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Sample records for ige-mediated food allergy

  1. Molecular mechanisms of IgE mediated food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to collate current knowledge and recent advances in molecular mechanism behind the immediate type hypersensitivity of foods. Food allergy is a growing concern of human health in developed as well as developing countries now days. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity or type I reaction. This review encompasses a wide range of molecular events during IgE mediated reactions like primary exposure of allergens, processing of allergens by antigen presenting cells, role of transcription factors like GATA-3, STAT-6, NF-AT, c-maf, c-kit and NF-κB, Treg cells, toll like receptors, cytokines and chemokines, class switch to IgE, FcεR1 receptor, priming of IgE on mast cells or basophils, signaling events followed by secondary exposure of allergens, degranulation and release of mediators like leukotrienes, histamines, prostaglandins, β-hexosaminidase and ultimately anaphylaxis. This review may be helpful to beginners as well as experts working in the field of allergy and immunology because of the stepwise explanations of molecular mechanisms involved in IgE mediated reactions. PMID:22668720

  2. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ AllergiesFood Allergy Share | Food Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Food Allergy Overview If you have a food allergy, ...

  3. Diversity of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is defined as an immune system-mediated adverse reaction to food components. Food allergic reactions are mostly IgE mediated and also known as immediate type hypersensitivity (type I reaction). There are several characteristic clinical types of food allergy, such as Anaphylaxis, Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), and Oral allergy syndrome (OAS). In addition, food allergy is also classified into two types (class 1 and class 2) based on the pathophysiological mechanism. In the class 2 food allergy, pollen allergy causes plant food allergy; therefore this type of allergy is sometimes called Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS). The risk of food allergy (allergenicity) may vary with the treatment of the food allergens. The formation or status of the causative food affects its allergenicity. Class 1 food allergens are generally heat-, enzyme-, and low pH-resistant glycoproteins ranging in size from 10 to 70 kD. Class 1 food allergens induce allergic sensitization via the gastrointestinal tract and are responsible for systemic reactions. Class 2 food allergens are generally heat-labile, susceptible to digestion, and highly homologous with pollen allergens. Taken together, it may be important to consider the diversity of food allergy in order to fight against food allergy. PMID:26598816

  4. Screening for IgE mediated allergy among people working in the Marseilles harbour.

    PubMed

    Panzani, R C; Falagiani, P; Riva, G; Mercier, P; Delord

    1993-01-01

    Screening for IgE mediated allergy by RASTs to professional (castor bean, green coffee, peanut, soy protein, wheat, rice), and non professional (pollens, mites, cat, Alternaria tenuis) air borne antigens among 36 people working in the Marseilles harbour has showed rather unexpected findings: only one case of IgE positivity to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (class I) and one case of IgE positivity to castor bean seed (Ricinus communis) (class IV). IgG4 specific antibodies against castor bean and green coffee were also measured by an ELISA technique, with eleven cases of positivity to castor bean and only one case to green coffee being recorded. Several explanations can be put forward for the low incidence of IgE responses to the commonest airborne antigens and to the professional antigens (castor bean being the only offender), and for the rather high incidence of specific IgG4 antibodies to castor bean. Most likely, the low incidence of latent atopy is the result of a natural selection among the workers who gave up their job if experiencing of discomfort. As far as the elevated IgG4 antibody levels to castor bean are concerned, these are probably natural blocking antibodies. PMID:8328353

  5. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  6. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... of food, most food allergies are caused by tree nuts, peanuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat, fish and ... all do. People rarely outgrow allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish Other Organizations Food Allergy ...

  7. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  8. Living with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is among the most common of the allergic disorders, with a prevalence of 6-8 per cent in children up to the age of three. However, many people self-diagnose, putting their children at risk of malnutrition, possibly as a result of lack of awareness by health professionals of food allergy as a potential cause of conditions such as infantile eczema, chronic diarrhoea, faltering growth and gastrooesophageal reflux. NICE (The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recently published guidelines, which they hope will help to improve the diagnosis of food allergies within the community. If food allergy or lactose intolerance is suspected, the mainstay of a diagnostic work up should comprise of a detailed allergy-focused clinical history, part of which will involve determining whether the adverse reaction is typically an immediate (IgE mediated) or more delayed-type (non-IgE mediated) allergic reaction, or whether it may be lactose intolerance; a form of non-allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:21980692

  9. Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Liu, Changqi; Zaffran, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is receiving increased attention in recent years. Because there is currently no known cure for food allergy, avoiding the offending food is the best defense for sensitive individuals. Type I food allergy is mediated by food proteins, and thus, theoretically, any food protein is a potential allergen. Variability of an individual's immune system further complicates attempts to understand allergen-antibody interaction. In this article, we briefly review food allergy occurrence, prevalence, mechanisms, and detection. Efforts aimed at reducing/eliminating allergens through food processing are discussed. Future research needs are addressed. PMID:26934173

  10. Ultrasensitive carbohydrate-peptide SPR imaging microarray for diagnosing IgE mediated peanut allergy

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit A.; Peczuh, Mark W.; Kumar, Challa V.; Rusling, James F

    2014-01-01

    Severity of peanut allergies is linked to allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in blood, but diagnostics from assays using glycoprotein allergen mixtures may be inaccurate. Measuring IgEs specific to individual peptide and carbohydrate epitopes of allergenic proteins is promising. We report here the first immunoarray for IgEs utilizing both peptide and carbohydrate epitopes. A surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) microarray was equipped with peptide and β-xylosyl glycoside (BXG) epitopes from major peanut allergen glycoprotein Arachis hypogaea h2 (Ara-h2). A monoclonal anti-IgE antibody was included as positive control. IgEs were precaptured onto magnetic beads loaded with polyclonal anti-IgE antibodies to enhance sensitivity and minimize non-specific binding. As little as 0.1 attomole (0.5 pg/mL) IgE was detected from dilute serum in 45 min. IgEs binding to Ara-h2 peptide and BXG were quantified in 10 μL of patient serum and correlated with standard ImmunoCAP values. PMID:25259443

  11. [Food allergies].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    1998-09-21

    Food allergy must have an immunological background. Till recently it was restricted only to the IgE mechanism, today we include also non-atopical reactions (in particular type III and IV according to Coombs and Gell). We speak of probable and possible food allergies. By differential diagnosis we must differentiate food allergies from food intolerance (e.g. enzyme deficiencies), food aversions (psychic factor) as well as toxic and pharmacological effects. There are more than 10% undesirable reactions in humans after ingestion of food but only every fifth (some 2% of the population have food allergies. The diagnosis is based above all on the case-history, subsequent elimination and exposure tests and examination by allergological tests, or examination of specific immunoglobulins E (IgE). The diagnosis is not always unequivocal--it is influenced among others by a different specificity and sensitivity of food antigens (allergens). The manifestations of food allergy are found at the site of action (mouth, GIT) or are systemic (respiration, cardiovascular system, skin etc.). A special type of food allergy is the oral alimentary syndrome, i.e. food allergy crossed with pollen hypersensitivity, described in the great majority of subjects sensitive to pollen. Food allergy has its specific age-conditioned and geographical features. In childhood sensitivity to the protein of cows milk, egg white but also soya or flour predominates, with advancing age allergies to nuts, fruit, vegetables, spices, cheese, sea foods increase. Food allergy can be a very early allergy (manifested already in infant age) but it is one of the few allergies which can also recede (incl. laboratory tests). Treatment is dietetic, the period of dietetic treatment depends on the type of food and the patient's age, not infrequently it must be lifelong. If diet does not suffice, preventive medication is used (sodium cromoglycate) or symptomatic (antihistamine preparations, corticosteroids, external agents

  12. Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Grief, Samuel N

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are common and seem to be increasing in prevalence. Preventive measures have become far more evident in the public arena (schools, camps, sports venues, and so forth). Evaluation and management of food allergies has evolved such that primary care practitioners may choose to provide initial diagnostic and treatment care or refer to allergists for similar care. Food allergies, once considered incurable, are now being diminished in intensity by new strategies. PMID:27545729

  13. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people of all ages) Soy (mostly in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of ... food when they are young. Allergies to peanuts, tree nuts, and shellfish tend to last a lifetime. ...

  14. Food Allergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy appears to be increasing, as is our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, treatment options, identifying, and characterizing allergenic proteins within food sources. The aim of this book is to translate how this vast array of information may fit into development o...

  15. Prevalence of food allergy in 137 latex-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, K T; Hussain, H

    1999-01-01

    There have been reports of increased prevalence of certain food allergies in patients with Type I latex allergy (LA). A detailed food allergy history was obtained from 137 patients with LA. Latex allergy was defined by positive history of IgE mediated reactions to contact with latex and positive skin prick test to latex and/or positive in vitro test (AlaSTAT and/or Pharmacia CAP). Food allergy was diagnosed by a convincing history of possible IgE mediated symptoms occurring within 60 minutes of ingestion. We identified 49 potential allergic reactions to foods in 29 (21.1%) patients. Foods responsible for these reactions include banana 9 (18.3%), avocado 8 (16.3%), shellfish 6 (12.2%), fish 4 (8.1%), kiwi 6 (12.2%), tomato 3 (6.1%), watermelon, peach, carrot 2 (4.1%) each, and apple, chestnut, cherry, coconut, apricot, strawberry, loquat, one (2.0%) each. Reactions to foods included local mouth irritation, angioedema, urticaria, asthma, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rhinitis, or anaphylaxis. Our study confirms the earlier reports of increased prevalence of food allergies in patients with LA. We also report increased prevalence of shellfish and fish allergy not previously reported. The nature of cross reacting epitopes or independent sensitization between latex and these foods is not clear. PMID:10209685

  16. Type 1 Ig-E mediated allergy to human insulin, insulin analogues and beta-lactam antibiotics*

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Pedro; Barros, Luísa; Gonçalo, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Insulin, a crucial therapeutic agent for diabetes mellitus, has been rarely associated with hypersensitivity events. We present a 69-year-old type-2 diabetic patient with urticariform lesions on the sites of subcutaneous injection of insulin. The patient denied any known allergies, except for an unspecific cutaneous reaction after intramuscular penicillin administration in childhood. Prick tests revealed positive reactions to all tested human insulins and insulin analogues. Serum IgE levels were above normal range and RAST tests were positive for human, bovine and porcine insulins, as well as beta-lactams. Type 1 IgE-mediated allergy to insulin analogues demands a prompt diagnosis and represents a significant therapeutic challenge in diabetic patients. PMID:23197216

  17. Recent Advances in Management of Pediatric Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Swan, Kate; Fox, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Many children now suffer with a food allergy, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and/or non-IgE mediated. Food allergies have a significant impact on the child’s quality of life, as well as that of their family, due to the resultant dietary restrictions and the constant threat of a potentially life-threatening reaction. At present, there is no cure for food allergies, but there are exciting advances occurring in the management of IgE mediated allergies, including a more active approach to management with anticipatory screening testing, early introduction of common food allergens, active tolerance induction, use of biologics and active risk management. These areas will be discussed in this review. PMID:27417375

  18. Recent Advances in Management of Pediatric Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Swan, Kate; Fox, Adam T

    2015-01-01

    Many children now suffer with a food allergy, immunoglobulin E (IgE) and/or non-IgE mediated. Food allergies have a significant impact on the child's quality of life, as well as that of their family, due to the resultant dietary restrictions and the constant threat of a potentially life-threatening reaction. At present, there is no cure for food allergies, but there are exciting advances occurring in the management of IgE mediated allergies, including a more active approach to management with anticipatory screening testing, early introduction of common food allergens, active tolerance induction, use of biologics and active risk management. These areas will be discussed in this review. PMID:27417375

  19. Kids with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosed Real Families Faces of Food Allergies Rising Stars Gracie's Silver Linings Daniel's Confidence Ciara Builds a ... all recall alerts See all recent news Rising Stars Life As a Tween with Food Allergies MEET ...

  20. Addressing Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    Since 1960, the incidence of food allergies in children has grown fivefold, from 1 in 100 children to 1 in 20 children, according to the Food Allergy Initiative. Food allergies cause anaphylactic shock, the most severe type of allergic reaction, which can lead to death within minutes if left untreated. While there are no standard guidelines from…

  1. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Z

    2012-12-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Immunological mechanisms range between IgE-mediated (most common) and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:23179672

  2. ICON: food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, A Wesley; Tang, Mimi; Sicherer, Scott; Muraro, Antonella; Eigenmann, Philippe A; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Chiang, Wen; Beyer, Kirsten; Wood, Robert; Hourihane, Jonathan; Jones, Stacie M; Lack, Gideon; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-04-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. In the last several decades, the prevalence of food allergies has increased in several regions throughout the world. Although more than 170 foods have been identified as being potentially allergenic, a minority of these foods cause the majority of reactions, and common food allergens vary between geographic regions. Treatment of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. In light of the increasing burden of allergic diseases, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; World Allergy Organization; and American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology have come together to increase the communication of information about allergies and asthma at a global level. Within the framework of this collaboration, termed the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, a series of consensus documents called International Consensus ON (ICON) are being developed to serve as an important resource and support physicians in managing different allergic diseases. An author group was formed to describe the natural history, prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of food allergies in the context of the global community. PMID:22365653

  3. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... trigger allergic reactions include fish, shellfish, peanuts, and tree nuts, such as walnuts. Problem foods for children can include eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, and wheat. The allergic reaction may ...

  4. Food allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... products Cow's milk and dairy products ( lactose intolerance ) Wheat and other grains that contain gluten ( celiac disease ) ... in children) Tree nuts (people of all ages) Wheat (people of all ages) In rare cases, food ...

  5. Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, Rebecca Sharon; Tupa, Dana; Prince, Benjamin T; Block, Whitney Morgan; Rosa, Jaime Sou; Singh, Anne Marie; Nadeau, Kari

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergies has been on the increase over the last 2 decades. Diagnosing food allergies can be complicated, as there are multiple types that have distinct clinical and immunologic features. Food allergies are broadly classified into immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated, non-IgE-mediated, or mixed food allergic reactions. This review focuses on the clinical manifestations of the different categories of food allergies and the different tests available to guide the clinician toward an accurate diagnosis. PMID:26456439

  6. Food allergy: current concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Fries, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    This commentary focuses on the author's concerns with various aspects of food allergy. Strict criteria should be applied to the definition of food allergy and its diagnostic techniques. Industrial inhalational exposures, food contaminations and cross-sensitization all are important influences which demand studious attention.

  7. [Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

    PubMed

    Plaza-Martin, Ana María

    2016-07-01

    The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start, such as vomiting hours after the ingestion of food in enterocolitis, diarrhoea after days or weeks from starting food, dermatitis sometime after starting food. In these cases it is more difficult to associate these clinical symptoms directly with food. In this article, we attempt to clarify some concepts such as sensitisation/allergy, allergen/allergenic source, or the relationship of different clinical situations with food allergy, in order to help the paediatrician on the one hand, to prescribe strict diets in case of a suspicion based on the cause/effect relationship with the food, and on the other hand not to introduce unnecessary diets that very often have to last an excessively long time, and could lead to nutritional deficiencies in the children. PMID:26969248

  8. New insights into diagnosis and treatment of peanut food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Laurie A; Burks, A Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Peanut and/or tree nut allergy is a major health concern affecting over 1% of Americans. Although food allergy in general is the most common cause of anaphylaxis treated in emergency departments, reactions to nuts account for a disproportionate amount of deaths from food allergy. Peanut allergy is a Type I hypersensitivity (IgE mediated) immune response. Eight peanut allergens have been identified that are termed as Ara h 1 through Ara h 8. The diagnosis of peanut allergy can often be made or eliminated with a focused history and specific diagnostic testing. There is no effective method to cure peanut allergy. Therefore, the management of patients with peanut allergy focuses on 1) preventing inadvertent ingestions of peanut, 2) recognizing early signs of allergic reactions, and 3) properly treating peanut-induced symptoms should they occur. Epinephrine is clearly indicated for patients experiencing respiratory, cardiovascular, or neurologic compromise. Because inadvertent ingestion of peanut often leads to life threatening reactions and peanut allergy is often long-lived, many investigators are focusing on decreasing clinical reactivity after peanut allergy is established. PMID:19273280

  9. Food allergies (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... upon subsequent exposure to the substance. An actual food allergy, as opposed to simple intolerance due to the lack of digesting enzymes, is indicated by the production of antibodies to the food allergen, and by the release of histamines and ...

  10. [Food allergy in adulthood].

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Food allergies can newly arise in adulthood or persist following a food allergy occurring in childhood. The prevalence of primary food allergy is basically higher in children than in adults; however, in the routine practice food allergies in adulthood appear to be increasing and after all a prevalence in Germany of 3.7 % has been published. The clinical spectrum of manifestations of food allergies in adulthood is broad. Allergy symptoms of the immediate type can be observed as well as symptoms occurring after a delay, such as indigestion, triggering of hematogenous contact eczema or flares of atopic dermatitis. The same principles for diagnostics apply in this group as in childhood. In addition to the anamnesis, skin tests and in vitro tests, as a rule elimination diets and in particular provocation tests are employed. Molecular allergy diagnostics represent a major step forward, which allow a better assessment of the risk of systemic reactions to certain foodstuffs (e.g. peanuts) and detection of cross-reactions in cases of apparently multiple sensitivities. Current German and European guidelines from 2015 are available for the practical approach to clarification of food allergies. The most frequent food allergies in adults are nuts, fruit and vegetables, which can cross-react with pollen as well as wheat, shellfish and crustaceans. The therapy of allergies involves a consistent avoidance of the allogen. Detailed dietary plans are available with avoidance strategies and instructions for suitable food substitutes. A detailed counseling of affected patients by specially trained personnel is necessary especially in order to avoid nutritional deficiencies and to enable patients to enjoy a good quality of life. PMID:27207694

  11. [Food allergy in childhood].

    PubMed

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  12. Update on food allergy.

    PubMed

    Carrard, A; Rizzuti, D; Sokollik, C

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are a global health issue with increasing prevalence. Allergic reactions can range from mild local symptoms to severe anaphylactic reactions. Significant progress has been made in diagnostic tools such as component-resolved diagnostics and its impact on risk stratification as well as in therapeutic approaches including biologicals. However, a cure for food allergy has not yet been achieved and patients and their families are forced to alter eating habits and social engagements, impacting their quality of life. New technologies and improved in vitro and in vivo models will advance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of food allergies and multicenter-multinational cohort studies will elucidate interactions between genetic background, lifestyle, and environmental factors. This review focuses on new insights and developments in the field of food allergy and summarizes recently published articles. PMID:26443043

  13. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sicherer, Scott H; Sampson, Hugh A

    2006-02-01

    Food allergy, defined as an adverse immune response to food proteins, affects as many as 6% of young children and 3% to 4% of adults. Food-induced allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and might be caused by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated (cellular) mechanisms. Our understanding of how food allergy represents an abrogation of normal oral tolerance is evolving. Although any food can provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of significant food-induced allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. A systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history, followed by laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges to confirm a diagnosis. Many food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of food allergy and might soon lead to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:16455349

  14. 9. Food allergy.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-02-01

    Food allergies affect as many as 6% of young children, most of whom "outgrow" the sensitivity, and about 2% of the general population. Although any food may provoke a reaction, relatively few foods are responsible for the vast majority of food allergic reactions: milk, egg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish. Many of these food allergens have been characterized at a molecular level, which has increased our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of many responses and may soon lead to novel immunotherapeutic approaches. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract and may be due to IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms. A systematic approach including history, laboratory studies, elimination diets, and often food challenges will lead to the correct diagnosis. Currently, management of food allergies consists of educating the patient to avoid ingesting the responsible allergen and to initiate therapy in case of an unintended ingestion. PMID:12592300

  15. Food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dusica; Ristić, Dragana; Vuletić, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy represents a highly up-to-date and continually increasing problem of modern man. Although being present in all ages, it most often occures in children aged up to three years. Sensitization most often occurs by a direct way, but it is also possible to be caused by mother's milk, and even transplacentally. Predisposition of inadequate immune response to antigen stimulation, reaginic or nonreaginic, is of non-selective character so that food allergy is often multiple and to a high rate associated with inhalation and/or contact hypersensitivity. Also, due to antigen closeness of some kinds of food, cross-reactive allergic reaction is also frequent, as is the case with peanuts, legumes and tree nuts or cow's, sheep's and goat's milk. Most frequent nutritive allergens responsible for over 90% of adverse reactions of this type are proteins of cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods. Allergy intolerance of food antigens is characterized by a very wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Highly severe systemic reactions, sometimes fatal, are also possible.The diagnosis of food allergy is based on a detailed personal and family medical history, complete clinical examination, and corresponding laboratory and other examinations adapted to the type of hypersensitivity and the character of patient's complaints, and therapy on the elimination diet. A positive effect of elimination diet also significantly contributes to the diagnosis. Although most children "outgrow" their allergies, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, and cephalopods are generally life-long allergies. PMID:27276868

  16. Symptoms of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Fotherby, K J; Hunter, J O

    1985-07-01

    Adverse reactions to foods can be due to many causes, but only those involving an immunological mechanism can be defined as food allergic disease. An increasing number of gastrointestinal and other diseases are being shown to involve food intolerances. Immediate reactions with symptoms within hours of eating a particular food are most readily shown to be due to food allergy and are often associated with the presence of food-specific IgE as shown by skin prick tests and RASTs. When reactions are delayed for 24 to 48 hours or more, underlying food intolerance is harder to recognize and much less often shown to be due to allergy. At present, diagnosis and management depends on dietary manipulation, showing that symptoms improve on food avoidance and are reproduced by food challenge (preferably double-blind). Further understanding of the mechanisms involved in food allergy, in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome may allow the development of simple tests to identify the foods concerned and perhaps, in the case of allergic disease, cure by the induction of tolerance. PMID:4064357

  17. Gastrointestinal food allergies.

    PubMed

    Heine, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal food allergies present during early childhood with a diverse range of symptoms. Cow's milk, soy and wheat are the three most common gastrointestinal food allergens. Several clinical syndromes have been described, including food protein-induced enteropathy, proctocolitis and enterocolitis. In contrast with immediate, IgE-mediated food allergies, the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms is delayed for at least 1-2 hours after ingestion in non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders. The pathophysiology of these non-IgE-mediated allergic disorders is poorly understood, and useful in vitro markers are lacking. The results of the skin prick test or measurement of the food-specific serum IgE level is generally negative, although low-positive results may occur. Diagnosis therefore relies on the recognition of a particular clinical phenotype as well as the demonstration of clear clinical improvement after food allergen elimination and the re-emergence of symptoms upon challenge. There is a significant clinical overlap between non-IgE-mediated food allergy and several common paediatric gastroenterological conditions, which may lead to diagnostic confusion. The treatment of gastrointestinal food allergies requires the strict elimination of offending food allergens until tolerance has developed. In breast-fed infants, a maternal elimination diet is often sufficient to control symptoms. In formula-fed infants, treatment usually involves the use an extensively hydrolysed or amino acid-based formula. Apart from the use of hypoallergenic formulae, the solid diets of these children also need to be kept free of specific food allergens, as clinically indicated. The nutritional progress of infants and young children should be carefully monitored, and they should undergo ongoing, regular food protein elimination reassessments by cautious food challenges to monitor for possible tolerance development. PMID:26022877

  18. Food Allergy: An Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... A version of the guidelines for the general public is also available on the NIAID Web site. 25 NIAID I FOOD ALLERGY Glossary allergen —a substance that causes an allergic reaction. allergenic —describes a substance that produces an allergic ...

  19. Overview of food allergy diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    MANEA, IRENA; AILENEI, ELENA; DELEANU, DIANA

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is a condition with significant social and economic impact and a topic of intense concern for scientists and clinicians alike. Worldwide, over 220 million people suffer from some form of food allergy, but the number reported is just the tip of the iceberg. Recent years have brought new perspectives in diagnosing food allergy. Elucidating incriminated immunological mechanisms, along with drawing the clinical phenotype of food hypersensitivity reactions ensures an accurate diagnosis of food allergy. Moreover, molecular based allergy diagnosis, which is increasingly used in routine care, is a stepping-stone to improved management of food allergy patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the topic of IgE-mediated food allergy from the perspective of current diagnostic methods. PMID:27004019

  20. [Diagnosis of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Juda, Maciej; Dyczek, Łukasz; Czarnobilska, Maria; Leśniak, Magdalena; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is most often linked to the type I allergic reaction, while IgE-dependent mechanism causes symptoms in only about 50% of patients. If symptoms are coming from other types of allergic reactions we do not have enough standardized diagnostic methods. The purpose of our review is to discuss the possibilities of diagnosis of food allergies. Regardless of the causal mechanism the interview has the most important role in the diagnosis, and the gold standard is a double blind placebo controlled food challenge. Additional tests that can be performed in suspected IgE-mediated reactions include: skin prick tests, specific IgE measurement, component-resolved diagnostics and in doubtful cases basophil activation test (BAT). Due to the fact that the spectrum of the symptoms of the type I food hypersensitivity can include potentially life-threatening reactions, diagnosis is often limited to in vitro assays. In these cases BAT may play an important role--in a recent publication, for the first time BAT reactivity reflected the allergy severity and BAT sensitivity reflected the threshold of response to allergen in an oral food challenge. Atopy patch tests are valuable diagnostic tool in suspected type IV food hypersensitivity, but due to the lack of standardization they are not used routinely. The cytotoxic test has been developed on the basis of the observations that leucopenia developing in the type II hypersensitivity reaction mechanism may be one of the symptoms of food allergy. Unfortunately its use is not justified in any method fulfill the criteria of controlled clinical trial. Food allergy can also develop in the type III hypersensitivity reaction, but there is lack of research supporting the role of IgG measurement in the detection of allergens responsible for symptoms. Each result of additional diagnostic tests before the introduction of food elimination should be confirmed in double-blind, placebo-controlled or open food challenge, because non proper diet is

  1. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  2. Food Allergy Treatment for Hyperkinesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1979-01-01

    Eleven hyperactive children (6 to 15 years old) were treated with a food extract after titration food allergy testing. They remained improved for 1 to 3 months while ingesting the foods to which they were sensitive. (Author)

  3. Gastrointestinal food allergy in infants.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hideaki; Nomura, Ichiro; Matsuda, Akio; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    Food allergies are classified into three types, "IgE-mediated," "combined IgE- and cell-mediated" and "cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated," depending on the involvement of IgE in their pathogenesis. Patients who develop predominantly cutaneous and/or respiratory symptoms belong to the IgE-mediated food allergy type. On the other hand, patients with gastrointestinal food allergy (GI allergy) usually develop gastrointestinal symptoms several hours after ingestion of offending foods; they belong to the cell-mediated/non-IgE-mediated or combined IgE- and cell-mediated food allergy types. GI allergies are also classified into a number of different clinical entities: food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIP), food protein-induced enteropathy (Enteropathy) and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID). In the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms are well characterized. In contrast, the diagnostic approaches and pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy remain mostly unclear. In this review, we summarized each type of GI allergy in regard to its historical background and updated clinical features, offending foods, etiology, diagnosis, examinations, treatment and pathogenesis. There are still many problems, especially in regard to the diagnostic approaches for GI allergy, that are closely associated with the definition of each disease. In addition, there are a number of unresolved issues regarding the pathogenic mechanisms of GI allergy that need further study and elucidation. Therefore, we discussed some of the diagnostic and research issues for GI allergy that need further investigation. PMID:23974876

  4. Food Allergies and Eczema.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Sabrina

    2015-07-01

    Eczema is one of the most common skin conditions of childhood. Patients with eczema suffer in a chronic cycle of itch, scratch, and inflammation. For children with severe eczema, constant itching and scratching can have many consequences including skin infections, behavioral issues, and sleep problems. Parents often find themselves searching for a trigger for their child's eczema flare, and after they have switched detergents, applied a thick moisturizer and topical steroids, and removed all wool clothing from their child's wardrobe, they wonder, "Could food allergies be playing a role?" PMID:26171700

  5. Food Allergies: The Basics

    PubMed Central

    Valenta, Rudolf; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Linhart, Birgit; Pahr, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    IgE-associated food allergy affects approximately 3% of the population and has severe effects on the daily life of patients—manifestations occur not only in the gastrointestinal tract but also affect other organ systems. Birth cohort studies have shown that allergic sensitization to food allergens develops early in childhood. Mechanisms of pathogenesis include cross-linking of mast cell– and basophil-bound IgE and immediate release of inflammatory mediators, as well as late-phase and chronic allergic inflammation, resulting from T-cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation. Researchers have begun to characterize the molecular features of food allergens and have developed chip-based assays for multiple allergens. These have provided information about cross-reactivity among different sources of food allergens, identified disease-causing food allergens, and helped us to estimate the severity and types of allergic reactions in patients. Importantly, learning about the structure of disease-causing food allergens has allowed researchers to engineer synthetic and recombinant vaccines. PMID:25680669

  6. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities Page Content Article Body Human breast milk typically ... your pediatrician about your family’s medical history. Food Sensitivities A few mothers notice minor reactions to other ...

  7. Psychological aspects of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kelsay, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Food allergies may impact the emotions of patients through both direct and indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanisms include the effects on the central nervous system from biologic mediators released during an allergic reaction to food. Indirect mechanisms include the stress of coping with a food allergy--for example, food preparation and avoidance--as well as managing the fear of the potential consequences of ingesting the food. Indirect effects may also be mediated through family members--for example, the impact of a parent's stress on the child. These relationships are difficult to study, in part because many patients who report food allergy symptoms do not have objective symptoms when challenged with the offending food. Symptoms may be misinterpreted as food allergy more often by patients with certain psychological profiles. In this paper, relevant literature is reviewed, and clinical treatment designed to minimize the emotional suffering of patients and their families is presented through the description of a case vignette. PMID:12542993

  8. Clinical presentations of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Mansoor, Darlene K; Sharma, Hemant P

    2011-04-01

    Food allergies are immune-mediated responses to food proteins. Because of differences in the underlying immunologic mechanisms, there are varying clinical presentations of food allergy. This article discusses the manifestations of IgE-mediated disorders, including urticaria and angioedema, rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, gastrointestinal anaphylaxis, generalized anaphylaxis, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, and oral allergy syndrome. It also reviews the presentations of mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, including atopic dermatitis and eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Finally, the manifestations of cell-mediated food allergies are discussed, including dietary protein-induced proctitis and proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, celiac disease, and food-induced pulmonary hemosiderosis. PMID:21453804

  9. Comparison of School Food Allergy Emergency Plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's Standard Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Jill; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Finnegan, Lorna

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-four percent of children with food allergies have a reaction in school, and 25% of first food reactions occur in schools. An evaluation was conducted comparing food allergy emergency plans to the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network's (FAAN) Food Allergy Action Plan. Of the 94 respondents, 60 provided food allergy emergency plans for…

  10. Managing Food Allergies in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1997-01-01

    The number of students with food allergies is increasing, with peanuts the leading culprit. Peer pressure and allergens hidden in baked goods can pose problems for school staff. Children with documented life-threatening allergies are covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act. Principals should reassure parents and use Section 504 guidelines…

  11. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... up within a week. Learn More about Allergies Food Allergies: What You Need to Know Environmental Protection Agency ... Resources for You Allergy Relief for Your Child Food Allergies: Reducing the Risks Allergy Meds Could Affect Your ...

  12. Novel approaches to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yao-Hsu; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-06-01

    Food allergies have increased in recent decades. However, they cannot be effectively treated by the current management, which is limited to the identification and avoidance of foods that induce allergies and to the use of medicines for symptoms relief. To meet the medical need of prevention and cure of food allergies, several therapeutic strategies are under investigation. Some newly developed biologics such as anti-IgE antibody and anti-interleukin (IL)-5 antibody directed against significant molecules in the allergic process have shown their potential for the treatment of food allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the therapy that induces immune tolerance and may reduce the need for conventional medication, severity of allergic symptoms and eliminate hypersensitivity. In this article, clinical studies of immunotherapy via subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous routes are extensively reviewed for their safety and effectiveness on various food allergies. In addition, to reduce the risk of anaphylaxis and increase toleragenic immunity, many studies are focusing on the modification of traditional allergens used for immunotherapy. Moreover, a Chinese herbal formulation with potential anti-allergic effects is being evaluated for its efficacy in patients with peanut allergy. Although more studies are needed, accumulated data of current studies represent compelling evidence of curative effects of some strategies and give a hope that food allergies are likely to be successfully treated in the future. PMID:23329212

  13. Food Allergy: Epidemiology and Natural History

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Jessica; Johns, Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The prevalence of food allergy is rising for unclear reasons, with prevalence estimates in the developed world approaching 10%. Knowledge regarding the natural course of food allergies is important because it can aid the clinician in diagnosing food allergies and in determining when to consider evaluation for food allergy resolution. Many food allergies with onset in early childhood are outgrown later in childhood, although a minority of food allergy is persistent into adolescence and even adulthood. More research is needed to improve food allergy diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:25459576

  14. Food allergies in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Stoma, Monika; Ślaska-Grzywna, Beata; Kostecka, Małgorzata; Bojanowska, Monika; Dudziak, Agnieszka; Kuna-Broniowska, Agnieszka; Adamczuk, Piotr; Sobczak, Paweł; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A food allergy is a group of symptoms occurring in the organism and resulting from consuming some food, where the problems are conditioned by immunological mechanisms. The symptoms may become apparent first in adulthood and they may be an initial manifestation of a latent allergy. Typical symptoms of a food allergy occur in different organs, thus not only in the digestive system, but also in the skin, respiratory system and circulatory system. Aim To assess the frequency of food allergy onset in rural areas of the Lublin region as well as to determine which factors induce such allergies. Material and methods A survey was conducted, involving the participation of 340 inhabitants of rural areas. The study monitored the knowledge and situation of the disease, concerning allergens, allergy symptoms, methods of treatment and opinions regarding such treatment. Results The analysis focused on 124 people with diagnosed allergies. Conclusions Introducing a diet did not result in a statistically significant difference regarding elimination of the symptoms, as compared to the patients who did not follow any diet. On the other hand, pharmacological treatment causes statistically worse results than using other methods or not being treated at all. The patients in whom allergy symptoms disappeared were more convinced about the positive character of their diet than those in whom the symptoms were not eliminated. The age when the allergy becomes evident does not affect its duration, yet it matters as to the time of its later elimination. The more symptoms were experienced by a patient, the longer the duration of the allergy was. PMID:27605899

  15. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Puja; Vickery, Brian P; Wood, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy is a potentially life-threatening condition with no approved therapies, apart from avoidance and injectable epinephrine for acute allergic reactions. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is an experimental treatment in which food-allergic patients consume gradually increasing quantities of the food to increase their threshold for allergic reaction. This therapy carries significant risk of allergic reactions. The ability of OIT to desensitize patients to particular foods is well-documented, although the ability to induce tolerance has not been established. This review focuses on recent studies for the treatment of food allergies such as cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut. PMID:26617227

  16. Current understanding of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Burks, Wesley

    2002-05-01

    IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions account for the majority of well-documented food allergy reactions, but non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms do cause some hypersensitivity disorders. A variety of gastrointestinal, cutaneous, respiratory, and generalized symptoms and syndromes have been associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. The diagnostic approach to adverse food reactions begins with a careful medical history and physical examination. Laboratory studies may then be used appropriately in the evaluation. Once the diagnosis of food allergy is established, the only proven therapy is the strict elimination of the food from the patient's diet. Studies in both children and adults indicate that symptomatic reactivity to food allergens is often lost over time, except possibly reactions to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood. PMID:12023192

  17. Prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    du Toit, George; Tsakok, Teresa; Lack, Simon; Lack, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The past few decades have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). For prevention strategies to be effective, we need to understand the causative factors underpinning this rise. Genetic factors are clearly important in the development of FA, but given the dramatic increase in prevalence over a short period of human evolution, it is unlikely that FA arises through germline genetic changes alone. A plausible hypothesis is that 1 or more environmental exposures, or lack thereof, induce epigenetic changes that result in interruption of the default immunologic state of tolerance. Strategies for the prevention of FA might include primary prevention, which seeks to prevent the onset of IgE sensitization; secondary prevention, which seeks to interrupt the development of FA in IgE-sensitized children; and tertiary prevention, which seeks to reduce the expression of end-organ allergic disease in children with established FA. This review emphasizes the prevention of IgE-mediated FA through dietary manipulation, among other strategies; in particular, we focus on recent interventional studies in this field. PMID:27059727

  18. Mucosal Immunology of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Berin, M. Cecilia; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence at a higher rate than can be explained by genetic factors, suggesting a role for as yet unidentified environmental factors. In this review, we summarize the state of knowledge about the healthy immune response to antigens in the diet and the basis of immune deviation that results in IgE sensitization and allergic reactivity to foods. The intestinal epithelium forms the interface between the external environment and the mucosal immune system, and emerging data suggest that the interaction between intestinal epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells is of particular importance in determining the outcome of immune responses to dietary antigens. Exposure to food allergens through non-oral routes, in particular through the skin, is increasingly recognized as a potentially important factor in the increasing rate of food allergy. There are many open questions on the role of environmental factors such as dietary factors and microbiota in the development of food allergy, but data suggest that both have an important modulatory effect on the mucosal immune system. Finally, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of immune mechanisms of clinical manifestations of food allergy. New experimental tools, particularly in the field of genomics and microbiome, are likely to shed light on factors responsible for the growing clinical problem of food allergy. PMID:23660362

  19. Psychological burden of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Teufel, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Rapps, Nora; Hausteiner, Constanze; Henningsen, Peter; Enck, Paul; Zipfel, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous, varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions. In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food. PMID:17659692

  20. Asthma and Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  1. [Dietary management of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Reese, Imke

    2016-07-01

    A therapeutic diet is only indicated if the diagnosis of food allergy is certain. In the case of an unproven suspicion everything should be done to confirm or disprove the diagnosis by diagnostic measures (patient history, diet history, food and symptom protocol etc.). In the case of proven food allergy there are different aims of nutritional therapy. Most importantly the patient should learn how to identify his eliciting agent in pre-packed and non-prepacked food and how to avoid it. The elimination diet should take into account the individual condition of the patient. In particular, if basic foods have to be eliminated from the diet, safe alternatives have to be determined to maintain a nutritionally balanced diet and to maintain a high quality of life. To ensure the nutritional adequacy of the diet, micro- and macronutrient intake should be analysed and improved, if necessary. For pollen-associated food allergy and certain chronic conditions it might be necessary to be aware of possible triggering factors as well as potential cross-reactions. Moreover, individual tolerance should be maintained during elimination diets and not jeopardized by voluntary and unnecessary self-denial of certain foods.An effective individual management of food allergies by the patient is considerably dependent on the quality of the nutritional education and therapy. PMID:27255299

  2. Communicating with Parents about Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Belinda

    2008-01-01

    About 3 million children in the United States have food allergies. Each year violent reactions to food kill almost 150 people. For teachers dealing with the food allergies of young children these can be frightening statistics. To keep students safe, they must familiarize themselves with food allergy facts so they can communicate openly and often…

  3. Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    Getting the Facts on Food Allergy Testing This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI If you have ever experienced red, itchy skin, swell- ... food, you may wonder if you have a food allergy. While diagnosing food allergies can be tricky, an ...

  4. Oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mimi L K

    2009-01-01

    Current management of food allergy involves strict avoidance, education on recognizing and managing allergic reactions, and carrying an adrenaline autoinjector. This approach is burdensome and associated with reduced quality of life. Patients with food allergy would benefit greatly from a treatment that could achieve desensitization or long-term tolerance. Recent studies have shown that oral immunotherapy (OIT) can induce desensitization and modulate allergen-specific immune responses; however, it remains uncertain whether OIT can induce long-term tolerance. Nevertheless, successful desensitization provides a major advance in management by reducing the risk of reaction to low amounts of allergen. Allergic reactions during OIT are common, although severe reactions are less common. Therefore, OIT should be performed in specialist centers under close medical supervision and would ideally be conducted as part of ongoing research studies. OIT holds promise as a novel approach to managing food allergy. PMID:19063824

  5. Future Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent problem in westernized countries and there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy . A number of therapeutic strategies are under investigation targeting foods that most frequently provoke severe IgE-mediated anaphylactic reactions (peanut, tree nuts, shellfish) or are most common in children, such as cow’s milk and hen’s egg. Approaches being pursued are both food allergen-specific and non-specific. Allergen-specific approaches include oral, sublingual and epicutaneous immunotherapy (desensitization) with native food allergens, and mutated recombinant proteins, which have decreased IgE-binding activity, co-administered within heat-killed E.coli to generate maximum immune response. Diets containing extensively heated (baked) milk and egg represent an alternative approach to food oral immunotherapy and are already changing the paradigm of strict dietary avoidance for food-allergic patients. Non-specific approaches include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies, which may increase the threshold dose for food allergen in food-allergic patients, and a Chinese herbal formulation, which prevented peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a mouse model, and is currently being investigated in clinical trials. The variety of strategies for treating food allergy increases the likelihood of success and gives hope that accomplishing an effective therapy for food allergy is within reach. PMID:21277625

  6. Managing the Student with Severe Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Joanne M.; Ficca, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    School nurses play a key role in managing students with food allergies. It is becoming more common to encounter students with severe allergies to multiple foods, putting them at risk for anaphylaxis. It is essential that the school nurse have a clear understanding of food allergies and how to effectively manage students in the school setting.…

  7. Food Allergy: Tips to Remember

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk, eggs, peanuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish and tree nuts. In some food groups, especially tree nuts and seafood, an allergy to one member ... listed in common language (milk, egg, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, wheat, peanuts and soybeans). • Carry and know ...

  8. PEANUT AND OTHER FOOD ALLERGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past decade, there has been an increase in allergic reactions to peanut and other food proteins, often resulting in fatal reactions. The development of improved methods for both diagnosis and treatment of all allergies requires a better understanding of the allergenic proteins and the immune...

  9. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  10. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  11. Food allergy is associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections during childhood

    PubMed Central

    Woicka-Kolejwa, Katarzyna; Zaczeniuk, Magdalena; Majak, Paweł; Pawłowska-Iwanicka, Kamila; Kopka, Monika; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Jerzyńska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To find out whether children with food allergy have an increased risk of recurrent upper and lower respiratory tract infections and of asthma. Aim To describe the clinical profile of children diagnosed with food allergy referred to the Allergy Clinic. Material and methods We conducted a retrospective study to assess the patients’ demographic, anthropometric and clinical data. The analysis included data of all children by the age of 10 years (registered with the Allergy Clinic between 2012 and 2013) in whom IgE mediated food allergy had been diagnosed during 18 months of observation. Results We included 280 children into the analysis. Recurrent respiratory tract infections (rRTI), asthma and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were observed in 153 (54.6%), 96 (34.3%), 39 (13.9%), respectively, with a significant increasing trend across age-subgroups. In children from 1 to 2 years old, sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.03–14.87). In older children sensitization to allergens other than milk or egg decreases the risk of rRTI (OR = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.62); sensitization to egg decreased the risk of asthma diagnosis (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01–0.75). We did not identify food allergens which change the risk of GI symptoms in children. This finding was consistent throughout all age-subgroups. Conclusions Sensitization to β-lactoglobulin increased the risk of rRTI in children under 2 years of age nearly four times. The presence of sensitization to food allergens above 3 years of age did not increase the risk of developing clinical presentation of food allergy other than atopic dermatitis. PMID:27279819

  12. Oral Immunotherapy for Food Allergies.

    PubMed

    Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is a promising investigational therapy for food allergy. Clinical trials in peanut, milk, egg, and wheat allergy provide evidence that OIT can effectively desensitize a majority of individuals to a food allergen. While a portion of subjects demonstrate sustained unresponsiveness, the majority regain sensitivity with allergen avoidance. The safety and tolerability of OIT continue to limit its use in some patients. Virtually all studies report adverse reactions that are more frequent during dose escalation but may also occur during maintenance therapy. Recent studies have identified adjunctive therapies (such as omalizumab) which may mitigate adverse effects. There is a paucity of data on the long-term safety and efficacy of OIT. Further study is required before OIT is ready for routine clinical practice. This review is intended to provide the reader with an up-to-date understanding of OIT, including its mechanisms, efficacy, safety profile, and potential utility in clinical practice. PMID:27355816

  13. Prevalence of food allergy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    At present the only cure for food allergy is to avoid eating the food responsible for the allergy. Thus, food allergy or food hypersensitivity is a disease that is not only of concern to the individual who is affected but also to those involved directly and indirectly in supplying and preparing food for the food-allergic individual, and its impact on society should be evaluated on this basis. It is generally assumed that questionnaire-based studies vastly overestimate the prevalence of food hypersensitivity. The reported perceived prevalence of food hypersensitivity varies from 3.24% to 34.9%, which may be explained partly by the difference in reporting lifetime prevalence compared with point prevalence. However, of more importance is the apparent inverse correlation between response rate and prevalence (the higher the response rate, the lower the perceived prevalence). The three most-recent prevalence studies on food hypersensitivity (one on perceived food hypersensitivity and two on confirmed food hypersensitivity) all report estimates for prevalence of approximately 3%, but their criteria for including subjects as being positive are not identical, although they do overlap. Furthermore, because of differences in methodology there is no definitive information to indicate whether the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. However, the high prevalence of pollen-related food allergy in younger adults in the population suggests that the increase in pollen allergy is also being accompanied by an increase in pollen-related food allergy. PMID:16313682

  14. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease. PMID:23179518

  15. Promising treatments in development for food allergies.

    PubMed

    Rancé, Fabienne

    2004-11-01

    Up to 6% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have IgE-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. The only proven treatment is avoidance of the offending food, which can be identified using standardised allergic tests. However, several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, administered orally or by systemic injections, shows promising preliminary results, but these therapeutics are based on studies with insufficient scientific support, or are associated with a high risk of severe side effects. At present, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. However, promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, and various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T-cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure for food allergy in the near future. PMID:15571483

  16. Food Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Food Allergy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Food Allergy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  17. Future therapeutic options in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, P A

    2003-12-01

    Up to 5% of young children and 2% of adults suffer from food allergy. Among them many have immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy, a condition with potentially fatal allergic reactions. Several studies have addressed possible definite treatment options for food allergy. Immunotherapy, by the oral route or by systemic injections shows promising preliminary results, but current interpretation of these therapeutic options are mostly handicapped by studies with insufficient scientific support, or by severe side-effects. Currently, no studies can support pharmacotherapy. Finally, most promising results were recently published with anti-IgE antibodies in a human trial, or various approaches in a mouse model of food allergy (chinese herbal medicine, specific modulation of the T cell response). Rapidly evolving findings might provide hope for a cure of food allergy in the near future. PMID:14616094

  18. Reducing food allergy: is there promise for food applications?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of food allergy has been increasing in recent years. Food allergy can be deadly, and strict avoidance of foods containing allergenic proteins is the only effective way to prevent food-induced allergic reaction. This approach poses challenges, because allergens are not always accurately...

  19. [Food allergy and asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Micheau, P; Marchac, V; Scheinmann, P

    2003-04-01

    The links between food allergy and asthma are becoming more clear. The association of food allergy and asthma in the same child is unusual (less than 10% in atopic subjects). This association is however a sign of gravity leading to more severe manifestations of food allergy in asthmatic children. Compared with the non-asthmatic child, the asthmatic child has a 14-fold higher risk of developing a severe allergic reaction to the ingestion of food. The most commonly cited foods are fruits with a rind, cow's milk and, of course, nuts. Epidemiological data established from methodologically sound studies should enable a definition of the current allergic environment. Formal diagnosis is established with standardized tests. Treatment is oriented towards prevention associating a restricted diet, asthma control, patient education, and prescription of an emergency first aid kit with epinephrine. Supplementary inquiries are needed to determine the outcome in children with food allergy and respiratory symptoms. PMID:12843996

  20. Quality of life measures for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Flokstra-de Blok, B M J; Dubois, A E J

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy has become an emerging health problem in Western societies. Although food allergy is characterized by a relatively low mortality and an almost continual absence of physical symptoms, food allergic patients are continually confronted with the possibility of potentially severe reactions and the necessity of dietary vigilance. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) may be the only meaningful outcome measure available for food allergy measuring this continuous burden. HRQL may be measured with generic or disease-specific instruments. Generic instruments may be relatively unresponsive to differences or changes in health status, whereas disease-specific instruments are generally more sensitive for relatively subtle problems related to a particular illness. Recently, a number of disease-specific questionnaires have become available to measure the HRQL of food allergic patients. An important area for further research is the interpretation of the outcome of HRQL measures. In this respect, the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) is of special interest. In combination with the numbers needed to treat (NNT), this may give an ultimate insight into the clinical relevance of an intervention. Since there is still no cure for food allergy, the only available treatment is strict avoidance of the culprit food and provision of emergency treatment. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing food allergy. A number of studies have investigated the perceptions of parents whose children underwent a DBPCFC. In contrast to the parental perception, there is much currently still unknown about the effects of undergoing a DBPCFC in the perceptions of patients. In addition to the research on MCID and NNT of food allergy HRQL questionnaires, further research should focus on deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from food allergy HRQL questionnaires and the application of food allergy HRQL

  1. [Current features of food allergies: the need of allergy surveillance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in European populations has been evaluated at between 1.8 and 4.4%. In the French population it is 3.24%. This frequency, as well as the gravity of some manifestations, has already led to preventive and curative measures being taken in school settings. This increase is related to multiple environmental factors: changes in intestinal microflora, early diversification of foods in children, interference of drugs favoring clinical severity in adults. Allergenicity can be modified by food industry techniques. The appearance of novel foods (exotic proteins or those derived from animal feed, and soon GMOs), the growing use of food proteins as ingredients, constitute new risks. The absence of validated experimental methods for evaluating the allergic risk of food proteins makes it necessary to implement a policy of allergy vigilance for novel foods. Studies concerning the allergic risk for lupin flour, a new ingredient used in baked goods, are given as an example. They indicate the frequency of sensitization and cross peanut-lupin flour allergy, the low reactive threshold, indicating the risk of the level of incorporation presently allowed. They make possible current screening for this allergy in the population. Allergy vigilance is a recent concept that aims to set up surveillance of food allergy risks in a manner analogous to that of pharmacovigilance for drugs. A project for creating such a structure is being discussed. Although the central structure remains at the initiative of the Agence Française de Sécurité Sanitaire de l'Alimentation (French Agency for Food Safety) and the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (Institute of Health) the authors specify what a peripheral network of allergists should be, analyze the desired content of the bi-directional flow of information, and propose envisaging an intermediate regulatory organization, specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. The ongoing idea is that environmental

  2. Food allergy: riding the second wave of the allergy epidemic.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan; Allen, Katrina J

    2011-03-01

    Food allergy is a substantial and evolving public health issue, recently emerging over the last 10-15 yr as a 'second wave' of the allergy epidemic. It remains unclear why this new phenomenon has lagged decades behind the 'first wave' of asthma, allergic rhinitis and inhalant sensitization. In regions like Australia, which lead the respiratory epidemic, challenge-proven IgE-mediated food allergy now affects up to 10% of infants. Although their parents were among the first generation to experience the large-scale rise in allergic diseases, disorders of oral tolerance were previously uncommon. Of further concern, this new generation appears less likely to outgrow food allergy than their predecessors with long-term implications for disease burden. Allergic disease has been linked to the modern lifestyle including changing dietary patterns, changing intestinal commensal bacteria and vehicular pollution. It is not yet known whether the rise in food allergy is a harbinger of earlier and more severe effects of these progressive environmental changes or whether additional or unrelated lifestyle factors are implicated. New studies suggest environmental factors can produce epigenetic changes in gene expression and disease risk that may be potentially heritable across generations. The rising rates of maternal allergy, a strong direct determinant of allergic risk, could also be amplifying the effect of environmental changes. Preliminary evidence that non-Caucasian populations may be even more susceptible to the adverse effects of 'westernisation' has substantial global implications with progressive urbanization of the more populous regions in the developing world. Unravelling the environmental drivers is critical to curtail a potential tsunami of allergic disease. PMID:21332796

  3. Food Allergy Research and Education (FARE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Save Lives Donate Today Join the Teal Pumpkin Project Raise awareness of food allergies and promote ... Easy Steps to Taking Part in the Teal Pumpkin Project Thursday, September 15, 2016 4:31:56 ...

  4. Severe Food Allergy Reactions in Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Information OppNet NIDB NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Institutes at NIH List of Institutes, Centers & ... Search NIH Research Matters' stories In this Edition Learning What H5N1 Needs to Spread Severe Food Allergy ...

  5. Food Allergy: Common Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavisha Y; Volcheck, Gerald W

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is a growing concern, and recognition of symptoms, knowledge of common food allergens, and management of reactions are important for patients and practitioners. Symptoms of a classic IgE-mediated food allergy vary in severity and can include any combination of laryngeal edema, wheezing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, urticaria, angioedema, and hypotension. Many foods can induce an allergic reaction, but the most commonly implicated foods include cow's milk, egg, peanut, tree nut, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Milk and egg allergy generally develop and are outgrown in childhood. Peanut and tree nut allergy can occur during childhood or adulthood, are less likely to be outgrown, and tend to cause more fatal reactions. Given the possibility of life-threatening reactions, it is important to recognize the potential for cross-reactivity among food groups. Diagnosis of food allergy includes skin prick testing, specific serum IgE testing, and oral food challenges. Management is centered on avoidance of allergenic and cross-reacting foods and early recognition and immediate treatment of reactions. Treatment protocols to desensitize patients to food are currently under investigation. PMID:26434966

  6. Nonmurine animal models of food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Ricki M; Ermel, Richard W; Frick, Oscar L

    2003-01-01

    Food allergy can present as immediate hypersensitivity [manifestations mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E], delayed-type hypersensitivity (reactions associated with specific T lymphocytes), and inflammatory reactions caused by immune complexes. For reasons of ethics and efficacy, investigations in humans to determine sensitization and allergic responses of IgE production to innocuous food proteins are not feasible. Therefore, animal models are used a) to bypass the innate tendency to develop tolerance to food proteins and induce specific IgE antibody of sufficient avidity/affinity to cause sensitization and upon reexposure to induce an allergic response, b) to predict allergenicity of novel proteins using characteristics of known food allergens, and c) to treat food allergy by using immunotherapeutic strategies to alleviate life-threatening reactions. The predominant hypothesis for IgE-mediated food allergy is that there is an adverse reaction to exogenous food proteins or food protein fragments, which escape lumen hydrolysis, and in a polarized helper T cell subset 2 (Th2) environment, immunoglobulin class switching to allergen-specific IgE is generated in the immune system of the gastrointestinal-associated lymphoid tissues. Traditionally, the immunologic characterization and toxicologic studies of small laboratory animals have provided the basis for development of animal models of food allergy; however, the natural allergic response in large animals, which closely mimic allergic diseases in humans, can also be useful as models for investigations involving food allergy. PMID:12573913

  7. Food allergy in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K

    2015-01-01

    In young children, food allergy is usually acquired via the gastrointestinal tract and directed toward egg and milk. Adolescent and adult patients, however, mainly acquire food allergy via primary sensitization to inhalant allergens on the basis of cross-reactivity between proteins in inhalant sources and in food. This type of food allergy is frequently mediated by sensitization to broadly represented allergens, or so-called panallergens. Food allergic reactions in adult patients - similar to those in children - range in severity from very mild and local symptoms, as in contact urticaria of the oral mucosa, to systemic symptoms involving distal organs, to a fatal outcome. Plant foods, such as fruits, nuts, and vegetables, are the most prevalent allergenic foods in this age group. PMID:26022864

  8. [Treatment and management of food allergy].

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo

    2009-11-01

    Management for food allergy consists of treatment for hypersensitive reactions by causative foods and prophylactic control of food allergy. The former is administration of histamine H1 receptor antagonist, adrenaline and steroid. It is recommended that all patients with a history of severe reactions carry a device for self-injection of adrenaline (Epipen). The latter is avoidance of the relevant food allergens. Nutritional instruction by skillful dietitians is important to prevent the nutritional defect and improve the quality of life of food-allergic patients. PMID:19899529

  9. [Immunological background and pathomechanisms of food allergies].

    PubMed

    Schülke, Stefan; Scheurer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in immunology have greatly improved our understanding of the pathomechanisms of food allergies. Food allergies are caused and maintained by complex interactions of the innate and adaptive immune system involving antigen-presenting cells (APC), T cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), epithelial cells (EC) and effectors cells. Additionally, epigenetic factors, the intestinal microbiome and nutritional factors modulating the gastrointestinal lymphatic tissue probably have a significant impact on allergy development. However, why certain individuals develop tolerance while others mount allergic responses, the factors defining the allergenicity of food proteins, as well as the immunological mechanisms triggering allergy development have yet to be analyzed in detail. PMID:27177897

  10. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    PubMed

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary. PMID:26046164

  11. Food allergy knowledge, perception of food allergy labeling, and level of dietary practice: A comparison between children with and without food allergy experience

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yongmi; Ju, Seyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The prevalence of food allergies in Korean children aged 6 to 12 years increased from 10.9% in 1995 to 12.6% in 2012 according to nationwide population studies. Treatment for food allergies is avoidance of allergenic-related foods and epinephrine auto-injector (EPI) for accidental allergic reactions. This study compared knowledge and perception of food allergy labeling and dietary practices of students. SUBJECTS/METHODS The study was conducted with the fourth to sixth grade students from an elementary school in Yongin. A total of 437 response rate (95%) questionnaires were collected and statistically analyzed. RESULTS The prevalence of food allergy among respondents was 19.7%, and the most common food allergy-related symptoms were urticaria, followed by itching, vomiting and nausea. Food allergens, other than 12 statutory food allergens, included cheese, cucumber, kiwi, melon, clam, green tea, walnut, grape, apricot and pineapple. Children with and without food allergy experience had a similar level of knowledge on food allergies. Children with food allergy experience thought that food allergy-related labeling on school menus was not clear or informative. CONCLUSION To understand food allergies and prevent allergic reactions to school foodservice among children, schools must provide more concrete and customized food allergy education. PMID:25671074

  12. Prospects for Prevention of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    A rise in both prevalence and public awareness of food allergy in developed countries means that clinicians and researchers are frequently asked to explain reasons for the increase in food allergy, and families are eager to know whether they can take steps to prevent food allergy in their children. In this review, we outline leading theories on risk factors for early life food allergy. We summarize the leading hypotheses to explain the increase in food allergy as "the 5 Ds": dry skin, diet, dogs, dribble (shared microbial exposure), and vitamin D. We discuss currently available evidence for these theories and how these can be translated into clinical recommendations. With the exception of dietary intervention studies, evidence for each of these theories is observational, and we describe the implications of this for explaining risk to families. Current infant feeding recommendations are that infants should be introduced to solids around the age of 4 to 6 months irrespective of family history risk and that allergenic solids do not need to be avoided, either by infants at the time of solid food introduction or by mothers whilst pregnant or lactating. Additional potential strategies currently being explored include optimization of early life skin barrier function through a decrease in drying soaps and detergents and an increase in the use of nonallergenic moisturizers. The investigation of the role of microbiota and vitamin D is ongoing and cannot yet be translated into clinical recommendations. PMID:26755097

  13. Preventing Food Allergies by Tricking Dendritic Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies are adverse responses to components (usually proteins) within the foods we eat, which result in a self-damaging response from our immune system. A myriad of cellular and molecular components are involved in the decision to tolerate or respond to foreign molecules that pass through the...

  14. Non-IgE mediated food allergy - update of recent progress in mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Jyonouchi, Harumi

    2012-10-01

    As opposed to IgE mediated food allergy (IFA) which can cause fatal outcomes, non-IgE mediated FA (NFA) was initially thought to be a benign condition mediated by cellular immune responses, primarily affecting the GI mucosa. NFA children were thought to recover well upon avoidance of offending food. Although pathogenesis of NFA is still not well understood, recent studies indicate widely variable clinical manifestations of NFA. In parallel to our better appreciation of clinical features of NFA, complex regulatory mechanisms of gut immune homeostasis have become known with progress in our understanding of the gut mucosal immune system. In addition, a role of gut commensal flora on the gut immune system has also become better understood along with the effects of dietary components. Subtle changes in interactions between environmental factors (microbiota, dietary components, etc.) and the gut immune responses can affect gut immune homeostasis, which can result in undesired adverse reactions to food proteins (FPs). This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of gut immune homeostasis and recently revealed widely variable clinical presentations of NFA with respect to it pathogenesis. PMID:22680623

  15. An update on immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent investigation has resulted in significant advances toward definitive therapeutic options for food allergy. In this review, we will explore novel immunotherapeutic interventions for the active treatment of food allergy. Recent findings Because the injection route for allergen immunotherapy to foods has been associated with an unacceptable risk of severe anaphylactic reactions, use of mucosally targeted therapeutic strategies is of significant interest for food allergy. Allergen-specific immunotherapeutic approaches such as oral, sublingual, epicutaneous, and peptide immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in increasing threshold dose and inducing immunologic changes associated with both desensitization and oral tolerance in animal and human trials. More global immunomodulatory strategies, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine and anti-IgE therapy have been shown to effectively target the allergic response, and clinical trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy and safety in human food allergy. Summary The advent of therapies that target the mucosal immune response to promote oral tolerance have shown great promise in the treatment of food hypersensitivity. However, there is still significant risk of adverse reactions associated with these therapeutic strategies and further study is needed to carefully advance these therapeutic modalities toward general clinical implementation. PMID:20856110

  16. Food Allergies: Being Aware and Planning for Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, parents and early childhood educators have become increasingly aware of food allergies in childhood. And since food allergies account for about 150 deaths a year, there is good reason to be concerned. The early childhood program can provide valuable learning for those without food allergies through explanations about why certain…

  17. Optimizing the Diagnosis of Food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Making an accurate diagnosis when evaluating a patient with a possible food allergy is particularly important both to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions and to prevent life threatening reactions. The testing modalities used routinely in clinical practice, including skin prick testing and food specific IgE levels, have limited accuracy, and a physician-supervised oral food challenge is often required to make a definitive diagnosis. Given the labor-intensive nature of this test and the risk of inducing an allergic reaction, researchers have investigated a number of alternative diagnostic modalities to improve the accuracy of food allergy testing. Testing for IgE antibodies to particular protein components in foods has already shown promise to improve diagnostics and has entered clinical practice. Additional modalities are under study that show potential including epitope binding, T cell studies, basophil activation and others. PMID:25459577

  18. Food allergy: from diagnosis to treatment.

    PubMed

    Scarpellini, E; Tack, J

    2012-01-01

    Adverse food reactions, an adverse health effect arising from an immune or nonimmune response that occurs reproducibly on the exposure to a given food, can be divided into toxic and hypersensitivity reactions. When an immunologic mechanism has been shown, hypersensitivity food reactions should be referred to as food allergy that may be IgE- or non-IgE-mediated. Food allergy diagnosis is mainly guided by a correct and accurate history and physical examination, thus leading to prick test and elimination diets. The treatment gold standard is still represented by an elimination diet together with antihistamines and corticosteroid usage in order to reduce the gastrointestinal and potentially life-threatening systemic symptoms. Other treatments are currently under investigation with promising results. PMID:22722444

  19. Perfluoroalkyl substances and food allergies in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of organic compounds that are persistent in the environment due to their stable carbon-fluorine backbone, which is not susceptible to degradation. Research suggests these chemicals may exert an immunotoxic effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between four PFASs - perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) - with food sensitization and food allergies in adolescent participants (ages 12-19years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 and 2007-2010, respectively. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association between individual PFASs with food sensitization (defined as having at least 1 food-specific IgE level≥0.35kU/L) in NHANES 2005-2006 and food allergies (self-reported) in NHANES 2007-2010. Serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxS were statistically significantly associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies in NHANES 2007-2010. When using IgE levels as a marker of food sensitization, we found that serum PFNA was inversely associated with food sensitization (NHANES 2005-2006). In conclusion, we found that serum levels of PFASs were associated with higher odds to have self-reported food allergies. Conversely, adolescents with higher serum PFNA were less likely to be sensitized to food allergens. These results, along with previous studies, warrant further investigation, such as well-designed longitudinal studies. PMID:26722671

  20. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  1. The Prevalence and Natural History of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the prevalence of food allergy is increasing. Not only are more children being diagnosed with food allergies, but studies suggest that when people outgrow their food allergies, it is taking longer than was previously thought. Studies in recent years have noted factors that may lead to a lower likelihood of developing a food allergy, including the early introduction of common food allergens, having a sufficient vitamin D level, or having a higher maternal intake of peanut early in pregnancy. Given a recent report that sensitization to common food allergens did not increase from the late 1980s/early 1990s to the mid-2000s, further studies will need to examine if the rise in food allergy prevalence is due to a change in the relationship between sensitization and clinical allergy or changes in the recognition and diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:27333776

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Food Allergy and Food-Induced Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hemant P; Bansil, Shweta; Uygungil, Burcin

    2015-12-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence. In order for pediatric clinicians to appropriately diagnose and manage food allergies, the characteristic signs and symptoms of these potentially severe reactions must be recognized. Unlike nonimmunologic adverse food reactions (such as lactose intolerance and food poisoning), food allergies by definition are immune-mediated responses that occur reproducibly on food ingestion. The varying clinical presentations of food allergy include IgE-mediated disorders, mixed IgE- and cell-mediated disorders, and cell-mediated food allergies. This review describes the clinical manifestations of each of these categories of food allergy, with special emphasis on recognition of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:26456438

  3. [Diagnostics and management of food allergies in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Spiesz, Karin; Huttegger, Isidor

    2015-09-01

    Food allergies can result in life-threatening reactions and diminish quality of life. The prevalence of food allergies is increasing with large regional variability. A few food allergens cover the majority of food-related reactions (cow`s milk, egg, wheat, soy, fish, crustacean, nuts and peanut). Food reactions can be categorized in IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated, the latter of which remaining often a clue in the diagnosis. Treatment of food allergy involves mainly strict avoidance of the trigger food. Medications help to manage symptoms of disease, but currently, there is no cure for food allergy. PMID:26442851

  4. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I – 48%, type II – 6%, type III – 10%, and type IV – 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

  5. Causes, symptoms and prevention of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta Agnieszka; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2013-04-01

    Currently, food allergy is considered to be one of the diseases of civilization, which occurs as a result of the changing conditions of life and environmental changes (e.g. increased popularity of cesarean delivery, excessive hygienic regime during the neonatal-infantile period). Based on medical statistics, it can be concluded that this problem will be intensified. Consumption of food is one of the main activities in human life. What and how one eats affects our health. Meals eaten regularly provide the components necessary for the energy metabolism. Multicultural society, travel, and new trends affect the diversity of food consumed. The mechanism of food allergy reaction covers all 4 types of the immune response of the classical division of Gell and Coombs. The percentage of the immune response was assessed by Chandra as follows: type I - 48%, type II - 6%, type III - 10%, and type IV - 18%. The article presents the risk factors for food allergy, most common symptoms, preventive measures and characteristics of food products that are potential allergens. PMID:24278058

  6. Diagnosis of food allergy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rosser, E J

    1993-07-15

    The diagnosis of food allergy was confirmed in 51 dogs while the responsiveness to a 60-day home-cooked restricted dietary trial (elimination-diet trial) was evaluated. The primary clinical sign of allergy detected and evaluated in all dogs was persistent and nonseasonally pruritic skin disease. The duration of time between starting the elimination-diet trial and remission of clinical signs was recorded. Dogs were then reexposed to diets that had been fed before testing, and the duration of time before pruritus recurred was recorded. The elapsed time during which dogs were being fed an elimination diet before remission of clinical signs was 1 to 3 weeks in 13 dogs, 4 to 6 weeks in 25 dogs, 7 to 8 weeks in 10 dogs, and 9 to 10 weeks in 3 dogs. Findings indicated that the recommendation of a 3-week elimination-diet trial for diagnosis of food allergy was adequate for only 25% of the dogs. It is recommended that test diets be fed for at least 10 weeks before a food allergy is ruled out. PMID:8407485

  7. Food intolerance and allergy--a review.

    PubMed

    Lessof, M H

    1983-01-01

    Specific food intolerance needs to be distinguished from obsessional states in which those who are affected have an aversion to numerous foods. Even in cases where specific food intolerance can be demonstrated, the diagnosis of food allergy depends on additional evidence that the patient's reaction is based on an abnormal immunological response. In food allergy, skin and laboratory tests may detect the presence of an IgE-mediated reaction, particularly in patients with asthma or eczema and especially where the foods involved are highly allergenic--such as egg, fish, nuts and milk. However, many patients with proven food intolerance have negative tests, suggesting that other immunological or non-immunological mechanisms are responsible. Laboratory tests for non-IgE reactions are unreliable. Where it is difficult to show a connection between individual foods and an allergic response--as in patients with urticaria provoked by food additives--one of the reasons for diagnostic difficulty is that the offending substances may be present in a wide range of common foods. If the diagnosis is to be firmly established in such cases, it is necessary to show that symptoms remit on an elimination diet and recur after a placebo-controlled challenge. PMID:6351151

  8. Towards a cure for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Skripak, Justin M; Sampson, Hugh A

    2008-12-01

    Over the past two decades, food allergies have become both more prevalent and long lasting. This burgeoning problem has not been met with any therapeutic options to date, and patients must attempt to avoid known allergenic foods and treat any allergic reactions with 'as-needed' medications. There are a number of promising emerging therapeutic modalities for food allergy, including allergen-specific and allergen non-specific immunotherapeutic approaches. Although the allergen-specific approaches have some distinct differences, they all attempt to induce tolerance by exposing the patient to an allergen via the mucosal route (oral tolerance induction). Allergen non-specific approaches include biologics to suppress free total IgE levels (e.g. anti-IgE antibody) or to induce more general immune suppression (Chinese herbal medication). PMID:18848884

  9. Food Allergies: Novel Mechanisms and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Di Costanzo, Margherita; Paparo, Lorella; Cosenza, Linda; Di Scala, Carmen; Nocerino, Rita; Aitoro, Rosita; Canani, Roberto Berni

    2016-01-01

    Childhood food allergy (FA) rates have rapidly increased with significant direct medical costs for the health care system and even larger costs for the families with a food-allergic child. The possible causes of food allergy become the target of intense scrutiny in recent years. Increasing evidence underline the importance in early life of gut microbiome in the development of allergic diseases. There are a range of factors in the modern environment that may be associated with changes to both the gut microbiome and risk of FA, such as mode of delivery, antibiotic exposure, infant feeding practices, farming environment, and country of origin. Knowledge of the relationship between early life gut microbiome and allergic diseases may facilitate development of novel preventive and treatment strategies. Based on our current knowledge, there are no currently available approved therapies for food allergy. More studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of allergen-specific and allergen-nonspecific approaches, as well as combination approaches. PMID:26530804

  10. Recent advancements in the therapeutics of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Kriti; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-12-01

    Food allergy is a health complication induced by certain food in the susceptible individuals. Due to lack of permanent cure and the global prevalence, the preventive approach is highly required for food allergy. Recently published patents have shown significant improvements in the food allergy research. In this review, an attempt has been done to highlight the recently developed patents related to the detection of allergens in food mixture. Also, patents regarding treatment options like use of herbal therapy, antihistamines, pre-, pro and synbiotics, nanocarriers, hypoallergens and several immune molecules towards amelioration of food allergy have been reviewed in this article. PMID:24032435

  11. Understanding Food Allergies and Intolerances

    MedlinePlus

    ... eat some amount of fructose without problems. By keeping a food diary, you can determine how much fructose is too much for you. Limit intake of: Fruit, fruit juices and dried fruit. Honey. Sodas and ...

  12. Food allergy in Singapore: opening a new chapter

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Alison Joanne; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-01-01

    With the exception of shellfish, the overall food allergy rates in Singapore have not reached the epidemic proportions of the West. The rates of egg, milk and fish allergies remain low. However, the patterns of some food allergies in Singapore have changed over the last decade. For example, peanut allergy, once rare in Singapore, is now the most common cause of anaphylaxis in children. Studies analysing lifestyle practices, particularly with respect to prevention of food allergy, are necessary in order for practitioners to understand global differences and maintain this low prevalence. PMID:24862746

  13. Clinical Management of Psychosocial Concerns Related to Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda; Shemesh, Eyal; Bender, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 4% to 8% of children in the United States are diagnosed with food allergy, and more than 40% of US children with food allergy experience severe allergic reactions. Families trying to avoid foods that may trigger an allergic reaction and ensure adequate treatment of allergic reactions that do occur face numerous challenges. The rise in the number of children diagnosed with food allergies underscores the importance of food allergy-related interventions to address elevated psychosocial concerns, such as parenting stress, anxiety, and worries about bullying. This review provides an overview of common psychosocial concerns among children with food allergy and their families across the developmental spectrum, and offers guidance to medical providers regarding the identification and treatment of food allergy-related psychosocial challenges. PMID:26968959

  14. A practical view of immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is common and sometimes life threatening for Korean children. The current standard treatment of allergen avoidance and self-injectable epinephrine does not change the natural course of food allergy. Recently, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapies have been studied for their effectiveness against food allergy. While various rates of desensitization (36% to 100%) and tolerance (28% to 75%) have been induced by immunotherapies for food allergy, no single established protocol has been shown to be both effective and safe. In some studies, immunologic changes after immunotherapy for food allergy have been revealed. Adverse reactions to these immunotherapies have usually been localized, but severe systemic reactions have been observed in some cases. Although immunotherapy cannot be recommended for routine practice yet, results from recent studies demonstrate that immunotherapies are promising for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:26958062

  15. Quality of Life in Food Allergy Patients and Their Families.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Madeline; Warren, Christopher; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric food allergy is a growing health problem in the United States that has been found to adversely impact the quality of life of both affected children and their caregivers. This article provides a review of how food allergy affects the quality of life of patients and their families within the domains of school, social activities, relationships, and daily life. Efforts to improve food allergy-related quality of life among caregivers are also discussed. PMID:26456443

  16. Food allergy diagnosis and therapy: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Aleena; Kohli, Arunima; Nadeau, Kari C

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a growing worldwide epidemic that adversely effects up to 10% of the population. Causes and risk factors remain unclear and diagnostic methods are imprecise. There is currently no accepted treatment for food allergy. Therefore, there is an imminent need for greater understanding of food allergies, revised diagnostics and development of safe, effective therapies. Oral immunotherapy provides a particularly promising avenue, but is still highly experimental and not ready for clinical use. PMID:23998729

  17. The rapidly changing world of food allergy in children

    PubMed Central

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Meyer, Rosan; Fox, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a common problem in childhood. The term is used to include both immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated and non-IgE-mediated food allergies, which have a significant effect on the quality of life of patients and their families. In this report, we aim to discuss recent advances in the diagnosis, management, and treatment modalities of food allergy in children. PMID:25926986

  18. Allergy Capitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies ...

  19. Genetically engineered foods: implications for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Hefle, Susan L

    2002-06-01

    The products of agricultural biotechnology, including such common foods as corn and soybeans, are already reaching the consumer marketplace. Consumer exposure to such foods is already fairly significant, particularly in the USA. Thus far, no reports exist regarding allergic reactions to the crops that have been approved for introduction into the food supply. These crops have been modified to only a minor extent by comparison with their traditional counterparts, and the level of expression of new and novel proteins is quite low. Thus, consumer exposure to these novel proteins is very low and unlikely to result in allergic sensitization. Nevertheless, foods produced through agricultural biotechnology must be assessed for safety, including their potential allergenicity, before they may be approved by worldwide regulatory agencies for entry into the food supply. However, the adequacy of the current approach to the assessment of the potential allergenicity of foods produced through agricultural biotechnology has been the subject of considerable scientific and regulatory debate. PMID:12045422

  20. Food Allergy Treatment and Avoidance (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... come in contact with the food during the manufacturing process. As an example, a blueberry muffin may ... are reading. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to food additives Clinical manifestations of food allergy: An overview Clinical ...

  1. Treatments for food allergy: how close are we?

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Sampson, Hugh A

    2012-12-01

    Food allergy continues to be a challenging health problem, with prevalence continuing to increase and anaphylaxis still an unpredictable possibility. While improvements in diagnosis are more accurately identifying affected individuals, treatment options remain limited. The cornerstone of treatment relies on strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding management of allergic reactions. Despite vigilance in avoidance, accidental ingestions and reactions continue to occur. With recent advances in the understanding of humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy and mechanisms of tolerance, several therapeutic strategies for food allergies are currently being investigated with the hopes of providing a cure or long-term remission from food allergy. PMID:22434517

  2. [The epidemiology of food allergy in Europe].

    PubMed

    Grabenhenrich, Linus B

    2016-06-01

    The interpretation of epidemiological data on food hypersensitivities should clearly separate two issues: the disposition to respond symptomatically to certain foods and the actual reactions occurring, which can be observed only when there is sufficient consumption or targeted exposure/provocation.The exact specification of the case definition is essential for reporting and interpreting food hypersensitivity frequencies. In Europe, prevalence estimates of self-reported reactions are reported from 5.7 to 61.6 %, and physician-diagnosed hypersensitivities from 0.2 to 4.2 %. Consideration of only double-blind proven immediate-type reactions gave estimates ranging from 0.0 to 2.2 %. The disposition for severe reactions against food might be less frequent, but cannot be estimated robustly from published data. The only data available for Germany estimates a prevalence of IgE-mediated reactions of 2,5% for Berlin.The most common triggers of early childhood food allergy are cow's milk and hen's egg, which usually cause mild symptoms, limited to the skin. Food allergy aquired in infancy usually disappears by early school age.The European Anaphylaxis Registry documents the spectrum of severe allergic reactions. England has a larger case series for fatal reactions. No incidence can be estimated from either approach, because reporting is voluntary. Additionally, the discussed data does not inform about the clinical relevance of severe allergic reactions against foods.Future systematic studies about the incidence and course of food hypersensitivity should examine sufficiently large groups of people using objective diagnostic criteria. PMID:27194422

  3. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of food allergy and food tolerance.

    PubMed

    Chinthrajah, R Sharon; Hernandez, Joseph D; Boyd, Scott D; Galli, Stephen J; Nadeau, Kari C

    2016-04-01

    Ingestion of innocuous antigens, including food proteins, normally results in local and systemic immune nonresponsiveness in a process termed oral tolerance. Oral tolerance to food proteins is likely to be intimately linked to mechanisms that are responsible for gastrointestinal tolerance to large numbers of commensal microbes. Here we review our current understanding of the immune mechanisms responsible for oral tolerance and how perturbations in these mechanisms might promote the loss of oral tolerance and development of food allergies. Roles for the commensal microbiome in promoting oral tolerance and the association of intestinal dysbiosis with food allergy are discussed. Growing evidence supports cutaneous sensitization to food antigens as one possible mechanism leading to the failure to develop or loss of oral tolerance. A goal of immunotherapy for food allergies is to induce sustained desensitization or even true long-term oral tolerance to food allergens through mechanisms that might in part overlap with those associated with the development of natural oral tolerance. PMID:27059726

  4. Food allergy training event for restaurant staff; a pilot evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Samuel; Billmeier Kindratt, Tiffany; Smith, Helen; Reading, David

    2014-01-01

    A previous cross-sectional survey highlighted that restaurant staff in Brighton had gaps in their knowledge of food allergy, which could lead to the provision of unsafe meals to food-allergic customers. A food allergy training event was developed by a multi-disciplinary team (health service researcher, clinician, teacher and patient group representative) to equip restaurant staff with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely serve food-allergic customers. This evaluation summarises the training event's impact on participants' knowledge of food allergy and their satisfaction with the event. No attendee had previously attended any formal training on food allergy. The percentage of participants who answered all true-false questions correctly increased from 82% before the training event to 91% afterwards. The percentage of participants who were able to name at least three common allergens increased from 9% to 64%. Both quantitative and qualitative feedback was positive. Restaurant staff require a good understanding of food allergy to ensure that food-allergic customers are kept safe, and their restaurants operate within the law. This food allergy training event improved participants' absolute knowledge of food allergy, and attendees changed practice. Recommendations are made which could improve the impact and uptake of future food allergy training events. PMID:25225607

  5. Food Allergy Educational Needs of Pediatric Dietitians: A Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groetch, Marion E.; Christie, Lynn; Vargas, Perla A.; Jones, Stacie M.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine pediatric dietitians' self-reported proficiency, educational needs, and preferences regarding food allergy (FA) management. Design and Setting: An Internet-based, anonymous survey was distributed to the Pediatric Nutrition Practice Group (PNPG) of the American Dietetic Association. Participants: Respondents (n = 311) were…

  6. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Eun

    2016-01-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy. PMID:26996550

  7. Update on Early Nutrition and Food Allergy in Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-05-01

    With growing evidence of an increase in the prevalence, food allergy has been emerged as a new public health problem. As treatment and management of food allergy remain challenging, more attention has been paid to the importance of prevention of food allergy. Although the exact mechanism of recent epidemic is not fully understood, it is suggested that nutritional exposure in early life may play an important role in food allergy development. The underlying hypothesis is that nutritional status or food exposure in the critical period of fetal development can affect the programming of immune system and modify the risk of immunologic reactions to foods in postnatal life. We review accumulating epidemiological studies to examine an association between nutritional exposure during pregnancy or early infancy and food allergy development in children. We also discuss recent advances in the studies of the genetic and epigenetic regulation of food allergy and evaluate the role of early nutrition in food allergy development to provide a new perspective on the prevention of food allergy. PMID:26996550

  8. Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... not bother most other people. People who have allergies often are sensitive to more than one thing. Substances that often cause reactions are Pollen Dust mites Mold spores Pet dander Food Insect ...

  9. The rise of food allergy: Environmental factors and emerging treatments.

    PubMed

    Benedé, Sara; Blázquez, Ana Belen; Chiang, David; Tordesillas, Leticia; Berin, M Cecilia

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy has rapidly increased in prevalence, suggesting an important role for environmental factors in disease susceptibility. The immune response of food allergy is characterized by IgE production, and new findings from mouse and human studies indicate an important role of the cytokine IL-9, which is derived from both T cells and mast cells, in disease manifestations. Emerging evidence suggests that route of exposure to food, particularly peanut, is important. Exposure through the skin promotes sensitization while early exposure through the gastrointestinal tract promotes tolerance. Evidence from mouse studies indicate a role of the microbiome in development of food allergy, which is supported by correlative human studies showing a dysbiosis in food allergy. There is no approved treatment for food allergy, but emerging therapies are focused on allergen immunotherapy to provide desensitization, while pre-clinical studies are focused on using adjuvants or novel delivery approaches to improve efficacy and safety of immunotherapy. PMID:27322456

  10. Food allergy in gastroenterologic diseases: Review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mansueto, Pasquale; Montalto, Giuseppe; Pacor, Maria Luisa; Esposito-Pellitteri, Maria; Ditta, Vito; Bianco, Claudia Lo; Leto-Barone, Stefania Maria; Lorenzo, Gabriele Di

    2006-01-01

    Food allergy is a common and increasing problem worldwide. The newly-found knowledge might provide novel experimental strategies, especially for laboratory diagnosis. Approximately 20% of the population alters their diet for a perceived adverse reaction to food, but the application of double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, the “gold standard” for diagnosis of food allergy, shows that questionnaire-based studies overestimate the prevalence of food allergies. The clinical disorders determined by adverse reactions to food can be classified on the basis of immunologic or nonimmunologic mechanisms and the organ system or systems affected. Diagnosis of food allergy is based on clinical history, skin prick tests, and laboratory tests to detect serum-food specific IgE, elimination diets and challenges. The primary therapy for food allergy is to avoid the responsible food. Antihistamines might partially relieve oral allergy syndrome and IgE-mediated skin symptoms, but they do not block systemic reactions. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in treating chronic IgE-mediated disorders. Epinephrine is the mainstay of treatment for anaphylaxis. Experimental therapies for IgE-mediated food allergy have been evaluated, such as humanized IgG anti-IgE antibodies and allergen specific immunotherapy. PMID:17203514

  11. GASTROINTESTINAL TSLP IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Food allergy is a major public health problem affecting 6-8% of children in the United States, but there is a dearth of information on pathogenesis or preventative strategies. The proposed studies aim to assess mechanisms of food allergy pathogenesis and identify potential tri...

  12. Food Allergy Education for School Nurses: A Needs Assessment Survey by the Consortium of Food Allergy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Suzanna K.; Vargas, Perla A.; Noone, Sally; Steele, Pam; Sicherer, Scott H.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in school-age children. School nurses are a primary health care resource for children with food allergy and must be prepared to manage allergen avoidance and respond in the event of an allergic reaction. An anonymous survey was administered to school nurses attending their association meetings to determine their…

  13. Therapeutic approaches for the treatment of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Railey, Mary Dell; Burks, A Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Food allergy is a life-changing and potentially life-threatening diagnosis, affecting approximately 6% of children and 4% of adults in the United States. A small number of foods account for the vast majority of food allergies, and the reactions after ingestion of a food to which a person is allergic are varied. At present, the standard of care for food-allergic patients is strict avoidance along with immediate access to self-injectable epinephrine and antihistamines. New treatment options are on the horizon. This review discusses the current research in the field of food allergy. Remarkable progress in the field of food allergy treatment demonstrates promise for disease-modifying therapies to be available clinically in the near future. PMID:20345335

  14. [Food allergy: definition, diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1996-05-01

    Contrary to the lay and media perception, adverse reactions to foods (and food additives) occur less often than believed by the patients. The term food intolerance (FI) is widely misused as a cause of all sorts of symptoms and diseases. This diagnosis is often based on "alternative" techniques. Food allergy (FA) is the correct diagnosis if the symptoms resulting from the ingestion of a food (or an ingredient) are due to an immune mechanism. This diagnosis is seldom difficult in the case of a severe reaction immediately after ingestion of the food and when skin prick tests and/or IgE antibodies to the incriminated food are clearly positive. However, the best way to establish FA/FI is-apart from exclusion from the diet, which tends to have a marked placebo effect-the performance of proper double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). Evidently, there are difficulties in conducting studies of this nature in a large population sample, and so far only three prevalence studies in Dutch and English adults have been based on DBPCFC. The reported prevalences of FA/FI (questionnaire answers) were 12% to 19%, whereas the confirmed prevalences varied from 0.8% to 2.4%. For additive intolerance the prevalence varied between 0.01 to 0.23%. The consequences of mistaken perception of FA/FI, which can have a major social impact in financial and health terms, require an information campaign for doctors, lay and media in connection with these problems. PMID:8693302

  15. Diagnosis, Management, and Investigational Therapies for Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Mike; Wright, Benjamin L.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods—2 major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:25633563

  16. Impact of food allergies on school nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher; Muñoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J; Arbit, Julie

    2004-10-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called anaphylaxis, have occurred in schools. In a nationwide telephone survey of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% reported an increase in children with food allergies in their schools over the last 5 years; more than one third had 10 or more students with food allergies; 78% did staff training as a preventive strategy, with 74% developing their own training guidelines; and 90% stated students' epinephrine was stored in the nurse's office. Standardized training in food allergies as well as timely access to epinephrine is needed to respond appropriately to an anaphylactic reaction in the school setting. PMID:15469377

  17. Molecular evolution in food allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Barocci, Fiorella; DE Amici, Mara; Marseglia, Gian L

    2016-10-01

    Traditional allergological diagnostics often provide laboratory data that seem to correspond with similar positive results in different patients. However, with technological developments and the introduction of molecular diagnostics, it is possible to extract and highlight the differences in the serological laboratory data, to obtain detailed specificity on the various allergen components in different clinical settings. Allergological diagnostics prove to be increasingly useful in accurately distinguishing "cross-reactivity" and "cosensitization". This aspect is very important especially in patients who are, with a traditional diagnosis, polysensitized. Molecular diagnosis in allergology has expanded its range of applications thanks to the ability to IgE dose specific (in addition to classic total IgE serum) not only to allergens, food and inhalants, but also to the individual protein components which make up the allergenic source. It is essential to establish a correct diagnosis in order to determine the appropriate therapy. Therefore it is crucial to discern whether a patient is truly allergic because he presents specific IgE for molecules of a species or if the positivity is given from the structural homology between the different proteins. Molecular diagnostics emerges as a valuable tool for the discrimination of allergic patients and to differentiate between "true allergies" and "cross-reactivity". Molecular diagnostics should be used in a targeted manner for an accurate assessment and diagnosis, which would also reduce the use of oral challenges, to predict severe reactions and allergy persistence. PMID:26091488

  18. Food allergy update: more than a peanut of a problem.

    PubMed

    Husain, Zain; Schwartz, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Food allergies have become a significant medical and legal concern for children worldwide, as there is a rising incidence of potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions. The most common foods implicated include cow milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut, tree nuts such as walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, and pistachios, fish and shellfish. The majority of food allergies represent an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to specific proteins found in foods. Peanut allergy, in particular, is a significant food allergy responsible for the majority of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis. Even trace quantities to food proteins in the sensitized individual can lead to fatal reactions. There is often a rapid onset of symptoms after exposure, with prominent cutaneous findings of urticaria, angioedema, or diffuse nonspecific dermatitis. The majority of children outgrow allergies to milk, soy, egg, and wheat. However, allergy to peanuts, tree nuts, and seafood are usually lifelong conditions, as few outgrow it. Children with food allergies and their families should be knowledgeable of management strategies for the condition, including carrying and properly administering self-injectable epinephrine. New immunotherapeutic options are being investigated and appear promising. PMID:23414152

  19. Food allergy--towards predictive testing for novel foods.

    PubMed

    Oehlschlager, S; Reece, P; Brown, A; Hughson, E; Hird, H; Chisholm, J; Atkinson, H; Meredith, C; Pumphrey, R; Wilson, P; Sunderland, J

    2001-12-01

    The risks associated with IgE-mediated food allergy highlight the need for methods to screen for potential food allergens. Clinical and immunological tests are available for the diagnosis of food allergy to known food allergens, but this does not extend to the evaluation, or prediction of allergenicity in novel foods. This category, includes foods produced using novel processes genetically modified (GM) foods, and foods that might be used as alternatives to traditional foods. Through the collation and analysis of the protein sequences of known allergens and their epitopes, it is possible to identify related groups which correlate with observed clinical cross-reactivities. 3-D modelling extends the use of sequence data and can be used to display eptiopes on the surface of a molecule. Experimental models support sequence analysis and 3-D modelling. Observed cross-reactivities can be examined by Western blots prepared from native 2-D gels of a whole food preparation (e.g. hazelnut, peanut), and common proteins identified. IgEs to novel proteins can be raised in Brown Norway rat (a high IgE responder strain) and the proteins tested in simulated digest to determine epitope stability. Using the CSL serum bank, epitope binding can be examined through the ability of an allergen to cross-link the high affinity IgE receptor and thereby release mediators using in vitro cell-based models. This range of methods, in combination with data mining, provides a variety of screening options for testing the potential of a novel food to be allergenic, which does not involve prior exposure to the consumer. PMID:11761121

  20. Interpreting IgE sensitization tests in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Niti Y; Sicherer, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence, and with it, IgE testing to foods is becoming more commonplace. Food-specific IgE tests, including serum assays and prick skin tests, are sensitive for detecting the presence of food-specific IgE (sensitization), but specificity for predicting clinical allergy is limited. Therefore, positive tests are generally not, in isolation, diagnostic of clinical disease. However, rationale test selection and interpretation, based on clinical history and understanding of food allergy epidemiology and pathophysiology, makes these tests invaluable. Additionally, there exist highly predictive test cutoff values for common allergens in atopic children. Newer testing methodologies, such as component resolved diagnostics, are promising for increasing the utility of testing. This review highlights the use of IgE serum tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. PMID:26666347

  1. Food allergy: recent advances in pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Hugh A

    2009-01-01

    Food allergies are adverse immune reactions to food proteins that affect up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults. A wide range of symptoms can occur depending on whether IgE or non-IgE mediated mechanism are involved. Many factors influence the development of oral tolerance, including route of exposure, genetics, age of the host, and allergen factors. Advances have been made in the understanding of how these factors interact in the pathophysiology of food allergy. Currently, the mainstay of treatment for food allergies is avoidance and ready access to emergency medications. However, with the improved understanding of tolerance and advances in characterization of food allergens, several therapeutic strategies have been developed and are currently being investigated as potential treatments and/or cures for food allergy. PMID:20224666

  2. The impact of food allergies on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bacal, Liane R

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize and appreciate the impact of food allergies on psychosocial health. 2. List the factors that have been shown to negatively affect health-related quality of life. 3. Understand how physicians can directly help to improve a child's quality of life while living with food allergies. Food allergy is a serious problem affecting a growing number of children worldwide. There is a large body of evidence supporting the detrimental effects that food allergy can have on a child's quality of life. With validated tools, we can identify these children and focus on how to protect, guide, and help them to live a safe life. Recent research articulates how food allergies impact health-related quality of life (HRQL). There are studies reported from the child's perspective, as well as studies reported from the parent's perspective. With the development of validated disease and age-specific questionnaires, researchers can reliably gather data on the psychological aspect of children with food allergies. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the literature examining the psycho-social impact of food allergies on children. This article was designed to outline suggestions to help physicians care for the whole child - both mind and body. PMID:23805962

  3. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  4. Food allergy therapy: is a cure within reach?

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Muraro, Antonella

    2011-04-01

    There is an unmet medical need for an effective food allergy therapy; thus, development of therapeutic interventions for food allergy is a top research priority. The food allergen-nonspecific therapies for food-induced anaphylaxis include monoclonal anti-IgE antibodies and Chinese herbs. The food allergen-specific therapies include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy with native food allergens and mutated recombinant proteins. Diet containing heated milk and egg may represent an alternative approach to oral immunomodulation. Oral food immunotherapy remains an investigational treatment to be further studied before advancing into clinical practice. PMID:21453816

  5. Fatal food allergy and opportunities for risk minimisation.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jan

    2013-05-31

    IgE-mediated food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 2% of adults. Fatal food allergic reactions are rare. Management of food allergy requires accurate identification of allergen(s), risk assessment, education on allergen avoidance / management of allergic reaction, and follow up. A case of fatal allergic reaction to cashew ingestion is reported, illustrating the importance of these aspects of management. PMID:23824029

  6. The optimal diagnostic workup for children with suspected food allergy.

    PubMed

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Mara; Troncone, Riccardo

    2011-10-01

    Food allergy is defined as an abnormal immunologic reaction to food proteins that causes an adverse clinical reaction. In addition to well-known acute allergic reactions and anaphylaxis triggered by immunoglobulin E antibody-mediated immune responses to food proteins, there is an increasing recognition of cell-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic esophagitis and food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. More than 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. The diagnostic workup for a child with suspected food allergy includes a detailed medical history, physical examination, food allergy screening tests, and responses to an elimination diet and an oral food challenge. None of the screening tests, alone or in combination, can definitely diagnose or exclude a food allergy. Novel diagnostic methods including those that focus on immune responses to specific food proteins or epitopes of specific proteins are under active study. Unconventional diagnostic methods are increasingly used, but they lack scientific rationale, standardization, and reproducibility. In selected cases, such as eosinophilic esophageal gastroenteropathies or food protein-induced gastroesophageal reflux disease, invasive procedures are mandatory for an accurate diagnosis. Properly done, an oral food challenge is still the gold standard in the diagnostic workup. An incorrect diagnosis is likely to result in unnecessary dietary restrictions, which, if prolonged, may adversely affect the child's nutritional status and growth. PMID:21907896

  7. Impact of Food Allergies on School Nursing Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher; Munoz-Furlong, Anne; Furlong, Terence J.; Arbit, Julie

    2004-01-01

    Food allergies affect 11 million Americans, including 6-8% of children. The rate of peanut allergies in children doubled from 1997 to 2002. There is no cure; therefore, strict avoidance of the allergen is the only way to avoid a reaction. Fatalities are associated with delays in or lack of epinephrine administration. Severe reactions, called…

  8. [Food allergy:definitions, prevalence, diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K; Wong, Gary Wk; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is phenotypically an extremely heterogeneous group of diseases affecting multiple organs, sometimes in an isolated way, sometimes simultaneously, with the severity of reactions ranging from mild and local to full-blown anaphylaxis. Mechanistically, it is defined as a Th2-driven immune disorder in which food-specific IgE antibodies are at the basis of immediate-type adverse reactions. The sites of sensitization and symptoms do not necessarily overlap. Food allergy, which is the theme of this paper, is often confused with other adverse reactions to food of both animmune (e.g., celiac disease) and non-immune (e.g., lactose intolerance) nature. To reliably diagnose food allergy, a careful history (immediate-type reactions) needs to be complemented with demonstration of specific IgE (immune mechanism) and confirmed by an oral challenge. Co-factors such as exercise, medication, and alcohol may help trigger food allergy and further complicate accurate diagnosis. Where food extract-based diagnostic tests are poorly correlated to symptom severity, new generation molecular diagnostics that measure IgE against individual food allergens provide clinicians and patients with more reliable symptom severity risk profiles. Molecular diagnostics also support establishing whether food sensitization originates directly from exposure to food or indirectly (cross-reactivity) from pollen sensitization. Epidemiological surveys have indicated that allergy to peach primarily originates from peach consumption in Europe, whereas in China it is the result of primary sensitization to mugwort pollen, in both cases mediated by an allergen molecule from the same family. Epidemiological surveys give insight into the etiology of food allergy, the size of the problem (prevalence), and the risk factors involved, which together support evidence-based strategies for prevention. Over the past decade, food allergy has increased in the affluent world. Economic growth and urbanization in

  9. Mechanisms of type I food allergy.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2006-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the biggest immune organ of the human body and has 3 distinct functions: (1) barrier and defense against potential pathogens, (2) ignorance or tolerance of innocuous agents, and (3) digestion and nutritional uptake of alimentary compounds. Recent studies have indicated that especially structural features of dietary proteins seem to be a precondition for the induction of immediate type immune responses. Crystallographic studies of allergen molecules have been fundamental for epitope studies in a 3-dimensional format using peptides or mimotopes. The identified IgE epitopes were all conformational and responsible for high-affinity interactions with specific IgE. Moreover, numerous studies have indicated that allergens, among them food allergens, preferentially form di-, tri-, or multimers, thus leading to a repetitive display of epitopes. As B-lymphocytes are pattern recognizers, this feature is essential for a memory response, but may also be critical for the very first allergen contact and initiation of the IgE response. Here we review the key candidate cells in the gut, which are capable of recognizing conformation and molecular patterns, but may also be involved in skewing the immune response towards Th2. Animal models have been basic for understanding the molecular principles of food allergy and they will be increasingly indispensable for the definition of novel vaccination strategies. Therefore, the available models are critically analyzed in this review. PMID:16876254

  10. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Fei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  11. IgE-mediated food allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Longo, Giorgio; Berti, Irene; Burks, A Wesley; Krauss, Baruch; Barbi, Egidio

    2013-11-16

    Food allergy is a serious health issue affecting roughly 4% of children, with a substantial effect on quality of life. Prognosis is good for the most frequent allergens with almost all children outgrowing their allergy. However, the long-term implications for disease burden are substantial for children with persistent allergies (eg, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, and shellfish) and for those with high concentrations of milk, egg, and wheat IgE. Antigen avoidance has been the time-honoured approach both for prevention and treatment. However, findings from studies done in the past 5 years show that early contact with food can induce tolerance and desensitisation to foods. We review the epidemiology, natural history, and management of food allergy, and discuss the areas of controversy and future directions in research and clinical practice. PMID:23845860

  12. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T; Poulsen, L K; Gowland, M H; Akdis, C A; Mills, E N C; Papadopoulos, N; Roberts, G; Schnadt, S; van Ree, R; Sheikh, A; Vieths, S

    2014-11-01

    Individuals suffering from IgE-mediated food allergy usually have to practise life-long food allergen avoidance. This document aims to provide an overview of recent evidence-based recommendations for allergen risk assessment and management in the food industry and discusses unmet needs and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used to set-up reliable food safety management plans for some foods. However, further work is required to include a wider variety of foods and to understand the impact of the food matrix as well as additional factors which affect the progression and severity of symptoms as a function of dose. Major concerns have been raised by patients, carers and patient groups about the use of precautionary 'may contain' labelling to address the issue of unintended presence of allergens; these therefore need to be reconsidered. New and improved allergen detection methods should be evaluated for their application in food production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between healthcare professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. PMID:24888964

  13. Managing Food Allergies in School: What Educators Need to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrow, Eleanor

    2011-01-01

    An estimated 2.2 million school-age children in the United States have food allergies, and that number seems to be on the rise. What's more, survey studies indicate that one out of six kids with food allergies will have an allergic reaction while in school and that 25% of these reactions will be first-time reactions. If a district has not yet…

  14. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic Diseases, Host Responses, Cancer, Autoinflammatory Diseases, Type 1 diabetes and viruses. There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  15. Immunology in the Clinic Review Series; focus on allergies: immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Mousallem, T; Burks, A W

    2012-01-01

    There is no approved therapy for food allergy. The current standard of care is elimination of the triggering food from the diet and accessibility to epinephrine. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach. While desensitization to most foods seems feasible, it remains unclear if a permanent state of tolerance is achievable. The research team at Duke is pioneering immunotherapy for food allergies. Work here has evolved over time from small open-label pilot studies to larger randomized designs. Our data show that immunological changes associated with immunotherapy include reduction in mast cell reactivity, decreased basophil responses, decreased specific-immunoglobulin (Ig)E, increased IgG4 and induction of regulatory T cells. Immunotherapy has generated much excitement in the food allergy community; however, further studies are needed before it is ready for clinical use. PMID:22132881

  16. Active management of food allergy: an emerging concept.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Katherine; Stiefel, Gary; Brough, Helen; du Toit, George; Lack, Gideon; Fox, Adam T

    2015-04-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are common and currently there is no cure. Traditionally, management has relied upon patient education, food avoidance and the provision of an emergency medication plan. Despite this, food allergy can significantly impact on quality of life. Therefore, in recent years, evolving research has explored alternative management strategies. A more active approach to management is being adopted, which includes early introduction of potentially allergenic foods, anticipatory testing, active monitoring, desensitisation to food allergens and active risk management. This review will discuss these areas in turn. PMID:25378378

  17. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763

  18. Food allergy: practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention.

    PubMed

    Pádua, I; Moreira, A; Moreira, P; Barros, R

    2016-09-01

    Food allergies are a growing problem and currently the primary treatment of food allergy is avoidance of culprit foods. However, given the lack of information and education and also the ubiquitous nature of allergens, accidental exposures to food allergens are not uncommon. The fear of potential fatal reactions and the need of a proper avoidance leads in most of the cases to the limitation of leisure and social activities. This review aims to be a practical approach on education and accidental exposure prevention regarding activities like shopping, eating out, and travelling. The recommendations are focused especially on proper reading of food labels and the management of the disease, namely in restaurants and airplanes, concerning cross-contact and communication with other stakeholders. The implementation of effective tools is essential to manage food allergy outside home, avoid serious allergic reactions and minimize the disease's impact on individuals' quality of life. PMID:27608473

  19. A molecular insight of CTLA-4 in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok Kumar; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is an immune provocation induced by certain food in susceptible individuals. Most of the food allergic manifestations are evident in the individual having impaired oral tolerance. In spite of worldwide prevalence, there is no permanent cure of food allergy. Food allergic reactions are complex immunological events that comprises of several immune molecules like IgE, IL-4, IL-13 and T-cells, therefore, researchers are trying to pick the correct molecule to find out pivotal therapeutic solutions. Being a key regulatory molecule in suppressing T-cells functional activities, cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or cluster of differentiation-152 (CD-152) has contributed a novel and revolutionary dimension toward therapeutic research of several diseases. This review focuses on different immunological and mechanistic perspectives of CTLA-4 in correlation with food allergy. PMID:23254121

  20. Growth Parameters Impairment in Patients with Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Larissa Carvalho; Rezende, Erica Rodrigues; Segundo, Gesmar Rodrigues Silva

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. Food allergy (FA) is a common disease that is rapidly increasing in prevalence for reasons that remain unknown. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and anthropometric data of patients with food allergies followed in a tertiary centre of allergy and immunology. Methods. A retrospective study was performed that assessed the data records of patients with food allergy diagnosis, covering a period from February 2009 to February 2012. Results. 354 patients were evaluated in the period; 228 (69.1%) patients had a confirmed FA diagnosis. The z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass indices-for-age showed lower significant values in the FA group compared with the non-FA group by Mann-Whitney test, with significance values of P = 0.0005, P = 0.0030, and P = 0.0066, respectively. There were no statistical differences in sex, gestational age, birth type, breastfeeding period, and age of introduction of complementary formulas based on cow milk protein between groups. Conclusion. FA patients had a lower growth rate in comparison with patients without FA. The early recognition of food allergies with the establishment of protein-implicated diet exclusion, in association with an adequate nutrient replenishment, is important to reduce the nutritional impact of food allergies. PMID:24949021

  1. Quality of life in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Antolín-Amérigo, Darío; Manso, Luis; Caminati, Marco; de la Hoz Caballer, Belén; Cerecedo, Inmaculada; Muriel, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Mercedes; Barbarroja-Escudero, José; Sánchez-González, María José; Huertas-Barbudo, Beatriz; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy has increased in developed countries and can have a dramatic effect on quality of life, so as to provoke fatal reactions. We aimed to outline the socioeconomic impact that food allergy exerts in this kind of patients by performing a complete review of the literature and also describing the factors that may influence, to a greater extent, the quality of life of patients with food allergy and analyzing the different questionnaires available. Hitherto, strict avoidance of the culprit food(s) and use of emergency medications are the pillars to manage this condition. Promising approaches such as specific oral or epicutaneous immunotherapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies are progressively being investigated worldwide. However, even that an increasing number of centers fulfill those approaches, they are not fully implemented enough in clinical practice. The mean annual cost of health care has been estimated in international dollars (I$) 2016 for food-allergic adults and I$1089 for controls, a difference of I$927 (95 % confidence interval I$324-I$1530). A similar result was found for adults in each country, and for children, and interestingly, it was not sensitive to baseline demographic differences. Cost was significantly related to severity of illness in cases in nine countries. The constant threat of exposure, need for vigilance and expectation of outcome can have a tremendous impact on quality of life. Several studies have analyzed the impact of food allergy on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children in different countries. There have been described different factors that could modify HRQL in food allergic patients, the most important of them are perceived disease severity, age of the patient, peanut or soy allergy, country of origin and having allergy to two or more foods. Over the last few years, several different specific Quality of Life questionnaires for food allergic patients have been developed and translated to different

  2. Immunologic therapeutic approaches in the management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Julie; Sicherer, Scott H

    2009-05-01

    Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 3-4% of adults in Westernized countries, and is the most common cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most studies. The mainstay of treatment is strict avoidance of the offending allergens and education regarding the use of emergency medication in cases of accidental ingestions or exposures. While these approaches are generally effective, there are no definitive treatments that cure or provide long-term remission from food allergy. However, with recent advances in characterizing food allergens and understanding humoral and cellular immune responses in food allergy, several therapeutic strategies are being investigated. Potential treatments include allergen-specific immunotherapy as well as allergen-nonspecific approaches to downregulate the overall allergic response in food-allergic individuals. PMID:20477008

  3. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes and beliefs: Focus groups of parents, physicians and the general public

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Kim, Jennifer S; Barnathan, Julia A; Amsden, Laura B; Tummala, Lakshmi S; Holl, Jane L

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy prevalence is increasing in US children. Presently, the primary means of preventing potentially fatal reactions are avoidance of allergens, prompt recognition of food allergy reactions, and knowledge about food allergy reaction treatments. Focus groups were held as a preliminary step in the development of validated survey instruments to assess food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents, physicians, and the general public. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted between January and July of 2006 in the Chicago area with parents of children with food allergy (3 groups), physicians (3 groups), and the general public (2 groups). A constant comparative method was used to identify the emerging themes which were then grouped into key domains of food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results Parents of children with food allergy had solid fundamental knowledge but had concerns about primary care physicians' knowledge of food allergy, diagnostic approaches, and treatment practices. The considerable impact of children's food allergies on familial quality of life was articulated. Physicians had good basic knowledge of food allergy but differed in their approach to diagnosis and advice about starting solids and breastfeeding. The general public had wide variation in knowledge about food allergy with many misconceptions of key concepts related to prevalence, definition, and triggers of food allergy. Conclusion Appreciable food allergy knowledge gaps exist, especially among physicians and the general public. The quality of life for children with food allergy and their families is significantly affected. PMID:18803842

  4. Going to School with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... which can take several weeks to arrive. In addition to your child's name and type of allergies, consider including that epinephrine should be given in case of a severe reaction and listing your emergency contact number. At the ...

  5. Fish and shellfish allergy in children: review of a persistent food allergy.

    PubMed

    Tsabouri, Sophia; Triga, Maria; Makris, Michael; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Church, Martin K; Priftis, Kostas N

    2012-11-01

    The increased consumption of fish and shellfish has resulted in more frequent reports of adverse reactions to seafood, emphasizing the need for more specific diagnosis and treatment of this condition and exploring reasons for the persistence of this allergy. This review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish and shellfish allergy. New allergens and important potential cross-reacting allergens have been identified within the fish family and between shellfish, arachnids, and insects. The diagnostic approach may require prick to-prick tests using crude extracts of both raw and cooked forms of seafood for screening seafood sensitization before a food challenge or where food challenge is not feasible. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can be important; mutated less allergenic seafood proteins have been developed for this purpose. The persistence of allergy because of seafood proteins' resistance after rigorous treatment like cooking and extreme pH is well documented. Additionally, IgE antibodies from individuals with persistent allergy may be directed against different epitopes than those in patients with transient allergy. For a topic as important as this one, new areas of technological developments will likely have a significant impact, to provide more accurate methods of diagnosing useful information to patients about the likely course of their seafood allergy over the course of their childhood and beyond. PMID:22554093

  6. Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens. The statements of many scientific societies stress that sIgG are of no significant importance in the diagnosis of food allergy since their presence is associated with a normal immune response to food allergens and attests to a protracted exposure to food antigens. PMID:27605894

  7. Role of immunoglobulin G antibodies in diagnosis of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents current views on the role of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the reactions with food antigens in the digestive tract and their role in the diagnosis of food allergy based on the assays of specific IgG class antibodies, with a special focus on contemporary practice guidelines. In the light of current scientific knowledge, the IgG-specific antibody-mediated reactions are a body's natural and normal defensive reactions to infiltrating food antigens, which are considered as pathogens. On the other hand, specific IgG antibodies against food allergens play a crucial role in the induction and maintaining of immunological tolerance to food antigens. The statements of many scientific societies stress that sIgG are of no significant importance in the diagnosis of food allergy since their presence is associated with a normal immune response to food allergens and attests to a protracted exposure to food antigens. PMID:27605894

  8. Pharmacologic options for the treatment and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kobernick, Aaron K; Chambliss, Jeffrey; Burks, A Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy affects approximately 5% of adults and 8% of children in developed countries, and there is currently no cure. Current pharmacologic management is limited to using intramuscular epinephrine or oral antihistamines in response to food allergen exposure. Recent trials have examined the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous immunotherapy, with varying levels of efficacy and safety demonstrated. Bacterial adjuvants, use of anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies, and Chinese herbal formulations represent exciting potential for development of future pharmacotherapeutic agents. Ultimately, immunotherapy may be a viable option for patients with food allergy, although efficacy and safety are likely to be less than ideal. PMID:26289224

  9. Current advances of murine models for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiange; Navarro, Severine; Lopata, Andreas L

    2016-02-01

    Food allergy affects an increasing population in Western world but also developing countries. Researchers have been taking great efforts in identifying and characterising food allergens using molecular tools. However, there are still many mechanistic hypotheses that need to be tested using an appropriate in vivo experimental platform. To date, a number of mouse models for food allergy have been established and provided valuable insights into food allergenicity, development of therapies and allergic inflammation mechanisms. Nevertheless, a large diversity of protocols have been developed for the establishment of relevant mouse models. As a result, comparisons of outcomes between different models are very difficult to be conducted. The phenotypes of mouse models are greatly influenced by genetic background, gender, route of allergen exposure, the nature and concentration of food allergens, as well as the usage of adjuvants. This review focuses on IgE-mediated food allergy, compares the differential approaches in developing appropriate murine models for food allergy and details specific findings for three major food allergens, peanut, milk and shellfish. PMID:26759987

  10. Allergen Component Testing in the Diagnosis of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Schussler, Edith; Kattan, Jacob

    2015-09-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are an important public health problem, affecting 5 % of adults and 8 % of children, with numerous studies indicating that the prevalence is increasing. Food allergic reactions can range in severity from mild to severe and life threatening. Accurate diagnosis of food allergy is necessary not only to provide appropriate and potentially life-saving preventive measures but also to prevent unwarranted dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy has traditionally been based on clinical history and food specific IgE (sIgE) testing, including skin prick testing (SPT), serum tests, or both. These tests tend to be extremely sensitive, but positive test results to foods that are tolerated are common. Studies of allergen component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) show that adjuvant use of this modality may provide a more accurate assessment in the diagnosis of food allergy, though the reported benefits are questionable for a number of major allergens. Furthermore, diagnostic cutoff values have been difficult to determine for allergens where component testing has been demonstrated to be beneficial. PMID:26233426

  11. [Food Allergy and Intolerance : Distinction, Definitions and Delimitation].

    PubMed

    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Waßmann-Otto, Anja; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2016-06-01

    Immunologically mediated hypersensitivity to foods is defined as food allergy, mainly due to immunglobulins of class E (IgE) triggering immediate reactions (type I hypersensitivity) with possible involvement of mucosa, skin, airways, intestinal tract, and the vascular system. Primary food allergy is based on (early) IgE sensitization against animal (e. g., cow's milk, hen's eggs) or plant proteins (e. g. peanut, hazelnut or wheat). In the case of secondary food allergies, IgE against pollen proteins (e. g., birch) reacts to structurally related food proteins (with cross-reactions to stone and pit fruits). Non-immunological food intolerance reactions are mostly based on carbohydrate malassimilation (e. g., lactose intolerance, fructose malabsorption) and are rarely due to pseudo-allergies (e. g., flavors, dyes, preservatives) primarily in patients with chronic urticaria. Common intestinal symptoms are mainly due to functional disorders (e. g., irritable bowel disease), rarely because of inflammatory intestinal diseases (e. g., celiac disease). Histamine intolerance, gluten hypersensitivity, and so-called food type III hypersensitivities are controversial diagnoses. The aforementioned disease entities/models are of variable importance for the affected individuals, the public health system, and society in general. PMID:27215624

  12. [Clinical and diagnostic contribution of childhood food allergy].

    PubMed

    Berjón, M C; Andión, R; Linares, P; Fernández, L A; Blanco, A

    1987-02-01

    Two thousand six hundred and ninety are reviewed and 148 cases of food allergy are found, aged 1 month to 14 years. Food allergy is 5.5%. Diagnosis was based on history, positive of dietary elimination-challenge and immunological investigations (skin tests, total serum IgE and RAST). Ninety four children (64%) were multisensitized. Ninety three children (63%) had multisystem involvement. The onset of iron deficiency anemia without responsive to the therapy was the manifestation in 7.8% of cow's milk protein or egg allergy children. There were not significative different between breast or bottle fed children. The symptoms occurred at the first known exposure to egg in 23.7% of egg hypersensitivity children and the same feature was observed in 17% of fish allergic children. The date indicate that food allergy has a clinical complexity. It may be useful to make easy its diagnosis to know some aspects regarding to sensitisation, immunological mechanism, effects of breast-feeding and pathogenesis of iron deficiency anemia without responsive to the therapy, an uncommon manifestation of food allergy. PMID:3565960

  13. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States Download your copy of the Guidelines Summary ... Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States: Summary for Patients, Families, and Cargivers summarizes ...

  14. Applications of Molecular Diagnostic Testing in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Pfeifer, Sabine; Bublin, Merima

    2015-09-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a relevant health problem inducing symptoms ranging from mild local reactions up to severe life-threatening situations. Currently, no immunotherapy is available and avoidance of the incriminating food is the method of choice. Therefore, reliable diagnostic tools to formulate dietary recommendations and to avoid unnecessary exclusion diets for the individual patient are urgently needed. This review provides an update on the current knowledge on food allergens and their application in various diagnostic approaches such as skin prick test, basophil activation test, and serum IgE testing. Furthermore, these new approaches are discussed and compared to conventional extract-based assays and correlated to the gold standard of food allergy diagnosis, the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Finally, the application of food allergens for preventive measurements such as allergen detection assays and the determination of threshold levels for allergen levels are discussed. PMID:26233429

  15. [Asthma and food allergy: report of 163 pediatric cases].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F; Dutau, G

    2002-08-01

    The prevalence of food as a cause for asthma is not well known. The aim of this study was to define with standardized tests the incidence of food-induced asthma, the distribution of foods allergens in asthmatic children with food allergy. The study was carried on 163 asthmatic children with food allergy followed during average of 5.5 years. Asthma has been identified with pulmonary function tests (reversibility of FEV1 to bronchodilators) and food allergy has been documented by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Familial atopic disease was found in 148 children (90.7%). Inhalant sensitization was documented in 132 children (81%). Positive DBPCFC were observed in 250 of 385 challenges (65%) carried on these 163 children. The most frequent offending foods were, sometimes in association, peanut (30.6%), egg (23.1%), cow's milk (9.3%), mustard (6.9%), codfish (6%), shrimp (4.5%), kiwi fruit (3.6%), hazelnut (2.7%), cashew nut (2.1%), almond (1.5%), garlic (1.2%). Symptoms occurring during DBPCFC were cutaneous (143 cases, 59%), respiratory symptoms (58 cases, 23.9%), gastrointestinal symptoms (28 cases, 11.5%) and 15 anaphylactic shock (6.1%). Respiratory symptoms were oral allergy syndrome in 13 cases (5.3%), rhinoconjunctivitis in 15 cases (6.1%), asthma in 23 cases (9.5%). Only seven of these children had asthma only (2.8% of cases). The prevalence of asthma induced by food allergy is low. In our study, asthma induced by food allergy concerned 9.5% of cases and asthma alone was identified in only 2.8% of cases. We observed new food allergens associated with respiratory symptoms such as kiwi fruit, tree-nuts (hazelnut, cashew) and spices. Diagnosis relied upon data obtained from history, skin prick-tests and specific IgE. Oral food challenge is the corner stone of the diagnosis. Asthma induced by food allergens is potentially severe leading to prescribe to these patients a first aid kit with bronchodilators and epinephrine auto-injectors. PMID

  16. Prevalence of sensitization to food allergens and challenge proven food allergy in patients visiting allergy centers in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Inam, Muhammad; Shafique, Rubaba Hamid; Roohi, Nabila; Irfan, Muhammad; Abbas, Shahid; Ismail, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of food allergy in the adult allergic patients of Rawalpindi and Islamabad , Pakistan, based on self-report, skin prick test (SPT) and oral food challenge test (OFC). SPT was used for the estimation of sensitization to wheat, egg, milk, beef, chicken, mutton, fish, corn, lentils, rice, soya, peanut and banana. Among 689 patients, 39.19 % showed sensitivity to one or more foods, where, sensitization to wheat (156; 22.6 %) was highest, followed by egg (148; 21.48 %) and milk (138; 20.03 %). Sensitization to various proteins ranged between 15.53-15.97 %, while lentils, corn, rice, soya and peanut sensitization was 15.4, 16, 12.5, 12 and 11.5 % respectively. Only 7.1 % patients were SPT positive for banana allergen. SPT was performed in patients with self-reported food allergy (341/689) and also with no self-reported history of food allergy (348/689). SPT results were positive in 69.8 % of the self-report group, whereas, in the patients with no self-reported food allergy 9.2 % were found sensitized to one or more tested food allergens. 101 patients were recruited for OFC, 61 % of these were confirmed of food allergy. The prevalence of food allergy in the study population was 9 %. Food specific OFC results show that wheat allergy is affecting 1.6 % (95 % CI 0.9-2.84 %) of the total allergy patients, followed by egg allergy 1.31 % (95 % CI 0.70-2.47 %). Furthermore, corn allergy, rice allergy and peanut allergy were 1.02, 0.87 and 0.73 %, respectively. In conclusion, wheat allergy is the most prevalent, followed by egg, chicken, beef and fish allergy, respectively. PMID:27563525

  17. Baked Egg and Milk Exposure as Immunotherapy in Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    Baked milk and egg have the potential to act as a form of oral immunotherapy (OIT). Clinical studies have shown that a majority of milk- and egg-allergic children can tolerate these allergens modified in baked form, and immunologic changes reported in subjects ingesting baked milk and egg mirror those seen in food allergy OIT trials. In addition, several studies have indicated that resolution of milk and egg allergies occur sooner in populations regularly ingesting baked milk and egg. Oral food challenges remain the best method for determining tolerability of baked milk and egg since baseline characteristics and diagnostic testing have not been reliable predictors. In this review, we explore the tolerability of baked milk and egg and their potential as OIT treatment for milk and egg allergy. PMID:27002516

  18. Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-04-01

    The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(4):e150-e156.]. PMID:27064473

  19. Food Allergy Concerns in Primary Classrooms: Keeping Children Safe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Peggy; Cameron, Elizabeth Ann

    2012-01-01

    Food-allergy awareness and management have only lately come to the forefront in early childhood settings, although advocacy organizations have been working on the issue for more than a decade. A national poll (C.S. Mott Children's Hospital 2009) asked parents with children in early education settings if they were aware of what their program does…

  20. IgE receptor signaling in food allergy pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oettgen, Hans C; Burton, Oliver T

    2015-10-01

    The pathogenesis of food allergy remains poorly understood. Recent advances in the use of murine models have led to discoveries that mast cells and IgE receptor signaling not only drive immediate hypersensitivity reactions but also exert an immunoregulatory function, promoting the development of allergic sensitivity to foods. We review the evidence that IgE, IgE receptors, key signaling kinases and mast cells impair oral tolerance to ingested foods, preventing the induction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and promoting the acquisition of pro-allergic T helper (Th) 2 responses. We discuss innovative strategies that that could be implemented to counteract these immunoregulatory effects of IgE-mediated mast cell activation, and potentially reverse established sensitization, curing food allergy. PMID:26296054

  1. Exploring Perceptions and Experiences of Food Allergy among New Canadians from Asia

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Stephanie K.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. In Canada, perceived prevalence of food allergy surpasses systematic estimates. Canadian immigrants have been found more likely to rate the risk of food allergy as “high” compared to nonimmigrants. Methods. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 3 key informants and 18 allergic individuals of East and Southeast Asian descent in order to capture their lived experience with food allergies. Results. Participants found food allergies to be more common in Canada than in Asia. Participants also agreed that having a food allergy is more manageable in Canada as a result of the policy environment (e.g., food labelling and school policies). In addition, participants had dealt with skepticism and disbelief about their food allergy in Asia, resulting in social exclusion and impacting quality of life. Discussion. Findings demonstrate the need to recognize the varied impacts and experiences of food allergy among new Canadians, given that immigrants represent a large and growing proportion of the Canadian population. PMID:24995022

  2. Non-IgE antibody mediated mechanisms in food allergy.

    PubMed

    Halpern, G M; Scott, J R

    1987-01-01

    Food sensitivity or intolerance is not necessarily based on the Type I allergic reaction. Non-IgE antibody reactions, complement-dependent reactions, enzyme deficiencies such as lactase and non-immunologic histamine release (such as with some sea foods) have been described. Even the detection of specific antibodies on their own does not necessarily indicate that a given symptom is due to that antibody. Food allergy nevertheless exists. It is important that those observers fortunate enough to see many cases document their observations carefully and eventually publish them for the education of their less fortunate colleagues. Is food allergy more common in infants and young children? What happens as they grow older? How often is atopic eczema due to food allergy? Why are some foods more likely to be implicated than others? Does a negative RAST result eliminate the diagnosis or a positive one confirm it? Until the answers to these and other questions are known, the mainstay of diagnosis will be the history, and that of treatment will be the elimination diet. PMID:3099610

  3. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  4. Application of gamma irradiation for inhibition of food allergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon; Yook, Hong-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, Hee-Yun

    2002-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the application of food irradiation technology as a method for reducing food allergy. Milk β-lactoglobulin, chicken egg albumin, and shrimp tropomyosin were used as model food allergens for experiments on allergenic and molecular properties by gamma irradiation. The amount of intact allergens in an irradiated solution was reduced by gamma irradiation depending upon the dose. These results showed that epitopes on the allergens were structurally altered by radiation treatment and that the irradiation technology can be applied to reduce allergenicity of allergic foods.

  5. Food allergy--fact or fiction: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Finn, R

    1992-01-01

    Food sensitivity is a common condition presenting with various clinical syndromes including migraine, urticaria, gluten enteropathy, Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome. It is a heterogeneous condition affecting different organ systems and is also aetiologically diverse with subgroups due to allergy, pharmacological reactions, enzyme deficiencies and psychological causes. Clinical acceptance of food sensitivity has been delayed by the use of dubious diagnostic techniques by a minority of practitioners and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, but several double blind studies have now fully validated the existence of food sensitivity syndromes. More widespread recognition of food sensitivity would be cost effective for the National Health Service. PMID:1433127

  6. Food Allergy: Our Evolving Understanding of Its Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Iweala, Onyinye I; Burks, A Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is defined as an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity response to ingested food with allergic symptoms ranging from urticaria to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Food allergy is thought to develop because of (1) failed induction of tolerance upon initial exposure to food antigen or (2) breakdown of established tolerance to food antigen. We review current understanding of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, and natural history of food allergy, including the unconventional IgE-mediated food allergy to mammalian meat known as alpha-gal food allergy. We highlight emerging data on food allergy treatment and prevention, emphasizing the growing appeal of manipulating the gut microenvironment using probiotics and helminth products to blunt systemic allergic responses to food. PMID:27041704

  7. Early life exposure to bisphenol A investigated in mouse models of airway allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Vinje, Nina Eriksen; Samuelsen, Mari; Andreassen, Monica; Groeng, Else-Carin; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Lovik, Martinus; Bodin, Johanna

    2015-09-01

    The impact of early life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) through drinking water was investigated in mouse models of respiratory allergy, food allergy and oral tolerance. Balb/c mice were exposed to BPA (0, 10 or 100 μg/ml), and the offspring were intranasally exposed to the allergen ovalbumin (OVA). C3H/HeJ offspring were sensitized with the food allergen lupin by intragastric gavage, after exposure to BPA (0, 1, 10 or 100 μg/ml). In separate offspring, oral tolerance was induced by gavage of 5 mg lupin one week before entering the protocol for the food allergy induction. In the airway allergy model, BPA (100 μg/ml) caused increased eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and a trend of increased OVA-specific IgE levels. In the food allergy and tolerance models, BPA did not alter the clinical anaphylaxis or antibody responses, but induced alterations in splenocyte cytokines and decreased mouse mast cell protease (MMCP)-1 serum levels. In conclusion, early life exposure to BPA through drinking water modestly augmented allergic responses in a mouse model of airway allergy only at high doses, and not in mouse models for food allergy and tolerance. Thus, our data do not support that BPA promotes allergy development at exposure levels relevant for humans. PMID:26048442

  8. The Natural History of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy: Can Skin Prick Tests and Serum-Specific IgE Predict the Resolution of Food Allergy?

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rachel L.; Gurrin, Lyle C.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Allen, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a transient condition for some children, however there are few indices to predict when and in whom food allergy will resolve. Skin prick test (SPT) and serum-specific IgE levels (sIgE) are usually monitored in the management of food allergy and are used to predict the development of tolerance or persistence of food allergy. The aim of this article is to review the published literature that investigated the predictive value of SPT and sIgE in development of tolerance in children with a previous diagnosis of peanut, egg and milk allergy. A systematic search identified twenty-six studies, of which most reported SPT or sIgE thresholds which predicted persistent or resolved allergy. However, results were inconsistent between studies. Previous research was hampered by several limitations including the absence of gold standard test to diagnose food allergy or tolerance, biased samples in retrospective audits and lack of systematic protocols for triggering re-challenges. There is a need for population-based, prospective studies that use the gold standard oral food challenge (OFC) to diagnose food allergy at baseline and follow-up to develop SPT and sIgE thresholds that predict the course of food allergy. PMID:24132133

  9. Food allergy information resources for consumers, industry and regulators.

    PubMed

    Mills, E N Clare; Jenkins, John A; Sancho, Ana I; Miles, Susan; Madsen, Charlotte; Valovirta, Errka; Frewer, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Through the EU-funded InformAll project a stakeholder consultation was conducted to solicit the views of different stakeholders (allergic consumers, health professionals, retailers, manufacturers, caterers, regulators and risk assessors, and the general public) regarding what information about food allergy is required by these stakeholders. The outcomes of this consultation are presented both generally and specifically from the potential perspectives of different stakeholders. The development of reliable credible resources aimed to begin to meet the needs identified is described, including a database of allergenic food materials which uniquely combines refereed information on the clinical aspects of food allergies with details of individual allergens and web portal with other credible internet resources. PMID:17393719

  10. The frequency of food allergy in Australia and Asia.

    PubMed

    Hill, D J; Hosking, C S; Zhie, C Y; Leung, R; Baratwidjaja, K; Iikura, Y; Iyngkaran, N; Gonzalez-Andaya, A; Wah, L B; Hsieh, K H

    1997-11-01

    A review of the development of food allergy in a birth cohort of 620 Australian infants at high risk for development of atopic disease has recently been completed. Extrapolating to a random community population showed that at the age of two, egg appears the most frequent food allergen (3.2%), while cow milk (2.0%), and peanut are of similar frequency (1.9%). The prevalence of hypersensitivity to wheat and soy appears similar to sesame seed, cashew nut, hazelnut and walnut, but allergy to fish, brazil nut and shell fish are uncommon. Despite a different methodology, reports from several Asian centres suggest a similar frequency of hypersensitivity to these foods in young children although hypersensitivity to shellfish and seafood was more common than for nuts, peanut and wheat, if seafoods are part of the staple infant diet. Rice hypersensitivity was rare in both Australia and Asian countries. PMID:21781807

  11. Epinephrine autoinjector availability among children with food allergy.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Karen A; Fitzpatrick, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for anaphylaxis. Delay in administration of epinephrine is a known risk factor for food allergy reaction-related mortality; however, individuals with food allergy may not have epinephrine readily available. This study was designed to determine the percent of food-allergic children that have an epinephrine autoinjector readily available and factors associated with epinephrine autoinjector carriage rates. Parents completed a questionnaire on food allergy and food allergy preparedness. Staff recorded whether an epinephrine autoinjector and medical alert bracelet was immediately available in clinic. Parental responses from 63 food-allergic children were included. Fifty-nine percent (37/63) had an epinephrine autoinjector present in the clinic, and 79% (50/63) reported receiving training in epinephrine autoinjector use. There was no correlation between epinephrine autoinjector presence in the clinic and parental report of having an epinephrine autoinjector available at all times (phi = 0.21). Epinephrine autoinjector training was associated with increased odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector immediately available (adjusted odds ratio, 8.74 [1.69, 45.04]). Fewer school aged children (≥5 years old) reportedly had their epinephrine autoinjector with them when eating lunch (25% [8/32] versus 42% [13/31]; p = 0.002) or snacks (28% [9/32] versus 37% [13/31]; p = 0.005) when compared with those <5 years old. Many children do not have their epinephrine autoinjectors readily available despite parental report. Epinephrine autoinjector training improved the odds of having an epinephrine autoinjector readily available. Continued patient education on the importance of having an epinephrine autoinjector easily accessible, especially when eating, is important. PMID:21781405

  12. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... This includes cream, cheese, butter, and milk. When did you start having problems with food allergies? Joanna: ... immediately started swelling up and turning blue. How did you find out what the allergies were? Did ...

  13. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Joshua A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Wood, Robert A.; Plaut, Marshall; Cooper, Susan F.; Fenton, Matthew J.; Arshad, S. Hasan; Bahna, Sami L.; Beck, Lisa A.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Camargo, Carlos A.; Eichenfield, Lawrence; Furuta, Glenn T.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Jones, Carol; Kraft, Monica; Levy, Bruce D.; Lieberman, Phil; Luccioli, Stefano; McCall, Kathleen M.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Simon, Ronald A.; Simons, F. Estelle R.; Teach, Stephen J.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Schwaninger, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is an important public health problem that affects children and adults and may be increasing in prevalence. Despite the risk of severe allergic reactions and even death, there is no current treatment for food allergy: the disease can only be managed by allergen avoidance or treatment of symptoms. The diagnosis and management of food allergy also may vary from one clinical practice setting to another. Finally, because patients frequently confuse nonallergic food reactions, such as food intolerance, with food allergies, there is an unfounded belief among the public that food allergy prevalence is higher than it truly is. In response to these concerns, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with 34 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, led the development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. These Guidelines are intended for use by a wide variety of health care professionals, including family practice physicians, clinical specialists, and nurse practitioners. The Guidelines include a consensus definition for food allergy, discuss comorbid conditions often associated with food allergy, and focus on both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated reactions to food. Topics addressed include the epidemiology, natural history, diagnosis, and management of food allergy, as well as the management of severe symptoms and anaphylaxis. These Guidelines provide 43 concise clinical recommendations and additional guidance on points of current controversy in patient management. They also identify gaps in the current scientific knowledge to be addressed through future research. PMID:21134576

  14. Food allergy. Part 2: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H A

    1999-06-01

    Patients with food-induced allergic disorders may be first seen with a variety of symptoms affecting the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and/or cardiovascular system. The skin and respiratory tract are most often affected by IgE-mediated food-induced allergic reactions, whereas isolated gastrointestinal disorders are most often caused by non-IgE-mediated reactions. When evaluating possible food-induced allergic disorders, it is often useful to categorize disorders into IgE- and non-IgE-mediated syndromes. The initial history and physical examination are essentially identical for IgE- and non-IgE-mediated disorders, but the subsequent evaluation differs substantially. Proper diagnoses often require screening tests for evidence of food-specific IgE and proof of reactivity through elimination diets and oral food challenges. Once properly diagnosed, strict avoidance of the implicated food or foods is the only proven form of treatment. Clinical tolerance to food allergens will develop in many patients over time, and therefore follow-up food challenges are often indicated. However, a number of novel immunomodulatory strategies are in the developmental stage and should provide more definitive treatment for some of these food-induced allergic disorders in the next several years. PMID:10359874

  15. A review of food allergy and nutritional considerations in the food-allergic adult

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, the prevalence of adults with food allergies is approximately 2 percent to 3 percent. Theoretically, any food can cause an allergic reaction; however, some foods are clearly more allergenic than others are. In adults, peanuts, tree nuts, finned fish, crustaceans, fruit, and veg...

  16. Parental Perception, Prevalence and Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge on Childhood Food Allergy in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Voskresensky Baricic, Tamara; Catipovic, Marija; Cetinic, Erina L.; Krmek, Vlado; Horvat, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy in children is increasing and the perception of food allergy among parents is even more common. In a questionnaire-based study of 702 children aged 6 to 48 months in four primary care settings, the aim was to determine the prevalence of perception vs. proven food allergy, parental anxiety and general pediatrician knowledge of food allergy. In 95/702 children (13.5%) parentally-reported food was associated reactions. IgE and/or skin prick test (SPT) and/or an open provocation test were performed in 48 (6.8%) and allergy was proven in 38 (5.4%) children. Discrepancy between parental perception and proven allergy is significant (p < 0.001), especially for food other than milk, egg and peanut (p < 0.001). Allergy to milk was the most common. Allergy to peanut was significantly more common in children ≥2 years (p < 0.05). Severe reactions occurred in 5/95 (5.2%) of all children and in 5/38 (13.1%) of allergic children, in 3/5 caused by peanut. Parents of children with proven allergy do not experience high degree of anxiety. The perception of food allergy among general pediatricians is limited, and in children with severe reactions precautionary measures and information to parents were insufficient. Parents and general pediatricians need additional education in food allergy. PMID:27417365

  17. Mutations in the filaggrin gene and food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Lidia; Wróblewska, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The results of long-term epidemiological studies show that the number of people suffering from allergic diseases, especially from food allergies and atopic dermatitis (AD), is still increasing. Although the research thus far has been conducted mainly in Europe, North America, and Asia, there are also data appearing from the first studies in that field among the African population. This may indicate the importance of the problem of allergic diseases. The discovery that loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding filaggrin (FLG) are the cause of ichthyosis vulgaris marked a significant breakthrough in understanding the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The presence of mutations in the filaggrin gene is also an important factor that predisposes to such allergic diseases as: allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, atopic asthma, and food allergy. So far, over 40 loss-of-function mutations and numerous silent mutations in filaggrin have been discovered. PMID:25276250

  18. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Jonathan A; Bernstein, I Leonard; Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R; Hamilton, Robert G; Lehrer, Samuel; Rubin, Carol; Sampson, Hugh A

    2003-01-01

    Technology has improved the food supply since the first cultivation of crops. Genetic engineering facilitates the transfer of genes among organisms. Generally, only minute amounts of a specific protein need to be expressed to obtain the desired trait. Food allergy affects only individuals with an abnormal immunologic response to food--6% of children and 1.5-2% of adults in the United States. Not all diseases caused by food allergy are mediated by IgE. A number of expert committees have advised the U.S. government and international organizations on risk assessment for allergenicity of food proteins. These committees have created decision trees largely based on assessment of IgE-mediated food allergenicity. Difficulties include the limited availability of allergen-specific IgE antisera from allergic persons as validated source material, the utility of specific IgE assays, limited characterization of food proteins, cross-reactivity between food and other allergens, and modifications of food proteins by processing. StarLink was a corn variety modified to produce a (Italic)Bacillus thuringiensis(/Italic) (Bt) endotoxin, Cry9C. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention investigated 51 reports of possible adverse reactions to corn that occurred after the announcement that StarLink, allowed for animal feed, was found in the human food supply. Allergic reactions were not confirmed, but tools for postmarket assessment were limited. Workers in agricultural and food preparation facilities have potential inhalation exposure to plant dusts and flours. In 1999, researchers found that migrant health workers can become sensitized to certain Bt spore extracts after exposure to Bt spraying. PMID:12826483

  19. The role of epigenetic mediation and the future of food allergy research.

    PubMed

    Quake, Christine; Nadeau, Kari C

    2015-07-01

    IgE-mediated food allergy is a developing global health problem with prevalence rising at alarmingly fast rates. In this review, we discuss the interplay between genetics, epigenetics, and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of food allergies. We aim to highlight the most recent evidence that suggests how epigenetic control may mediate genetic susceptibility of food allergies. We also examine how epigenetic modifications may be the key in explaining how environmental factors modulate and modify gene expression, leading to the dysregulation of immune tolerance and consequently, the development of food allergies. The emerging epigenetic paradigm in food allergies is likely to provide new mechanistic insight into food allergy risk and development as well as shape our therapeutic and preventive strategies. PMID:26150170

  20. Married...with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergy the hard way: I had an anaphylactic reaction to a pecan treat when I was three. After that, my mother took me to an allergist, who used scratch tests to diagnose my other food allergies. As an adult, we used an elimination diet to diagnose my peanut and cinnamon allergies. ...

  1. [Genetically modified food and allergies - an update].

    PubMed

    Niemann, Birgit; Pöting, Annette; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-07-01

    Approval by the European Commission is mandatory for placing genetically modified plants as food or feed on the market in member states of the European Union (EU). The approval is preceded by a safety assessment based on the guidance of the European Food Safety Authority EFSA. The assessment of allergenicity of genetically modified plants and their newly expressed proteins is an integral part of this assessment process. Guidance documents for the assessment of allergenicity are currently under revision. For this purpose, an expert workshop was conducted in Brussels on June 17, 2015. There, methodological improvements for the assessment of coeliac disease-causing properties of proteins, as well as the use of complex models for in vitro digestion of proteins were discussed. Using such techniques a refinement of the current, proven system of allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants can be achieved. PMID:27240596

  2. Skin manifestations and immunological parameters in childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Fernández, M; Córdoba, H; Sanz, M L

    1997-01-01

    According to Hansen's contact rule, the digestive system should be considered as the main shock organ, yet in food allergy, this is not the case. Very often specific food triggers clinical manifestations not involving the digestive system; that is, reactions are manifested either in the respiratory system, as asthma or rhinitis, or in the skin. In these cases the BALT (broncho-alveolar lymphoid tissue) and GALT (gastrointestinal lymphoid tissue) units play a basic role in the sensitizations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequent skin manifestations of food allergy among children, and the most frequently involved foods. We also thought it interesting to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of the different standard immunological parameters utilized by the study team in food allergy. All patients underwent intracutaneous tests with 12 groups of the most frequent food allergens, as well as serum IgE, antigen-specific IgE against foods, and antigen-specific histamine release tests. Antigen-specific IgG4 determination was performed in some cases. The results obtained confirmed previous studies, the most common manifestations being: angioedema (48%), followed by urticaria (31%) and atopic dermatitis (21%). Regarding the frequency of sensitization to different food allergens, in mono- or polisensitization, fish and egg stand out in our environment. Certain food allergens are more frequently responsible for specific skin manifestations. Thus, for fish sensitization, the most frequent skin manifestation is atopic dermatitis (50%); for egg sensitization, angioedema is the most frequent skin manifestation (50%); and for milk, urticaria (50%). Finally, and in agreement with previous works regarding the diagnostic reliability of in vitro techniques, we found that the histamine release test offered the highest percentage of diagnostic reliability. Only for sensitization to milk proteins did antigen-specific IgE demonstrate higher reliability. Once again, we

  3. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of prepared foods. In addition, they must use plain language to disclose whether their products contain (or may ... that you read food labels carefully. If your child has a food allergy, the guidelines suggest seeking ...

  4. Socio-Cultural Matrix of Raising a Child with Food Allergies: Experiences of a Migrant Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2004-01-01

    Children with life-threatening food allergies are increasing in number in Australia. A variety of foods such as dairy milk, peanut and tree nuts, fish and egg can cause severe allergic reactions in some children. The foods that cause allergies could trigger severe breathing difficulties (anaphylaxis) for these children and, if not treated…

  5. Preparing School Personnel to Assist Students with Life-Threatening Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Genevieve H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Knowledge of and preparation for life-threatening food allergies will enable school personnel to better respond to students who have severe allergic reactions. Given the high incidence of food-related anaphylaxis in public places, teachers and school personnel should be aware of and prepared to handle severe food allergy reactions. (SM)

  6. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... outgrow allergies to milk, eggs, soy products, and wheat. Allergies to peanuts or tree nuts often are ... allergies are to eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, crustaceans (shellfish), fish, and soy products. A severe, ...

  7. [Allergy to egg proteins in children].

    PubMed

    Góngora-Meléndez, Marco Antonio; Magaña-Cobos, Armando; Montiel-Herrera, Juan Manuel; Pantoja-Minguela, Cinthya Lorena; Pineda-Maldonado, Mario Luis; Piñeyro-Beltrán, Eduardo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy prevalence has increased during the last years, affecting 15-20% of children, in this case, egg allergy affects from 0.5-2.5%. Most of the egg allergic reactions are type I or IgE mediated antibodies against egg proteins. Five major proteins have been identified: ovomucoid (Gal d1), ovoalbumin (Gal d2), ovotransferrin (Gal d3), lysozyme (Gal d4) and albumin (Gal d5). Ovomucoid protein, which is found in the egg white, is heat resistant and enzyme resistant. This protein is the most allergenic and the most common in egg composition. Clinical diagnosis requires a detailed questionnaire. Skin prick test or Ige specific diagnosis are made as first choice. Skin prick tests are quick and useful to determine the presence of IgE specific antibodies to egg. Specific IgE for egg can be measured using standarized IgE studies in vitro, making a quantitative measure. Traditionally with the clinical history a diagnosis can be made. Standarized oral double blinded-placebo controlled challenge continues to be the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. The identification and elimination of egg proteins from the diet is the primary treatment and the only one validated to this food, but there are more studies needed to stablish protocols for each specific egg allergen before the oral inmunotherapy becomes a routine practice. PMID:26239334

  8. Impact of Food Allergy on Asthma in Children

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  9. Use of a food allergy care management pathway in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trower, Anna; Gettings, Sheryl

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, parents/carers. Healthcare staff also need training on with estimates suggesting that 3.9% of 0-19 year olds how best to deliver information to this age group and have a food allergy. Adolescents are seen as a high-risk to monitor them. More technically stylish adrenaline group for anaphylaxis because of their risk-taking auto-injectors, designed with the involvement of behaviours and challenges in using adrenaline adolescents, together with clearer food labelling, auto-injectors. The Royal College of Paediatrics would also help avoid episodes of anaphylaxis. and Child Health provides an allergy care pathway to assist health professionals with these issues. The pathway could be implemented more effectively with the adolescent age group if education on how to follow it was improved for young people and their parents/carers. Healthcare staff also need training on how best to deliver information to this age group and to monitor them. More technically stylish adrenaline auto-injectors, designed with the involvement of adolescents, together with clearer food labelling, would also help avoid episodes of anaphylaxis. PMID:26059586

  10. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Lanser, Bruce J.; Wright, Benjamin L.; Orgel, Kelly A.; Vickery, Brian P.; Fleischer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26456449

  11. Current Options for the Treatment of Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Lanser, Bruce J; Wright, Benjamin L; Orgel, Kelly A; Vickery, Brian P; Fleischer, David M

    2015-12-01

    Food allergy is increasing in prevalence; as a result, there is intense focus on developing safe and effective therapies. Current methods of specific immunotherapy include oral, sublingual, and epicutaneous, while nonspecific methods that have been investigated include: Chinese herbal medicine, probiotics, and anti-IgE antibodies. Although some studies have demonstrated efficacy in inducing desensitization, questions regarding safety and the potential for achieving immune tolerance remain. Although some of these therapies demonstrate promise, further investigation is required before their incorporation into routine clinical practice. PMID:26456449

  12. The Role of Skin Barrier in the Pathogenesis of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Neema; Luu, Minnelly; Ong, Peck Y.; Tam, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is a serious public health problem with an increasing prevalence. Current management is limited to food avoidance and emergency treatment. Research into the pathogenesis of food allergy has helped to shape our understanding of how patients become sensitized to an allergen. Classically, food sensitization was thought to occur through the gastrointestinal tract, but alternative routes of sensitization are being explored, specifically through the skin. Damaged skin barrier may play a crucial role in the development of food sensitization. Better understanding of how patients initially become sensitized may help lead to the development of a safe and effective treatment for food allergies or better prevention strategies. PMID:27417371

  13. Food Allergies and the UK Catering Industry: A Study of the Training Needs for the Industry to Serve Those with Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratten, John; Towers, Neil

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at the ability of retail food outlets to provide suitable meals for those with special dietary needs. Thus, some food allergies are described briefly and the personnel involved in food preparation and service are examined. Groups of owners of catering outlets were interviewed to discover from them their knowledge of food allergies…

  14. Epigenetics and development of food allergy (FA) in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-09-01

    This review aims to highlight the latest advance on epigenetics in the development of food allergy (FA) and to offer future perspectives. FA, a condition caused by an immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated hypersensitivity reaction to food, has emerged as a major clinical and public health problem worldwide in light of its increasing prevalence, potential fatality, and significant medical and economic impact. Current evidence supports that epigenetic mechanisms are involved in immune regulation and that the epigenome may represent a key "missing piece" of the etiological puzzle for FA. There are a growing number of population-based epigenetic studies on allergy-related phenotypes, mostly focused on DNA methylation. Previous studies mostly applied candidate-gene approaches and have demonstrated that epigenetic marks are associated with multiple allergic diseases and/or with early-life exposures relevant to allergy development (such as early-life smoking exposure, air pollution, farming environment, and dietary fat). Rapid technological advancements have made unbiased genome-wide DNA methylation studies highly feasible, although there are substantial challenge in study design, data analyses, and interpretation of findings. In conclusion, epigenetics represents both an important knowledge gap and a promising research area for FA. Due to the early onset of FA, epigenetic studies of FA in prospective birth cohorts have the potential to better understand gene-environment interactions and underlying biological mechanisms in FA during critical developmental windows (preconception, in utero, and early childhood) and may lead to new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention, and management of FA and provide novel targets for future drug discovery and therapies for FA. PMID:25096861

  15. Food allergy knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of parents with food-allergic children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchi S; Springston, Elizabeth E; Smith, Bridget; Kim, Jennifer S; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Wang, Xiaobin; Holl, Jane

    2010-09-01

    Parents of food-allergic children are responsible for risk assessment and management of their child's condition. Such practices are likely informed by parental knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of food allergy. Our objective was to characterize food allergy knowledge and perceptions among parents with food-allergic children. Parents were recruited nationally between January 2008 and 2009 to complete the validated, web-based Chicago Food Allergy Research Survey for Parents of Children with Food Allergy. Findings were analyzed to provide composite/itemized knowledge scores, describe attitudes and beliefs, and examine the effects of participant characteristics on response. A sample of 2945 parents was obtained. Participants had an average knowledge score of 75% correct (range 19-100%). Strengths were observed in each content domain; e.g., 95% of participants accurately identified the signs of a milk-induced reaction. Weaknesses were limited to items assessing food allergy triggers/environmental risks and perceptions of susceptibility/prevalence; e.g., 52% of parents incorrectly believed young children are at higher risk for fatal anaphylaxis than adolescents. Parental attitudes/beliefs were diverse, although 85% agreed children should carry an EpiPen at school and 91% felt schools should have staff trained in food allergy. One in four parents reported food allergy caused a strain on their marriage/relationship, and 40% reported experiencing hostility from other parents when trying to accommodate their child's food allergy. In conclusion, parents in our study exhibited solid baseline knowledge although several important misconceptions were identified. While a broad spectrum of parental perceptions was observed, a large proportion of parents reported that their child's food allergy had an adverse impact on personal relationships and also agreed on certain policies to address food allergy in schools. PMID:20492544

  16. Development of an Educational Packet for Persons with Life-Threatening Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Bradley F.; Teuber, Suzanne; Bruhn, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that those with severe food allergies have significant gaps in knowledge about their disease and how to prevent recurrences. The purpose of this study was to address these deficiencies by creating and testing an educational packet, "Coping with Food Allergies." Participants included 46 of 58 adults with documented…

  17. Guidelines for Managing Life-Threatening Food Allergies in Massachusetts Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.; Goldman, Patricia G.; Millett, Kathleen; Franks, Jane C.; McIntyre, C. Lynne; Carroll, Constance R.; Gorak, Diane; Harrison, Christanne Smith; Carrick, Michele Abu

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade, prevalence of food allergies among children increased. Caring for children with life-threatening food allergies has become a major challenge for school personnel Prior to 2002, Massachusetts did not provide clear guidelines to assist schools in providing a safe environment for these children and preparing for an emergency…

  18. Improving the safety of oral immunotherapy for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Ortiz, Marta; Turner, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health problem in children, impacting upon the affected individual, their families and others charged with their care, for example educational establishments, and the food industry. In contrast to most other paediatric diseases, there is no established cure: current management is based upon dietary avoidance and the provision of rescue medication in the event of accidental reactions, which are common. This strategy has significant limitations and impacts adversely on health-related quality of life. In the last decade, research into disease-modifying treatments for food allergy has emerged, predominantly for peanut, egg and cow's milk. Most studies have used the oral route (oral immunotherapy, OIT), in which increasing amounts of allergen are given over weeks-months. OIT has proven effective to induce immune modulation and 'desensitization' - that is, an increase in the amount of food allergen that can be consumed, so long as regular (typically daily) doses are continued. However, its ability to induce permanent tolerance once ongoing exposure has stopped seems limited. Additionally, the short- and long-term safety of OIT is often poorly reported, raising concerns about its implementation in routine practice. Most patients experience allergic reactions and, although generally mild, severe reactions have occurred. Long-term adherence is unclear, which rises concerns given the low rates of long-term tolerance induction. Current research focuses on improving current limitations, especially safety. Strategies include alternative routes (sublingual, epicutaneous), modified hypoallergenic products and adjuvants (anti-IgE, pre-/probiotics). Biomarkers of safe/successful OIT are also under investigation. PMID:26593873

  19. NIAID-Sponsored 2010 Guidelines for Managing Food Allergy: Applications in the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stacie M.; Boyce, Joshua A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Assa'ad, Amal; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from many studies have suggested a rise in the prevalence of food allergies during the past 10 to 20 years. Currently, no curative treatments for food allergy exist, and there are no effective means of preventing the disease. Management of food allergy involves strict avoidance of the allergen in the patient's diet and treatment of symptoms as they arise. Because diagnosis and management of the disease can vary between clinical practice settings, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) sponsored development of clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. The guidelines establish consensus and consistency in definitions, diagnostic criteria, and management practices. They also provide concise recommendations on how to diagnose and manage food allergy and treat acute food allergy reactions. The original guidelines encompass practices relevant to patients of all ages, but food allergy presents unique and specific concerns for infants, children, and teenagers. To focus on those concerns, we describe here the guidelines most pertinent to the pediatric population. PMID:21987705

  20. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  1. Relationship between respiratory and food allergy and evaluation of preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Panizo, C; Dordal, M T; González, M L; Velázquez, E; Valero, A; Sánchez, M C; Rondón, C; Montoro, J; Matheu, V; Lluch-Bernal, M; González, R; Fernández-Parra, B; Del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Colás, C; Campo, P; Antón, E; Navarro, A M

    2016-01-01

    Food allergy and respiratory allergy are two frequently associated diseases and with an increasing prevalence. Several reports show the presence of respiratory symptoms in patients with food allergy, while certain foods may be related to the development or exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The present update focuses on this relationship, revealing a pathogenic and clinical association between food and respiratory allergy. This association is even more intense when the food hypersensitivity is persistent or starts in the early years of life. Food allergy usually precedes respiratory allergy and may be a risk factor for allergic rhinitis and asthma, becoming a relevant clinical marker for severe atopic asthma. Furthermore, the presence of co-existing asthma may enhance life-threatening symptoms occurring during a food allergic reaction. Recommendations for dietary restrictions during pregnancy and breastfeeding to prevent the development of respiratory allergy are controversial and not supported by consistent scientific data. Current recommendations from medical societies propose exclusive breastfeeding during the first four months of life, with the introduction of solid food in the fourth to the seventh month period of life. A delayed introduction of solid food after this period may increase the risk of developing subsequent allergic conditions. Further studies are encouraged to avoid unjustified recommendations involving useless dietary restrictions. PMID:26316421

  2. Can food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome shift to immediate gastrointestinal hypersensitivity? A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Onesimo, R; Dello Iacono, I; Giorgio, V; Limongelli, M G; Miceli Sopo, S

    2011-03-01

    Food protein induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a food-related non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal hypersensitivity disorder. Atypical FPIES is characterized by the presence of specific IgE for the causative food. The guidelines suggested for diagnostic oral food challenge in pediatric patients affected by suspected FPIES are different from the ones for children with IgE-mediated food allergy. We describe two cases of atypical FPIES that turned into IgE-mediated gastrointestinal anaphylaxis. Our experience suggests to adapt OFC according to the outcome of specific IgE for the causative food When causative food-related IgE werepositive, we suggest to follow the guidelines for IgE mediated food allergy. PMID:21608375

  3. Immunologic Features of Infants with Milk or Egg Allergy Enrolled in an Observational Study (CoFAR) of Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sicherer, Scott H.; Wood, Robert A.; Stablein, Donald; Burks, A. Wesley; Liu, Andrew H.; Jones, Stacie M.; Fleischer, David M.; Leung, Donald YM; Grishin, Alexander; Mayer, Lloyd; Shreffler, Wayne; Lindblad, Robert; Sampson, Hugh A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Immune features of infants with food allergy have not been delineated. Objectives To explore basic mechanisms responsible for food allergy and identify biomarkers, e.g. prick skin tests (PST), food-specific IgE, and mononuclear cell responses in a cohort of infants with likely milk/egg allergy at increased risk of developing peanut allergy. Methods Infants aged 3–15 months were enrolled with a positive PST to milk or egg and either a corresponding convincing clinical history of allergy to milk or egg, or with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD). Infants with known peanut allergy were excluded. Results Overall, 512 infants (67% males) were studied with 308 (60%) having a history of a clinical reaction. Skin tests and/or detectable food-specific IgE revealed sensitization as follows: milk-78%, egg-89% and peanut-69%. PST and food-specific IgE levels were discrepant for peanut: 15% IgE ≥ 0.35 kUA/L/PST- versus 8% PST+/IgE < 0.35, p = 0.001. Mononuclear cell allergen stimulation screening for CD25, CISH, FOXP3, GATA3, IL-10, IL-4, IFN-gamma and TBET expression using casein, egg white and peanut revealed that only allergen-induced IL-4 expression was significantly increased in those with clinical allergy to milk (compared to non-allergic) and in those sensitized to peanut, despite the absence of an increase in GATA-3 mRNA expression. Conclusions Infants with likely milk/egg allergy are at considerably high risk of having elevated peanut-specific IgE (potential allergy). Peanut-specific serum IgE was a more sensitive indicator of sensitization than PST. Allergen-specific IL-4 expression may be a marker of allergic risk. Absence of an increase in GATA-3 mRNA expression suggests that allergen-specific IL-4 may not be of T cell origin. PMID:20451041

  4. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools. PMID:23059601

  5. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause an anaphylactic reaction in some people. Airborne particles. Often called environmental allergens, these are the most common allergens. Examples of airborne particles that can cause allergies are dust mites (tiny ...

  6. Allergies

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... are white blood cells containing the chemical histamine. As more antibodies are produced, they cause the mast ... to release histamine. Histamine then produces allergy symptoms. A stuffy and runny nose, sneezing and watery eyes ...

  7. Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... make certain medical conditions, such as sinus problems, eczema , and asthma , worse. ... by allergies (such as asthma, hay fever, and eczema) may need other treatments. Medications that can be ...

  8. Food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis: what do we do?

    PubMed

    Chehade, Mirna; Aceves, Seema S; Furuta, Glenn T; Fleischer, David M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by foods and possibly environmental allergens. Common conditions that mimic EoE include gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. These need to be excluded before confirming the diagnosis of EoE. Identification of food triggers for EoE using standard allergy tests remains challenging. Dietary therapy for EoE so far consists of test-directed elimination of foods, empiric elimination of common food allergens, or exclusive feeding of amino acid-based formulas, with variable success. No FDA-approved medications yet exist for EoE. Topical corticosteroids to the esophagus are being used. EoE is a chronic disease; therefore, long-term therapy seems to be necessary to avoid potential long-term complications such as esophageal remodeling and strictures. Optimal long-term therapies and follow-ups are still not established; therefore, discussion with patients and families regarding the choice of therapy is important to ensure the best possible outcomes from a medical and social standpoint. In this article, we discuss all the above issues in detail by using a hypothetical case; highlighting in a stepwise manner what is known with respect to diagnosis, work-up, and management of EoE; and discussing gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in the future. PMID:25577614

  9. Asthma and Food Allergy in Children: Is There a Connection or Interaction?

    PubMed Central

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Garrubba, Marilena; Greco, Chiara; Mastrorilli, Carla; Povesi Dascola, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    This review explores the relationship between food allergy and asthma. They can share the same risk factors, such as parental allergy, atopic eczema, and allergen sensitization, and they often coincide in the same child. Coexistence may negatively influence the severity of both conditions. However, it remains to be determined whether food allergy may directly affect asthma control. An early food sensitization in the first year of life can predict the onset of asthma. Furthermore, asthmatic symptoms could rarely be caused by ingestion or inhalation of the offending food. Asthma caused by food allergy is severe and may be associated with anaphylactic symptoms. Therefore, an accurate identification of the offending foods is necessary in order to avoid exposure. Patients should be instructed to treat asthmatic symptoms quickly and to use self-injectable epinephrine. PMID:27092299

  10. The pediatrician's role in the diagnosis and management of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Lau, Claudia H; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2013-07-01

    CME EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES 1. Recognize the signs and symptoms of food allergy versus food intolerance. 2. Review currently available diagnostic testing modalities for food allergy and their applicability in the pediatric outpatient setting. 3. Review appropriate management practices for pediatricians, including prescription of medications, counseling of families, and referrals to keep children safe. Food allergy is a rapidly increasing and potentially life-threatening health concern in the United States. Given the ubiquity of food in our society and the absence of a cure, it is crucial that families receive proper guidance and medication to keep children safe. The pediatrician plays a key role to this end as he or she is often the first, and sometimes the only physician, these children can access. Accordingly, pediatricians must be equipped to recognize, manage, and evaluate food allergies over time while preventing unnecessary avoidance. This review provides practical translation of guidelines into recommended practices that are most pertinent to pediatricians. PMID:23805958

  11. Mechanisms of immune tolerance relevant to food allergy.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Brian P; Scurlock, Amy M; Jones, Stacie M; Burks, A Wesley

    2011-03-01

    The intestine has an unenviable task: to identify and respond to a constant barrage of environmental stimuli that can be both dangerous and beneficial. The proper execution of this task is central to the homeostasis of the host, and as a result, the gastrointestinal tract contains more lymphocytes than any other tissue compartment in the body, as well as unique antigen-presenting cells with specialized functions. When antigen is initially encountered through the gut, this system generates a robust T cell-mediated hyporesponsiveness called oral tolerance. Although seminal observations of oral tolerance were made a century ago, the relevant mechanisms are only beginning to be unraveled with the use of modern investigational techniques. Food allergy is among the clinical disorders that occur from a failure of this system, and therapies that seek to re-establish tolerance are currently under investigation. PMID:21277624

  12. Mechanisms of Immune Tolerance Relevant to Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Vickery, Brian P.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Jones, Stacie M.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    The intestine has an unenviable task: to identify and respond to a constant barrage of environmental stimuli that can be both dangerous and beneficial. The proper execution of this task is central to the homeostasis of the host, and as a result the gastrointestinal tract contains more lymphocytes than any other tissue compartment in the body, as well as unique antigen presenting cells with specialized functions. When antigen is initially encountered through the gut, this system generates a robust T-cell mediated hyporesponsiveness called oral tolerance. Although seminal observations of oral tolerance were made a century ago, the relevant mechanisms are only beginning to be unraveled with the use of modern investigational techniques. Food allergy is among the clinical disorders that occur from a failure of this system, and therapies that seek to reestablish tolerance are currently under investigation. PMID:21277624

  13. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy.

    PubMed

    Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Katz, Yitzhak; Mehr, Sam Soheil; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-05-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food-induced allergic disorders (non-IgE-GI-FAs) account for an unknown proportion of food allergies and include food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and food protein-induced enteropathy (FPE). Non-IgE-GI-FAs are separate clinical entities but have many overlapping clinical and histologic features among themselves and with eosinophilic gastroenteropathies. Over the past decade, FPIES has emerged as the most actively studied non-IgE-GI-FA, potentially because of acute and distinct clinical features. FPIAP remains among the common causes of rectal bleeding in infants, while classic infantile FPE is rarely diagnosed. The overall most common allergens are cow's milk and soy; in patients with FPIES, rice and oat are also common. The most prominent clinical features of FPIES are repetitive emesis, pallor, and lethargy; chronic FPIES can lead to failure to thrive. FPIAP manifests with bloody stools in well-appearing young breast-fed or formula-fed infants. Features of FPE are nonbloody diarrhea, malabsorption, protein-losing enteropathy, hypoalbuminemia, and failure to thrive. Non-IgE-GI-FAs have a favorable prognosis; the majority resolve by 1 year in patients with FPIAP, 1 to 3 years in patients with FPE, and 1 to 5 years in patients with FPIES, with significant differences regarding specific foods. There is an urgent need to better define the natural history of FPIES and the pathophysiology of non-IgE-GI-FAs to develop biomarkers and novel therapies. PMID:25956013

  14. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates.

    PubMed

    Boye, Joyce Irene

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  15. Food allergies in developing and emerging economies: need for comprehensive data on prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although much is known today about the prevalence of food allergy in the developed world, there are serious knowledge gaps about the prevalence rates of food allergy in developing countries. Food allergy affects up to 6% of children and 4% of adults. Symptoms include urticaria, gastrointestinal distress, failure to thrive, anaphylaxis and even death. There are over 170 foods known to provoke allergic reactions. Of these, the most common foods responsible for inducing 90% of reported allergic reactions are peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, nuts (e.g., hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, cashews, pecans, etc.), soybeans, fish, crustaceans and shellfish. Current assumptions are that prevalence rates are lower in developing countries and emerging economies such as China, Brazil and India which raises questions about potential health impacts should the assumptions not be supported by evidence. As the health and social burden of food allergy can be significant, national and international efforts focusing on food security, food safety, food quality and dietary diversity need to pay special attention to the role of food allergy in order to avoid marginalization of sub-populations in the community. More importantly, as the major food sources used in international food aid programs are frequently priority allergens (e.g., peanut, milk, eggs, soybean, fish, wheat), and due to the similarities between food allergy and some malnutrition symptoms, it will be increasingly important to understand and assess the interplay between food allergy and nutrition in order to protect and identify appropriate sources of foods for sensitized sub-populations especially in economically disadvantaged countries and communities. PMID:23256652

  16. Advances in the Treatment of Food Allergy: Sublingual and Epicutaneous Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sindher, Sayantani; Fleischer, David M; Spergel, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Food allergies continue to increase in prevalence. Standard care is a strict elimination diet, but life-threatening reactions still occur. Allergen immunotherapy has the most potential in treating food allergy. Subcutaneous immunotherapy has not been adopted into food allergy therapy. Oral immunotherapy has a high rate of adverse reactions. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) uses the tolerogenic environment of the oral mucosa and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) uses the immune cells of the epidermis to transport antigens to afferent lymph nodes to activate immune responses. SLIT and EPIT can successfully desensitize patients. More research is needed to define optimal doses and administration protocols. PMID:26617226

  17. Automated identification of drug and food allergies entered using non-standard terminology

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Richard H; St Jacques, Paul; Stockin, Michael; Rothman, Brian; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Denny, Joshua C

    2013-01-01

    Objective An accurate computable representation of food and drug allergy is essential for safe healthcare. Our goal was to develop a high-performance, easily maintained algorithm to identify medication and food allergies and sensitivities from unstructured allergy entries in electronic health record (EHR) systems. Materials and methods An algorithm was developed in Transact-SQL to identify ingredients to which patients had allergies in a perioperative information management system. The algorithm used RxNorm and natural language processing techniques developed on a training set of 24 599 entries from 9445 records. Accuracy, specificity, precision, recall, and F-measure were determined for the training dataset and repeated for the testing dataset (24 857 entries from 9430 records). Results Accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure for medication allergy matches were all above 98% in the training dataset and above 97% in the testing dataset for all allergy entries. Corresponding values for food allergy matches were above 97% and above 93%, respectively. Specificities of the algorithm were 90.3% and 85.0% for drug matches and 100% and 88.9% for food matches in the training and testing datasets, respectively. Discussion The algorithm had high performance for identification of medication and food allergies. Maintenance is practical, as updates are managed through upload of new RxNorm versions and additions to companion database tables. However, direct entry of codified allergy information by providers (through autocompleters or drop lists) is still preferred to post-hoc encoding of the data. Data tables used in the algorithm are available for download. Conclusions A high performing, easily maintained algorithm can successfully identify medication and food allergies from free text entries in EHR systems. PMID:23748627

  18. Epidemiological survey of pediatric food allergy in Mashhad in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Jafari, Seyedali; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Haghi, Nasrinsadat Motevalli; Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Radbin, Mohammad Hossein; Kianifar, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food allergy is an increasing problem worldwide, but the foods responsible for food allergy are not the same in different countries, probably because of the role of genetic, cultural, and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to determine the common food allergens in pediatric patients with different presentation of food allergy. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all of the patients were referred to pediatric allergy clinics affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from September 2012 to August 2014. For patients with IgE-mediated food allergy that was diagnosed with clinical manifestations, the skin prick test was done. The results were analyzed by SPSS version 17 and statistical analysis was done with the chi-squared test and the t-test. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Three hundred seventy-one patients (53.9% male, 46.1% female) with ages in the range of three months to 18 years were studied. The most frequent food allergen in all patients with decreasing prevalence were egg white (17.8%), pepper (15.8%), curry (14.3%), egg yolk (14%), cow’s milk (10%), and tomato (7.8%). The most common presenting symptoms were respiratory (allergic rhinitis 45%, asthma 32%), dermatologic (atopic dermatitis 30%, urticaria 8.3%), colitis (17.5%), and gasteroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) (2%). According to the prevalence of food allergens in different age groups, we realized that, after the age of three years, the frequency of sensitization to egg white, egg yolk, cow’s milk, wheat and cereals was decreased and allergy to pepper and curry was increased. Conclusion The prevalence of culprit foods that produce food allergies depends on several factors, including age, presenting manifestation, and where the patient lives. As many food allergies are outgrown, patients should be reevaluated regularly to determine whether they have lost their reactivity or not. PMID:26955442

  19. Overview of Evidence in Prevention and Aetiology of Food Allergy: A Review of Systematic Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Caroline J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Dharmage, Shyamali C.

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of food allergy appears to be increasing. Early life environmental factors are implicated in the aetiology of this global epidemic. The largest burden of disease is in early childhood, where research efforts aimed at prevention have been focused. Evidence synthesis from good quality systematic reviews is needed. We performed an overview of systematic reviews concerning the prevention and aetiology of food allergy, retrieving 14 systematic reviews, which covered three broad topics: formula (hydrolysed or soy) for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization; maternal and infant diet and dietary supplements for the prevention of food allergy or food sensitization and hygiene hypothesis-related interventions. Using the AMSTAR criteria for assessment of methodological quality, we found five reviews to be of high quality, seven of medium quality and two of low quality. Overall we found no compelling evidence that any of the interventions that had been systematically reviewed were related to the risk of food allergy. Updating of existing reviews, and production of new systematic reviews, are needed in areas where evidence is emerging for interventions and environmental associations. Furthermore, additional primary studies, with greater numbers of participants and objective food allergy definitions are urgently required. PMID:24192789

  20. Manifestations of food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies presenting to a single tertiary paediatric gastroenterology unit

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies are difficult to characterise due to the delayed nature of this allergy and absence of simple diagnostic tests. Diagnosis is based on an allergy focused history which can be challenging and often yields ambiguous results. We therefore set out to describe a group of children with this delayed type allergy, to provide an overview on typical profile, symptoms and management strategies. Methods This retrospective analysis was performed at Great Ormond Street Children’s Hospital. Medical notes were included from 2002 – 2009 where a documented medical diagnosis of food protein induced gastrointestinal allergies was confirmed by an elimination diet with resolution of symptoms, followed by reintroduction with reoccurrence of symptoms. Age of onset of symptoms, diagnosis, current elimination diets and food elimination at time of diagnosis and co-morbidities were collected and parents were phoned again at the time of data collection to ascertain current allergy status. Results Data from 437 children were analysis. The majority (67.7%) of children had an atopic family history and 41.5% had atopic dermatitis at an early age. The most common diagnosis included, non-IgE mediated gastrointestinal food allergy (n = 189) and allergic enterocolitis (n = 154) with symptoms of: vomiting (57.8%), back-arching and screaming (50%), constipation (44.6%), diarrhoea (81%), abdominal pain (89.9%), abdominal bloating (73.9%) and rectal bleeding (38.5%). The majority of patients were initially managed with a milk, soy, egg and wheat free diet (41.7%). At a median age of 8 years, 24.7% of children still required to eliminate some of the food allergens. Conclusions This large retrospective study on children with food induced gastrointestinal allergies highlights the variety of symptoms and treatment modalities used in these children. However, further prospective studies are required in this area of food allergy. PMID:23919257

  1. A review of oral food challenges in children presenting to a single tertiary centre with perceived or true food allergies

    PubMed Central

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Loo, Evelyn Xiu Ling; Tan, Michelle Meiling; Bever, Hugo Van; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The prevalence of perceived food allergies exceeds that of true food allergies. Unnecessary food avoidance may increase parental and patient anxiety, reduce quality of life and increase the risk of nutritional deficiency. An oral food challenge (OFC) can provide an objective measure regarding the presence or absence of food allergies in a child. This study reviews the indications for and outcomes of OFCs performed on children. METHODS A retrospective review was performed on all children who underwent OFCs at the Allergy Unit of the National University Hospital, Singapore, over a three-year period. RESULTS A total of 197 OFCs were performed among 58 patients (34 male, 24 female). Most of the tests were for allergies to tree nuts (n = 107). Among the OFCs, 43.1% were for foods that were avoided and never eaten due to perceived food allergies, 25.9% were for foods that had previously resulted in positive skin prick tests (SPTs) and/or immunoassay results, 16.2% were for foods thought to worsen eczema and 14.7% were for foods thought to have caused a previous reaction. Of all the OFCs, 5% were positive, although adverse reactions were mostly cutaneous. Challenge-positive patients had either positive SPTs (wheal > 3 mm) or raised serum immunoglobulin E levels to specific foods that they reacted to during the challenges. No episodes of anaphylaxis were reported after the challenge. Most of the patients were able to safely introduce the avoided foods into their diets. CONCLUSION OFCs provide an objective assessment for suspected food allergies. PMID:26668407

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Mothers of Children with Food Allergy: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Knibb, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food allergy affects quality of life in patients and parents and mothers report high levels of anxiety and stress. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) may be helpful in reducing the psychological impact of food allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the appropriateness and effectiveness of CBT to improve psychological outcomes in parents of children with food allergy. Methods: Five parents (all mothers) from a local allergy clinic requested to have CBT; six mothers acted as controls and completed questionnaires only. CBT was individual and face-to face and lasted 12 weeks. All participants completed measures of anxiety and depression, worry, stress, general mental health, generic and food allergy specific quality of life at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: Anxiety, depression and worry in the CBT group significantly reduced and overall mental health and QoL significantly improved from baseline to 12 weeks (all p < 0.05) in mothers in the CBT group; control group scores remained stable. Conclusions: CBT appears to be appropriate and effective in mothers of children with food allergy and a larger randomised control trial now needs to be conducted. Ways in which aspects of CBT can be incorporated into allergy clinic visits need investigation. PMID:27417820

  3. The Learning Early About Peanut Allergy Study: The Benefits of Early Peanut Introduction, and a New Horizon in Fighting the Food Allergy Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Observational studies have explored associations between timing of peanut, egg, and milk introduction and food allergy development, noting significant associations with reduced respective rates of milk, egg, and peanut allergy associated with earlier timing of introduction. Interventional studies developed to more definitively explore these outcomes have been published for egg and peanut, and are ongoing for multiple other allergens. This review focuses on the recent publication regarding the LEAP (Learning Early About Peanut Allergy) study, its highly favorable results, the policy implications of its findings, and the horizon for primary prevention as a realistic strategy to prevent food allergy. PMID:26456447

  4. Oral Immunotherapy for Treatment of Immunoglobulin E-Mediated Food Allergy: The Transition to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Linda; Caminiti, Lucia; Ramistella, Vincenzo; Crisafulli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Today, there is neither an effective nor an active treatment for food allergy. Allergy immunotherapy has been proposed as an attractive strategy to actively treat food allergy. Oral immunotherapy (OIT), also known as oral desensitization, is a method of inducing the body's immune system to tolerate a food that causes an allergic overreaction. It has been studied for the use in treatment of immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy to the most common foods, including milk, egg, and peanut. OIT has been able to desensitize subjects to varying degrees. However, many questions remain unanswered, including efficient formulation, optimal dosing, and induction protocol to achieve full tolerance, transition of OIT to clinical practice, and maximal safety profile. This review focuses on the use of OIT as a new and active treatment for food allergy. The possibility of transition of OIT to clinical practice represents, in this field, the next pivotal step with the goal of improving the quality of life of patients with food allergy and their families. PMID:24963452

  5. Use of Animal Models to Investigate Major Allergens Associated with Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Bischof, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and extensive investigations into the mechanisms involved in the allergic pathway, such as predicting possible triggers as well as the testing of novel treatments for food allergy. Traditionally, small animal models have been used to characterise immunological pathways, providing the foundation for the development of numerous allergy models. Larger animals also merit consideration as models for food allergy as they are thought to more closely reflect the human allergic state due to their physiology and outbred nature. This paper will discuss the use of animal models for the investigation of the major food allergens; cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut/other tree nuts, highlight the distinguishing features of each of these models, and provide an overview of how the results from these trials have improved our understanding of these specific allergens and food allergy in general. PMID:23690797

  6. Parsing the Peanut Panic: The Social Life of a Contested Food Allergy Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Miranda R.

    2013-01-01

    As medical reports over the last decade indicate that food allergies among children are on the rise, peanut allergies in particular have become a topic of intense social debate. While peanut allergies are potentially fatal, they affect very few children at the population level. Yet, peanut allergies are characterized in medical and popular literature as a rising “epidemic,” and myriad and broad-based social responses have emerged to address peanut allergy risk in public spaces. This analysis compares medical literature to other textual sources, including media reports, legislation, and advocacy between 1980 and 2010 in order to examine how peanut allergies transformed from a rare medical malady into a contemporary public health problem. I argue that the peanut allergy epidemic was co-constructed through interactions between experts, publics, biomedical categories, and institutions, while social reactions to the putative epidemic expanded the sphere of surveillance and awareness of peanut allergy risk. The characterization of the peanut allergy problem as an epidemic was shaped by mobility across social sites, with both discursive and material effects. PMID:23746608

  7. Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    O’Keefe, Andrew W; De Schryver, Sarah; Mill, Jennifer; Mill, Christopher; Dery, Alizee; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy. PMID:25368525

  8. The psychosocial impact of food allergy and food hypersensitivity in children, adolescents and their families: a review.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A J; Knibb, R C; King, R M; Lucas, J S

    2010-08-01

    Food allergy affects 6% of children but there is no cure, and strict avoidance of index allergens along with immediate access to rescue medication is the current best management. With specialist care, morbidity from food allergy in children is generally low, and mortality is very rare. However, there is strong evidence that food allergy and food hypersensitivity has an impact on psychological distress and on the quality of life (QoL) of children and adolescents, as well as their families. Until recently, the measurement of QoL in allergic children has proved difficult because of the lack of investigative tools available. New instruments for assessing QoL in food allergic children have recently been developed and validated, which should provide further insights into the problems these children encounter and will enable us to measure the effects of interventions in patients. This review examines the published impact of food allergy on affected children, adolescents and their families. It considers influences such as gender, age, disease severity, co-existing allergies and external influences, and examines how these may impact on allergy-related QoL and psychological distress including anxiety and depression. Implications of the impact are considered alongside avenues for future research. PMID:20180792

  9. Diagnostic Utility of Total IgE in Foods, Inhalant, and Multiple Allergies in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the diagnostic significance of total IgE in foods, inhalant, and multiple allergies. Methods. Retrospective review of the laboratory records of patients who presented with clinical suspicion of food or inhalant allergy between January 2013 and December 2014. Total IgE level was defined as positive for a value >195 kU/L; and diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of specific IgE (golden standard) for at least one food or inhalant allergen and at least two allergens in multiple allergies. Results. A total of 1893 (male ratio = 0.68, mean age = 39.0 ± 19.2 years) patients were included. Total IgE had comparable sensitivity (55.8% versus 59.6%) and specificity (83.9% versus 84.4%) in food versus inhalant allergy, respectively, but a superior PPV in inhalant allergy (79.1% versus 54.4%). ROC curve analysis showed a better diagnostic value in inhalant allergies (AUC = 0.817 (95% CI = 0.796–0.837) versus 0.770 (95% CI = 0.707–0.833)). In multiple allergies, total IgE had a relatively good sensitivity (78.6%), while negative IgE testing (<195 kU/L) predicted the absence of multiple allergies with 91.5% certitude. Conclusion. Total IgE assay is not efficient as a diagnostic test for foods, inhalant, or multiple allergies. The best strategy should refer to specific IgE testing guided by a comprehensive atopic history. PMID:27314052

  10. [Food allergies. III. Therapy: elimination diet, symptomatic drug prophylaxis and specific hyposensitization].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B; Hofer, T

    1986-10-11

    The treatment of food allergies is logically based on strict elimination of causative allergens. While it is easy to eliminate food which is infrequently consumed, it is more difficult to manage an allergy involving regularly consumed foods, especially where patients have to eat away from home for professional reasons. The creation of elimination diets for milk, eggs, and mould and yeast allergies is discussed. In raw food and vegetable allergy the act of cooking is often sufficient to denature the allergen as it is unstable to heat. Follow-up investigations show that some 50% of children achieve cure spontaneously by strict elimination diet, especially in regard to milk allergy. In our own 173 (mainly adult) patients with food allergy, some 2/3 reported after 3-5 years that a strict elimination diet had to be followed, since otherwise prompt relapse of allergic symptoms was noted. About 1/3 of patients, mainly with milk, cheese or egg allergy, can hope for spontaneous desensitization by appropriate diet. This is demonstrated by a case history with disappearance of IgE antibodies. Should this fail to occur, oral desensitization with milk or egg-white extracts offers an effective therapy. The practice of hyposensitization with foodstuffs is illustrated by examples and tabulation of immunologic parameters. In raw food or vegetable allergy, which is often associated with birch or mugwort pollinosis, improvement or even complete cure can be expected in about 1/3 of cases by systematic desensitization of pollinosis. On the other hand, the therapy and prognosis of food allergy involving extreme and polyvalent sensitivities, especially to spices, or with multifactorially induced symptoms, is more problematic. In these cases a strict elimination diet should be followed by continuous prophylactic/symptomatic treatment with antianaphylactic substances such as cromoglicinic acid (Nalcrom) - especially in gastrointestinal food allergies - or with ketotifen (Zaditen) or

  11. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    PubMed

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  12. The threshold concept in food safety and its applicability to food allergy.

    PubMed

    O'B Hourihane, J

    2001-01-01

    Down the years there have been many clinical reports of exquisite sensitivity to low doses of food allergens. There are many factors that may contribute to a variation of threshold in an individual exposed to an allergen during the course of his or her daily life. Some of these factors are intrinsic and unavoidable. Other factors may be predictable but not easily controllable, such as asthma, exposure to allergens during the pollen season and predicting situations that may be risky. Other factors may be out of the control of the individual. The most important one of these is the adequate training and awareness of manufacturers and caterers who aim to provide safe and nutritious meals to their allergic and non-allergic customers alike. Clinical histories of reactions in the community and the use of labial exposure during food challenge show that most non-ingestion exposures to peanut usually result in easily treated minor reactions. Formal, oral food challenges have shown that low dose reactivity is relatively common but studies have not yet had the power to investigate whether peanut allergy is more commonly associated with very low dose reactivity than other foods. This means that industry must not concentrate only on peanut and tree nuts when looking at issues of contamination just because they are associated with the majority of severe reactions. There are more milk and egg allergic children in the general population and they deserve the same protection from allergen exposure as sufferers of peanut or tree nut allergies. PMID:11298018

  13. Latex allergies - for hospital patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated ...

  14. Managing latex allergies at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Latex Cross-reactive Foods Fact Sheet. Updated October ... Allergy Association; American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Guidelines for the Management of Latex Allergies. Updated ...

  15. Exploring Low-Income Families' Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Leia M.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies. PMID:24693292

  16. Current and Emerging Therapies for IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Pesek, Robbie D; Jones, Stacie M

    2016-04-01

    Food allergies are a growing clinical problem leading to increased health care utilization and decreases in patient quality of life. Current treatment recommendations include strict dietary avoidance of the offending food as well as use of self-injectable epinephrine in case of accidental exposure with allergic reaction. Although many individuals will eventually outgrow their food allergies, a substantial number will not. Significant effort has been made to find novel treatments that protect patients from food-triggered reactions as well as to develop immune-modulating therapies that could lead to tolerance. In this review, three therapies that have shown the most promise for the treatment of food allergies are highlighted: oral immunotherapy, sublingual immunotherapy, and epicutaneous immunotherapy. PMID:26942731

  17. Food Allergy - Basic Mechanisms and Applications to Identifying Risks Associated with Plant Incorporated Pesticides and Other Genetically Modified Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Food allergy is a relatively new concern for toxicologists as a result of the incorporation of novel proteins into food crops in order to promote resistance to pests and other stresses, improve nutrition, or otherwise modify the phenotype. Food allergy can manifest as inflammatio...

  18. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District.

    PubMed

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  19. Food Allergy Knowledge and Attitudes among School Nurses in an Urban Public School District

    PubMed Central

    Twichell, Sarah; Wang, Kathleen; Robinson, Humaira; Acebal, Maria; Sharma, Hemant

    2015-01-01

    Since food allergy knowledge and perceptions may influence prevention and management of school-based reactions, we evaluated them among nurses in an urban school district. All District of Columbia public school nurses were asked to anonymously complete a food allergy knowledge and attitude questionnaire. Knowledge scores were calculated as percentage of correct responses. Attitude responses were tabulated across five-point Likert scales, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The knowledge questionnaire was completed by 87% of eligible nurses and the attitude questionnaire by 83%. The mean total knowledge score was 76 ± 13 with domain score highest for symptom recognition and lowest for treatment. Regarding attitudes, most (94%) felt food allergy is a serious health problem, for which schools should have guidelines (94%). Fewer believed that nut-free schools (82%) and allergen-free tables (44%) should be implemented. Negative perceptions of parents were identified as: parents of food-allergic children are overprotective (55%) and make unreasonable requests of schools (15%). Food allergy knowledge deficits and mixed attitudes exist among this sample of urban school nurses, particularly related to management of reactions and perceptions of parents. Food allergy education of school nurses should be targeted to improve their knowledge and attitudes. PMID:27417367

  20. Epicutaneous immunotherapy for food allergy as a novel pathway for oral tolerance induction.

    PubMed

    Mondoulet, Lucie; Dioszeghy, Vincent; Thébault, Claude; Benhamou, Pierre-Henri; Dupont, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Epicutaneous immunotherapy is a developing technique, aiming at desensitizing patients with food allergy with less risks that oral ingestion or injection could generate. Several clinical trials have been performed and are currently running, in milk and peanut allergy, assessing the safety of the technique and its efficacy. Preclinical models indicate a major role in the mechanisms of desensitization, for example, Tregs and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26584421

  1. Unusual shift from IgE-mediated milk allergy to food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Banzato, C; Piacentini, G L; Comberiati, P; Mazzei, F; Boner, A L; Peroni, D G

    2013-12-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a potentially severe non-IgE-mediated food allergy usually caused by cow's milk or soy, and more rarely by solid foods such as rice, oats, barley, chicken, turkey, egg white, green peas and peanuts. In children with FPIES, the presence of specific IgE antibodies to the causative food, either at presentation or during follow-up, defines an "atypical form" of FPIES characterized by a lesser probability of developing tolerance and a potential progression to typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Although it is uncommon, the shift from non-IgE-mediated milk-protein induced enterocolitis syndrome to IgE-mediated milk allergy has recently been described. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of a shift from IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy to pure non-IgE-mediated FPIES, in a 4-month-old male infant. PMID:24619083

  2. Why Does Australia Appear to Have the Highest Rates of Food Allergy?

    PubMed

    Allen, Katrina J; Koplin, Jennifer J

    2015-12-01

    Australia has reported the highest rates of food allergy, using the gold standard, oral food challenge. This phenomenon, which appears linked to the "modern lifestyle" and has coincided with the explosion of the new diseases of affluence in the 21st century, dubbed "affluenza," has spurred a multitude of theories and academic investigations. This review focuses on potentially modifiable lifestyle factors for the prevention of food allergy and presents the first data to emerge in the Australian context that centers around the dual allergen exposure hypothesis, the vitamin D hypothesis, and the hygiene hypothesis. PMID:26456442

  3. Parenting and Independent Problem-Solving in Preschool Children With Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Power, Thomas G.; Hahn, Amy L.; Hoehn, Jessica L.; Thompson, Caitlin C.; Herbert, Linda J.; Law, Emily F.; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine autonomy-promoting parenting and independent problem-solving in children with food allergy. Methods 66 children with food allergy, aged 3–6 years, and 67 age-matched healthy peers and their mothers were videotaped while completing easy and difficult puzzles. Coders recorded time to puzzle completion, children’s direct and indirect requests for help, and maternal help-giving behaviors. Results Compared with healthy peers, younger (3- to 4-year-old) children with food allergy made more indirect requests for help during the easy puzzle, and their mothers were more likely to provide unnecessary help (i.e., explain where to place a puzzle piece). Differences were not found for older children. Conclusions The results suggest that highly involved parenting practices that are medically necessary to manage food allergy may spill over into settings where high levels of involvement are not needed, and that young children with food allergy may be at increased risk for difficulties in autonomy development. PMID:25326001

  4. Exploring the Determinants of the Perceived Risk of Food Allergies in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Daniel W.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann E.; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Godefroy, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Food allergies are emerging health risks in much of the Western world, and some evidence suggests prevalence is increasing. Despite lacking scientific consensus around prevalence and management, policies and regulations are being implemented in public spaces (e.g., schools). These policies have been criticized as extreme in the literature, in the media, and by the non-allergic population. Backlash appears to be resulting from different perceptions of risk between different groups. This article uses a recently assembled national dataset (n = 3,666) to explore how Canadians perceive the risks of food allergy. Analyses revealed that almost 20% self-report having an allergic person in the household, while the average respondent estimated the prevalence of food allergies in Canada to be 30%. Both of these measures overestimate the true clinically defined prevalence (7.5%), indicating an inflated public understanding of the risks of food allergies. Seventy percent reported food allergies to be substantial risks to the Canadian population. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed important determinants of risk perception including demographic, experience-based, attitudinal, and regional predictors. Results are discussed in terms of understanding emerging health risks in the post-industrial era, and implications for both policy and risk communication. PMID:23172987

  5. Disparity between the presence and absence of food allergy action plans in one school district.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, John M; Sease, Kerry K; Marshall, Gailen D

    2010-01-01

    The Joint Task Force of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology and the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; the American Academy of Pediatrics; and the National Association of School Nurses all recommend emergency action plans (EAPs) that direct therapy of allergic reactions in children. This study investigated the school nurse's perception of food allergies and their use of EAPs in food-allergic students in a large, socioeconomically diverse school district. An electronic and paper survey was developed and administered to all elementary and middle school nurses in Greenville County, SC. Forty-three of the eligible school nurses participated for a response rate of 64% (43/67). All of the participants worked at schools that had at least one student with food allergies (mean, nine students with food allergies per school; SD, seven students). Forty-four percent (19/43) of schools had a written action plan for all their food-allergic students, whereas in 42% (18/43) of schools, one-half or less of the food-allergic students, had an action plan. Seventy percent (30/43) of schools made at least one accommodation for students with food allergies and 23% (10/43) of schools made multiple accommodations. At least three additional school personnel were trained in administering rescue medications besides the school nurse in 86% (37/43) of schools, but in 5% (2/43) of schools no additional adults were trained to give rescue medications. Although multiple organizations recommend EAPs for food-allergic students, our study highlights their inconsistent use in this school district. PMID:20406595

  6. Allergic Reactions to Foods in Preschool-Aged Children in a Prospective Observational Food Allergy Study

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tamara T.; Atkins, Dan; Wood, Robert A.; Burks, A. Wesley; Jones, Stacie M.; Henning, Alice K.; Stablein, Donald; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine circumstances of allergic reactions to foods in a cohort of preschool-aged children. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, 5-site observational study of 512 infants aged 3 to 15 months with documented or likely allergy to milk or egg, and collected data prospectively examining allergic reactions. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 0–48.4), the annualized reaction rate was 0.81 per year (367/512 subjects reporting 1171 reactions [95% confidence interval: 0.76–0.85]). Overall, 269/512 (52.5%) reported >1 reaction. The majority of reactions (71.2%) were triggered by milk (495 [42.3%]), egg (246 [21.0%]), and peanut (93 [7.9%]), with accidental exposures attributed to unintentional ingestion, label-reading errors, and cross-contact. Foods were provided by persons other than parents in 50.6% of reactions. Of 834 reactions to milk, egg, or peanut, 93 (11.2%) were attributed to purposeful exposures to these avoided foods. A higher number of food allergies (P < .0001) and higher food-specific immunoglobulin E (P < .0001) were associated with reactions. Of the 11.4% of reactions (n = 134) that were severe, 29.9% were treated with epinephrine. Factors resulting in undertreatment included lack of recognition of severity, epinephrine being unavailable, and fears about epinephrine administration. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high frequency of reactions caused by accidental and nonaccidental exposures. Undertreatment of severe reactions with epinephrine was a substantial problem. Areas for improved education include the need for constant vigilance, accurate label reading, avoidance of nonaccidental exposure, prevention of cross-contamination, appropriate epinephrine administration, and education of all caretakers. PMID:22732173

  7. DIGESTIBILITY AND ORAL TOLERANCE IN A MOUSE MODEL FOR FOOD ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish allergens from non-allergens when exposed to foods orally, both in terms of oral tolerance and allergic antibody ...

  8. Pearls and Pitfalls in Diagnosing IgE-Mediated Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Stukus, David R; Mikhail, Irene

    2016-05-01

    The term "food allergy" is used by many patients and clinicians to describe a range of symptoms that occur after ingestion of specific foods. However, not all symptoms occurring after food exposure are due to an allergic, or immunologic, response. It is important to properly evaluate and diagnose immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy as this results in reproducible, immediate onset, allergic reactions that can progress toward life-threatening anaphylaxis. Proper diagnosis requires understanding of the common foods that cause these reactions in addition to key historical elements such as symptoms, timing and duration of reaction, and risk factors that may predispose to development of IgE-mediated food allergy. Diagnostic testing for food-specific IgE can greatly aid the diagnosis. However, false-positive test results are very common and can lead to overinterpretation, misdiagnosis, and unnecessary dietary elimination. This review discusses important aspects to consider during evaluation of a patient for suspected IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27039392

  9. Generating a Natural Porcine Model of Gastrointestinal Food Allergy to Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an extremely potent allergen and is one of the most life-threatening food sensitivities known. Peanuts cause the majority of food-related anaphylaxis in children, adolescents, and adults. There is no good animal model currently in place to study peanut allergies. Exp...

  10. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in U.S. adults: 2001, 2006, and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Bruns, Richard; Luccioli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence indicates that food allergies are increasing in the population. Information on a change in self-reported food allergy (srFA) in adults over time is lacking. Objective: To report the prevalence of srFA and compare differences at three time points over a decade. Methods: We analyzed srFA and reported physician-diagnosed food allergy in >4000 U.S. adults who participated in the 2010 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Survey. Information on causative food(s), reaction severity characteristics, and various diagnostic factors was also analyzed. We compared 2010 Food Safety Survey data with 2006 and 2001 data, and highlighted relevant differences. Results: SrFA prevalence increased significantly, to 13% in 2010 and 14.9% in 2006 compared with 9.1% in 2001 (p < 0.001). Physician diagnosed food allergy was 6.5% in 2010, which was not significantly different compared with 7.6% in 2006 and 5.3% in 2001. SrFA increased in both men and women, non-Hispanic white and black adults, 50–59 year olds, and in adults with a high school or lower education. In 2010, milk, shellfish, and fruits were the most commonly reported food allergens, similar to 2001. Also, in 2010, 15% of reactions reportedly required a hospital visit and 8.4% were treated with epinephrine. Minor differences in reaction severity characteristics were noted among the surveys. Conclusions: Analysis of survey results indicates that the prevalence of srFA increased among U.S. adults from 2001 to 2010 and that adults are increasingly self-reporting FAs without obtaining medical diagnosis. Improved education about food allergies is needed for this risk group. PMID:26453524

  11. Development of a food allergy education resource for primary care physicians

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joyce E; Kumar, Arvind; Bruhn, Christine; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2008-01-01

    Background Food allergy is estimated to affect 3–4% of adults in the US, but there are limited educational resources for primary care physicians. The goal of this study was to develop and pilot a food allergy educational resource based upon a needs survey of non-allergist healthcare providers. Methods A survey was undertaken to identify educational needs and preferences for providers, with a focus on physicians caring for adults and teenagers, including emergency medicine providers. The results of the survey were used to develop a teaching program that was subsequently piloted on primary care and emergency medicine physicians. Knowledge base tests and satisfaction surveys were administered to determine the effectiveness of the educational program. Results Eighty-two physicians (response rate, 65%) completed the needs assessment survey. Areas of deficiency and educational needs identified included: identification of potentially life-threatening food allergies, food allergy diagnosis, and education of patients about treatment (food avoidance and epinephrine use). Small group, on-site training was the most requested mode of education. A slide set and narrative were developed to address the identified needs. Twenty-six separately enrolled participants were administered the teaching set. Pre-post knowledge base scores increased from a mean of 38% correct to 64% correct (p < 0.001). Ability to correctly demonstrate the use of epinephrine self injectors increased significantly. Nearly all participants (>95%) indicated that the teaching module increased their comfort with recognition and management of food allergy. Conclusion Our pilot food allergy program, developed based upon needs assessments, showed strong participant satisfaction and educational value. PMID:18826650

  12. The Relationship Between the Status of Unnecessary Accommodations Being Made to Unconfirmed Food Allergy Students and the Presence or Absence of a Doctor’s Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Ganaha, Yurika; Kobayashi, Minoru; Asikin, Yonathan; Gushiken, Taichi; Shinjo, Sumie

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the current state of unnecessary children food allergy accommodation and the medical efforts to confirm the existence of food allergies in school lunch service kitchens in Okinawa, Japan, including kitchens accommodating food allergy students by requiring medical documentation at the start and during provisions being made (Double Diagnosis), requiring medical documentation at the start only (Single Diagnosis), and with no medical documentation (Non-Diagnosis). Unnecessary accommodations are being made to unconfirmed food allergy students, wherein the more medical consultation was required, the lower the food allergy incident rate was and the more food allergens were diagnosed (Non-Diagnosis > Single Diagnosis > Double Diagnosis). This study suggests the possibility that unconfirmed food allergy students may be receiving unnecessary food allergy accommodations per school lunches, and the number of unnecessary food allergy provisions being made could be reduced by requiring medical documentation at the start and during these provisions.

  13. Colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP): a new diagnostic approach for gastrointestinal food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Bischoff, S C; Mayer, J; Wedemeyer, J; Meier, P N; Zeck-Kapp, G; Wedi, B; Kapp, A; Cetin, Y; Gebel, M; Manns, M P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of gastrointestinal food allergy in adults is largely unknown because the mechanisms are poorly understood and the diagnosis is difficult to confirm. AIMS: To improve the diagnostic means for confirming intestinal food allergy on an objective basis, a new colonoscopic allergen provocation (COLAP) test was developed. PATIENTS: The COLAP test was performed in 70 adult patients with abdominal symptoms suspected to be related to food allergy, and in five healthy volunteers. METHODS: During the COLAP test, the caecal mucosa was challenged endoscopically with three food antigen extracts, a buffer control, and a positive control (histamine). The mucosal weal and flare reaction was registered semiquantitatively 20 minutes after challenge, and tissue biopsy specimens were examined for mast cell and eosinophil activation. RESULTS: No severe systemic anaphylactic reactions were found in response to intestinal challenge. The COLAP test was positive to at least one food antigen in 54 of 70 patients (77%), whereas no reaction in response to antigen was found in healthy volunteers. Antigen induced weal and flare reactions were correlated with intestinal mast cell and eosinophil activation, as well as with patients' history of adverse reactions to food, but not with serum concentrations of total or specific IgE or skin test results. CONCLUSION: The COLAP test may be a useful diagnostic measure in patients with suspected intestinal food allergy and may provide a new tool for the study of underlying mechanisms. Images PMID:9245928

  14. The role of gene-environment interactions in the development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Neeland, Melanie R; Martino, David J; Allen, Katrina J

    2015-01-01

    The rates of IgE-mediated food allergy have increased globally, particularly in developed countries. The rising incidence is occurring more rapidly than changes to the genome sequence would allow, suggesting that environmental exposures that alter the immune response play an important role. Genetic factors may also be used to predict an increased predisposition to these environmental risk factors, giving rise to the concept of gene-environment interactions, whereby differential risk of environmental exposures is mediated through the genome. Increasing evidence also suggests a role for epigenetic mechanisms, which are sensitive to environmental exposures, in the development of food allergy. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding the environmental and genetic risk factors for food allergy and how environmental exposures may interact with immune genes to modify disease risk or outcome. PMID:26357960

  15. Ethical principles as a guide in implementing policies for the management of food allergies in schools.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-06-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to handle the advent of anaphylaxis and policies for the prevention of allergen exposure are missing essential components. Furthermore, certain policies are inappropriate because they are blatantly discriminatory. This article aims to provide further guidance for school health officials involved in creating food allergy policies. By structuring policies around ethical principles of confidentiality and anonymity, fairness, avoiding stigmatization, and empowerment, policy makers gain another method to support better policy making. The main ethical principles discussed are adapted from key values in the bioethics and public health ethics literatures and will be framed within the specific context of food allergy policies for schools. PMID:20348215

  16. Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Ravid, N L; Annunziato, R A; Ambrose, M A; Chuang, K; Mullarkey, C; Sicherer, S H; Shemesh, E; Cox, A L

    2012-02-01

    As food allergy increases, more research is devoted to its influence on patient and family mental health and quality of life (QoL). This article discusses the effects on parent and child QoL, as well as distress, while appraising the limitations of knowledge given the methods used. Topics include whether QoL and distress are affected compared with other illnesses, assessment of distress and QoL in parents compared with children, concerns about food allergy-related bullying, and the necessity for evidence-based interventions. Suggestions are offered for how to improve QoL and reduce distress on the way to better coping with food allergy. PMID:22244234

  17. Food Allergy Testing in Eosinophilic Esophagitis: What the Gastroenterologist Needs to Know

    PubMed Central

    Aceves, Seema S.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic disease of increasing prevalence in children and adults. The triggering antigen in EoE is often a food that initiates a cascade of Th2 associated interleukins such as IL-5, -13, and chemokines such as eotaxin-3 as well as esophageal eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Amino acid based formulas have high efficacy rates in EoE and constituted the first evidence for food triggered esophageal eosinophilia. Animal models have demonstrated the sufficiency of food antigens in triggering both the inflammatory and remodeling complications of EoE. Food elimination diets followed by single food introduction with repeat biopsy have proven the efficacy of empiric and allergy testing based elimination diets in children and adults. Although the ideal allergy test for identifying food antigens in EoE remains to be elucidated, the utility of food skin prick combined with atopy patch testing has been shown in large pediatric cohorts. By comparison, smaller, non-U.S. adult cohorts have not had similar results. Currently, a positive test on food allergy evaluation suggests a food trigger for EoE but does not substitute for biopsy based tissue evaluation following food removal and re-introduction. The higher rates of food anaphylaxis in children with EoE, potential loss of tolerance to IgE positive foods that can occur with food avoidance, and the high rates of other atopic diatheses in EoE subjects all support the evaluation of EoE subject by an allergist, consideration for allergy testing, and an integrated approach by allergists, gastroenterologists, and pathologists in EoE management. PMID:24035776

  18. The development of a standardised diet history tool to support the diagnosis of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Venter, Carina; Meyer, Rosan; deJong, Nicolette W; Fox, Adam T; Groetch, Marion; Oude Elberink, J N; Sprikkelman, Aline; Diamandi, Louiza; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J

    2015-01-01

    The disparity between reported and diagnosed food allergy makes robust diagnosis imperative. The allergy-focussed history is an important starting point, but published literature on its efficacy is sparse. Using a structured approach to connect symptoms, suspected foods and dietary intake, a multi-disciplinary task force of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology developed paediatric and adult diet history tools. Both tools are divided into stages using traffic light labelling (red, amber and green). The red stage requires the practitioner to gather relevant information on symptoms, atopic history, food triggers, foods eaten and nutritional issues. The amber stage facilitates interpretation of the responses to the red-stage questions, thus enabling the practitioner to prepare to move forward. The final green stage provides a summary template and test algorithm to support continuation down the diagnostic pathway. These tools will provide a standardised, practical approach to support food allergy diagnosis, ensuring that all relevant information is captured and interpreted in a robust manner. Future work is required to validate their use in diverse age groups, disease entities and in different countries, in order to account for differences in health care systems, food availability and dietary norms. PMID:25741437

  19. Gut Microbiome and the Development of Food Allergy and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Benjamin T; Mandel, Mark J; Nadeau, Kari; Singh, Anne Marie

    2015-12-01

    The impact of gut microbiome on human development, nutritional needs, and disease has become evident with advances in the ability to study these complex communities of microorganisms, and there is growing appreciation for the role of the microbiome in immune regulation. Several studies have examined associations between changes in the commensal microbiota and the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and asthma, but far less have evaluated the impact of the microbiome on the development of food allergy. This article reviews the human gastrointestinal microbiome, focusing on the theory and evidence for its role in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy and other allergic diseases. PMID:26456445

  20. Exposure to food allergens through inflamed skin promotes intestinal food allergy via the TSLP-basophil axis

    PubMed Central

    Noti, Mario; Kim, Brian S.; Siracusa, Mark C.; Rak, Gregory D.; Kubo, Masato; Moghaddam, Amin E.; Sattentau, Quentin A.; Comeau, Michael R.; Spergel, Jonathan M.; Artis, David

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to food allergens through a disrupted skin barrier has been recognized as a potential factor in the increasing prevalence of food allergy. Objective To test the immunological mechanisms by which epicutaneous sensitization to food allergens predisposes to intestinal food allergy. Methods Mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) or peanut on an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion followed by intragastric antigen challenge. Antigen-specific serum IgE levels and Th2 cytokine responses were measured by ELISA. Expression of type-2 cytokines and mast cell proteases in the intestine were measured by real-time PCR. Accumulation of basophils in the skin and mast cells in the intestine was examined by flow cytometry. In vivo basophil depletion was achieved by diphtheria toxin treatment of Baso-DTR mice. For cell transfer studies, the basophil population was expanded in vivo by hydrodynamic tail vein injection of thymic stromal lymphopoietin cDNA plasmid. Results Sensitization to food allergens through an atopic dermatitis-like skin lesion is associated with an expansion of TSLP-elicited basophils in the skin that promote antigen-specific Th2 cytokine responses, elevated antigen-specific serum IgE levels and the accumulation of mast cells in the intestine promoting the development of intestinal food allergy. Critically, disruption of TSLP responses or depletion of basophils reduced the susceptibility to intestinal food allergy while transfer of TSLP-elicited basophils into intact skin promoted disease. Conclusion Epicutaneous sensitization on a disrupted skin barrier is associated with the accumulation of TSLP-elicited basophils that are necessary and sufficient to promote antigen-induced intestinal food allergy. PMID:24560412

  1. Is This Symptom Even a Food Allergy?: Clinical Types of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an under-recognized non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. The diagnosis of FPIES is based on clinical history, sequential symptoms and the timing, after excluding other possible causes. It is definitively diagnosed by an oral food challenge test. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of FPIES is frequently delayed because of non-specific symptoms and insufficient definitive diagnostic biomarkers. FPIES is not well recognized by clinicians; the affected infants are often mismanaged as having viral gastroenteritis, food poisoning, sepsis, or a surgical disease. Familiarity with the clinical features of FPIES and awareness of the indexes of suspicion for FPIES are important to diagnose FPIES. Understanding the recently defined clinical terms and types of FPIES is mandatory to suspect and correctly diagnose FPIES. The aim of this review is to provide a case-driven presentation as a guide of how to recognize the clinical features of FPIES to improve diagnosis and management of patients with FPIES. PMID:25061581

  2. Is This Symptom Even a Food Allergy?: Clinical Types of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2014-06-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an under-recognized non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. The diagnosis of FPIES is based on clinical history, sequential symptoms and the timing, after excluding other possible causes. It is definitively diagnosed by an oral food challenge test. Unfortunately, the diagnosis of FPIES is frequently delayed because of non-specific symptoms and insufficient definitive diagnostic biomarkers. FPIES is not well recognized by clinicians; the affected infants are often mismanaged as having viral gastroenteritis, food poisoning, sepsis, or a surgical disease. Familiarity with the clinical features of FPIES and awareness of the indexes of suspicion for FPIES are important to diagnose FPIES. Understanding the recently defined clinical terms and types of FPIES is mandatory to suspect and correctly diagnose FPIES. The aim of this review is to provide a case-driven presentation as a guide of how to recognize the clinical features of FPIES to improve diagnosis and management of patients with FPIES. PMID:25061581

  3. Adequate Vitamin D3 Supplementation During Pregnancy: Decreasing the Prevalence of Asthma and Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Jonathan; Cira, Courtney; Mazzella, Leanne; Bartyzel, Jim; Ramanna, Annisce; Strimel, Kayla; Waturuocha, Amara; Musser, Nathan; Burress, James; Brammer, Sarah; Wetzel, Robert; Horzempa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is a secosterol that is naturally synthesized in the skin upon contact with ultraviolet rays. This vitamin can also be acquired from dietary and nutritional supplements. The active form, vitamin D3, is primarily responsible for calcium homeostasis and bone health. However, many recent studies have associated low levels of vitamin D3 with asthma and food allergies. In this review, we discuss literature to explore the potential that vitamin D3 deficiency may be contributing toward the development of asthma and food allergies. These studies indicate that mothers who supplement with doses of vitamin D3 recommended for daily consumption (400 IU) by the United States Food and Drug Administration is not enough to deliver adequate levels to breastfed infants. Because sufficient vitamin D3 serum levels correlate with a low incidence of asthma and food allergies, high dose vitamin D3 supplementation (4000 IU) by pregnant and breastfeeding women may limit the development of asthma and food allergies in newborns. PMID:27213185

  4. The Evaluation of a Food Allergy and Epinephrine Autoinjector Training Program for Personnel Who Care for Children in Schools and Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating…

  5. [Allergen-specific immunotherapy for food allergies in childhood. Current options and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, Valérie; Blümchen, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    During recent years increasing research has been conducted on casual treatment options for food allergy, with focus on oral immunotherapy (OIT) for hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut allergy. Several studies could show that OIT leads to desensitization or an increase of threshold. However, severe adverse events during this treatment are not uncommon. Whether OIT leads to a sustained, 'robust' development of tolerance in patients has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Besides OIT, some studies on sublingual (SLIT) and epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) were performed, aiming to improve the safety profile. Furthermore, there are some pilot studies investigating a combined treatment of SLIT and OIT or a combined use of anti-IgE treatment or probiotic supplementation with OIT. Further placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size are needed in order to develop standardized protocols before immunotherapy may be used as a therapeutic option for food allergy outside of clinical trials. PMID:27324376

  6. Ethical Principles as a Guide in Implementing Policies for the Management of Food Allergies in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrmann, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy in children is a growing public health problem that carries a significant risk of anaphylaxis such that schools and child care facilities have enacted emergency preparedness policies for anaphylaxis and methods to prevent the inadvertent consumption of allergens. However, studies indicate that many facilities are poorly prepared to…

  7. Immune Modulation by Vitamin D and Its Relevance to Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Suaini, Noor H A; Zhang, Yuxia; Vuillermin, Peter J; Allen, Katrina J; Harrison, Leonard C

    2015-08-01

    Apart from its classical function in bone and calcium metabolism, vitamin D is also involved in immune regulation and has been linked to various cancers, immune disorders and allergic diseases. Within the innate and adaptive immune systems, the vitamin D receptor and enzymes in monocytes, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes mediate the immune modulatory actions of vitamin D. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency early in life has been identified as one of the risk factors for food allergy. Several studies have observed an association between increasing latitude and food allergy prevalence, plausibly linked to lower ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Along with mounting epidemiological evidence of a link between vitamin D status and food allergy, mice and human studies have shed light on the modulatory properties of vitamin D on the innate and adaptive immune systems. This review will summarize the literature on the metabolism and immune modulatory properties of vitamin D, with particular reference to food allergy. PMID:26225992

  8. Immune Modulation by Vitamin D and Its Relevance to Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Suaini, Noor H. A.; Zhang, Yuxia; Vuillermin, Peter J.; Allen, Katrina J.; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2015-01-01

    Apart from its classical function in bone and calcium metabolism, vitamin D is also involved in immune regulation and has been linked to various cancers, immune disorders and allergic diseases. Within the innate and adaptive immune systems, the vitamin D receptor and enzymes in monocytes, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes mediate the immune modulatory actions of vitamin D. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency early in life has been identified as one of the risk factors for food allergy. Several studies have observed an association between increasing latitude and food allergy prevalence, plausibly linked to lower ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Along with mounting epidemiological evidence of a link between vitamin D status and food allergy, mice and human studies have shed light on the modulatory properties of vitamin D on the innate and adaptive immune systems. This review will summarize the literature on the metabolism and immune modulatory properties of vitamin D, with particular reference to food allergy. PMID:26225992

  9. Citrus Tachibana Leaf Extract Mitigates Symptoms of Food Allergy by Inhibiting Th2-Associated Responses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Min-Yu; Shin, Hee Soon; Choi, Dae Woon; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-06-01

    Although the incidence of food allergy continues to rise, there have been no effective therapeutic strategies. Citrus fruits contain a number of bioactive flavonoids with immune-regulatory functions. The objective of this study was to determine whether Citrus tachibana (fruit body with peel, leaves, and branch) can protect against the development of food allergy and the mechanism behind it, and to identify the active compound(s) responsible. We found that C. tachibana leaf extract (CLE) mitigated ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy symptoms including increased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis. This mitigation was likely due to CLE-mediated decreases in cytokine release from T-helper 2 cells (Th2 cells) in mesenteric lymph nodes. Moreover, higher levels of CLE attenuated systemic Th2 cell-mediated responses in mouse splenocytes sensitized with OVA+Alum. This was evidenced by CLE-mediated reductions in Th2 cytokine release, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13, but not the Th1 cytokines IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, which was attributable to decreased gene expression levels. We also identified kaempferol as the most potent compound for reducing Th2-associated responses in splenocytes. The findings of this study suggest that CLE suppresses Th2-cell-mediated immune responses, contributing to alleviation of food allergy symptoms, and that kaempferol is a flavonoid with potential antiallergenic activity that targets Th2 cell-induced responses. PMID:27121925

  10. Experiences of Parents of Pre-K to Grade Four Children with Food Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia; Vandergriff, Alison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of parents of pre-K to grade four children who had food allergies. Also examined were the management strategies put in place by the participants to assist the children deal with their unique situations. An in-depth interview was conducted with ten parents whose children had food…

  11. RELATIVE POTENCY OF ORAL ANTIGENS IN PROVOKING FOOD ALLERGY IN THE MOUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: An animal model for food allergy is needed to test novel proteins produced through biotechnology for potential allergenicity. While the oral route is the most relevant method of exposure, oral tolerance is an impediment. We demonstrate that mice can distinguish...

  12. Food allergy-related paediatric constipation: the usefulness of atopy patch test.

    PubMed

    Syrigou, Ekaterini I; Pitsios, Constantinos; Panagiotou, Ioanna; Chouliaras, Georgios; Kitsiou, Sofia; Kanariou, Mary; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria

    2011-09-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the implication of food allergy as a cause of paediatric constipation and to determine the diet period needed to tolerate the constipation-causing foods. Fifty-four children aged 6 months to 14 years (median, 42 months) suffering from chronic constipation (without anatomic abnormalities, cοeliac disease or hypothyroidism), unresponsive to a 3-month laxative therapy, were prospectively evaluated. All participants were evaluated for allergy to cow's milk, egg, wheat, rice, corn, potato, chicken, beef and soy, using skin tests (SPT), serum specific IgE and atopy patch test (APT). A withdrawal of the APT-positive foods was instructed. Thirty-two children had positive APT; 15 were positive to one; six, to two and 11, to three or more food allergens, wheat and egg being the commonest. After withdrawing the APT-positive foods for an 8-week period, constipation had improved in 28/32 children, but a relapse of constipation was noticed after an oral food challenge, so they continued the elimination diet. Tolerance to food allergens was achieved in only 6/28 after 6 months, compared to 25/28 after 12 months and to all after a 2-year-long elimination. Food allergy seems to be a significant etiologic factor for chronic constipation not responding to treatment, in infants and young children. APT was found to be useful in evaluating non-IgE allergy-mediated constipation, and there was no correlation of APT with IgE detection. Tolerance was adequately achieved after 12 months of strict food allergen elimination. PMID:21347849

  13. Are food intolerances and allergies increasing in immigrant children coming from developing countries ?

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Francesco; Accomando, Salvatore; Fragapane, Maria L; Montaperto, Daniela

    2006-08-01

    There are not available data concerning the occurrence, the clinical features and the environmental risk factors for food intolerances and allergies in immigrant children. The aim of the study was to evaluate rates, distribution, clinical features and environmental risk factors for food intolerances and allergies in immigrant children. Hospital records of 4,130 patients with celiac disease (CD), cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI) and food allergies (FA) diagnosed in 24 Italian Centres from 1999 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed, comparing immigrant patients with Italian ones. 78/4,130 (1.9%) patients were immigrant: 36/1,917 (1.9%) had CD, 24/1,370 (1.75%) CMPI and 18/843 (2.1%) FA. They were evenly distributed across Italy and their native areas were: East Europe (23/78), Northern Africa (23/78), Southern Asia (14/78), Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa (9/78), Southern America (4/78), Far East (3/7), Middle East (2/78). Despite differences in their origin, the clinical features of immigrant children were similar to the ones of Italian patients and among each ethnic group. The majority of them were born in Italy (57/78) or have been residing in Italy since several years (19/78). All of them had lost dietary habits of the native countries and had acquired those of the Italian childhood population. Food intolerances and allergies are present also in children coming from developing countries, and paediatricians will need to have a full awareness of them because the number of immigrant children in Italy is quickly increasing. The clinical features of food intolerances and allergies appear the same in each ethnic group, despite differences in races. Sharing of dietary habits with the Italian childhood population seems to be an important environmental risk factor. PMID:16846455

  14. IgE-related examination in food allergy with focus on allergen components.

    PubMed

    Borres, Magnus P; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2015-01-01

    Molecular allergology is a breakthrough science that enables the quantification of IgE antibodies against individual allergen protein components at the molecular level. The diagnosis of IgE-mediated allergic disorders is based on the clinical history and on sensitization demonstrated through an allergy test. Identifying whether the sensitization is primary (species specific) or due to cross-reactivity with proteins with similar protein structures helps the clinician to judge the risk of allergic reaction. This is possible today because allergen component tests for food allergy are now available for clinicians to use in everyday practice. PMID:26022866

  15. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: new facts and old fallacies

    PubMed Central

    Isolauri, E; Rautava, S; Kalliomäki, M

    2004-01-01

    The notion of food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not new. However, recent evidence suggests significant reduction in IBS symptom severity in patients on elimination diets, provided that dietary elimination is based on foods against which the individual had raised IgG antibodies. These findings should encourage studies dissecting the mechanisms responsible for IgG production against dietary antigens and their putative role in IBS PMID:15361481

  16. [Atopic dermatitis in children and food allergy: combination or causality? Should avoidance diets be initiated?].

    PubMed

    Kanny, G

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the first manifestations of the atopic march. The natural history of food allergies (FA) is closely related to AD. Sensitivity to food is demonstrated with cutaneous tests (prick-tests and atopy patch-tests) or the presence of IgE specific to food. A true allergy to a foodstuff is revealed by oral provocation tests (OPT) or by improvement during an avoidance diet. Ingestion of the food allergen during OPT can provoke an onset of eczema, an immediate reaction (urticaria, oedema) or involve other target organs (digestive disorders, rhinitis, asthma or anaphylactic shock). Seven allergens are responsible for around 90 p. 100 of FA: milk, eggs, wheat, peanuts, nuts, soy and fish. The fundamental knowledge acquired demonstrates the implication of food allergens in the physiopathogenesis of AD. The assessment of the efficacy of avoidance diets is difficult to demonstrate in standardised double-blind studies. Their efficacy is demonstrated compared with the natural history of AD. A diagnostic algorythm of FA during AD is proposed. An avoidance diet can be prescribed on 3 levels: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Diagnostic dietetics are aimed at initiating a hypoallergenic diet over a short period of 15 to 21 days when AD is severe and does not permit an allergy assessment. This diet is followed by an allergy assessment and OPT to determine the foodstuff responsible. Therapeutic dietetics consists in initiating an avoidance diet based on the results of the allergy assessment: positive predictive value of specific IgE, positivity of oral provocation tests or the re-introduction of the foodstuff for one week. Preventive dietetics is aimed at preventing the onset of AD: a consensus has been established by the American and European Academies of Paediatrics. In conclusion, present knowledge demonstrates that FA is a triggering factor for AD and that the avoidance diets based on allergy assessments are an essential tool in the

  17. The management of situated risk: a parental perspective on child food allergy.

    PubMed

    Stjerna, Marie-Louise; Vetander, Mirja; Wickman, Magnus; Olin Lauritzen, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Food allergy is an illness that requires constant risk management in everyday life. To date, there is no cure or preventive treatment, and the only way to manage the condition is therefore careful avoidance of the offending foodstuff and treatment of reactions when they occur. This article draws on a socio-cultural approach to explore parents' understandings and management of child food allergy in the context of everyday life, as 'situated' risk. A focus group study was carried out with 31 parents of children diagnosed with food allergy at two children's hospitals. The analysis of the focus group material reveals how the management of allergy risk seems to permeate most aspects of everyday life as well as how the parents draw on a dominant norm of risk avoidance as well as a counter-discourse of calculated risk taking. The patterns of risk management found in this study are discussed in terms of how risk avoidance and risk taking are intertwined and balanced in the context of moral parenthood. PMID:23584151

  18. Managing murine food allergy with Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl (Menispermaceae) and its alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Costa, Hermann Ferreira; Leite, Fagner Carvalho; Alves, Adriano Francisco; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; dos Santos, Claudio Roberto Bezerra; Piuvezam, Marcia Regina

    2013-10-01

    Food allergy is a severe human disease with imminent risk of life. Cissampelos sympodialis (Menispermaceae) is a native Brazilian plant used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of respiratory allergies. In this study the experimental model of food allergy induced by ovalbumin (OVA) was used to determine whether the alcoholic extract of the plant (AFL) and its alkaloids match a therapeutic approach for this disease. Animal weight, diarrhea, OVA-specific IgE levels, inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles, mucus production and proportion of T cells on the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) were evaluated. Warifteine (W) or methyl-warifteine (MW) alkaloids slightly improve diarrhea score independently of AFL and all treatments decreased the OVA-specific IgE levels. Stimulated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells in the presence of the alkaloids diminished the IL-12p70 levels independently of IFN-γ or IL-13 secretion. The alkaloids increased the number of Treg cells on MLN and reduced the number of eosinophils and mast cells as well as mucus production in the gut. Therefore, the alkaloids modulate the immune response in food allergy by increasing regulatory T cells in MLN independently of Th1 or Th2 profiles. PMID:23810408

  19. Probiotics and Prebiotics for Prevention of Food Allergy: Indications and Recommendations by Societies and Institutions.

    PubMed

    Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-07-01

    Probiotics are defined as "live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host". Unfortunately, misuse of the term probiotic is very common. According to the regulation of the European food safety authority (EFSA) health claims on pre- and probiotics are not judged as favorable. Scientific societies should give guidance to the consumers and health care professionals on the use of probiotics and prebiotics for prevention and disease management. There is currently no positive recommendation from international scientific medical societies to use prebiotics or probiotics for treatment of food allergy or other allergic manifestations and for prevention of food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Discrepant recommendations exist for probiotics for prevention of eczema in high risk infants. PMID:27380601

  20. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS): symptoms of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to foods.

    PubMed

    Amlot, P L; Kemeny, D M; Zachary, C; Parkes, P; Lessof, M H

    1987-01-01

    Eighty highly atopic patients were selected for study because they had either atopic eczema (fifty cases) or atopic reactivity to foods, as judged by a positive skin-prick test (thirty cases). In all, sixty-five out of eighty subjects (81%) described symptoms of some kind provoked by foods, but correspondingly positive skin tests were found in only half of these, thirty-three out of eighty (41%). The symptoms experienced by thirty-one of the thirty-three patients with positive skin tests were immediate in onset (within 1 hr) and were at first confined to the upper gastrointestinal tract, the most frequent symptoms being oral irritation and throat tightness. In a proportion of these patients, further symptoms such as urticaria, asthma or anaphylaxis developed following the initial oral symptoms, which suggested the term 'oral allergy syndrome'. In the absence of the oral allergy, symptoms such as asthma, urticaria, migraine or eczema starting later than 1 hr after food were seldom associated with positive skin tests. In the oral allergy syndrome, the characteristic symptoms (strong association with positive skin tests and RAST, time of onset and sites at which symptoms are expressed) suggest a causative relationship between exposure to food antigens and specific IgE-induced release of mediators. In cases of food intolerance that lack a characteristic symptom pattern and a positive skin test or radio-allergo-sorbent test, it seems appropriate to consider non-IgE-mediated causes. PMID:3829369

  1. [New way in dietotherapy of infants with food allergy].

    PubMed

    Denisova, S N; Iukhtina, N V; Balabolkin, I I; Korotkova, T N; Sentsova, T B; Belitskaia, M Iu; Volkova, E A; Kon', I Ia

    2004-01-01

    The authors followed up (in outpatient conditions) a total of fifty 1-to-9-mounth-old infants with the diagnosis of atopic dermatitis, disseminated form, of subacute course. The infants were followed up for 3-12 months, with 83% of the 113 examined patients 1-3 weeks after the beginning of treatment having shown clinical improvement of cutaneous inflammatory processes. Of the 172 infants subjected to immunological examination, in 100--the level of total IgE in blood serum was significantly elevated. These children also had elevated level of the specific IgE antibodies to cow's milk proteins. The outcomes of the carried out dietotherapy using mixture "Nanny" showed that this therapeutic product resulted in remission in the majority of the followed up infants suffering from allergy to cow's milk proteins. PMID:15685857

  2. Low-Dose IL-2 Induces Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Control of Experimental Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Benjamin; Vigneron, James; Levacher, Béatrice; Vazquez, Thomas; Pitoiset, Fabien; Brimaud, Faustine; Churlaud, Guillaume; Klatzmann, David; Bellier, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal for maintenance of immune self-tolerance and also regulate immune responses to exogenous Ags, including allergens. Both decreased Treg number and function have been reported in allergic patients, offering new therapeutic perspectives. We previously demonstrated that Tregs can be selectively expanded and activated by low doses of IL-2 (ld-IL-2) inducing immunoregulation without immunosuppression and established its protective effect in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of ld-IL-2 to control allergy in an experimental model of food allergy. Ld-IL-2 induced Treg expansion and activation that elicited protection against clinical manifestations of food allergy in two mouse models with OVA and peanut. This clinical effect was lost in Treg-depleted mice, demonstrating the major contribution of Tregs in ld-IL-2 efficacy. Mechanistic studies further indicated that protection from allergy could be explained by a Treg-dependent local modification of the Th1/Th2 balance and an inhibition of mast cell recruitment and activation. Preventive and therapeutic effects of ld-IL-2 were observed over a 7-mo-period, highlighting its long-term efficacy. This study demonstrated that ld-IL-2 is efficient to prevent and to treat allergic immune responses, and thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy for managing allergic diseases. PMID:27259854

  3. Exploring racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy in the WHEALS birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Christine L.M.; Zoratti, Edward M.; Ownby, Dennis R.; Havstad, Suzanne; Nicholas, Charlotte; Nageotte, Christian; Misiak, Rana; Enberg, Robert; Ezell, Jerel; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2016-01-01

    Background Suspected food allergies are the cause of more than 200,000 visits to the emergency department annually. Racial differences in the prevalence of food allergy have also been reported, but the evidence is less conclusive. Researchers continue to struggle with the identification of food allergy for epidemiologic studies. Objective To explore racial differences in IgE-mediated food allergy (IgE-FA) in a birth cohort. Methods We used a panel of board-certified allergists to systematically identify IgE-FA to egg, milk, or peanut in a multiethnic birth cohort in which patient medical history, patient symptoms, and clinical data were available through 36 months of age. Results Of the 590 infants analyzed, 52.9% were male and 65.8% African American. Sensitization (serum specific IgE >0.35 IU/mL) to the food allergens was significantly higher for African American children compared with non–African American children as has been previously reported. No statistically significant racial/ethnic differences in IgE-FA were observed; however, a higher proportion of African American children were designated as having peanut allergy, and the percentage of African American children with an IgE level greater than 95% predictive decision points for peanut was 1.7% vs 0.5% for non–African American children. With the use of logistic regression, race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with IgE-FA (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.17; P = .75) but was associated with sensitization to more than 1 of the food allergens (adjusted odds ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.22–2.65; P = .003). Conclusion We did not observe an elevated risk of IgE-FA for African American children, although established differences in sensitization were observed. Racial/ethnic differences in sensitization must be taken into consideration when investigating disparities in asthma and allergy. PMID:26837607

  4. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek.

    PubMed

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D K

    2016-06-23

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach's alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach's alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question's contribution to children's quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child's quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  5. Soy Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Soy” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  6. Wheat Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Wheat” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  7. Peanut Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Peanut” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  8. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific fish used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  9. The influence of early life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Emily C.; Bloomberg, Gordon R.; Gergen, Peter J.; Visness, Cynthia M.; Jaffee, Katy F.; Sandel, Megan; O’Connor, George; Kattan, Meyer; Gern, James; Wood, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Previous data suggest that food allergy may be more common in inner-city children; however, these studies have not collected data on both sensitization and clinical reactivity, or early life exposures. Methods Children in the URECA birth cohort were followed through age 5 years. Household exposures, diet, clinical history, and physical examinations were assessed yearly; specific-IgE to milk, egg, and peanut were measured at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years. Based on sensitization (IgE≥0.35 kU/L) and clinical history over the five-year period, children were classified as food allergic (FA), possibly allergic, sensitized but tolerant, or not allergic/not sensitized. Results 516 children were included. Overall, 55.4% were sensitized (milk 46.7%, egg 31.0%, peanut 20.9%), while 9.9% were categorized as FA (peanut 6.0%, egg 4.3%, milk 2.7%, 2.5% >1 food). The remaining children were categorized as possibly allergic (17.0%), sensitized but tolerant (28.5%), and not sensitized (44.6%). Eighteen (3.5%) reported reactions to foods for which IgE was not measured. Food-specific IgE levels were similar in FA versus sensitized but tolerant children, except for egg, which was higher in FA at ages 1 and 2. FA was associated with recurrent wheeze, eczema, aeroallergen sensitization, male gender, breastfeeding, and lower endotoxin exposure in year 1, but not with race/ethnicity, income, tobacco exposure, maternal stress, or early introduction of solid foods. Conclusions Even given that this was designed to be a high-risk cohort, the cumulative incidence of food allergy is extremely high, especially considering the strict definition of food allergy that was applied and that only 3 common allergens were included. PMID:25129677

  10. Diagnosis and management of skin disorders caused by food allergy.

    PubMed

    Atherton, D J

    1984-12-01

    A major aetiologic role for foods has been demonstrated in urticaria, atopic eczema and dermatitis herpetiformis. In some patients with urticaria, whealing occurs within minutes of the ingestion of a particular food. In most, but not necessarily all cases, this appears to be a consequence of IgE-mediated cutaneous mast cell degranulation, i.e. a classical type I hypersensitivity response. In other patients with recurrent urticaria, the whealing may be provoked by foods by a much slower and more insidious reaction. This type of reaction has been established in the case of several common food additives, notably azo dyes, but other foods may be able to cause urticaria in a similar fashion. Foods appear to play an important provocative role in many patients with atopic eczema. The reaction in such cases appears to be slow and insidious, almost always unrecognized by the patient and not detected by skin testing or tests for IgE antibodies. There can be no real doubt that dietary gluten is responsible for most, if not all dermatitis herpetiformis, though this relationship was revealed only by the finding of concurrent and usually asymptomatic jejunal villous atrophy in affected individuals. The mechanisms responsible for the slow food reactions in urticaria, atopic eczema and dermatitis herpetiformis remain largely unknown, but are likely to be different in each case. PMID:6391291

  11. [Allergy to iodinated drugs and to foods rich in iodine: Iodine is not the allergenic determinant].

    PubMed

    Dewachter, Pascale; Mouton-Faivre, Claudie

    2015-11-01

    "Iodine allergy" does not exist. The concept of "iodine allergy" should be abandoned since it may result in inappropriate measures such as drug, food or environmental eviction. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast media is not infrequent. The corresponding allergens have not been identified. Iodine is not involved. Immediate or non-immediate allergic hypersensitivity to povidone iodine is rare. The corresponding allergen is povidone in case of immediate hypersensitivity while nonoxynol might be involved during non-immediate hypersensitivity. Seafood allergens belong to a group of muscle proteins. Immediate drug hypersensitivity or food hypersensitivity is assessed by immediate-reading skin tests while non-immediate drug hypersensitivity is investigated by delayed-reading skin testing. Combined histamine and tryptase measurement is invaluable during the diagnostic approach of immediate hypersensitivity. Other biological tests are being evaluated. Allergic hypersensitivity to iodinated contrast agents does not contraindicate the use of other iodinated drugs. PMID:26387623

  12. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Capitals Anaphylaxis in America Extreme Allergies and Climate Change Access to Pseudoephedrine Consensus Study on Food Allergies AAFA Research Grants Research Grant Awardees Research News Get Involved ...

  13. Coping with Food Allergies | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the future, that food may trigger an allergic response and one or more clinical symptoms. The symptoms ... often co-exist with other diseases, such as asthma, eczema (atopic dermatitis), and eosinophilic esophagitis, a disorder that causes severe heartburn, nausea, ...

  14. New approach for food allergy management using low-dose oral food challenges and low-dose oral immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Okada, Yu; Sato, Sakura; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have suggested that a large subset of children (approximately 70%) who react to unheated milk or egg can tolerate extensively heated forms of these foods. A diet that includes baked milk or egg is well tolerated and appears to accelerate the development of regular milk or egg tolerance when compared with strict avoidance. However, the indications for an oral food challenge (OFC) using baked products are limited for patients with high specific IgE values or large skin prick test diameters. Oral immunotherapies (OITs) are becoming increasingly popular for the management of food allergies. However, the reported efficacy of OIT is not satisfactory, given the high frequency of symptoms and requirement for long-term therapy. With food allergies, removing the need to eliminate a food that could be consumed in low doses could significantly improve quality of life. This review discusses the importance of an OFC and OIT that use low doses of causative foods as the target volumes. Utilizing an OFC or OIT with a low dose as the target volume could be a novel approach for accelerating the tolerance to causative foods. PMID:26774524

  15. Quality of Life, Stress, and Mental Health in Parents of Children with Parentally Diagnosed Food Allergy Compared to Medically Diagnosed and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background. Food allergy is related to poorer quality of life (QoL) and mental health of caregivers. Many parents diagnose food allergy in their child without seeking medical care and there is limited research on this group. This study investigated parental QoL and mental health in parents of children with parent-diagnosed food allergy (PA), medically diagnosed food allergy (MA), and a control group with no allergy (NA). Methods. One hundred and fifty parents from a general population completed validated measures of QoL, anxiety, depression, and stress. Results. Parents of children with food allergy (PA or MA) reported higher stress, anxiety, and depression than the control group (all p < 0.05). Parents of children with MA reported poorer food allergy related QoL compared to parents of children with PA (p < 0.05); parents of children with PA reported poorer general QoL compared to parents of children with MA (p < 0.05). Conclusion. Parents of children with food allergy have significantly poorer mental health compared to healthy controls, irrespective of whether food allergy is medically diagnosed or not. It is important to encourage parents to have their child medically tested for food allergy and to recognise and refer for psychological support where needed. PMID:27429624

  16. INCIDENCE OF APNEA ATTACK AS ALLERGIC REACTION AFTER ORAL FOOD CHALLENGE IN PATIENT WITH IgE-MEDIATED WHEAT ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Akashi, Masayuki

    2016-08-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and might cause death. Although wheezes, dyspnea or loss of consciousness are known to occur with severe allergic reactions with IgE-mediated food allergy, reports of apnea attack associated with IgE-mediated food allergy are rare. In this case, 9-year-old boy with IgE-mediated wheat allergy experienced apnea attack with strong desaturation after an immediate allergic reaction including erythema, abdominal pain, vomiting, and anaphylactic shock. The patient had asphyxia and cyanosis confirmed by medical staff when his oxygen saturation decreased to the 60% level, and he had occasional asphyxia over 10 seconds with no thoracic motion after a desaturation episode. Central apnea attack might be occurred in patient with IgE-mediated food allergy. However, the exact mechanism responsible remains unknown and further research is needed. PMID:27616176

  17. Food allergy in irritable bowel syndrome: The case of non-celiac wheat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Mansueto, Pasquale; D’Alcamo, Alberto; Seidita, Aurelio; Carroccio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, having a prevalence of 12%-30% in the general population. Most patients with IBS attribute their symptoms to adverse food reactions. We review the role of diet in the pathogenesis of IBS and the importance of dietary factors in the management of these patients. The MEDLINE electronic database (1966 to Jan 2015) was searched using the following keywords: “food”, “diet”, “food allergy”, “food hypersensitivity”, “food intolerance”, “IBS”, “epidemiology”, “pathogenesis”, “pathophysiology”, “diagnosis”, “treatment”. We found 153 eligible papers; 80 were excluded because: not written in English, exclusive biochemical and experimental research, case reports, reviews, and research otherwise not relevant to our specific interest. We selected 73 papers: 43 original papers, 26 reviews and 4 letters to the editor. These papers focused on IBS pathogenesis, the association between IBS and atopy, and between IBS and food allergy, the relationship between IBS and non-celiac wheat sensitivity, the role of diet in IBS. Pending further scientific evidence, a cautious approach is advisable but the concept of food allergy should be included as a possible cause of IBS, and a dietary approach may have a place in the routine clinical management of IBS. PMID:26109796

  18. The evaluation of a food allergy and epinephrine autoinjector training program for personnel who care for children in schools and community settings.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Ann; Stephens, Hilary; Ruffo, Mark; Jones, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    With the dramatic increase in the incidence of food allergies, nurses and other school personnel are likely to encounter a child with food allergies. The objectives of this study were to assess the effectiveness of in-person training on enhancing knowledge about food allergies and improving self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating food allergy reactions and to collect information about prior training and participation in response to food allergy incidents. A total of 4,818 individuals at 247 schools and community sites participated in the training program, which was delivered by a licensed registered nurse. Written evaluations, online surveys, and phone interviews were used to measure the impact including content retention, confidence, and behavior changes. The results of this study show that in-person training can increase participant's knowledge about food allergies and improve self-confidence in preventing, recognizing, and treating allergic reactions and that these gains were sustained over time. PMID:24643758

  19. EuroPrevall survey on prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Kavaliūnas, Andrius; Surkienė, Genė; Dubakienė, Rūta; Stukas, Rimantas; Zagminas, Kęstutis; Saulytė, Jurgita; Burney, Peter G; Kummeling, Ischa; Mills, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed. RESULTS. Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cow's milk and hazelnuts. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools. PMID:22864274

  20. Anaphylaxis: a history with emphasis on food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Stephen R.; Burks, A. Wesley

    2011-01-01

    Summary In the century since Paul Portier and Charles Richet described their landmark findings of severe fatal reactions in dogs re-exposed to venom after vaccination with sea anemone venom, treatment for anaphylaxis continues to evolve. The incidence of anaphylaxis continues to be difficult to measure. Underreporting due to patients not seeking medical care as well as failure to identify anaphylaxis affects our understanding of the magnitude of the disease. Treatment with intramuscular epinephrine continues to be the recommended first line therapy although studies indicate that education of both the patients and the medical community is needed. Adverse food reactions continue to be the leading cause of anaphylaxis presenting for emergency care. Current therapy for food-induced anaphylaxis is built on the foundation of strict dietary avoidance, rapid access to injectable epinephrine, and education to recognize signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. Investigation into therapy with oral and sublingual immunotherapy as well as other modalities holds hope for improved treatment of food-induced anaphylaxis. PMID:21682750

  1. Antigen exposure in the late light period induces severe symptoms of food allergy in an OVA-allergic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Kana; Kitagawa, Eri; Wada, Misaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Orihara, Kanami; Tahara, Yu; Nakao, Atsuhito; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian circadian clock controls many physiological processes that include immune responses and allergic reactions. Several studies have investigated the circadian regulation of intestinal permeability and tight junctions known to be affected by cytokines. However, the contribution of circadian clock to food allergy symptoms remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the role of the circadian clock in determining the severity of food allergies. We prepared an ovalbumin food allergy mouse model, and orally administered ovalbumin either late in the light or late in the dark period under light-dark cycle. The light period group showed higher allergic diarrhea and weight loss than the dark period group. The production of type 2 cytokines, IL-13 and IL-5, from the mesenteric lymph nodes and ovalbumin absorption was higher in the light period group than in the dark period group. Compared to the dark period group, the mRNA expression levels of the tight junction proteins were lower in the light period group. We have demonstrated that increased production of type 2 cytokines and intestinal permeability in the light period induced severe food allergy symptoms. Our results suggest that the time of food antigen intake might affect the determination of the severity of food allergy symptoms. PMID:26419283

  2. Translation, Adaptation and Initial Validation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire: Child form in Greek

    PubMed Central

    Morou, Zoe; Lyrakos, Georgios N.; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Douladiris, Nikolaos; Tatsioni, Athina; Dimoliatis, Ioannis D.K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the reliability and validity of the Greek version of the Food Allergy Quality of life Questionnaire-Child Form (FAQLQ-CF). After linguistic validation, the Greek FAQLQ-CF, Food Allergy Independent Measure (FAIM) and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL™) were used by a physician to interview children diagnosed with food allergy and aged 8-12 via telephone. Cronbach’s alpha was used to evaluate reliability, and factor analysis to assess construct validity. The correlation between FAQLQ-CF and FAIM was moderate (rho=0.509, P<0.001) and internal consistency was strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.905). FAQLQ-CF discriminated well each question’s contribution to children’s quality of life deterioration (32-80%), each child’s quality of life (17-89%), children differing in doing things with others (total score 3.55 vs 2.57, difference =0.98 > minimal clinical importance difference = 0.5; P<0.001), but not children differing in reporting anaphylaxis. The total FAQLQ-CF score correlated with the total PedsQL™ score and with the score of one of PedsQL™ subscales, demonstrating convergent validity. Factor analysis uncovered an underlying structure of four factors, explaining 50% of the variance. We can conclude that Greek FAQLQ-CF is a reliable, valid, discriminant tool for interviewing food allergic children aged 8-12, detecting those in need for immediate care. PMID:27403459

  3. Disclosing food allergy status in schools: health-related stigma among school children in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Dean, Jennifer; Fenton, Nancy E; Shannon, Sara; Elliott, Susan J; Clarke, Ann

    2016-09-01

    In 2006, 3 years after the tragic death of 13-year-old Sabrina Shannon, the Province of Ontario (Canada) passed Sabrina's Law ushering in a new era of focus and concern for severe food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis. Questions were raised at the time regarding the potential of doing more harm than good with the new legislation. This paper reports the experiences of health-related stigma among food allergic children at risk of anaphylaxis who were required to disclose their health status under this new legislation. In 2008, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 children and youth and their parents in order to explore the experiences living with a severe food allergy. This particular study explores their experiences of felt and enacted stigma in the school setting as a result of the disclosure process. Interviews were tape recorded with permission and transcribed for subsequent thematic analysis using NVIVO, a qualitative analysis software package. Results indicate that participants were stigmatised as a result of protective school policies under the law, and that created tension between their physical safety and social well-being. Sabrina's Law also led to a cultural shift in awareness of food allergies that resulted in some participants normalising their health status, offering promising directions for the future. PMID:25939442

  4. [Neurodermatitis and food allergy. Clinical relevance of testing procedures].

    PubMed

    Stiening, H; Szczepanski, R; von Mühlendahl, K E; Kalveram, C

    1990-12-01

    In 132 children with neurodermitis, we measured specific IgG and IgE antibodies against components of cow's milk, soy milk, and egg. In addition we performed epidermal tests by rubbing the nutrients onto the intact skin. The results were compared to the effect of complete omission of milk, egg, and soy during four weeks and with the outcome of subsequent reexposition. We used standardized scales to evaluate the neurodermitis and the skin reactions and for the clinical response to the oral challenge. The best prediction for the outcome of the oral challenge was obtained by the epidermal test which had to be done with whole milk, soy milk and egg white; there was no further advantage in testing egg yolk or soy oil. IgE antibodies followed next in their predictive value. No further precision was gained by the combination of epidermal testing with IgE results, by the measurement of IgE antibodies to the constituents of cow's milk, of IgG antibodies, and of the platelet count during oral challenging. Positive reactions to oral administration after four weeks' omission of allergenic food were relatively frequent in the age group below three years, but rare in school children and adolescents. PMID:2087240

  5. Position paper of the EAACI: food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens.

    PubMed

    Werfel, T; Asero, R; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Beyer, K; Enrique, E; Knulst, A C; Mari, A; Muraro, A; Ollert, M; Poulsen, L K; Vieths, S; Worm, M; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K

    2015-09-01

    In older children, adolescents, and adults, a substantial part of all IgE-mediated food allergies is caused by cross-reacting allergenic structures shared by inhalants and foods. IgE stimulated by a cross-reactive inhalant allergen can result in diverse patterns of allergic reactions to various foods. Local, mild, or severe systemic reactions may occur already after the first consumption of a food containing a cross-reactive allergen. In clinical practice, clinically relevant sensitizations are elucidated by skin prick testing or by the determination of specific IgE in vitro. Component-resolved diagnosis may help to reach a diagnosis and may predict the risk of a systemic reaction. Allergy needs to be confirmed in cases of unclear history by oral challenge tests. The therapeutic potential of allergen immunotherapy with inhalant allergens in pollen-related food allergy is not clear, and more placebo-controlled studies are needed. As we are facing an increasing incidence of pollen allergies, a shift in sensitization patterns and changes in nutritional habits, and the occurrence of new, so far unknown allergies due to cross-reactions are expected. PMID:26095197

  6. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. A relationship between food sensitivity and birch pollen-allergy and between food sensitivity and acetylsalicylic acid intolerance.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E

    1978-08-01

    Among adult patients with bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis undergoing allergological investigation with skin test, nasal provocation test and RAST, 1129 answered a questionaire regarding food sensitivity (FS). 276 (24%) of the patients reported some kind of allergic symptoms on eating or handling various foods, of which hazel nut, apple and shell fish were the most often named. Females reported FS more often than males. A correlation was found between birch pollen allergy and FS with nuts, apple, peach, cherry, pear, plum, carrot and new potato. The higher the degree of birch pollen allergy, according to skin test, RAST or provocation test, the higher the frequency of FS. A correlation was found too between acetylsalicylic acid intolerance and FS with some foods, e.g. nuts, strawberry, almond, green pepper, hip, chocolate, egg, cabbage, milk and wine. The connection between birch pollen allergy and FS is probably explained by the structural relationship between birch pollen allergen and some allergens of the foodstuffs, whereas the high incidence of FS in acetylsalicylic acid-intolerant patients is probably explained by additives in foods as well as salicylates or benzoates naturally occurring in some food. PMID:717703

  7. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fish allergy. Shellfish fall into two different groups: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) and mollusks (like ... shellfish on food labels, they are referring to crustacean shellfish. If you are allergic to mollusks, then ...

  8. [The host community of a child with food allergies: the personalized care project (PCP)].

    PubMed

    Rancé, F

    2010-12-01

    The personalized care project (PCP) can manage allergic emergencies that may occur during school hours. Other objectives are to facilitate academic achievement, social and professional integration of children and adolescents with chronic illness such as food allergy, by promoting education through certain changes. The PCP is derived from official files including Circular N(o) 2003-135 of September 8 and the inter-ministerial circular of 25 June 2001. The family must request a protocol with the host school principal or school head. Then, the doctor of Education organizes the drafting of the document based on information provided by the physician (or allergist). PMID:21074388

  9. Laboratory tests for diagnosis of food allergy: advantages, disadvantages and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Kanny, G; Frémont, S

    2003-04-01

    Numerous biological tests point to the diagnosis of food sensitization: detection of specific IgEs by Rast techniques, multi-detection assays, immunoblotting, screening of basophil activation (BAT or FAST), assays for leukotriene LTC4 release (CAST), measurement of plasma histamine, serum tryptase, serum ECP, urinary EDN, completed by mannitol-lactulose test evaluating intestinal permeability, assay of fecal IgEs, Rast for specific IgG4. Primary screening for anti-food IgEs by multi-detection assays seeks justification from insufficient clinical data and false positive tests are common in patients sensitized to pollens or latex, on account of in vitro cross reactivities (CR). Multiple CR explain positive Rast to vegetal food allergens in such patients. Biological tests should not be performed as the first line of diagnosis. In vivo sensitisation is assessed by positive prick-tests, demonstrating the bivalence of allergens, as well as the affinity of specific IgEs, two conditions necessary to bridge membrane bound specific IgEs, leading to the release of mediators. Prick-tests are closer to clinical symptoms than biological tests. However, the diagnosis of food allergy is based on standardised oral challenges. Exceptions are high levels of specific IgEs to egg (> 6 kUl/l), peanut (> 15 kUl/l), fish (> 20 kUl/l) and milk (> 32 kUl/l), reaching a 95% predictive positive value. Rast inhibition tests are useful to identify masked allergens in foods. Research developments will have impact on the development of new diagnostic tools: allergen mixes reinforcing a food extract by associated recombinant major allergens, multiple combination of recombinant allergens (chips) or tests with synthetic epitopes aimed a the prediction of recovery. Laboratory tests take place in the decision free for the diagnosis for the food allergy and the follow-up of the levels specific IgEs is a tool to assess outcome and contributes to predict recovery or persistent allergy. Up to now the

  10. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  11. "We don't have such a thing, that you may be allergic": Newcomers' understandings of food allergies in Canada.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Daniel W; Dean, Jennifer; Wilson, Kathi; Qamar, Zafar

    2015-06-01

    Food allergies are emerging as important public health risks in Canada, affecting 3-4% of adults and 6-7% of children. Despite much lower prevalence rates among recent immigrants (i.e. in the country less than 10 years), evidence has shown this population to be more concerned about the risks of food allergies than the general population and have unique experiences around purchasing foods for allergen-free environments. As a substantial and growing segment of the Canadian population, it is important to understand newcomers' perceptions and knowledge of food allergies and related policies developed to protect allergic children (e.g. nut-free schools and or classrooms). This paper draws upon the results of focus groups conducted with newcomers from food allergic households (i.e. directly affected), as well as those with school-aged children who have to prepare or buy foods for allergen-controlled classrooms or schools (i.e. indirectly affected) living in Mississauga, Ontario. Results indicate unique challenges and understandings of food allergies as a new and unfamiliar risk for most newcomers, particularly as the indirectly affected participants negotiate the policy landscape. The directly affected group highlights the supportive environment in Canada resulting from the same policies and increased awareness in the general population. PMID:25085906

  12. The biochemical basis and clinical evidence of food allergy due to lipid transfer proteins: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Van Winkle, R Christopher; Chang, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are ubiquitous proteins that are found in divergent plant species. Although the exact function of LTPs is not fully understood, LTPs are conserved across a broad range of plant species. Because LTPs share structural features, there is an increased probability for significant allergic cross-reactivity. The molecular features of LTPs also decrease the probability of degradation due to cooking or digestion, thereby increasing the probability of systemic absorption and severe allergic reactions. LTP allergy, unlike other forms of anaphylaxis, tends to occur more frequently in areas of lower latitude. The geographic distribution of LTP allergy, along with evidence of increased sensitization after respiratory exposure, has led to the hypothesis that LTP-related food allergy may be secondary to sensitization via the respiratory route. Clinical reactions associated with LTPs have broad clinical phenotypes and can be severe in nature. Life-threatening clinical reactions have been associated with ingestion of a multitude of plant products. Component-resolved diagnosis has played a significant role in research applications for LTP allergy. In the future, component-resolved diagnosis may play a significant role in day-to-day clinical care. Also, quantitative analysis of LTPs in foodstuffs may allow for the identification and/or production of low-LTP foods, thereby decreasing the risk to patients with LTP allergy. Furthermore, sublingual immunotherapy may provide a therapeutic option for patients with LTP allergy. PMID:23179517

  13. Don't Forget to Pack My EpiPen[R] Please: What Issues Does Food Allergy Present for Children's Starting School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanagavarapu, Prathyusha

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy impairs the health-related quality of life of both the affected children and their families. In particular, parents and children become anxious about the potential risks and consequences of food allergy, including disruptions in families' and children's social activities, the need for constant vigilance, children's safety, and the…

  14. Dietary Fiber and Bacterial SCFA Enhance Oral Tolerance and Protect against Food Allergy through Diverse Cellular Pathways.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian; McKenzie, Craig; Vuillermin, Peter J; Goverse, Gera; Vinuesa, Carola G; Mebius, Reina E; Macia, Laurence; Mackay, Charles R

    2016-06-21

    The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. Tolerance to food antigens relies on mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs), which promote differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. We show that high-fiber feeding in mice improved oral tolerance and protected from food allergy. High-fiber feeding reshaped gut microbial ecology and increased the release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate and butyrate. High-fiber feeding enhanced oral tolerance and protected against food allergy by enhancing retinal dehydrogenase activity in CD103(+) DC. This protection depended on vitamin A in the diet. This feeding regimen also boosted IgA production and enhanced T follicular helper and mucosal germinal center responses. Mice lacking GPR43 or GPR109A, receptors for SCFAs, showed exacerbated food allergy and fewer CD103(+) DCs. Dietary elements, including fiber and vitamin A, therefore regulate numerous protective pathways in the gastrointestinal tract, necessary for immune non-responsiveness to food antigens. PMID:27332875

  15. The Potential Therapeutic Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in Children with Food Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Di Costanzo, Margherita; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Granata, Viviana; Terrin, Gianluca; Nocerino, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy (FA) continues to be a growing health concern for infants living in Western countries. The long-term prognosis for the majority of affected infants is good, with 80–90% naturally acquiring tolerance by the age of five years. However, recent studies suggest that the natural history of FA is changing, with an increasing persistence until later ages. The pathogenesis of FA as well as oral tolerance is complex and not completely known, although numerous studies implicate gut-associated immunity and enteric microflora, and it has been suggested that an altered composition of intestinal microflora results in an unbalanced local and systemic immune response to food allergens. In addition, there are qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of gut microbiota between patients affected by FA and healthy infants. These findings prompted the concept that specific beneficial bacteria from the human intestinal microflora, designated probiotics, could restore intestinal homeostasis and prevent or alleviate allergy, at least in part by interacting with the intestinal immune cells. PMID:24281667

  16. Innate immunostimulatory properties of allergens and their relevance to food allergy1

    PubMed Central

    Ruiter, Bert; Shreffler, Wayne G.

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is an increasingly prevalent disease of immune dysregulation directed to a small subset of proteins. Shared structural and functional features of allergens, such as glycosylation, lipid-binding and protease activity may provide insight into the mechanisms involved in the induction of primary Th2 immune responses. Here we review the literature of innate Th2-type immune activation as a context for better understanding the properties of allergens that contribute to the induction of Th2-biased immune responses in at least a subset of individuals. Th2-priming signals have been largely identified in the context of parasite immunity and wound healing. Some of the features of parasite antigens and the innate immune responses to them are now understood to play a role in allergic inflammation as well. These include both exogenous and endogenous activators of innate immunity and subsequent release of key cytokine mediators such as TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33. Moreover, numerous innate immune cells including epithelium, dendritic cells, basophils, innate lymphoid cells and others all interact to shape the adaptive Th2 immune response. Progress toward understanding Th2-inducing innate immune signals more completely may lead to novel strategies for primary prevention and therapy of respiratory and food allergies. PMID:22886110

  17. The Controversial Role of Food Allergy in Infantile Colic: Evidence and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Nocerino, Rita; Pezzella, Vincenza; Cosenza, Linda; Amoroso, Antonio; Di Scala, Carmen; Amato, Francesco; Iacono, Giuseppe; Berni Canani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Food allergies (FAs) are an increasing problem in Western countries, affecting up to 10% of young children. FAs are frequently associated with gastrointestinal manifestations. The role of FAs as a potential causative factor for infantile colic (IC) is still controversial. We report the most recent evidence on the pathogenesis, clinical and diagnostic aspects of FA-induced infantile colic (IC) and suggest a stepwise diagnostic approach. We selected articles on clinical and immunologic features, pathogenesis and management of FAs and IC from of 1981 to 2015. Original and review articles were identified through selective searches performed on PubMed, using the following terms: colic, infantile colic, food allergy and infantile colic, infantile colic treatment. The possible relationship between FAs and IC derives from the presence of dysmotility with visceral hypersensitivity and dysbiosis, demonstrated in both conditions, and the clinical response to dietary interventions. Unfortunately, the design of the studies, poor characterization of atopy and different dietary approaches limit the understanding of the importance of FAs in subjects with IC. The role of FAs in IC subjects without other symptoms of atopy remains controversial. However, where there is a suspicion of FAs, a short trial with an extensively hydrolyzed cow’s proteins formula or, if breast fed, with maternal elimination diet may be considered a reasonable option. PMID:25808260

  18. The challenge of making the school environment safe for children with food allergies.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, J M

    2000-04-01

    An ever-increasing number of children are entering schools with life-threatening food allergies. Despite efforts of well-educated school nurses, Sampson, Mendelson, and Rosen (1992) found more children succumbed to a fatal anaphylactic shock at school than at home or another setting. The strain on the school nurse who works on the front lines in an attempt to keep these children safe is evident. Because so many schools do not have a full-time nurse, it is essential for faculty to recognize when children are having a reaction and know what emergency steps to take. The school nurse has the responsibility for devising an emergency plan for the school in the event of her absence. Disseminating general information about anaphylactic reactions and specific information about how to read a label in order to avoid an allergen is essential. Legal ramifications regarding the children's right to privacy and the right to be educated along with their peers as well as laws that protect the non-nursing professional who gives nursing care, including use of an Epi-pen, need to be explained to staff. Because parents of children with food allergies are often frightened of the dangers their children may encounter when in the school environment, they require support and affirmation. PMID:11151543

  19. A model of chronic IgE-mediated food allergy in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, J C S; Gargiulo, D L; Silva, S S; Carmo-Pinto, F H; Andrade, M C; Alvarez-Leite, J I; Teixeira, M M; Cara, D C

    2004-06-01

    Food allergy is most frequently the result of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. Here, we describe a chronic model in which some of the intestinal and systemic consequences of continuous egg white solution ingestion by ovalbumin-sensitized eight-week-old BALB/c mice, 6 animals per group, of both sexes, were investigated. There was a 20% loss of body weight that began one week after antigen exposure and persisted throughout the experiment (3 weeks). The sensitization procedure induced the production of anti-ovalbumin IgG1 and IgE, which were enhanced by oral antigen exposure (129% for IgG1 and 164% for IgE, compared to sensitization values). Intestinal changes were determined by jejunum edema at 6 h (45% Evans blue extravasation) and by a significant eosinophil infiltration with a peak at 48 h. By day 21 of continuous antigen exposure, histological findings were mild, with mast cell hyperplasia (100%) and increased mucus production (483%). Altogether, our data clearly demonstrate that, although immune stimulation was persistently occurring in response to continuous oral antigen exposure, regulatory mechanisms were occurring in the intestinal mucosa, preventing overt pathology. The experimental model described here reproduces the clinical and pathological changes of mild chronic food allergy and may be useful for mechanistic studies of this common clinical condition. PMID:15264023

  20. Allergy to cassava: a new allergenic food with cross-reactivity to latex.

    PubMed

    Ibero, M; Castillo, M J; Pineda, F

    2007-01-01

    Patients who are allergic to latex (Hevea brasiliensis) may exhibit cross-hypersensitivity with foods. We present a case of anaphylaxis due to cassava in a patient suffering from pollinosis, latex allergy, and latex-fruit syndrome. We performed sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting with cassava, avocado, chestnut, banana, kiwi, and latex extracts in order to analyze the protein bands and their molecular weights, and identify immunoglobulin (Ig) E-binding bands. Immunoblot inhibition and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition were performed with latex in order to assess cross-reactivity. Cassava exhibited numerous protein bands, 5 of which were IgE-binding (89.75, 46.28, 26.68, 21.38, and 19.49 kd). These cassava IgE-binding bands were 100% inhibited by preincubation of the patient's serum with latex extract. The ELISA inhibition between latex and cassava was 23%. Our results confirm cassava as another food with clinical cross-reactivity in patients suffering from latex allergy. PMID:18088025

  1. Food Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools, Datasets, & Services NIAID offers resources such as technologies available for licensing or collaboration, computer applications, and ... Substitution Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Transmission Electron Microscopy ... Transfer & Intellectual Property Model Agreements & Definitions Model Licenses ...

  2. Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... form of belly cramps, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Respiratory system. Symptoms can range from a runny or stuffy ... more of the body systems above (skin, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems), such as hives combined with abdominal pain, or ...

  3. Baicalein induces CD4+Foxp3+ T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  4. Induction of Interleukin-9-Producing Mucosal Mast Cells Promotes Susceptibility to IgE-Mediated Experimental Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Lee, Jee-Boong; Liu, Bo; Ohta, Shoichiro; Wang, Pin-Yi; Kartashov, Andrey V; Mugge, Luke; Abonia, J Pablo; Barski, Artem; Izuhara, Kenji; Rothenberg, Marc E; Finkelman, Fred D; Hogan, Simon P; Wang, Yui-Hsi

    2015-10-20

    Experimental IgE-mediated food allergy depends on intestinal anaphylaxis driven by interleukin-9 (IL-9). However, the primary cellular source of IL-9 and the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to food-induced intestinal anaphylaxis remain unclear. Herein, we have reported the identification of multifunctional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that can secrete prodigious amounts of IL-9 and IL-13 in response to IL-33, and mast cell protease-1 (MCPt-1) in response to antigen and IgE complex crosslinking, respectively. Repeated intragastric antigen challenge induced MMC9 development that required T cells, IL-4, and STAT6 transcription factor, but not IL-9 signals. Mice ablated of MMC9 induction failed to develop intestinal mastocytosis, which resulted in decreased food allergy symptoms that could be restored by adoptively transferred MMC9s. Finally, atopic patients that developed food allergy displayed increased intestinal expression of Il9- and MC-specific transcripts. Thus, the induction of MMC9s is a pivotal step to acquire the susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:26410628

  5. Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies: distinct differences in clinical phenotype between Western countries and Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ichiro; Morita, Hideaki; Ohya, Yukihiro; Saito, Hirohisa; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies, including food-protein-induced enterocolitis, enteropathy, proctocolitis and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis, seem to be increasing in several regions in the world. However, unlike the case of IgE-mediated food allergy, development of diagnostic laboratory tests and our understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies lag. Although the clinical entities in Western countries have been well established, the clinical phenotypes might differ somewhat among the human races and geographical regions. In Japan, non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies have increased sharply since the late 1990s, and clinicians have sometimes experienced confusion because of differences in the clinical phenotypes from those seen in Western countries. Aiming to solve this problem, we performed clinical research and determined a useful method for dividing patients into four clusters with distinctive clinical symptoms. We are confident this method will help in diagnosing and treating these patients. We also tried to clarify the differences between these patients in Japan and Western countries. PMID:22644865

  6. Baicalein induces CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and enhances intestinal barrier function in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Kwon, Da-Ae; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of food allergy, which is triggered by allergen permeation of the gastrointestinal tract followed by a T-helper (Th) 2-mediated immune response, has been increasing annually worldwide. We examined the effects of baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavonoid from Scutellaria baicalensis used in oriental herbal medicine, on regulatory T (Treg) cell induction and intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions in a mouse model of food allergy. An allergic response was induced by oral challenge with ovalbumin, and the incidence of allergic symptoms and T cell-related activity in the mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed with and without the presence of baicalein. Our results demonstrated that the administration of baicalein ameliorated the symptoms of food allergy and attenuated serum IgE and effector T cells. However, Treg-related factors were up-regulated by baicalein. Furthermore, baicalein was shown to enhance intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junctions. We also found that baicalein treatment induced the differentiation of Treg cells via aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs). Thus, the action of baicalein as an agonist of AhR can induce Treg differentiation and enhance barrier function, suggesting that baicalein might serve as an effective immune regulator derived from foods for the treatment of food allergy. PMID:27561877

  7. Nutritional management and follow up of infants and children with food allergy: Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition/Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Task Force Position Statement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of food allergy recognize the role of nutrition, there is few literature on the practical issues concerning the nutritional management of children with food allergies. This Consensus Position Statement focuses on the nutritional management and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. It provides practical advices for the management of children on exclusion diet and it represents an evidence-based consensus on nutritional intervention and follow-up of infants and children with food allergy. Children with food allergies have poor growth compared to non-affected subjects directly proportional to the quantity of foods excluded and the duration of the diet. Nutritional intervention, if properly planned and properly monitored, has proven to be an effective mean to substantiate a recovery in growth. Nutritional intervention depends on the subject’s nutritional status at the time of the diagnosis. The assessment of the nutritional status of children with food allergies should follow a diagnostic pathway that involves a series of successive steps, beginning from the collection of a detailed diet-history. It is essential that children following an exclusion diet are followed up regularly. The periodic re-evaluation of the child is needed to assess the nutritional needs, changing with the age, and the compliance to the diet. The follow- up plan should be established on the basis of the age of the child and following the growth pattern. PMID:24386882

  8. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-03-15

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showing direct effects of food allergic immune responses on social behaviour is very limited. In the present study, we show that a food allergic reaction to cow's milk protein, induced shortly after weaning, reduced social behaviour and increased repetitive behaviour in mice. This food allergic reaction increased levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and the number of 5-HT positive cells, and decreased levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the intestine. Behavioural changes in food allergic mice were accompanied by reduced dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal activation (c-Fos expression) was increased in the prefrontal cortex and reduced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus after exposure to a social target. We hypothesize that an intestinal allergic response regulates complex, but critical, neuroimmune interactions, thereby affecting brain circuits involved in social interaction, repetitive behaviour and cognition. Together with a genetic predisposition and multiple environmental factors, these effects of allergic immune activation may exacerbate behavioural abnormalities in patients with ASD. PMID:24333575

  9. Anti-acid medication as a risk factor for food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pali-Schöll, I; Jensen-Jarolim, E

    2011-04-01

    An important feature for oral allergens is their digestion-resistance during gastrointestinal transit. For some oral allergens, digestion stability is an innate feature, whereas digestion-labile antigens may only persist in times of impairment of the digestive system. In this review, we collect evidence from mouse and human studies that besides the inherent molecular characteristics of a food protein, the stomach function is decisive for the allergenic potential. Gastric acid levels determine the activation of gastric pepsin and also the release of pancreatic enzymes. When anti-ulcer drugs inhibit or neutralize gastric acid, they allow persistence of intact food allergens and protein-bound oral drugs with enhanced capacity to sensitize and elicit allergic reactions via the oral route. Mouse studies further suggest that maternal food allergy arising from co-application of a food protein with anti-acid drugs results in a Th2-biased immune response in the offspring. Especially, anti-ulcer drugs containing aluminum compounds act as Th2 adjuvants. Proton pump inhibitors act on proton secretion but also on expression of the morphogen Sonic hedgehog, which has been related to the development of atrophic gastritis. On the other hand, atrophic gastritis and resulting hypoacidity have previously been correlated with enhanced sensitization risk to food allergens in elderly patients. In summary, impairment of gastric function is a documented risk factor for sensitization against oral proteins and drugs. PMID:21121928

  10. Learning about Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Well, you and your dad may have allergies. Chain Reaction An allergy (say: al -ur-jee) is your immune system's reaction to certain plants, animals, foods, insect bites , or other things. Your immune system ...

  11. Food allergen sensitization in young children with typical signs and symptoms of immediate-type food allergies: a comparison between monosensitized and polysensitized children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Yeon; Kim, Ga Ram; Kim, Joon Hwan; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Yoon, Jung Won; Jee, Hye Mi; Baek, Hye Sung; Jung, Yong Ho; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Ki Eun; Yum, Hye Yung; Han, Man Yong; Kim, Kyu-Earn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The clinical interpretation of children sensitized to allergens is challenging, particularly in children with food allergies. We aimed to examine clinical differences between children with monosensitization and those with polysensitization to common food allergens and to determine risk factors for polysensitization in young children <10 years of age with immediate-type food allergies. Methods The study included children <10 years of age with signs and symptoms indicative of immediate-type food allergies. Serum total IgE level was measured, and ImmunoCAP analysis for food allergens was performed. Results The mean age of the study subjects was 1.6±1.6 years (75 boys and 51 girls). Thirty-eight children (30.2%) were monosensitized and 88 children (69.8%) were polysensitized. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the development of polysensitization to common food allergens was positively associated with a parental history of allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-22.13; P=0.004), season of birth (summer/fall) (aOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.10-8.79; P=0.033), and exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of age (aOR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.20-10.25; P=0.022). Conclusion We found significant clinical differences between children with monosensitization and those with polysensitization to common food allergens and identified risk factors for the development of polysensitization in young children with immediate-type food allergies. Clinicians should consider these clinical risk factors when evaluating, counseling, treating, and monitoring young children with food allergies. PMID:26512258

  12. Allergy Testing.

    PubMed

    Tourlas, Konstantinos; Burman, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    Allergic diseases are common in outpatient primary care. Allergy testing can guide management to determine allergy as a cause of symptoms and target therapeutic interventions. This article provides a review of common methods of allergy testing available so that physicians may counsel and refer patients appropriately. Immediate-type hypersensitivity skin tests can be used for airborne allergens, foods, insect stings, and penicillin. Radioallergosorbent testing can be used to evaluate immediate-type hypersensitivity. Delayed-type hypersensitivity or patch-type skin tests are used in patients with suspected contact dermatitis. PMID:27545728

  13. Scurvy in the present times: vitamin C allergy leading to strict fast food diet.

    PubMed

    Shaath, Tarek; Fischer, Ryan; Goeser, Megan; Rajpara, Anand; Aires, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Scurvy results from a deficiency of vitamin C, a nutrient otherwise known as ascorbic acid. Today, scurvy is rare yet emerges in select patients. The patient reported herein developed scurvy secondary to deliberate avoidance of vitamin C-rich foods. Classic cutaneous manifestations of scurvy include follicular hyperkeratosis and perifollicular hemorrhage encompassing coiled "corkscrew" hairs and hairs bent into "swan-neck" deformities. Ecchymoses, purpura, and petechiae are also characteristically prominent. Classic oral abnormalities include erythematous, swollen gingivae that hemorrhage from subtle microtrauma.Subungual linear splinter hemorrhages may also manifest as a sign of the disease. To establish the diagnosis requirements include characteristic physical exam findings, evidence of inadequate dietary intake, and rapid reversal of symptoms upon supplementation. Although unnecessary for diagnosis, histological findings demonstrate perifollicular inflammation and hemorrhage, fibrosis, and hyperkeratosis, amongst dilated hair follicles and keratin plugging. Although citrus fruit allergies have been historically documented, ascorbic acid has not been previously reported as an allergen. Although lacking absolute certainty, this report suggests a presumed case of ascorbic acid allergy based on patient history and favorable response to ascorbic acid desensitization therapy. PMID:26990475

  14. Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies. A Selective Bibliography. Exceptional Child Bibliography Series No. 602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    The annotated bibliography on Hyperactivity--Drug Therapy/Food Additives/Allergies contains approximately 65 abstracts and associated indexing information for documents or journal articles published from 1968 to 1975 and selected from the computer files of the Council for Exceptional Children's Information Services and the Education Resources…

  15. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  16. Translation to Portuguese and cultural adaptation of Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF).

    PubMed

    Couto, M; Silva, D; Piedade, S; Borrego, Lm; Flokstra-de Blok, B; Dunn Galvin, A; Morais-Almeida, M

    2016-05-01

    Food allergy is a health problem with significant negative impact in Quality of Life (QoL). We aimed to translate into Portuguese and culturally adapt to our population the Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaire - Parent Form (FAQLQ-PF). Cross-cultural translation was performed according to guidelines. Linguistic validation consisted in 3 steps: forward translation, backward translation and comprehensibility testing. A consensual version was obtained and tested in parents of food allergic children by cognitive debriefing. Twelve questionnaires were fulfilled, all completed in ≤ 15 min. No comments, doubts or suggestions were posed, except for 2 parents regarding a question about the number of food their children had to avoid. Two gave special positive feedback about the utility of FAQLQ-PF. Changes have been included after this pre-test in accordance to doubts and suggestions of participants, and the Portuguese version is now able to be used in clinics and research. PMID:27152603

  17. [Basic principles of diet therapy in food allergy in young infants].

    PubMed

    Ladodo, K S; Kuvaeva, I B; Borovik, T E; Rybakova, E P; Veselova, O L

    1983-01-01

    Altogether 101 infants aged 3 weeks to 1 year with exudative-catarrhal diathesis and apotic dermatitis were examined. Sensitization of the infants with different protein fractions of cow's milk and egg protein was studied by the passive hemagglutination test with the use of antigenic erythrocyte diagnostic agents. In the majority of exudative-catarrhal diathesis cases and in medium-severe apotic dermatitis, sensitization with 2-3 antigens was noted, while in severe atopic dermatitis, sensitization with 4-5 antigens was recorded in over 40% of cases. On the basis of the data obtained there have been developed scientifically validated principles of dietetics for infants suffering from food allergy. PMID:6836998

  18. Flagellin modulates IgE expression in B cells to initiate food allergy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Jing; Ma, Na; Zeng, Lu; Mo, Li-Hua; Li, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Zhang, Huan-Ping; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The initiation mechanism of IgE expression has not been fully understood. Flagellin (FGN) is an important microbial factor in the regulation of immune responses in the intestine. This study tests a hypothesis that FGN plays a crucial role in the isotype switching of IgE in B cells and the initiation of food allergy. In this study, the expression of IgE in B cells was analyzed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation. A mouse model was developed to assess the role of Toll like receptor-5 in the development of IgE-mediated allergic reaction in the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that exposure to FGN suppressed the expression of Bcl6 in B cells via increasing the levels of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 7; the latter up regulated the levels of methylated H3K9 and H3K27, down regulated RNA polymerase II and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) at the Bcl6 promoter locus. Exposure to FGN and IL-4 markedly increased the expression of IgE in B cells via activating p300, H3K4, Pol II and STAT6 at the IgE promoter locus. As compared with the sensitized wild mice, the sensitized TLR5-deficient mice showed no detectable OVA-specific IgE in the serum; mast cells in the intestinal mucosa were not activated, no apparent allergic symptoms were evoked after the specific antigen challenge. In conclusion, FGN facilitates the initiation of food allergy in mice by triggering IgE transcription in B cells in a Th2 polarization environment via activating HDAC7 and suppressing Bcl6 expression. PMID:27398157

  19. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Allergist Health Professionals Partners Media Donate Allergies Mold Allergy What Is a Mold Allergy? If you have an allergy that occurs ... or basement. What Are the Symptoms of a Mold Allergy? The symptoms of mold allergy are very ...

  20. Mold Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... navigation Home ▸ Conditions & Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Mold Allergy Share | Mold Allergy Overview Symptoms & Diagnosis Treatment & Management Mold Allergy Overview Molds are tiny fungi whose spores ...

  1. Worldwide food allergy labeling and detection of allergens in processed foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L

    2015-01-01

    The labeling of allergenic foods is an important public health measure to assist food-allergic consumers in avoiding foods that can cause allergic reactions. The regulatory framework for such labeling depends upon the selection of priority allergenic foods, which vary among countries. Most countries include milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts, soybeans, and cereal sources of gluten on the priority allergenic foods list, as recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. However, a variety of other foods appear on the priority lists of some countries but not on others. Sesame seeds, molluscan shellfish, buckwheat, and mustard are identified in two or more countries. In most countries, all ingredients derived from these priority allergen sources must also be declared on labels by source. However, exemptions exist for some ingredients in some countries but not in others. Detection methods are critical for the enforcement of allergen labeling regulations and for the investigation of allergic reactions in the community by public health officials. The development of detection methods has advanced considerably over the past several decades and will be briefly reviewed in this chapter. Because of the emphasis on labeling and the development of detection methods, the ingredient statement on packaged food labels now contains more information than ever before to assist food-allergic consumers. PMID:26022883

  2. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  3. Allergies: The Hidden Hazard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Doris J.

    1990-01-01

    Children can suffer from allergies that can markedly affect their behavior and school performance. Once an allergy is suspected, teachers and principals can consider allergens inside the school, outside the school, and related to problem foods or chemicals. A sidebar lists some allergy clues to watch for. Includes nine references. (MLH)

  4. Immunoglobulin E signal inhibition during allergen ingestion leads to reversal of established food allergy and induction of regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Burton, Oliver T; Noval Rivas, Magali; Zhou, Joseph S; Logsdon, Stephanie L; Darling, Alanna R; Koleoglou, Kyle J; Roers, Axel; Houshyar, Hani; Crackower, Michael A; Chatila, Talal A; Oettgen, Hans C

    2014-07-17

    Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are known for triggering immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as food anaphylaxis. In this study, we tested whether they might additionally function to amplify nascent antibody and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated responses to ingested proteins and whether blocking IgE would modify sensitization. By using mice harboring a disinhibited form of the IL-4 receptor, we developed an adjuvant-free model of peanut allergy. Mast cells and IgE were required for induction of antibody and Th2-cell-mediated responses to peanut ingestion and they impaired regulatory T (Treg) cell induction. Mast-cell-targeted genetic deletion of the FcεRI signaling kinase Syk or Syk blockade also prevented peanut sensitization. In mice with established allergy, Syk blockade facilitated desensitization and induction of Treg cells, which suppressed allergy when transferred to naive recipients. Our study suggests a key role for IgE in driving Th2 cell and IgE responses while suppressing Treg cells in food allergy. PMID:25017467

  5. Friend or foe? Figuring out the difference between FPIES, IgE-mediated allergy and food intolerance.

    PubMed

    Halbrich, Michelle; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Rex, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Most physicians recognise the severe nature of the anaphylactic reactions associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. Adverse reactions to food involving non-IgE mechanisms are often less well understood and are often not diagnosed. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an example of a severe non-IgE immune-mediated food reaction that is part of a spectrum of what is believed to be T-cell-mediated reactions. FPIES results in excessive emesis and diarrhoea hours after ingestion of the offending food. While common triggers include milk, soy, wheat and oat, some children may have multiple triggers, leading to malnutrition from lack of food options and unusual developmental concerns related to food aversion. PMID:24744061

  6. Friend or foe? Figuring out the difference between FPIES, IgE-mediated allergy and food intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Halbrich, Michelle; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Rex, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Most physicians recognise the severe nature of the anaphylactic reactions associated with IgE-mediated food allergy. Adverse reactions to food involving non-IgE mechanisms are often less well understood and are often not diagnosed. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an example of a severe non-IgE immune-mediated food reaction that is part of a spectrum of what is believed to be T-cell-mediated reactions. FPIES results in excessive emesis and diarrhoea hours after ingestion of the offending food. While common triggers include milk, soy, wheat and oat, some children may have multiple triggers, leading to malnutrition from lack of food options and unusual developmental concerns related to food aversion. PMID:24744061

  7. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Bin Lan; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  8. Specific immunotherapy plus Clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Bin Lan, B; Yang, Fan; Lu, Dong; Lin, Zhenlv

    2016-01-01

    The aberrant T cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (UC). C. butyricum (Cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. This study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (SIT) plus oral Cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the UC symptoms. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. A total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ulcerative colitis and high levels of specific IgE antibody was randomly divided into 4 groups, and were treated with SIT or/and Cb, or placebo, respectively for 1 year. The results showed that a food antigen-specific Th2 polarization immune response was observed in UC patients with food allergy (FA). The frequency of regulatory B cells was significantly less in UC patients with FA as compared with healthy subjects. The UC patients with FA were treated with SIT and Cb showed significant amelioration of UC clinical symptoms, reduction of using UC-control medicines, and suppression of the skewed Th2 polarization, which did not occur in those treated with either SIT alone, or Cb alone, or placebo. In conclusion, combination of SIT and Cb efficiently alleviates a fraction of UC patients. PMID:27167186

  9. Food allergy, a summary of eight cases in the UK criminal and civil courts: effective last resort for vulnerable consumers?

    PubMed

    Gowland, M Hazel; Walker, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    Food allergy has a forensic context. The authors describe eight cases in the UK courts involving fatalities, personal injury or criminal non-compliance with food law from mainly 'grey' literature sources. The potentially severe consequences for people with food allergy of contraventions of labelling law have led to enforcement action up to criminal prosecution for what might otherwise be regarded as 'trivial' non-compliance. The authors suggest there should be central collation of such cases. Non-compliances should be followed up in a more rapid and robust manner. Evidence of fraud in the catering supply chain supports recent calls for zero tolerance of food fraud. Businesses must guard against gaps in allergen management, for which there are readily available sources of training and guidance, but also against fraudulent substitution in the supply chain, about which training and guidance should be developed. New allergen labelling legislation and case law appear to place responsibility on food businesses even for the forensically problematic area of allergen cross-contamination. The courts can be an effective last resort for vulnerable consumers; however, there is evidence of knowledge and skill gaps in both the investigation and prosecution of potentially serious incidents of food allergen mismanagement and mislabelling. Thorough investigation of food allergy deaths is required with a tenacious and skilled approach, including early realisation that samples of the food and/or stomach contents from a post mortem examination should be retained and analysed. The supply chain must be rigorously examined to find out where adulteration or contamination with the fatal allergen occurred. PMID:25377665

  10. School Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Management for the Pediatrician--Extending the Medical Home with Critical Collaborations.

    PubMed

    Pistiner, Michael; Devore, Cynthia DiLaura; Schoessler, Sally

    2015-12-01

    Community pediatricians, working in consultation with allergists, create a medical home that is the central focus of care for the child with life-threatening food allergies. They participate in coordinating mutual and critical collaborations within schools that support families and children. They can provide leadership and guidance to both families and schools to safeguard children and adolescents, thereby extending the medical home goals into the school setting. PMID:26456441

  11. Sensitivity Comparison of the Skin Prick Test and Serum and Fecal Radio Allergosorbent Test (RAST) in Diagnosis of Food Allergy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Pourreza, Alireza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Yousefzadeh, Hadis; Masomi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of food allergy is difficult in children. Food allergies are diagnosed using several methods that include medical histories, clinical examinations, skin prick and serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) tests, radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), food challenge, and supervised elimination diets. In this study we evaluated allergies to cow's milk, egg, peanut, and fish in children with suspected food allergies with skin prick tests and serum and feces RAST. Methods: Forty-one children with clinical symptoms of food allergies were enrolled in the study. Skin prick tests and serum and fecal RAST were performed and compared with challenge tests. Results: The most common sites of food allergy symptoms were gastrointestinal (82.9%) and skin (48.8%). 100% of the patients responded to the challenge tests with cow’s milk, egg, peanut, and fish. 65% of the patients tested positive with the skin prick test, 12.1% tested positive with serum RAST, and 29.2% tested positive with fecal RAST. Conclusion: The skin prick test was more sensitive than serum or fecal RAST, and fecal RAST was more than twice as sensitive as serum RAST.

  12. Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene-modified organisms, or novel foods.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2004-11-01

    The introduction of novel proteins into foods carries a risk of eliciting allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to the introduced protein and a risk of sensitizing susceptible individuals. No single predictive test exists to perform a hazard assessment in relation to allergenic properties of newly expressed proteins in gene-modified organisms (GMOs). Instead, performance of a weighted risk analysis based on the decision tree approach has been suggested. The individual steps of this analysis comprise sequence homology to known allergens, specific or targeted serum screens for immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactions to known allergens, digestability studies of the proteins in simulated gastric and/or intestinal fluids, and animal studies. These steps are discussed and five examples of risk evaluation of GMOs or novel foods are presented. These include ice-structuring protein derived from fish, microbial transglutaminase, GMO-soybeans, amylase and the Nangai nut. PMID:15508176

  13. Lack of Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor Attenuates Experimental Food Allergy but Not Its Metabolic Alterations regarding Adipokine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Nathália Vieira; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Perez, Denise; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; de Lima Alves, Juliana; Pinho, Vanessa; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to be an important mediator of anaphylaxis. However, there is a lack of information in the literature about the role of PAF in food allergy. The aim of this work was to elucidate the participation of PAF during food allergy development and the consequent adipose tissue inflammation along with its alterations. Our data demonstrated that, both before oral challenge and after 7 days receiving ovalbumin (OVA) diet, OVA-sensitized mice lacking the PAF receptor (PAFR) showed a decreased level of anti-OVA IgE associated with attenuated allergic markers in comparison to wild type (WT) mice. Moreover, there was less body weight and adipose tissue loss in PAFR-deficient mice. However, some features of inflamed adipose tissue presented by sensitized PAFR-deficient and WT mice after oral challenge were similar, such as a higher rate of rolling leukocytes in this tissue and lower circulating levels of adipokines (resistin and adiponectin) in comparison to nonsensitized mice. Therefore, PAF signaling through PAFR is important for the allergic response to OVA but not for the adipokine alterations caused by this inflammatory process. Our work clarifies some effects of PAF during food allergy along with its role on the metabolic consequences of this inflammatory process. PMID:27314042

  14. Raised number of jejunal IgG2-producing cells in untreated adult coeliac disease compared with food allergy.

    PubMed Central

    Rognum, T O; Kett, K; Fausa, O; Bengtsson, U; Kilander, A; Scott, H; Gaarder, P I; Brandtzaeg, P

    1989-01-01

    The subclass distribution of IgG-producing immunocytes was studied by two colour immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies in jejunal biopsy specimens from 10 adults with untreated coeliac disease, 11 coeliac disease patients on a gluten free diet, and seven patients with established food allergy. Paired immunofluorescence staining was performed with subclass specific murine monoclonal antibodies in combination with polyclonal rabbit antibody reagent to total IgG; the proportion of cells belonging to each subclass could thereby be determined. The ratio of IgG2 immunocytes was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in untreated coeliac disease patients (median, 35.2%; range, 26.7-65.2%) than in those on a gluten free diet (median, 7.3%; range, 0-31.9%) or those having food allergy (median, 12.5%; range, 0-36.5%). The disparity in the local IgG2 response between patients with untreated coeliac disease and those with food allergy might be due to differences in the nature of the antigenic stimuli, dissimilar genetic 'make-up' of the subjects, or both. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2599444

  15. Oral Tolerance Induced by Transfer of Food Antigens via Breast Milk of Allergic Mothers Prevents Offspring from Developing Allergic Symptoms in a Mouse Food Allergy Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tsubota, Yuma; Kodama, Toshihisa; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether maternal exposure to food antigens during lactation and maternal allergic status would affect the development of food allergy in offspring. OVA-sensitized or OVA-nonsensitized BALB/c female mice were exposed or unexposed to OVA during lactation. After weaning, their offspring were systemically sensitized twice with OVA and repeatedly given OVA by oral intubation. While 97.1% of the mice breastfed by OVA-nonsensitized and OVA-unexposed mothers developed allergic diarrhea, 59.7% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation and 24.6% of the mice breastfed by OVA-exposed allergic mothers during lactation developed food allergy. Furthermore, OVA was detected in breast-milk from OVA-exposed nonallergic mothers during lactation (4.6 ± 0.5 μg/mL). In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 titers were markedly increased in breast milk from allergic mothers (OVA-sensitized and OVA-unexposed mother: 11.0 ± 0.5, OVA-sensitized and OVA-exposed mother: 12.3 ± 0.3). Our results suggest that oral tolerance induced by breast milk-mediated transfer of dietary antigens along with their specific immunoglobulins to offspring leads to antigen-specific protection from food allergy. PMID:22505952

  16. [SEAFOOD ALLERGY IN ISRAEL].

    PubMed

    Rottem, Menachem

    2015-10-01

    Allergy to seafood such as shrimps, crab, lobster and fish eggs is relatively infrequent in Israel compared to fish allergies and allergies to other foods. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the population and restaurants preserve and maintain Kosher food. Changes in the population eating habits, partly due to immigration, were followed by increased frequency of such sensitivities in recent years. We describe three typical cases that illustrate the characteristics of allergy to sea foods. Allergy to seafood can present as a single sensitivity or be part of an allergic tendency, atopy, with other allergic manifestations. Diagnosis by allergy skin test or laboratory evaluation by specific IgE is available for most sea foods but not for fish eggs. The current therapeutic approach is strict avoidance and all patients should be provided with and carry with them an epinephrine auto-injector. PMID:26742225

  17. Prevalence of immediate-type food allergy in Korean schoolchildren: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Chae, Yoomi; Park, Yong Mean; Han, Man Yong; Lee, Kee-Jae; Kim, Ja Kyoung; Yang, Eun Seok; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2012-01-01

    Although the prevalence and causes of food allergy (FA) vary by geographic location, large well-designed epidemiological studies in Asia are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immediate-type FA in the general population of Korean schoolchildren. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 using a stratified two-stage cluster-sampling design. In this survey, children aged 6-7 years and 12-13 years were randomly selected, and the presence of FA was determined by a questionnaire survey and assessment of specific IgE. After adjustment for missing data, 3907 children aged 6-7 years and 3975 students aged 12-13 years who completed the questionnaire were included in this study. In children aged 6-7 years, the prevalence of confirmed immediate-type FA was 0.3%, and the prevalence of possible immediate-type FA was 0.3%. By contrast, 0.6 and 1.0% of children aged 12-13 years had confirmed immediate-type FA and possible immediate-type FA, respectively. In 6- to 7-year-old children, egg was the most frequent causative food associated with a confirmed or possible immediate-type FA. In 12- to 13-year-old children, crustaceans were the most frequent cause of confirmed immediate-type FA, and fruit was most frequently involved in possible immediate-type FA. This is the first nationwide population-based study of FA in Korean schoolchildren. Unlike in western countries, the prevalence of immediate-type FA seems to be low. In 12- to 13 year-old children with confirmed immediate-type FA, peanuts/tree nuts are not common causes, whereas crustaceans are frequent triggers. PMID:23394505

  18. Sensitization profiles to purified plant food allergens among pediatric patients with allergy to banana.

    PubMed

    Palacin, Arantxa; Quirce, Santiago; Sanchez-Monge, Rosa; Bobolea, Irina; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Martin-Muñoz, Flora; Pascual, Cristina; Salcedo, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    Banana fruit allergy is well known, but neither immunoglobulin E recognition patterns to purified plant food allergens nor true prevalences of putative banana allergens have been established. This study aimed to characterize β-1,3-glucanase and thaumatin-like protein (TLP) as banana allergens, testing them, together with other plant food allergens, in 51 children with allergic reactions after banana ingestion and both positive specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) to banana. Banana β-1,3-glucanase and TLP were isolated and characterized. Both banana allergens, together with kiwifruit TLP Act d 2, avocado class I chitinase Pers a 1, palm pollen profilin Pho d 2 and peach fruit lipid transfer protein (LTP) Pru p 3, were tested by in vitro and in vivo assays. Banana β-1,3-glucanase (Mus a 5) was glycosylated, whereas banana TLP (Mus a 4) was not, in contrast with its homologous kiwi allergen Act d 2. Specific IgE to both banana allergens, as well as to peach Pru p 3, was found in over 70% of sera from banana-allergic children, and Mus a 4 and Pru p 3 provoked positive SPT responses in 6 of the 12 tested patients, whereas Mus a 5 in only one of them. Both peptidic epitopes and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants were involved in the IgE-binding to Mus a 5, whereas cross-reactivity between Mus a 4 and Act d 2 was only based on common IgE protein epitopes. Profilin Pho d 2 elicited a relevant proportion of positive responses on in vitro (41%) and in vivo (58%) tests. Therefore, Mus a 4 and LTP behave as major banana allergens in the study population, and profilin seems to be also a relevant allergen. Mus a 5 is an equivocal allergenic protein, showing high IgE-binding to its attached complex glycan, and low in vivo potency. PMID:21284746

  19. Early Life Precursors, Epigenetics, and the Development of Food Allergy1

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy (FA), a major clinical and public health concern worldwide, is caused by a complex interplay of environmental exposures, genetic variants, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetic alterations. This review summarizes recent advances surrounding these key factors, with a particular focus on the potential role of epigenetics in the development of FA. Epidemiologic studies have reported a number of non-genetic factors that may influence the risk of FA, such as timing of food introduction and feeding pattern, diet/nutrition, exposure to environmental tobacco smoking, prematurity and low birthweight, microbial exposure, and race/ethnicity. Current studies on the genetics of FA are mainly conducted using candidate gene approaches, which have linked more than 10 genes to the genetic susceptibility of FA. Studies on gene-environment interactions of FA are very limited. Epigenetic alteration has been proposed as one of the mechanisms to mediate the influence of early-life environmental exposures and gene-environment interactions on the development of diseases later in life. The role of epigenetics in the regulation of the immune system and the epigenetic effects of some FA-associated environmental exposures are discussed in this review. There is a particular lack of large-scale prospective birth cohort studies that simultaneously assess the inter-relationships of early life exposures, genetic susceptibility, epigenomic alterations and the development of FA. The identification of these key factors and their independent and joint contributions to FA will allow us to gain important insight into the biological mechanisms by which environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility affect the risk of FA, and will provide essential information to develop more effective new paradigms in the diagnosis, prevention and management of FA. PMID:22777545

  20. Fighting Allergies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of children diagnosed with food allergies has increased significantly--to an estimated 3 million affected in the United States alone (Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Network, n.d.). As that number increases, so do the articles, legislation, and policies that are designed to address how to best deal with peanut allergies…

  1. Development and Characterization of an Effective Food Allergy Model in Brown Norway Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Garcia-Just, Alba; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Background Food allergy (FA) is an adverse health effect produced by the exposure to a given food. Currently, there is no optimal animal model of FA for the screening of immunotherapies or for testing the allergenicity of new foods. Objective The aim of the present study was to develop an effective and rapid model of FA in Brown Norway rats. In order to establish biomarkers of FA in rat, we compared the immune response and the anaphylactic shock obtained in this model with those achieved with only intraperitoneal immunization. Methods Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis, and 14 days later, OVA by oral route daily for three weeks (FA group). A group of rats receiving only the i.p. injection (IP group) were also tested. Serum anti-OVA IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibodies were quantified throughout the study. After an oral challenge, body temperature, intestinal permeability, motor activity, and mast cell protease II (RMCP-II) levels were determined. At the end of the study, anti-OVA intestinal IgA, spleen cytokine production, lymphocyte composition of Peyer’s patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified. Results Serum OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b concentrations rose with the i.p. immunization but were highly augmented after the oral OVA administration. Anti-OVA IgE increased twofold during the first week of oral OVA gavage. The anaphylaxis in both IP and FA groups decreased body temperature and motor activity, whereas intestinal permeability increased. Interestingly, the FA group showed a much higher RMCP II serum protein and intestinal mRNA expression. Conclusions These results show both an effective and relatively rapid model of FA assessed by means of specific antibody titres and the high production of RMCP-II and its intestinal gene expression. PMID:25923134

  2. Prevention of Birch Pollen-Related Food Allergy by Mucosal Treatment with Multi-Allergen-Chimers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Hufnagl, Karin; Schabussova, Irma; Jasinska, Joanna; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Bohle, Barbara; Maizels, Rick M.; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Background Among birch pollen allergic patients up to 70% develop allergic reactions to Bet v 1-homologue food allergens such as Api g 1 (celery) or Dau c 1 (carrot), termed as birch pollen-related food allergy. In most cases, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen extracts does not reduce allergic symptoms to the homologue food allergens. We therefore genetically engineered a multi-allergen chimer and tested if mucosal treatment with this construct could represent a novel approach for prevention of birch pollen-related food allergy. Methodology BALB/c mice were poly-sensitized with a mixture of Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 followed by a sublingual challenge with carrot, celery and birch pollen extracts. For prevention of allergy sensitization an allergen chimer composed of immunodominant T cell epitopes of Api g 1 and Dau c 1 linked to the whole Bet v 1 allergen, was intranasally applied prior to sensitization. Results Intranasal pretreatment with the allergen chimer led to significantly decreased antigen-specific IgE-dependent β-hexosaminidase release, but enhanced allergen-specific IgG2a and IgA antibodies. Accordingly, IL-4 levels in spleen cell cultures and IL-5 levels in restimulated spleen and cervical lymph node cell cultures were markedly reduced, while IFN-γ levels were increased. Immunomodulation was associated with increased IL-10, TGF-β and Foxp3 mRNA levels in NALT and Foxp3 in oral mucosal tissues. Treatment with anti-TGF-β, anti-IL10R or anti-CD25 antibodies abrogated the suppression of allergic responses induced by the chimer. Conclusion Our results indicate that mucosal application of the allergen chimer led to decreased Th2 immune responses against Bet v 1 and its homologue food allergens Api g 1 and Dau c 1 by regulatory and Th1-biased immune responses. These data suggest that mucosal treatment with a multi-allergen vaccine could be a promising treatment strategy to prevent birch pollen-related food allergy. PMID:22768077

  3. Effect of Nasal Allergy Over Spirometric Parameters: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Poorey, Vijay Kumar; Soni, Smita; Thakur, Pooja; Gupta, Alok

    2016-03-01

    Nasal allergy is characterized by an IgE mediated inflammatory response of nasal mucosa to allergens and it has a close association with Asthma. Nasal allergy has been demonstrated to be a strong risk factor for the onset of asthma in adults. Spirometric parameters like Forced expiratory volume at timed interval of 1 s (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow (FEF25-75 %) are impaired in patients with nasal allergy or allergic rhinitis. The FEF25-75 % has been evidenced to be a reliable marker of early bronchial impairment in nasal allergy. Nasal allergy may be considered as the first step of the progression of respiratory allergy towards asthma. It has been demonstrated that FEF25-75 % is useful in predicting the presence of airway hyper responsiveness.It may be a more sensitive indicator of chronic airway obstruction than FEV1 and is considered as a risk factor for the persistence of respiratory symptoms in asthmatic patients. The impact of allergic rhinitis or nasal allergy on asthma (ARIA) guidelines, clearly underlined the role of allergic rhinitis as risk factor for asthma development. The possible presence of spirometric abnormalities in patient with allergic rhinitis has been well documented. So keeping this in mind, present study is undertaken to evaluate the impairment of spirometric parameters, like FEV1, FEF25-75 %, and forced vital capacity, in patients with nasal allergy and to predict the presence of airway hyper responsiveness. PMID:27066401

  4. Tree Nut Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... tree nut used on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... Getting Started Newly Diagnosed Emergency Care Plan Food Labels Mislabeled Products Tips for Managing Food Allergies Resources For... Most ...

  5. Cord blood monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines suppress IL-2 and induce nonclassic "T(H)2-type" immunity associated with development of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxia; Collier, Fiona; Naselli, Gaetano; Saffery, Richard; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Harrison, Leonard C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2016-01-13

    Food allergy is a major health burden in early childhood. Infants who develop food allergy display a proinflammatory immune profile in cord blood, but how this is related to interleukin-4 (IL-4)/T helper 2 (T(H)2)-type immunity characteristic of allergy is unknown. In a general population-derived birth cohort, we found that in infants who developed food allergy, cord blood displayed a higher monocyte to CD4(+) T cell ratio and a lower proportion of natural regulatory T cell (nT(reg)) in relation to duration of labor. CD14(+) monocytes of food-allergic infants secreted higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in response to lipopolysaccharide. In the presence of the mucosal cytokine transforming growth factor-β, these inflammatory cytokines suppressed IL-2 expression by CD4(+) T cells. In the absence of IL-2, inflammatory cytokines decreased the number of activated nT(reg) and diverted the differentiation of both nT(reg) and naïve CD4(+) T cells toward an IL-4-expressing nonclassical TH2 phenotype. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for susceptibility to food allergy in infants and suggest anti-inflammatory approaches to its prevention. PMID:26764159

  6. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  7. Regulation of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy by IL-9 Producing Mucosal Mast Cells and Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Boong

    2016-08-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence and number of life-threatening cases, food allergy has emerged as a major health concern. The classic immune response seen during food allergy is allergen-specific IgE sensitization and hypersensitivity reactions to foods occur in the effector phase with often severe and deleterious outcomes. Recent research has advanced understanding of the immunological mechanisms occurring during the effector phase of allergic reactions to ingested food. Therefore, this review will not only cover the mucosal immune system of the gastrointestinal tract and the immunological mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated food allergy, but will also introduce cells recently identified to have a role in the hypersensitivity reaction to food allergens. These include IL-9 producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). The involvement of these cell types in potentiating the type 2 immune response and developing the anaphylactic response to food allergens will be discussed. In addition, it has become apparent that there is a collaboration between these cells that contributes to an individual's susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy. PMID:27574500

  8. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  9. Prolonged ingestion of ovalbumin diet by sensitized mice improves the metabolic consequences induced by experimental food allergy.

    PubMed

    Batista, N V; Pereira, R V S; Noviello, M L M; Dourado, L P A; Perez, D A; Foureaux, G; Ferreira, A J; Ferreira, A V M; Cara, D C

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is rising in the western world. Allergen restriction is the chosen treatment in this condition, but continuous ingestion of the antigen has shown positive results in clinical trials. In a previous study, we have shown several allergic and metabolic alterations after 7 days of ovalbumin (OVA) ingestion by sensitized mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged ingestion of antigen by sensitized mice would reverse the metabolic consequences caused by experimental food allergy. For this, allergic and metabolic parameters were analysed after prolonged ingestion of an OVA diet by OVA-sensitized mice. As shown previously, after 7 days of OVA consumption, sensitized mice showed increased serum levels of anti-OVA immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG1, aversion to the antigen ingestion, marked body and adipose tissue weight loss, followed by adipose tissue inflammation and decreased serum levels of adipokines, glucose and triglycerides. However, after 14 days of oral challenge, sensitized mice showed an anti-OVA IgE level similar to the mice that were only sensitized, but the specific IgG1 did not change. With this prolonged ingestion of OVA, sensitized mice were protected from OVA-induced anaphylaxis when the antigen was given systemically at a dose of 2 mg/animal. Moreover, various parameters analysed were significantly ameliorated, including adipose tissue inflammation, body and adipose tissue loss, as well as serum levels of adipokines and triglycerides. Therefore, our data suggest that prolonged ingestion of OVA by sensitized mice results in an improvement of the metabolic consequences caused by experimental food allergy. PMID:25112154

  10. Food allergy and cross-reactivity-chickpea as a test case.

    PubMed

    Bar-El Dadon, Shimrit; Pascual, Cristina Y; Reifen, Ram

    2014-12-15

    Chickpea has become one of the most abundant crops consumed in the Mediterranean and also in western world. Chickpea allergy is reported in specific geographic areas and is associated with lentil and/or pea allergy. We investigated cross-reactivity between chickpea and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut. The IgE-binding profiles of chickpea globulin and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut extracts were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoblot-inhibition studies. Inhibition-assay with pea/lentil completely suppressed IgE-binding to chickpea globulin allergens, while not so in the reciprocal inhibition. Pre-absorption of sera with chickpea globulin caused the disappearance of IgE-binding to protein on an immunoblot of soybean/hazelnut protein extract. These results suggest that cross-reactivity exists between chickpea and pea/lentil/soybean/hazelnut. Chickpea allergy is associated with lentil and/or pea allergy, but evidently may not present independently. This, together with the described asymmetric cross-reactivity and phylogenetic aspects, suggest that chickpea allergy is merely an expression of cross-reactivity, caused by pea and/or lentil as the "primary" allergen. PMID:25038702

  11. Oral disodium cromoglycate and ketotifen for a patient with eosinophilic gastroenteritis, food allergy and protein-losing enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junzo; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Nozawa, Ruriko; Isome, Masato; Suzuki, Shigeo; Takahashi, Ai; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2003-09-01

    We present a case report of a 10 years old boy with protein-losing enteropathy and eosinophilic gastroenteritis who had positive histamine release tests, increased allergen-specific IgE antibodies to some food items, and low levels of total serum protein and albumin. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a number of polyps and diffuse gastritis. Biopsy specimens of the stomach and duodenum showed widespread eosinophilia and neutrophilia. Although a restricted diet was recommended, a diet which excluded foods with positive results to both histamine release test and allergen-specific IgE antibodies was poorly tolerated, and the patient rejected systemic administration of corticosteroids. Thus, we initiated an oral disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and ketotifen therapy. After oral DSCG and ketotifen administration, the patient's condition improved gradually. Therefore, oral DSCG and ketotifen therapy might be considered as treatment option in patients with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and protein-losing enteropathy caused by food allergy. PMID:15032404

  12. Regulatory T cell reprogramming towards a Th2 cell-like lineage impairs oral tolerance and promotes food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Magali Noval; Burton, Oliver T.; Wise, Petra; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Georgiev, Peter; Oettgen, Hans C.; Rachid, Rima; Chatila, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Summary Oral immunotherapy has had limited success in establishing tolerance in food allergy, reflecting failure to elicit an effective regulatory T (Treg) cell response. We show that disease-susceptible mice (Il4raF709) with enhanced IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling exhibited STAT6-dependent impaired generation and function of mucosal allergen-specific Treg cells. This failure was associated with the acquisition by Treg cells of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-like phenotype, also found in peripheral blood allergen-specific Treg cells of food allergic children. Selective augmentation of IL-4R signaling in Treg cells induced their reprogramming into Th2-like cells and disease susceptibility, whereas Treg cell lineage-specific deletion of Il4 and Il13 was protective. IL-4R signaling impaired the capacity of Treg cells to suppress mast cell activation and expansion, which in turn drove Treg cell Th2 cell reprogramming. Interruption of Treg cell Th2 cell reprogramming may thus provide novel therapeutic strategies in food allergy. PMID:25769611

  13. CD4+ T cell responses in Balb/c mice with food allergy induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and ovalbumin.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen-Yi; Bai, Jie; Hu, Tian-Yong; Cheng, Bao-Hui; Ma, Li; Fan, Xiao-Qin; Yang, Ping-Chang; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in atopic diseases is potentially linked to increased hapten exposure, however, the role of haptens in the pathogenesis of food allergy remains unknown. Further studies are required to elucidate the cluster of differentiation 4 positive (CD4+) T cell response to food allergy induced by haptens. Dendritic cells were primed by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) as a hapten or ovalbumin (OVA) as a model antigen, in a cell culture model. BALB/c mice were sensitized using TNBS and/or OVA. Intestinal Th1/Th2 cell and ovalbumin specific CD4+ T cells proliferation, intestinal cytokines (interleukin‑4 and interferon‑γ) in CD4+ T cells were evaluated. TNBS increased the expression of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain‑4 and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 4 in dendritic cells. Skewed Th2 cell polarization, extensive expression of interleukin‑4, reduced expression of interferon‑γ and forkhead box protein P3 were elicited following concomitant exposure to TNBS and OVA, with reduced regulatory T cells in the mouse intestinal mucosa, whereas a Th1 response was detected when challenged by TNBS or OVA alone. This data suggests that TNBS, as a hapten, combined with food antigens may lead to a Th2 cell response in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:27109448

  14. Regulatory T cell reprogramming toward a Th2-cell-like lineage impairs oral tolerance and promotes food allergy.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Wise, Petra; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Georgiev, Peter; Oettgen, Hans C; Rachid, Rima; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-03-17

    Oral immunotherapy has had limited success in establishing tolerance in food allergy, reflecting failure to elicit an effective regulatory T (Treg) cell response. We show that disease-susceptible (Il4ra(F709)) mice with enhanced interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling exhibited STAT6-dependent impaired generation and function of mucosal allergen-specific Treg cells. This failure was associated with the acquisition by Treg cells of a T helper 2 (Th2)-cell-like phenotype, also found in peripheral-blood allergen-specific Treg cells of food-allergic children. Selective augmentation of IL-4R signaling in Treg cells induced their reprogramming into Th2-like cells and disease susceptibility, whereas Treg-cell-lineage-specific deletion of Il4 and Il13 was protective. IL-4R signaling impaired the capacity of Treg cells to suppress mast cell activation and expansion, which in turn drove Th2 cell reprogramming of Treg cells. Interruption of Th2 cell reprogramming of Treg cells might thus provide candidate therapeutic strategies in food allergy. PMID:25769611

  15. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  16. Insect venom allergy: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valentine, M D

    1984-03-01

    Allergy to insect venom is IgE mediated. Untreated, it occasionally terminates fatally and often causes temporary illness. Medical intervention with venom immunotherapy in patients with prior systemic reactions presents reactions to stings by inducing IgG-antibody formation, although in some groups of patients this results in little real benefit. Emergency self-treatment kits (Epi-Pen and Epi-Pen Jr., Center Laboratories, Port Washington, N.Y.; Ana Kit, Hollister-Stier, Spokane, Wash.), if promptly and intelligently used, may reverse most moderate sting reactions. Some severe reactions require aggressive therapy. Until better treatment criteria are available, the most certain way of reducing the risk of systemic reactions to stings is with venom immunotherapy. PMID:6366028

  17. Egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  18. Expression of IL-17A concentration and effector functions of peripheral blood neutrophils in food allergy hypersensitivity patients.

    PubMed

    Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Pałgan, Krzysztof; Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Kuźmiński, Andrzej; Przybyszewski, Michał; Socha, Ewa; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    Lymphocytes Th17 and other types of immune system cells produce IL17. By induction of cytokines and chemokines, the IL17 cytokine is involved in mechanisms of allergic reaction with participation of neutrophil granulocytes. It affects activation, recruitment, and migration of neutrophils to the tissues, regulating inflammatory reaction intensity. Excited neutrophils secrete inter alia elastase and reactive oxygen species (ROS)--significant mediators of inflammation process responsible for tissues damage.The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of serum interleukin 17A, serum neutrophil elastase, and ROS production by neutrophils in patients with food allergy.The study included 30 patients with food allergy diagnosed based on interview, clinical symptoms, positive SPT, placebo controlled double-blind oral provocation trial, and the presence of asIgE in blood serum against selected food allergens using fluoro-immuno-enzymatic method FEIA UNICap 100. The control group consisted of 10 healthy volunteers. The concentrations of IL17A were determined in all patients using ELISA method with eBioscience kits, and elastase using BenderMed Systems kits. Chemiluminescence of non-stimulated neutrophils was evaluated using luminol-dependent kinetic method for 40 min on Luminoskan (Labsystems luminometer).The results of serum IL-17A concentrations and the values of chemiluminescence obtained by non-activated neutrophils, as well as elastase concentrations, were higher in patients with food allergic hypersensitivity compared to healthy volunteers.This study demonstrates a significance of IL-17A and activated neutrophil granulocytes in the course of diseases with food allergic hypersensitivity. PMID:26684636

  19. Effects of a pre-existing food allergy on the oral introduction of food proteins: findings from a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kulis, M; Burks, A W

    2015-01-01

    Cashew-allergic mice develop elevated walnut-specific IgE upon oral feeding of walnut proteins. Ingestion of tree nuts in the presence of a known nut allergy could lead to additional sensitizations and anaphylaxis following subsequent exposure. PMID:25155558

  20. Role of Maternal Dietary Peanut Exposure in Development of Food Allergy and Oral Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Westfall, Jennifer; De Jesus, Magdia; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Carroll, Jessica A.; Metzger, Dennis W.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Berin, M. Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of maternal ingestion of peanut during pregnancy and lactation on an offspring’s risk for peanut allergy is under debate. Objective To investigate the influence of maternal dietary peanut exposure and breast milk on an offspring’s allergy risk. Methods Preconceptionally peanut-exposed C3H/HeJ females were either fed or not fed peanut during pregnancy and lactation. The offsprings’ responses to peanut sensitization or oral tolerance induction by feeding antigen prior to immunization were assessed. We also assessed the impact of immune murine milk on tolerance induction pre- or post-weaning. For antigen uptake studies, mice were gavaged with fluorescent peanut in the presence or absence of immune murine milk; Peyer’s patches were harvested for immunostaining. Results Preconceptional peanut exposure resulted in the production of varying levels of maternal antibodies in serum (and breast milk), which were transferred to the offspring. Despite this, maternal peanut exposure either preconceptionally or during pregnancy and lactation, when compared to no maternal exposure, had no impact on peanut allergy. When offspring were fed peanut directly, dose-dependent tolerance induction, unaltered by maternal feeding of peanut, was seen. Although peanut uptake into the gut-associated lymphoid tissues was enhanced by immune milk as compared to naïve milk, tolerance induction was not affected by the co-administration of immune milk either pre- or post-weaning. Conclusion Maternal peanut exposure during pregnancy and lactation has no impact on the development of peanut allergy in the offspring. Tolerance to peanut can be induced early, even pre-weaning, by giving moderate amounts of peanut directly to the infant, and this is neither enhanced nor impaired by concurrent exposure to immune milk. PMID:26656505

  1. Hope for Beating Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Management of Food Allergy in the United States Frightened of Food: Living with Food Allergies Reference: N Engl J Med. 2012 Jul 19;367(3):233-43. PMID: 22808958 Search NIH Research Matters Search NIH Research Matters' stories In this Edition ...

  2. Immunoglobulin-E-binding epitopes of wheat allergens in patients with food allergy to wheat and in mice experimentally sensitized to wheat proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sera were obtained from 39 patients suffering from food allergy to wheat. Balb/c mice were sensitized to gliadins or LTP1 by intraperitoneal immunizations. Continuous epitopes bound by IgE were delineated by the Pepscan technique. The response to reduced, alkylated LTP1 was compared to that of the n...

  3. EPA Science To Achieve Results (STAR) Food Allergy/Genetically Engineered Food Research: Progress, Findings and Recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advancements in food technology, pesticide development and genetic modification to food crops may provide benefits compared to more conventional approaches. However, the introduction of a novel protein into the food supply and the possibility of unintentional introduction of a ne...

  4. Allergies to Insect Venom

    MedlinePlus

    ... The smell of food attracts these insects.  Use insect repellents and keep insecticide available. Treatment tips:  Venom immunotherapy (allergy shots to insect venom(s) is highly effective in preventing subsequent sting ...

  5. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  6. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  7. Allergy Testing

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  8. Contemporary issues in food allergy: seafood toxin-induced disease in the differential diagnosis of allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chegini, Soheil; Metcalfe, Dean D

    2005-01-01

    Seafood, including fish, shrimp, lobster, crab, crayfish, mussel, and clam are among the most frequent causes of food allergy. Seafood poisoning, including reactions to natural toxins, frequently masquerades as an allergic reaction on presentation. Ingestion of contaminated shellfish results in a wide variety of symptoms, depending on the toxins present, their concentrations in the shellfish, and the amount of contaminated shellfish consumed. Five types of shellfish poisoning have been identified clearly including paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhetic, amnestic, and azaspiracid shellfish poisonings. Based on the presence or absence of the toxin at the time of capture, fish poisoning can be considered conceptually in two categories. In ciguatera and puffer fish poisoning, the toxin is present in live fish, whereas in scombroid, it is produced only after capture, in the fish flesh, by contaminating bacteria because of improper refrigeration. Most shellfish-associated illness is infectious in nature (bacterial or viral), with the Norwalk virus accounting for most cases of gastroenteritis. PMID:16119031

  9. Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epinephrine auto-injectors are the standard first aid treatment for anaphylaxis. Intramuscular delivery into the anterolateral aspect of the thigh is recommended for optimal onset of action of epinephrine. The most frequently prescribed auto-injector in North America and Canada is the EpiPen®, which has a needle length of 15.2 mm. Currently, it is unknown whether this needle length is adequate for intramuscular delivery of epinephrine in adult patients at risk of anaphylaxis. Methods One hundred consecutive adult patients with confirmed food allergy requiring an epinephrine auto-injector were recruited. Skin to muscle depth (STMD) at the right mid-anterolateral thigh was measured using ultrasound under minimal (min) and maximum (max) pressure. The EpiPen® needle length was considered adequate if STMDmax was ≤15.2 mm. Baseline characteristics including age, gender, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI) were compared in patients with STMDmax ≤15.2 mm vs. >15.2 mm. Results The EpiPen® needle length of 15.2 mm was inadequate for intramuscular delivery in 19 of the 100 enrolled patients (19%), all of whom were female; 28% of women had a STMDmax >15.2 mm. The mean STMDmax in the ≤15.2-mm and >15.2-mm groups were 9 ± 4 mm and 20 ± 4 mm, respectively (p = 0.0001). Linear regression analysis found BMI to be significantly associated with STMDmax after adjusting for age (p < 0.001). Conclusions The needle length of the epinephrine auto-injectors may not be adequate for intramuscular delivery of epinephrine in a large proportion of women with food allergy; this may impact morbidity and mortality from anaphylaxis in this patient population. PMID:25071856

  10. Total IgE Distribution in Food Allergy Suspected Patients in Republic of Macedonia (2001-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Mitkovska, Slavica Hristomanova; Trajkov, Dejan; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Spiroski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE may be considered the hallmark of allergic disorders. It is easily detected in serum and can be measured as total IgE and as allergen-specific IgE. In fact, the serum IgE assay is used to diagnose an allergy. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate, investigate and present the distribution of total serum IgE levels, determined with UniCap system, in food-allergy suspected patients in a Republic of Macedonia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study we analyzed retrospectively 8898 consecutive patients that were admitted for allergy testing at the Institute of Immunobiology and Human Genetics during the ten year period between 01.01.2001 and 01.01.2011. Total IgE levels in patient sera were detected with the in vitro system UniCAP100 (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden). RESULTS: When we analyzed the number of patients according to the total IgE groups, we noted that most of the patients have normal levels of total IgE in serum. However, we also discovered a group of patients with elevated levels of total IgE that are greater than 200 kU/L. The average concentration of total serum IgE is higher in women in the age group 6 (6-7 years), followed by a steep decrease in the age group 9 (9-10 years), and after that the average concentrations of total IgE were mostly constant with the exception of a partial increase in the age group 21 (65-69 years). For men, the average serum concentrations of total IgE were highest in the age group of 6 (6-7 years), which was significantly higher than the average concentrations of total IgE in all other age groups. CONCLUSION: The large number of enrolled patients, a particular strength of this study, revealed that average concentrations of total IgE in men are higher than in women and that total IgE did not decrease with age. On the contrary, increased total IgE levels were found in patients aged 65 and 69 of both genders. We continue our work with analyses of the specific IgE antibodies values toward food and the correlation with

  11. Antibiotic allergy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Parmar, J S; Nasser, S

    2005-06-01

    Allergic reactions to antibiotics are more common in cystic fibrosis (CF) than in the general population. This in part is due to the improving survival in adults with CF and the increased use of high dose intravenous antibiotics. While some are immediate anaphylaxis type (IgE mediated) reactions, the majority are late onset and may have non-specific features such as rash and fever. Piperacillin has consistently been found to have the highest rate of reported reactions (30-50%). There is a low risk of cross reactions between penicillins and other non-beta-lactam classes of antibiotics in penicillin skin prick positive patients. Carbapenems should only be used with extreme caution in patients with positive skin prick tests to penicillin. However, aztreonam can be used safely in patients who are penicillin allergic with positive skin prick reactions. The aminoglycosides are a relatively uncommon cause of allergic reactions, but patients who react to one member of the family may cross react with other aminoglycosides. Desensitisation relies on the incremental introduction of small quantities of the allergen and has been used for penicillins, ceftazidime, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin and must be repeated before each course. Personalized cards should be regularly updated for patients who develop allergic reactions. Written instructions on the emergency treatment of allergic reactions should be provided to patients self-administering intravenous antibiotics at home. Further research is required to identify risk factors and predictors for antibiotic allergy. PMID:15923254

  12. Skin manifestations of drug allergy

    PubMed Central

    Ardern-Jones, Michael R; Friedmann, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions range from mild to severe and from those localized only to skin to those associated with systemic disease. It is important to distinguish features of cutaneous drug reactions which help classify the underlying mechanism and likely prognosis as both of these influence management decisions, some of which necessarily have to be taken rapidly. Severe cutaneous reactions are generally T cell-mediated, yet this immunological process is frequently poorly understood and principles for identification of the culprit drug are different to those of IgE mediated allergic reactions. Furthermore, intervention in severe skin manifestations of drug allergy is frequently necessary. However, a substantial literature reports on success or otherwise of glucocorticoids, cyclophsphamide, ciclosporin, intravenous immunoglobulin and anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy for the treatment of toxic epidermal necrolysis without clear consensus. As well as reviewing the recommended supportive measures and evidence base for interventions, this review aims to provide a mechanistic overview relating to a proposed clinical classification to assist the assessment and management of these complex patients. PMID:21480947

  13. Granulomatous interstitial pneumonia induced by the intake of rice bran pickles: a rare subtype of pulmonary manifestation associated with food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Atsuhiko; Aishima, Shinichi; Hidaka, Kouko

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary manifestations associated with food allergy are rich in variety. We report the first case of food-induced granulomatous interstitial pneumonia mimicking hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). A 77-year-old woman with respiratory symptoms was referred to our hospital. We performed a surgical lung biopsy, which showed the features of granulomatous interstitial pneumonia. Her clinical history resembled those observed in HP. However, avoidance of exposure to the causative antigens did not improve her symptoms. Moreover, the patient had some features inconsistent with HP, such as elevated serum IgE levels, blood eosinophilia, intrathoracic lymphadenopathies and pleural effusion. Therefore, we pursued another extrinsic non-inhaled antigen as the cause of pulmonary involvements. We noted that she had been eating homemade rice bran pickles, and pulmonary involvements were induced by an ingestion challenge test. We suggest that granulomatous interstitial pneumonia may be a rare subtype of the pulmonary manifestations associated with food allergy. PMID:25858927

  14. Inhibition of Immunoglobulin E signals during allergen ingestion leads to reversal of established food allergy and induction of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Oliver T.; Noval-Rivas, Magali; Zhou, Joseph S.; Logsdon, Stephanie L.; Darling, Alanna R.; Koleoglou, Kyle J.; Roers, Axel; Houshyar, Hani; Crackower, Michael A.; Chatila, Talal A.; Oettgen, Hans C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are known for triggering immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as food anaphylaxis. In this study, we tested whether they might additionally function to amplify nascent antibody and T helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated responses to ingested proteins and if blocking IgE would modify sensitization. Using mice harboring a disinhibited form of the IL-4 receptor, we developed an adjuvant-free model of peanut allergy. Mast cells and IgE were required for induction of antibody and Th2 cell-mediated responses to peanut ingestion and they impaired regulatory T (Treg) cell induction. Mast cell-targeted genetic deletion of the FcεRI signaling kinase, Syk, or Syk blockade also prevented peanut sensitization. In mice with established allergy, Syk blockade facilitated desensitization and induction of Treg cells, which suppressed allergy when transferred to naïve recipients. Our study suggests a key role for IgE in driving Th2 cell and IgE responses while suppressing Treg cells in food allergy. PMID:25017467

  15. Educational clinical case series for pediatric allergy and immunology: allergic proctocolitis, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis with protein-losing gastroenteropathy as manifestations of non-IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Jennifer; Nowak-Wegrzyn, Anna

    2007-06-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. It is estimated that up to 50% of pediatric cow's milk allergy is non-IgE-mediated. Allergic proctocolitis is a benign disorder manifesting with blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy-appearing infants who are breast- or formula-fed. Symptoms resolve within 48-72 h following elimination of dietary cow's milk protein. Most infants tolerate cow's milk by their first birthday. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome presents in young formula-fed infants with chronic emesis, diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Reintroduction of cow's milk protein following a period of avoidance results in profuse, repetitive emesis within 2-3 h following ingestion; 20% of acute exposures may be associated with hypovolemic shock. Treatment of acute reactions is with vigorous hydration. Most children become tolerant with age; attempts of re-introduction of milk must be done under physician supervision and with secure i.v. access. Allergic eosinophilic gastroenteritis affects infants as well as older children and adolescents. Abdominal pain, emesis, diarrhea, failure to thrive, or weight loss are the most common symptoms. A subset of patients may develop protein-losing enteropathy. Fifty percent of affected children are atopic and have evidence of food-specific IgE antibody but skin prick tests and serum food-IgE levels correlate with response to elimination diet poorly. Elemental diet based on the amino-acid formula leads to resolutions of gastrointestinal eosinophilic inflammation typically within 6 wk. PMID:17584315

  16. Epigenome-wide association study reveals longitudinally stable DNA methylation differences in CD4+ T cells from children with IgE-mediated food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Martino, David; Joo, Jihoon E; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Dang, Thanh; Allen, Katrina; Saffery, Richard; Prescott, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is mediated by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors, potentially mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. CD4+ T-cells are key drivers of the allergic response, and may therefore harbor epigenetic variation in association with the disease phenotype. Here we retrospectively examined genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (~450 000 CpGs) from CD4+ T-cells on a birth cohort of 12 children with IgE-mediated food allergy diagnosed at 12-months, and 12 non-allergic controls. DNA samples were available at two time points, birth and 12-months. Case:control comparisons of CD4+ methylation profiles identified 179 differentially methylated probes (DMP) at 12-months and 136 DMP at birth (FDR-adjusted P value < 0.05, delta β > 0.1). Approximately 30% of DMPs were coincident with previously annotated SNPs. A total of 96 allergy-associated non-SNP DMPs were present at birth when individuals were initially disease-free, potentially implicating these loci in the causal pathway. Pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes identified several MAP kinase signaling molecules. Mass spectrometry was used to validate 15 CpG sites at 3 candidate genes. Combined analysis of differential methylation with gene expression profiles revealed gene expression differences at some but not all allergy associated differentially methylated genes. Thus, dysregulation of DNA methylation at MAPK signaling-associated genes during early CD4+ T-cell development may contribute to suboptimal T-lymphocyte responses in early childhood associated with the development of food allergy. PMID:24762976

  17. Fruit and vegetable allergy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable allergies are the most prevalent food allergies in adolescents and adults. The identification of the allergens involved and the elucidation of their intrinsic properties and cross-reactivity patterns has helped in the understanding of the mechanisms of sensitisation and how the allergen profiles determine the different phenotypes. The most frequent yet contrasting fruit and vegetable allergies are pollen-food syndrome (PFS) and lipid transfer protein (LTP) syndrome. In PFS, fruit and vegetable allergies result from a primary sensitisation to labile pollen allergens, such as Bet v 1 or profilin, and the resulting phenotype is mainly mild, consisting of local oropharyngeal reactions. In contrast, LTP syndrome results from a primary sensitisation to LTPs, which are stable plant food allergens, inducing frequent systemic reactions and even anaphylaxis. Although much less prevalent, severe fruit allergies may be associated with latex (latex-fruit syndrome). Molecular diagnosis is essential in guiding the management and risk assessment of these patients. Current management strategies comprise avoidance and rescue medication, including adrenaline, for severe LTP allergies. Specific immunotherapy with pollen is not indicated to treat pollen-food syndrome, but sublingual immunotherapy with LTPs seems to be a promising therapy for LTP syndrome. PMID:26022876

  18. Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_157642.html Poverty Linked to Asthma, Allergy Treatment Failure Patients from low-income households more ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- People with asthma or food allergies who are poor have worse treatment outcomes, two ...

  19. End point prick test: could this new test be used to predict the outcome of oral food challenge in children with cow's milk allergy?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the most frequent food allergy in childhood; the trend of CMA is often characterized by a progressive improvement to achieve tolerance in the first 4 to 5 years of life. It has been observed that specific IgE (sIgE) towards cow's milk proteins decrease when the age increases. Although food allergy can be easily diagnosed, it is difficult to predict the outcome of the oral food challenge (OFC), that remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy, by allergometric tests. Methods We considered 44 children with CMA diagnosed through OFC who returned to our Allergy and Immunology Pediatric Department between January to December 2010 to evaluate the persistence of allergy or the achievement of tolerance. On the basis of the history, we performed both allergometric skin tests and OFC in children that were still following a milk-free diet, whereas only allergometric skin tests those that had already undergone spontaneous introduction of milk protein at home without presenting symptoms. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the persistence of CMA or the acquisition of tolerance and the results of the end point prick test (EPT). Results and Discussion The OFC with cow's milk was performed on 30 children, 4 children were excluded because of a history of severe reactions to cow's milk, and 10 because they had spontaneously already taken milk food derivates at home without problems. 16/30 (53%) children showed clinical reactions and the challenge was stopped, 14/30 (47%) did not have any reaction. Comparing the mean wheal diameter of every EPT's dilution between the group of allergic children and the tolerant ones, we obtained a significant difference (p < 0.05) for the first 4 dilutions. We have also calculated sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) for each EPT dilution. Conclusions EPT is a safe and cheap test, easy

  20. Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the top eight allergenic foods—eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, shellfish, and fish. Treating a ... most common trigger foods for anaphylaxis are peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, fish, and crustaceans (shellfish). To ...

  1. Prevalence and Clinical Impact of IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in School Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Food Challenge Study

    PubMed Central

    Dynowski, Jarosław; Funkowicz, Marzena; Małachowska, Beata; Wąsowska-Królikowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies indirectly suggest a possible link between food allergy (FA) and asthma. Most of them have evaluated the occurrence of FA in asthmatic children, especially in the first year of life, using questionnaire-based studies or specific IgE (sIgE) assay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical impact of IgE-mediated FA in school children with asthma using a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Methods The study group consisted of school children with atopic asthma who were admitted to the Department of Pediatric Allergology, Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Medical University of Lodz, for the evaluation of food hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of FA was established using questionnaires, sIgE analysis, and the DBPCFC. Asthma severity and asthma control state were also assessed. Results A relationship between consumed food and complaints was reported in 180 children (49.7%). Seventy children (19.3%) were sensitized to food allergens. IgE-mediated FA was confirmed in 24 children (6.6%), while 11 children (3%) demonstrated respiratory symptoms. Food-induced asthma exacerbations were observed in 9 patients (2.5%). Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis (P<0.002), urticaria (P<0.03), digestive symptoms (P<0.03), rhinitis (P<0.02), sIgE level (P<0.001), positive family history of atopy (P<0.001) and FA in history (P<0.001) were found between asthmatic children with FA and those without. Children with food-induced asthma exacerbations demonstrated significantly greater severity, poorer controls, and worse morbidity compared to those without. Conclusions Although food-induced respiratory reactions in children with asthma were rare, they were classified as severe and associated with worse morbidity, greater severity, and poorer control. As the most commonly observed symptoms were coughing and rhinitis, which can be easily misdiagnosed, a proper diagnosis is essential for

  2. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  3. Going Nuts over Allergies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Some 600,000 children in the US are allergic to peanuts. Of 400 elementary school nurses, 44% cite increased food-allergic students in the past five years. Peanut allergy doubled in children from 1997 to 2002, and yet peanuts are only one of six foods most often causing allergic reactions in children, including milk, eggs, wheat, soy, and tree…

  4. Diosgenin attenuates allergen-induced intestinal inflammation and IgE production in a murine model of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Hsiung; Ku, Chun-Yao; Jan, Tong-Rong

    2009-10-01

    Diosgenin, the major sapogenin contained in the Chinese yam, has recently been shown to promote systemic T helper 1-type immunity in a murine model of airway hypersensitivity. In this study, we hypothesized that diosgenin might be effective in modulating food allergy. BALB/c mice were either left untreated (naïve; NA) or administered daily with vehicle (VH; olive oil) and/or diosgenin (100 or 200 mg/kg) by gavage throughout the experiment. Except for the NA group, the mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and repeatedly challenged with intragastric OVA to induce intestinal allergic responses. Diosgenin demonstrated a suppressive effect on the intestinal inflammation, including the occurrence of diarrhea, the infiltration and degranulation of mast cells, and the presence of mucin-containing goblet cells in the duodenum. A protective effect by diosgenin on reducing the crypt depth of the intestine was also observed in OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. Furthermore, the serum production of OVA-specific IgE, and the total IgE was suppressed. In contrast, OVA-specific IgG (2a) was enhanced by diosgenin treatment in OVA-sensitized mice. These results demonstrated the IN VIVO anti-allergic activity of diosgenin, which is associated with the suppression of IgE production and mast cell infiltration and degranulation. PMID:19343624

  5. Social and Economic Costs of Food Allergies in Europe: Development of a Questionnaire to Measure Costs and Health Utility

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Margaret; Voordouw, Jantine; Mugford, Miranda; Cornelisse, Judith; Antonides, Gerrit; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To develop a questionnaire to measure the additional social costs of food allergies (FAs). Data Source and Study Setting People with FAs and sampled members of the general population (with and without FAs) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom in 2006. Study Design (1) Literature review. (2) Focus group to identify key costs of FAs and seek views on the questionnaires. (3) Pilot survey to test the questionnaires in cases and controls. Data Collection Twenty-eight participants in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands with clinically or self-diagnosed FAs took part in one of five focus groups. A case–control postal survey was conducted in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands (with 125 FA cases and 62 controls). Principal Findings Methods exist to measure social costs in chronic illness, but not FAs. Focus groups found features of FAs likely to impact costs of living. Pilot results suggest higher costs of living and health care costs, and well-being in FAs. Conclusion The questionnaire is proposed for use in wider European and other comparative studies of FAs. PMID:19619251

  6. Regulatory T Cell Induced by Poria cocos Bark Exert Therapeutic Effects in Murine Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy

    PubMed Central

    See, Hye-Jeong; Choi, Gyeyoung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) has increased dramatically in pediatric populations, but there is no effective drug available for their management. Therefore, trials are required for the development of safe therapeutic agents such as herbal medicines. We determined whether orally administered Poria cocos bark (PCB) extract could exert immunosuppressive effects on allergic and inflammatory symptoms of AD and FA. For both AD, which was induced using house dust mite extract, and FA, which was induced by exposure to ovalbumin, model mice were orally treated with PCB extract for 62 days and 18 days, respectively. We also investigated the inductive effect of PCB extract on the generation and maintenance of Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). The symptoms of AD and FA were ameliorated by the administration of PCB extract. Furthermore, PCB extract inhibited the Th2-related cytokines and increased the population of Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs in both AD and FA models. In ex vivo experiments, PCB extract promoted the functional differentiation of Foxp3+CD4+ Tregs, which is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Thus, PCB extract has potential as an oral immune suppressor for the treatment of AD and FA through the generation of Tregs. PMID:27445434

  7. Regulatory T Cell Induced by Poria cocos Bark Exert Therapeutic Effects in Murine Models of Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bae, Min-Jung; See, Hye-Jeong; Choi, Gyeyoung; Kang, Chang-Yuil; Shon, Dong-Hwa; Shin, Hee Soon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic disorders including atopic dermatitis (AD) and food allergy (FA) has increased dramatically in pediatric populations, but there is no effective drug available for their management. Therefore, trials are required for the development of safe therapeutic agents such as herbal medicines. We determined whether orally administered Poria cocos bark (PCB) extract could exert immunosuppressive effects on allergic and inflammatory symptoms of AD and FA. For both AD, which was induced using house dust mite extract, and FA, which was induced by exposure to ovalbumin, model mice were orally treated with PCB extract for 62 days and 18 days, respectively. We also investigated the inductive effect of PCB extract on the generation and maintenance of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). The symptoms of AD and FA were ameliorated by the administration of PCB extract. Furthermore, PCB extract inhibited the Th2-related cytokines and increased the population of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tregs in both AD and FA models. In ex vivo experiments, PCB extract promoted the functional differentiation of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) Tregs, which is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Thus, PCB extract has potential as an oral immune suppressor for the treatment of AD and FA through the generation of Tregs. PMID:27445434

  8. Allergies - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection. Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing: The prick test involves placing ... Chiriac AM, Bousquet J, Demoly P. In vivo methods for the study and diagnosis of allergy. In: ...

  9. Environmental Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... system to a normally harmless substance called an allergen. A variety of environmental allergens, such as pollen and animal dander, can trigger ... allergies. Understanding Environmental Allergies Cause Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Immunotherapy Last Updated April 22, 2015 CONNECT WITH NIAID ...

  10. Allergies Galore! Managing Allergies Is More Than a Call to 911.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cassandra; Rebull, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Food allergies can kill a child, and camp offers many opportunities for things to go wrong. One camp with many allergic campers gathered information from parents on the extent of allergies and medications needed; educated staff about the seriousness of allergies, food preparation procedures, and snacks; and prepared an emergency plan. Family,…

  11. Transglutaminases: a meeting point for wheat allergy, celiac disease, and food safety.

    PubMed

    Malandain, H

    2005-12-01

    Wheat is the staple cereal in many countries and its uses in manufactured foods are ever growing due to the technological qualities of gluten proteins. Transglutaminases (TG) are ubiquitous enzymes with many functions. They are able to transform proteins by deamidation and/or transamidation. This last reaction can cross-link proteins together. Intestinal tissue TG has been shown to play an important role in two kinds of immune reactions to wheat: celiac disease and wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In addition, new epitopes have been suspected in cases of anaphylaxis to wheat isolates, a food ingredient consisting mainly of deamidated gluten proteins. As a microbial TG is included in many food technological processes, its safe use should be checked. This assessment must cover not only the safety of the TG itself but also that of the deamidated/cross-linked proteins generated by this enzyme. This article aims at discussing the possible consequences of using TG in food industry in the light of today knowledge about immune reactions to wheat. PMID:16528904

  12. A case of isocyanate-induced asthma possibly complicated by food allergy after peanut consumption: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Mingomataj, Ervin Ç; Gjata, Enkelejda; Xhixha, Fatmira; Hyso, Entela

    2008-01-01

    Background Isocyanates are extensively used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams, plastics, coatings or adhesives. They are a major cause of occupational asthma in a proportion of exposed workers. Recent findings in animal models have demonstrated that isocyanate-induced asthma does not always represent an IgE-mediated sensitization, but still a mixed profile of CD4+ Th1 and TH2, as well as a CD8+ immune response. Despite immunologic similarities between this pathology and IgE-mediated food allergies, this co-morbidity is rarely reported. Case presentation A 50-year old man employed as vehicle body painter, for 8 years complained about breathlessness, wheezing, sneezing, nasal obstruction and excessive production of mucus during the use of DuPont Refinish Centari Tintings – an acrylic enamel tint. Symptoms occurred 15–20 minutes after workplace exposure and usually persisted until evening, or at times, up to two consecutive days. The above mentioned symptoms were associated with a decrease of lung functions parameters. The use of inhaled adrenergic bronchio-dilatators and steroids relived the symptoms. In addition, three years ago he developed an anaphylactic reaction due to peanut consumption, experiencing urticaria, angioedema and airway obstruction. He was successfully treated in the hospital. Later, the subject exhibited labial itching, as well as orbital and perioral angioedema, 20 minutes after stationary performance of challenge test with peanuts. Evaluating the reported data, this process might be developed rather due to induction of a TH2 profile, because in both cases have occurred IgE-mediated symptoms. A less plausible mechanism could be the presence of isocyanates in peanuts due to a probable contamination by pesticides resulting in an allergic reaction after "consumption" of di-isocyanate as long as the isocyanate contamination of peanuts has not been proven. Conclusion Despite the lack of relevant laboratory findings, this might be the first

  13. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  14. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  15. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  16. EpiPen epidemic: suggestions for rational prescribing in childhood food allergy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, A S

    2003-07-01

    There has been a marked increase in community concerns of the risk of food induced anaphylaxis in children and a consequent increase in the provision of the self or carer injectable epinephrine (EpiPen) (CSL Ltd, Parkville, Victoria, Australia)). The Australian use of EpiPens in children under 10 years has increased by 300% over 5 years with a crude rate of EpiPen provision of 1 per 544 Australian children aged under 10 years. However, the risk of a fatal reaction to food, particularly in preschool children, is remote (in Australia, an estimated one fatality in 30 years in the under 5-year-old population and two deaths in 10 years in the entire child population). It is therefore important to provide a perspective on the risk of death from food induced anaphylactic to parents and carers in view of the anxiety generated on this issue. The indications for provision of an EpiPen to children are not well defined. Six risk factors, which can be considered in evaluating the risk of a life-threatening reaction (age over 5 years; a history of respiratory tract involvement with the initial or subsequent reactions; a history of asthma requiring preventer medication; peanut or tree nut sensitivity; reactions induced by traces or small amounts of allergen; a strongly positive skin prick test) are proposed. It is suggested that the greater the number that are positive, the lower the threshold for provision of an EpiPen. In addition, instruction in EpiPen administration and the provision of both a clear and simple anaphylaxis action plan and a rational perspective on the remote risk of death is just as important as the provision of the device itself. PMID:12887669

  17. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marta F.; González-Delgado, Purificación; Postigo, Idoia; Fernández, Javier; Soriano, Victor; Cueva, Begoña; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins. PMID:25750856

  18. Enteric Reovirus Infection Stimulates Peanut-Specific IgG2a Responses in a Mouse Food Allergy Model

    PubMed Central

    Fecek, Ronald J.; Rezende, Marisa Marcondes; Busch, Ryan; Hassing, Ine; Pieters, Raymond; Cuff, Christopher F.

    2010-01-01

    IgE-mediated food allergies are an important cause of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions. Orally administered peanut antigens mixed with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) induce a strong peanut extract (PE)-specific serum IgE response that is correlated with T-helper type 1 (Th1) and T-helper type 2 (Th2)-like T-cell responses. This study was conducted to determine if respiratory enteric orphan virus (reovirus), a non-pathogenic virus that induces robust Th1-mediated mucosal and systemic responses, could modulate induction of PE-specific allergic responses when co-administered with PE. Young mice were orally exposed to PE mixed with CT, reovirus, or both CT and reovirus. As expected, CT promoted PE-specific serum IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a and intestinal IgA production as well as splenic Th1- and Th2-associated cytokine recall responses. Reovirus did not alter PE-specific serum IgE and IgG1 levels, but substantially increased the PE-specific IgG2a response when co-administered with PE with or without CT. Additionally, reovirus significantly decreased the percentage of Peyer’s patch CD8+ T-cells and Foxp3+CD4+ T-regulatory cells when co-administered with PE. These results demonstrate that an acute mucosal reovirus infection and subsequent Th1 immune response is capable of modulating the Th1/Th2 controlled humoral response to PE. The reovirus-mediated increase in the PE-specific IgG2a antibody response may have therapeutic implications as increased levels of non-allergenic PE-specific IgG2a could block PE antigens from binding to IgE-sensitized mast cells. PMID:20356650

  19. Evaluation of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) for potential risks of food allergy using bioinformatics and literature searches.

    PubMed

    Siruguri, Vasanthi; Bharatraj, Dinesh Kumar; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Gupta, Vibha; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database. Initial comparisons in 2012 were performed with version 12 by methods recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the Indian Council of Medical Research, Government of India. Searches were repeated with version 15 in 2015. A literature search was performed using PubMed to identify reports of allergy associated with the sources of the three transgenes. Potential open reading frames at the DNA insertion site were evaluated for matches to allergens. No significant sequence identity matches were identified with Bar, Barnase or Barstar proteins or potential fusion peptides at the genomic-insert junctions compared to known allergens. No references were identified that associated the sources of the genes with allergy. Based on these results we conclude that the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins are unlikely to present any significant risk of food allergy to consumers. PMID:26079618

  20. Drug allergies

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction - drug (medication); Drug hypersensitivity; Medication hypersensitivity ... A drug allergy involves an immune response in the body that produces an allergic reaction to a medicine. The ...

  1. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  2. Traveling with Food Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Plan . Carry chef cards in English and the language of the countries where you will be. Make ... good experiences at certain places? Start planning early. Language barriers can be tough to deal with, but ...

  3. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  4. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease. PMID:23440653

  5. Peanut Allergy: New Developments and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P; Kim, Edwin H; Orgel, Kelly; Kulis, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Food allergies have increased in prevalence over the past 20 years, now becoming an important public health concern. Although there are no therapies currently available for routine clinical care, recent reports have indicated that immunotherapies targeting the mucosal immune system may be effective. Oral immunotherapy is conducted by administering small, increasing amounts of food allergen; it has shown promise for desensitizing individuals with peanut, egg, or milk allergies. Sublingual immunotherapy also desensitizes allergic patients to foods-two major studies have examined the effects of sublingual immunotherapy in subjects with peanut allergies. We review the complex nature of IgE-mediated food allergies and the therapies being evaluated in clinical trials. We focus on the diagnosis and management of food allergies and investigational therapies. PMID:27039393

  6. Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Abdul; Hill, Tiffany; Dhawan, Nidhi

    2016-09-01

    An adverse drug reaction relates to an undesired response to administration of a drug. Type A reactions are common and are predictable to administration, dose response, or interaction with other medications. Type B reactions are uncommon with occurrences that are not predictable. Appropriate diagnosis, classification, and entry into the chart are important to avoid future problems. The diagnosis is made with careful history, physical examination, and possibly allergy testing. It is recommended that help from allergy immunology specialists should be sought where necessary and that routine prescription of Epi pen should be given to patients with multiple allergy syndromes. PMID:27545730

  7. Eye Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... MD Mar. 01, 2015 Eye allergies, called allergic conjunctivitis , are a common condition that occurs when the ... with tearing and burning. Unlike bacterial or viral conjunctivitis, allergic conjunctivitis is not spread from person to ...

  8. Allergy shots

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Mold spores Dust mites Animal dander Pollen Insect venom A health care provider gives you the ... that allergies make worse Allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis Insect bite sensitivity Eczema , a skin condition that a ...

  9. Shellfish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... The two different types of shellfish allergy are: crustaceans (like shrimp, crab, or lobster) mollusks (like clams, ... of the top eight most common allergens, including crustacean shellfish. The label should list "shellfish" in the ...

  10. Latex allergy.

    PubMed

    Pollart, Susan M; Warniment, Christa; Mori, Takahiro

    2009-12-15

    The prevalence of latex allergy in the general population is low; however, the risk of developing latex allergy is higher in persons with increased latex exposure, such as health care workers or persons who work in the rubber industry. Children with spina bifida and others who undergo multiple surgeries or procedures, particularly within the first year of life, are also at greater risk of latex allergy. Reactions to latex allergy can range from type IV delayed hypersensitivity (e.g., contact dermatitis) to type I immediate hypersensitivity (e.g., urticaria, bronchospasm, anaphylaxis). Latex allergy can be diagnosed with clinical history, skin prick testing, latex-specific serum immunoglobulin E testing, and glove provocation testing. The main goals of latex allergy management are avoidance of exposure to latex allergens and appropriate treatment of allergic reactions. The use of nonlatex products from birth may prevent potentially serious allergic reactions. Widespread adoption of nonlatex or low-latex gloves has decreased the incidence of latex sensitization in health care workers. PMID:20000303

  11. Asthma and allergy - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - asthma and allergy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on asthma and allergies : Allergy and Asthma Network Mothers of Asthmatics -- www.aanma.org American Academy of Allergy, Asthma ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  13. [Facial and oropharyngeal angioedema in patient with alimentary fish allergy. Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Pino Rivero, V; Rodríguez Carmona, M; Iglesias González, R J; del Castillo Beneyto, F

    2007-01-01

    Vegetal or animal food can produce hipersensibility reactions IgE mediated of diverse intensity. We report the case of a 54 years old woman without previous allergic antecedents who after eating frozen fish had to go to Emergencies due to angioedema especially in face and oropharynx. The ENT exploration by fibroscopia descarted laryngeal edema but the patient showed initially respiratory symptoms so she was treated with SC adrenalina and then steroids during her admission. The diagnosis of alimentary alergia would be confirmed after by Allergology with cutaneous test prick type. PMID:18030852

  14. Active or Passive Exposure to Tobacco Smoking and Allergic Rhinitis, Allergic Dermatitis, and Food Allergy in Adults and Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saulyte, Jurgita; Regueira, Carlos; Montes-Martínez, Agustín; Khudyakov, Polyna; Takkouche, Bahi

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy are extremely common diseases, especially among children, and are frequently associated to each other and to asthma. Smoking is a potential risk factor for these conditions, but so far, results from individual studies have been conflicting. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence for an association between active smoking (AS) or passive exposure to secondhand smoke and allergic conditions. Methods and Findings We retrieved studies published in any language up to June 30th, 2013 by systematically searching Medline, Embase, the five regional bibliographic databases of the World Health Organization, and ISI-Proceedings databases, by manually examining the references of the original articles and reviews retrieved, and by establishing personal contact with clinical researchers. We included cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies reporting odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) estimates and confidence intervals of smoking and allergic conditions, first among the general population and then among children. We retrieved 97 studies on allergic rhinitis, 91 on allergic dermatitis, and eight on food allergy published in 139 different articles. When all studies were analyzed together (showing random effects model results and pooled ORs expressed as RR), allergic rhinitis was not associated with active smoking (pooled RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92–1.15]), but was associated with passive smoking (pooled RR 1.10 [95% CI 1.06–1.15]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with both active (pooled RR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.14–1.29]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.07 [95% CI 1.03–1.12]). In children and adolescent, allergic rhinitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.40 (95% CI 1.24–1.59) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.09 [95% CI 1.04–1.14]). Allergic dermatitis was associated with active (pooled RR, 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.46]) and passive smoking (pooled RR, 1.06 [95% CI 1.01–1

  15. Not all shellfish "allergy" is allergy!

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The popularity of shellfish has been increasing worldwide, with a consequent increase in adverse reactions that can be allergic or toxic. The approximate prevalence of shellfish allergy is estimated at 0.5-2.5% of the general population, depending on degree of consumption by age and geographic regions. The manifestations of shellfish allergy vary widely, but it tends to be more severe than most other food allergens. Tropomyosin is the major allergen and is responsible for cross-reactivity between members of the shellfish family, particularly among the crustacea. Newly described allergens and subtle differences in the structures of tropomyosin between different species of shellfish could account for the discrepancy between in vitro cross-antigenicity and clinical cross-allergenicity. The diagnosis requires a thorough medical history supported by skin testing or measurement of specific IgE level, and confirmed by appropriate oral challenge testing unless the reaction was life-threatening. Management of shellfish allergy is basically strict elimination, which in highly allergic subjects may include avoidance of touching or smelling and the availability of self-administered epinephrine. Specific immunotherapy is not currently available and requires the development of safe and effective protocols. PMID:22410209

  16. IL-10 Enhances IgE-Mediated Mast Cell Responses and Is Essential for the Development of Experimental Food Allergy in IL-10-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Polukort, Stephanie H; Rovatti, Jeffrey; Carlson, Logan; Thompson, Chelsea; Ser-Dolansky, Jennifer; Kinney, Shannon R M; Schneider, Sallie S; Mathias, Clinton B

    2016-06-15

    IL-10 is a key pleiotropic cytokine that can both promote and curb Th2-dependent allergic responses. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role for IL-10 in promoting mast cell expansion and the development of IgE-mediated food allergy. Oral OVA challenge in sensitized BALB/c mice resulted in a robust intestinal mast cell response accompanied by allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation, and a predominance of Th2 cytokines, including enhanced IL-10 expression. In contrast, the development of intestinal anaphylaxis, including diarrhea, mast cell activation, and Th2 cytokine production, was significantly attenuated in IL-10(-/-) mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. IL-10 also directly promoted the expansion, survival, and activation of mast cells; increased FcεRI expression on mast cells; and enhanced the production of mast cell cytokines. IL-10(-/-) mast cells had reduced functional capacity, which could be restored by exogenous IL-10. Similarly, attenuated passive anaphylaxis in IL-10(-/-) mice could be restored by IL-10 administration. The adoptive transfer of WT mast cells restored allergic symptoms in IL-10(-/-) mice, suggesting that the attenuated phenotype observed in these animals is due to a deficiency in IL-10-responding mast cells. Lastly, transfer of WT CD4 T cells also restored allergic diarrhea and intestinal mast cell numbers in IL-10(-/-) mice, suggesting that the regulation of IL-10-mediated intestinal mast cell expansion is T cell dependent. Our observations demonstrate a critical role for IL-10 in driving mucosal mast cell expansion and activation, suggesting that, in its absence, mast cell function is impaired, leading to attenuated food allergy symptoms. PMID:27183617

  17. [Implant allergies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Thomsen, M

    2010-03-01

    An increasing number of patients receive and benefit from osteosynthesis materials or artificial joint replacement. The most common complications are mechanical problems or infection. Metals like nickel, chromium and cobalt as well as bone cement components like acrylates and gentamicin are potential contact allergens which can cause intolerance reactions to implants. Eczema, delayed wound/bone healing, recurrent effusions, pain and implant loosening all have been described as manifestation of implant allergy. In contrast to the high incidence of cutaneous metal allergy, allergies associated with implants are rare. Diagnosis of metal implant allergy is still difficult. Thus differential diagnoses--in particular infection--have to be excluded and a combined approach of allergologic diagnostics by patch test and histopathology of peri-implant tissue is recommended. It is still unknown which conditions induce allergic sensitization to implants or trigger peri-implant allergic reactions in the case of preexisting cutaneous metal allergy. Despite the risk of developing complications being unclear, titanium based osteosynthesis materials are recommended for metal allergic patients and the use of metal-metal couplings in arthroplasty is not recommended for such patients. If the regular CoCr-polyethylene articulation is employed, the patient should give informed written consent. PMID:20204719

  18. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Agache, Ioana; Bonini, Sergio; Burks, A Wesley; Calderon, Moises; Canonica, Walter; Cox, Linda; Demoly, Pascal; Frew, Antony J; O'Hehir, Robin; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Muraro, Antonella; Lack, Gideon; Larenas, Désirée; Levin, Michael; Nelson, Harald; Pawankar, Ruby; Pfaar, Oliver; van Ree, Ronald; Sampson, Hugh; Santos, Alexandra F; Du Toit, George; Werfel, Thomas; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Zhang, Luo; Akdis, Cezmi A

    2015-09-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has been used to treat allergic disease since the early 1900s. Despite numerous clinical trials and meta-analyses proving AIT efficacious, it remains underused and is estimated to be used in less than 10% of patients with allergic rhinitis or asthma worldwide. In addition, there are large differences between regions, which are not only due to socioeconomic status. There is practically no controversy about the use of AIT in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma, but for atopic dermatitis or food allergy, the indications for AIT are not well defined. The elaboration of a wider consensus is of utmost importance because AIT is the only treatment that can change the course of allergic disease by preventing the development of asthma and new allergen sensitizations and by inducing allergen-specific immune tolerance. Safer and more effective AIT strategies are being continuously developed both through elaboration of new allergen preparations and adjuvants and alternate routes of administration. A number of guidelines, consensus documents, or both are available on both the international and national levels. The international community of allergy specialists recognizes the need to develop a comprehensive consensus report to harmonize, disseminate, and implement the best AIT practice. Consequently, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, formed by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; and the World Allergy Organization, has decided to issue an international consensus on AIT. PMID:26162571

  19. Allergy Tests: When You Need Them and When You Don't

    MedlinePlus

    ... positive.” These free tests and home tests for food allergies are not always reliable. Unreliable test results can ... 200 to $1,000. A blood test for food allergies can cost hundreds of dollars, and testing for ...

  20. Report from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop on drug allergy.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Lisa M; Plaut, Marshall; Schwaninger, Julie M; Banerji, Aleena; Castells, Mariana; Finkelman, Fred D; Gleich, Gerald J; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Mallal, Simon A K; Naisbitt, Dean J; Ostrov, David A; Phillips, Elizabeth J; Pichler, Werner J; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Roujeau, Jean-Claude; Schwartz, Lawrence B; Trepanier, Lauren A

    2015-08-01

    Allergic reactions to drugs are a serious public health concern. In 2013, the Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Transplantation of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop on drug allergy. International experts in the field of drug allergy with backgrounds in allergy, immunology, infectious diseases, dermatology, clinical pharmacology, and pharmacogenomics discussed the current state of drug allergy research. These experts were joined by representatives from several National Institutes of Health institutes and the US Food and Drug Administration. The participants identified important advances that make new research directions feasible and made suggestions for research priorities and for development of infrastructure to advance our knowledge of the mechanisms, diagnosis, management, and prevention of drug allergy. The workshop summary and recommendations are presented herein. PMID:26254053

  1. Pollen Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... pollen count, which is often reported by local weather broadcasts or allergy websites, is a measure of how much pollen is in the air. Pollen counts tend to be highest early in the morning on warm, dry, breezy days and lowest during chilly, wet periods. ...

  2. Anti-acids lead to immunological and morphological changes in the intestine of BALB/c mice similar to human food allergy.

    PubMed

    Pali-Schöll, Isabella; Yildirim, Ali O; Ackermann, Ute; Knauer, Tanja; Becker, Christoph; Garn, Holger; Renz, Harald; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2008-08-01

    We have shown that anti-acid medication for treating dyspeptic disorders can block protein digestion and induce a higher risk for food sensitization. This mechanism was confirmed in human and animal studies on the humoral as well as the cellular level. Here we aimed to investigate the outcome of the treatment with the anti-acid drug sucralfate on the intestine in our murine model, assuming that morphological and immunological changes will occur. BALB/c mice were fed codfish extract plus sucralfate. Antibodies were examined in ELISA, RBL assay and Western blot. Quantitative morphological analysis of the intestine was performed by design-based stereology, focussing on epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscle, eosinophils and CD3(+) cells. Histological analyses were performed after H&E-, PAS- and Congo red-staining, while immune histochemistry was done for detection of CD3(+) cells. Codfish-specific IgE and its activity in RBL assay confirmed the Th2-response after treatment with sucralfate. The reactivity pattern of murine IgE in Western blot was similar to allergic patients' IgE. Histological examination showed more slender villi in the duodenum, and increased goblet cell mucus in the cecum after sucralfate treatment. Stereological analyses of the intestine revealed higher eosinophil/CD3(+) ratios, decreased mean thickness of the epithelium of duodenum and cecum, and thinner smooth muscle cell layer in the colon of food allergic mice. Anti-acid treatment with sucralfate induces changes in the structure of epithelium and villi, and an increase in eosinophils and mucus-producing cells in the intestine. Therefore, this medication leads to sensitization against food with changes typical for food allergy also in the intestine. PMID:18524557

  3. Measles immunisation in children with allergy to egg.

    PubMed Central

    Aickin, R.; Hill, D.; Kemp, A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the occurrence of adverse reactions to measles vaccine given as a single dose to children with egg allergy, and to determine if the administration of single dose to children with a positive result in an intradermal skin prick test with the vaccine is associated with adverse reactions. DESIGN--Review of results of immunisation and prospective study of 96 consecutively presenting children given intradermal skin testing with the vaccine. SETTING--Children's allergy centre. SUBJECTS--410 children sensitive to egg referred to the allergy unit for advice about measles immunisation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Nature and severity of reactions associated with the administration of measles vaccine. RESULTS--All children had a positive result in a skin prick test with egg white, and five had a positive result in a skin prick test with vaccine. Of 96 consecutive children, 46 had a positive result in an intradermal test with vaccine. After immunisation with a full dose (0.5 ml) of vaccine adverse reactions were associated with a mild reaction in four children, none of whom required treatment. Only one of the 46 children with a positive result in an intradermal vaccine skin test had a reaction associated with vaccine administration. None of the children with a positive result in a skin prick test with measles vaccine reacted to the vaccine. The rate of minor reactions to the vaccine not requiring treatment was 0.98% (95% confidence interval 0.27% to 2.48%) and serious reactions requiring treatment was 0% (0% to 0.9%). CONCLUSION--Children with IgE mediated allergic reactions to egg protein should be investigated and managed by practitioners with special knowledge in this subject. Measles immunisation should be performed in a setting where any adverse reactions can be dealt with appropriately. Skin tests and measles vaccine and desensitisation are not necessary. PMID:8069138

  4. HYPOALLERGENIC FOODS - SOYBEANS AND PEANUTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food allergies have been recognized as a growing problem. Although food allergies are routinely managed by avoidance, understanding how food allergies are induced presents the prospect for moderating adverse and possibly life-threatening immune reactions. Among the possible means to manage food alle...

  5. Identification of the major allergenic epitopes of Eriocheir sinensis roe hemocyanin: A novel tool for food allergy diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhu, Lina; Li, Shaoshen; Zhang, Jiayi; She, Tiantian; Yan, Juanjuan; Bian, Ying; Li, Huiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Crab meat and roe are highly nutritious delicacies in China. While extensive research has been conducted for allergens derived from crab-meat, data relevant to the allergenic potential of crab roe derived proteins, of which hemocyanin is a principal contender, are almost entirely absent. Using bioinformatics prediction and IgE-binding assays, the three principal immunodominant epitopes of hemocyanin were identified and then combined as a single recombinant fusion protein (rHc). This together with the full-length recombinant protein (Hc) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently identified by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. Ninety-five percent of our patients were found to carry rHc-specific IgE antibodies by ELISA. Dot-blot inhibition, together with ELISA inhibition studies, showed that pre-incubation of patient sera with the recombinant epitope protein could inhibit26% to 63% (mean: 50%) of IgE binding to immobilized, full-length Hc and the dose-response curve represents as a sigmoid shape. The recombinant protein (rHc) represents a versatile biologic tool with which to diagnose and investigate therapies for E. sinensis allergy. PMID:27208437

  6. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  7. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... of pollen spores that you breathe in. Leave gardening tools and clothing (such as gloves and shoes) ...

  8. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to bee venom or penicillin. Or it may be used if the skin ... sore, or swollen after contact with the substance Penicillin allergy Venom allergy Allergies to penicillin and closely ...

  9. Allergies, asthma, and molds

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic rhinitis - mold ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Mold is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to mold, you are said to have a mold allergy. ...

  10. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Bayrou, Olivier

    2006-02-15

    Immediate hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex has increased since the early 1980s. High prevalence of latex sensitization and allergy are observed among healthcare workers, atopic individuals and children who had undergone multiple surgical operations (spina bifida, congenital anomalies). Presenting symptoms are polymorphous: contact urticaria, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, asthma, and anaphylaxis. Corn-starch-latex particles released in the air after powdered gloves manipulation may be inhaled and lead to occupational asthma. The diagnosis may be made by a focused clinical history, prick-test, detection of specific IgE antibody and challenge test. Almost half of patients allergic to natural rubber latex show an associated fruit allergy: avocado, banana, kiwi, chestnut. Most of cutaneous delayed reactions (eczema) to rubber are caused by rubber additives (accelerators of vulcanization, anti-oxidants). PMID:16583955

  11. Physical allergies.

    PubMed

    Horan, R F; Sheffer, A L; Briner, W W

    1992-08-01

    Allergic responses that occur as a result of exposure to physical stimuli are discussed. Most of these conditions are mediated by vasoactive substances, resulting in urticaria and/or angioedema. Susceptible individuals who engage in athletic activities may place themselves at particular risk for these problems. The physical allergies include cholinergic urticaria, exercise-induced anaphylaxis, cold urticaria, dermatographism, solar urticaria, and aquagenic urticaria. Management of these conditions includes patient education, selective avoidance, antihistamines, and, in some cases, induction of tolerance. PMID:1406166

  12. [Latex allergy].

    PubMed

    Richter, J; Susický, P

    2000-04-01

    The authors describe a case of an allergic affection in a patient with occupational exposure to latex allergens with a history of anaphylactic reaction to poppy seed and reaction to the antigens of apples, oranges, tangerines, peanuts and bananas, revealed by the method CAP Phadiatop. A marked reaction was initiated after the use of a shampoo containing volatile banana oil. The authors emphasize the high incidence of latex allergy, the manifestations of which may be encountered also in clinical ophthalmology. PMID:10874793

  13. Skin Allergy Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immunology Menu Search Main navigation Skip to content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just ...

  14. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    PubMed

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. PMID:24734868

  15. Allergy to coitus.

    PubMed

    Jones, W R

    1991-05-01

    Acute systemic hypersensitivity reactions to semen are rare but may be life-threatening. Chronic or recurrent local reactions are more common and may be misdiagnosed as infective or nonspecific vaginitis. The antigen(s) involved in these reactions reside in a glycoprotein fraction of seminal plasma. Allergic vulvovaginitis may also occur in sensitized women when they are exposed to exogenous allergens such as drugs, food and infective agents during sexual activity. Skin testing and other relevant investigations are indicated when these disorders are suspected. Condom usage will prevent symptoms of coital allergy. Desensitization has had variable success in acute systemic hypersensitivity. Precoital antihistamines may modify local reactions. PMID:1681800

  16. Prioritisation of allergenic foods with respect to public health relevance: Report from an ILSI Europe Food Allergy Task Force Expert Group.

    PubMed

    Houben, Geert; Burney, Peter; Chan, Chun-Han; Crevel, René; Dubois, Anthony; Faludi, Roland; Klein Entink, Rinke; Knulst, André; Taylor, Steve; Ronsmans, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Regulators and risk managers in general need to decide whether an allergenic food or ingredient is of such public health importance that it needs to be actively managed. There is therefore a need to scale the relative allergenicity of foods and ingredients according to the hazards they pose. Objective criteria increase transparency and trust in this decision-making process and its conclusions. This paper proposes a framework that allows categorisation and prioritisation of allergenic foods according to their public health importance. The challenge is to find a basis on which the allergenicity of foods can best be described and a method to combine the relevant measures of allergenicity into a scoring system that prioritises allergenic foods on the basis of their public health relevance. The framework is designed in accordance with the generic risk analysis principles used in food safety and can be used by regulators to decide whether or not a specific allergenic food or ingredient is of sufficient public health importance that it warrants regulation (i.e. mandatory labelling) when used in the production of food products. PMID:26763611

  17. Effect of a cocoa-enriched diet on immune response and anaphylaxis in a food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Abril-Gil, Mar; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocoa intake decreased Th2 immune-related antibodies in rats. In consequence, we aimed to study in depth this cocoa action, particularly assessing its effect on a rat model of food allergy (FA) and also on an anaphylactic response. The involvement of the intestinal immune system was analyzed to allow the action mechanisms to be investigated. The role of cocoa flavonoids in the antiallergic properties of cocoa was also established. Brown Norway rats were fed either a reference diet or diets containing conventional cocoa (CC) or nonfermented cocoa (NFC). FA to ovalbumin (OVA) was induced and, later, an anaphylactic response was provoked. As expected, the synthesis of anti-OVA IgE and other Th2-related antibodies was inhibited by CC diet. In addition, the release of mast cell protease II after anaphylaxis was partially prevented by CC, although other variables were not modified. The CC diet also attenuated the increase of some Th2-related cytokines released from mesenteric lymph node and spleen cells, and modulated the intestinal gene expression of molecules involved in allergic response. These results demonstrated the local and systemic influence of CC diet. The effects of the NFC diet were weaker than those of CC, suggesting that cocoa components other than flavonoids play a role in cocoa's action. In conclusion, by acting on intestinal and systemic immune functions, a cocoa-enriched diet in rats exhibited a protective effect against FA and partially against anaphylaxis, making this a food of high interest to the fields of health and immunonutrition. PMID:26601599

  18. Allergy to pizza: an uncommon and multifaceted allergy.

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of the Italian "pizza" in the wide and variegate field of food allergy is certainly uncommon. This simple Italian dish consists of a breadlike crust covered by a spiced preparation of cheese and tomatoes and baked. Italian pizza found its origin in Napoli and only in recent years has become a very popular food in the rest of Italy and elsewhere. In the beginning, it was the food of the poor, but was made with natural foods, but nowadays has been enriched by a number of ingredients and flavourings, thus multiplying the risk of allergic reactions. PMID:11075625

  19. Anti-ulcer treatment during pregnancy induces food allergy in mouse mothers and a Th2-bias in their offspring

    PubMed Central

    Schöll, Isabella; Ackermann, Ute; Özdemir, Cevdet; Blümer, Nicole; Dicke, Tanja; Sel, Serdar; Sel, Sarper; Wegmann, Michael; Szalai, Krisztina; Knittelfelder, Regina; Untersmayr, Eva; Scheiner, Otto; Garn, Holger; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Renz, Harald

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of dyspeptic disorders with anti-acids leads to an increased risk of sensitization against food allergens. As these drugs are taken by 30–50% of pregnant women due to reflux and heartburn, we aimed here to investigate the impact of maternal therapy with anti-acids on the immune response in the offspring in a murine model. Codfish extract as model allergen was fed with or without sucralfate, an anti-acid drug, to pregnant BALB/c mice during pregnancy and lactation. These mothers developed a codfish-specific allergic response shown as high IgG1 and IgE antibody levels and positive skin tests. In the next step we analyzed whether this maternal sensitization impacts a subsequent sensitization in the offspring. Indeed, in stimulated splenocytes of these offspring we found a relative Th2-dominance, because the Th1- and T-regulatory cytokines were significantly suppressed. Our data provide evidence that the anti-acid drug sucralfate supports sensitization against food in pregnant mice and favors a Th2-milieu in their offspring. From these results we propose that anti-acid treatment during pregnancy could be responsible for the increasing number of sensitizations against food allergens in young infants. PMID:17227952

  20. Anti-ulcer treatment during pregnancy induces food allergy in mouse mothers and a Th2-bias in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Schöll, Isabella; Ackermann, Ute; Ozdemir, Cevdet; Blümer, Nicole; Dicke, Tanja; Sel, Serdar; Sel, Sarper; Wegmann, Michael; Szalai, Krisztina; Knittelfelder, Regina; Untersmayr, Eva; Scheiner, Otto; Garn, Holger; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Renz, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The treatment of dyspeptic disorders with anti-acids leads to an increased risk of sensitization against food allergens. As these drugs are taken by 30-50% of pregnant women due to reflux and heartburn, we aimed here to investigate the impact of maternal therapy with anti-acids on the immune response in the offspring in a murine model. Codfish extract as model allergen was fed with or without sucralfate, an anti-acid drug, to pregnant BALB/c mice during pregnancy and lactation. These mothers developed a codfish-specific allergic response shown as high IgG1 and IgE antibody levels and positive skin tests. In the next step we analyzed whether this maternal sensitization impacts a subsequent sensitization in the offspring. Indeed, in stimulated splenocytes of these offspring we found a relative Th2-dominance, because the Th1- and T-regulatory cytokines were significantly suppressed. Our data provide evidence that the anti-acid drug sucralfate supports sensitization against food in pregnant mice and favors a Th2-milieu in their offspring. From these results we propose that anti-acid treatment during pregnancy could be responsible for the increasing number of sensitizations against food allergens in young infants. PMID:17227952

  1. Usage and Users of Online Self-Management Programs for Adult Patients With Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergy: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Leent- de Wit, Ilse; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Knulst, André

    2015-01-01

    Background Two online self-management programs for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) or food allergy (FA) were developed with the aim of helping patients cope with their condition, follow the prescribed treatment regimen, and deal with the consequences of their illness in daily life. Both programs consist of several modules containing information, personal stories by fellow patients, videos, and exercises with feedback. Health care professionals can refer their patients to the programs. However, the use of the program in daily practice is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to explore the use and characteristics of users of the online self-management programs “Living with eczema,” and “Living with food allergy,” and to investigate factors related to the use of the trainings. Methods A cross-sectional design was carried out in which the outcome parameters were the number of log-ins by patients, the number of hits on the system’s core features, disease severity, quality of life, and domains of self-management. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize sample characteristics and to describe number of log-ins and hits per module and per functionality. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the relation between the number of log-ins and patient characteristics. Results Since the start, 299 adult patients have been referred to the online AD program; 173 logged in for at least one occasion. Data from 75 AD patients were available for analyses. Mean number of log-ins was 3.1 (range 1-11). Linear regression with the number of log-ins as dependent variable showed that age and quality of life contributed most to the model, with betas of .35 ( P=.002) and .26 (P=.05), respectively, and an R 2 of .23. Two hundred fourteen adult FA patients were referred to the online FA training, 124 logged in for at least one occasion and data from 45 patients were available for analysis. Mean number of log-ins was 3.0 (range 1-11). Linear regression

  2. Milk allergy in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Odedra, Katy Mara

    2015-07-01

    Cow's milk allergy is common in children and rare in adults. The clinical features of cow's milk allergy are varied and they include anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal symptoms and atopic dermatitis. The prevalence of cow's milk allergy is difficult to ascertain, based on self-reported symptoms that are not subsequently confirmed by diagnostic testing. The gold-standard diagnostic test is the double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge. Avoidance of milk and milk products is the main therapy. Nutritional considerations are important in both children and adults, as is recognising the potential for resolution of cow's milk allergy. Providing evidence-based advice and support to individuals and their families and carers is central to managing cow's milk allergy. PMID:26136034

  3. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms

    PubMed Central

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  4. Structural insights into the IgE mediated responses induced by the allergens Hev b 8 and Zea m 12 in their dimeric forms.

    PubMed

    Mares-Mejía, Israel; Martínez-Caballero, Siseth; Garay-Canales, Claudia; Cano-Sánchez, Patricia; Torres-Larios, Alfredo; Lara-González, Samuel; Ortega, Enrique; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Oligomerization of allergens plays an important role in IgE-mediated reactions, as effective crosslinking of IgE- FcεRI complexes on the cell membrane is dependent on the number of exposed B-cell epitopes in a single allergen molecule or on the occurrence of identical epitopes in a symmetrical arrangement. Few studies have attempted to experimentally demonstrate the connection between allergen dimerization and the ability to trigger allergic reactions. Here we studied plant allergenic profilins rHev b 8 (rubber tree) and rZea m 12 (maize) because they represent an important example of cross-reactivity in the latex-pollen-food syndrome. Both allergens in their monomeric and dimeric states were isolated and characterized by exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry and were used in immunological in vitro experiments. Their crystal structures were solved, and for Hev b 8 a disulfide-linked homodimer was found. Comparing the structures we established that the longest loop is relevant for recognition by IgE antibodies, whereas the conserved regions are important for cross-reactivity. We produced a novel monoclonal murine IgE (mAb 2F5), specific for rHev b 8, which was useful to provide evidence that profilin dimerization considerably increases the IgE-mediated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia cells. PMID:27586352

  5. Latex Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein particles can stick to the cornstarch and fly into the air when the gloves are taken ... of these foods are banana, avocado, chestnut, kiwi fruit and passion fruit. Although many other foods can ...

  6. 2015 David Y. Graham Lecture: The First Two Decades Of Eosinophilic Esophagitis-From Acid Reflux To Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2016-06-01

    Collaborative efforts by pediatric and adult gastroenterologists, allergists, dieticians, and pathologists have brought about marked progress in the recognition, understanding, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) over the past two decades. Once an esoteric diagnosis, EoE is now increasingly identified as a major cause of morbidity, afflicting both children and adults. The detection of mucosal eosinophils has evolved from a diagnostic feature of acid reflux to a biomarker of food sensitization of the esophagus. Translational studies and murine models have elucidated Th-2 immune pathways in EoE, inspiring the development of targeted biologic therapeutics. At the same time, validation of patient-reported outcomes and endoscopic end points has facilitated the implementation of clinical trials of novel therapeutics. Ongoing investigations have elucidated the importance of "looking beneath the surface" of the epithelium, focusing greater attention on the impact of esophageal remodeling in the clinical consequences of EoE. Elimination diets continue to gain popularity as an intriguing, highly effective, and non-pharmacologic therapy that lends credence to the concept that EoE is a food-driven, immunologic disorder. PMID:27068720

  7. Seafood Allergy, Toxicity, and Intolerance: A Review.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka

    2016-04-01

    Seafood allergies have been increasing their presence in the last 2 decades. Allergic reactions to seafood can range from mild urticarial and oral allergy syndrome to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Ingestion of seafood infested with Anisakis larvae can cause a disease known as anisakiasis with symptoms similar to true seafood allergy. Furthermore, some adverse reactions to seafood including histamine fish poisoning (HFP), and intolerance to histamine can trigger clinical symptoms, which, although nonallergic in origin, are similar to true immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions. Because seafood allergy usually remains a lifelong food allergy, this review focuses on the current knowledge on fish and shellfish allergens and emphasizes the importance of differentiating seafood allergy from other allergy-like reactions (anisakiasis, HFP, and intolerance to histamine). Key teaching points: • Fish and shellfish are potent allergens that can provoke serious IgE antibody-mediated adverse reactions in sensitive individuals. • Sensitization to seafood allergens can be achieved by ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact. • Shellfish major allergen, tropomyosin, shares significant homology to arthropods (dust mites and cockroaches). • Accidental exposures to seafood products cross-contaminated with fish or shellfish allergens (hidden allergens) during processing may present a health risk for sensitive individuals. • Allergens of fish parasite A. simplex present common hidden allergens in seafood, particularly in raw and undercooked home-made fish dishes. • Symptoms caused by HFP, histamine intolerance, and anisakiasis are similar to true seafood allergy. PMID:26252073

  8. Food allergy population thresholds: an evaluation of the number of oral food challenges and dosing schemes on the accuracy of threshold dose distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Klein Entink, Rinke H; Remington, Benjamin C; Blom, W Marty; Rubingh, Carina M; Kruizinga, Astrid G; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L; Houben, Geert F

    2014-08-01

    For most allergenic foods, limited availability of threshold dose information within the population restricts the advice on action levels of unintended allergenic foods which should trigger advisory labeling on packaged foods. The objective of this paper is to provide guidance for selecting an optimal sample size for threshold dosing studies for major allergenic foods and to identify factors influencing the accuracy of estimation. A simulation study was performed to evaluate the effects of sample size and dosing schemes on the accuracy of the threshold distribution curve. The relationships between sample size, dosing scheme and the employed statistical distribution on the one hand and accuracy of estimation on the other hand were obtained. It showed that the largest relative gains in accuracy are obtained when sample size increases from N=20 to N=60. Moreover, it showed that the EuroPrevall dosing scheme is a useful start, but that it may need revision for a specific allergen as more data become available, because a proper allocation of the dosing steps is important. The results may guide risk assessors in minimum sample sizes for new studies and in the allocation of proper dosing schemes for allergens in provocation studies. PMID:24815821

  9. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  10. Mugwort-Mustard Allergy Syndrome due to Broccoli Consumption.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yuri; Makino, Teruhiko; Mizawa, Megumi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2016-01-01

    Pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) is a relatively rare form of food allergy which develops in individuals who are sensitized to pollen. Tree pollens, especially birch pollen, frequently induce PFAS; however, the incidence of PFAS due to grass or weed pollens such as ragweed or mugwort is relatively rare. Mugwort-mustard allergy syndrome (MMAS) is an example of a PFAS in which individuals sensitized to mugwort may develop an allergy to mustard and experience severe reactions. We herein describe a case of MMAS due to broccoli consumption. PMID:27478657

  11. Tick-induced allergies: mammalian meat allergy, tick anaphylaxis and their significance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Serious tick-induced allergies comprise mammalian meat allergy following tick bites and tick anaphylaxis. Mammalian meat allergy is an emergent allergy, increasingly prevalent in tick-endemic areas of Australia and the United States, occurring worldwide where ticks are endemic. Sensitisation to galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) has been shown to be the mechanism of allergic reaction in mammalian meat allergy following tick bite. Whilst other carbohydrate allergens have been identified, this allergen is unique amongst carbohydrate food allergens in provoking anaphylaxis. Treatment of mammalian meat anaphylaxis involves avoidance of mammalian meat and mammalian derived products in those who also react to gelatine and mammalian milks. Before initiating treatment with certain therapeutic agents (e.g., cetuximab, gelatine-containing substances), a careful assessment of the risk of anaphylaxis, including serological analysis for α-Gal specific-IgE, should be undertaken in any individual who works, lives, volunteers or recreates in a tick endemic area. Prevention of tick bites may ameliorate mammalian meat allergy. Tick anaphylaxis is rare in countries other than Australia. Tick anaphylaxis is secondarily preventable by prevention and appropriate management of tick bites. Analysis of tick removal techniques in tick anaphylaxis sufferers offers insights into primary prevention of both tick and mammalian meat anaphylaxis. Recognition of the association between mammalian meat allergy and tick bites has established a novel cause and effect relationship between an environmental exposure and subsequent development of a food allergy, directing us towards examining environmental exposures as provoking factors pivotal to the development of other food allergies and refocusing our attention upon causation of allergy in general. PMID:25653915

  12. Buckwheat allergy: a potential problem in 21st century Britain.

    PubMed

    Sammut, David; Dennison, Patrick; Venter, Carina; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J

    2011-01-01

    Buckwheat is commonly consumed in many parts of the world and has recently become more available in the UK. Buckwheat allergy is well recognised in parts of mainland Europe and Asia, typically associated with consumption of specific regional foods. No adult cases of buckwheat allergy in the UK have been reported in the literature. The authors present two cases of buckwheat allergy that presented to our UK allergy service recently. A 57-year-old man presented with anaphylaxis after eating home-baked bread prepared using buckwheat flour bought in France. In the second case, a 63-year-old lady presented with bronchospasm and urticaria after consuming health-food muesli. Sensitisation was confirmed in both cases by positive skin prick testing and specific IgE to buckwheat. Given the growing popularity of foods that may contain buckwheat, including ethnic and health-food ranges, buckwheat allergy is likely to become increasingly common in the UK. PMID:22674117

  13. Buckwheat allergy: a potential problem in 21st century Britain

    PubMed Central

    Sammut, David; Dennison, Patrick; Venter, Carina; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J

    2011-01-01

    Buckwheat is commonly consumed in many parts of the world and has recently become more available in the UK. Buckwheat allergy is well recognised in parts of mainland Europe and Asia, typically associated with consumption of specific regional foods. No adult cases of buckwheat allergy in the UK have been reported in the literature. The authors present two cases of buckwheat allergy that presented to our UK allergy service recently. A 57-year-old man presented with anaphylaxis after eating home-baked bread prepared using buckwheat flour bought in France. In the second case, a 63-year-old lady presented with bronchospasm and urticaria after consuming health-food muesli. Sensitisation was confirmed in both cases by positive skin prick testing and specific IgE to buckwheat. Given the growing popularity of foods that may contain buckwheat, including ethnic and health-food ranges, buckwheat allergy is likely to become increasingly common in the UK. PMID:22674117

  14. Easing Your Child's Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child's Allergies For starters, pay attention to pollen levels, FDA advises To use the sharing features ... be caused by outdoor allergens such as plant pollens (seasonal allergies) or indoor allergens such as mold, ...

  15. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158635.html Managing Allergies, Asthma 101 Doctor offers advice to students who will ... 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Teens with allergies or asthma who are heading for college later this year ...

  16. Vaccines for allergy

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-01-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  17. Vaccines for allergy.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf

    2012-06-01

    Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141

  18. Managing Your Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... your lawn. If you mow, wear a mask. Tree Pollen Trees produce pollen earliest, as soon as January in ... distributed miles away. Fewer than 100 kinds of trees cause allergies. The most common tree allergy is ...

  19. Allergies and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... vasoactive or neuroactive amino acids such as tyramine , dopamine, phenylethylamine or monosodium glutamate that can trigger a ... Headache Fact Sheets Tags: allergy , allergy and headache , dopamine , headache , migraine , sinus headache , tyramine More Posts ← Tension- ...

  20. Managing Allergies, Asthma 101

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Public Relations Committee. "In addition to moving to ... in the journal Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology . The first step, he said, is to meet ...