontogeny. Godley (1980) suggested that this shift is attributable to crayfish availability rather than an initial preference for dragonfly larvae. We experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring the chemosensory response of newborn snakes to prey odors at 2 ages and also after they were fed on either dragonfly larvae or crayfish. The results show that R. alleni respond equally to dragonfly larvae, hard crayfish, and soft crayfish before feeding experience. We also show that the maintenance of this preference over fish and control stimuli is subsequently determined by the prey type encountered, through an unusual interaction. Snakes fed dragonfly larvae increased their chemosensory response to both dragonfly larvae and crayfish, whereas snakes fed crayfish increased their response only to crayfish. Our study demonstrates that innate chemosensory responses to prey can be modified by prey availability and that they do not necessarily result from maturation alone. Such plasticity has adaptive value to newborn animals that must fend for themselves from birth and respond to changing environmental conditions. PMID:22946926

  13. Differential Susceptibility of Human IgA Immunoglobulins to Streptococcal IgA Protease

    PubMed Central

    Plaut, Andrew G.; Wistar, Richard; Capra, J. Donald

    1974-01-01

    IgA protease, a proteolytic enzyme found in human saliva and colonic fluid, hydrolyzes human serum IgA immunoglobulins to yield Fab? and Fc? fragments. The enzyme is produced by organisms in the normal human microflora and can be purified from culture filtrates of the common human oral organism Streptococcus sanguis (American Type Culture Collection no. 10556). IgA protease is inactive against all other protein substrates examined including the other classes of human immunoglobulins. The role of this enzyme in affecting the function of the secretory IgA immune system is unknown. To further characterize and explain this unusual substrate specificity, the susceptibility of 31 human IgA myeloma proteins of both subclasses was investigated. 16 IgA1 and 15 IgA2 myeloma paraproteins were treated with enzyme and the extent of proteolysis was determined by cellulose actate electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and column chromatography. All IgA1 proteins were enzymatically cleaved to Fab? and Fc? fragments, but all IgA2 proteins were resistant, yielding no fragments after prolonged enzymatic treatment. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the purified Fc? fragment of a single IgA1 paraprotein was as follows: Thr-Pro-Ser-Pro-?-Thr-Pro-Pro-Thr-Pro-Ser-Pro-Ser. Comparison of this sequence to that reported for the IgA1 heavy chain shows that the enzyme-susceptible peptide bond is a Pro-Thr in the IgA1 hinge region. The most likely explanation of the resistance of the IgA2 subclass to IgA protease is a deletion in the heavy chain which commences with the critical threonine of the susceptible Pro-Thr bond. Images PMID:4436434

  14. Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Coline C; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  15. Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

  16. Mixed IgG-IgA cryoglobulinemia in human serum sickness. Evidence for Equine IgG in the cryoprecipitate.

    PubMed

    Moroz, L A; Comerford, T A; Guttman, R D

    1975-01-01

    Serum sickness followed the administration of anti-lymphocyte globulin to a patient with multiple sclerosis. In addition to other characteristic features of this syndrome, there was hypocomplementemia and transient renal dysfunction similar to that observed in the 'one-shot' experimental model of serum sickness. Cryoglobulinemia was transiently demonstrable at the height of the inflammatory response. Analysis of the purified cryoprecipitate revealed the presence of human IgG and IgA, and, in addition, equine IgG. This demonstration of a well-defined exagenous antigen in the cryoprecipitate provides further support for the immune complex nature of mixed cryoglobulins. PMID:806536

  17. Rain, prey and predators: climatically driven shifts in frog abundance modify reproductive allometry in a tropical snake.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gregory P; Shine, Richard

    2007-11-01

    To predict the impacts of climate change on animal populations, we need long-term data sets on the effects of annual climatic variation on the demographic traits (growth, survival, reproductive output) that determine population viability. One frequent complication is that fecundity also depends upon maternal body size, a trait that often spans a wide range within a single population. During an eight-year field study, we measured annual variation in weather conditions, frog abundance and snake reproduction on a floodplain in the Australian wet-dry tropics. Frog numbers varied considerably from year to year, and were highest in years with hotter wetter conditions during the monsoonal season ("wet season"). Mean maternal body sizes, egg sizes and post-partum maternal body conditions of frog-eating snakes (keelback, Tropidonophis mairii, Colubridae) showed no significant annual variation over this period, but mean clutch sizes were higher in years with higher prey abundance. Larger females were more sensitive to frog abundance in this respect than were smaller conspecifics, so that the rate at which fecundity increased with body size varied among years, and was highest when prey availability was greatest. Thus, the link between female body size and reproductive output varied among years, with climatic factors modifying the relative reproductive rates of larger (older) versus smaller (younger) animals within the keelback population. PMID:17724615

  18. Species diversity and predation strategies in a multiple species predator-prey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullan, Rory; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2015-08-01

    A single predator, single prey ecological model, in which the behaviour of the populations relies upon two control parameters has been expanded to allow for multiple predators and prey to occupy the ecosystem. The diversity of the ecosystem that develops as the model runs is analysed by assessing how many predator or prey species survive. Predation strategies that dictate how the predators distribute their efforts across the prey are introduced in this multiple species model. The paper analyses various predation strategies and highlights their effect on the survival of the predators and prey species.

  19. Stability analysis and numerical simulation of 1 prey - 2 predator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitri, D.; Abadi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study an ecological system that consists of 1 prey and 2 predators populations. The prey population grows logistically while Holling type II functional response is applied for both predators . The first predator preys on the prey and the second predator preys on the first one. The study starts with the stability analysis of critical points of the systems. Then, by using normal form and centre manifold method the information about other nontrivial solutions due to bifurcation including possible limit cycles appearance is obtained. The results are confirmed by numerical simulation using MatCont and biological interpretation of the results is also presented.

  20. Lynx body size in Norway is related to its main prey (Roe deer) density, climate, and latitude.

    PubMed

    Yom-Tov, Yoram; Kvam, Tor; Wiig, Øystein

    2011-02-01

    We studied the effect of various factors on body size variation of the Eurasian lynx in Norway, using data from 374 lynx collected between 1960 and 1976 and whose locality of capture, year of birth, sex, and age were known. Body size of lynx in Norway was mainly affected by sex and age. Female skull size (and by implication body size) was also positively affected by the availability of its main prey (roe deer) and by latitude, and negatively by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Male size was not affected by any of the environmental factors examined. We interpret the effects of NAO and latitude on body size through their effect on the local climate and particularly snow conditions. We suggest that females are more sensitive to environmental factors than males. PMID:21404822

  1. Aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgA nephropathy patients is recognized by IgG antibodies with restricted heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Fan, Run; Zhang, Zhixin; Brown, Rhubell; Hall, Stacy; Julian, Bruce A.; Chatham, W. Winn; Suzuki, Yusuke; Wyatt, Robert J.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Robinson, James; Tomana, Milan; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan

    2009-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by circulating immune complexes composed of galactose-deficient IgA1 and a glycan-specific IgG antibody. These immune complexes deposit in the glomerular mesangium and induce the mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis characteristic of IgAN. To define the precise specificities and molecular properties of the IgG antibodies, we generated EBV-immortalized IgG-secreting lymphocytes from patients with IgAN and found that the secreted IgG formed complexes with galactose-deficient IgA1 in a glycan-dependent manner. We cloned and sequenced the heavy- and light-chain antigen-binding domains of IgG specific for galactose-deficient IgA1 and identified an A to S substitution in the complementarity-determining region 3 of the variable region of the gene encoding the IgG heavy chain in IgAN patients. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis that reverted the residue to alanine reduced the binding of recombinant IgG to galactose-deficient IgA1. Finally, we developed a dot-blot assay for the glycan-specific IgG antibody that differentiated patients with IgAN from healthy and disease controls with 88% specificity and 95% sensitivity and found that elevated levels of this antibody in the sera of patients with IgAN correlated with proteinuria. Collectively, these findings indicate that glycan-specific antibodies are associated with the development of IgAN and may represent a disease-specific marker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:19478457

  2. Serological Profile of HSV-2 in STD Patients: Evaluation of Diagnostic Utility of HSV-2 IgM and IgG Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rashetha; Sucilathangam, G.; Cinthujah, B.; Revathy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives:The present study was undertaken to determine Herpes Simplex Virus-2 seroprevalence in sexually active adults aged 20-49 and to investigate the correlation with sociodemographic characteristics and to find its association with other sexually transmitted diseases especially HIV and also to assess the proportion of primary and reactivated HSV-2 cases. Materials and Methods:This prospective study was carried out for a period of six months in a tertiary care hospital. Serum samples were taken from 91 patients attending the out Patient clinic of the Department of Venereology. The serological testing for HSV-2 was performed on all the specimens by using Euroimmun anti-HSV2 (gG2) IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA. Results: Out of the 91 STD patients in the study group, 18 males (34.62%) and 14 females (36.84%) tested positive for HSV-2 antibodies. Seropositivity rate is 35.16%. More number of HSV-2 positive cases were seen among males, older age, rural residence, low socioeconomic status, single marital status, irregular condom usage during the sexual intercourses with new partners and with higher number of sexual partners during lifetime. HSV-2 IgM alone was positive in three cases, HSV-2 IgG alone was positive in 26 cases and three had a positive HSV-2 IgM and IgG result. Addition of IgM testing increased rate of detecting seroconversion, 31.87%, when only IgG ELISA was used, to 35.16 % patients when IgM test was added. In the study group four cases tested positive for VDRL, and one of them was a known positive case. Among the 55 HIV positive cases in the study group, HSV 2 was positive in 17 cases and among the 36 HIV negative cases HSV 2 was positive in 15 cases. (30.91% and 47.22%).Though the number of HIV cases were high, HSV 2 positivity among them was statistically not significant. Conclusion:The purpose of screening for HSV-2 is not only to identify seropositivity, but to help seropositive people identify symptoms and protect themselves from acquiring HIV and to protect their partners and seronegative people from acquiring HSV-2 and/or HIV. PMID:25653947

  3. Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ki; Norman, David; Werdelin, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than that of their present-day nonsabretoothed relatives. However, the precise functional advantage of the sabretooth bite, particularly in relation to prey size, is unknown. Here, we present a new point-to-point bite model and show that, for sabretooths, depth of the killing bite decreases dramatically with increasing prey size. The extended gape of sabretooths only results in considerable increase in bite depth when biting into prey with a radius of less than ∼10 cm. For sabretooths, this size-reversed functional advantage suggests predation on species within a similar size range to those attacked by present-day carnivorans, rather than “megaherbivores” as previously believed. The development of the sabretooth condition appears to represent a shift in function and killing behaviour, rather than one in predator-prey relations. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how sabretoothed carnivorans are likely to have evolved along a functionally continuous trajectory: beginning as an extension of a jaw-powered killing bite, as adopted by present-day pantherine cats, followed by neck-powered biting and thereafter shifting to neck-powered shear-biting. We anticipate this new insight to be a starting point for detailed study of the evolution of pathways that encompass extreme specialisation, for example, understanding how neck-powered biting shifts into shear-biting and its significance for predator-prey interactions. We also expect that our model for point-to-point biting and bite depth estimations will yield new insights into the behaviours of a broad range of extinct predators including therocephalians (gorgonopsian + cynodont, sabretoothed mammal-like reptiles), sauropterygians (marine reptiles) and theropod dinosaurs. PMID:22039403

  4. IgGA: a "cross-isotype" engineered human Fc antibody domain that displays both IgG-like and IgA-like effector functions.

    PubMed

    Kelton, William; Mehta, Nishant; Charab, Wissam; Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Chang-han; Kojima, Takaaki; Kang, Tae Hyun; Georgiou, George

    2014-12-18

    All clinically approved antibodies are of the IgG isotype and mediate the clearance of target cells via binding to Fc? receptors and complement (C1q). Even though IgA can elicit powerful cytotoxic action via Fc?RI receptor binding, IgA antibodies have not been amenable to therapeutic development. Here, we report the engineering of a "cross-isotype" antibody, IgGA, which combines the effector functions of both IgG and IgA. IgGA binds to Fc?RI with an affinity comparable to that of IgA, and to the activating Fc? receptors, Fc?RI and Fc?RIIa, with high affinity, and displays increased binding to C1q compared to IgG. Unlike trastuzumab-IgG, trastuzumab-IgGA potently activates both neutrophils and macrophages to kill Her2(+) cancer cells. Furthermore, IgGA mediates greater complement-dependent cytotoxicity than IgG1 or IgA antibodies. The multitude of IgGA effector functions could be important for therapeutic purposes and highlights the concept of engineering antibodies that combine effector functions from multiple antibody isotypes. PMID:25500223

  5. Regulation of antibody response by an IgG-anti-Ig autoantibody occurring during alloimmunization. I. A few IgG molecules inactivate one B cell.

    PubMed

    Terness, P; Opelz, G

    1992-07-01

    We have shown previously that alloimmunized rats develop a broadly reactive IgG-antiimmunoglobulin autoantibody in addition to antidonor antibodies. The findings presented herein demonstrate that this "physiological" antibody suppresses antigen receptor-induced IgM production of B cells derived from rats of the same strain. When affinity-purified IgG-anti-Ig was added to cell cultures, the antibody production of B cells was maximally inhibited at the minute concentration of 0.9 pg/10(6) cells. Higher or lower IgG-anti-Ig concentrations resulted in weaker suppression. The same result was obtained when spleen lymphocytes were used instead of purified B cells. Based on the molecular weight of IgG and Avogadro's number, our results indicate that a few molecules of IgG-anti-Ig are sufficient to inhibit the antibody production of a single B cell. Activity at this minuscule concentration demonstrates that IgG-anti-Ig antibodies are exquisitely active immunoregulatory molecules. In addition to the stimulatory effect of IgM-anti-Ig rheumatoid factors reported by others, our findings define the second component of an immunoregulatory mechanism: suppression of the B cell response by an IgG-anti-Ig autoantibody produced during alloimmunization. PMID:1631951

  6. IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dujuan; Kan, Yunzhen; Fu, Fangfang; Wang, Shuhuan; Shi, Ligang; Liu, Jie; Kong, Lingfei

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory disease involving multiple organs. Prostate involvement with IgG4-RD is very rare. In this report, we describe a case of IgG4-related prostatitis progressed from localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This patient was present with urine retention symptoms. MRI and CT examination revealed the prostatic enlargement and the multiple lymphadenopathy. Serum IgG4 levels were elevated. Prostatic tissue samples resected both this time and less than 1 year earlier showed the same histological type of prostatitis with histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings characteristic of IgG4-RD. The right submandibular lymph nodes excised 2 years earlier were eventually proven to be follicular hyperplasia-type IgG4-related lymphadenopathy. This is the first case of IgG4-RD that began as localized IgG4-related lymphadenopathy and progressed into a systemic disease involving prostate and multiple lymph nodes. This patient showed a good response to steroid therapy. This leads us to advocate a novel pathogenesis of prostatitis, and a novel therapeutic approach against prostatitis. Pathologists and urologists should consider this disease entity in the patients with elevated serum IgG4 levels and the symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia to avoid ineffective medical or unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:26617921

  7. Omalizumab may decrease IgE synthesis by targeting membrane IgE+ human B cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Omalizumab, is a humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody used to treat allergic asthma. Decreased serum IgE levels, lower eosinophil and B cell counts have been noted as a result of treatment. In vitro studies and animal models support the hypothesis that omalizumab inhibits IgE synthesis by B cells and causes elimination of IgE-expressing cells either by induction of apoptosis or induction of anergy or tolerance. Methods We examined the influence of omalizumab on human tonsillar B cell survival and on the genes involved in IgE synthesis. Tonsillar B cells were stimulated with IL-4 plus anti-CD40 antibody to induce class switch recombination to IgE production in the presence or absence of omalizumab. Cell viability was assessed and RNA extracted to examine specific genes involved in IgE synthesis. Conclusions We found that omalizumab reduced viable cell numbers but this was not through induction of apoptosis. IL-4R and germline C? mRNA levels were decreased as well as the number of membrane IgE+ cells in B cells treated with omalizumab. These data suggest that omalizumab may decrease IgE synthesis by human B cells by specifically targeting membrane IgE-bearing B cells and inducing a state of anergy. PMID:24004581

  8. Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator - multiple prey community.

    PubMed

    Falk, Jay J; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Jones, Patricia L; Dixon, Marjorie M; Faure, Paul A; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Page, Rachel A

    2015-06-01

    Many predators and parasites eavesdrop on the communication signals of their prey. Eavesdropping is typically studied as dyadic predator-prey species interactions; yet in nature, most predators target multiple prey species and most prey must evade multiple predator species. The impact of predator communities on prey signal evolution is not well understood. Predators could converge in their preferences for conspicuous signal properties, generating competition among predators and natural selection on particular prey signal features. Alternatively, predator species could vary in their preferences for prey signal properties, resulting in sensory-based niche partitioning of prey resources. In the Neotropics, many substrate-gleaning bats use the mate-attraction songs of male katydids to locate them as prey. We studied mechanisms of niche partitioning in four substrate-gleaning bat species and found they are similar in morphology, echolocation signal design and prey-handling ability, but each species preferred different acoustic features of male song in 12 sympatric katydid species. This divergence in predator preference probably contributes to the coexistence of many substrate-gleaning bat species in the Neotropics, and the substantial diversity in the mate-attraction signals of katydids. Our results provide insight into how multiple eavesdropping predator species might influence prey signal evolution through sensory-based niche partitioning. PMID:25994677

  9. Prey Preferences of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional Diet Specificity Holds Global Significance for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P.; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W.; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36–76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation. PMID:24533080

  10. Predicting predation through prey ontogeny using size-dependent functional response models.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael W; Bolker, Benjamin M; Warkentin, Karen M; Vonesh, James R

    2011-06-01

    The functional response is a critical link between consumer and resource dynamics, describing how a consumer's feeding rate varies with prey density. Functional response models often assume homogenous prey size and size-independent feeding rates. However, variation in prey size due to ontogeny and competition is ubiquitous, and predation rates are often size dependent. Thus, functional responses that ignore prey size may not effectively predict predation rates through ontogeny or in heterogeneous populations. Here, we use short-term response-surface experiments and statistical modeling to develop and test prey size-dependent functional responses for water bugs and dragonfly larvae feeding on red-eyed treefrog tadpoles. We then extend these models through simulations to predict mortality through time for growing prey. Both conventional and size-dependent functional response models predicted average overall mortality in short-term mixed-cohort experiments, but only the size-dependent models accurately captured how mortality was spread across sizes. As a result, simulations that extrapolated these results through prey ontogeny showed that differences in size-specific mortality are compounded as prey grow, causing predictions from conventional and size-dependent functional response models to diverge dramatically through time. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating prey size when modeling consumer-prey dynamics in size-structured, growing prey populations. PMID:21597252

  11. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    PubMed

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation. PMID:24533080

  12. IgA-binding factor suppresses synthesis of IgA in MOPC-315 plasmacytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, C.; Moore, J.S.; Muller, S.; Aaronsen, D.; Madianos, E.; Hoover, R.G.

    1986-03-05

    T cells with Fc receptors for IgA (T/sup ..cap alpha../ cells) and their products, IgA-binding factors (IgABF), have been implicated in the regulation of IgA expression by B cells. They have previously shown that an IgABF produced by IgA induced normal T cells or constitutively by the Fc/sup ..cap alpha../ R+ T cell lymphoma, BALENTL 8, is capable of suppressing the proliferation and the amount of secreted IgA by MOPC-315 cells. In the present studies, they demonstrate that: (a) suppression of proliferation and secretion requires surface membrane IgA on the target cell, (b) suppression exhibits rapid kinetics with maximal effect occurring by 3-4 hours, (c) suppression is reversible, and (d) suppression of secretion involves selective suppression of IgA synthesis as measured by /sup 3/H-leucine incorporation into immunoprecipitable IgA(non-IgA protein is unaffected). These findings indicate that IgA-isotype-specific effector molecules interact directly with their B cell targets through surface membrane immunoglobulin and cause a down regulation of immunoglobulin synthesis by the target. Current studies are underway to address whether this selective suppression of IgA is mediated at the transcriptional, translational or post-translational level. The use of MOPC-315 tumor cells as targets of T cell produced, isotype-specific, effector molecules should provide a unique model for the further analysis of isotype regulation at the molecular level.

  13. The predatory response of a stalking spider, Plexippus paykulli, to camouflage and prey type

    PubMed

    Bear; Hasson

    1997-10-01

    When approaching prey, a stalking predator should consider trade-offs between the probabilities of early detection (by the prey, before the strike), spontaneous departure (of prey, before the strike), prey escape (following the strike) and interference (by rivals or predators). In this study we tested the response of a jumping spider, Plexippus paykullito a background with two different camouflaging properties, and two different prey types (maggots versus adult house flies). Spiders jumped towards adult house flies from greater distances on a non-camouflaging background, but background colour had no effect on jumping distance when the prey were maggots. Spiders stalking both prey types approached more slowly when camouflaged. Our experiments suggest that jumping spiders may be responding to changes in the trade-off relationships between the probabilities of early detection, spontaneous departure, escape and interference.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344451

  14. Morphology of seahorse head hydrodynamically aids in capture of evasive prey.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Brad J; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Syngnathid fish (seahorses, pipefish and sea dragons) are slow swimmers yet capture evasive prey (copepods) using a technique known as the 'pivot' feeding, which involves rapid movement to overcome prey escape capabilities. However, this feeding mode functions only at short range and requires approaching very closely to hydrodynamically sensitive prey without triggering an escape. Here we investigate the role of head morphology on prey capture using holographic and particle image velocimetry (PIV). We show that head morphology functions to create a reduced fluid deformation zone, minimizing hydrodynamic disturbance where feeding strikes occur (above the end of the snout), and permits syngnathid fish to approach highly sensitive copepod prey (Acartia tonsa) undetected. The results explain how these animals can successfully employ short range 'pivot' feeding effectively on evasive prey. The need to approach prey with stealth may have selected for a head shape that produces lower deformation rates than other fish. PMID:24281430

  15. Pros and cons of VP1-specific maternal IgG for the protection of Enterovirus 71 infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-In; Song, Jae-Hyoung; Kwon, Bo-Eun; Kim, Ha-Neul; Seo, Min-Duk; Park, KwiSung; Lee, SangWon; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Kweon, Mi-Na; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Sun-Young

    2015-11-27

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes hand, foot, and mouth diseases and can result in severe neurological disorders when it infects the central nervous system. Thus, there is a need for the development of effective vaccines against EV71 infection. Here we report that viral capsid protein 1 (VP1), one of the main capsid proteins of EV71, efficiently elicited VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the serum of mice immunized with recombinant VP1. The VP1-specific IgG produced in female mice was efficiently transferred to their offspring, conferring protection against EV71 infection immediately after birth. VP1-specific antibody can neutralize EV71 infection and protect host cells. VP1-specific maternal IgG in offspring was maintained for over 6 months. However, the pre-existence of VP1-specific maternal IgG interfered with the production of VP1-specific IgG antibody secreting cells by active immunization in offspring. Therefore, although our results showed the potential for VP1-specific maternal IgG protection against EV71 in neonatal mice, other strategies must be developed to overcome the hindrance of maternal IgG in active immunization. In this study, we developed an effective and feasible animal model to evaluate the protective efficacy of humoral immunity against EV71 infection using a maternal immunity concept. PMID:26529069

  16. Egg fatty acid composition from lake trout fed two Lake Michigan prey fish species.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Tillitt, D.E.; Brown, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that there were significant differences in the egg thiamine content in lake trout Salvelinus namaycush fed two Lake Michigan prey fish (alewife Alosa pseudoharengus and bloater Coregonus hoyi). Lake trout fed alewives produced eggs low in thiamine, but it was unknown whether the consumption of alewives affected other nutritionally important components. In this study we investigated the fatty acid composition of lake trout eggs when females were fed diets that resulted in different egg thiamine concentrations. For 2 years, adult lake trout were fed diets consisting of four combinations of captured alewives and bloaters (100% alewives; 65% alewives, 35% bloaters; 35% alewives, 65% bloaters; and 100% bloaters). The alewife fatty acid profile had higher concentrations of arachidonic acid and total omega-6 fatty acids than the bloater profile. The concentrations of four fatty acids (cis-13, 16-docosadienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) were higher in bloaters than in alewives. Although six fatty acid components were higher in lake trout eggs in 2001 than in 2000 and eight fatty acids were lower, diet had no effect on any fatty acid concentration measured in lake trout eggs in this study. Based on these results, it appears that egg fatty acid concentrations differ between years but that the egg fatty acid profile does not reflect the alewife-bloater mix in the diet of adults. The essential fatty acid content of lake trout eggs from females fed alewives and bloaters appears to be physiologically regulated and adequate to meet the requirements of developing embryos.

  17. Functional Response, Prey Stage Preference, and Mutual Interference of the Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on Tomato and Bell Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Campos-Figueroa, Manuel; Silva, Adrian; Henne, Donald C

    2015-04-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Å¡ulc), has been detrimental to potato, tomato, and other solanaceous crop production in many countries. Management of B. cockerelli is dominated by frequent insecticide applications, but other approaches need consideration, including biological control. The sole arrhenotokous ectoparasitoid of nymphal potato psyllids is Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). Here, laboratory evaluations of host stage preference, parasitoid mutual interference, and functional response of T. triozae were conducted with varying host B. cockerelli nymphal stages and densities on both tomato and bell pepper plant leaves. Significant differences in prey stage preferences were found on both host plants. In a no-choice host stage test, significantly greater parasitism of fourth- and fifth-instar B. cockerelli nymphs occurred, and no parasitism of first or second instars was found. Similar preferences were found in a host stage choice test. Effect of mutual interference on per capita female parasitism was significant when confining two or three simultaneously ovipositing female T. triozae adults on a given host density versus solitary females. The per capita search efficiency (s) of female T. triozae was significantly and negatively correlated with T. triozae density. The functional response of T. triozae to nymphal B. cockerelli was a Type III form on both host plants. In addition, host plant type did not exert a significant bottom-up effect on either parasitism or functional response of female T. triozae. The feasibility of using bell pepper as a potential banker plant for T. triozae augmentation is also discussed. PMID:26470152

  18. Predator and prey space use: dragonflies and tadpoles in an interactive game.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John I; Luttbeg, Barney; Sih, Andrew

    2007-06-01

    Predator and prey spatial distributions have important population and community level consequences. However, little is known either theoretically or empirically about behavioral mechanisms that underlie the spatial patterns that emerge when predators and prey freely interact. We examined the joint space use and behavioral rules governing movement of freely interacting groups of odonate (dragonfly) predators and two size classes of anuran (tadpole) prey in arenas containing two patches with different levels of the prey's resource. Predator and prey movement and space use was quantified both when they were apart and together. When apart from predators, large tadpoles strongly preferred the high resource patch. When apart from prey, dragonflies weakly preferred the high resource patch. When together, large prey shifted to a uniform distribution, while predators strongly preferred the high resource patch. These patterns qualitatively fit the predictions of several three trophic level, ideal free distribution models. In contrast, the space use of small prey and predators did not deviate from uniform. Three measures of joint space use (spatial correlations, overlap, and co-occurrence) concurred in suggesting that prey avoidance of predators was more important than predator attraction to prey in determining overall spatial patterns. To gain additional insight into behavioral mechanisms, we used a model selection approach to identify behavioral movement rules that can potentially explain the observed, emergent patterns of space use. Prey were more likely to leave patches with more predators and more conspecific competitors; resources had relatively weak effects on prey movements. In contrast, predators were more likely to leave patches with low resources (that they do not consume) and more competing predators; prey had relatively little effect on predator movements. These results highlight the importance of investigating freely interacting predators and prey, the potential for simple game theory models to predict joint spatial distributions, and the utility of using model choice methods to identify potential key factors that govern movement. PMID:17601144

  19. Restricting Prey Dispersal Can Overestimate the Importance of Predation in Trophic Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Geraldi, Nathan R.; Macreadie, Peter I.

    2013-01-01

    Predators can affect prey populations and, via trophic cascades, predators can indirectly impact resource populations (2 trophic levels below the predator) through consumption of prey (density-mediated indirect effects; DMIEs) and by inducing predator-avoidance behavior in prey (trait-mediated indirect effects; TMIEs). Prey often employ multiple predator-avoidance behaviors, such as dispersal or reduced foraging activity, but estimates of TMIEs are usually on individual behaviors. We assessed direct and indirect predator effects in a mesocosm experiment using a marine food chain consisting of a predator (toadfish – Opsanus tau), prey (mud crab - Panopeus herbstii) and resource (ribbed mussel – Geukensia demissa). We measured dispersal and foraging activity of prey separately by manipulating both the presence and absence of the predator, and whether prey could or could not disperse into a predator-free area. Consumption of prey was 9 times greater when prey could not disperse, probably because mesocosm boundaries increased predator capture success. Although predator presence did not significantly affect the number of crabs that emigrated, the presence of a predator decreased resource consumption by prey, which resulted in fewer resources consumed for each prey that emigrated in the presence of a predator, and reduced the overall TMIE. When prey were unable to disperse, TMIEs on mussel survival were 3 times higher than the DMIEs. When prey were allowed to disperse, the TMIEs on resource survival increased to 11-times the DMIEs. We found that restricting the ability of prey to disperse, or focusing on only one predator-avoidance behavior, may be underestimating TMIEs. Our results indicate that the relative contribution of behavior and consumption in food chain dynamics will depend on which predator-avoidance behaviors are allowed to occur and measured. PMID:23408957

  20. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Alan F; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C; Mikulski, Rose L; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G; Ling, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  1. Generation and Characterization of Antibodies against Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) IgG, IgM, and IgA

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Alan F.; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Benton, Susan M.; Qin, Xiang; Worley, Kim C.; Mikulski, Rose L.; Chow, Dar-Chone; Palzkill, Timothy G.; Ling, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV), which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV. PMID:25658336

  2. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and human disease.

    PubMed

    Oxelius, V A

    1984-03-30

    The isotypes of IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 were determined in immunoglobulin preparations and the effect on serum levels of treated patients. Serum IgG subclass deficiencies were recorded in different patient groups: (1) IgG2-IgG4 deficiency was associated with IgA deficiency. (2) IgG2-IgG4 deficiency was found in patients with ataxia telangiectasia. (3) Low IgG2 levels were recorded in patients with SLE; one of these patients with recurrent pericarditis was treated with immunoglobulin with good results. (4) Low IgG2 and/or low IgG3 levels were found in patients with juvenile diabetes mellitus. (5) Mothers giving birth to severely group B streptococci infected infants showed low levels of IgG subclasses indicating that the newborns were IgG subclass deficient at birth. (6) In a prospective study of children with recurrent otitis media aged 12 and 32 months the IgG2 levels were significantly reduced in the group with considerably high otitis proneness. In patients with IgG2-IgG4 deficiency, absence of antibodies to polysaccharide antigen teichoic acid and the protein antigen alpha-toxin of staphylococci was demonstrated. Imbalanced IgG subclass pattern with increased IgG4 was recorded in patients with different diseases such as atopic diseases and also in combination with increased IgE, Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and in patients with Trichuris trichiura infection. PMID:6369977

  3. Cyclic dynamics in a simple vertebrate predator-prey community.

    PubMed

    Gilg, Olivier; Hanski, Ilkka; Sittler, Benoît

    2003-10-31

    The collared lemming in the high-Arctic tundra in Greenland is preyed upon by four species of predators that show marked differences in the numbers of lemmings each consumes and in the dependence of their dynamics on lemming density. A predator prey model based on the field-estimated predator responses robustly predicts 4-year periodicity in lemming dynamics, in agreement with long-term empirical data. There is no indication in the field that food or space limits lemming population growth, nor is there need in the model to consider those factors. The cyclic dynamics are driven by a 1-year delay in the numerical response of the stoat and stabilized by strongly density-dependent predation by the arctic fox, the snowy owl, and the long-tailed skua. PMID:14593179

  4. Visual predators select for crypticity and polymorphism in virtual prey.

    PubMed

    Bond, Alan B; Kamil, Alan C

    2002-02-01

    Cryptically coloured animals commonly occur in several distinct pattern variants. Such phenotypic diversity may be promoted by frequency-dependent predation, in which more abundant variants are attacked disproportionately often, but the hypothesis has never been explicitly tested. Here we report the first controlled experiment on the effects of visual predators on prey crypticity and phenotypic variance, in which blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) searched for digital moths on computer monitors. Moth phenotypes evolved via a genetic algorithm in which individuals detected by the jays were much less likely to reproduce. Jays often failed to detect atypical cryptic moths, confirming frequency-dependent selection and suggesting the use of searching images, which enhance the detection of common prey. Over successive generations, the moths evolved to become significantly harder to detect, and they showed significantly greater phenotypic variance than non-selected or frequency-independent selected controls. PMID:11832937

  5. Predator fitness increases with selectivity for odd prey.

    PubMed

    Rutz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    The fundamental currency of normative models of animal decision making is Darwinian fitness. In foraging ecology, empirical studies typically assess foraging strategies by recording energy intake rates rather than realized reproductive performance. This study provides a rare empirical link, in a vertebrate predator-prey system, between a predator's foraging behavior and direct measures of its reproductive fitness. Goshawks Accipiter gentilis selectively kill rare color variants of their principal prey, the feral pigeon Columba livia, presumably because targeting odd-looking birds in large uniform flocks helps them overcome confusion effects and enhances attack success. Reproductive performance of individual hawks increases significantly with their selectivity for odd-colored pigeons, even after controlling for confounding age effects. Older hawks exhibit more pronounced dietary preferences, suggesting that hunting performance improves with experience. Intriguingly, although negative frequency-dependent predation by hawks exerts strong selection against rare pigeon phenotypes, pigeon color polymorphism is maintained through negative assortative mating. PMID:22503502

  6. Quasicycles in a spatial predator-prey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Carlos A.; McKane, Alan J.

    2008-11-01

    We use spatial models of simple predator-prey interactions to predict that predator and prey numbers oscillate in time and space. These oscillations are not seen in the deterministic versions of the models, but are due to stochastic fluctuations about the time-independent solutions of the deterministic equations which are amplified due to the existence of a resonance. We calculate the power spectra of the fluctuations analytically and show that they agree well with results obtained from stochastic simulations. This work extends the analysis of these quasicycles from that previously developed for well-mixed systems to spatial systems, and shows that the ideas and methods used for nonspatial models naturally generalize to the spatial case.

  7. Web-building spiders attract prey by storing decaying matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkman-Chiswell, Bojun T.; Kulinski, Melissa M.; Muscat, Robert L.; Nguyen, Kim A.; Norton, Briony A.; Symonds, Matthew R. E.; Westhorpe, Gina E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    The orb-weaving spider Nephila edulis incorporates into its web a band of decaying animal and plant matter. While earlier studies demonstrate that larger spiders utilise these debris bands as caches of food, the presence of plant matter suggests additional functions. When organic and plastic items were placed in the webs of N. edulis, some of the former but none of the latter were incorporated into the debris band. Using an Y-maze olfactometer, we show that sheep blowflies Lucilia cuprina are attracted to recently collected debris bands, but that this attraction does not persist over time. These data reveal an entirely novel foraging strategy, in which a sit-and-wait predator attracts insect prey by utilising the odours of decaying organic material. The spider's habit of replenishing the debris band may be necessary to maintain its efficacy for attracting prey.

  8. [Occurrence of parasites in indigenous birds of prey and owls].

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Göbel, T; Schuster, R

    2002-01-01

    In the present paper a general overview on parasites in birds of prey and owls is given. This part is followed by a study investigating the prevalences and species of parasites in free-ranging birds of prey and owls in Berlin and Brandenburg State, Germany. Over a one year period, 84 birds of prey and owls of the following species were examined for the presence of endo- and ectoparasites: Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo) (n = 32), Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) (n = 20), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) (n = 9), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) (n = 8), Black Kite (Milvus migrans) (n = 4), Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) (n = 3), Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus) (n = 1), White-tailed-Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) (n = 1), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco) (n = 4), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) (n = 1) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba) (n = 1). In 97.6% of the cases, ectoparasites (feather mites and hippoboscid flies) were found. Especially eyasses (93.3%) were positive for hippoboscid flies. Trichomonas was detected in 28.6% of all birds of prey and owls examined. A prevalence of 100% was established in the Sparrow Hawks as well as Peregrine Falcons. Leucozytozoon sp. and Hemoproteus sp. as blood parasites were found in 26.9% of the birds in total. Common Buzzards showed the highest prevalence (44.8%). 58.3% of birds examined were positive for endoparasites. Flukes were found in 16.7%, tapeworms in 14.3%, round-worms in 48.8% and acanthocephales in 2.4% of the cases. Interestingly, Tylodelphis clavata (in a Common Buzzard) and Hovorkonema variegatum (in a Goshawk) were found for the first time in raptors. The results of this study underline the importance of a parasitological examination in the process of raptor rehabilitation. PMID:11852683

  9. Modelling encounter rates and distribution of mobile predators and prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huse, Geir; Fiksen, Øyvind

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystem models often contain modules for two phytoplankton compartments (flagellates and diatoms) and two zooplankton groups (micro- and mesozooplankton). The models rarely include fish, not even as an agent in zooplankton mortality, which is often formulated as a constant rate. This mortality rate is treated as a free parameter, which can be used to tune or stabilize the model. There are major gaps in our knowledge and modelling capabilities of interactions at the higher trophic levels for example with regards to movement of fish at different scales, prey selection, and zooplankton responses to predators. Here, we argue that there are good reasons for making zooplankton mortality dependent on some key environmental variables known to affect the interaction strength between zooplankton and fish. In addition, since fish are highly mobile organisms, often moving in large groups, there is a need to better understand and model their horizontal migration and to include this in ecosystem models. We present basic models for light-dependent encounters between fish and their zooplankton prey and illustrate how predator-prey interactions can be modelled for herring- Calanus and cod-capelin interactions using individual-based models with super-individuals. In the latter two cases individual displacement is determined by movement behaviour and ocean circulation, and growth and mortality become emergent properties resulting from local encounters between predators and prey. Similarly movement behaviours emerge from simple adaptive rules or more complex models where behavioural strategies are evolved using a genetic algorithm. Such models are versatile and we argue that emergent mortality and growth rates resulting from adaptive behaviours and key environmental forcing are essential for realistic representation of fish-zooplankton interactions.

  10. Predator-Prey Model for Haloes in Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.; Colwell, J. E.; Madhusudhanan, P.; Sremcevic, M.

    2013-09-01

    ISS, VIMS, UVIS spectroscopy and occultations show haloes around the strongest density waves. Based on a predator-prey model for ring dynamics, we offer the following explanation: •Cyclic velocity changes cause the perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; •This forms a bright halo around the ILR, if the forcing is strong enough; •Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect; they diffuse away to form the halo.

  11. Avian pox in birds of prey (order Falconiformes) in Bahrain.

    PubMed

    Samour, J H; Cooper, J E

    1993-04-01

    Avian pox is an important disease in birds of prey in Bahrain. A live pigeon pox vaccine was administered to hunting falcons (Falco species) together with other therapeutic methods to arrest the development of primary stage pox lesions and for the treatment of well established secondary stage pox lesions. Quarantine and general hygiene procedures were also used as an integral part of the management and control of the disease. PMID:8387711

  12. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Chu, H P; Trow, E W; Greenwood, A G; Jennings, A R; Keymer, I F

    1976-01-01

    In the 4 year period 1971-74 11 isolations of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) were made from 44 birds of prey that died in captivity. Three species of Falconiformes were involved, including one red-headed falcon (Falco chicquera), 5 European kestrels (F. tinnunculus), and 2 secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius), also 2 species of Strigiformes, comprising 2 barn owls (Tyto alba) and one little owl (Athene noctua). All NDV isolates were of the velogenic type. PMID:18777349

  13. Cascade of Complexity in Evolving Predator-Prey Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

    2008-02-01

    We simulate an individual-based model that represents both the phenotype and genome of digital organisms with predator-prey interactions. We show how open-ended growth of complexity arises from the invariance of genetic evolution operators with respect to changes in the complexity, and that the dynamics which emerges shows scaling indicative of a nonequilibrium critical point. The mechanism is analogous to the development of the cascade in fluid turbulence.

  14. How Should Prey Animals Respond to Uncertain Threats?

    PubMed Central

    Zylberberg, Joel; DeWeese, Michael Robert

    2011-01-01

    A prey animal surveying its environment must decide whether there is a dangerous predator present or not. If there is, it may flee. Flight has an associated cost, so the animal should not flee if there is no danger. However, the prey animal cannot know the state of its environment with certainty, and is thus bound to make some errors. We formulate a probabilistic automaton model of a prey animal's life and use it to compute the optimal escape decision strategy, subject to the animal's uncertainty. The uncertainty is a major factor in determining the decision strategy: only in the presence of uncertainty do economic factors (like mating opportunities lost due to flight) influence the decision. We performed computer simulations and found that in silico populations of animals subject to predation evolve to display the strategies predicted by our model, confirming our choice of objective function for our analytic calculations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first theoretical study of escape decisions to incorporate the effects of uncertainty, and to demonstrate the correctness of the objective function used in the model. PMID:21559347

  15. Effects of mosquito larvicide on mallard ducklings and prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Lawler, S.P.; Dritz, D.; Spring, S.

    2002-01-01

    We determined the effects of a commonly used mosquito (Culicidae) larvicide (California Golden Bear Oil??, also GB-1111) on body mass and survival of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings and on target and nontarget invertebrates. Field studies conducted on natural ponds located in salt marshes in south San Francisco Bay indicated that GB-1111 had an initial impact on potential invertebrate prey of birds that dissipated rapidly 3 days post-spray. Over-spray, spray drift, or treatment of more extensive areas would likely delay recovery of nontarget prey. Ducklings held intermittently on the ponds over an 8-day period showed no significant effects of weight loss due to invertebrate prey depletion, although initial effects of exposure to GB-1111 were observed (i.e., matting of feathers and mild hypothermia). These results emphasize the importance of avoiding application of GB-1111 during cold temperatures and adherence to recommended use of this larvicide. Otherwise, GB-1111 had a short-term impact on wetland communities.

  16. Long-term nutrient enrichment decouples predator and prey production

    PubMed Central

    Davis, John M.; Rosemond, Amy D.; Eggert, Susan L.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Wallace, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Increased nutrient mobilization by human activities represents one of the greatest threats to global ecosystems, but its effects on ecosystem productivity can differ depending on food web structure. When this structure facilitates efficient energy transfers to higher trophic levels, evidence from previous large-scale enrichments suggests that nutrients can stimulate the production of multiple trophic levels. Here we report results from a 5-year continuous nutrient enrichment of a forested stream that increased primary consumer production, but not predator production. Because of strong positive correlations between predator and prey production (evidence of highly efficient trophic transfers) under reference conditions, we originally predicted that nutrient enrichment would stimulate energy flow to higher trophic levels. However, enrichment decoupled this strong positive correlation and produced a nonlinear relationship between predator and prey production. By increasing the dominance of large-bodied predator-resistant prey, nutrient enrichment truncated energy flow to predators and reduced food web efficiency. This unexpected decline in food web efficiency indicates that nutrient enrichment, a ubiquitous threat to aquatic ecosystems, may have unforeseen and unpredictable effects on ecosystem structure and productivity. PMID:20018677

  17. Electroreceptive Prey-Location Coding by the Juvenile Paddlefish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2003-03-01

    The long rostrum of the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula), a Mississippi river inhabitant, supports an extensive array of ampullary electroreceptors that are used to locate its favorite prey, water fleas, in dark and muddy water. Neuronal coding of such real-world events is often considered to be optimal in the sense of minimizing a mean-square reconstruction error or maximizing likelihood. Implementation of these theoretically motivated optimality criteria is, however, computationally very costly. For the juvenile paddlefish we exhibit [1] a computationally cheap and geometrically simple algorithm with the neuronal activity ?n of its electroreceptors 1<= n <= N as input and evaluating the turning direction \\varphi required to catch the prey through the so-called population-vector code \\varphi^estimate = arg [sumn ?n exp(i \\varphi_n)]. This explains experimentally found prey-detection statistics more convincingly than minimization of the mean-square reconstruction error. The only assumption concerns the neuronal time scale of the sensory organs. [1] C. Leibold, K.B. Reuter, L. Voigts, W. Wojtenek, and J.L. van Hemmen, manuscript in preparation.

  18. Antarctic jaws: cephalopod prey of sharks in Kerguelen waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherel, Yves; Duhamel, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Only five species of sharks have been recorded in the Southern Ocean, where their biology is essentially unknown. We investigated the feeding habits of the three commonest species from stomach content analysis of specimens taken as bycatches of the fishery targeting the Patagonian toothfish ( Dissostichus eleginoides) in upper slope waters of the Kerguelen Archipelago. The three species prey upon a diversity of fishes and cephalopods. They segregate by feeding on different species of squids of different sizes. The small lanternsharks ( Etmopterus cf. granulosus; 0.3 m on average) feed on small-sized Mastigoteuthis psychrophila, while the large porbeagles ( Lamna nasus; 1.9 m) feed on small-sized histioteuthids ( Histioteuthis atlantica and H. eltaninae) and on medium-sized juvenile ommastrephids of the genus Todarodes. Finally, the huge sleeper sharks ( Somniosus cf. microcephalus; 3.9 m) prey upon large-sized cephalopods ( Kondakovia longimana and Taningia danae) and giant squids ( Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni and Architeuthis dux). Thus sleeper shark is a fish with sperm whale-like feeding habits and, hence, the second top predator known to science to rely significantly on giant squids. Prey species and biology indicate that porbeagles are pelagic predators in the entire water column, while sleeper sharks are mainly benthic top predators and scavengers. The present study also underlines the diversity and biomass of the poorly known cephalopod fauna, including giant squids, occurring in outer shelf and upper slope waters surrounding subantarctic islands.

  19. Blue whale habitat and prey in the California Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Reilly, Stephen B.; Hewitt, Roger P.; Demer, David; Philbrick, Valerie A.; Smith, Susan; Armstrong, Wesley; Croll, Donald A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Mate, Bruce R.

    1998-08-01

    Whale Habitat and Prey Studies were conducted off southern California during August 1995 (WHAPS95) and July 1996 (WHAPS96) to (1) study the distribution and activities of blue whales and other large whales, (2) survey the distribution of prey organisms (krill), and (3) measure physical and biological habitat variables that influence the distribution of whales and prey. A total of 1307 cetacean sightings included 460 blue whale, 78 fin whale and 101 humpback whale sightings. Most blue whales were found in cold, well-mixed and productive water that had upwelled along the coast north of Point Conception and then advected south. They were aggregated in this water near San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, where they fed on dense, subsurface layers of euphausiids both on the shelf and extending off the shelf edge. Two species of euphausiids were consumed by blue whales, Thysanoessa spinifera and Euphausia pacifica, with evidence of preference for the former, a larger and more coastal species. These krill patches on the Channel Island feeding grounds are a resource exploited during summer-fall by the world's largest stock of blue whales.

  20. Predator nonconsumptive effects on prey recruitment weaken with recruit density.

    PubMed

    Ellrich, Julius A; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Molis, Markus

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the nonconsumptive effects (NCEs) of predatory dogwhelks (Nucella lapillus) on intertidal barnacle (Semibalanus balanoides) recruitment through field experiments on the Gulf of St. Lawrence coast and the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, Canada. We studied the recruitment seasons (May-June) of 2011 and 2013. In 2011, the Gulf coast had five times more nearshore phytoplankton (food for barnacle larvae and recruits) during the recruitment season and yielded a 58% higher barnacle recruit density than the Atlantic coast at the end of the recruitment season. In 2013, phytoplankton levels and barnacle recruit density were similar on both coasts and also lower than for the Gulf coast in 2011. Using the comparative-experimental method, the manipulation of dogwhelk presence (without allowing physical contact with prey) revealed that dogwhelk cues limited barnacle recruitment under moderate recruit densities (Atlantic 2011/2013 and Gulf 2013) but had no effect under a high recruit density (Gulf 2011). Barnacle recruits attract settling larvae through chemical cues. Thus, the highest recruit density appears to have neutralized dogwhelk effects. This study suggests that the predation risk perceived by settling larvae may decrease with increasing recruit density and that prey food supply may indirectly influence predator NCEs on prey recruitment. PMID:26236858

  1. IgE Immunotherapy Against Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leoh, Lai Sum

    2015-01-01

    The success of antibody therapy in cancer is consistent with the ability of these molecules to activate immune responses against tumors. Experience in clinical applications, antibody design, and advancement in technology have enabled antibodies to be engineered with enhanced efficacy against cancer cells. This allows re-evaluation of current antibody approaches dominated by antibodies of the IgG class with a new light. Antibodies of the IgE class play a central role in allergic reactions and have many properties that may be advantageous for cancer therapy. IgE-based active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to be effective in both in vitro and in vivo models of cancer, suggesting the potential use of these approaches in humans. Further studies on the anticancer efficacy and safety profile of these IgE-based approaches are warranted in preparation for translation toward clinical application. PMID:25553797

  2. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function

    PubMed Central

    Foot, G.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function. PMID:24740904

  3. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    PubMed

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function. PMID:24740904

  4. Independence Day for IgA.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Andrew J; McCoy, Kathy D

    2015-09-15

    IgA is induced through T-cell-dependent and -independent pathways. In this issue, Bunker et al. (2015) now show that the T-cell-independent pathway is sufficient to coat most small intestinal microbes specifically, and Fransen et al. (2015) find that IgA coating promotes uptake of microbes into Peyer's patches and drives further induction in a positive-feedback loop. PMID:26377894

  5. Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females

    PubMed Central

    Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field experiments support the hypothesis that sexual cannibalism is adaptive to females. PMID:18941517

  6. Prospective evaluation of an Australian pertussis toxin IgG and IgA enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    May, Meryta L; Doi, Suhail A; King, David; Evans, Jenny; Robson, Jennifer M

    2012-02-01

    Serological diagnosis of recent pertussis infection is an important part of both clinical assessment and epidemiological documentation of this disease. Standardization of serological testing and interpretation remains challenging despite international efforts to improve it. Currently, determining the anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG titer is recommended as the most accurate serological test in Europe and the United States, while Australia relies predominantly on measurement of Bordetella pertussis IgA antibody responses. Using B. pertussis PCR and the WHO clinical case definition as reference standards, the diagnostic utility of in-house anti-PT IgG and anti-PT IgA assays was evaluated prospectively in an Australian community-based cohort (n = 327). Patients provided up to four consecutive serum samples to document the kinetics of antibody response and decay. Previously validated cutoffs for positivity were converted to international units by using WHO-approved reference sera. At currently used cutoffs, both anti-PT IgG (>94 IU/ml) and anti-PT IgA (>20 IU/ml) assays had good specificity (80% [95% confidence interval {95% CI}, 68 to 88%] and 87% [95% CI, 77 to 94%]), but anti-PT IgG assay was consistently more sensitive than anti-PT IgA assay across a range of cutoffs (60 to 79% [95% CI, 53 to 84%] versus 41 to 62% [95% CI, 34 to 69%]). The combination of anti-PT IgG and anti-PT IgA assays performed no better than anti-PT IgG assay alone. The anti-PT IgA response in children under 12 years of age was poor. The accuracy of serology was optimal between 2 and 8 weeks after symptom onset. Cutoffs of >94 IU/ml for anti-PT IgG and >20 IU/ml for anti-PT IgA correlated well with recent pertussis infection and were consistent with recent recommendations from the EU Pertstrain group. Anti-PT IgG assay was superior to anti-PT IgA assay as the test of choice for the diagnosis of pertussis from a single sample. PMID:22131356

  7. Production of hybrid-IgG/IgA plantibodies with neutralizing activity against Shiga toxin 1.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Katsuhiro; Narimatsu, Sanshiro; Ichikawa, Shiori; Tobisawa, Yuki; Kurohane, Kohta; Niwa, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) is a virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, such as the O157:H7 strain. In the intestines, secretory IgA (SIgA) is a major component of the immune defense against pathogens and toxins. To form SIgA, the production of dimeric IgA that retains biological activity is an important step. We previously established hybrid-IgG/IgA having variable regions of the IgG specific for the binding subunit of Stx1 (Stx1B) and the heavy chain constant region of IgA. If hybrid-IgG/IgA cDNAs can be expressed in plants, therapeutic or preventive effects may be expected in people eating those plants containing a "plantibody". Here, we established transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing dimeric hybrid-IgG/IgA. The heavy and light chain genes were placed under the control of a bidirectional promoter and terminator of the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of Arabidopsis thaliana (expression cassette). This expression cassette and the J chain gene were subcloned into a single binary vector, which was then introduced into A. thaliana by means of the Agrobacterium method. Expression and assembly of the dimeric hybrid-IgG/IgA in plants were revealed by ELISA and immunoblotting. The hybrid-IgG/IgA bound to Stx1B and inhibited Stx1B binding to Gb3, as demonstrated by ELISA. When Stx1 holotoxin was pre-treated with the resulting plantibody, the cytotoxicity of Stx1 was inhibited. The toxin neutralization was also demonstrated by means of several assays including Stx1-induced phosphatidylserine translocation on the plasma membrane, caspase-3 activation and 180 base-pair DNA ladder formation due to inter-nucleosomal cleavage. These results indicate that edible plants containing hybrid-IgG/IgA against Stx1B have the potential to be used for immunotherapy against Stx1-caused food poisoning. PMID:24312238

  8. Computational Framework for Analysis of Prey–Prey Associations in Interaction Proteomics Identifies Novel Human Protein–Protein Interactions and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sudipto; Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Xu, Hua; Ewing, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale protein–protein interaction data sets have been generated for several species including yeast and human and have enabled the identification, quantification, and prediction of cellular molecular networks. Affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) is the preeminent methodology for large-scale analysis of protein complexes, performed by immunopurifying a specific “bait” protein and its associated “prey” proteins. The analysis and interpretation of AP-MS data sets is, however, not straightforward. In addition, although yeast AP-MS data sets are relatively comprehensive, current human AP-MS data sets only sparsely cover the human interactome. Here we develop a framework for analysis of AP-MS data sets that addresses the issues of noise, missing data, and sparsity of coverage in the context of a current, real world human AP-MS data set. Our goal is to extend and increase the density of the known human interactome by integrating bait–prey and cocomplexed preys (prey–prey associations) into networks. Our framework incorporates a score for each identified protein, as well as elements of signal processing to improve the confidence of identified protein–protein interactions. We identify many protein networks enriched in known biological processes and functions. In addition, we show that integrated bait–prey and prey–prey interactions can be used to refine network topology and extend known protein networks. PMID:22845868

  9. Seroepidemiology and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in undergraduate university female students in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Obaidat, M M; Al-Sheyab, N A; Bani Salman, A E; Lafi, S Q

    2015-07-01

    This study estimated the seroprevalence and risk factors for acquiring Toxoplasma gondii infection by undergraduate female university students in Jordan. A cross-sectional study from September 2013 to July 2014 analysed 202 blood samples for IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a semi-constructed questionnaire was completed by participants to gather information about Toxoplasma infection risk factors. T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 66.5% of the females. Only one sample was positive for both IgG and IgM. Using ?2 test, six factors showed significant association with T. gondii infection (P ? 0.01). The multivariate logistic regression model showed that female students living in houses, wet areas, with income >US $750/month and using spring (untreated) water were 47.42, 10.20, 5.00, 3.25 more times at risk to be seropositive for T. gondii, respectively, compared to female students living in apartments, dry areas, with income ? US $750/month and using treated water, respectively. This study concluded that T. gondii infection in female university students in Jordan is high and most women become infected before marriage; however, congenital toxoplasmosis is still likely to occur in Jordan. Thus, dissemination of protective measures and knowledge by healthcare professionals is essential especially for pregnant women. PMID:25543692

  10. IgE antibodies in toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Matowicka-Karna, Joanna; Kemona, Halina

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. At least a third of the world human population is infected with the parasite, making it one of the most successful parasitic infections. Primary maternal infection may cause health-threatening sequelae for the fetus, or even cause death of the uterus. Reactivation of a latent infection in immune deficiency conditions such as AIDS and organ transplantation can cause fatal toxoplasmic encephalitis. Toxoplasmosis is a major cause of chorioretinitis, especially in individuals with impaired immune systems. In the acute phase, directly after invading the body, T. gondii begins to multiply rapidly. In the majority of cases acquired toxoplasmosis is asymptomatic. In the second week of infection, specific IgM antibodies are present in the blood. IgE antibodies appear at the same time, slightly preceding specific IgA antibodies. The concentration of IgE can be one of the parameters used for diagnosing an infection with T. gondii. Laboratory diagnosis, i.e. IgE and serologic assays, plays the main role in the diagnosis of congenital infection and assists in the confirmatory diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis and ocular toxoplasmosis. This article is a review of IgE in toxoplasmosis. PMID:24864110

  11. Seroprevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors for toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs from sub-tropical arid parts of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, N; Ahmed, H; Irum, S; Qayyum, M

    2014-12-01

    Pet cats and dogs are an important source of human toxoplasmosis because of their intimate relationship with humans. Present study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cats and dogs in northern sub-tropical arid region of Pakistan where no such work has been previously conducted. For this study 420 cats and 408 dogs visiting different pet clinics and veterinary hospitals were screened for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA technique. Epidemiological information regarding age, sex, area, outdoor access and hunting practice was obtained from the owners by questionnaire interview. Overall seroprevalence in cats and dogs was 26.43% (111/420) and 28.43% (116/408) respectively. IgG antibodies were found in 23.33% (98) cats and 25.49% (104) dogs while IgM antibodies were found in 3.57% (15) cats and 3.92% (16) dogs. Seroprevalence was significantly high in cats and dogs older than one year. No significant difference was recorded between males and females. Cats and dogs from rural areas showed higher prevalence. Dogs which had access to outside also showed high seroprevalence. The present study indicates that Toxoplasma gondii is widespread in pet animals in Pakistan which may have important implication for public health. PMID:25776604

  12. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals' Visitation to Water.

    PubMed

    Harris, Grant; Sanderson, James G; Erz, Jon; Lehnen, Sarah E; Butler, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation) and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence) predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014) using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella) and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii) visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature) and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits) predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus) visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans) visitation. Puma (Puma concolor) visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx). Most ungulate visitation peaked during May and June. Coyote, elk and puma visitation was relatively consistent throughout the year. Within the diel-period, activity patterns for predators corresponded with prey. Year-round water management may favor species with consistent use throughout the year, and facilitate predation. Providing water only during periods of high use by target species may moderate unwanted biological costs. PMID:26560518

  13. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals’ Visitation to Water

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Grant; Sanderson, James G.; Erz, Jon; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Butler, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation) and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence) predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014) using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella) and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii) visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature) and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits) predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus) visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans) visitation. Puma (Puma concolor) visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx). Most ungulate visitation peaked during May and June. Coyote, elk and puma visitation was relatively consistent throughout the year. Within the diel-period, activity patterns for predators corresponded with prey. Year-round water management may favor species with consistent use throughout the year, and facilitate predation. Providing water only during periods of high use by target species may moderate unwanted biological costs. PMID:26560518

  14. Khishchnik i zhertva v zvezdno-kosmicheskoj i kalendarno-sezonnoj reprezentatsii %t Prey and predator in starry and calendar-seasonal representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikova, A. V.

    The paper deals with the semantics of hunting calendars from northern Eurasia and Siberia. It is shown that traditional economic and hunting activities were based on observations of seasonal changes in nature and animal life, as well as of the Sun's and Moon's yearly or monthly movement and several stars' positions. There is reason to assume that in the world view of the ancient populaton of Eurasia the winter season corresponding to the southern part of the Sun's yearly motion on the ecliptic was related to the images of beasts of prey (a bear, wolf, dog, fox, felines) and birds of prey (crow, eagle) with male personification, underworld symbolism, and mediatory functions. The summer period, associated with images of horned hoofed animals (deer, elk, cow, etc.) or with functionally similar characters (horse, aquatic birds - ducks, geese, swans; ermine, weasel, etc.) that have female personification, symbolises the upper part of the model of the Universe.

  15. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Grace J.; Hoskins, Andrew J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics. PMID:26674073

  16. Predator and prey activity levels jointly influence the outcome of long-term foraging bouts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Consistent interindividual differences in behavior (i.e., “behavioral types”) may be a key factor in determining the outcome of species interactions. Studies that simultaneously account for the behavioral types of individuals in multiple interacting species, such as predator–prey systems, may be particularly strong predictors of ecological outcomes. Here, we test the predator–prey locomotor crossover hypothesis, which predicts that active predators are more likely to encounter and consume prey with the opposing locomotor tendency. We test this hypothesis using intraspecific behavioral variation in both a predator and prey species as predictors of foraging outcomes. We use the old field jumping spider, Phidippus clarus (Araneae, Salticidae), and the house cricket, Acheta domesticus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae), as a model predator–prey system in laboratory mesocosm trials. Stable individual differences in locomotor tendencies were identified in both P. clarus and A. domesticus, and the outcome of foraging bouts depended neither on the average activity level of the predator nor on the average activity level of prey. Instead, an interaction between the activity level of spiders and crickets predicted spider foraging success and prey survivorship. Consistent with the locomotor crossover hypothesis, predators exhibiting higher activity levels consumed more prey when in an environment containing low-activity prey items and vice versa. This study highlights 1) the importance of intraspecific variation in determining the outcome of predator–prey interactions and 2) that acknowledging behavioral variation in only a single species may be insufficient to characterize the performance consequences of intraspecific trait variants. PMID:23935257

  17. Better the devil you know: avian predators find variation in prey toxicity aversive.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Craig A; Bateson, Melissa; Rowe, Candy

    2014-11-01

    Toxic prey that signal their defences to predators using conspicuous warning signals are called 'aposematic'. Predators learn about the toxic content of aposematic prey and reduce their attacks on them. However, through regulating their toxin intake, predators will include aposematic prey in their diets when the benefits of gaining the nutrients they contain outweigh the costs of ingesting the prey's toxins. Predators face a problem when managing their toxin intake: prey sharing the same warning signal often vary in their toxicities. Given that predators should avoid uncertainty when managing their toxin intake, we tested whether European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) preferred to eat fixed-defence prey (where all prey contained a 2% quinine solution) to mixed-defence prey (where half the prey contained a 4% quinine solution and the other half contained only water). Our results support the idea that predators should be more 'risk-averse' when foraging on variably defended prey and suggest that variation in toxicity levels could be a form of defence. PMID:25392317

  18. Interactive effects of predation risk and conspecific density on the nutrient stoichiometry of prey.

    PubMed

    Guariento, Rafael D; Carneiro, Luciana S; Jorge, Jaqueiuto S; Borges, Angélica N; Esteves, Francisco A; Caliman, Adriano

    2015-11-01

    The mere presence of predators (i.e., predation risk) can alter consumer physiology by restricting food intake and inducing stress, which can ultimately affect prey-mediated ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. However, many environmental factors, including conspecific density, can mediate the perception of risk by prey. Prey conspecific density has been defined as a fundamental feature that modulates perceived risk. In this study, we tested the effects of predation risk on prey nutrient stoichiometry (body and excretion). Using a constant predation risk, we also tested the effects of varying conspecific densities on prey responses to predation risk. To answer these questions, we conducted a mesocosm experiment using caged predators (Belostoma sp.), and small bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus) as prey. We found that L. catesbeianus tadpoles adjust their body nutrient stoichiometry in response to predation risk, which is affected by conspecific density. We also found that the prey exhibited strong morphological responses to predation risk (i.e., an increase in tail muscle mass), which were positively correlated to body nitrogen content. Thus, we pose the notion that in risky situations, adaptive phenotypic responses rather than behavioral ones might partially explain why prey might have a higher nitrogen content under predation risk. In addition, the interactive roles of conspecific density and predation risk, which might result in reduced perceived risk and physiological restrictions in prey, also affected how prey stoichiometry responded to the fear of predation. PMID:26640656

  19. Using predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of broadscale experiments to reduce apparent competition.

    PubMed

    Serrouya, Robert; Wittmann, Meike J; McLellan, Bruce N; Wittmer, Heiko U; Boutin, Stan

    2015-05-01

    Apparent competition is an important process influencing many ecological communities. We used predator-prey theory to predict outcomes of ecosystem experiments aimed at mitigating apparent competition by reducing primary prey. Simulations predicted declines in secondary prey following reductions in primary prey because predators consumed more secondary prey until predator numbers responded to reduced prey densities. Losses were exacerbated by a higher carrying capacity of primary prey and a longer lag time of the predator's numerical response, but a gradual reduction in primary prey was less detrimental to the secondary prey. We compared predictions against two field experiments where endangered woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) were victims of apparent competition. First, when deer (Odocoileus sp.) declined suddenly following a severe winter, cougar (Puma concolor) declined with a 1-2-year lag, yet in the interim more caribou were killed by cougars, and caribou populations declined by 40%. Second, when moose (Alces alces) were gradually reduced using a management experiment, wolf (Canis lupus) populations declined but did not shift consumption to caribou, and the largest caribou subpopulation stabilized. The observed contrasting outcomes of sudden versus gradual declines in primary prey supported theoretical predictions. Combining theory with field studies clarified how to manage communities to mitigate endangerment caused by apparent competition that affects many taxa. PMID:25905509

  20. Molecular identification of the prey range of the invasive Asian paper wasp

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Darren F; Ramón-Laca, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The prey range of the invasive Asian paper wasp, Polistes chinensis antennalis, was studied using molecular diagnostics. Nests of paper wasps were collected from urban residential and salt marsh habitats, larvae were removed and dissected, and DNA in the gut of the paper wasp larvae was amplified and sequenced with cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). Seventy percent of samples (211/299) yielded medium-to high-quality sequences, and prey identification was achieved using BLAST searches in BOLD. A total of 42 taxa were identified from 211 samples. Lepidoptera were the majority of prey, with 39 taxa from 91% of samples. Diptera was a relatively small component of prey (three taxa, 19 samples). Conclusive species-level identification of prey was possible for 67% of samples, and genus-level identification, for another 12% of samples. The composition of prey taken was different between the two habitats, with 2.5× more native prey species being taken in salt marsh compared with urban habitats. The results greatly extend the prey range of this invasive species. The technique is a more effective and efficient approach than relying on the collection of “prey balls”, or morphological identification of prey, for the study of paper wasps. PMID:24340182

  1. What you need is what you eat? Prey selection by the bat Myotis daubentonii.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Eero J; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Roslin, Tomas; Laine, Veronika N; Vasko, Ville; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E; Norrdahl, Kai; Lilley, Thomas M

    2016-04-01

    Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators are selective when faced with abundant prey, but become less picky when prey gets sparse. Insectivorous bats in temperate regions are faced with the challenge of building up fat reserves vital for hibernation during a period of decreasing arthropod abundances. According to optimal foraging theory, prehibernating bats should adopt a less selective feeding behaviour - yet empirical studies have revealed many apparently generalized species to be composed of specialist individuals. Targeting the diet of the bat Myotis daubentonii, we used a combination of molecular techniques to test for seasonal changes in prey selectivity and individual-level variation in prey preferences. DNA metabarcoding was used to characterize both the prey contents of bat droppings and the insect community available as prey. To test for dietary differences among M. daubentonii individuals, we used ten microsatellite loci to assign droppings to individual bats. The comparison between consumed and available prey revealed a preference for certain prey items regardless of availability. Nonbiting midges (Chironomidae) remained the most highly consumed prey at all times, despite a significant increase in the availability of black flies (Simuliidae) towards the end of the season. The bats sampled showed no evidence of individual specialization in dietary preferences. Overall, our approach offers little support for optimal foraging theory. Thus, it shows how novel combinations of genetic markers can be used to test general theory, targeting patterns at both the level of prey communities and individual predators. PMID:26841188

  2. When hawks attack: animal-borne video studies of goshawk pursuit and prey-evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Fulton, Andrew H; Rosenthal, Lee J

    2015-01-15

    Video filmed by a camera mounted on the head of a Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) was used to study how the raptor used visual guidance to pursue prey and land on perches. A combination of novel image analysis methods and numerical simulations of mathematical pursuit models was used to determine the goshawk's pursuit strategy. The goshawk flew to intercept targets by fixing the prey at a constant visual angle, using classical pursuit for stationary prey, lures or perches, and usually using constant absolute target direction (CATD) for moving prey. Visual fixation was better maintained along the horizontal than vertical direction. In some cases, we observed oscillations in the visual fix on the prey, suggesting that the goshawk used finite-feedback steering. Video filmed from the ground gave similar results. In most cases, it showed goshawks intercepting prey using a trajectory consistent with CATD, then turning rapidly to attack by classical pursuit; in a few cases, it showed them using curving non-CATD trajectories. Analysis of the prey's evasive tactics indicated that only sharp sideways turns caused the goshawk to lose visual fixation on the prey, supporting a sensory basis for the surprising frequency and effectiveness of this tactic found by previous studies. The dynamics of the prey's looming image also suggested that the goshawk used a tau-based interception strategy. We interpret these results in the context of a concise review of pursuit-evasion in biology, and conjecture that some prey deimatic 'startle' displays may exploit tau-based interception. PMID:25609783

  3. Elevated CO2 affects predator-prey interactions through altered performance.

    PubMed

    Allan, Bridie J M; Domenici, Paolo; McCormick, Mark I; Watson, Sue-Ann; Munday, Philip L

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) affects how fishes perceive their environment, affecting behavioral and cognitive processes leading to increased prey mortality. However, it is unclear if increased mortality results from changes in the dynamics of predator-prey interactions or due to prey increasing activity levels. Here we demonstrate that ocean pCO2 projected to occur by 2100 significantly effects the interactions of a predator-prey pair of common reef fish: the planktivorous damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis and the piscivorous dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 (880 µatm) or a present-day control (440 µatm) interacted with similarly exposed predators in a cross-factored design. Predators had the lowest capture success when exposed to elevated CO2 and interacting with prey exposed to present-day CO2. Prey exposed to elevated CO2 had reduced escape distances and longer reaction distances compared to prey exposed to present-day CO2 conditions, but this was dependent on whether the prey was paired with a CO2 exposed predator or not. This suggests that the dynamics of predator-prey interactions under future CO2 environments will depend on the extent to which the interacting species are affected and can adapt to the adverse effects of elevated CO2. PMID:23484032

  4. Benefits of Group Foraging Depend on Prey Type in a Small Marine Predator, the Little Penguin.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Grace J; Hoskins, Andrew J; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    Group foraging provides predators with advantages in over-powering prey larger than themselves or in aggregating small prey for efficient exploitation. For group-living predatory species, cooperative hunting strategies provide inclusive fitness benefits. However, for colonial-breeding predators, the benefit pay-offs of group foraging are less clear due to the potential for intra-specific competition. We used animal-borne cameras to determine the prey types, hunting strategies, and success of little penguins (Eudyptula minor), a small, colonial breeding air-breathing marine predator that has recently been shown to display extensive at-sea foraging associations with conspecifics. Regardless of prey type, little penguins had a higher probability of associating with conspecifics when hunting prey that were aggregated than when prey were solitary. In addition, success was greater when individuals hunted schooling rather than solitary prey. Surprisingly, however, success on schooling prey was similar or greater when individuals hunted on their own than when with conspecifics. These findings suggest individuals may be trading-off the energetic gains of solitary hunting for an increased probability of detecting prey within a spatially and temporally variable prey field by associating with conspecifics. PMID:26674073

  5. Better the devil you know: avian predators find variation in prey toxicity aversive

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Craig A.; Bateson, Melissa; Rowe, Candy

    2014-01-01

    Toxic prey that signal their defences to predators using conspicuous warning signals are called ‘aposematic’. Predators learn about the toxic content of aposematic prey and reduce their attacks on them. However, through regulating their toxin intake, predators will include aposematic prey in their diets when the benefits of gaining the nutrients they contain outweigh the costs of ingesting the prey's toxins. Predators face a problem when managing their toxin intake: prey sharing the same warning signal often vary in their toxicities. Given that predators should avoid uncertainty when managing their toxin intake, we tested whether European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) preferred to eat fixed-defence prey (where all prey contained a 2% quinine solution) to mixed-defence prey (where half the prey contained a 4% quinine solution and the other half contained only water). Our results support the idea that predators should be more ‘risk-averse’ when foraging on variably defended prey and suggest that variation in toxicity levels could be a form of defence. PMID:25392317

  6. Stochastic eco-evolutionary model of a prey-predator community.

    PubMed

    Costa, Manon; Hauzy, Céline; Loeuille, Nicolas; Méléard, Sylvie

    2016-02-01

    We are interested in the impact of natural selection in a prey-predator community. We introduce an individual-based model of the community that takes into account both prey and predator phenotypes. Our aim is to understand the phenotypic coevolution of prey and predators. The community evolves as a multi-type birth and death process with mutations. We first consider the infinite particle approximation of the process without mutation. In this limit, the process can be approximated by a system of differential equations. We prove the existence of a unique globally asymptotically stable equilibrium under specific conditions on the interaction among prey individuals. When mutations are rare, the community evolves on the mutational scale according to a Markovian jump process. This process describes the successive equilibria of the prey-predator community and extends the polymorphic evolutionary sequence to a coevolutionary framework. We then assume that mutations have a small impact on phenotypes and consider the evolution of monomorphic prey and predator populations. The limit of small mutation steps leads to a system of two differential equations which is a version of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics for the prey-predator coevolution. We illustrate these different limits with an example of prey-predator community that takes into account different prey defense mechanisms. We observe through simulations how these various prey strategies impact the community. PMID:26001744

  7. Incorporating prey refuge in a prey-predator model with a Holling type I functional response: random dynamics and population outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Gkana, Amalia; Zachilas, Loukas

    2013-09-01

    A prey-predator discrete-time model with a Holling type I functional response is investigated by incorporating a prey refuge. It is shown that a refuge does not always stabilize prey-predator interactions. A prey refuge in some cases produces even more chaotic, random-like dynamics than without a refuge and prey population outbreaks appear. Stability analysis was performed in order to investigate the local stability of fixed points as well as the several local bifurcations they undergo. Numerical simulations such as parametric basins of attraction, bifurcation diagrams, phase plots and largest Lyapunov exponent diagrams are executed in order to illustrate the complex dynamical behavior of the system. PMID:23996405

  8. Behavioural and developmental responses of predatory coral reef fish to variation in the abundance of prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beukers-Stewart, B. D.; Beukers-Stewart, J. S.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-09-01

    Ecological theory suggests that the behaviour, growth and abundance of predators will be strongly influenced by the abundance of prey. Predators may in turn play an important role in structuring prey populations and communities. Responses of predators to variation in prey abundance have most commonly been demonstrated in low-diversity communities where food webs are relatively simple. How predators respond in highly diverse assemblages such as in coral reef habitats is largely unknown. This study describes an experiment that examined how the movement, diet and growth of the coral reef piscivore, Cephalopholis boenak (Serranidae) responded to variation in the abundance of its prey. Predator densities were standardised on small patch reefs made from the lagoonal reef-building coral, Porites cylindrica. These patch reefs exhibited natural variation in the abundance and community structure of multiple species of prey. However, our experiment generated a relatively simple predator-prey relationship, with C. boenak primarily responding to the most abundant species of prey. Three responses of predators were observed: aggregative, functional and developmental. Thirty-one per cent of individuals moved between patch reefs during the experiment, all from areas of relatively low to high prey density. Feeding rates were higher on patch reefs of high prey density, while growth rates of fish that remained on low prey density reefs throughout the experiment were lower. Growth rates of C. boenak on the experimental reefs were also much higher than for those living on natural patch reefs over the same time period, corresponding with overall differences in prey abundance. These results suggest that local abundance, feeding rate and growth of C. boenak were closely linked to the abundance of their main prey. This combination of predatory responses is a potential mechanism behind recent observations of density-dependent mortality and population regulation of prey in coral reef fish communities.

  9. Use of computational fluid dynamics to study forces exerted on prey by aquatic suction feeders.

    PubMed

    Skorczewski, Tyler; Cheer, Angela; Cheung, Samson; Wainwright, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Suction feeding is the most commonly used mechanism of prey capture among aquatic vertebrates. Most previous models of the fluid flow caused by suction feeders involve making several untested assumptions. In this paper, a Chimera overset grids approach is used to solve the governing equations of fluid dynamics in order to investigate the assumptions that prey do not interact with the flow and that the flow can be modelled as a one-dimensional flow. Results show that, for small prey, both neglecting the prey and considering prey interaction give similar calculated forces exerted on the prey. However, as the prey item increases in size toward the size of the gape, its effect on the flow becomes more pronounced. This in turn affects both the magnitude of the hydrodynamic forces imparted to the prey and the time when maximum force is delivered. Maximum force is delivered most quickly to intermediate sized prey, about one-third of mouth diameter, and most slowly to prey less than 7 per cent or greater than 67 per cent of mouth diameter. This suggests that the effect of prey size on the timing of suction forces may have substantial consequences for the feeding ecology of suction feeders that are known to prefer prey between 25 and 50 per cent of mouth diameter. Moreover, for a 15 cm fish with a 15 mm gape, assuming a radial one-dimensional flow field can result in underestimating the maximum force exerted on a 5 mm diameter spherical prey 1 gape distance from the mouth by up to 28.7 per cent. PMID:19674998

  10. A density dependent delayed predator-prey model with Beddington-DeAngelis type function response incorporating a prey refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Abbas, Syed; Thakur, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a predator-prey model incorporating a prey refuge. The feeding rate of consumers (predators) per consumer (i.e. functional response) is considered to be of Beddington-DeAngelis type. The Beddington-DeAngelis functional response is similar to the Holling-type II functional response but contains an extra term describing mutual interference by predators. We investigate the role of prey refuge and degree of mutual interference among predators in the dynamics of system. The dynamics of the system is discussed mainly from the point of view of permanence and stability. We obtain conditions that affect the persistence of the system. Local and global asymptotic stability of various equilibrium solutions is explored to understand the dynamics of the model system. The global asymptotic stability of positive interior equilibrium solution is established using suitable Lyapunov functional. The dynamical behaviour of the delayed system is further analyzed through incorporating discrete type gestation delay of predator. It is found that Hopf bifurcation occurs when the delay parameter ? crosses some critical value. The analytical results found in the paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms in TNFSF13 and FDX1 are associated with IgA nephropathy in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dan; Gao, Ya; Xie, Liyi; Sun, Jiping; Lu, Wanhong; Jin, Gang; Hao, Yaning; Zhang, Yali; Yin, Aiping; Geng, Yingzhou; Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Cuiping; Li, Shengbin

    2015-11-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, and its pathogenesis is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, we evaluated 23 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in 21 IgAN-associated genes, in 200 subjects with IgAN and 310 healthy gender- and age-matched unrelated control subjects with no history of renal disease or hypertension. Using the co-dominant model, we found that two genotypes of rs3803800 in TNFSF13 were associated with an increased risk of IgAN: "GA" (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 0.71-1.51, p = 0.018) and "AA" (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.29-4.65, p = 0.018). The "AA" genotype was also associated with an increased risk of IgAN in the recessive model (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.30-4.46, p = 0.018), as was the genotype "AA" rs10488764 in FDX1 (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.01-3.53, p = 0.048). Interestingly, we found that the allele "A" of rs3803800 in TNFSF13 is associated with a decreased risk of IgAN in females (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.20-0.95, p = 0.009), but with an increased risk in males (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 0.86-3.66, p = 0.009). Our findings, combined with previously reported results, suggest that TNFSF13 and FDX1 have potential roles in IgAN in the Han Chinese population. This information may be useful in the development of early prognostics for IgAN. PMID:26431901

  12. Lambert-Eaton syndrome IgG inhibits transmitter release via P/Q Ca2+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Jennifer; Ermolyuk, Yaroslav; Cano-Jaimez, Marife; Lang, Bethan; Vincent, Angela; Volynski, Kirill E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether immunoglobulin G (IgG) from patients with Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) decreases action potential–evoked synaptic vesicle exocytosis, and whether the effect is mediated by P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Methods: IgG was obtained from 4 patients with LEMS (3 males, 1 female), including 2 patients with lung malignancy. Antibodies against P/Q-type VGCCs were detected in all 4 patients, and against N-type VGCCs in 2. We incubated neuronal cultures with LEMS IgG and determined the size of the total recycling pool of synaptic vesicles and the rate of action potential–evoked exocytosis using fluorescence imaging of the amphiphilic dye SynaptoRed C1. Pooled IgG from healthy volunteers was used as a control. We repeated the experiments on synapses lacking P/Q-type calcium channels from a Cacna1a knockout mouse to determine whether these channels account for the pathogenic effect of LEMS IgG. Results: LEMS IgG had no effect on the total recycling pool size but significantly reduced the rate of action potential–evoked synaptic exocytosis in wild-type neurons when compared with neurons treated with control IgG. In contrast, LEMS IgG had no effect on the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis in neurons lacking P/Q-type channels. Conclusions: These data provide direct evidence that LEMS IgG inhibits neurotransmitter release by acting on P/Q-type VGCCs. PMID:25589670

  13. Functional Responses and Prey-Stage Preferences of a Predatory Gall Midge and Two Predacious Mites with Twospotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae, as Host

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S.; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions. PMID:23879370

  14. Functional responses and prey-stage preferences of a predatory gall midge and two predacious mites with twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, as host.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions. PMID:23879370

  15. High prevalence of NMDA receptor IgA/IgM antibodies in different dementia types

    PubMed Central

    Doss, Sarah; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Hyman, Bradley T; Panzer, Jessica A; Synofzik, Matthis; Dickerson, Bradford; Mollenhauer, Brit; Scherzer, Clemens R; Ivinson, Adrian J; Finke, Carsten; Schöls, Ludger; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Jahn, Holger; Höltje, Markus; Biswal, Bharat B; Harms, Lutz; Ruprecht, Klemens; Buchert, Ralph; Höglinger, Günther U; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Unger, Marcus M; Körtvélyessy, Peter; Bittner, Daniel; Priller, Josef; Spruth, Eike J; Paul, Friedemann; Meisel, Andreas; Lynch, David R; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Endres, Matthias; Teegen, Bianca; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried; Dalmau, Josep; Prüss, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively determine the frequency of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) autoantibodies in patients with different forms of dementia. Methods Clinical characterization of 660 patients with dementia, neurodegenerative disease without dementia, other neurological disorders and age-matched healthy controls combined with retrospective analysis of serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the presence of NMDAR antibodies. Antibody binding to receptor mutants and the effect of immunotherapy were determined in a subgroup of patients. Results Serum NMDAR antibodies of IgM, IgA, or IgG subtypes were detected in 16.1% of 286 dementia patients (9.5% IgM, 4.9% IgA, and 1.7% IgG) and in 2.8% of 217 cognitively healthy controls (1.9% IgM and 0.9% IgA). Antibodies were rarely found in CSF. The highest prevalence of serum antibodies was detected in patients with “unclassified dementia” followed by progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, Parkinson’s disease-related dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. Among the unclassified dementia group, 60% of 20 patients had NMDAR antibodies, accompanied by higher frequency of CSF abnormalities, and subacute or fluctuating disease progression. Immunotherapy in selected prospective cases resulted in clinical stabilization, loss of antibodies, and improvement of functional imaging parameters. Epitope mapping showed varied determinants in patients with NMDAR IgA-associated cognitive decline. Interpretation Serum IgA/IgM NMDAR antibodies occur in a significant number of patients with dementia. Whether these antibodies result from or contribute to the neurodegenerative disorder remains unknown, but our findings reveal a subgroup of patients with high antibody levels who can potentially benefit from immunotherapy. PMID:25493273

  16. High intestinal IgA associates with reduced risk of IgE-associated allergic diseases.

    PubMed

    Kukkonen, Kaarina; Kuitunen, Mikael; Haahtela, Tari; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Savilahti, Erkki

    2010-02-01

    Development of oral tolerance and its stimulation by probiotics are still incomprehensible. Microbial stimulation of the gut may induce a subtle inflammation and induce secretion of mucosal IgA, which participates in antigen elimination. In a cohort of allergy-prone infants receiving probiotics and prebiotics or placebo we studied intestinal IgA and inflammation in the development of eczema, food allergy, asthma, and rhinitis (allergic diseases). We performed a nested unmatched case-control study of 237 infants participating in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled allergy-prevention trial using a combination of four probiotic strains pre-natally and during 6 months form birth. We measured faecal IgA, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and calprotectin at the age of 3 and 6 months. By age 2 yr, 124 infants had developed allergic disease or IgE-sensitization (cases) and 113 had not (controls). In infants with high faecal IgA concentration at the age of 6 months, the risk of having any allergic disease before the age of 2 yr tended to reduce [odds ratio (OR: 0.52)] and the risk for any IgE-associated (atopic) disease reduced significantly (OR: 0.49). High faecal calprotectin at the age of 6 months associated also with lower risk for IgE-associated diseases up to age 2 yr (OR: 0.49). All faecal inflammation markers (alpha1-AT, TNF-alpha, and calprotectin) correlated positively with faecal IgA (p < 0.001). Probiotics tended to augment faecal IgA (p = 0.085) and significantly increased faecal alpha1-AT (p = 0.001). High intestinal IgA in early life associates with minimal intestinal inflammation and indicates reduced risk for IgE-associated allergic diseases. PMID:19566584

  17. Comparison of chemiluminescent immunoassay and ELISA for measles IgG and IgM.

    PubMed

    de Ory, Fernando; Minguito, Teodora; Balfagón, Pilar; Sanz, Juan C

    2015-08-01

    In the context of measles elimination, the identification of recent infections is important for clinical laboratories. Serological diagnosis is achieved by detecting specific IgG and IgM. Recently an automated chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) (Liaison, DiaSorin, Italy) has been used to quantify the measles antibody. The aim of this study was to compare this assay with Enzygnost ELISA (Siemens, Germany), with final classification of discrepancies by indirect immunofluorescence (Euroimmun, Germany). For measles IgM, 204 sera were analyzed: 50 IgM-positive, 104 IgM-negative/IgG-positive, and 50 from other viral infections (B19V, rubella, mumps, CMV, and EBV). For the measles IgG assay, 162 samples were tested: 106 were positive and 56 were negative. For measles IgM, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were 94% (95% CI: 83.2-98.6) and 100% (95% CI: 97.1-100), respectively; the corrected figures after the final classification of discrepancies were 100% (95% CI: 91.0-100) and 99.4% (95% CI: 96.1-100), respectively. In relation to IgG, the sensitivity and specificity of CLIA against ELISA were, respectively, 97.2% (95% CI: 91.7-99.4) and 92.9% (95% CI: 82.5-97.7), and 95.5% (95% CI: 89.5-98.3) and 100% (95% CI: 91.8-100) after the final classification. CLIA showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting measles IgG and IgM antibodies, eliminating the need to aliquot specimens before carrying out the assay. PMID:26140432

  18. Potential impact of different cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM assays on an algorithm requiring IgM reactivity as a criterion for measuring CMV IgG avidity.

    PubMed

    Prince, Harry E; Lapé-Nixon, Mary; Brenner, Andrew; Pitstick, Nancy; Couturier, Marc Roger

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG avidity is a powerful tool for identifying individuals with recent CMV infection. Because such patients are expected to be positive for CMV IgM, several investigators have suggested that CMV IgG-positive sera first be screened for CMV IgM and then only the IgM-reactive sera be tested for avidity. We investigated the impact of different CMV IgM assays on such a reflexing algorithm using a panel of 369 consecutive IgG-positive serum samples submitted for avidity testing. A bead-based immunofluorescent assay (BIFA) identified 105 IgM-positive serum samples, whereas an IgM-capture enzyme immunoassay (EIA) identified 48 IgM-positive serum samples; this marked difference led us to evaluate additional CMV IgM assays. An enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA) and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA) were used to test all sera with discordant BIFA/EIA results, all sera with concordant positive results, and selected sera with concordant negative results. The findings indicated that the ELFA would identify 74 CMV IgM-positive samples and the CIA would identify 64. Of the 23 low-avidity serum samples, 2 were IgM negative by BIFA, 3 by ELFA and CIA, and 4 by EIA; of the 23 intermediate-avidity serum samples, 6 were IgM negative by BIFA, 10 by ELFA, and 15 by EIA and CIA. In both these avidity groups, BIFA IgM-negative sera were also negative by the other 3 assays. These findings demonstrate that an algorithm requiring CMV IgM reactivity as a criterion for CMV IgG avidity testing does not identify all low-avidity sera and thus misses some cases of acute CMV infection. PMID:24671558

  19. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding, predation rates on the most preferred seed (rauli) was higher in flowered than in nonflowered patches. Despite rapid predator numerical responses, short-term positive effects can still influence community recruitment dynamics because surviving seeds may find refuge beneath the litter produced by bamboo dieback. Together, our theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that indirect effects experienced by alternative prey during and after prey-swamping episodes need not be universal but can change across a prey quality spectrum, and they critically depend on predator-foraging rules and the spatial scale of swamping. PMID:18027757

  20. Inhibition of complement activation by IgG4 antibodies.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, J S; van Swieten, P; Aalberse, R C

    1986-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to antigens may result in high IgG4 antibody titres as was shown in a previous paper (Aalberse et al., 1983b). In novice bee keepers, a shift in the IgG1/IgG4 ratio of the response against phospholipase-A (PLA; a major component of bee venom) occurred. This resulted in an IgG4-dominated response after approximately 2 years of bee-keeping experience. Subject of the present study was the influence of relatively high concentrations of IgG4 antibodies on the biological activity of immune complexes. In the PLA antigen model, it was demonstrated that IgG4-containing immune complexes do not activate complement and that IgG4 antibodies effectively inhibit immune precipitation and complement activation by IgG1 antibodies. Evidence is provided that IgG4 antibodies inhibit binding of C1q to IgG1 in mixed, IgG1- and IgG4-containing complexes. It is proposed that IgG4 antibodies protect against the biological effects of the complement-fixing IgG subclasses. For this reason, determination of the total IgG response or just determination of antibody activity in the complement-fixing isotypes is insufficient in immune-complex diseases. The modulating effect of the non-complement-fixing isotypes should be taken into account to predict the biological activity of the immune complexes. PMID:3488859

  1. IgG and IgE circulating immune complexes, total serum IgE and parasite related IgE in patients with mono- or mixed infection with Schistosoma mansoni and/or S. haematobium. Influence of therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, W J; Feldmeir, H; Bridts, C H; Daffalla, A A

    1983-01-01

    IgG and IgE containing circulating immune complexes (CIC), total serum IgE and parasite related IgE were determined in monoinfected patients with Schistosoma mansoni or S.haematobium and in patients with a mixed infection. IgE- and IgG-CIC and total serum IgE were significantly higher in the mixed infection group. There is considerable cross-reactivity between the crude S.haematobium and S.mansoni antigen preparations. The level of IgE-CIC is correlated to the levels of total serum IgE and parasite related IgE respectively. Furthermore IgE-CIC levels were related to the intensity of infection. Twelve out of 21 patients suffering from a monoinfection were reinvestigated 1-4 months after specific chemotherapy. Parasitological cure is followed by a significant decrease of total serum IgE and IgE-CIC, whereas parasite related IgE did not change significantly. The importance of the disappearance of IgE-CIC is discussed. PMID:6861371

  2. Efficient generation of human IgA monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lorin, Valérie; Mouquet, Hugo

    2015-07-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody isotype produced in humans. IgA antibodies primarily ensure immune protection of mucosal surfaces against invading pathogens, but also circulate and are present in large quantities in blood. IgAs are heterogeneous at a molecular level, with two IgA subtypes and the capacity to form multimers by interacting with the joining (J) chain. Here, we have developed an efficient strategy to rapidly generate human IgA1 and IgA2 monoclonal antibodies in their monomeric and dimeric forms. Recombinant monomeric and dimeric IgA1/IgA2 counterparts of a prototypical IgG1 monoclonal antibody, 10-1074, targeting the HIV-1 envelope protein, were produced in large amounts after expression cloning and transient transfection of 293-F cells. 10-1074 IgAs were FPLC-purified using a novel affinity-based resin engrafted with anti-IgA chimeric Fabs, followed by a monomers/multimers separation using size exclusion-based FPLC. ELISA binding experiments confirmed that the artificial IgA class switching of 10-1074 did not alter its antigen recognition. In summary, our technical approach allows the very efficient production of various forms of purified recombinant human IgA molecules, which are precious tools in dissecting IgA B-cell responses in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and studying the biology, function and therapeutic potential of IgAs. PMID:25910833

  3. A Bayesian hierarchical model of Antarctic fur seal foraging and pup growth related to sea ice and prey abundance.

    PubMed

    Hiruki-Raring, Lisa M; Ver Hoef, Jay M; Boveng, Peter L; Bengtson, John L

    2012-03-01

    We created a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) to investigate ecosystem relationships between the physical ecosystem (sea ice extent), a prey measure (krill density), predator behaviors (diving and foraging effort of female Antarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus gazella, with pups) and predator characteristics (mass of maternal fur seals and pups). We collected data on Antarctic fur seals from 1987/1988 to 1994/1995 at Seal Island, Antarctica. The BHM allowed us to link together predators and prey into a model that uses all the data efficiently and accounts for major sources of uncertainty. Based on the literature, we made hypotheses about the relationships in the model, which we compared with the model outcome after fitting the BHM. For each BHM parameter, we calculated the mean of the posterior density and the 95% credible interval. Our model confirmed others' findings that increased sea ice was related to increased krill density. Higher krill density led to reduced dive intensity of maternal fur seals, as measured by dive depth and duration, and to less time spent foraging by maternal fur seals. Heavier maternal fur seals and lower maternal foraging effort resulted in heavier pups at 22 d. No relationship was found between krill density and maternal mass, or between maternal mass and foraging effort on pup growth rates between 22 and 85 days of age. Maternal mass may have reflected environmental conditions prior to the pup provisioning season, rather than summer prey densities. Maternal mass and foraging effort were not related to pup growth rates between 22 and 85 d, possibly indicating that food was not limiting, food sources other than krill were being used, or differences occurred before pups reached age 22 d. PMID:22611863

  4. The influence of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to its prey, Myzus persicae.

    PubMed

    Liu, F; Zeng, F

    2014-12-01

    Insect artificial diets are the foundation for mass production of insect predators. Whether there is an influence of long-term rearing with artificial diet on the control ability of predators should be considered. Here, we focused on the effect of nutritional history on the functional response of Geocoris pallidipennis to Myzus persicae. The influence of nutritional history (artificial diet versus natural prey, M. persicae) on the functional response of third to fifth instar nymphs and female G. pallidipennis was examined in the laboratory. The results showed that the functional response curve of both the nymphs and the adult female of G. pallidipennis to M. persicae reflected similar trends on both nutritional histories and confirmed the type II response. Adult female G. pallidipennis reared on either M. persicae or artificial diet produced a significantly better performance than the juvenile stages tested. We estimated that adult female G. pallidipennis can consume 141.6 (artificial diet) or 131.6 (M. persicae) aphids per day, respectively. This indicated that G. pallidipennis reared on both artificial diet and M. persicae displayed high rates of predation. PMID:24990177

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation differs among pumpkinseed sunfish during experimental field exposure: the role of invertebrate prey.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R S; Titus, J E

    2001-02-01

    The relative importance of aqueous vs. trophic exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The potential role of different invertebrate prey upon PCB accumulation by fish was also investigated. Pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) were exposed in the upper Hudson River under conditions that either permitted feeding upon different local prey assemblages, or excluded local prey from fish diets. Total [PCB] was 5x greater in fish exposed to local prey versus those not permitted to feed on local prey. Further, fish with trophic exposure to PCBs exhibited a chlorine shift, a significantly higher proportion of more chlorinated isomers than fish with only aqueous exposure. Total [PCB] differed among benthic invertebrate assemblages. Phytophilous invertebrates had lower [PCB] than benthic invertebrates, and also had lower concentrations of the more chlorinated isomers. Short-term (7-day) exposure of fish did not permit differentiation of PCB accumulation in fish according to differences in diet of native prey assemblages. PMID:11090898

  6. Availability and abundance of prey for the red-cockaded woodpecker.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanula, James, L.; Horn, Scott.

    2004-12-31

    Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 11. Prey, Fire, and Community Ecology. Pp 633-645. Abstract: Over a 10-year period we investigated red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) prey use, sources of prey, prey distribution within trees and stands, and how forest management decisions affect prey abundance in South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Florida. Cameras were operated at 31 nest cavities to record nest visits with prey in 4 locations that ranged in foraging habitat from pine stands established in old fields to an old-growth stand in South Georgia. Examination of nearly 12,000 photographs recorded over 5 years revealed that, although red-cockaded woodpeckers used over 40 arthropods for food, the majority of the nestling diet is comprised of a relatively small number of common arthropods.

  7. Neutralizing antibodies in mucosal secretions: IgG or IgA?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Rashada; Mestecky, Jiri

    2007-11-01

    The mucosal immune response to HIV weighs in heavily on the battle against it, as the majority of infections occur via the mucosal route. The antibody response in the mucosae, specifically the genital tract, is characterized by binding and, in some studies, neutralizing HIV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies. Ample evidence, however, points to discrepancies and difficulties in the detection of HIV-specific IgA in HIV-positive subjects, and an even more pronounced divide surfaces in studies done with individuals exposed to HIV, but uninfected. Reports in the literature detail HIV-specific (in some cases, neutralizing) IgA antibodies, in the absence of specific IgG, in the serum and mucosal secretions of virus-exposed, seronegative subjects; this has given rise to speculation that HIV-specific IgA provides a protective immune response to the virus in high-risk individuals who remain seronegative. Contradictory results, however, describe the absence of both IgA and IgG HIV antibodies in the mucosal secretions of similar cohorts. Considering the importance of the antibody response to ascertaining the correlates of HIV immunity, as well as on vaccine research and development, this review addresses the relevant studies and their implications. PMID:18045115

  8. Soluble IgE receptors – elements of the IgE network

    PubMed Central

    Platzer, Barbara; Ruiter, Floortje; van der Mee, John; Fiebiger, Edda

    2011-01-01

    Soluble isoforms of three human IgE Fc receptors, namely Fc?RI, Fc?RII and galectin-3, can be found in serum. These soluble IgE receptors are a diverse family of proteins unified by the characteristic of interacting with IgE in the extracellular matrix. A truncated form of the alpha-chain of Fc?RI, the high affinity IgE receptor, has recently been described as a soluble isoform (sFc?RI). Multiple soluble isoforms of CD23 (sCD23), the low affinity IgE receptor also known as Fc?RII, are generated via different mechanisms of extracellular and intracellular proteolysis. The second low affinity IgE receptor, galectin-3, only exists as a secretory protein. We here discuss the physiological roles of these three soluble IgE receptors as elements of the human IgE network. Additionally, we review the potential and current use of sFc?RI, sCD23 and galectin-3 as biomarkers in human disease. PMID:21920387

  9. West Nile virus IgM and IgG antibodies three years post- infection

    PubMed Central

    Papa, A; Anastasiadou, A; Delianidou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background: West Nile virus (WNV) causes to humans a variety of symptoms, from asymptomatic infection to severe neuroinvasive disease. In a previous study, it was shown that WNV IgM antibodies persisted in three of 26 (12%) patients, nine months after onset of the symptoms. The aim of the present study was to test 10 of these patients, three years post-infection for probable persistence of IgM antibodies and to investigate their IgG antibody patterns. Material and Methods: In summer 2013 serum samples were collected from 10 persons who were infected with WNV in 2010; 6 of them had a neuroinvasive disease. The three persons with detectable WNV IgM antibodies, nine months after onset of the symptoms, were included in the study. All samples were tested by ELISA in parallel with their stored paired samples taken in 2011. The positive results were confirmed by neutralization test. Results: WNV IgM antibodies were still detectable in the three persons, while high levels of WNV IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in nine of the 10 persons, regardless the involvement of the nervous system. Conclusions: WNV IgM antibodies persist for more than three years in 12% of patients with WNV infection, while WNV IgG antibodies persist and even increase their levels, regardless the involvement of the nervous system, suggesting that the immune response in the symptomatic WNV infections is strong and long-lasting. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 34-36. PMID:26435644

  10. Galactose-Deficient IgA1 in African Americans with IgA Nephropathy: Serum Levels and Heritability

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, M. Colleen; Moldoveanu, Zina; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Sanders, John T.; McGlothan, Kim R.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Serum levels of galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) are elevated and heritable in Caucasian and Asian patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), but have not been characterized in African Americans (AA). Our objective was to determine whether serum Gd-IgA1 levels are increased in AA patients with IgAN and whether this is a heritable trait in this group. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 18 adult and 11 pediatric AA patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and from 34 of their first-degree relatives. Healthy controls included 150 Caucasian adults, 65 AA adults, 45 Caucasian children, and 49 AA children. Serum total IgA and Gd-IgA1 levels were measured in patients and controls. Significant differences between patient and control groups for serum total IgA, Gd-IgA1, and ratio of Gd-IgA1/total IgA were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test. Heritability was calculated using SOLAR. Results: After stratifying by age, 7 of 11 pediatric and 9 of 18 adult AA patients with IgAN had serum Gd-IgA1 levels above the 95th percentile for age-appropriate AA controls. For first-degree relatives, the serum Gd-IgA1 level was >95th percentile for 1 of 8 when the patient's level was <95th percentile and 12 of 26 when the patient's level was >95th percentile (P = 0.116, Fisher exact test). Heritability was 0.74 (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Serum levels of Gd-IgA1 are often elevated in AA patients with IgAN and their first-degree relatives. Thus, aberrant IgA1 glycosylation is a heritable risk factor for IgAN in African Americans. PMID:20634323

  11. Comparison of antiviral activity between IgA and IgG specific to influenza virus hemagglutinin: increased potential of IgA for heterosubtypic immunity.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Mieko; Yoshida, Reiko; Yokoyama, Ayaka; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Nao, Naganori; Manzoor, Rashid; Takada, Ayato

    2014-01-01

    Both IgA and IgG antibodies are known to play important roles in protection against influenza virus infection. While IgG is the major isotype induced systemically, IgA is predominant in mucosal tissues, including the upper respiratory tract. Although IgA antibodies are believed to have unique advantages in mucosal immunity, information on direct comparisons of the in vitro antiviral activities of IgA and IgG antibodies recognizing the same epitope is limited. In this study, we demonstrate differences in antiviral activities between these isotypes using monoclonal IgA and IgG antibodies obtained from hybridomas of the same origin. Polymeric IgA-producing hybridoma cells were successfully subcloned from those originally producing monoclonal antibody S139/1, a hemaggulutinin (HA)-specific IgG that was generated against an influenza A virus strain of the H3 subtype but had cross-neutralizing activities against the H1, H2, H13, and H16 subtypes. These monoclonal S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies were assumed to recognize the same epitope and thus used to compare their antiviral activities. We found that both S139/1 IgA and IgG antibodies strongly bound to the homologous H3 virus in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and there were no significant differences in their hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing activities against the H3 virus. In contrast, S139/1 IgA showed remarkably higher cross-binding to and antiviral activities against H1, H2, and H13 viruses than S139/1 IgG. It was also noted that S139/1 IgA, but not IgG, drastically suppressed the extracellular release of the viruses from infected cells. Electron microscopy revealed that S139/1 IgA deposited newly produced viral particles on the cell surface, most likely by tethering the particles. These results suggest that anti-HA IgA has greater potential to prevent influenza A virus infection than IgG antibodies, likely due to increased avidity conferred by its multivalency, and that this advantage may be particularly important for heterosubtypic immunity. PMID:24465606

  12. Heterogeneity in prey distribution allows for higher food intake in planktivorous fish, particularly when hot.

    PubMed

    Gliwicz, Z Maciej; Maszczyk, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    When prey are scarce, planktivorous fish and other predators feeding on tiny prey should forage within prey-rich patches to attain a net food intake above the ambient mean food concentrations. If they can indeed locate prey-rich patches efficiently, then a patchy distribution of planktonic prey should lead to: (1) an increase in the overall per capita food intake, and (2) greater variability among predators in prey-capture rate due to differences in arrival times. Both phenomena were observed in 34 daily feeding sessions with a cohort of juvenile rudd held in twin experimental systems, each housing the same number of fish free to move in a loop of ten interconnected 200-L tanks. The fish were fed daily with equal numbers of planktonic prey (Artemia nauplii), offered either in a homogeneous or patchy distribution. To simulate low and high temperatures that represent potential global warming scenarios, the feeding protocol was replicated at 16, 21 and 26 °C, on each occasion following a 3-day period of fish acclimation. Up to 40-70 % of fish in the system with the patchy prey distribution assembled rapidly in the high-prey-density tank, the capture rate of first arrivals being up to 60 prey min(-1) at 26 °C, orders of magnitude greater than that of latecomers. The overall capture rates were higher in the system with patchy prey, regardless of the temperature. At the highest temperature (26 °C), the fish located the high-prey-density tank in less than half the time taken at the lowest temperature (16 °C, Q 10 > 2). PMID:26558624

  13. Prey selection by an apex predator: the importance of sampling uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Davis, Miranda L; Stephens, Philip A; Willis, Stephen G; Bassi, Elena; Marcon, Andrea; Donaggio, Emanuela; Capitani, Claudia; Apollonio, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The impact of predation on prey populations has long been a focus of ecologists, but a firm understanding of the factors influencing prey selection, a key predictor of that impact, remains elusive. High levels of variability observed in prey selection may reflect true differences in the ecology of different communities but might also reflect a failure to deal adequately with uncertainties in the underlying data. Indeed, our review showed that less than 10% of studies of European wolf predation accounted for sampling uncertainty. Here, we relate annual variability in wolf diet to prey availability and examine temporal patterns in prey selection; in particular, we identify how considering uncertainty alters conclusions regarding prey selection.Over nine years, we collected 1,974 wolf scats and conducted drive censuses of ungulates in Alpe di Catenaia, Italy. We bootstrapped scat and census data within years to construct confidence intervals around estimates of prey use, availability and selection. Wolf diet was dominated by boar (61.5 ± 3.90 [SE] % of biomass eaten) and roe deer (33.7 ± 3.61%). Temporal patterns of prey densities revealed that the proportion of roe deer in wolf diet peaked when boar densities were low, not when roe deer densities were highest. Considering only the two dominant prey types, Manly's standardized selection index using all data across years indicated selection for boar (mean = 0.73 ± 0.023). However, sampling error resulted in wide confidence intervals around estimates of prey selection. Thus, despite considerable variation in yearly estimates, confidence intervals for all years overlapped. Failing to consider such uncertainty could lead erroneously to the assumption of differences in prey selection among years. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in relative prey availability and accounting for sampling uncertainty when interpreting the results of dietary studies. PMID:23110122

  14. Prey Selection by an Apex Predator: The Importance of Sampling Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Miranda L.; Stephens, Philip A.; Willis, Stephen G.; Bassi, Elena; Marcon, Andrea; Donaggio, Emanuela; Capitani, Claudia; Apollonio, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The impact of predation on prey populations has long been a focus of ecologists, but a firm understanding of the factors influencing prey selection, a key predictor of that impact, remains elusive. High levels of variability observed in prey selection may reflect true differences in the ecology of different communities but might also reflect a failure to deal adequately with uncertainties in the underlying data. Indeed, our review showed that less than 10% of studies of European wolf predation accounted for sampling uncertainty. Here, we relate annual variability in wolf diet to prey availability and examine temporal patterns in prey selection; in particular, we identify how considering uncertainty alters conclusions regarding prey selection. Over nine years, we collected 1,974 wolf scats and conducted drive censuses of ungulates in Alpe di Catenaia, Italy. We bootstrapped scat and census data within years to construct confidence intervals around estimates of prey use, availability and selection. Wolf diet was dominated by boar (61.5±3.90 [SE] % of biomass eaten) and roe deer (33.7±3.61%). Temporal patterns of prey densities revealed that the proportion of roe deer in wolf diet peaked when boar densities were low, not when roe deer densities were highest. Considering only the two dominant prey types, Manly's standardized selection index using all data across years indicated selection for boar (mean?=?0.73±0.023). However, sampling error resulted in wide confidence intervals around estimates of prey selection. Thus, despite considerable variation in yearly estimates, confidence intervals for all years overlapped. Failing to consider such uncertainty could lead erroneously to the assumption of differences in prey selection among years. This study highlights the importance of considering temporal variation in relative prey availability and accounting for sampling uncertainty when interpreting the results of dietary studies. PMID:23110122

  15. IgH loci of American alligator and saltwater crocodile shed light on IgA evolution.

    PubMed

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-07-01

    Immunoglobulin loci of two representatives of the order Crocodylia were studied from full genome sequences. Both Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus have 13 genes for the heavy chain constant regions of immunoglobulins. The IGHC locus contains genes encoding four immunoglobulins M (IgM), one immunoglobulin D (IgD), three immunoglobulins A (IgA), three immunoglobulins Y (IgY), and two immunoglobulins D2 (IgD2). IgA and IgD2 genes were found in reverse transcriptional orientation compared to the other Ig genes. The IGHD gene contains 11 exons, four of which containing stop codons or sequence alterations. As described in other reptiles, the IgD2 is a chimeric Ig with IgA- and IgD-related domains. This work clarifies the origin of bird IgA and its evolutionary relationship with amphibian immunoglobulin X (IgX) as well as their links with mammalian IgA. PMID:23558556

  16. Uncoupling of Glomerular IgA Deposition and Disease Progression in Alymphoplasia Mice with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Masashi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Pang, Huihua; Kihara, Masao; Nakata, Junichiro; Yamaji, Kenji; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Previous clinical and experimental studies have indicated that cells responsible for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), at least in part, are localized in bone marrow (BM). Indeed, we have demonstrated that murine IgAN can be experimentally reconstituted by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from IgAN prone mice in not only normal mice, but also in alymphoplasia mice (aly/aly) independent of IgA+ cells homing to mucosa or secondary lymphoid tissues. The objective of the present study was to further assess whether secondary lymph nodes (LN) contribute to the progression of this disease. BM cells from the several lines of IgAN prone mice were transplanted into aly/aly and wild-type mice (B6). Although the transplanted aly/aly showed the same degree of mesangial IgA and IgG deposition and the same serum elevation levels of IgA and IgA-IgG immune-complexes (IC) as B6, even in extent, the progression of glomerular injury was observed only in B6. This uncoupling in aly/aly was associated with a lack of CD4+ T cells and macrophage infiltration, although phlogogenic capacity to nephritogenic IC of renal resident cells was identical between both recipients. It is suggested that secondary LN may be required for the full progression of IgAN after nephritogenic IgA and IgA/IgG IC deposition. PMID:24743510

  17. On the Accuracy of IGS Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J.; Ray, J.

    2007-12-01

    In order to explore the reliability of IGS internal orbit accuracy estimates, we have compared the geocentric satellite positions at the midnight epoch between consecutive days for the period since November 5, 2006, when the IGS changed its method of antenna calibration. For each pair of orbits, day "A" has been fitted to the extended CODE orbit model (three position and three velocity parameters plus nine nuisance solar radiation parameters), using the IGS05 Final orbits as psuedo-observations, and extrapolated to epoch 24:00 to compare with the 00:00 epoch from the IGS05 Final orbits of day "B". This yields a time series of orbit repeatability measures, analogous to the classical geodetic test for position determinations. To assess the error introduced by the fitting and extrapolation process, the same procedure has been applied to several days dropping the 23:45 epoch, fitting up to 23:30, extrapolating to 23:45, and comparing with reported positions for 23:45. The test differences range between 0 and 10 mm (mean = 3 mm) per geocentric component with 3D differences of 3 to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm). So, the effect of the orbit fitting-extrapolation process nearly always adds insignificant noise to the day- boundary orbit comparisons. If we compare our average 1D position differences to the official IGS accuracy codes (derived from the internal agreement among combined orbit solutions), root-sum-squared for each pair of days, the actual discontinuities are not well correlated with the expected performance values. If instead the IGS RMS values from the Final combination long-arc analyses (which also use the extended CODE model) are taken as the measure of IGS accuracy, the actual orbit discontinuties are much better represented. This is despite the fact that our day- boundary offsets apply to a single epoch each day and the long-arc analyses consider variations over a day (compared to the satellite dynamics determined over the full week). Our method is not well suited to probe the extent to which systematic effects dominate over random orbit errors, as indicated by satellite laser ranging residuals, but eclipsing satellites often display the most problematic behavior. Users must always be skeptical of GPS-based formal error estimates for all quantities, not just orbits, and should be aware that non- Gaussian errors are common. Nevertheless, the IGS SP3 accuracy codes appear to misrepresent the actual orbit errors in many cases. A better metric would probably be the IGS long-arc RMS values rather than the RMS agreement among solution submissions.

  18. Secreted major Venus flytrap chitinase enables digestion of Arthropod prey.

    PubMed

    Paszota, Paulina; Escalante-Perez, Maria; Thomsen, Line R; Risør, Michael W; Dembski, Alicja; Sanglas, Laura; Nielsen, Tania A; Karring, Henrik; Thøgersen, Ida B; Hedrich, Rainer; Enghild, Jan J; Kreuzer, Ines; Sanggaard, Kristian W

    2014-02-01

    Predation plays a major role in energy and nutrient flow in the biological food chain. Plant carnivory has attracted much interest since Darwin's time, but many fundamental properties of the carnivorous lifestyle are largely unexplored. In particular, the chain of events leading from prey perception to its digestive utilization remains to be elucidated. One of the first steps after the capture of animal prey, i.e. the enzymatic breakup of the insects' chitin-based shell, is reflected by considerable chitinase activity in the secreted digestive fluid in the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap. This study addresses the molecular nature, function, and regulation of the underlying enzyme, VF chitinase-I. Using mass spectrometry based de novo sequencing, VF chitinase-I was identified in the secreted fluid. As anticipated for one of the most prominent proteins in the flytrap's "green stomach" during prey digestion, transcription of VF chitinase-I is restricted to glands and enhanced by secretion-inducing stimuli. In their natural habitat, Venus flytrap is exposed to high temperatures. We expressed and purified recombinant VF chitinase-I and show that the enzyme exhibits the hallmark properties expected from an enzyme active in the hot and acidic digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula. Structural modeling revealed a relative compact globular form of VF chitinase-I, which might contribute to its overall stability and resistance to proteolysis. These peculiar characteristics could well serve industrial purposes, especially because of the ability to hydrolyze both soluble and crystalline chitin substrates including the commercially important cleavage of α-chitin. PMID:24275507

  19. Insect prey characteristics affecting regional variation in chimpanzee tool use.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Crickette M; Deblauwe, Isra; Tagg, Nikki; Morgan, David B

    2014-06-01

    It is an ongoing interdisciplinary pursuit to identify the factors shaping the emergence and maintenance of tool technology. Field studies of several primate taxa have shown that tool using behaviors vary within and between populations. While similarity in tools over spatial and temporal scales may be the product of socially learned skills, it may also reflect adoption of convergent strategies that are tailored to specific prey features. Much has been claimed about regional variation in chimpanzee tool use, with little attention to the ecological circumstances that may have shaped such differences. This study examines chimpanzee tool use in termite gathering to evaluate the extent to which the behavior of insect prey may dictate chimpanzee technology. More specifically, we conducted a systematic comparison of chimpanzee tool use and termite prey between the Goualougo Triangle in the Republic of Congo and the La Belgique research site in southeast Cameroon. Apes at both of these sites are known to use tool sets to gather several species of termites. We collected insect specimens and measured the characteristics of their nests. Associated chimpanzee tool assemblages were documented at both sites and video recordings were conducted in the Goualougo Triangle. Although Macrotermitinae assemblages were identical, we found differences in the tools used to gather these termites. Based on measurements of the chimpanzee tools and termite nests at each site, we concluded that some characteristics of chimpanzee tools were directly related to termite nest structure. While there is a certain degree of uniformity within approaches to particular tool tasks across the species range, some aspects of regional variation in hominoid technology are likely adaptations to subtle environmental differences between populations or groups. Such microecological differences between sites do not negate the possibility of cultural transmission, as social learning may be required to transmit specific behaviors among individuals. PMID:24602365

  20. Specialized prey selection behavior of two East African assassin bugs, Scipinnia repax and Nagusta sp. that prey on social jumping spiders.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert R; Salm, Kathryn; Nelson, Ximena J

    2010-01-01

    The prey choice behavior and predatory strategies of two East African assassin bugs, Scipinnia repax (Stäl 1961) and Nagusta sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were investigated in the field and the laboratory. Both of these species are from the subfamily Harpactorinae and specialize in eating spiders. They prey especially often on social jumping spiders (Salticidae) that build nest complexes (nests connected by silk) in vegetation near the shoreline of Lake Victoria. Both reduviid species associate with these nest complexes and prey on the resident salticids. Nagusta sp., but not S. repax, form groups on nest complexes with 2-3 individuals of Nagusta sometimes feeding together on a single salticid. In addition to social salticids, Nagusta sp. preys on Portia africana, an araneophagic salticid that often invades the same nest complexes. S. repax preys on salticid eggs and also on Nagusta. Although they avoid ants, Nagusta and especially S. repax prey on ant-mimicking salticids, suggesting that sensory modalities other than vision play a dominant role in prey detection. PMID:20673067

  1. Specialized Prey Selection Behavior of Two East African Assassin Bugs, Scipinnia repax and Nagusta sp. that Prey on Social Jumping Spiders

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert R.; Salm, Kathryn; Nelson, Ximena J.

    2010-01-01

    The prey choice behavior and predatory strategies of two East African assassin bugs, Scipinnia repax (Stäl 1961) and Nagusta sp. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), were investigated in the field and the laboratory. Both of these species are from the subfamily Harpactorinae and specialize in eating spiders. They prey especially often on social jumping spiders (Salticidae) that build nest complexes (nests connected by silk) in vegetation near the shoreline of Lake Victoria. Both reduviid species associate with these nest complexes and prey on the resident salticids. Nagusta sp., but not S. repax, form groups on nest complexes with 2–3 individuals of Nagusta sometimes feeding together on a single salticid. In addition to social salticids, Nagusta sp. preys on Portia africana, an araneophagic salticid that often invades the same nest complexes. S. repax preys on salticid eggs and also on Nagusta. Although they avoid ants, Nagusta and especially S. repax prey on ant-mimicking salticids, suggesting that sensory modalities other than vision play a dominant role in prey detection. PMID:20673067

  2. Conformational isomerism of IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hansson, U B; Wingren, C; Alkner, U

    1997-06-20

    The purpose of this study was to determine why apparently homogeneous IgG antibodies were, in some cases, fractionated into at least two components by liquid-liquid partition chromatography (LLPC) in an aqueous two-phase system. Four mouse monoclonal IgG antibodies, two against albumin, one against IgG and one against thyroxine, were shown to adopt different conformational isomeric forms. The four antibodies existed in an equilibrium between two or three conformational forms, the proportion of which could also be estimated by LLPC. Since LLPC detects mainly conformational differences within the antigen-binding sites of IgG antibodies, it could be concluded that the conformational forms differed with respect to their combining sites. Moreover, the isomeric forms of an antibody directed against a protein antigen, formed antigen-antibody complexes with almost identical surface properties. In contrast, complexes with different surface properties were formed when the hapten or hapten conjugated to BSA was bound. Thus, both the conformational isomers could bind antigen, at least when the antigen was a small hapten or a hapten conjugated to a carrier protein. Our results suggest that six out of 57 monoclonal IgG antibodies exist in equilibrium between at least two conformational forms and the biological significance of this isomerism is discussed. PMID:9217014

  3. Collective behavior and predation success in a predator-prey model inspired by hunting bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Abaid, Nicole

    2013-12-01

    We establish an agent-based model to study the impact of prey behavior on the hunting success of predators. The predators and prey are modeled as self-propelled particles moving in a three-dimensional domain and subject to specific sensing abilities and behavioral rules inspired by bat hunting. The predators randomly search for prey. The prey either align velocity directions with peers, defined as "interacting" prey, or swarm "independently" of peer presence; both types of prey are subject to additive noise. In a simulation study, we find that interacting prey using low noise have the maximum predation avoidance because they form localized large groups, while they suffer high predation as noise increases due to the formation of broadly dispersed small groups. Independent prey, which are likely to be uniformly distributed in the domain, have higher predation risk under a low noise regime as they traverse larger spatial extents. These effects are enhanced in large prey populations, which exhibit more ordered collective behavior or more uniform spatial distribution as they are interacting or independent, respectively.

  4. Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2013-03-01

    Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming. PMID:23504827

  5. Minimal Model of Prey Localization through the Lateral-Line System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P.; Sobotka, Marion C.; Elepfandt, Andreas; van Hemmen, J. Leo

    2003-10-01

    The clawed frog Xenopus is an aquatic predator catching prey at night by detecting water movements caused by its prey. We present a general method, a “minimal model” based on a minimum-variance estimator, to explain prey detection through the frog's many lateral-line organs, even in case several of them are defunct. We show how waveform reconstruction allows Xenopus' neuronal system to determine both the direction and the character of the prey and even to distinguish two simultaneous wave sources. The results can be applied to many aquatic amphibians, fish, or reptiles such as crocodilians.

  6. Chlorophacinone residues in mammalian prey at a black-tailed prairie dog colony

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Hulse, Craig S.; Rice, Clifford P.

    2012-01-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported.

  7. Minimal model of prey localization through the lateral-line system.

    PubMed

    Franosch, Jan-Moritz P; Sobotka, Marion C; Elepfandt, Andreas; van Hemmen, J Leo

    2003-10-10

    The clawed frog Xenopus is an aquatic predator catching prey at night by detecting water movements caused by its prey. We present a general method, a "minimal model" based on a minimum-variance estimator, to explain prey detection through the frog's many lateral-line organs, even in case several of them are defunct. We show how waveform reconstruction allows Xenopus' neuronal system to determine both the direction and the character of the prey and even to distinguish two simultaneous wave sources. The results can be applied to many aquatic amphibians, fish, or reptiles such as crocodiles. PMID:14611500

  8. The Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model with foraging-predation risk trade-offs.

    PubMed

    Krivan, Vlastimil

    2007-11-01

    This article studies the effects of adaptive changes in predator and/or prey activities on the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey population dynamics. The model assumes the classical foraging-predation risk trade-offs: increased activity increases population growth rate, but it also increases mortality rate. The model considers three scenarios: prey only are adaptive, predators only are adaptive, and both species are adaptive. Under all these scenarios, the neutral stability of the classical Lotka-Volterra model is partially lost because the amplitude of maximum oscillation in species numbers is bounded, and the bound is independent of the initial population numbers. Moreover, if both prey and predators behave adaptively, the neutral stability can be completely lost, and a globally stable equilibrium would appear. This is because prey and/or predator switching leads to a piecewise constant prey (predator) isocline with a vertical (horizontal) part that limits the amplitude of oscillations in prey and predator numbers, exactly as suggested by Rosenzweig and MacArthur in their seminal work on graphical stability analysis of predator-prey systems. Prey and predator activities in a long-term run are calculated explicitly. This article shows that predictions based on short-term behavioral experiments may not correspond to long-term predictions when population dynamics are considered. PMID:17926298

  9. Prey preferences of aquatic insects: potential implications for the regulation of wetland mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Aditya, G; Saha, G K

    2014-03-01

    Wetlands are potential sites for mosquito breeding and are thus important in the context of public health. The use of chemical and microbial controls is constrained in wetlands in view of their potential impact on the diverse biota. Biological control using generalist aquatic insects can be effective, provided a preference for mosquito larvae is exhibited. The mosquito prey preferences of water bugs and larvae of odonate species were evaluated using chironomid larvae, fish fingerlings and tadpoles as alternative prey. Manly's selectivity (?i ) values with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to judge prey preference patterns. Multivariate analysis of variance (manova) and standardized canonical coefficients were used to test the effects of density on prey selectivity. The ?i values indicated a significant preference (P < 0.05) in all of the insect predators tested for mosquito larvae over the alternative prey as a density-dependent function. On a comparative scale, chironomid larvae had the highest impact as alternative prey. In a multiple-prey experiment, predators showed a similar pattern of preference for mosquito larvae over alternative prey, reflecting a significant (P < 0.05) niche overlap. The results suggest that, in a laboratory setting, these insect predators can effectively reduce mosquito density in the presence of multiple alternative prey. PMID:23437887

  10. Influence of prey abundance on size-selective predation by bluegills

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in Lake Wingra consume zooplankton in a size-selective fashion. Length-frequency distributions of ingested and available prey demonstrated that bluegills feed on a smaller range of ever larger Daphnia galeata and Bosmina longirostris as these prey species increased in abundance. The same was not apparent for Cyclops bicuspidatus as prey. Regression of intensity-of-selection indices for Daphnia and Bosmina versus their combined abundance suggests that these prey species are not differentiated by bluegills in Lake Wingra.

  11. Prey-size selection by Triops longicaudatus (Notostraca: Triopsidae) feeding on immature stages of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Mulla, M S

    1989-09-01

    The tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus, was found to be a size-dependent predator of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in the laboratory. However, changes in tadpole shrimp size were accompanied by changes in prey-size preference: larger-sized predators consumed an increasing proportion of larger prey items. Very large tadpole shrimp may be nonselective predators of this mosquito species. Quantified behavioral observations indicated that while second instar mosquito larvae were encountered significantly less frequently than were fourth instar larvae or pupae, they were captured at significantly greater rates and with shorter handling times. It is hypothesized that prey vulnerability has an important influence on tadpole shrimp prey size "preferences." PMID:2584973

  12. Interactions between benthic predators and zooplanktonic prey are affected by turbulent waves.

    PubMed

    Robinson, H E; Finelli, C M; Koehl, M A R

    2013-11-01

    Predators capture prey in complex and variable environments. In the ocean, bottom-dwelling (benthic) organisms are subjected to water currents, waves, and turbulent eddies. For benthic predators that feed on small animals carried in the water (zooplankton), flow not only delivers prey, but can also shape predator-prey interactions. Benthic passive suspension feeders collect prey delivered by movement of ambient water onto capture-surfaces, whereas motile benthic predators, such as burrow-dwelling fish, dart out to catch passing zooplankton. How does the flow of ambient water affect these contrasting modes of predation by benthic zooplanktivores? We studied the effects of turbulent, wavy flow on the encounter, capture, and retention of motile zooplanktonic prey (copepods, Acartia spp.) by passive benthic suspension feeders (sea anemones, Anthopleura elegantissima). Predator-prey interactions were video-recorded in a wave-generating flume under two regimes of oscillating flow with different peak wave velocities and levels of turbulent kinetic energy ("weak" and "strong" waves). Rates of encounter (number of prey passing through a sea anemone's capture zone per time), capture (prey contacting and sticking to tentacles per time), and retention (prey retained on tentacles, without struggling free or washing off, per time) were measured at both strengths of waves. Strong waves enhanced encounter rates both for dead copepods and for actively swimming copepods, but there was so much variability in the behavior of the live prey that the effect of wave strength on encounter rates was not significant. Trapping efficiency (number of prey retained per number encountered) was the same in both flow regimes because, although fewer prey executed maneuvers to escape capture in strong waves, more of the captured prey was washed off the predators' tentacles. Although peak water velocities and turbulence of waves did not affect feeding rates of passive suspension-feeding sea anemones, increases in these aspects of flow have been shown to enhance feeding rates and efficiency of motile benthic fish that lunge out of their burrows to catch zooplankton. Faster, more turbulent flow interferes with the ability of prey to detect predators and execute escape maneuvers, and thus enhances capture rates both for passive suspension-feeding predators and for actively swimming predators. However, prey captured in the mouths of fish are not washed away by ambient flow, whereas prey captured on the tentacles of suspension feeders can be swept off before they are ingested. Therefore, the effects of flowing water on predation on zooplankton by benthic animals depend on the feeding mode of the predator. PMID:23942646

  13. Predator-prey relationships in a Mediterranean vertebrate system: Bonelli's eagles, rabbits and partridges.

    PubMed

    Moleón, Marcos; Sánchez-Zapata, José A; Gil-Sánchez, José M; Ballesteros-Duperón, Elena; Barea-Azcón, José M; Virgós, Emilio

    2012-03-01

    How predators impact on prey population dynamics is still an unsolved issue for most wild predator-prey communities. When considering vertebrates, important concerns constrain a comprehensive understanding of the functioning of predator-prey relationships worldwide; e.g. studies simultaneously quantifying 'functional' and 'numerical responses' (i.e., the 'total response') are rare. The functional, the numerical, and the resulting total response (i.e., how the predator per capita intake, the population of predators and the total of prey eaten by the total predators vary with prey densities) are fundamental as they reveal the predator's ability to regulate prey population dynamics. Here, we used a multi-spatio-temporal scale approach to simultaneously explore the functional and numerical responses of a territorial predator (Bonelli's eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus) to its two main prey species (the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and the red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa) during the breeding period in a Mediterranean system of south Spain. Bonelli's eagle responded functionally, but not numerically, to rabbit/partridge density changes. Type II, non-regulatory, functional responses (typical of specialist predators) offered the best fitting models for both prey. In the absence of a numerical response, Bonelli's eagle role as a regulating factor of rabbit and partridge populations seems to be weak in our study area. Simple (prey density-dependent) functional response models may well describe the short-term variation in a territorial predator's consumption rate in complex ecosystems. PMID:21947548

  14. Horseshoe bats make adaptive prey-selection decisions, informed by echo cues

    PubMed Central

    Koselj, Klemen; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Siemers, Björn M.

    2011-01-01

    Foragers base their prey-selection decisions on the information acquired by the sensory systems. In bats that use echolocation to find prey in darkness, it is not clear whether the specialized diet, as sometimes found by faecal analysis, is a result of active decision-making or rather of biased sensory information. Here, we tested whether greater horseshoe bats decide economically when to attack a particular prey item and when not. This species is known to recognize different insects based on their wing-beat pattern imprinted in the echoes. We built a simulation of the natural foraging process in the laboratory, where the bats scanned for prey from a perch and, upon reaching the decision to attack, intercepted the prey in flight. To fully control echo information available to the bats and assure its unambiguity, we implemented computer-controlled propellers that produced echoes resembling those from natural insects of differing profitability. The bats monitored prey arrivals to sample the supply of prey categories in the environment and to inform foraging decisions. The bats adjusted selectivity for the more profitable prey to its inter-arrival intervals as predicted by foraging theory (an economic strategy known to benefit fitness). Moreover, unlike in previously studied vertebrates, foraging performance of horseshoe bats was not limited by costly rejections of the profitable prey. This calls for further research into the evolutionary selection pressures that sharpened the species's decision-making capacity. PMID:21367788

  15. Chlorophacinone residues in mammalian prey at a black-tailed prairie dog colony.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Nimish B; Hulse, Craig S; Rice, Clifford P

    2012-11-01

    Black-tailed prairie dogs (BTPDs), Cynomys ludovicianus, are an important prey for raptors; therefore, the use of the rodenticide Rozol (0.005% chlorophacinone active ingredient) to control BTPDs raises concern for secondary poisonings resulting from the consumption of contaminated prey by raptors. In the present study, the authors observed Rozol exposure and adverse effects to mammalian prey on 11 of 12 search days of the study. Mammalian hepatic chlorophacinone residues ranged from 0.44 to 7.56 µg/g. Poisoned prey availability was greater than previously reported. PMID:22865654

  16. Continuous cycling of grouped vs. solitary strategy frequencies in a predator-prey model.

    PubMed

    Lett, Christophe; Auger, Pierre; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2004-05-01

    We present a model of predator and prey grouping strategies using game theory. As predators respond strategically to prey behavior and vice versa, the model is based on a co-evolution approach. Focusing on the "many eyes-many mouths" trade-off, this model considers the benefits and costs of being in a group for hunting predators and foraging prey: predators in a group have more hunting success than solitary predators but they have to share the prey captured; prey in a group face a lower risk of predation but greater competition for resources than lone prey. The analysis of the model shows that the intersections of four curves define distinct areas in the parameter space, corresponding to different strategies used by predators and prey at equilibrium. The model predictions are in accordance with empirical evidence that an open habitat encourages group living, and that low risks of predation favor lone prey. Under some conditions, continuous cycling of the relative frequencies of the different strategies may occur. In this situation, the proportions of grouped vs. solitary predators and prey oscillate over time. PMID:15066422

  17. Chemical Detection of Microbial Prey by Bacterial Predators

    PubMed Central

    Chet, Ilan; Fogel, Sam; Mitchell, Ralph

    1971-01-01

    A motile, predacious bacterium which degraded Pythium debaryanum was strongly attracted to substances released into the medium by the fungus. A nonpredacious bacterium was not attracted to these substances. The predator bacterium was specifically attracted to cellulose and its oligomers which are known to be components of the cell wall of Pythium. Ethanol inhibited chemotaxis of the bacterium without affecting either its motility or its ability to degrade cellulose. A second predacious bacterium was isolated for the alga, Skeletonema costatum. The role of chemoreception in the detection of microbial prey by bacterial predators in natural habitats is discussed. PMID:5557594

  18. Temporal signal processing of dolphin biosonar echoes from salmon prey.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Ou, Hui Helen

    2014-08-01

    Killer whales project short broadband biosonar clicks. The broadband nature of the clicks provides good temporal resolution of echo highlights and allows for the discriminations of salmon prey. The echoes contain many highlights as the signals reflect off different surfaces and parts of the fish body and swim bladder. The temporal characteristics of echoes from salmon are highly aspect dependent and six temporal parameters were used in a support vector machine to discriminate between species. Results suggest that killer whales can classify salmon based on their echoes and provide some insight as to which features might enable the classification. PMID:25096148

  19. Chromaticity in the UV/blue range facilitates the search for achromatically background-matching prey in birds

    PubMed Central

    Stobbe, Nina; Dimitrova, Marina; Merilaita, Sami; Schaefer, H. Martin

    2008-01-01

    A large variety of predatory species rely on their visual abilities to locate their prey. However, the search for prey may be hampered by prey camouflage. The most prominent example of concealing coloration is background-matching prey coloration characterized by a strong visual resemblance of prey to the background. Even though this principle of camouflage was recognized to efficiently work in predator avoidance a long time ago, the underlying mechanisms are not very well known. In this study, we assessed whether blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) use chromatic cues in the search for prey. We used two prey types that were achromatically identical but differed in chromatic properties in the UV/blue range and presented them on two achromatically identical backgrounds. The backgrounds had either the same chromatic properties as the prey items (matching combination) or differed in their chromatic properties (mismatching combination). Our results show that birds use chromatic cues in the search for mismatching prey, whereupon chromatic contrast leads to a ‘pop-out’ of the prey item from the background. When prey was presented on a matching background, search times were significantly higher. Interestingly, search for more chromatic prey on the matching background was easier than search for less chromatic prey on the matching background. Our results indicate that birds use both achromatic and chromatic cues when searching for prey, and that the combination of both cues might be helpful in the search task. PMID:19000974

  20. Let's go beyond taxonomy in diet description: testing a trait-based approach to prey-predator relationships.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Jérôme; Ridoux, Vincent; Brind'Amour, Anik

    2014-09-01

    Understanding 'Why a prey is a prey for a given predator?' can be facilitated through trait-based approaches that identify linkages between prey and predator morphological and ecological characteristics and highlight key functions involved in prey selection. Enhanced understanding of the functional relationships between predators and their prey is now essential to go beyond the traditional taxonomic framework of dietary studies and to improve our knowledge of ecosystem functioning for wildlife conservation and management. We test the relevance of a three-matrix approach in foraging ecology among a marine mammal community in the northeast Atlantic to identify the key functional traits shaping prey selection processes regardless of the taxonomy of both the predators and prey. Our study reveals that prey found in the diet of marine mammals possess functional traits which are directly and significantly linked to predator characteristics, allowing the establishment of a functional typology of marine mammal-prey relationships. We found prey selection of marine mammals was primarily shaped by physiological and morphological traits of both predators and prey, confirming that energetic costs of foraging strategies and muscular performance are major drivers of prey selection in marine mammals. We demonstrate that trait-based approaches can provide a new definition of the resource needs of predators. This framework can be used to anticipate bottom-up effects on marine predator population dynamics and to identify predators which are sensitive to the loss of key prey functional traits when prey availability is reduced. PMID:24645977

  1. Dietary perilla oil lowers serum lipids and ovalbumin-specific IgG1, but increases total IgE levels in ovalbumin-challenged mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Hsiang; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Lin, Jin-Yuarn

    2009-04-01

    Our previous studies indicated that alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-rich perilla oil might alleviate bronchoalveolar inflammation. However, it failed to modulate the Th1/Th2 balance toward the Th1 pole during Th2-skewed allergic airway inflammation in mice. This study attempts to further investigate the effects of dietary perilla oil on serum lipids and immunoglobulin profiles using an ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged mouse model. The inbred female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups and fed different AIN-76 feeds containing 5% corn oil (rich in linoleic acid, 18:2n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), as a control diet), 5% perilla oil (rich in alpha-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3 PUFA) or 5% compound oil containing 50% corn oil and 50% perilla oil, respectively, for 35 consecutive days ad libitum. Experimental mice were sensitized by an intraperitoneal injection of alum-precipitated antigen containing ovalbumin on 7, 14 and 21 days after supply of the specified experimental diets. One week later, the mice were then challenged by aerosolized OVA. The results showed that dietary perilla oil administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the relative liver tissue weight (RTW) and serum lipid levels including triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol. However, the HDL/LDL ratio was also significantly lowered by dietary perilla oil. Dietary perilla oil markedly decreased serum OVA-specific IgG1 level and total IgA antibodies (Th2 antibodies). Unfortunately, it also increased non-specific serum IgE (Th2 antibody) levels. The results suggest that dietary perilla oil might have a moderately beneficial effect on asthmatic allergy via lowering serum lipids and OVA-specific IgG1, as well as total IgA levels. However, it failed to obviously modulate Th1/Th2 antibody levels via isotype switching of B cells from Th2 antibody to Th1 antibody. PMID:19271319

  2. Frequency of IgE-dependent hypersensitivity to moulds in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps

    PubMed Central

    Czecior, Eugeniusz; Jarz?b, Jerzy; Grzanka, Alicja; Cichecka, Ewelina; Sowa, Pawe?; ?cierski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The complicated etiology of chronic sinusitis with polyps and frequent allergy to mould is established. Aim We aimed to investigate the frequency of the IgE-dependent hypersensitivity in this group of patients and prove the need of surgery in allergic chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Material and methods Forty-two patients (19 females, 23 males) aged 34–73 years (55 ±12.6 years), with chronic sinusitis with polyps were included into the study. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery, laryngological examination, sinus computed tomography scans, and smear from maxillary sinus for microbiological examination were done in all patients. Skin prick tests with common perennial and seasonal inhalant allergens, tIgE and sIgE against moulds were required. Results Thirty-two of 42 patients (71.4%) were allergic to at least one inhalant allergen. A mean concentration of total IgE was 241.2 ±186.3 kU/l (35.0–708.0 kU/l) and was lower in patients with fungal culture found in sinus mucin than in patients without fungal presence 75.1 ±54.6 kU/l vs. 284.3 ±204.1 kU/l. We found no difference in the number of positive skin prick tests in a group with and without fungal culture. None of patients with fungal culture found in sinuses presented a detectable level of mold sIgE. All patients with fungal vegetation in sinuses required at least two polypectomy procedures. Conclusions The total IgE concentration was significantly lower in patients with fungal presence in sinuses. Nasal polyps occurred more frequently in patients with fungal presence in sinuses. PMID:25097487

  3. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 levels are increased in patients with IgA nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Koki; Uto, Hirofumi; Takami, Yoichiro; Mera, Kumiko; Nishida, Chika; Yoshimine, Yozo; Fukumoto, Mayumi; Oku, Manei; Sogabe, Atsushi; Nosaki, Tsuyoshi; Moriuchi, Akihiro; Oketani, Makoto; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2010-08-20

    Research highlights: {yields} IGFBP-1 mRNA over express in kidneys obtained from mice model of IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels are high in patients with IgA nephropathy. {yields} Serum IGFBP-1 levels correlate with renal function and the severity of renal injury. -- Abstract: The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy (IgAN) are not well understood. In this study, we examined gene expression profiles in kidneys obtained from mice with high serum IgA levels (HIGA mice), which exhibit features of human IgAN. Female inbred HIGA, established from the ddY line, were used in these experiments. Serum IgA levels, renal IgA deposition, mesangial proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis were increased in 32-week-old HIGA mice in comparison to ddY animals. By microarray analysis, five genes were observed to be increased by more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old HIGA in comparison to 16-week-old HIGA; these same five genes were decreased more than 2.5-fold in 32-week-old ddY in comparison to 16-week-old ddY mice. Of these five genes, insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP)-1 exhibited differential expression between these mouse lines, as confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with IgAN than in healthy controls. In patients with IgAN, these levels correlated with measures of renal function, such as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), but not with sex, age, serum IgA, C3 levels, or IGF-1 levels. Pathologically, serum IGFBP-1 levels were significantly associated with the severity of renal injury, as assessed by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. These results suggest that increased IGFBP-1 levels are associated with the severity of renal pathology in patients with IgAN.

  4. Analyzing antibody activity in IgA nephropathy