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Sample records for igf-i microsatellite polymorphisms

  1. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  2. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; North, Kari E.; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among 984 premenopausal African American and Caucasian women. In both races, IGFBP-3 rs2854746 (Ala32Gly) was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-3 (CC versus GG mean difference among Caucasians = 631 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 398, 864; African Americans = 897 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 656, 1138), and IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the rs2854746 GG genotype had lower mean IGFBP-3 levels than referent diplotypes with the CG genotype, while IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the CC genotype had higher mean IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-3 rs2854744 (−202 A/C) was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2854746 in Caucasians only, but was associated with plasma IGFBP-3 in both races. Eight additional IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with 5% or greater differences in mean IGFBP-3 levels, with generally consistent associations between races. Twelve IGF-I SNPs were associated with 10% or greater differences in mean IGF-I levels, but associations were generally discordant between races. Diplotype associations with plasma IGF-I did not parallel IGF-I SNP associations. Our study supports that common IGFBP-3 SNPs, especially rs2854746, influence plasma IGFBP-3 levels among African Americans and Caucasians, but provides less evidence that IGF-I SNPs affect plasma IGF-I levels. PMID:19240240

  3. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  4. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chanjuan; Ma, Rongnuan; Yue, Xiangpeng; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2010-04-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 Are Associated with Prostate Cancer in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qi; Cao, Qiang; Qin, Chao; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Pu; Cai, Hongzhou; Meng, Xiaoxin; Ju, Xiaobing; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Yin, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family that play important roles in carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that the functional polymorphisms in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 may be associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Chinese population. This hospital-based case-control study included 664 PCa patients and 702 cancer-free controls. Nine SNPs in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were genotyped using the TaqMan assay. The genetic associations between the pathogenesis and progression of PCa were assessed by logistic regression. We found that the genotype and allele frequency distribution of rs6218, rs35767 and rs5742612 were significantly different when comparing PCa cases to controls (P  = 0.005, 0.005 and 0.020, respectively). In the combined analysis, individuals with 2–6 risk alleles had an elevated risk of PCa compared to those with 0–1 risk alleles. We also found that the association between the combined risk alleles and the risk of PCa appeared stronger in the following subgroups: individuals older than 71 years of age (OR  = 1.41, 95%CI  = 1.05–1.91, P  = 0.020), nonsmokers (OR  = 1.68, 95%CI  = 1.21–2.32, P  = 0.002), nondrinkers (OR  = 1.32, 95%CI  = 1.02–1.61, P  = 0.002), and those with a negative family history of PCa (OR  = 1.28, 95%CI  = 1.02–1.71, P  = 0.022). Our results indicate that the three SNPs (rs6218, rs35767 and rs5742612) and the joint genotypes with 2–6 risk alleles, may contribute to the susceptibility to PCa, but not the progression, in the Chinese population. PMID:24586243

  6. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail. PMID:8728984

  7. Polymorphic microsatellites and Wilson disease (WD)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E. A.; White, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Prestridge, L.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; Scheinberg, I. H.; George-Hyslop, P. St; Giagheddu, M.; Kim, J.-W.; Seo, J. K.; Lo, W. H.-y.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A.; Limborska, S. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.; Bowcock, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, has been previously mapped to chromosome 13q. Highly informative PCR-based polymorphic microsatellites closely linked to the WD locus (WND) at 13q14.3, as well as sequence-tagged sites for closely linked loci, are described. Two polymorphic microsatellite markers at D13S118 and D13S119 lie within 3 cM of WND. Two others (D13S227 and D13S228) were derived from a yeast artificial chromosome containing D13S31. These were placed on a genetic linkage map of chromosome 13 and were typed in 74 multiplex WD families from a variety of geographic origins (166 affected members). Multipoint analysis provides very high odds that the location of WND is between D13S31/D13S227/D13S228 and D13S59. Previous odds with RFLP-based markers were only 7:1 more likely than any other location. Current odds are 5,000:1. Preclinical testing of three cases of WD by using the highly informative polymorphic microsatellite markers is described. The markers described here ensure that 95% of predictive tests using DNA from both parents and from at least one affected sib will have an accuracy >99%. PMID:8213814

  8. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) gene polymorphism with the susceptibility to development of prostate cancer and influence on serum levels of IGF-I, and IGFBP-3.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-06-01

    The bioavailability of IGF-I is controlled by the binding protein, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In addition, IGFBP-3 is a strong anti-proliferative protein that provokes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer. We conducted this study to investigate the association between IGFBP-3 gene polymorphism and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). DNA isolation was performed in peripheral blood samples obtained from all participants. Required areas were amplified with polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RLFP) technique by using proper primers belonging to this gene area. We also measured serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. The IGFBP-3 -202 A/C polymorphism genotype frequencies showed a significant difference between PCa patients and controls (χ(2)=6.27, df=2.0, P=0.026), as well as between BPH patients and controls (χ(2)=11.57, df=4.0, P=0.014). The AA genotype frequency was significantly decreased in PCa and BPH patients compared to control group and the risk of PCa and BPH occurrence of this genotype was decreased accordingly (PCa; OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.17-0.44, P=0.0001; BPH: OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.29-0.77, P=0.001). Age-adjusted mean serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were highest in the individuals with the AA genotype and diminished significantly in a stepwise manner in the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the C allele (4577 ng/ml, 3929 ng/ml and 3349 ng/ml, respectively). Patients with PCa and BPH had lower serum IGF-1 (P=0.001, and P=0.01, respectively) and IGFBP-3 levels (P=0.001, and P=0.01, respectively) compared with controls. The AA genotype at IGFBP-3 gene polymorphism is associated with reduced risks of PCa and BPH. Both IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations, are associated with modified risks of PCa and BPH. PMID:21536469

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    PubMed

    Johny, S; Chakraborty, S; Gadagkar, R; Nagaraju, J

    2009-07-01

    We report here development and characterization of 48 novel microsatellite markers for Ropalidia marginata, a tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp from peninsular India. Thirty-two microsatellites showed polymorphism in a wild population of R. marginata (N = 38) collected from Bangalore, India. These markers will facilitate answering some interesting questions in ecology and evolutionary biology of this wasp, such as population structure, serial polygyny, intra-colony genetic relatedness and the pattern of queen succession. PMID:21564866

  10. Genomic and genotyping characterization of haplotype-based polymorphic microsatellites in Prunus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of microsatellites in genetic studies remains impeded largely due to the unknown status of their primer reliability, chromosomal location, and allele polymorphism. Discovery and characterization of microsatellite polymorphisms in a taxon will disclose the unknowns and gain new ...

  11. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse. PMID:20443773

  12. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. PMID:21564641

  13. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers from Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Liu, Yiman; Ding, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae), a perennial aquatic plant widespread in Eastern Asia. The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats method. These markers revealed two to 14 alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.071 to 0.690 and from 0.174 to 0.812, respectively. These markers will be useful for studying of gene flow and evaluating the genetic diversity of the Zizania latifolia population. PMID:21564779

  14. Humanin: Functional Interfaces with IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Kim, S-J; Cohen, P; Yen, K

    2016-08-01

    Humanin is the first newly discovered peptide encoded in the mitochondrial genome in over three decades. It is the first member of a novel class of mitochondrial derived peptides. This small, 24 amino acid peptide was initially discovered to have neuroprotective effects and subsequent experiments have shown that it is beneficial in a diverse number of disease models including stroke, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over a decade ago, our lab found that humanin bound IGFBP-3 and more recent studies have found it to decrease circulating IGF-I levels. In turn, IGF-I also seems to regulate humanin levels and in this review, we cover the known interaction between humanin and IGF-I. Although the exact mechanism for how humanin and IGF-I regulate each other still needs to be elucidated, it is clear that humanin is a new player in IGF-I signaling. PMID:27082450

  15. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Linum usitatissimum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Long, Songhua; He, Dongfeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Yufu; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xinbo

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-five microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in Linum usitatissimum using enriched genomic libraries. These loci were screened in eight cultivars from different countries and regions and were found to be polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to six, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.125 to 0.375 (mean 0.013) and from 0.233 to 0.842 (mean 0.601), respectively. These polymorphic new microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in breeding in L. usitatissimum. PMID:19882206

  16. Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Kolomyjec, Stephen H; Grant, Tom R; Blair, David

    2008-09-01

    We identified and optimized 10 microsatellite loci for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae), and screened 21 individuals from the southern tablelands area of New South Wales, Australia. Each polymorphic locus possessed between two and 12 alleles with observed heterozygosities between 0.118 and 0.950. The intent of this effort was to provide informative loci for studies on the population genetics of this species. PMID:21585993

  17. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from Coilia ectenes.

    PubMed

    Rong, X J; Xu, Y J; Wang, Q Y; Liao, M J; Liu, X Z; Pan, C Y; Zhang, Z; Wang, Y G

    2013-01-01

    Coilia ectenes (Jordan and Seale 1905) is an important anadromous species that is an important resource at risk of extinction because of over-fishing, pollution, and coastal construction. To evaluate the genetic diversity of C. ectenes for use in breeding programs, elite microsatellite-enriched libraries were constructed and novel microsatellite markers were developed, and applied to genetically detect wild populations. Out of 92 randomly selected and sequenced clones, 89 contained a CA or GA repeat motif. Twenty-two pairs of primers were designed to investigate the polymorphism and genetic structure of a wild population collected from the Yellow River estuary, China. It was found that 2 loci were monomorphic and 20 loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic loci ranged from 3 to 13, with an average of 7.9. The expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with an average of 0.68. The isolated polymorphic markers are expected to be of use in future genetic breeding programs for C. ectenes, and in the assessment of genetic variation within this species. PMID:24338395

  18. High polymorphism at microsatellite loci in the Chinese donkey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Xie, W M; Zhang, T; Lei, C Z

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds, 415 individuals representing ten breeds were investigated using ten microsatellite markers. The observed number of alleles, mean effective number of alleles (NE), mean expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) of each breed and polymorphic locus were analyzed. The results showed that seven (HTG7, HTG10, AHT4, HTG6, HMS6, HMS3, and HMS7) of ten microsatellite loci were polymorphic. The mean PIC, HE, and NE of seven polymorphic loci for the ten donkey breeds were 0.7679, 0.8072, and 6.0275, respectively. These results suggest that domestic Chinese donkey breeds possess higher levels of genetic diversity and heterozygosity than foreign donkeys. A neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's standard genetic distance showed that there was close genetic distance among Xinjiang, Qingyang, Xiji, and Guanzhong donkey breeds. In addition, Mongolia and Dezhou donkey breeds were placed in the same category. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the genetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds are consistent with their geographic distribution and breeding history. PMID:27420967

  19. Polymorphism, monomorphism, and sequences in conserved microsatellites in primate species.

    PubMed

    Blanquer-Maumont, A; Crouau-Roy, B

    1995-10-01

    Dimeric short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in the mammalian genome. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis, for the identification of individuals, and may be useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. In this paper, we analyze the variability and the sequences of a segment including three microsatellites, first described in man, in several species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and macaque) using the heterologous primers (man primers). This region is located on the human chromosome 6p, near the tumor necrosis factor genes, in the major histocompatibility complex. The fact that these primers work in all species studied indicates that they are conserved throughout the different lineages of the two superfamilies, the Hominoidea and the Cercopithecidea, represented by the macaques. However, the intervening sequence displays intraspecific and interspecific variability. The sites of base substitutions and the insertion/deletion events are not evenly distributed within this region. The data suggest that it is necessary to have a minimal number of repeats to increase the rate of mutation sufficiently to allow the development of polymorphism. In some species, the microsatellites present single base variations which reduce the number of contiguous repeats, thus apparently slowing the rate of additional slippage events. Species with such variations or a low number of repeats are monomorphic. These microsatellite sequences are informative in the comparison of closely related species and reflect the phylogeny of the Old World monkeys, apes, and man. PMID:7563137

  20. Polymorphic microsatellites for forensic identification of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna).

    PubMed

    Eurlings, Marcel C M; van Beek, Henry Heuveling; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    Tropical agarwood (Aquilaria) is in danger of extinction in the wild due to illegal logging. Its resin (Gaharu) is used for the production of highly valued incense throughout Asia. We have isolated and characterized microsatellite loci of Aquilaria crassna to detect the geographic origin of agarwood for forensic applications using a modified enrichment procedure based on the capture of repetitive sequences from restricted genomic DNA. We assessed the polymorphisms of five microsatellites amplified from fresh leaves of 22 trees from seven plantations in Vietnam and Thailand and dried leaves of a herbarium specimen of one wild tree. Cross specificity of these markers was confirmed on two related Aquilaria species occurring in China and Vietnam and one microsatellite locus was successfully amplified from wood and incense samples. Four of the loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15. The loci characterized here can provide a starting point for forensic identification of traded material and certification of sustainably produced agarwood. PMID:20056366

  1. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Mao, X Q; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S; Li, B B

    2016-01-01

    Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens, is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific regions and eastern Mediterranean. Its dwelling place includes reef flats, coral reef regions, and seagrass meadows in tropical area and reef areas or shallow waters in locations at high latitudes. In the present study, 10 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened from 30 wild S. fuscescens individuals, using a method of fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 3 to 5 with a mean of 4.3, while the value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.283 to 0.680. The values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range 0.3333-0.8462 and 0.3011-0.7424, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not observed in this study. These polymorphic loci are expected to be effective in evaluating the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow and in determining the paternity in S. fuscescens, as well as for conservation management. PMID:27525874

  2. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  3. Fragile X syndrome: diagnosis using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R I; Shen, Y; Holman, K; Kozman, H; Hyland, V J; Mulley, J C; Sutherland, G R

    1991-01-01

    We describe two highly polymorphic microsatellite AC repeat sequences, VK23AC and VK14AC, which are closely linked to the fragile X at Xq27.3. Both VK23AC (DXS297) and VK14AC (DXS292) are proximal to the fragile site. Two-point linkage analysis in 31 fragile X families gave (a) a recombination frequency of 1% (range 0.00%-4%) with a maximum lod score of 32.04 for DXS297 and (b) a recombination frequency of 7% (range of 3%-15%) with a maximum lod score of 12.87 for DXS292. Both of these polymorphisms are applicable to diagnosis by linkage in families with fragile X syndrome. A multipoint linkage map of genetic markers at Xq27.3 was constructed from genotyping these polymorphisms in the CEPH pedigrees. The DXS292 marker is in the DXS98-DXS297 interval and in 3 cM proximal to DXS297. Images Figure 2 PMID:2035525

  4. Genetic Variation Between Two Cucumber Genotypes Inferred from Genome-wide Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability at microsatellite loci has been used widely to infer the extent of genetic diversity among related plant taxa. However, typically, only the most polymorphic loci in the genome were analyzed that may result in a biased, and generally overestimated picture of genome-wide microsatellite div...

  5. Characteristics of Eleven Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have isolated and characterized an additional 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta from a population within the United States. Primers were developed for the new microsatellite regions and their variability was tested on 96 worker ants collected from monogyne ...

  6. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  7. Testosterone and Estradiol Regulate Free IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and Dimeric IGF-I/IGFBP-1 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Frystyk, Jan; Iranmanesh, Ali; Ørskov, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The present study tests the clinical postulate that elevated testosterone (Te) and estradiol (E2) concentrations modulate the effects of constant iv infusion of saline vs recombinant human IGF-I on free IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and dimeric IGF-I/IGFBP-1 concentrations in healthy aging adults. To this end, comparisons were made following administration of placebo (Pl) vs Te in 8 older men (age 61 ± 4 y) and after Pl vs E2 in 8 postmenopausal women (62 ± 3 y). In the saline session: (i) E2 lowered and Te increased total IGF-I; (ii) E2 specifically elevated IGFBP-1 by 1.5-fold and suppressed free IGF-I by 34%; and (iii) E2 increased binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1 by 5-fold more than Te. During IGF-I infusion: (i) total and free IGF-I rose 1.4–2.0 fold [Pl] and 2.1–2.5 fold [Te] more rapidly in men than women; (ii) binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1 increased 3.4-fold more rapidly in men [Te] than women [E2]; and (iii) end-infusion free IGF-I was 1.6-fold higher in men than women. In summary, E2 compared with Te supplementation lowers concentrations of total and ultrafiltratably free IGF-I and elevates those of IGFBP-1 and binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1, thus putatively limiting IGF-I bioavailability. If free IGF-I mediates certain biological actions, then exogenous Te and E2 may modulate the tissue effects of total IGF-I concentrations unequally. PMID:15713723

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND MAPPING OF NINETEEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for QTL mapping and population genetics studies in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The amount of polymorphism, percent heterozygosity, ability of each marker to amplify genomic DNA from other salmonids and two point linkage data wer...

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from the Squalidus argentatus using PCR-Based Isolation of Microsatellite Arrays (PIMA).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lin, Hung-Du; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Ju, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhi-Zhi; Liu, Dong; Yang, Jin-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the cyprinid fish S. argentatus. These new markers were tested on 43 individuals collected from Yangtze River and Qiantang River. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus, in two populations ranged from 3 to 14, from 0.333 to 0.954 and from 0.480 to 0.928, respectively. Only two loci are significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the pairwise comparisons of these loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will enable us to study the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species in the future. PMID:22016617

  10. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Bahram, S; Kulski, J K; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2001-05-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region spanning approximately 760 kb is characterized by a remarkably high gene density with 59 expressed genes (one gene every 12.9 kb). Recently, susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, such as Graves disease, Crohn disease, and SLE have been suggested to be localized to this region, as assessed by associations mainly with genetic polymorphisms of TNF and TNF-linked microsatellite loci. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene due to a paucity to date of polymorphic markers in the HLA class III region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this region. A total of 297 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence, consisting of 69 di-, 62 tri-, 107 tetra-, and 59 penta-nucleotide repeats. It was noted that among them as many as 17 microsatellites were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (NOTCH4, PBX2, RAGE, G16, LPAAT, PPT2, TNXB, P450-CYP21B, G9a, HSP70-2, HSP70-1, HSP-hom, MuTSH5 and BAT2). Eight microsatellite repeats were collected as polymorphic markers due to their high number of alleles (11.9 on average) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.63). By combining the 38 and the 22 polymorphic microsatellites we have previously collected in the HLA class I and class II regions, respectively, we have now established a total of 68 novel genetic markers which are uniformly interspersed with a high density of one every 63.3 kb throughout the HLA region. This collection of polymorphic microsatellites will enable us to search for the location of any disease susceptible loci within the HLA region by association analysis. PMID:11556964

  11. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Haumania danckelmaniana and transferability to H. liebrechtsiana (Marantaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Alexandra C.; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the species Haumania danckelmaniana (Marantaceae) from central tropical Africa. Methods and Results: Microsatellite isolation was performed simultaneously on three different species of Marantaceae through a procedure that combines multiplex microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing. From 80 primers selected for initial screening, 20 markers positively amplified in H. danckelmaniana, of which 10 presented unambiguous amplification products within the expected size range and eight were polymorphic with four to nine alleles per locus. Positive transferability with the related species H. liebrechtsiana was observed for the same 10 markers. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers are suitable for studies in genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in H. danckelmaniana and the closely related species H. liebrechtsiana. PMID:27011899

  12. Development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sina; Wöhrmann, Tina; Huettel, Bruno; Weising, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) to evaluate the level of clonality, population structure, and genetic diversity of the species within its native and introduced range. Methods and Results: A total of 1371 microsatellites were found in 43,565 reads from 454 pyrosequencing of genomic V. minor DNA. Additional microsatellite loci were mined from publicly available cDNA sequences. After several rounds of screening, 18 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in two native Italian populations, with two to 11 alleles per locus. Clonal growth predominated in two populations from the introduced range in Germany. Five loci successfully cross-amplified in three additional Vinca species. Conclusions: The novel polymorphic microsatellite markers are promising tools for studying clonality and population genetics of V. minor and for assessing the historical origin of Central European populations. PMID:25995978

  13. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) using a 454 sequencing approach1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Han; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers from Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) were developed for testing deep lineage divergence and speciation events. Methods and Results: A total of 3112 microsatellites were identified from 61,755 unique reads though 454 pyrosequencing technology. Twenty-nine microsatellite loci were selected for PCR amplification and polymorphic analyses. Among the 29 tested markers, 17 microsatellite loci were further used for genotyping in three wild P. sikkimensis populations. The number of alleles varied from one to eight, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.111 to 1.000. Ten simple sequence repeat loci could be successfully cross-amplified in two Primula species. The transferability values were 76.5% in P. florindae and 58.8% in P. alpicola, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable for testing the hypothesis of lineage divergence, genetic introgression, and cryptic speciation events between P. sikkimensis and its closely related taxa. PMID:27437171

  14. Development of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Ficus tikoua (Moraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Tan, Lu; Hu, Dai-Mei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to facilitate studies on the fine-scale population genetic structure of Ficus tikoua (Moraceae), a prostrate shrub known to have highly restricted gene flow. Methods and Results: Microsatellite primers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method and scanned for polymorphism within 76 individuals sampled from three natural F. tikoua populations. Fourteen loci were shown to be polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosity in the three populations ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.87, respectively. Substantial divergence was found among the populations at some loci. All loci can be successfully amplified in at least eight other Ficus species, indicating good transferability within the genus. Conclusions: The 14 microsatellite loci will be a helpful tool for assessing the fine-scale genetic structure of F. tikoua. PMID:27011895

  15. Evidence for synergistic action of transthyretin and IGF-I over the IGF-I receptor.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marta; Leal, Sónia S; Gomes, Cláudio M; Saraiva, Maria João

    2016-04-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) has a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system (CNS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia. Increased levels of TTR and activated insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) are associated with reduced neurodegeneration in an AD mouse model. In the present study, we found that TTR and IGF-I have a synergistic effect on activation of one of the IGF-IR signaling pathways. Hippocampus of TTR null mice present decreased levels of phosphorylated IGF-IR and Akt when compared with TTR wild type littermate animals. Cell studies reveal the synergistic effect of TTR and IGF-I in promoting IGF-IR signaling even under glutamate induced toxicity. TTR:IGF-IR complexes are identified and a bio-layer interferometry assay demonstrated an interaction between TTR and IGF-IR with a KD ranging from 99 to 744nM. In summary, our results point to a new TTR role through the IGF-I axis, mediated through TTR-IGF-IR interactions. PMID:26804653

  16. Role of IGF-I signaling in muscle bone interactions.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Tahimic, Candice; Chang, Wenhan; Wang, Yongmei; Philippou, Anastassios; Barton, Elisabeth R

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle and bone rely on a number of growth factors to undergo development, modulate growth, and maintain physiological strength. A major player in these actions is insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, because this growth factor can directly enhance muscle mass and bone density, it alters the state of the musculoskeletal system indirectly through mechanical crosstalk between these two organ systems. Thus, there are clearly synergistic actions of IGF-I that extend beyond the direct activity through its receptor. This review will cover the production and signaling of IGF-I as it pertains to muscle and bone, the chemical and mechanical influences that arise from IGF-I activity, and the potential for therapeutic strategies based on IGF-I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:26453498

  17. Recombinant IGF-I: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bright, George M

    2016-06-01

    Normal linear growth in humans requires GH and IGF-I. Diminished GH action resulting in reduced availability of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins is the hallmarks of GH Insensitivity Syndromes (GHIS). The deficiencies are the perceived mechanisms for the growth failure of affected patients and the therapeutic targets for the restoration of normal growth. Early treatment attempts with pituitary-derived GH had limited effects in GHIS patients. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) treatment initially provides accelerated growth to GHIS children and provides substantial benefit. But, in general, catch up growth is less substantial with rhIGF-I treatment of GHIS than with rhGH treatment of GH Deficiency. Few classic GHIS patients have reached heights in the normal range (height SD score between -2.0 SD and +2.0 SD) with rhIGF-I monotherapy. A potential explanation is that while rhIGF-I treatment increases circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, such treatment reduces endogenous GH levels by negative feedback inhibition of pituitary GH release. In as much as both GH and IGF-I are required for good catch up growth, the loss of any residual GH signaling during IGF-I monotherapy in GHIS patients may attenuate possible catch up growth. Consistent with this explanation is the finding that, as predicted by the preclinical studies by Ross Clark, combination of rhGH & rhIGF-1 provides better growth responses than rhIGF-1 monotherapy in prepubertal children with short stature and low IGF-I levels despite normal stimulated GH responses. In the future, rhGH and rhIGF-I combination therapy can potentially improve growth outcomes over that seen with rhIGF-I monotherapy in all GHIS patients except in those with a total lack of functional GH signaling. Future alternative treatments for GHIS subjects may also include the use of post-growth hormone receptor signaling agonists which restore both GH signaling and IGF-I exposures or the addition of long-acting rh

  18. Reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism reveals enhanced polymorphisms in the 3' end of simple sequence repeats in the pepper genome.

    PubMed

    Min, Woong-Ki; Han, Jung-Heon; Kang, Won-Hee; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-09-30

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes and are informative genetic markers. Despite many advantages of SSR markers such as a high degree of allelic polymorphisms, co-dominant inheritance, multi-allelism, and genome-wide coverage in various plant species, they also have shortcomings such as low polymorphic rates between genetically close lines, especially in Capsicum annuum. We developed an alternative technique to SSR by normalizing and alternating anchored primers in random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). This technique, designated reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (rRAMP), allows the detection of nucleotide variation in the 3' region flanking an SSR using normalized anchored and random primer combinations. The reproducibility and frequency of polymorphic loci in rRAMP was vigorously enhanced by translocation of the 5' anchor of repeat sequences to the 3' end position and selective use of moderate arbitrary primers. In our study, the PCR banding pattern of rRAMP was highly dependent on the frequency of repeat motifs and primer combinations with random primers. Linkage analysis showed that rRAMP markers were well scattered on an intra-specific pepper map. Based on these results, we suggest that this technique is useful for studying genetic diversity, molecular fingerprinting, and rapidly constructing molecular maps for diverse plant species. PMID:18483466

  19. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mojave desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, B E; Peacock, M M; Kirchoff, V S; Tracy, C R

    2008-09-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions to amplify 14 tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Across three populations (87 individuals) located in the Mojave Desert, USA, the markers yielded a range of four to 33 alleles and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.733 (range 0.433 to 0.933). We neither detected linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci nor did we find a consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellites are designed for PCR multiplexing, and provide higher throughput capacity to aid in conservation genetics studies for this threatened species. PMID:21585998

  20. Development and characterization of polymorphic microRNA-based microsatellite markers in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Gui, Songtao; Pan, Lei; Hu, Jihong; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microRNA (miRNA)–based microsatellite markers were developed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae). Methods and Results: A total of 485 miRNA-based microsatellites were found from the genomic DNA sequences of N. nucifera. After several rounds of screening, 21 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or pentanucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in four populations with two to five alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.803, respectively. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful for studying the genetic diversity and population structure of N. nucifera. PMID:26819861

  1. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Truelove, Nathan; Behringer, Donald C; Butler Iv, Mark J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%). These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus. PMID:26855853

  2. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Donald C.; Butler IV, Mark J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%). These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus. PMID:26855853

  3. Identification of common, unique and polymorphic microsatellites among 73 cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Ritika; Kapil, Aditi; Attarwala, Kherunnisa; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellites also known as Simple Sequence Repeats are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are found in coding as well as non-coding regions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and play a significant role in the study of gene regulation, genetic mapping, DNA fingerprinting and evolutionary studies. The availability of 73 complete genome sequences of cyanobacteria enabled us to mine and statistically analyze microsatellites in these genomes. The cyanobacterial microsatellites identified through bioinformatics analysis were stored in a user-friendly database named CyanoSat, which is an efficient data representation and query system designed using ASP.net. The information in CyanoSat comprises of perfect, imperfect and compound microsatellites found in coding, non-coding and coding-non-coding regions. Moreover, it contains PCR primers with 200 nucleotides long flanking region. The mined cyanobacterial microsatellites can be freely accessed at www.compubio.in/CyanoSat/home.aspx. In addition to this 82 polymorphic, 13,866 unique and 2390 common microsatellites were also detected. These microsatellites will be useful in strain identification and genetic diversity studies of cyanobacteria. PMID:27030027

  4. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers from the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ong, C C; Teh, C H; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K; Yap, C K

    2008-04-01

    We report on the characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in P. viridis, the first set of such markers developed and characterized for this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0447 to 0.4837. These markers should prove useful as powerful genetic markers for this species. PMID:18666563

  5. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci identified from a small insert genomic library for Peronospora tabacina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci for the oomycete obligate biotrophic pathogen Peronospora tabacina of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were developed. Loci were characterized using 44 isolates of P. tabacina collected from tobacco plants growing in Europe, Near East, and North and South America. ...

  6. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  7. Characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite markers in Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an important predator of arthropod pests in vegetable crops. A partial genomic library enriched for microsatellite sequences was screened to identify marker loci and for the design of primers. Nine polymorphic loci were identified in 96 adults ...

  8. Development and Characterization of Novel, Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Oat Crown Rust, Puccinia coronata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of 37 novel and polymorphic microsatellite markers for oat crown rust, Puccinia coronata. The allelic diversity ranged from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.971, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.057 to 0.848. Twenty-two of t...

  9. Transcriptional regulation of IGF-I expression in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Allen, D. L.; Haddad, F.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of transcription in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I expression in skeletal muscle. RT-PCR was used to determine endogenous expression of IGF-I pre-mRNA and mRNA in control (Con) and functionally overloaded (FO) rat plantaris. The transcriptional activities of five different-length IGF-I promoter fragments controlling transcription of a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene were tested in vitro by transfection of myoblasts or in vivo during FO by direct gene transfer into the plantaris. Increased endogenous IGF-I gene transcription during 7 days of plantaris FO was evidenced by an approximately 140-160% increase (P < 0.0001) in IGF-I pre-mRNA (a transcriptional marker). IGF-I mRNA expression also increased by approximately 90% (P < 0.0001), and it was correlated (R = 0.93; P < 0.0001) with the pre-mRNA increases. The three longest IGF-I exon 1 promoters induced reporter gene expression in proliferating C2C12 and L6E9 myoblasts. In differentiated L6E9 myotubes, promoter activity increased approximately two- to threefold over myoblasts. Overexpression of calcineurin and MyoD increased the activity of the -852/+192 promoter in C2C12 myotubes by approximately 5- and approximately 18-fold, respectively. However, FO did not induce these exogenous promoter fragments. Nevertheless, the present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the IGF-I gene is transcriptionally regulated during muscle hypertrophy in vivo as evidenced by the induction of the endogenous IGF-I pre-mRNA during plantaris FO. The exon 1 promoter region of the IGF-I gene is sufficient to direct inducible expression in vitro; however, an in vivo response to FO may require elements outside the -852/+346 region of the exon 1 IGF-I promoter or features inherent to the endogenous IGF-I gene.

  10. Pituitary and hypothalamic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor expression in food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Olchovsky, D; Song, J; Gelato, M C; Sherwood, J; Spatola, E; Bruno, J F; Berelowitz, M

    1993-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate a possible role for the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system in mediating the suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion observed in food-deprived rats by measuring IGF-I mRNA, receptor concentration and receptor mRNA in neuroendocrine tissues (hypothalamus and pituitary). Rats were deprived of food (food-deprived) for 72 h or had free access to food (fed). Tissues were processed for measurement of steady-state levels of: (a) IGF-I and IGF-I receptor mRNA (by solution hybridization/RNase protection assay); (b) IGF-I in serum and tissue extracts (by RIA) and (c) IGF-I displaceable [125I]IGF-I binding to plasma membrane preparations. Food deprivation resulted in decreased serum and liver levels of IGF-I. Kidney IGF-I mRNA levels were reduced 80% in food-deprived rats with a concomitant increase in IGF-I receptor concentration and mRNA levels. Refeeding of food-deprived rats fully normalized these perturbations. Pituitary IGF-I content was reduced 50% in food-deprived rats while IGF-I mRNA levels were unaffected. A modest increase was seen in pituitary IGF-I receptor concentration; however, IGF-I receptor mRNA levels were not changed. Hypothalamic IGF-I mRNA content was reduced in 72 h food-deprived rats while IGF-I receptor binding capacity and mRNA were unaffected. In conclusion, IGF-I mRNA levels are decreased in liver, kidney and hypothalamus together with a reduction in plasma IGF-I in food-deprived rats but is unaffected in anterior pituitary. IGF-I receptor gene expression and binding capacity are coordinately regulated in kidney and hypothalamus, but not in the pituitary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349028

  11. Isolation and characterization of 48 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blood clam Scapharca broughtonii (Arcidae).

    PubMed

    Tian, J-T; Liu, Z-H; Zhou, L-Q; Wu, B; Liu, P; Yang, A-G

    2012-01-01

    Blood clams (Scapharca broughtonii) are widely cultivated and consumed in noutheast Asia. Forty-eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for this clam using magnetic-bead hybridization enrichment. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. Polymorphism of these loci was assessed in 30 individuals from a population collected from coastal areas of Qingdao, China. The values of observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus ranged from 0.1034 to 0.9655, from 0.1831 to 0.9208, and from 0.1638 to 0.8964, respectively. Forty-three of 48 loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci would be useful for molecular genetic breeding, population genetics, genome mapping, and other relevant research on S. broughtonii. PMID:23096914

  12. Isolation of 91 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western Mediterranean endemic Carex helodes (Cyperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Juan M.; Escudero, Marcial; Jordano, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Carex helodes (Cyperaceae), a western Mediterranean endemic that is locally distributed in southern Portugal and southwestern Spain and rare in northern Morocco. Methods and Results: One hundred nine nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using a shotgun pyrosequencing method, resulting in 91 polymorphic and 18 monomorphic loci when tested using 19 individuals sampled from five populations from Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. Loci averaged 3.23 alleles per locus (SD = 1.15). In a single population (Cortelha population, Portugal), the 34 most polymorphic loci showed a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.357 (SD = 0.292) and mean expected heterozygosity of 0.384 (SD = 0.255). Conclusions: Next-generation sequencing allowed us to develop a high number of genetic markers with levels of polymorphism adequate to study gene flow among populations. However, when genotyping the individuals within a population, we found low levels of variation. PMID:26819859

  13. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Faqi; Li, Yinhu; Gao, Qingbo; Lei, Shuyun; Khan, Gulzar; Yang, Huiling; Chen, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb that is endemic to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for S. egregia to investigate its population genetics. Methods and Results: Forty-eight pairs of microsatellite primers (including 36 monomorphic loci) were isolated and characterized by magnetic bead enrichment. Twelve of these markers showed polymorphism, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 14 across 50 individuals from three populations of S. egregia. No linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. Conclusions: These polymorphic markers are expected to be helpful in further studies on the systematics and phylogeography of S. egregia in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. PMID:26312195

  14. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Guo, P C; Lu, J Y; Bai, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yan, S Q

    2016-01-01

    The blue fox, belonging to the family Canidae, is a coat color variant of the native arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). To date, microsatellite loci in blue fox are typically amplified using canine simple sequence repeat primers. In the present study, we constructed an (AC)n enrichment library, and isolated and identified 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue fox. The number of alleles per locus is from two to seven based on 24 examined individuals. The expected and observed heterozygosities were in the range of 0.3112 to 0.8236 and 0.2917 to 0.8750, respectively. The polymorphic information content per locus ranged from 0.2583 to 0.8022. These polymorphic markers can be useful for future population genetic studies of both farmed blue foxes and wild arctic foxes. PMID:27323129

  15. EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways. PMID:22749036

  16. Isolation and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koizumi, Noriyuki; Quinn, Thomas W.; Park, Myeongsoo; Fike, Jennifer A.; Nishida, Kazuya; Takemura, Takeshi; Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Twenty one polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) were isolated and characterized. The number of observed alleles per locus in 32 individuals ranged from 3 to 30. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.125 to 0.969 and from 0.175 to 0.973, respectively. All loci conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, no linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci and no loci showed evidence of null alleles. These microsatellite loci will be useful for investigating the intraspecific genetic variation and population structure of this species.

  17. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

  18. Polymorphic microsatellites in the human bloodfluke, Schistosoma japonicum, identified using a genomic resource

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Re-emergence of schistosomiasis in regions of China where control programs have ceased requires development of molecular-genetic tools to track gene flow and assess genetic diversity of Schistosoma populations. We identified many microsatellite loci in the draft genome of Schistosoma japonicum using defined search criteria and selected a subset for further analysis. From an initial panel of 50 loci, 20 new microsatellites were selected for eventual optimization and application to a panel of worms from endemic areas. All but one of the selected microsatellites contain simple tri-nucleotide repeats. Moderate to high levels of polymorphism were detected. Numbers of alleles ranged from 6 to 14 and observed heterozygosity was always >0.6. The loci reported here will facilitate high resolution population-genetic studies on schistosomes in re-emergent foci. PMID:21299863

  19. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers based on expressed sequence tags in Populus cathayana (Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Tian, Z Z; Zhang, F Q; Cai, Z Y; Chen, S L

    2016-01-01

    Populus cathayana occupies a large area within the northern, central, and southwestern regions of China, and is considered to be an important reforestation species in western China. In order to investigate the population genetic structure of this species, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified based on expressed sequence tags from de novo sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. All microsatellite primers were tested on 48 P. cathayana individuals from four locations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 1.000, and the null-allele frequency ranged from 0.000 to 0.904. These microsatellite markers may be a useful tool in genetic studies on P. cathayana and closely related species. PMID:27525845

  20. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  1. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656

  2. Development of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci in invasive silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Broadhurst, Linda; Legoff, Isabelle; Henery, Martin; Blin, Aurélie; Ducatillion, Catherine; Ferrando, Nathalie; Malausa, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae), which is both an ornamental and an invasive weed species. It is native to southeastern Australia and invasive in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Methods and Results: The pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of A. dealbata produced 33,290 sequences and allowed the isolation of 201 loci with a minimum of seven repeats of microsatellite motifs. Amplification tests led to the setup of two multiplex PCR mixes allowing the amplification of 21 loci. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on a sample of 32 individuals collected in southeastern Australia. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between two and 11, and between 0.11 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The level of polymorphism of this set of 23 microsatellites is large enough to provide valuable information on the genetic structure and the invasion history of A. dealbata. PMID:25995979

  3. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Selliera radicans (Goodeniaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Kay M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for species in the genus Selliera (Goodeniaceae) for future investigations of population genetic structure and interspecific hybridization within the genus. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 15 new markers were developed from microsatellite loci isolated from S. radicans. Primers for the new markers amplify di- and trinucleotide repeat loci from the three Selliera species screened. Ten of the new markers are polymorphic in S. radicans and six of those 10 loci were found to be polymorphic within each congener. For the focal species, S. radicans, the average number of alleles per locus is 3.7 (SE = 0.60) and the average observed and expected heterozygosities are 0.23 (SE = 0.07) and 0.47 (SE = 0.08), respectively. Conclusions: The new markers provide an important resource for future investigations in the genus Selliera for both population genetics and research into hybridization between species.

  4. Development of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Seychelles palm Lodoicea maldivica (Arecaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emma J.; Määttänen, Kirsti; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Buser, Andres; Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke; Kettle, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The evolutionarily and ecologically distinct coco de mer palm Lodoicea maldivica (Arecaceae) is endemic to two islands in the Seychelles. Before colonization of the islands by man, the endangered palm formed large monodominant stands, but its natural range is now restricted to four main populations and several patches of isolated individuals. Microsatellite markers were designed to investigate the genetic structure of the remaining natural populations of L. maldivica. Methods and Results: We developed 12 polymorphic and three monomorphic microsatellite markers for this species, with a mean number of alleles per locus of 13.2 (range 5–21) and expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.31–0.91 for the polymorphic loci. Conclusions: These markers enable us to study the patterns of genetic diversity, contemporary seed dispersal, and the fine-scale spatial genetic structure of this important conservation flagship species. PMID:27144106

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Régis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa. PMID:22605986

  6. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) using next-generation sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Michelle F.; Graf, René; Holderegger, Rolf; Rico, Yessica; Wagner, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed novel microsatellite markers for the perennial plant Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) to investigate the effects of fragmentation on gene flow in this imperiled species. Methods and Results: We identified microsatellites and developed primers based on 454 shotgun sequences. We identified 14 markers that were polymorphic and produced clean bands. Of these, eight could be analyzed as diploids. Genotyping of 97 individuals across two populations revealed these markers to be highly polymorphic with seven to 17 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity from 0.41 to 0.83. Conclusions: The markers are highly informative and will be used to test if the reintroduction of shepherding in southern Germany improves genetic connectivity among fragmented populations of P. vulgaris. The combination of diploid and tetraploid markers presented here will be useful in resolving the polyploidization history of this and related species. PMID:26191465

  7. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Fang, L; Liu, J L; He, Z; Hu, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) is a common pupal parasitoid of many fly pests that is distributed worldwide. This organism can be used for biological control in orchards or livestock farms. Identifying polymorphic microsatellite loci would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure of the parasitoid. In the current study, based on a modified biotin-capture method, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the insect, 7 of which did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allelic number per locus varied from 3-7 (N = 30). The expected and observed heterozygosities of 10 loci ranged from 0.369-0.775 and from 0.300-0.867, respectively. PMID:25867324

  8. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  9. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  10. Genetic polymorphism of Hucul horse population based on 17 microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Fornal, Agnieszka; Radko, Anna; Piestrzyńska-Kajtoch, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) loci, i.e. microsatellites are a class of genetic markers commonly used for population studies and parentage control. This study determined the usefulness of microsatellite markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for identification and pedigree analysis in horses based on the example of Polish Hucul horse population (Equus caballus). The set of seventeen microsatellites loci was tested (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG10, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, VHL20, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3) for 216 individuals. All samples were genotyped and mean number of alleles per locus was estimated (7.00). Means of observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity were calculated 0.7288 and 0.7027, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was similar to the results of research on Hucul horse population in another area of Carpathians Mountains. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) for analyses of seventeen microsatellite markers indicates the usefulness of this set of markers for Hucul horse parentage testing. PMID:24432328

  11. Influence of Intron II microsatellite polymorphism in human toll-like receptor 2 gene in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Naveen Chandra; Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Jain, Suman; SivaSai, Krovvidi S R; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Jonnalagada, Subbanna; Anandaraj, M P J S

    2013-08-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. TLR2 plays a key role when activated by M. leprae lipoproteins initiating protective responses which induce bacterial killing and therefore control of disease spread. Microsatellite polymorphisms in intron2 of TLR2 gene have been reported to be associated with development of clinical features of several infectious diseases. The study aims to evaluate the influence of GT microsatellite on the expression of TLR2 which could make humans prone to M. leprae infections. A total of 279 individuals were enrolled in the study, 88 were leprosy patients, 95 were house hold contacts (HHC) and 96 were healthy controls (HC). Genotyping was done using PCR-Sequencing method. TLR2 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured using ELISA in MLSA stimulated cell culture supernatants. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square (χ(2)) test and t-tests. Allele/genotype of TLR2 microsatellite which includes longer GT repeats was associated with low TLR2 mRNA expression and high IL-10 production while that including shorter GT repeats was associated with high TLR2 mRNA expression and low IL-10 production. High IL10 producing allele of TLR2 microsatellite might predispose house hold contacts to leprosy. PMID:23619473

  12. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba is a pelagic crustacean, abundant in high-density swarms (10 000 – 30 000 ind/m2) with a circumpolar distribution and a key role in the food web of the Southern Ocean. Only three EST derived microsatellite markers have been used in previous genetic studies, hence we developed additional highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to allow robust studies of the genetic variability and population differentiation within this species. Findings The microsatellite markers described here were obtained through an enriched genomic library, followed by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 10 microsatellite markers were tested in 32 individuals from the Antarctic Peninsula. One of the tested loci was fixed for one allele while the other was variable. Of the remaining nine markers, seven showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean number of alleles was 14.9. Conclusions These markers open perspectives for population genetic studies of this species to unravel genetic structure, dispersal and population biology, vital information for future conservation. PMID:24490686

  13. Microsatellite polymorphism in the sexually transmitted human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis indicates a genetically diverse parasite.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Melissa; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dunn, Linda A; Upcroft, Jacqui; Sullivan, Steven A; Tachezy, Jan; Carlton, Jane M

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing appreciation of serious health sequelae from widespread Trichomonas vaginalis infection, new tools are needed to study the parasite's genetic diversity. To this end we have identified and characterized a panel of 21 microsatellites and six single-copy genes from the T. vaginalis genome, using seven laboratory strains of diverse origin. We have (1) adapted our microsatellite typing method to incorporate affordable fluorescent labeling, (2) determined that the microsatellite loci remain stable in parasites continuously cultured for up to 17 months, and (3) evaluated microsatellite marker coverage of the six chromosomes that comprise the T. vaginalis genome, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We have used the markers to show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite in a population of commonly used laboratory strains. In addition, we have used phylogenetic methods to infer evolutionary relationships from our markers in order to validate their utility in future population analyses. Our panel is the first series of robust polymorphic genetic markers for T. vaginalis that can be used to classify and monitor lab strains, as well as provide a means to measure the genetic diversity and population structure of extant and future T. vaginalis isolates. PMID:20813140

  14. Molecular characterization of twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the polyploid fruit tree species Syzygium samarangense (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Lai, J M; Tsai, C C; Yen, C R; Ko, Y Z; Chen, S R; Weng, I S; Lin, Y S; Chiang, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry (wax apple) is an important commercial fruit tree in Southeast Asia. Here, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and distinguish cultivars in this species. In total, 161 microsatellite loci with sufficient flanking sequences to design primer sets were isolated from wax apple using a magnetic bead-enrichment method. Fifty-eight primer sets were designed based on the flanking sequences of each single sequence repeat (SSR) locus and were tested using 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. Twenty SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and transferable across the 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. The number of alleles and effective number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4 to 12 and from 1.697 to 9.800, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.150 to 0.595 (mean = 0.414). Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.502 to 0.866 (mean = 0.763). These new microsatellite loci will be of value for characterization of genetic diversity in wax apples and for the identification of cultivars. PMID:26505454

  15. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  16. A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

    2007-02-28

    Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

  17. Isolation and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Developed for Orthops palus (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Atiama, M.; Delatte, H.; Deguine, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), or plant bugs, are one of the most diverse and species-rich families of insects. Most of them are phytophagous, but some are insect predators and used for biocontrol. Among this family, the mango bug, Orthops palus (Taylor 1947), is one of the most important pest of mango in Reunion Island. We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to study the population genetics of this pest species. The microsatellite markers were characterized by genotyping 78 field-collected insects sampled at different localities in Reunion Island. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 13 and heterozygosity levels ranged between 0.40 and 0.94. Several loci were not at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for the tested populations. These markers are the first to be developed for a species of the genus Orthops. PMID:26922804

  18. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Spondias radlkoferi (Anacardiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Barajas, Esther; Sork, Victoria L.; González-Zamora, Arturo; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Spondias radlkoferi to assess the impact of primate seed dispersal on the genetic diversity and structure of this important tree species of Anacardiaceae. • Methods and Results: Fourteen polymorphic loci were isolated from S. radlkoferi through 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of genomic DNA. The number of alleles ranged from three to 12. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.382 to 1.00 and from 0.353 to 0.733, respectively. The amplification was also successful in S. mombin and two genera of Anacardiaceae: Rhus aromatica and Toxicodendron radicans. • Conclusions: These microsatellite loci will be useful to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of S. radlkoferi and related species, and will allow us to investigate the effects of seed dispersal by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on the genetic structure and diversity of S. radlkoferi populations in a fragmented rainforest. PMID:25383270

  19. Isolation and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Developed for Orthops palus (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Atiama, M; Delatte, H; Deguine, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), or plant bugs, are one of the most diverse and species-rich families of insects. Most of them are phytophagous, but some are insect predators and used for biocontrol. Among this family, the mango bug, Orthops palus (Taylor 1947), is one of the most important pest of mango in Reunion Island. We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to study the population genetics of this pest species. The microsatellite markers were characterized by genotyping 78 field-collected insects sampled at different localities in Reunion Island. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 13 and heterozygosity levels ranged between 0.40 and 0.94. Several loci were not at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the tested populations. These markers are the first to be developed for a species of the genus Orthops. PMID:26922804

  20. Newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers for frogs of the genus Ascaphus.

    PubMed

    Spear, Stephen F; Baumsteiger, Jason; Storfer, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and developed for the coastal tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, from sites within the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, USA. These tetranucleotide repeat loci were highly variable, averaging 19 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity of 0.91. In addition, these loci cross-amplify in the sister species, Ascaphus montanus. These markers will prove useful in identifying fine-scale genetic structure, as well as provide insight into the evolution and conservation of this group across fragmented landscapes. PMID:21585935

  1. Isolation and multiplex genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in the snakehead murrel, Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Min-Pau, Tan; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-04-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (Channidae), a valuable tropical freshwater fish species. Among 25 specimens collected from Kedah state in Malaysia, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.120 to 0.880 and 0.117 to 0.698, respectively. A single locus (CS1-C07) was significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. These novel markers would be useful for population genetic studies of the C. striata. PMID:21734840

  2. Isolation and multiplex genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in the snakehead murrel, Channa striata

    PubMed Central

    Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Min-Pau, Tan; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (Channidae), a valuable tropical freshwater fish species. Among 25 specimens collected from Kedah state in Malaysia, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.120 to 0.880 and 0.117 to 0.698, respectively. A single locus (CS1-C07) was significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. These novel markers would be useful for population genetic studies of the C. striata. PMID:21734840

  3. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pause, K.C.; Nourisson, C.; Clark, A.; Kellogg, M.E.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Demographic estimates from Y chromosome microsatellite polymorphisms: Analysis of a worldwide sample

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms in microsatellites on the human Y chromosome have been used to estimate important demographic parameters of human history. We compare two coalescent-based statistical methods that give estimates for a number of demographic parameters using the seven Y chromosome polymorphisms in the HGDP-CEPH Cell Line Panel, a collection of samples from 52 worldwide populations. The estimates for the time to the most recent common ancestor vary according to the method used and the assumptions about the prior distributions of model parameters, but are generally consistent with other global Y chromosome studies. We explore the sensitivity of these results to assumptions about the prior distributions and the evolutionary models themselves. PMID:15588495

  5. Identification and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, Z H; Shen, F J; Hou, R; Zhang, W P; Liu, Y L; Tu, K Y; Yang, A L

    2015-01-01

    We isolated and characterized microsatellite loci for the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from a microsatellite-enriched database, which was obtained using high-throughput sequencing technology. We designed primer sets for 445 microsatellite loci and after initial screening, 34 loci were genotyped in 31 red-crowned cranes. The number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 10. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.197 to 0.935 and 0.453 to 0.887, respectively; the mean polymorphic information content was 0.663. Loci Lia10943, Lia60455, Lia48514, Lia62171, Lia1059, and Lia5286 deviated from expectation of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; however, significant linkage disequilibrium was not observed among the 34 loci. Using these 34 markers, we successfully completed parental identification for 19 cranes. The probability of exclusion for 7 selected loci (Lia271333, Lia3745, Lia11091, Lia45761, Lia16468, Lia21909, and Lia22355) was >0.9977 and analyses with more loci increased the combination efficiency. These 34 markers were also proven to be efficient for individual identification. We recommend that this marker system be used in the systematic control of pedigree management and future genetic variation studies of red-crowned cranes. PMID:26634480

  6. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Potato Wart from Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Claude; van der Lee, Theo A J; Bonants, Peter J M; Smith, Donna S; Li, Xiang; Lévesque, C André; Bilodeau, Guillaume J

    2016-06-01

    Synchytrium endobioticum is the fungal agent causing potato wart disease. Because of its severity and persistence, quarantine measures are enforced worldwide to avoid the spread of this disease. Molecular markers exist for species-specific detection of this pathogen, yet markers to study the intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum were not available. Whole-genome sequence data from Dutch pathotype 1 isolate MB42 of S. endobioticum were mined for perfect microsatellite motifs. Of the 62 selected microsatellites, 21 could be amplified successfully and displayed moderate levels of polymorphism in 22 S. endobioticum isolates from different countries. Nineteen multilocus genotypes were observed, with only three isolates from Canada displaying identical profiles. The majority of isolates from Canada clustered genetically. In contrast, most isolates collected in Europe show no genetic clustering associated with their geographic origin. S. endobioticum isolates with the same pathotype displayed highly variable genotypes and none of the microsatellite markers correlated with a specific pathotype. The markers developed in this study can be used to assess intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum and allow track and trace of genotypes that will generate a better understanding of the migration and spread of this important fungal pathogen and support management of this disease. PMID:26828229

  7. Role of IGF-I in follistatin-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Caroline; Kalista, Stéphanie; Loumaye, Audrey; Ritvos, Olli; Lause, Pascale; Ferracin, Benjamin; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-15

    Follistatin, a physiological inhibitor of myostatin, induces a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass, requiring the type 1 IGF-I receptor/Akt/mTOR pathway. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IGF-I and insulin, two ligands of the IGF-I receptor, in the follistatin hypertrophic action on skeletal muscle. In a first step, we showed that follistatin increases muscle mass while being associated with a downregulation of muscle IGF-I expression. In addition, follistatin retained its full hypertrophic effect toward muscle in hypophysectomized animals despite very low concentrations of circulating and muscle IGF-I. Furthermore, follistatin did not increase muscle sensitivity to IGF-I in stimulating phosphorylation of Akt but, surprisingly, decreased it once hypertrophy was present. Taken together, these observations indicate that increased muscle IGF-I production or sensitivity does not contribute to the muscle hypertrophy caused by follistatin. Unlike low IGF-I, low insulin, as obtained by streptozotocin injection, attenuated the hypertrophic action of follistatin on skeletal muscle. Moreover, the full anabolic response to follistatin was restored in this condition by insulin but also by IGF-I infusion. Therefore, follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy requires the activation of the insulin/IGF-I pathway by either insulin or IGF-I. When insulin or IGF-I alone is missing, follistatin retains its full anabolic effect, but when both are deficient, as in streptozotocin-treated animals, follistatin fails to stimulate muscle growth. PMID:26219865

  8. Evolution of an intronic microsatellite polymorphism in Toll-like receptor 2 among primates.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Adams, Amelia A; Kim, Ju Han; Holland, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Nonhuman primates express varying responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: New World monkeys appear to be resistant to tuberculosis (TB) while Old World monkeys seem to be particularly susceptible. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence of the regulatory guanine-thymine (GT) repeat polymorphisms in intron 2 of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) associated with the development of TB in humans and to determine any variations in these microsatellite polymorphisms in primates. We sequenced the region encompassing the regulatory GT repeat microsatellites in intron 2 of TLR2 in 12 different nonhuman primates using polymerase chain reaction amplification, TA cloning, and automatic sequencing. The nonhuman primates included for this study were as follows: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), Celebes ape (Macaca nigra), rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), Woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), tamarin (Saguinus labiatus), and ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Nucleotide sequences encompassing the regulatory GT repeat region are similar across species and are completely conserved in great apes. However, Old World monkeys lack GT repeats altogether, while New World monkeys and ring-tailed lemurs have much more complex structures around the position of the repeats. In conclusion, the genetic structures encompassing the regulatory GT repeats in intron 2 of human TLR2 are similar among nonhuman primates. The sequence is most conserved in New World monkeys and less in Old World monkeys. PMID:16912902

  9. Development and characterization of 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the balloon flower Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae).

    PubMed

    Song, J Y; Lee, G-A; Yoon, M-S; Ma, K-H; Choi, Y-M; Lee, J-R; Park, H-J; Lee, M-C

    2012-01-01

    The balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC.) is a perennial flowering plant of the Campanulaceae family; it is the only member of the genus Platycodon. Information on the genetic diversity of balloon flower populations is of great importance for the conservation and germplasm utilization of this flowering plant. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and characterized with eight balloon flower accessions collected from South Korea and China. Eighty-one alleles were detected among the eight balloon flower accessions. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, with a mean of four alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.000 to 0.875 (mean = 0.355) and 0.117 to 0.766 (mean = 0.489), respectively. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.110 to 0.733, with a mean of 0.449. These new microsatellite markers will be useful for population and conservation genetic studies of P. grandiflorum. PMID:23079820

  10. Assessment of use of microsatellite polymorphism analysis for improving spatial distribution tracking of echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J; Bart, J M; Glowatzki, M L; Ito, A; Gerard, S; Maillard, S; Piarroux, R; Gottstein, B

    2007-09-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)--caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis--is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe. PMID:17634311

  11. Assessment of Use of Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis for Improving Spatial Distribution Tracking of Echinococcus multilocularis▿

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, J.; Bart, J. M.; Glowatzki, M. L.; Ito, A.; Gerard, S.; Maillard, S.; Piarroux, R.; Gottstein, B.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)—caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis—is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe. PMID:17634311

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among wild and cultivated Tunisian plums (Prunus spp) using random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Ben Mustapha, S; Baraket, G; Abdallah, D; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers to study the genetic diversity and relationships among cultivars belonging to Prunus salicina and P. domestica and their wild relatives (P. insititia and P. spinosa) was investigated. A total of 226 of 234 bands were polymorphic (96.58%). The 226 random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers were screened using 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat primers combinations for 54 Tunisian plum accessions. The percentage of polymorphic bands (96.58%), the resolving power of primers values (135.70), and the polymorphic information content demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used in this study. The genetic distances between accessions ranged from 0.18 to 0.79 with a mean of 0.24, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity at the intra- and interspecific levels. The unweighted pair group with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal component analysis discriminated cultivars efficiently and illustrated relationships and divergence between spontaneous, locally cultivated, and introduced plum types. These procedures showed continuous variation that occurs independently of the status of the species and geographical origin of the plums. In this study, random amplified microsatellite polymorphism was found to be as a reliable molecular marker for fingerprinting and for examining the diversity study of the plum and its relatives. PMID:25867340

  13. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  14. Clinical and Biochemical Function of Polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-Microsatellites in Ewing Sarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Johnson, Kirsten M.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Abegglen, Lisa; Watkins, W. Scott; Jorde, Lynn B.; Womer, Richard B.; Beeler, Natalie; Monovich, Laura; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Krailo, Mark D.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite. Objectives Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target) in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes. Results A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20–26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21–25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes. Conclusions These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:25093581

  15. A genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Robert C.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Chen, Ming-Huei; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Döring, Angela; Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Friedrich, Nele; Newman, Anne; Müller, Martina; Yang, Qiong; Homuth, Georg; Cappola, Anne; Klopp, Norman; Smith, Holly; Ernst, Florian; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Biffar, Reiner; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gieger, Christian; Sullivan, Lisa S.; Völzke, Henry; Rice, Kenneth; Spyroglou, Ariadni; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Ida Chen, Y.-D.; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Nauck, Matthias; Strickler, Howard D.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Reincke, Martin; Pollak, Michael N.; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are involved in cell replication, proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations predict anthropometric traits and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In a genome-wide association study of 10 280 middle-aged and older men and women from four community-based cohort studies, we confirmed a known association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IGFBP3 gene region on chromosome 7p12.3 with IGFBP-3 concentrations using a significance threshold of P < 5 × 10−8 (P = 3.3 × 10−101). Furthermore, the same IGFBP3 gene locus (e.g. rs11977526) that was associated with IGFBP-3 concentrations was also associated with the opposite direction of effect, with IGF-I concentration after adjustment for IGFBP-3 concentration (P = 1.9 × 10−26). A novel and independent locus on chromosome 7p12.3 (rs700752) had genome-wide significant associations with higher IGFBP-3 (P = 4.4 × 10−21) and higher IGF-I (P = 4.9 × 10−9) concentrations; when the two measurements were adjusted for one another, the IGF-I association was attenuated but the IGFBP-3 association was not. Two additional loci demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with IGFBP-3 concentration (rs1065656, chromosome 16p13.3, P = 1.2 × 10−11, IGFALS, a confirmatory finding; and rs4234798, chromosome 4p16.1, P = 4.5 × 10−10, SORCS2, a novel finding). Together, the four genome-wide significant loci explained 6.5% of the population variation in IGFBP-3 concentration. Furthermore, we observed a borderline statistically significant association between IGF-I concentration and FOXO3 (rs2153960, chromosome 6q21, P = 5.1 × 10−7), a locus associated with longevity. These genetic loci deserve further investigation to elucidate the biological basis for the observed associations and clarify their possible role in IGF

  16. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-01-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  18. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

  19. Microsatellite Markers of Willow Species and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellites for Salix eriocephala (Salicaceae), a Potential Native Species for Biomass Production in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Brouillet, Luc; Labrecque, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biomass produced from dedicated plantations constitutes a source of renewable energy and is expected to play an important role in several countries in the coming decades. The cultivation of woody crops such as willows therefore raises several environmental issues. In North America, several native willows are potentially interesting for biomass producers. Willow trees are diverse but few species used for environmental applications have been the object of molecular genetic studies. Based on the sequenced poplar genome, 24 microsatellite markers were assayed on five native North American willow species: Salix amygdaloides, S. discolor, S. eriocephala, S. interior and S. nigra. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to characterize the allele data on the shrub Salix eriocephala, a North American species with economic potential. Eleven markers amplified and confirmed the potential of this species. Analysis of samples from six populations in eastern Canada showed that all markers were variable as well as polymorphic in at least one population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 (mean 2.95) and showed that these microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic diversity of North American willow species. PMID:27137372

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and especially IGF-I variants are anabolic in dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Chandler, C S; Francis, G L; Read, L C; Ballard, F J

    1992-02-15

    The administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps partially reversed a catabolic state produced by the co-administration of 20 micrograms of dexamethasone/day to 150 g male rats. Marked dose-dependent effects on body weight and nitrogen retention were produced, with the highest IGF-I dose, 695 micrograms/day, giving a 6 g increase in body weight over 7 days, compared with a 19 g loss in the dexamethasone-only group and an 18 g gain in pair-fed controls. Two IGF-I analogues that bind poorly to IGF-binding proteins, the truncated form, des(1-3)IGF-I, and a variant with an N-terminal extension as well as arginine at residue 3, LR3IGF-I, were approx. 2.5-fold more potent than IGF-I. The response with LR3IGF-I was particularly striking because this peptide binds 3-fold less well than IGF-I to the type 1 IGF receptor. The increased potencies of the IGF-I variants may relate to the substantially increased plasma levels of IGF-binding proteins, particularly IGFBP-3, produced by the combined treatment of dexamethasone with IGF-I or the variants. These binding proteins would be expected to decrease the transfer of IGF-I, but not that of the variants, from blood to tissue sites of action. Measurements of muscle protein synthesis at the end of the treatment period and muscle protein breakdown by 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion throughout the experiment indicated coordinate anabolic effects of the IGF peptides on both processes. Thus 3MH excretion was decreased at the highest IGF-I dose from 83.5 +/- 4.2 (S.E.M.) mumol/kg per 7 days to 65.1 +/- 2.2, compared with 54.9 +/- 1.2 in the pair-fed controls. Part of this response in 3MH excretion may have reflected a decrease in gut protein breakdown, because IGF-I and especially the IGF analogues increased the gut weight by up to 45%. Notwithstanding the effects on protein synthesis and breakdown, the fractional carcass weights remained low in the IGF-treated groups, although the

  1. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (FST ). Three different approaches for evaluating the genetic relationships were applied. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the native horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  2. Microsatellite Polymorphism in Natural Populations of the Wild Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Innan, H.; Terauchi, R.; Miyashita, N. T.

    1997-01-01

    Variation in repeat number at 20 microsatellite loci of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in a worldwide sample of 42 ecotypes to investigate the pattern and level of polymorphism in repetitive sequences in natural plant populations. There is a substantial amount of variation at microsatellite loci despite the selfing nature of this plant species. The average gene diversity was 0.794 and the average number of alleles per locus was 10.6. The distribution of alleles was centered around the mean of repeat number at most loci, but could not be regarded as normal. There was a significantly positive correlation between the number of repeats and the amount of variation. For most loci, the observed number of alleles was between the expected values of the infinite allele and stepwise mutation models. The two models were rejected by the sign test. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in 12.1% of the pairwise comparisons between loci. In phylogenetic tree, there was no association between ecotype and geographic origin. This result is consistent with the recent expansion of A. thaliana throughout the world. PMID:9258686

  3. Development and characterization of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Landínez-García, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: prochilodontidae) is a short-distance migratory species endemic to Colombia. This study developed for the first time a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci by using next-generation sequencing to explore the population genetics of this commercially exploited species. Nineteen of these loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 193 I. longirostris in three Colombian rivers of the Magdalena basin. Results showed that a single genetic stock circulates in the Cauca River, whereas other single different genetic stock is present in the rivers Samaná Norte and San Bartolomé-Magdalena. Additionally, I. longirostris was genetically different among and across rivers. This first insight about the population genetic structure of I. longirostris is crucial for monitoring the genetic diversity, the management and conservation of its populations, and complement the genetic studies in Prochilodontidae.

  4. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from the widespread avian louse Colpocephalum turbinatum (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Maureen B; Whiteman, Noah K; Hagen, Cris; Parker, Patricia G; Glenn, Travis C

    2009-05-01

    We report eight novel microsatellite loci for Colpocephalum turbinatum, a parasitic louse of the endangered Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Two island populations of C. turbinatum (N = 30) were genotyped for each locus. We found between two and 12 alleles per locus, polymorphic information content from 0.268 to 0.798, observed heterozygosity from 0.067 to 0.667 and no linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci. These markers will be useful in understanding contemporary gene flow of C. turbinatum among islands in the Galápagos and in understanding transmission dynamics between B. galapagoensis hosts, within and between social groups. Because this louse is unusually widespread among avian host taxa, parasitizing at least 53 bird species in the Falconiformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes, these markers are likely to be useful outside the context of the Galápagos Islands. PMID:21564787

  5. Development of eight polymorphic microsatellites for a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Run; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Bin; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Sedum alfredii is a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator distributed in East Asia. A total of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. These loci were screened in 25 individuals from one heavy metal-tolerant population and one nontolerant population, respectively. The average allele number of these markers was 5.25 per locus, ranging from two to nine. Population-specific alleles were found at each locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.640 and from 0.451 to 0.819. Significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected at both the species and the population level. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected at population level. PMID:21585968

  6. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Alaska blackfish (Esociformes: Dallia pectoralis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Sage, George K.; DeWilde, Rachel L.; López, J. Andres; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Blackfishes (Esociformes: Esocidae: Dallia), small fishes with relictual distributions, are unique in being the only primary freshwater fish genus endemic to Beringia. Although the number of species of Dallia is debated, disjunct populations and distinct mitochondrial divisions that predate the end of the last glacial maximum are apparent. We developed sixteen polymorphic microsatellites from the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) to study genetic diversity in Dallia. Genotypes from two populations, Denali (n = 31) and Bethel (n = 35), demonstrated the usefulness of the loci for population-level investigation. Observed and expected heterozygosity averaged 18.6 and 19.8 % in Denali and 61.1 and 63.7 % in Bethel. Number of alleles at each locus averaged 3.50 in Denali and 9.63 in Bethel. The observed signature of variability and structuring between populations is consistent with mitochondrial data.

  7. Characterization of novel polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers of Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Chen, J H; Zang, G G; Luan, M B

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 59 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino were developed from the specific length amplified fragment sequencing data library of genome. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0769 to 0.6751, respectively. Among the 59 loci, 25 displayed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P < 0.05). The developed simple sequence repeat markers should be useful for studying population genetics in B. tricuspis (Hance) Makino, for providing further knowledge on its population differentiation, breeding system, and dispersal ability, as well as quantitative trait locus mapping. These markers could also be valuable genetic resources for closely related species. PMID:27173265

  8. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Eighteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Michael D; Seyoum, Seifu; Carney, Susan L; Davis, Michelle C; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A; Reynolds Iii, John E; Haubold, Elsa

    2008-03-01

    Here we describe 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee), isolated using a polymerase chain reaction-based technique. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to four (mean = 2.5) in specimens from southwest (n = 58) and northeast (n = 58) Florida. Expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.67 (mean = 0.35) and from 0.02 to 0.78 (mean = 0.34), respectively. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium occurred at two loci. There was no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium for any pair of loci. For individual identification, mean random-mating and θ-corrected match probabilities were 9.36 × 10(-7) and 1.95 × 10(-6) , respectively. PMID:21585782

  9. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for a federally threatened species, Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae), and co-occurring congeners1

    PubMed Central

    Hamstead, Jacqueline W.; Snider, Brandon L.; Oaks, Robyn; Fitzgerald, Evan; Woodward, Jason; Teat, Alyssa; Hay, Nikolai M.; Estep, Matt C.; Murrell, Zack E.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty microsatellite loci were developed for the federally threatened species Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae) to examine genetic diversity and to distinguish this species from co-occurring congeners, H. heterophylla and H. minor. Methods and Results: Next-generation sequencing approaches were used to identify microsatellite loci and design primers. One hundred fifty-two primer pairs were screened for repeatability, and 20 of these were further characterized for polymorphism. In H. naniflora, the number of alleles identified for polymorphic loci ranged from two to 23 (mean ∼8.8), with a mean heterozygosity of 0.39. Conclusions: These 16 polymorphic primers for H. naniflora will be useful tools in species identification and quantifying genetic diversity within the genus. PMID:26191466

  10. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Panulirus ornatus and their Cross-species Primer Amplification in Panulirus homarus.

    PubMed

    Delghandi, Madjid; Afzal, Hasifa; Al Hinai, Manal Saif Nasser; Al-Breiki, Rafaida Dhuhai Gharib; Jerry, Dean R; Dao, Hoc Tan

    2016-10-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated for Panulirus ornatus using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. Fifteen markers containing perfect di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide motifs were consistently co-amplified in five multiplexes in a panel of 91 randomly selected samples. Observed number of alleles varied from 2 to 14 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.090 to 0.79 and 0.08 to 0.87, respectively. Ten loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after sequential Bonferroni correction. Genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis between all pairs of the loci showed significant departure from the null hypothesis between 11 loci. The microsatellite markers were also amplified successfully in related Panulirus homarus species with adequate level of polymorphism. The successful cross-species primer amplification of the 15 microsatellites indicates the potential of the developed markers to be transferred to other Panulirus species. The 15 novel microsatellite markers reported in this work add to the previously characterized markers by our group, exhibit adequate levels of polymorphism for wide range of future studies investigating population structure, genetic diversity, and evolutionary relationships among Panulirus species. PMID:27565876

  11. Genetic polymorphism of microsatellite dna in two populations of northern sheatfish (Silurus soldatovi).

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-10-01

    In this article, population variations and genetic structures of two populations of northern sheatfish (Silurus soldatovi) were analyzed using 24 microsatellite loci enriched from southern catfish (S. meriaionalis Chen) by magnetic beads. Gene frequency (P), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphism information contents (PIC), and number of effective alleles (Ne) were determined. One population was wild, ripe individuals collected from Heilongjiang River (HNS); the other was cultured fry collected from Songhuajiang River (SNS). The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested by the genetic departure index (d). The coefficient of gene differentiation G(ST) and Phi(ST) by AMOVA (Analysis of Molecular Variety) was imputed using Arlequin software in this study. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed by UPGMA method based on the pairwise Nei's standard distances using PHYLIP. A total of 1,357 fragments with sizes ranging between 102 bp and 385 bp were acquired by PCR amplifications. The average number of alleles of the two populations was 8.875. Results indicated that these microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic and could be used as genetic markers. The mean values of the parameters P, Ho, He, PIC, and Ne were 0.165, 0.435, 0.758, 0.742, and 5.019 for HNS and 0.147, 0.299, 0.847, 0.764, and 5.944 for SNS, respectively. Although there were differences, there were no significant differentiations except for the locus HLJcf37. These populations to a certain extent deviated from HWE, such as excessive and deficient heterozygote numbers. The value of G(ST) was 0.078 and above 98% of the variation were differences among individuals within the population, so the variation between populations was insignificant. Cluster analysis also showed that the relationships among individuals were very close. In conclusion, the microsatellite markers that were developed through this study are useful for genetic analysis and the genetic culture

  12. Polymorphism and Locus-Specific Effects on Polymorphism at Microsatellite Loci in Natural Drosophila Melanogaster Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schlotterer, C.; Vogl, C.; Tautz, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the natural variation at microsatellite loci in two African and five non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Ten dinucleotide simple sequence loci were cloned from chromosomally mapped P1 clones and typed for single individuals from isofemale lines of the respective populations. We find that the African populations harbor the largest degree of diversity, while the non-African populations show a lower diversity. This supports previous results that D. melanogaster originated in Africa and spread across the rest of the world in historic times. Using genetic distance measures, we find also a distinct population subdivision between the non-African populations. Most interestingly, we find for some loci in some populations a strongly reduced variability, which cannot be explained by bottleneck effects. Employing a conservative test based on the variance in repeat number, we find that at least one locus in one population deviates significantly from the expectations of mutation-drift equilibrium. We suggest that this may be due to a recent selective sweep in this chromosomal region that may have been caused by a linked locus that was involved in local adaptation of the population. PMID:9136020

  13. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Adebola AJ; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification

  14. Myostatin inhibits IGF-I-induced myotube hypertrophy through Akt

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Michael R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Buranasombati, Cattleya; Rosenberg, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a highly conserved negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Loss of functional myostatin in cattle, mice, sheep, dogs, and humans results in increased muscle mass. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this increase in muscle growth are not fully understood. Previously, we have reported that phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle growth and Akt activation are enhanced in myostatin knockout mice compared with controls. Here we report that skeletal muscle from myostatin knockout mice show increased Akt protein expression and overall activity at baseline secondary to an increase in Akt mRNA. We examined the functional role of myostatin modulation of Akt in C2C12 myotubes, a well-established in vitro model of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Adenoviral overexpression of myostatin attenuated the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated increase in myotube diameter, as well as IGF-I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of myostatin by overexpression of the NH2-terminal portion of myostatin was sufficient to increase myotube diameter and Akt phosphorylation. Coexpression of myostatin and constitutively active Akt (myr-Akt) restored the increase in myotube diameter. Conversely, expression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt) with the inhibitory myostatin propeptide blocked the increase in myotube diameter. Of note, ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F box mRNA were increased in skeletal muscle from myostain knockout mice. Together, these data suggest myostatin regulates muscle growth at least in part through regulation of Akt. PMID:19759331

  15. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  16. Effect of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 on IGF-I and long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of L6 myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, G; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, William R

    2004-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I stimulates both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells. In vivo, IGFs are bound to one of the members of a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBP 1-6) that regulate their biological activity. One of these binding proteins, IGFBP-3, affects cell proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms and it has generally been shown to suppress proliferation of cultured cells; however, it also may stimulate proliferation depending upon the cell type and the assay conditions. Cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMCs) produce IGFBP-3 and its level drops significantly immediately prior to differentiation. Additionally, IGFBP-3 suppresses both IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of embryonic porcine myogenic cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 (rpIGFBP-3) on IGF-I- and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of the L6 myogenic cell line. L6 cells potentially provide a good model for studying the actions of IGFBP-3 on muscle because they contain no non-muscle cells and they do not produce detectable levels of IGFBP-3. RpIGFBP-3 suppresses both IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of L6 cells, indicating that it suppresses proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. Our data also show that rpIGFBP-3 causes IGF-independent suppression of proliferation without increasing the level of phosphosmad-2 in L6 cultures. Additionally, rpIGFBP-3 suppresses IGF-I-stimulated differentiation of L6 cells. In contrast, however, rpIGFBP-3 does not suppress Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated differentiation. This suggests that rpIGFBP-3 does not have IGF-independent effects on L6 cell differentiation. PMID:15254966

  17. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, γH2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-β-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-β-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. PMID:22877754

  18. Multiplex preamplification PCR and microsatellite validation enables accurate single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of historical fish scales.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matt J; Pascal, Carita E; Grauvogel, Zac; Habicht, Christopher; Seeb, James E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2011-03-01

    Incorporating historical tissues into the study of ecological, conservation and management questions can broaden the scope of population genetic research by enhancing our understanding of evolutionary processes and anthropogenic influences on natural populations. Genotyping historical and low-quality samples has been plagued by challenges associated with low amounts of template DNA and the potential for pre-existing DNA contamination among samples. We describe a two-step process designed to (i) accurately genotype large numbers of historical low-quality scale samples in a high-throughput format and (ii) screen samples for pre-existing DNA contamination. First, we describe how an efficient multiplex preamplification PCR of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can generate highly accurate genotypes with low failure and error rates in subsequent SNP genotyping reactions of individual historical scales from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Second, we demonstrate how the method can be modified for the amplification of microsatellite loci to detect pre-existing DNA contamination. A total of 760 individual historical scale and 182 contemporary fin clip samples were genotyped and screened for contamination. Genotyping failure and error rates were exceedingly low and similar for both historical and contemporary samples. Pre-existing contamination in 21% of the historical samples was successfully identified by screening the amplified microsatellite loci. The advantages of automation, low failure and error rates, and ability to multiplex both the preamplification and subsequent genotyping reactions combine to make the protocol ideally suited for efficiently genotyping large numbers of potentially contaminated low-quality sources of DNA. PMID:21429180

  19. Characterization of ten highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the intertidal mussel Perna perna, and cross species amplification within the genus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) is a dominant constituent of intertidal communities and a strong invader with multiple non-native populations distributed around the world. In a previous study, two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and used to determine population-level genetic diversity in invasive and native P. perna populations. However, higher number of microsatellite markers are required for reliable population genetic studies. In this context, in order to understand P. perna origins and history of invasion and to compare population genetic structure in native versus invaded areas, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Findings Described microsatellite markers were developed from an enriched genomic library. Analyses and characterization of loci using 20 individuals from a population in Western Sahara revealed on average 11 alleles per locus (range: 5–27) and mean gene diversity of 0.75 (range: 0.31 - 0.95). One primer pair revealed possible linkage disequilibrium while heterozygote deficiency was significant at four loci. Six of these markers cross-amplified in P. canaliculus (origin: New Zealand). Conclusions Developed markers will be useful in addressing a variety of questions concerning P. perna, including dispersal scales, genetic variation and population structure, in both native and invaded areas. PMID:23039168

  20. Organ-specific expression of IGF-I during early development of bony fish as revealed in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry: indication for the particular importance of local IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Berishvili, Giorgi; Shved, Natallia; Eppler, Elisabeth; Clota, Frederic; Baroiller, Jean-François; Reinecke, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    The cellular sites of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) synthesis in the early developing tilapia (0-140 days post fertilization, DPF) were investigated. IGF-I mRNA and peptide appeared in liver as early as 4 DPF and in gastro-intestinal epithelial cells between 5-9 DPF. In exocrine pancreas, the expression of IGF-I started at 4 DPF and continued until 90 DPF. IGF-I production was detected in islets at 6 DPF in non-insulin cells and occurred throughout life. In renal tubules and ducts, IGF-I production started at 8 DPF. IGF-I production in chondrocytes had its onset at 4 DPF, was more pronounced in growing regions and was also found in adults. IGF-I mRNA and peptide appeared in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells at 4 DPF. In gill chloride cells, IGF-I production started at 6 DPF. At 13 DPF, IGF-I was detected in cardiac myocytes. IGF-I-producing epidermal cells appeared at 5 DPF. In brain and ganglia, IGF-I was expressed in virtually all neurones from 6 to 29 DPF, their number decreasing with age. Neurosecretory IGF-I-immunoreactive axons were first seen in the neurohypophysis around 17 DPF. Endocrine cells of the adenohypophysis exhibited IGF-I mRNA at 28 DPF and IGF-I immunoreactivity at 40 DPF. Thus, IGF-I appeared early (4-5 DPF), first in liver, the main source of endocrine IGF-I, and then in organs involved in growth or metabolism. The expression of IGF-I was more pronounced during development than in juvenile and adult life. Local IGF-I therefore seems to have a high functional impact in early growth, metabolism and organogenesis. PMID:16596395

  1. Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

  2. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the sand pocket mouse Chaetodipus arenarius, an endemic from the Baja California Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munguia-Vega, A.; Rodriguez-Estrella, R.; Nachman, M.; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched genomic library of the sand pocket mouse Chaetodipus arenarius. The mean number of alleles per locus was 11.53 (range five to 19) and the average observed heterozygosity was 0.764 (range 0.121 to 1.0). The markers will be used for detecting the impact of human-induced habitat fragmentation on patterns of gene flow, genetic structure, and extinction risk. In addition, these markers will be useful across the genus because most of the loci cross-amplified and were polymorphic in three other species of Chaetodipus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids of term pregnancy dogs.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Tea; Comin, Antonella; Rota, Alessandro; Peric, Tanja; Contri, Alberto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) play an essential role in fetal growth and development. To date, fetal fluids IGF-I and NEFA levels at term canine pregnancy are unknown and could be related to the neonatal development and breed size. For these reasons, the aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids collected from normally developed and viable newborn puppies born at term of normal pregnancies; (2) to assess possible differences between IGF-I and NEFA levels in amniotic compared with allantoic fluid; (3) to detect possible relationship between breed body size and IGF-I and NEFA amniotic and allantoic concentrations; (4) to evaluate possible differences in IGF-I fetal fluids levels between male and female puppies; and (5) to assess possible correlations between the two hormones in each type of fluid. The study enrolled 25 pure breed bitches submitted to elective Cesarean section at term because of the high risk of dystocia or previous troubles at parturition. At surgery, amniotic and allantoic fluids were collected and assayed for IGF-I and NEFA. IGF-I and NEFA amounts in both amniotic and allantoic fluids of different breed size bitches (small: ≤10 kg; medium: 11-25 kg; large: 26-40 kg) were detected, as well as the effect of gender on IGF-I levels. On a total of 73 amniotic and 76 allantoic samples collected by normal, viable, and mature newborns, the mean IGF-I concentration was significantly higher in amniotic than in allantoic fluid in all three groups, but the amniotic IGF-I levels were significantly lower in small and medium size bitches when compared with large ones. No significant differences were found in allantoic IGF-I concentrations among size groups. A significant effect of the puppy gender on IGF-I content in both fetal fluids was not reported. Regarding NEFA, in all the three groups, the mean NEFA concentration did not significantly differ

  4. A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.; Schmitt, K.; Zhang, L.; Arnheim, N. ); Weber, J.L. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors show that dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms can be analyzed in single cells without using radioactivity or denaturing gels. This provides a new source of DNA polymorphisms for genetic mapping by sperm typing. The recombination fraction between two CA repeat polymorphisms was determined after whole genome amplification of single sperm, followed by typing of two different aliquots, one aliquot for each polymorphic locus. Single-cell analysis of microsatellites may also be valuable both for preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis based on single-blastomere or polar-body analysis and for the typing of forensic or ancient DNA samples containing very small amounts of nucleic acid. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689

  6. INFLUENCE OF GENDER, SEX HORMONES AND TEMPERATURE ON PLASMA IGF-I CONCENTRATIONS IN SUNSHINE BASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass were determined in March, early April and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Growth and IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass fed with estrogen, testosterone, methyl testosterone or a control ...

  7. IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of IGF-I in modulating GH and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight (BW) and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25µg (n = 4) or 75µg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blo...

  8. ARE THE METABOLIC EFFECTS OF GH AND IGF-I SEPARABLE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IGF-I mediates some, but not all of the metabolic actions of GH and it has both GH-like and insulin-like actions in vivo. GH and IGF-I both have a net anabolic effect in man enhancing whole body protein synthesis over a period of weeks and perhaps months. Both hormones favorably improve body compos...

  9. A major gene for IGF-I serum concentration interacts with diet in Mexican Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Blangero, J.; Mahaney, M.C.; Comuzzie, A.G.

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of cell growth/differentiation and exhibits insulin-like metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. Serum levels of IGF-I decrease markedly with age and are partly regulated by nutritional factors such as protein intake. To better understand the role of genes and genotype x environment interaction in the determination of normal IGF-I variation, we measured IGF-I serum levels in 422 Mexican Americans distributed in 23 pedigrees. Information on dietary intake was obtained for each individual using a food frequency questionnaire. Using an extension of segregation analysis that allows for genotype x environment interaction, we found clear evidence for the effect of a major gene influencing IGF-I levels. The estimated frequency of an allele (A) associated with lowered IGF-I levels was 0.54{+-}0.05. Likelihood ratio tests also revealed strong evidence for genotype x sex, genotype x age, and genotype x diet interaction. Individuals with genotypes AA and Aa showed a less marked decline in IGF-I levels with age than that observed for the aa genotype. Similarly, in aa individuals, IGF-I concentration exhibited a much stronger positive relationship with the relative intake of dietary protein and carbohydrate than that observed in the other genotypes. Because of this genotype x environment interaction, the relative phenotypic variance attributable to the major gene is highly dependent upon age and diet.

  10. Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by the liver in response to the endocrine GH stimulus, but it is also secreted by multiple tissues for autocrine/paracrine purposes. IGF-I is partly responsible for systemic GH activities although it possesses a wide number of own properties (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions). IGF-I is a closely regulated hormone. Consequently, its logical therapeutical applications seems to be limited to restore physiological circulating levels in order to recover the clinical consequences of IGF-I deficiency, conditions where, despite continuous discrepancies, IGF-I treatment has never been related to oncogenesis. Currently the best characterized conditions of IGF-I deficiency are Laron Syndrome, in children; liver cirrhosis, in adults; aging including age-related-cardiovascular and neurological diseases; and more recently, intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this review is to summarize the increasing list of roles of IGF-I, both in physiological and pathological conditions, underlying that its potential therapeutical options seem to be limited to those proven states of local or systemic IGF-I deficiency as a replacement treatment, rather than increasing its level upper the normal range. PMID:23148873

  11. Development and characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in Bembidion atrocaeruleum (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Matt J; Finn, Debra S; Williams, Mike; Sadler, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    We isolated seven polymorphic microsatellite loci from a ground beetle (Bembidion atrocaeruleum, Coleoptera, Carabidae (Stephens, 1826)) associated with naturally and regularly disturbed floodplain habitat in northwest Europe. Loci were tested on 157 individuals collected from five distinct habitat patches across two adjacent drainage basins in Wales, United Kingdom, to assess their potential for revealing population structure across a relatively short spatial extent. Alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12. For a central representative population, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 (mean: 0.63), and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.16 to 0.94 (mean: 0.56). Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant structure among populations, even when one locus potentially containing null alleles was removed. These loci have the potential to aid the study of dispersal mechanisms of this important riparian species along and between river corridors, a recurring question in floodplain conservation studies. In addition, given the diversity of the Bembidion genus, they may have utility in the study of sister species. PMID:25502039

  12. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Bowcock, A. M.; Tomfohrde, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; St George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability of the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. We have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with > 70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of > 4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here we present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084xc5 alleles and WND alleles in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084xc5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [phi] = .61) suggests that the number of mutations accounting for WND is less than expected on the basis of the variety of clinical symptoms that are observed. PMID:8279473

  13. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowcock, A.M.; Tomfohrde, J. ); Weissenbach, J. ); Bonne-Tamir, B.; George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Farrer, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability to the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. The authors have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with >70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of >4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here, the authors present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084[times]c5 alleles and WND allels in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084[times]c5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [[theta

  14. Microsatellite polymorphism and its association with body weight and selected morphometrics of farm red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.).

    PubMed

    Zatoń-Dobrowolska, Magdalena; Mucha, Anna; Wierzbicki, Heliodor; Morrice, David; Moska, Magdalena; Dobrowolski, Maciej; Przysiecki, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphism of 30 canine-derived microsatellites was studied in a group of 200 red foxes kept on 2 Polish farms. 22 out of 30 microsatellites were selected to study association between marker genotypes and body weight (BW), body length (BL), body circumference (BC), tail length (TL), ear height (EH), length of the right front limb (FRLL), length of the right rear limb (RRLL), length of the right front foot (FRFL) and length of the right rear foot (RRFL). A total of 112 alleles and 243 genotypes were found at 22 autosomal microsatellite loci. Three monomorphic loci deemed as uninformative were excluded from the study. The association between marker genotypes and the studied traits was analysed using general linear model (GLM) procedure and least squares means (LSM). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated to assess non-random association between microsatellite loci. Out of 19 microsatellites studied four markers showed no association with the studied traits, three markers had a significant effect on one trait, and another three markers had significant effect on two traits. Among ten microsatellites with significant effect on four economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL) four were associated with two characters: marker FH2613 with BW and BC, marker FH2097withBL and BC, marker ZUBECA6 with BW and BC, whereas marker REN75M10 was associated with BL and TL. The strongest LD (r(2) ranged from 0.15 to 0.33) was estimated between nine loci with significant effect on economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL). PMID:24819338

  15. A comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers for analysis of parentage and kinship in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Lucia R; Solomon, Joseph W; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2015-05-01

    The development of genetic markers has revolutionized molecular studies within and among populations. Although poly-allelic microsatellites are the most commonly used genetic marker for within-population studies of free-living animals, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, have also emerged as a viable option for use in nonmodel systems. We describe a robust method of SNP discovery from the transcriptome of a nonmodel organism that resulted in more than 99% of the markers working successfully during genotyping. We then compare the use of 102 novel SNPs with 15 previously developed microsatellites for studies of parentage and kinship in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) that live in highly kin-structured groups. For 95% of the offspring surveyed, SNPs and microsatellites identified the same genetic father, but only when behavioural information about the likely parents at a nest was included to aid in assignment. Moreover, when such behavioural information was available, the number of SNPs necessary for successful parentage assignment was reduced by half. However, in a few cases where candidate fathers were highly related, SNPs did a better job at assigning fathers than microsatellites. Despite high variation between individual pairwise relatedness values, microsatellites and SNPs performed equally well in kinship analyses. This study is the first to compare SNPs and microsatellites for analyses of parentage and relatedness in a species that lives in groups with a complex social and kin structure. It should also prove informative for those interested in developing SNP loci from transcriptome data when published genomes are unavailable. PMID:25224810

  16. Distinct Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Runs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Microsatellite Markers; Implications for Use of Mixed Marker Haplotypes in LD-based Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-A; Sohn, Kwang-Min; Cho, Seung-Hee; Hwang, Hyokkee; Kim, Sun Woo; Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Sang Sun; Park, Jun Hee

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the haplotypic relationship between microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is of considerable importance, as microsatellite markers can potentially be incorporated into haplotypes containing SNPs to increase marker density across a region of interest. However, SNPs and microsatellite markers have different mutation rates and durations, and it is conceivable that the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between the genetic markers may considerably differ. We assessed the LD patterns using 1,661 SNPs and 65 microsatellite markers along chromosome 22 and investigated whether common patterns of LD between the two genetic markers are deduced from the results. The results demonstrated that the patterns of LD among microsatellite markers varied considerably and the LD runs of SNPs and microsatellite markers showed distinct patterns. Microsatellite markers have a much higher mutation rate and the evolution of microsatellite markers is a more complex process which has distinct mutation properties from those of SNPs. We consider that these might contribute to the different LD patterns between the two genetic markers. Therefore, it would seem inadvisable to make assumptions about persistence of LD across even a relatively small genetic distance among microsatellite markers and to construct mixed marker haplotypes/LD maps employing microsatellite markers. PMID:17596648

  17. Alterations in hepatic production and peripheral clearance of IGF-I after endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Char, D; Kolasa, A J; Pan, W; Maitra, S R; Patlak, C S; Spolarics, Z; Gelato, M C; Lang, C H

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which may be responsible, in part, for the alterations in protein metabolism observed in these animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this drop was due to a decreased hepatic production of IGF-I and/or an increased clearance of the peptide from the blood. Four hours after intravenous injection of LPS the plasma IGF-I concentration was decreased 50%. IGF-I release by in situ perfused livers from control rats was constant throughout the 60-min perfusion period and averaged 111 +/- 3 ng/min. In contrast, hepatic IGF-I output was decreased 46% by in vivo LPS. In contrast, livers from LPS-injected rats released more IGF binding proteins-1, -2 and -4 than did control livers. Hepatic cell isolation indicated that LPS decreased the IGF-I content in Kupffer and parenchymal cells, but not endothelial cells, by approximately 45%. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood 125I-IGF-I decay curves indicated that the half-life for whole body clearance of 125I-IGF-I from the circulation was not altered by LPS. However, LPS increased 125I-IGF-I uptake by spleen, liver, lung, and kidney while decreasing uptake by the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that the LPS-induced decrease in blood IGF-I concentration is primarily due to a reduction in hepatic production, not a change in whole body peptide clearance, and that a decreased production by both parenchymal and Kupffer cells contributes to this alteration. PMID:7543247

  18. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  19. Acute IGF-I infusion stimulates whole body protein synthesis but does not reduce proteolysis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis increases in response to a physiological rise in total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in neonatal pigs. To determine the response of whole body protein synthesis and degradation to IGF-I, fasted 7-day-old pigs (n=4/dose) were infused with IGF-I (0, 20, or 50 ...

  20. Stratified control of IGF-I expression by hypoxia and stress hormones in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Thomas L.; Yun, Zhong; Madri, Joseph A.; Centrella, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bone cells respond to the integrated effects of local and systemic regulation. Here we show that hypoxia and the stress hormones PGE2 and glucocorticoid interact in complex ways in osteoblasts, converging on insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression. Whereas hypoxia alone rapidly increased transcription factor HIF activity, it suppressed DNA synthesis, had no significant effects on protein synthesis or alkaline phosphatase activity, and drove discrete changes in a panel of osteoblast mRNAs. Notably, hypoxia increased expression of the acute phase response transcription factors C/EBPδ which can induce IGF-I in response to PGE2, but conversely prevented the stimulatory effect of PGE2 on IGF-I mRNA. However, unlike its effect on C/EBPδ, hypoxia suppressed expression of the obligate osteoblast transcription factor Runx2, which can activate an upstream response element in the IGF-I gene promoter. Hypoxic inhibition of IGF-I and Runx2 were enforced by glucocorticoid, and continued with prolonged exposure. Our studies thus reveal that IGF-I expression is stratified by two critical transcriptional elements in osteoblasts, which are resolved by the individual and combined effects of hypoxic stress and stress hormones. In so doing, hypoxia suppresses Runx2, limits the enhancing influence of PGE2, and interacts with glucocorticoid to reduce IGF-I expression by osteoblasts. PMID:24440782

  1. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entire set of 221 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers from the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium for their utility on molecular characterization of elite U.S. germplasm. Five elite U.S. sugarcane clones were tested, including two cu...

  2. Effects of IGF-I bioavailability on bovine preantral follicular development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Fiona H; Campbell, Bruce K; Armstrong, David G; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regulation of IGF-I bioavailability on preantral follicle development in vitro. Bovine preantral follicles were cultured for 6 days in serum-free medium with increasing doses of Long R3 (LR3) IGF-I (an analog with low affinity for IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)), or human recombinant IGF-I (hrIGF-I). Follicle diameter and estradiol production were measured every second day. On day 6, ratios of oocyte/follicle diameter and oocyte morphology were assessed by histological examination, and IGFBP-2 and -3 were detected by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization respectively. Both types of IGF-I increased follicle diameter in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and increased estradiol production over control levels (P < 0.05). However, follicles treated with LR3 IGF-I and the highest concentration of hrIGF-I (1000 ng/ml) had smaller oocyte/follicle ratios, and increased oocyte degeneration, compared with controls or follicles treated with physiological concentrations of hrIGF-I (P < 0.05). IGFBPs were detected in cultured preantral follicles, indicating a requirement for regulation of IGF bioavailability during the early stages of follicular development. Specifically, IGFBP-3 mRNA was found to be expressed in oocytes, and IGFBP-2 immunoreactivity was detected in oocytes and granulosa cells of cultured follicles. In summary, the regulation of IGF-I bioavailability by IGFBPs is necessary for the co-ordination of oocyte and follicle development in vitro. PMID:17636166

  3. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D’Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health. PMID:26821056

  4. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System.

    PubMed

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health. PMID:26821056

  5. Nonradioactive assay for new microsatellite polymorphisms at the 5' end of the dystrophin gene, and estimation of intragenic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Oudet, C; Heilig, R; Hanauer, A; Mandel, J L

    1991-01-01

    Indirect tracking of mutation by DNA polymorphisms is still essential for carrier and prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, at least in the families where no deletion can be detected. Because of the relatively high level of intragenic recombination, informative and easily testable markers at both ends of the gene are necessary for efficient and accurate diagnosis. We report the characterization of two polymorphic microsatellite sequences (TG repeats) at the 5' end of the dystrophin gene, within 40 kb of the muscle-specific promoter. The most useful one (5' DYS MSA) has 10 alleles with a 57% heterozygosity and can be tested on small polyacrylamide gels in a nonradioactive PCR-based assay. Despite its large number of alleles, this microsatellite shows strong linkage disequilibrium with a two-allele polymorphism reported by Roberts et al., an indication of the stability of this type of sequences. We have used the new microsatellites at the 5' end, along with one we reported previously for the 3' end, to type the families in the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel. While the number of informative families has increased by a factor of about two with respect to the study of Abbs et al., the estimates of the recombination fractions are in good agreement with this previous report, suggesting a 11% recombination across the gene (3% between the 5' end and the pERT87 region, 8% between pERT87 and the 3' end), which is about fivefold more than expected. However, these estimates still have wide confidence limits. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1867193

  6. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) and cross-amplification in other Terrapene species.

    PubMed

    Buchman, A B; Deaton, R; Randle, C P; Brummel, T; Wilson, E D; Lutterschmidt, W I

    2009-07-01

    We isolated and characterized eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for a Texas population of three-toed box turtle, Terrapene carolina triunguis, using a refined hybridization capture procedure. All eight primer pairs amplified successfully at all loci in seven Texas ornate box turtles (T. ornata ornata). Due to the decline and conservation concerns of North American box turtles, these isolated microsatellites may be a most valuable tool for evaluating baseline population genetic structure for threatened box turtle populations. PMID:21564865

  7. Overexpression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice does not prevent unloading-induced atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Booth, F. W.; DeMayo, F.; Schwartz, R. J.; Gordon, S. E.; Fiorotto, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the association between local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) overexpression and atrophy in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that endogenous skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA expression would decrease with hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice, and that transgenic mice overexpressing human IGF-I (hIGF-I) specifically in skeletal muscle would exhibit less atrophy after HU. Male transgenic mice and nontransgenic mice from the parent strain (FVB) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): 1) transgenic, weight-bearing (IGF-I/WB); 2) transgenic, hindlimb unloaded (IGF-I/HU); 3) nontransgenic, weight-bearing (FVB/WB); and 4) nontransgenic, hindlimb unloaded (FVB/HU). HU groups were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Body mass was reduced (P < 0.05) after HU in both IGF-I (-9%) and FVB mice (-13%). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the relative abundance of mRNA for the endogenous rodent IGF-I (rIGF-I) was unaltered by HU in the gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle of wild-type FVB mice. High-level expression of hIGF-I peptide and mRNA was confirmed in the GAST and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the transgenic mice. Nevertheless, masses of the GAST and TA muscles were reduced (P < 0.05) in both FVB/HU and IGF-I/HU groups compared with FVB/WB and IGF-I/WB groups, respectively, and the percent atrophy in mass of these muscles did not differ between FVB and IGF-I mice. Therefore, skeletal muscle atrophy may not be associated with a reduction of endogenous rIGF-I mRNA level in 14-day HU mice. We conclude that high local expression of hIGF-I mRNA and peptide in skeletal muscle alone cannot attenuate unloading-induced atrophy of fast-twitch muscle in mice.

  8. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna; Wolun-Cholewa, Maria; Polak, Grzegorz; Sierocinska-Sawa, Jadwiga; Kwasniewska, Anna; Kotarski, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF‑1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI‑H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF‑1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)‑1 and IGFBP‑3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF‑1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P=0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with

  9. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    KWASNIEWSKI, WOJCIECH; GOZDZICKA-JOZEFIAK, ANNA; WOLUN-CHOLEWA, MARIA; POLAK, GRZEGORZ; SIEROCINSKA-SAWA, JADWIGA; KWASNIEWSKA, ANNA; KOTARSKI, JAN

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF-1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF-1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF-1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P= 0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with those in the MSI-H 20

  10. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus).

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Alicia C; Griffiths, Sarah M; Truelove, Nathan K; Box, Stephen J; Preziosi, Richard F; Salinas de Leon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus) is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11-49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species. PMID:26557418

  11. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Sarah M.; Truelove, Nathan K.; Box, Stephen J.; Preziosi, Richard F.; Salinas de Leon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus) is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11–49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species. PMID:26557418

  12. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the perennial herb Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in the vulnerable plant Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae) to investigate its genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow. Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.043 to 0.855. Eleven markers were successfully amplified in the cultivar ‘Mego’ from Japan. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of H. nobilis var. japonica. PMID:25798342

  13. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata, and T. cuspidata var. nana (Taxaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Taxus cuspidata (Taxaceae), which is well known for the effective anticancer metabolite paclitaxel (e.g., taxol), is an evergreen needle-leaved tree widely distributed in eastern Eurasia including Japan. We developed 15 microsatellite markers from this species and confirmed their utility for the dwarf variety nana, which is common in alpine regions along the Sea of Japan. Methods and Results: Thirteen polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation in three populations of T. cuspidata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 to 31, with an average of 18.5; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.78 to 0.95, with an average of 0.89. All loci were successfully amplified in T. cuspidata var. nana and showed high polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating speciation and range formation of T. cuspidata in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for the conservation of Taxus species. PMID:27437172

  15. Phosphorylation of IGFBP-1 at discrete sites elicits variable effects on IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Abu Shehab, Majida; Iosef, Cristiana; Wildgruber, Robert; Sardana, Girish; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and leucine deprivation cause hyperphosphorylation of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) at discrete sites that markedly enhanced IGF-I affinity and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated cell growth. In this study we investigated the functional role of these phosphorylation sites using mutagenesis. We created three IGFBP-1 mutants in which individual serine (S119/S169/S98) residues were substituted with alanine and S101A was recreated for comparison. The wild-type (WT) and mutant IGFBP-1 were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and IGFBP-1 in cell media was isolated using isoelectric-focusing-free-flow electrophoresis. BIACore analysis indicated that the changes in IGF-I affinity for S98A and S169A were moderate, whereas S119A greatly reduced the affinity of IGFBP-1 for IGF-I (100-fold, P < .0001). Similar results were obtained with S101A. The IGF-I affinity changes of the mutants were reflected in their ability to inhibit IGF-I-induced receptor autophosphorylation. Employing receptor-stimulation assay using IGF-IR-overexpressing P6 cells, we found that WT-IGFBP-1 inhibited IGF-IRβ autophosphorylation (~2-fold, P < .001), possibly attributable to sequestration of IGF-I. Relative to WT, S98A and S169A mutants did not inhibit receptor autophosphorylation. S119A, on the other hand, greatly stimulated the receptor (2.3-fold, P < .05). The data with S101A matched S119A. In summary, we show that phosphorylation at S98 and S169 resulted in milder changes in IGF-I action; nonetheless most dramatic inhibitory effects on the biological activity of IGF-I were due to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119. Our results provide novel demonstration that IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119 can enhance affinity for IGF-I possibly through stabilization of the IGF-IGFBP-1 complex. These data also propose that the synergistic interaction of distinct phosphorylation sites may be important in eliciting more pronounced effects on IGF-I affinity that needs further

  16. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, igf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  17. Genetic variants in IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and adiponectin genes and colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Keku, Temitope O.; Vidal, Adriana; Oliver, Shannon; Hoyo, Catherine; Hall, Ingrid J.; Omofoye, Seun; McDoom, Maya; Worley, Kendra; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Millikan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluating genetic susceptibility may clarify effects of known environmental factors and also identify individuals at high risk. We evaluated the association of four insulin-related pathway gene polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) (CA)n repeat, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-II) (rs680), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) (rs2854744), and adiponectin (APM1 rs1501299) with colon cancer risk, as well as relationships with circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and C-peptide in a population-based study. Methods Participants were African Americans (231cases, 306 controls) and Whites (297 cases, 530 controls). Consenting subjects provided blood specimens, and lifestyle/diet information. Genotyping for all genes except IGF-I was performed by the 5′-exonuclease (Taqman) assay. The IGF-I (CA)n repeat was assayed by PCR, and fragment analysis. Circulating proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results The IGF-I (CA)19 repeat was higher in White controls (50%) than African American controls (31%). Whites homozygous for the IGF-I (CA)19 repeat had a nearly two fold increase in risk of colon cancer (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.15–2.73), but not African Americans (OR= 0.73, 95%CI 0.50–1.51). We observed an inverse association between the IGF-II Apa1 A-variant and colon cancer risk (OR= 0.49, 95%CI 0.28–0.88) in Whites only. Carrying the IGFBP-3 variant alleles was associated with lower IGFBP-3 protein levels, a difference most pronounced in Whites (p- trend < 0.05). Conclusions These results support an association between insulin pathway-related genes and elevated colon cancer risk in Whites but not in African Americans. PMID:22565227

  18. Ethinylestradiol differentially interferes with IGF-I in liver and extrahepatic sites during development of male and female bony fish.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Segner, Helmut; Eppler, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-12-01

    Growth and sexual development are closely interlinked in fish; however, no reports exist on potential effects of estrogen on the GH/IGF-I-axis in developing fish. We investigate whether estrogen exposure during early development affects growth and the IGF-I system, both at the systemic and tissue level. Tilapia were fed from 10 to 40 days post fertilization (DPF) with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)). At 50, 75, 90, and 165 DPF, length, weight, sex ratio, serum IGF-I (RIA), pituitary GH mRNA and IGF-I, and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA in liver, gonads, brain, and gills (real-time PCR) were determined and the results correlated to those of in situ hybridization for IGF-I. Developmental exposure to EE(2) had persistent effects on sex ratio and growth. Serum IGF-I, hepatic IGF-I mRNA, and the number of IGF-I mRNA-containing hepatocytes were significantly decreased at 75 DPF, while liver ERalpha mRNA was significantly induced. At 75 DPF, a transient decline of IGF-I mRNA and a largely reduced number of IGF-I mRNA-containing neurons were observed in the female brain. In both sexes, pituitary GH mRNA was significantly suppressed. A transient downregulation of IGF-I mRNA occurred in ovaries (75 DPF) and testes (90 DPF). In agreement, in situ hybridization revealed less IGF-I mRNA signals in granulosa and germ cells. Our results show for the first time that developmental estrogen treatment impairs GH/IGF-I expression in fish, and that the effects persist. These long-lasting effects both seem to be exerted indirectly via inhibition of pituitary GH and directly by suppression of local IGF-I in organ-specific cells. PMID:18000313

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in the rat anterior pituitary.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Jevdjovic, Tanja; Maake, Caroline; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Few and controversial results exist on the cellular sites of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I synthesis and the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) in mammalian anterior pituitary. Thus, the present study analysed IGF-I and the IGF-1R in rat pituitary. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed IGF-I and IGF-1R mRNA expression in pituitary. The sequences of both were identical to the corresponding sequences in other rat organs. In situ hybridization localized IGF-I mRNA in endocrine cells. The majority of the growth hormone (GH) cells and numerous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cells exhibited IGF-1R-immunoreactivity at the cell membrane. At lower densities, IGF-1 receptors were also present at the other hormone-producing cell types, indicating a physiological impact of IGF-I for all endocrine cells. IGF-I-immunoreactivity was located constantly in almost all ACTH-immunoreactive cells. At the ultrastructural level, IGF-I-immunoreactivity was confined to secretory granules in co-existence with ACTH-immunoreactivity, indicating a concomitant release of both hormones. Occasionally, IGF-I-immunoreactivity was detected in an interindividually varying number of GH cells. In some individuals, weak IGF-I-immunoreactions were also detected also in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone cells. Thus, IGF-I seems to be produced as a constituent in ACTH cells, possibly indicating its particular importance in stress response. Generally, IGF-I from the endocrine cells may regulate synthesis and/or release of hormones in an autocrine/paracrine manner as well as prevent apoptosis and stimulate proliferation. Production of IGF-I in GH cells may depend on the physiological status, most likely the serum IGF-I level. IGF-I released from GH cells may suppress GH synthesis and/or release by an autocrine feedback mechanism in addition to the endocrine route. PMID:17241280

  20. Fibronectin glycation increases IGF-I induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The advanced glycation end products, namely AGEs, contribute to long-termed complications of diabetes mellitus, including macroangiopathy, where smooth muscle cells (SMC) proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an AGE-modified extracellular matrix protein on IGF-I induced SMC proliferation and on the IGF-I-IGF binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) axis under basal conditions and after stimulation with PDGF-BB. IGF-I resulted in significantly higher thymidine incorporation in SMC seeded on AGE-modified fibronectin (AGE-FN) in comparison to cells seeded on fibronectin (FN). This augmented proliferation could not be accounted for by increased expression of IGF-IR, by decreased secretion of IGFBP-4, a binding protein that inhibits IGF-I mitogenic effects or by increased IGF-IR autophosphorylation. PDGF-BB did not modulate IGF-IR and IGFBP-4 mRNA expression in any of the substrata, however, this growth factor elicited opposite effects on the IGFBP-4 content in the conditioned media, increasing it in cells plated on FN and diminishing it in cells plated on AGE-FN. These findings suggest that one mechanism by which AGE-modified proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis might be by increasing SMC susceptibility to IGF-I mitogenic effects. PMID:22553932

  1. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea. PMID:25299201

  2. First insights into the genetic diversity of the pinewood nematode in its native area using new polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. PMID:23554990

  3. First Insights into the Genetic Diversity of the Pinewood Nematode in Its Native Area Using New Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci

    PubMed Central

    Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D.; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. PMID:23554990

  4. Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Sedum sarmentosum (Crassulaceae) and Their Cross-Species Transferability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Fu-Yuan; Wan, Ding-Rong; Wang, Sha; Xu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sedum sarmentosum is an important Chinese medicinal herb that exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-nociceptive properties. However, little is known about its genetic background. The first set of 14 microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for S. sarmentosum using an SSR-enriched library. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were acquired with satisfactory amplifications and a polymorphic pattern in 48 S. sarmentosum individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0833 to 0.8750 and 0.2168 to 0.9063, respectively. Two loci showed significant departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species amplification was carried out in other Sedum species. High rates of cross-species amplification were observed. The transferability value ranged from 85.7% in S. lineare to 64.3% in S. ellacombianum. These markers will be valuable for studying the genetic variation, population structure and germplasm characterization of S. sarmentosum and related Sedum species. PMID:26556327

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) misuse in athletes and potential methods for detection.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Cowan, David A; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2013-12-01

    To athletes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an attractive performance-enhancing drug, particularly as an alternative to growth hormone (GH) because IGF-I mediates many of the anabolic actions of GH. IGF-I has beneficial effects on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen storage that could enhance performance in several sporting disciplines. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) is used in clinical practice, but a variety of IGF-I compounds and IGF-I analogues are also advertised on the internet and many have been available on the black market for several years. Although methods for detecting GH misuse are now well established and there have been several cases in which athletes have tested positive for GH, no test is yet in place for detecting IGF-I misuse. The GH-2004 research group has been investigating methods for detection of IGF-I misuse and a test is being developed on the basis of the principles of the successful GH-2000 marker method, in which markers from the IGF axis and markers of collagen and bone turnover are used to detect GH misuse. Commercial immunoassays for these markers have been validated for anti-doping purposes but new methods, including IGF-I measurement by use of mass spectrometry, should improve the performance of the tests and help in the detection of athletes who are doping with these peptide hormones. PMID:23934394

  6. Tissue identity testing of cancer by short tandem repeat polymorphism: pitfalls of interpretation in the presence of microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Much, Melissa; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Tissue identity testing by short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism offers discriminating power in resolving tissue mix-up or contamination. However, one caveat is the presence of microsatellite unstable tumors, in which genetic alterations may drastically change the STR wild-type polymorphism leading to unexpected allelic discordance. We examined how tissue identity testing results can be altered by the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Eleven cases of MSI-unstable (9 intestinal and 2 endometrial adenocarcinomas) and 10 cases of MSI-stable tumors (all colorectal adenocarcinomas) were included. All had been previously tested by polymerase chain reaction testing at 5 National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommended MSI loci and/or immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). Tissue identity testing targeting 15 STR loci was performed using AmpF/STR Identifiler Amplification. Ten of 11 MSI-unstable tumors demonstrated novel alleles at 5 to 12 STR loci per case and frequently with 3 or more allelic peaks. However, all affected loci showed identifiable germline allele(s) in MSI-high tumors. A wild-type allelic profile was seen in 7 of 10 MSI-stable tumors. In the remaining 3 cases, isolated novel alleles were present at a unique single locus in addition to germline alleles. Loss of heterozygosity was observed frequently in both MSI-stable (6/11 cases) and MSI-unstable tumors (8/10 cases). In conclusion, MSI may significantly alter the wild-type allelic polymorphism, leading to potential interpretation errors of STR genotyping. Careful examination of the STR allelic pattern, high index of suspicion, and follow-up MSI testing are crucial to avoid erroneous conclusions and subsequent clinical and legal consequences. PMID:24444463

  7. Effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on total and free IGF-I concentrations, IGF-binding proteins, and glycemic response in humans.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, S A; Bukar, J; Chen, S A; Celniker, A C; Compton, P G; Cook, J; Albu, J; Perlman, A J; Hoffman, A R

    1992-07-01

    To examine the effects of repeated administration of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on IGF-I levels, free IGF-I pharmacokinetics, glycemic response, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), we administered rhIGF-I (0.03 mg/kg iv bolus) to 12 healthy males each morning for 5 consecutive days. Serum was collected over 24 h on days 1 and 5 for measurement of total and free IGF-I, glucose, insulin, and IGFBP. Total IGF-I was measured by RIA after acid/ethanol extraction. Free IGF-I was separated from binding protein-complexed IGF-I using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography before measurement by RIA. IGFBP were quantitated by optical densitometry of Western ligand blots. Total IGF-I increased significantly from 0-24 h after administration on day 1 (mean +/- SD, micrograms/L: 120 +/- 44 to 166 +/- 51, P = 0.0002) but did not increase significantly from 24 h on day 1 to 0 h on day 5 (166 +/- 51 to 178 +/- 62) or from 0-24 h on day 5 (178 +/- 62 to 209 +/- 89). The area under the total IGF-I concentration curve was greater on day 5 than day 1 (311 +/- 99 min.g/L vs. 249 +/- 77, P = 0.0001). There were no significant differences in free IGF-I concentration or pharmacokinetic parameters or in the degree or timing of hypoglycemia between days 1 and 5. Plasma insulin levels decreased significantly following rhIGF-I administration (day 1 baseline: 53 +/- 11 pmol/L, nadir: 18 +/- 6 pmol/L at 30 min, P = 0.003); day 5 baseline: 47 +/- 15 pmol/L, nadir: 16 +/- 8 pmol/L at 30 min, P = 0.0003. Western ligand blotting revealed the transient appearance of a 30-kilodalton band which migrates in a manner similar to IGFBP-1. This band was undetectable at baseline, peaked between 150 and 210 min after rhIGF-I administration, and diminished by 480-600 min. The response was similar on days 1 and 5. There were no substantial changes in the serum levels of any other IGFBP. In summary, repeated iv bolus administration of rhIGF-I increased the level of total

  8. Localized infusion of IGF-I results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) peptide levels have been shown to increase in overloaded skeletal muscles (G. R. Adams and F. Haddad. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2509-2516, 1996). In that study, the increase in IGF-I was found to precede measurable increases in muscle protein and was correlated with an increase in muscle DNA content. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that direct IGF-I infusion would result in an increase in muscle DNA as well as in various measurements of muscle size. Either 0.9% saline or nonsystemic doses of IGF-I were infused directly into a non-weight-bearing muscle of rats, the tibialis anterior (TA), via a fenestrated catheter attached to a subcutaneous miniosmotic pump. Saline infusion had no effect on the mass, protein content, or DNA content of TA muscles. Local IGF-I infusion had no effect on body or heart weight. The absolute weight of the infused TA muscles was approximately 9% greater (P < 0.05) than that of the contralateral TA muscles. IGF-I infusion resulted in significant increases in the total protein and DNA content of TA muscles (P < 0.05). As a result of these coordinated changes, the DNA-to-protein ratio of the hypertrophied TA was similar to that of the contralateral muscles. These results suggest that IGF-I may be acting to directly stimulate processes such as protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation, which result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  9. IGF-I levels and depressive disorders: results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Auer, M K; Klotsche, J; Athanasoulia, A P; Schneider, H J; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; John, U; Schulz, A; Freyberger, H J; Friedrich, N; Biffar, R; Stalla, G K; Wallaschofski, H; Grabe, H J

    2014-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo models revealed that the somatotropic system exerts central effects on the central nervous system. Disturbances to this system such as in the case of growth hormone deficiency or growth hormone excess, are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological data available regarding the influence of growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), on depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endogenous IGF-I levels may predict depression in humans. We included 4079 adult subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study with a 5-year follow-up period. The main predictor was the baseline IGF-I value categorized in three levels as <10th percentile, between the 10th and the 90th percentile (the reference group) and >90th percentile. The outcome measure was the incidence of depressive disorders according to the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, females with IGF-I levels below the 10th percentile had a higher incidence of depressive disorders during follow-up (OR 2.70 95% CI 1.38-5.28, p=0.004) compared to females within the reference group (10th-90th percentile). Among males, those with IGF-I levels above the 90th percentile had a higher risk of depressive disorder (OR 3.26 95% CI 1.52-6.98, p=0.002) than those within the 10th-90th percentile. In conclusion we can demonstrate that low IGF-I levels in females and high IGF-I levels in males predict the development of depressive disorders in this general adult population sample. PMID:24507017

  10. Systemic administration of rhIGF-I enhanced regeneration after sciatic nerve crush in mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, P C; Steffler, C; Yu, E; Callison, K; Stong, D; Vaught, J L

    1995-09-01

    Despite numerous reports suggesting that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may be involved in the survival and regeneration of damaged neurons in vitro and after local administration in vivo, there have been few studies on the effect of IGF-I administered systemically on regeneration of damaged nerves in vivo and the functional consequences of enhanced regeneration. In an earlier study, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) administered systemically enhanced the rate of regeneration after a sciatic crush as measured by the number of nerve fibers/muscle section. The purpose of this study was to follow up this finding by evaluating whether rhIGF-I administered peripherally enhances the rate of functional recovery. In this study following nerve injury, mice lost the ability to grip a wire screen with their hind paws and to walk normally as indicated by a decrease in toe spread, internal toe spread and an increase in the angle between hind feet. The ability of injured mice treated with rhIGF-I to grip an inverted screen returned to control levels significantly faster than that of vehicle-treated mice (day 12 vs. day 15, respectively). Similarly, rhIGF-I treatment of injured mice resulted in toe spread, internal toe spread and angle values that were significantly better than that of vehicle-treated mice and returned to control levels faster than vehicle-treated injured mice. There was a parallel loss of innervation after sciatic nerve crush as measured by a loss in choline acetyltransferase activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562520

  11. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  12. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, i gf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  13. Characterization of 22 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cosmopolitan fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two microsatellite loci were characterized in the soilborne plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae by analysis of the genome sequence. All loci were polymorphic in at least two of three populations of V. dahliae tested and collected from lettuce, spinach and tomato. These loci were us...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify seven microsatellite DNA loci isolated from the Common Loon (Gavia immer). The PCR primers were tested on 83 individuals from ten locations in North America, including breeding, migration stopover, and...

  15. Genetic diversity and origin of cultivated potatoes based on plastid microsatellite polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined, with 15 plastid microsatellite loci and with the 241 bp deletion marker characteristic of Chilean S. tuberosum, 392 accessions of cultivated and wild potato species, mostly from the experimental subset of the Russian National potato collection, recently characterized by nuclear microsat...

  16. Chararacteristics of Thirteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Corn Earworm, Helicovepa zea (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm, Helicovepa zea, is an important pest of cotton in the United States. Lack of suitable genetic markers have hindered population genetic studies of this species. Although a number of simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers developed for other species had been evaluated on...

  17. DNA polymorphisms at bermudagrass microsatellite loci and their use in genotype fingerprinting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economically important, turf-type bermudagrasses include diploid Cynodon transvaalensis, tetraploid C. dactylon, and sterile triploid hybrids produced by crosses of these species. The objective of this study was to develop a set of microsatellite markers that could be used to distinguish among c...

  18. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

  19. High resolution melting detects sequence polymorphism in rubus occidentalis L. monomorphic microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. However, primer pairs designed from the regions that flank SSRs often generate fragment...

  20. Effects of rhIGF-I administration on bone turnover during short-term fasting.

    PubMed Central

    Grinspoon, S K; Baum, H B; Peterson, S; Klibanski, A

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a nutritionally dependent bone trophic hormone which stimulates osteoblast function and collagen synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that in the fasting state, IGF-I levels would decline significantly and would establish a model in which we could investigate the effects of IGF-I administration on bone turnover. We therefore studied 14 normal women ages 19-33 (mean, 24 +/- 4 [SD] years) during a complete 10-d fast. After 4 d of fasting, subjects were randomized to receive rhIGF-I or placebo subcutaneously twice a day for 6 d. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation (osteocalcin and type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide [PICP]) and resorption (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide [N-telopeptide] and hydroxyproline). Serum levels of PICP and osteocalcin decreased from 143 +/- 52 to 60 +/- 28 ng/ml (P = 0.001) and from 7.6 +/- 5.4 to 4.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml (P = 0.001) respectively with 4 d of fasting. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline decreased from 96 +/- 63 to 47 +/- 38 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) and from 28 +/- 17 to 14 +/- 11 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) respectively. Mean IGF-I levels decreased from 310 +/- 81 to 186 +/- 78 ng/ml (P = 0.001). In the second part of the experimental protocol, serum osteocalcin and PICP levels increased 5- and 3-fold, respectively with rhIGF-I administration and were significantly elevated compared with the placebo group at the end of treatment (20.9 +/- 17.3 vs. 5.9 +/- 6.4 ng/ml for osteocalcin [P < 0.05] and 188 +/- 45 vs. 110 +/- 37 ng/ml for PICP [P < 0.05]). In contrast, all four markers of bone resorption, including urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, N-telopeptide and hydroxyproline were unchanged with rhIGF-I administration. This report is the first to demonstrate that bone turnover falls rapidly with acute caloric deprivation in normal women. RhIGF-I administration

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin. PMID:25730081

  2. Retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism, an electrophoretic approach for studying genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum geographical isolates.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Li, Xiao-Yan; Zou, Feng-Cai; Li, Hai-Long; Ai, Lin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) was used to examine genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different endemic provinces in mainland China, using S. japonicum from Japan and the Philippines for comparison. Of the 50 primer combinations screened, eight produced highly reproducible REMAP fragments. Using these primers, 190 distinct DNA fragments were generated in total, of which 147 (77.37%) were polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation among the 43 S. japonicum isolates examined. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) among S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, Japan, and the Philippines was 77.37%; PPB values of 18.42% and 53.68% were found among isolates from southwestern (SW) China and the lower Yangtze/Zhejiang province in eastern (E) China, respectively. Based on REMAP profiles, unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram analysis revealed that all of the S. japonicum samples grouped into three distinct clusters: parasites from mainland China, Japan, and the Philippines were clustered in each individual clade. Within the mainland China cluster, SW China isolates (from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces) grouped together, whereas worms from E China (Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Hunan, and Hubei provinces) grouped together. These results demonstrated that the REMAP marker system provides a reliable electrophoretic technique for studying genetic diversity and population structures of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, and could be applied to other pathogens of human and animal health significance. PMID:23019103

  3. Failure of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to diagnose growth hormone insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, H; Dattani, M; Nanduri, V; Hindmarsh, P; Preece, M; Brook, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Growth hormone insufficiency (GHI) is diagnosed conventionally by short stature and slow growth, and is confirmed by diminished peak GH response to a provocation test. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) have previously been considered individually
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that the combined analysis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 could act as a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of GHI.
DESIGN—Reference ranges for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were calculated using 521 normal individuals. A retrospective analysis was performed on 318 children referred for investigation of short stature.
RESULTS—No significant difference was found between either the IGF-I or IGFBP-3 standard deviation scores (SDSs) in children with and without GHI. If the requirement were for both tests to be positive (< −2 SDS) for a diagnosis of GHI, then 99% of children without GHI would be correctly identified; however, the sensitivity of the test was only 15%.
CONCLUSIONS—Neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 alone is a marker for GHI. In addition, they cannot be used as an effective screening test in combination.

 PMID:10208950

  4. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7–23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  5. IGF-I and TGF-beta1 have distinct effects on phenotype and proliferation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Simmons, James G; Pucilowska, Jolanta B; Keku, Temitope O; Lund, P Kay

    2002-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) are upregulated in myofibroblasts at sites of fibrosis in experimental enterocolitis and in Crohn's disease (CD). We compared the sites of expression of IGF-I and TGF-beta1 in a rat peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) model of chronic granulomatous enterocolitis and fibrosis. We used the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblast/myofibroblast cell line to test the hypothesis that TGF-beta1 and IGF-I interact to regulate proliferation, collagen synthesis, and activated phenotype typified by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and organization into stress fibers. IGF-I potently stimulated while TGF-beta1 inhibited basal DNA synthesis. TGF-beta1 and IGF-I each had similar but not additive effects to induce type I collagen. TGF-beta1 but not IGF-I potently stimulated expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and stress fiber formation. IGF-I in combination with TGF-beta1 attenuated stress fiber formation without reducing alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. Stress fibers were not a prerequisite for increased collagen synthesis. TGF-beta1 upregulated IGF-I mRNA, which led us to examine the effects of IGF-I in cells previously activated by TGF-beta1 pretreatment. IGF-I potently stimulated proliferation of TGF-beta1-activated myofibroblasts without reversing activated fibrogenic phenotype. We conclude that TGF-beta1 and IGF-I both stimulate type I collagen synthesis but have differential effects on activated phenotype and proliferation. We propose that during intestinal inflammation, regulation of activated phenotype and proliferation may require sequential actions of TGF-beta1 and IGF-I, but they may act in concert to increase collagen deposition. PMID:12181198

  6. Polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci for population genetics studies of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Pelecaniformes, Threskiornithidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2012-01-01

    We screened 44 heterologous microsatellites isolated in species of the families Threskiornithidae, Ciconiidae and Ardeidae for their use in a migratory waterbird, the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Threskiornithidae). Of the screened loci, 57% amplified successfully and 24% were polymorphic. In two breeding colonies from southern Brazil (N = 131) we detected 32 alleles (2–10 alleles/locus). Average He over all loci and colonies was 0.55, and the combined probability of excluding false parents, 98%. There was no departure from HWE in any loci or population. Eru6 and Eru4 loci were in non-random association in the Alvorada colony, and NnNF5 and Eru5 in both populations. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic diversity was contained within populations. Structure analysis suggested a single population, and FST value showed weak genetic structuring (FST = 0.009, p = 0.05). The two populations are apparently connected through gene-flow. The panel of six microsatellites optimized here was sufficiently informative for characterizing the genetic diversity and structure in these natural populations of the white-faced ibis. The information generated could be useful in future studies of genetic diversity, relatedness and the mating system in Plegadis chihi and related species. PMID:22481877

  7. Loss of serum IGF-I input to the brain as an early biomarker of disease onset in Alzheimer mice

    PubMed Central

    Trueba-Sáiz, A; Cavada, C; Fernandez, A M; Leon, T; González, D A; Fortea Ormaechea, J; Lleó, A; Del Ser, T; Nuñez, A; Torres-Aleman, I

    2013-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) enters the brain and promotes clearance of amyloid peptides known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Both patients and mouse models of AD show decreased level of circulating IGF-I enter the brain as evidenced by a lower ratio of cerebrospinal fluid/plasma IGF-I. Importantly, in presymptomatic AD mice this reduction is already manifested as a decreased brain input of serum IGF-I in response to environmental enrichment. To explore a potential diagnostic use of this early loss of IGF-I input, we monitored electrocorticogram (ECG) responses to systemic IGF-I in mice. Whereas control mice showed enhanced ECG activity after IGF-I, presymptomatic AD mice showed blunted ECG responses. Because nonhuman primates showed identically enhanced electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in response to systemic IGF-I, loss of the EEG signature of serum IGF-I may be exploited as a disease biomarker in AD patients. PMID:24301648

  8. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Killarney Fern (Vandenboschia speciosa, Hymenophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M. del Carmen; Schuler, Samira Ben-Menni; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Nieto-Lugilde, Marta; Terrón-Camero, Laura; Aguilera, Ismael Mazuecos; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We characterize 10 microsatellite loci in the endangered fern Vandenboschia speciosa (Hymenophyllaceae), enabling studies on the genetic population structure of this Macaronesian-European species using DNA hypervariable markers. Methods and Results: Ten primer sets were developed and tested on 47 individuals in a total of two Iberian populations of V. speciosa. The primers amplified di- and hexanucelotide repeats. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.107 to 0.807 among the populations analyzed. Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed will be useful in characterizing the genetic diversity of V. speciosa and understanding its population structure (including the possible structure between sporophyte and gametophyte phases) and biogeographic history, and will provide important genetic data for the conservation of this species. PMID:26649267

  9. Long R3 insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) infusion stimulates organ growth but reduces plasma IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF binding protein concentrations in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Conlon, M A; Tomas, F M; Owens, P C; Wallace, J C; Howarth, G S; Ballard, F J

    1995-08-01

    We have tested whether an animal with substantial amounts of both IGF-I and IGF-II in circulation, such as the guinea pig, would respond to chronic IGF infusion in the same manner as the adult rat, which has negligible amounts of IGF-II in blood. Female guinea pigs of 350 g body weight were continuously infused for 7 days with recombinant guinea pig IGF-I or -II (120 or 360 micrograms/day) or long R3 IGF-I (LR3IGF-I) (120 micrograms/day), an analogue which has much reduced affinities for IGF binding proteins. IGF-I or IGF-II infusion led to substantial increases in plasma IGF-I or IGF-II respectively in comparison with vehicle-infused animals. Nevertheless, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and carcass composition were not significantly affected by any treatment (significance was deemed to be P < 0.05). Amongst the tissues examined only the fractional weight (g/kg body weight) of the adrenals was increased, and that only by the higher dose (360 micrograms/day) of IGF-I. However, the fractional weight of adrenals, gut, kidneys and spleen were significantly increased by LR3IGF-I, but again overall growth was not stimulated. A possible explanation for the lack of IGF-I effects is that total circulating IGF concentrations were not increased by these treatments. IGF-II significantly raised total IGF concentrations at the higher dose only. Plasma IGF-I was reduced by IGF-II infusion, as was plasma IGF-II by IGF-I infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7561636

  10. Growth hormone, IGF-I and insulin and their abuse in sport

    PubMed Central

    Holt, R I G; Sönksen, P H

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread anecdotal evidence that growth hormone (GH) is used by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic properties. Although there is little evidence that GH improves performance in young healthy adults, randomized controlled studies carried out so far are inadequately designed to demonstrate this, not least because GH is often abused in combination with anabolic steroids and insulin. Some of the anabolic actions of GH are mediated through the generation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and it is believed that this is also being abused. Athletes are exposing themselves to potential harm by self-administering large doses of GH, IGF-I and insulin. The effects of excess GH are exemplified by acromegaly. IGF-I may mediate and cause some of these changes, but in addition, IGF-I may lead to profound hypoglycaemia, as indeed can insulin. Although GH is on the World Anti-doping Agency list of banned substances, the detection of abuse with GH is challenging. Two approaches have been developed to detect GH abuse. The first is based on an assessment of the effect of exogenous recombinant human GH on pituitary GH isoforms and the second is based on the measurement of markers of GH action. As a result, GH abuse can be detected with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Testing for IGF-I and insulin is in its infancy, but the measurement of markers of GH action may also detect IGF-I usage, while urine mass spectroscopy has begun to identify the use of insulin analogues. PMID:18376417

  11. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 and 1298 polymorphisms, folate intake, and microsatellite instability in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Allison M; Sandler, Robert; Carethers, John M; Millikan, Robert C; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O

    2005-08-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a critical role in folate metabolism. Studies on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and length changes in short tandem repeat DNA sequences [microsatellite instability (MSI)] are inconsistent. Using data from colon cancer cases (n=503) enrolled as part of an existing population-based case-control study, we investigated the association between MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 polymorphisms and MSI. We also examined whether the association was modified by folate intake. Participants were case subjects enrolled as part of the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Consenting cases provided information about lifestyle and diet during in-home interviews as well as blood specimens and permission to obtain tumor blocks. DNA from normal and tumor tissue sections was used to determine microsatellite status (MSI). Tumors were classified as MSI if two or more microsatellite markers (BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250) had changes in the number of DNA sequence repeats compared with matched nontumor tissue. Tumors with one positive marker (MSI-low) or no positive markers (microsatellite stable) were grouped together as non-MSI tumors (microsatellite stable). MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR using the 5' exonuclease (Taqman) assay. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.4) and in current smokers (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6-9.7). Compared with MTHFR 677 CC referent, MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI among White cases (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81) but not significant among African Americans. Although not statistically significant, a similar inverse association was observed between MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype and MSI among the entire case subjects (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.26-1.10). Among those with adequate folate intake (>400 microg total folate

  12. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. Methods We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. Results TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Conclusion Using the first

  13. Dephosphorylation of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor exhibits structural and functional similarities to the insulin receptor. Although the regulation of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor have received only little attention. To obtain a better understanding of the mode of IGF-I action, we have investigated the effects of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) on the phosphorylation status of the IGF-I receptor. The dephosphorylation of the human IGF-I receptor by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases was studied by an immuno-enzymic assay based on the recognition of phosphotyrosine residues by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using intact IGF-I receptors as substrates, we show that they could be completely dephosphorylated by different cellular PTPases. Three pieces of evidence indicate that receptor dephosphorylation takes place on phosphotyrosine, i.e. the inhibition profile of phosphatase activity by zinc and vanadate, its absolute requirement for thiol compounds and the diminution of [32P]phosphotyrosine labelling of the beta subunit assessed by SDS/PAGE and phosphoamino acid analysis. Tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PTPases, indicating that partial dephosphorylation of the receptor was associated with a decrease in its intrinsic activity. The sensitivity of the activated human IGF-I receptor to dephosphorylation on tyrosine leads to the speculation that IGF-I receptor activity might be regulated by mechanisms such as those described for the insulin receptor. Further investigation of the pathways of IGF-I receptor dephosphorylation will contribute to define the role(s) of PTPases in the overall mechanism of IGF-I signalling. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1322128

  14. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers of Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a North American Pest Invading Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenxia; Shang, Xingpu

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for epidemiological studies on the black locust gall midge Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a native North America pest introduced to Europe and Asia. Polymorphism at each locus was tested on 68 individuals from six populations reared from infected host leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. collected in China. Fourteen loci were found to be polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 3 to 10. The observed heterozygosity varied evenly from 0.2667 to 0.6540. For populations, the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.1429 to 1.000. The allele frequency of the predominant allele varied from 0.250 to 0.500. All loci with negative FST values indicated heterozygote excess in each locus with six populations. Of 14 loci, four were observed to have FST values up to 0.05, which indicated negligible genetic differentiation within the population. Significant deviations (P < 0.05) from the expected Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, as evaluated using the Markov chain algorithm for each locus and for all six populations, were observed, and genotypic linkage disequilibrium was clearly detected. These markers represent a useful tool to design strategies for integrated pest management and in the study of population evolution in this important introduced pest. PMID:26386040

  15. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates. PMID:10736029

  16. Development of 22 Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Critically Endangered Morato’s Digger Toad, Proceratophrys moratoi

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Maurício Papa; Costa, William Pinheiro; Silva, Carla Cristina; Pimentel, Shirlei Maria Recco

    2012-01-01

    The Morato’s digger toad (Proceratophrys moratoi) inhabits Brazilian moist savannas and is critically endangered due to its very limited geographic distribution, reduced number of isolated populations, and evidence of population decline and local extinctions. With the objective of providing tools for the genetic study of the species, 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and screened using DNA extracted from samples of oral mucosa cells obtained from 113 individuals representing five remnant P. moratoi populations in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. These markers presented 2–18 alleles per locus, polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.02–0.87, observed heterozygosity of 0.02–0.96 and expected heterozygosity of 0.02–0.87. Three of the loci deviated significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in one of the populations, possibly due to the presence of null alleles. Significant linkage disequilibrium was also detected between three pairs of loci. The molecular markers developed in this study were able to discriminate each of the individuals sampled (identity analysis). This means that they will be extremely useful for future genetic studies applied to the conservation of P. moratoi, providing a baseline for estimating the levels of genetic diversity, pedigrees, inbreeding, and population structure, which will be essential for the development of effective genetic management programs. PMID:23202897

  17. Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatment of diabetic rats with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and des(1-3)IGF-I.

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Read, L C; Chandler, C S; Gargosky, S E; Ballard, F J

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the effects of infusing recombinant human growth hormone (hGH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), the truncated IGF-I analogue, des(1-3)IGF-I, and insulin over a 7-day period in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. IGF-I at a dose of 1.05 or 1.08 mg/kg per day in two experiments increased body weight and nitrogen retention above those of vehicle-infused controls to about 30% of the improvement achieved with 25 or 30 units of insulin/kg per day, but only in the second experiment were the differences statistically significant (P less than 0.05). A 2.5-fold higher IGF-I dose, or des(1-3)IGF-I at 1.08 mg/kg per day, gave effects that were approx. 70% of those obtained with insulin. hGH at 1.38 mg/kg per day was not effective. The IGF peptides, unlike insulin, did not ameliorate the diabetic glucosuria. The improvements in nitrogen balance could be accounted for in part by increases in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle protein breakdown, as assessed by 3-methylhistidine excretion, was inhibited by insulin, but not by the IGF peptides. Carcass fat increased substantially following insulin administration. This did not occur with the IGF peptides, suggesting that IGF predominantly stimulates the growth of lean tissue. IGF-I concentrations and IGF-I-binding proteins in plasma were increased by IGF-I, especially at the higher dose, whereas hGH produced only a transient increase in IGF-I. Des(1-3)IGF-I induced binding proteins, but had only a slight effect on measured IGF-I concentrations. We conclude that IGF peptides stimulate muscle protein synthesis and improve nitrogen balance in diabetes without obviously influencing the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, des(1-3)IGF-I is at least as potent as the full-length IGF-I. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1710892

  18. REGULATION OF ERK EXPRESSION BY MUSCLE IGF-I "IN VIVO" DETERMINES THE CAPACITY FOR MYONUCLEAR PROLIFERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local IGF-I enhances muscle growth by stimulating protein synthesis and myonuclear accretion. This response, however, is not sustained upon chronic exposure to high levels of IGF-I, and we determined previously that this limited response was associated with a decrease in the amount of muscle ERK pro...

  19. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor phosphorylation in µ-calpain knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous cellular processes are controlled by insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways. Due to previous work in our laboratories, we hypothesized that insulin (IR) and type 1 IGF-I (IGF-IR) receptor signaling is decreased due to increased protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity. C57BL/6J mice...

  20. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J; Green, A J; Figuerola, J; Amat, F; Rico, C

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many hypersaline aquatic ecosystems of other continents. Parthenogenetic Artemia lineages occur only in the Old World. Ten and five microsatellite markers were developed to characterize two populations for A. franciscana and two populations for diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, respectively. For A. franciscana the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 58 per locus, while for parthenogens the number of alleles ranged from three to 10. The levels of heterozygosity in A. franciscana and in parthenogens ranged from 0.115 to 0.976 and from 0.000 to 0.971, respectively. These microsatellite loci showed a high population assignment power, which will be useful for future studies of population genetics and invasive processes in Artemia. PMID:21564689

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulation of Osteoblastogenesis in Human MSCs Requires IGF-I Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaonan; Glowacki, Julie; Hahne, Jochen; Xie, Li; LeBoff, Meryl S; Zhou, Shuanhu

    2016-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an adrenal steroid that circulates in high concentrations in humans in its sulfated form, DHEAS. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggested that low DHEAS levels may be associated with low bone mass. Previously, we and others showed that the effects of DHEA on the skeleton may be conferred partly by their ability to inhibit skeletal catabolic agents, for example, bone resorptive cytokine IL-6. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anabolic effects of DHEA on osteoblastogenesis require IGF-I signaling pathways. Using both primary cultures and a cell line of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we show that DHEA and other steroids stimulate osteoblastogenesis as shown by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast gene induction. The stimulation by DHEA on both IGF-I gene expression and osteoblastogenesis in hMSCs requires IGF-I receptor, PI3K, p38 MAPK, or p42/44 MAPK signaling pathways. This study adds information to indicate that DHEA may be useful for treating bone diseases through its inhibition of skeletal catabolic IL-6 and stimulation of anabolic IGF-I-mediated mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1769-1774, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26682953

  2. Persistent IGF-I overexpression in skeletal muscle transiently enhances DNA accretion and growth.

    PubMed

    Fiorotto, Marta L; Schwartz, Robert J; Delaughter, M Craig

    2003-01-01

    Adult transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I have enlarged skeletal muscles. In this study, we; 1) characterized the development of muscle hypertrophy with respect to fiber type, age, and sex; 2) determined the primary anabolic process responsible for development of hypertrophy; and 3) identified secondary effects of muscle hypertrophy on body composition. Transgene expression increased with age and was present only in fibers expressing type IIB fast myosin heavy chain. Muscle masses were greater by 5 wk of age, and by 10 wk of age the differences were maximal despite continued transgene expression. Total DNA and RNA contents of the gastrocnemius muscle were greater for transgenic mice than for nontransgenic littermates. The differences were maximal by 5 wk of age and preceded the increase in protein mass. The accelerated protein deposition ceased when the protein/DNA ratio attained the same value as in nontransgenic controls. Despite localization of IGF-I expression to muscle without changes in plasma IGF-I concentrations, genotype also modified the normal age and sex effects on fat deposition and organ growth. Thus, enhanced DNA accretion by IGF-I was primarily responsible for stimulating muscle growth. In turn, secondary effects on body composition were incurred that likely reflect the impact of muscle mass on whole body metabolism. PMID:12528713

  3. Acute regulation of IGF-I by alterations in post-exercise macronutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise ...

  4. LOCAL IGF-I ENHANCES THE SENSITIVITY OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TO INSULIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the immature muscle is highly sensitive to insulin and nutrients. We hypothesized that the sensitivity is due to local IGFs expressed at a significant level by immature muscle. To test the hypothesis, 3-wk-old transgenic mice with high muscle-specific IGF-I expr...

  5. Targeting quiescent tumor cells via oxygen and IGF-I supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Alastair H; Baker, Jennifer H E; Minchinton, Andrew I

    2012-02-01

    Conventional chemotherapy targets proliferating cancer cells, but most cells in solid tumors are not in a proliferative state. Thus, strategies to enable conventional chemotherapy to target noncycling cells may greatly increase tumor responsiveness. In this study, we used a 3-dimensional tissue culture system to assay diffusible factors that can limit proliferation in the context of the tumor microenvironment, with the goal of identifying targets to heighten proliferative capacity in this setting. We found that supraphysiologic levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in combination with oxygen supplementation were sufficient to initiate proliferation of quiescence cells in this system. At maximal induction with IGF-I, net tissue proliferation increased 3- to 4-fold in the system such that chemotherapy could trigger a 3- to 6-fold increase in cytotoxicity, compared with control conditions. These effects were confirmed in vivo in colon cancer xenograft models with demonstrations that IGF-I receptor stimulation was sufficient to generate a 45% increase in tumor cell proliferation, along with a 25% to 50% increase in chemotherapy-induced tumor growth delay. Although oxygen was a dominant factor limiting in vitro tumor cell proliferation, we found that oxygen supplementation via pure oxygen breathing at 1 or 2 atmospheres pressure (mimicking hyperbaric therapy) did not decrease hypoxia in the tumor xenograft mouse model and was insufficient to increase tumor proliferation. Thus, our findings pointed to IGF-I receptor stimulation as a rational strategy to successfully increase tumor responsiveness to cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:22158947

  6. A novel, non-invasive transdermal fluid sampling methodology: IGF-I measurement following exercise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that transdermal fluid (TDF) provides a more sensitive and accurate measure of exercise-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) than serum, and that these increases are detectable proximal, but not distal, to the exercising muscle. A novel, noninvas...

  7. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Provenzano, Paolo P; Alejandro-Osorio, Adriana L; Grorud, Kelley W; Martinez, Daniel A; Vailas, Arthur C; Grindeland, Richard E; Vanderby, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a crucial role in wound healing and tissue repair. We tested the hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I, or growth hormone (GH), or both (GH+IGF-I) would improve healing in collagenous connective tissue, such as ligament. These hypotheses were examined in rats that were allowed unrestricted activity after injury and in animals that were subjected to hindlimb disuse. Male rats were assigned to three groups: ambulatory sham-control, ambulatory-healing, and hindlimb unloaded-healing. Ambulatory and hindlimb unloaded animals underwent surgical disruption of their knee medial collateral ligaments (MCLs), while sham surgeries were performed on control animals. Healing animals subcutaneously received systemic doses of either saline, GH, IGF-I, or GH+IGF-I. After 3 weeks, mechanical properties, cell and matrix morphology, and biochemical composition were examined in control and healing ligaments. Results Tissues from ambulatory animals receiving only saline had significantly greater strength than tissue from saline receiving hindlimb unloaded animals. Addition of IGF-I significantly improved maximum force and ultimate stress in tissues from both ambulatory and hindlimb unloaded animals with significant increases in matrix organization and type-I collagen expression. Addition of GH alone did not have a significant effect on either group, while addition of GH+IGF-I significantly improved force, stress, and modulus values in MCLs from hindlimb unloaded animals. Force, stress, and modulus values in tissues from hindlimb unloaded animals receiving IGF-I or GH+IGF-I exceeded (or were equivalent to) values in tissues from ambulatory animals receiving only saline with greatly improved structural organization and significantly increased type-I collagen expression. Furthermore, levels of IGF-receptor were significantly increased in tissues from hindlimb unloaded animals treated with IGF-I. Conclusion These results

  8. Contribution of Residue B5 to the Folding and Function of Insulin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sohma, Youhei; Hua, Qing-xin; Liu, Ming; Phillips, Nelson B.; Hu, Shi-Quan; Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J.; Ng, Aubree; Roberts, Charles T.; Arvan, Peter; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Proinsulin exhibits a single structure, whereas insulin-like growth factors refold as two disulfide isomers in equilibrium. Native insulin-related growth factor (IGF)-I has canonical cystines (A6—A11, A7–B7, and A20—B19) maintained by IGF-binding proteins; IGF-swap has alternative pairing (A7–A11, A6—B7, and A20—B19) and impaired activity. Studies of mini-domain models suggest that residue B5 (His in insulin and Thr in IGFs) governs the ambiguity or uniqueness of disulfide pairing. Residue B5, a site of mutation in proinsulin causing neonatal diabetes, is thus of broad biophysical interest. Here, we characterize reciprocal B5 substitutions in the two proteins. In insulin, HisB5 → Thr markedly destabilizes the hormone (ΔΔGu 2.0 ± 0.2 kcal/mol), impairs chain combination, and blocks cellular secretion of proinsulin. The reciprocal IGF-I substitution ThrB5 → His (residue 4) specifies a unique structure with native 1H NMR signature. Chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effects are similar to those of native IGF-I. Whereas wild-type IGF-I undergoes thiol-catalyzed disulfide exchange to yield IGF-swap, HisB5-IGF-I retains canonical pairing. Chemical denaturation studies indicate that HisB5 does not significantly enhance thermodynamic stability (ΔΔGu 0.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol), implying that the substitution favors canonical pairing by destabilizing competing folds. Whereas the activity of ThrB5-insulin is decreased 5-fold, HisB5-IGF-I exhibits 2-fold increased affinity for the IGF receptor and augmented post-receptor signaling. We propose that conservation of ThrB5 in IGF-I, rescued from structural ambiguity by IGF-binding proteins, reflects fine-tuning of signal transduction. In contrast, the conservation of HisB5 in insulin highlights its critical role in insulin biosynthesis. PMID:19959476

  9. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, J.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

  11. Differential effects of STAT proteins on growth hormone-mediated IGF-I gene expression.

    PubMed

    Varco-Merth, Ben; Rotwein, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role regulating somatic growth and in controlling metabolism and other physiological processes in humans and other animal species. GH acts by binding to the extracellular part of its transmembrane receptor, leading to induction of multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways that culminate in changes in gene and protein expression. A key agent in GH-stimulated growth is the latent transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5B, one of four STAT proteins induced by the GH receptor in cultured cells and in vivo. As shown by genetic and biochemical studies, GH-activated STAT5B promotes transcription of the gene encoding the critical growth peptide, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and natural null mutations of STAT5B in humans lead to growth failure accompanied by diminished IGF-I expression. Here we have examined the possibility that other GH-activated STATs can enhance IGF-I gene transcription, and thus potentially contribute to GH-regulated somatic growth. We find that human STAT5A is nearly identical to STAT5B in its biochemical and functional responses to GH but that STAT1 and STAT3 show a weaker profile of in vitro binding to STAT DNA elements from the IGF-I gene than STAT5B, and are less potent inducers of gene transcription through these elements. Taken together, our results offer a molecular explanation for why STAT5B is a key in vivo mediator of GH-activated IGF-I gene transcription and thus of GH-regulated somatic growth. PMID:25205818

  12. Antagonists of IGF:Vitronectin Interactions Inhibit IGF-I-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Abhishek S; Shooter, Gary K; Shokoohmand, Ali; McGovern, Jacqui; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Croll, Tristan I; Cane, Gaëlle; Leavesley, David I; Söderberg, Ola; Upton, Zee; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-07-01

    We provide proof-of-concept evidence for a new class of therapeutics that target growth factor:extracellular matrix (GF:ECM) interactions for the management of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) forms multiprotein complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) and the ECM protein vitronectin (VN), and stimulates the survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. For the first time we provide physical evidence for IGFBP-3:VN interactions in breast cancer patient tissues; these interactions were predominantly localized to tumor cell clusters and in stroma surrounding tumor cells. We show that disruption of IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complexes with L(27)-IGF-II inhibits IGF-I:IGFBP:VN-stimulated breast cancer cell migration and proliferation in two- and three-dimensional assay systems. Peptide arrays screened to identify regions critical for the IGFBP-3/-5:VN and IGF-II:VN interactions demonstrated IGFBP-3/-5 and IGF-II binds VN through the hemopexin-2 domain, and VN binds IGFBP-3 at residues not involved in the binding of IGF-I to IGFBP-3. IGFBP-interacting VN peptides identified from these peptide arrays disrupted the IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complex, impeded the growth of primary tumor-like spheroids and, more importantly, inhibited the invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells in 3D assay systems. These studies provide first-in-field evidence for the utility of small peptides in antagonizing GF:ECM-mediated biologic functions and present data demonstrating the potential of these peptide antagonists as novel therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1602-13. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196774

  13. Cloning, characterization and tissue specific expression of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Lian; Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-He; Hou, Rong; Shen, Fu-Jun; Li, Fu-Zhen; Zhang, An-Ju

    2006-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays an important role in regulating gonad function, which is essential for normal reproduction in animals, especially in sexual receptivity and reproductive behavior. In this study, a cDNA encoding Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) IGF-I was isolated from liver total RNA using RT-PCR. The IGF-I cDNA of Amur tiger (ATIGF-I) was highly homologous to that of other animals, 84.8% to rat, 93.7% to human and horse. Alignment analysis showed that the cysteine residues and many amino acid residues of putative mature ATIGF-I are highly conserved in mammalian species, confirming the high sequence homology observed in other species. DNA encoding the mature ATIGF-I peptide was ligated with pET-DsbA expression vector and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with IPTG induction. The recombinant proteins expressed existed mostly in the soluble protein fraction, and were purified with metal affinity resins. Western blotting confirmed that the recombinant proteins reacted with antibodies against IGF-I. The results obtained here should be useful for large-scale production of biological active ATIGF-I protein, as well as for further research on growth, development, and reproduction in the Amur tiger. Tissue specific expression of ATIGF-I mRNA in the Amur tiger was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), The major ATIGF-I mRNA expression tissue was the liver, while medium signals were found in the uterus, ovary, and pituitary, and minor signals were detected in various tissues including the heart, spleen, pancreas, and kidney. The results indicate that IGF-I might play an important role in the reproductive system and in cub development in the Amur tiger. PMID:16926496

  14. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age. PMID:27560704

  15. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  16. Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José; Swanson, Steven M; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice developed mammary tumors compared with GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared with diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status. PMID:25085903

  17. Regulation of Human Trophoblast GLUT1 Glucose Transporter by Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Marc U.; Schneider, Henning; Malek, Antoine; Palta, Vidya; Surbek, Daniel V.; Sager, Ruth; Zamudio, Stacy; Illsley, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose transport to the fetus across the placenta takes place via glucose transporters in the opposing faces of the barrier layer, the microvillous and basal membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast. While basal membrane content of the GLUT1 glucose transporter appears to be the rate-limiting step in transplacental transport, the factors regulating transporter expression and activity are largely unknown. In view of the many studies showing an association between IGF-I and fetal growth, we investigated the effects of IGF-I on placental glucose transport and GLUT1 transporter expression. Treatment of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells with IGF-I increased cellular GLUT1 protein. There was increased basolateral (but not microvillous) uptake of glucose and increased transepithelial transport of glucose across the BeWo monolayer. Primary syncytial cells treated with IGF-I also demonstrated an increase in GLUT1 protein. Term placental explants treated with IGF-I showed an increase in syncytial basal membrane GLUT1 but microvillous membrane GLUT1 was not affected. The placental dual perfusion model was used to assess the effects of fetally perfused IGF-I on transplacental glucose transport and syncytial GLUT1 content. In control perfusions there was a decrease in transplacental glucose transport over the course of the perfusion, whereas in tissues perfused with IGF-I through the fetal circulation there was no change. Syncytial basal membranes from IGF-I perfused tissues showed an increase in GLUT1 content. These results demonstrate that IGF-I, whether acting via microvillous or basal membrane receptors, increases the basal membrane content of GLUT1 and up-regulates basal membrane transport of glucose, leading to increased transepithelial glucose transport. These observations provide a partial explanation for the mechanism by which IGF-I controls nutrient supply in the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25157747

  18. Association between Serum IGF-I levels and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Subjects Undergoing Elective Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Timothy E.; Allen, John C.; Rivelli, Sarah K.; Patterson, Stephanie C.; Metcalf, Meredith R.; Flink, Benjamin J.; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Lagoo, Sandhya A.; Vail, Thomas P.; Young, Christopher C.; Moon, Richard E.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kwatra, Madan M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is mixed for an association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and postoperative delirium (POD). The current study assessed preoperative serum IGF-I levels as a predictor of incident delirium in non-demented elderly elective knee arthroplasty patients. Preoperative serum levels of total IGF-I were measured using a commercially available Human IGF-I ELISA kit. POD incidence and severity were determined using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), respectively. Median IGF-I levels in delirious (62.6 ng/ml) and non-delirious groups (65.9 ng/ml) were not significantly different (p = 0.141). The ratio (95% CI) of geometric means, D/ND, was 0.86 (0.70, 1.06). The Hodges-Lehmann median difference estimate was 7.23 ng/mL with 95% confidence interval (−2.32, 19.9). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I level was not a significant predictor of incident POD after correcting for medical comorbidities. IGF-I levels did not correlate with DRS-R98 scores for delirium severity. In conclusion, we report no evidence of association between serum IGF-I levels and incidence of POD, although the sample size was inadequate for a conclusive study. Further efforts to investigate IGF-I as a delirium risk factor in elderly should address comorbidities and confounders that influence IGF-I levels. PMID:26846868

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in a growth-enhanced transgenic (GH-overexpressing) bony fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): indication for a higher impact of autocrine/paracrine than of endocrine IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Caelers, Antje; Shved, Natallia; Hwang, Guylin; Rahman, Azizur M; Maclean, Norman; Zapf, Jürgen; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-08-01

    Several lines of growth hormone (GH)-overexpressing fish have been produced and analysed for growth and fertility parameters. However, only few data are available on the growth-promoting hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) that mediates most effects of GH, and these are contradictory. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and radiochromatography we investigated IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in an adult (17 months old) transgenic (GH-overexpressing) tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The transgenics showed an around 1.5-fold increase in length and an approximately 2.3-fold higher weight than the non-transgenics. Using radioimmunoassay, the serum IGF-I levels were lower (6.22 +/- 0.75 ng/ml) in transgenic than in wild-type (15.01 +/- 1.49 ng/ml) individuals (P = 0.0012). Radioimmunoassayable IGF-I in transgenic liver was 4.2-times higher than in wild-type (16.0 +/- 2.21 vs. 3.83 +/- 0.71 ng/g, P = 0.0017). No hepatocytes in wild-type but numerous hepatocytes in transgenic liver contained IGF-I-immunoreactivity. RT-PCR revealed a 1.4-times higher IGF-I mRNA expression in the liver of the transgenics (10.51 +/- 0.82 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.49 pg/microg total RNA, P = 0.0032). In correspondence, in situ hybridization showed more IGF-I mRNA containing hepatocytes in the transgenics. A twofold elevated IGF-I mRNA expression was determined in the skeletal muscle of transgenics (0.33 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.01 pg/microg total RNA, P < 0.0001). Both liver and serum of transgenics showed increased IGF-I binding. The increased IGFBP content in the liver may lead to retention of IGF-I, and/or the release of IGF-I into the circulation may be slower resulting in accumulation of IGF-I in the hepatocytes. Our results indicate that the enhanced growth of the transgenics likely is due to enhanced autocrine/paracrine action of IGF-I in extrahepatic sites, as shown here for skeletal muscle. PMID:17431805

  20. Geographic distribution of chromosome and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms in Oncorhynchus mykiss native to western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Thorgaard, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome studies of native populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead and rainbow trout) in western Washington and southern British Columbia revealed the presence of two evolutionarily distinct chromosome lineages. Populations between, and including, the Elwha River, Washington, and Chilliwack River, British Columbia, contained 2n = 60 chromosomes. Populations on the central Washington coast contained 2n = 58 chromosomes. The north Washington coast and western Strait of Juan de Fuca contained individuals with 58, 59, or 60 chromosomes, suggesting this is a transition zone between 58 and 60 chromosome groups. The differences in chromosomal structure between 2n = 58 and 2n = 60 groups are presumably a Robertsonian rearrangement and an inversion. Allelic variation at three microsatellite loci (One ??6, One ??11 and Omy 77) also was examined, and no significant variation was detected among the 58 and 60 chromosome races. A hypothesis is presented concerning the origin of the 60 chromosome lineage.

  1. Very low microsatellite polymorphism and large heterozygote deficits suggest founder effects and cryptic structure in the parasite Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Román; Cao, Asunción; Pardo, Belén G; Fernández, Sergio; Villalba, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino

    2011-07-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers were used to characterize 130 clonal cultures of Perkinsus olseni derived from 30 clams from six different geographic locations. Only two loci were polymorphic in the four populations studied from Spanish coast (mean sample size = 31.2), and a third locus was variable in only two populations. In contrast, five parasites isolated from five clams from Japan and New Zealand showed variation at nine loci. Low genetic variation (2.08 ± 0.64 alleles per locus; mean genetic diversity: 0.101 ± 0.022), and very high F(IS) values (0.857 on average) were observed in Spanish populations. A total of 39 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified in the whole sample (121 clonal isolates after excluding incomplete MLGs due to missing data). A three-level hierarchical analysis of molecular variance found significant levels of genetic variation within infrapopulations (all the parasites in a single host; Φ(IS) = 0.679) and among infrapopulations within the component population (all the parasites among a host population; Φ(SC) = 0.579). Differences among the component population from different geographic locations were not significant (Φ(CT) = 0.057). These results suggest that an important fraction of F(IS) is explained by the Wahlund effect, but also strong inbreeding within infrapopulations. Another explanation for the high F(IS) within infrapopulations is the presence of haploid and diploid stages in the clam. Although fully aquatic system provides many opportunities for mixing of parasites from different clams, results are consistent with the consideration of all P. olseni in a clam as a cohesive genetic unit (i.e., deme). If the parasite was introduced into the Spanish coast with the importation of infected clams from Asia and Oceania, the low microsatellite polymorphism could be reflecting founder effects in the recent evolutionary history of P. olseni. The loss of alleles would be intensified in a scenario structured in numerous demes

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protects cultured equine Leydig cells from undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M J; Roser, J F

    2010-12-01

    Leydig cells located in the interstitial space of the testicular parenchyma produce testosterone which plays a critical role in the maintenance and restoration of spermatogenesis in many species, including horses. For normal spermatogenesis, maintaining Leydig cells is critical to provide an optimal and constant level of testosterone. Recently, an anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I in testicular cells in rats has been reported, but a similar effect of IGF-I on equine Leydig cells remains to be elucidated. If IGF-I also protects stallion testicular cells from undergoing apoptosis, then IGF-I may have potential as a treatment regime to prevent testicular degeneration. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I on cultured equine Leydig cells. Testes were collected from 5 post-pubertal stallions (2-4 years old) during routine castrations. A highly purified preparation of equine Leydig cells was obtained from a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Purity of equine Leydig cells was assessed using histochemical 3β-HSD staining. Equine Leydig cells and selected doses of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-I; Parlow A.F., National Hormone and Peptide Program, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) were added to wells of 24 or 96 well culture plates in triplicate and cultured for 24 or 48 h under 95% air:5% CO(2) at 34°C. After 24 or 48 h incubation, apoptotic rate was assessed using a Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were observed in equine Leydig cells cultured with 5, 10, or 50ng/ml of rhIGF-I compared with control cells cultured without rhIGF-I for 24h. Exposure to 1, 5, 10 or 50 ng/ml of rhIGF-I significantly decreased apoptotic rate in equine Leydig cells cultured for 48 h. After 48 h incubation, cells were labeled with Annexin V and propodium iodine to determine the populations of healthy, apoptotic, and necrotic cells by counting stained cells using a Nikon Eclipse inverted fluorescence microscope. As a percentage of

  3. Microsatellite polymorphism among Chrysanthemum sp. polyploids: the influence of whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Gao, Ri; Wang, Jingjing; Dong, Bin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy is common among flowering plants, including the Asteraceae, a relatively recent angiosperm group. EST-SSRs were used to characterize polymorphism among 29 Chrysanthemum and Ajania spp. accessions of various ploidy levels. Most EST-SSR loci were readily transferable between the species, 29 accessions were separated into three groups in terms of the number of fragments. It inferred that the formation from tetraploid to hexaploid and from octoploid to decaploid may be a recent event, while from the diploid to the tetraploid may be an ancient one in the Chrysanthemum lineage. EST-SSR polymorphism was found and some transcripts containing an SSR were transcribed differently in the de novo autotetraploid C. nankingense and C. lavandulifolium than in their progenitor diploid. EST-SSR could provide a potential molecular basis of adaptation during evolution, while whole genome duplication has a major effect on the mutational dynamics of EST-SSR loci, which could also affect gene regulation. PMID:25339092

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) analogue, LR(3)IGF-I, ameliorates the loss of body weight but not of skeletal muscle during food restriction.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M

    2001-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to have anabolic effects in freely fed rats. We have investigated the ability of infused LR(3)IGF-I, an analogue of IGF-I, to attenuate the loss of lean tissue due to food restriction in young (5 weeks) and adult (12 weeks) rats. Groups of rats received food at 100%, 78%, 56% or 33% of ad libitum levels. Within each nutrition group the rats were continuously infused with LR(3)IGF-I at (98 nmol/day)/kg body weight or vehicle for 7 days. At each level of food intake, rats infused with LR(3)IGF-I maintained higher body weight (around 3-8%;P< 0.001) and nitrogen retention (P< 0.001) than those infused with vehicle alone but muscle protein was not conserved. LR(3)IGF-I infusion increased fat loss only in young rats (P< 0.05) despite a reduction in plasma insulin levels in both age groups (P< 0.01). Muscle protein turnover rates were unaffected by LR(3)IGF-I in young rats. In adult rats LR(3)IGF-I exacerbated the effects of food restriction through increased rates of protein breakdown, reduced RNA content and reduced rates of protein synthesis (P< 0.05) despite their larger fat reserves. Although young and adult rats show differing metabolic responses, we conclude that infusion of LR(3)IGF-I to either group during short-term food restriction does not ameliorate the loss of lean tissue by allowing more efficient utilization and/or partitioning of nutrients. PMID:11472075

  5. Benefits of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV)-Mediated Insulinlike Growth Factor I (IGF-I) Overexpression for the Long-Term Reconstruction of Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage by Modulation of the IGF-I Axis

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Anja; Madry, Henning; Venkatesan, Jagadeesh K; Schmitt, Gertrud; Frisch, Janina; Wezel, Anna; Jung, Jochen; Kohn, Dieter; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Trippel, Stephen B; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Administration of therapeutic genes to human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage is a potential approach to generate effective, durable treatments against this slow, progressive disorder. Here, we tested the ability of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of human insulinlike growth factor (hIGF)-I to reproduce an original surface in human OA cartilage in light of the pleiotropic activities of the factor. We examined the proliferative, survival and anabolic effects of the rAAV-hIGF-I treatment in primary human normal and OA chondrocytes in vitro and in explant cultures in situ compared with control (reporter) vector delivery. Efficient, prolonged IGF-I secretion via rAAV stimulated the biological activities of OA chondrocytes in all the systems evaluated over extended periods of time, especially in situ, where it allowed for the long-term reconstruction of OA cartilage (at least for 90 d). Remarkably, production of high, stable amounts of IGF-I in OA cartilage using rAAV advantageously modulated the expression of central effectors of the IGF-I axis by downregulating IGF-I inhibitors (IGF binding protein [IGFBP]-3 and IGFBP4) while up-regulating key potentiators (IGFBP5, the IGF-I receptor and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 [MAPK/ERK-1/2] and phosphatidylinisitol-3/Akt [PI3K/Akt] signal transduction pathways), probably explaining the enhanced responsiveness of OA cartilage to IGF-I treatment. These findings show the benefits of directly providing an IGF-I sequence to articular cartilage via rAAV for the future treatment of human osteoarthritis. PMID:22160392

  6. A survey on the expression of IGF-I in the early developing bony fish with special emphasis on the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Eppler, Elisabeth; Segner, Helmut; Reinecke, Manfred

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigates the expression of IGF-I in the early developing tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). IGF-I was detected very early in ontogeny (4-5 days postfertilization, DPF), first in liver and in organs involved in growth and metabolism, thus suggesting a high physiological impact of IGF-I in growth, metabolism, and organogenesis. PMID:15891092

  7. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass but is dispensable for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in female mice.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johan; Windahl, Sara H; Saxon, Leanne; Sjögren, Klara; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Low circulating IGF-I is associated with increased fracture risk. Conditional depletion of IGF-I produced in osteoblasts or osteocytes inhibits the bone anabolic effect of mechanical loading. Here, we determined the role of endocrine IGF-I for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in young adult and old female mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, serum IGF-I reduced by ≈70%) and control mice. The right tibia was subjected to short periods of axial cyclic compressive loading three times/wk for 2 wk, and measurements were performed using microcomputed tomography and mechanical testing by three-point bending. In the nonloaded left tibia, the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice had lower cortical bone area and increased cortical porosity, resulting in reduced bone mechanical strength compared with the controls. Mechanical loading induced a similar response in LI-IGF-I(-/-) and control mice in terms of cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume fraction. In fact, mechanical loading produced a more marked increase in cortical bone mechanical strength, which was associated with a less marked increase in cortical porosity, in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice compared with the control mice. In conclusion, liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass, cortical porosity, and mechanical strength under normal (nonloaded) conditions. However, despite an ∼70% reduction in circulating IGF-I, the osteogenic response to mechanical loading was not attenuated in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. PMID:27221117

  8. Microsatellite polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC5 in patients with gynecological tumors: association with late clinical radiosensitivity and cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    De Ruyck, K; Wilding, C S; Van Eijkeren, M; Morthier, R; Tawn, E J; Thierens, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the association of microsatellite polymorphisms in XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC5 with the development of late radiation-induced radiotherapy reactions and examines the correlation between these microsatellites and cancer incidence. Sixty-two women with cervical or endometrial cancer treated with radiotherapy were included in the study. According to the CTCAEv3.0 scale, 22 patients showed late adverse radiotherapy reactions (grade 2 or more). PCR on lymphocyte DNA followed by automated fragment analysis was performed to examine the number of tandem repeat units at each locus. No significant association was found between the repeat length at any of the microsatellites in XRCC1, XRCC3 or XRCC5 and the incidence of late radiotherapy complications. Since higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for the rare XRCC1 [AC]11 and [AC]21 repeats (OR = 2.65, P = 0.325 and OR = 8.67, P = 0.093, respectively), the possible involvement of these small and large repeats in clinical radiosensitivity cannot be completely ruled out. When specific numbers of repeats were examined, no significant correlation was found between the microsatellite repeat length in XRCC1 and XRCC5 and cancer incidence. A weak correlation between XRCC3 [AC]16 homozygotes and cancer incidence was found (OR = 2.56, P = 0.055). A large-scale multicenter study of cancer patients with a high number of radiosensitive individuals is needed to clarify the value of rare polymorphic microsatellite repeats in XRCC1 and XRCC3 as a biomarker of clinical radiosensitivity or increased cancer risk. PMID:16137195

  9. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  10. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Wyatt A.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata’s distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  11. Early pregnancy IGF-I and placental GH and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lundin, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling may promote ovarian tumor development by exerting mitotic, antiapoptotic and proangiogenic effects. During pregnancy, maternal production of IGF-I is regulated by placental growth hormone (GH). Parity is an established protective factor for ovarian cancer, however, no prior study has evaluated placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Prior prospective studies on the association between IGF-I and EOC in nonpregnant populations were inconclusive and did not address associations in subtypes of EOC. Among members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, we identified 1,045 EOC cases, diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011 and 2,658 individually matched controls. Placental GH and IGF-I were measured in serum from the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis or selection as control. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tertiles and a doubling of hormone concentrations. Higher IGF-I was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for invasive [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.79 (0.62-1.02); ptrend  = 0.07] and endometrioid tumors [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.55 (0.28-1.07); ptrend  = 0.07]. The protective association between higher IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged <55 years at diagnosis [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.74 (0.57-0.96); ptrend  = 0.03]. Our study provides the first data on placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and EOC risk overall and by subtype. Our data suggest higher IGF-I levels in pregnancy may be associated with lower risk of invasive and endometrioid EOC. PMID:25516257

  12. Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. ); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. )

    1994-01-18

    At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

  13. Genepool Variation in Genus Glycine Subgenus Soja Revealed by Polymorphic Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Powell, W.; Morgante, M.; Doyle, J. J.; McNicol, J. W.; Tingey, S. V.; Rafalski, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A combination of nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been used to investigate the levels and pattern of variability detected in Glycine max and G. soja genotypes. Based on the analysis of 700 soybean genotypes with 115 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes, 12 accessions were identified that represent 92% of the allelic variability detected in this genepool. These 12 core genotypes together with a sample of G. max and G. soja accessions were evaluated with 11 nuclear SSRs that detected 129 alleles. Compared with the other G. max and G. soja genotypes sampled, the core genotypes represent 40% of the allelic variability detected with SSRs. Despite the multi-allelic nature of soybean SSRs, dendrograms representing phenetic relationships between accessions clustered according to their subspecies origin. In addition to biparentally inherited nuclear SSRs, two uniparentally (maternally) transmitted chloroplast SSRs were also studied. A total of seven haplotypes were identified, and diversity indices of 0.405 +/- 0.088 and 0.159 +/- 0.071 were obtained for the two chloroplast SSRs. The availability of polymorphic SSR loci in the chloroplast genome provides new opportunities to investigate cytonuclear interactions in plants. PMID:8889540

  14. GH, IGF-I and binding proteins in altered nutritional states.

    PubMed

    Ross, R J

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional state has profound actions at all levels of the GH/IGF-I axis and growth hormone has potent effects on nutritional state. The growth promoting effects of GH on linear height in children has long been recognised and, more recently, the important action of GH in maintaining adult body composition have been appreciated. The strong anabolic actions of GH have made it a drug of abuse among athletes and, of interest, clinicians, as a potent anti-catabolic therapy. In this review we consider the effects of nutrition on the GH/IGF-I axis and then discuss its potential use as an anti-catabolic agent. We also note the recent study in critically ill patients which has been associated with a poor outcome using high dose GH therapy. PMID:10997619

  15. Methodology for Anti-Gene Anti-IGF-I Therapy of Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jerzy; Pan, Yuexin X.; Wei, Ming X.; Ly, Adama; Shevelev, Alexander; Bierwagen, Maciej; Ardourel, Marie-Yvonne; Trojan, Ladislas A.; Alvarez, Alvaro; Andres, Christian; Noguera, Maria C.; Briceno, Ignacio; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Kasprzak, Heliodor; Duc, Huynh T.; Anthony, Donald D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the criteria for methodology of cellular “anti-IGF-I” therapy of malignant tumours and particularly for glioblastoma multiforme. The treatment of primary glioblastoma patients using surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy was followed by subcutaneous injection of autologous cancer cells transfected by IGF-I antisense/triple helix expression vectors. The prepared cell “vaccines” should it be in the case of glioblastomas or other tumours, have shown a change of phenotype, the absence of IGF-I protein, and expression of MHC-I and B7. The peripheral blood lymphocytes, PBL cells, removed after each of two successive vaccinations, have demonstrated for all the types of tumour tested an increasing level of CD8+ and CD8+28+ molecules and a switch from CD8+11b+ to CD8+11. All cancer patients were supervised for up to 19 months, the period corresponding to minimum survival of glioblastoma patients. The obtained results have permitted to specify the common criteria for “anti-IGF-I” strategy: characteristics sine qua non of injected “vaccines” (cloned cells IGF-I(−) and MHC-I(+)) and of PBL cells (CD8+ increased level). PMID:22400112

  16. BDNF, IGF-I, Glucose and Insulin during Continuous and Interval Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, C; Heyman, E; Roelands, B; Buyse, L; Piacentini, F; Berthoin, S; Bailey, S; Pattyn, N; Meeusen, R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) can have a significant impact on brain function, mostly ascribed to episodes of hypoglycemia and chronic hyperglycemia. Exercise has positive effects on acute and chronic glycemic control in T1D, and has beneficial effects on cognitive function by increasing neurotrophins such as BDNF and IGF-I in non-diabetic humans. The present study examines the effects of different types of exercise intensities on neurotrophins in T1D. 10 participants with type 1 diabetes were evaluated in 3 sessions: high-intensity exercise (10×[60 s 90%Wmax, 60 s 50 W]), continuous exercise (22 min, 70% VO2 max) and a control session. Blood glucose, serum free insulin, serum BDNF and IGF-I were assessed pre/post all the trials and after recovery. Blood glucose significantly decreased after both exercise intensities and BDNF levels increased, with a dose-response effect for exercise intensity on BDNF. IGF-I changed over time, but without a difference between the different exercise protocols. Both exercise intensities change neurotrophins in T1D, but also exhibit a dose response effect for BDNF. The intensity-dependent findings may aid in designing exercise prescriptions for maintaining or improving neurological health in T1D, but both types of exercise can be implemented. PMID:26212245

  17. The Effect of Skeletal Unloading on Bone Formation: Role of IGF-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Kostenuik, P.; Holton, E. M.; Halloran, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    skeletal unloading. We have focussed on the role of IGF- 1 as the local factor mediating the effects of skeletal unloading on bone formation. IGF-I is produced by bone cells and chondrocytes; these cells have receptors for IGF-I, and respond to IGF-I with an increase in proliferation and function (e.g. collagen, and glycosaminoglycan production, respectively). IGF-I production by bone is under hormonal control, principally by GH and PTH, and IGF-I is thought to mediate some if not all of the effects of GH and PTH on bone growth. Thus, systemic changes in hormones such as GH and PTH may still have effects which vary from bone to bone depending on the loading history.

  18. Isolation and characterization of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the migratory freshwater fish Leporinus obtusidens (Characiformes: Anostomidae) using 454 shotgun pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Villanova, G V; Vera, M; Díaz, J; Martinez, P; Calcaterra, N B; Arranz, S E

    2015-03-01

    Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Neotropical fish Leporinus obtusidens using a next generation sequencing approach and tested in two other characifomes species, Schizodon platae and Prochilodus lineatus. Microsatellite loci alleles in L. obtusidens ranged between 2 and 20 alleles per locus (mean = 5·7), with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0·097 to 0·956 (mean = 0·578) and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0·000 to 0·800 (mean = 0·400) in a sample of 20 specimens from the lower Paraná River (Argentina). Most of these markers will be a valuable tool for captive breeding and stocking programmes, as well as for analyses of population connectivity and genetic structure in this broadly distributed Neotropical migratory fish. PMID:25683648

  19. Three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the glaucoma locus GLC1B by datamining tetranucleotide repeats on chromosome 2p12-q12

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify new markers around the glaucoma locus GLC1B as a tool to refine its critical region at 2p11.2-2q11.2, we searched the critical region sequence obtained from the UCSC database for tetranucleotide (GATA)n and (GTCT)n repeats of at least 10 units in length. Three out of four potential microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic, heterozygosity ranging from 64.56% to 79.59%. The identified markers are useful not only for GLC1B locus but also for the study of other disease loci at 2p11.2-2q11.2, a region with scarcity of microsatellite markers. PMID:21637444

  20. Three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the glaucoma locus GLC1B by datamining tetranucleotide repeats on chromosome 2p12-q12.

    PubMed

    Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; Guevara-Fujita, Maria Luisa; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Fujita, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    In order to identify new markers around the glaucoma locus GLC1B as a tool to refine its critical region at 2p11.2-2q11.2, we searched the critical region sequence obtained from the UCSC database for tetranucleotide (GATA)n and (GTCT)n repeats of at least 10 units in length. Three out of four potential microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic, heterozygosity ranging from 64.56% to 79.59%. The identified markers are useful not only for GLC1B locus but also for the study of other disease loci at 2p11.2-2q11.2, a region with scarcity of microsatellite markers. PMID:21637444

  1. Early pregnancy IGF-I and placental GH and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling may promote ovarian tumor development by exerting mitotic, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic effects. During pregnancy, maternal production of IGF-I is regulated by placental growth hormone (GH). Parity is an established protective factor for ovarian cancer, however, no prior study has evaluated placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Prior prospective studies on the association between IGF-I and EOC in non-pregnant populations were inconclusive and did not address associations in subtypes of EOC. Among members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort we identified 1,045 EOC cases, diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011, and 2,658 individually matched controls. Placental GH and IGF-I were measured in serum from the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis or selection as control. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] for tertiles and a doubling of hormone concentrations. Higher IGFI was associated with a non-significant decrease in risk for invasive (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.79 [0.62-1.02]; ptrend=0.07) and endometrioid tumors (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.55 [0.28-1.07]; ptrend=0.07). The protective association between higher IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged <55 years at diagnosis (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.74 [0.57-0.96]; ptrend=0.03). Our study provides the first data on placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and EOC risk overall and by subtype. Our data suggest higher IGF-I levels in pregnancy may be associated with lower risk of invasive and endometrioid EOC. PMID:25516257

  2. Maintenance of myonuclear domain size in rat soleus after overload and growth hormone/IGF-I treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Mukku, V. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of functional overload (FO) combined with growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration on myonuclear number and domain size in rat soleus muscle fibers. Adult female rats underwent bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and, after 7 days of recovery, were injected three times daily for 14 days with GH/IGF-I (1 mg/kg each; FO + GH/IGF-I group) or saline vehicle (FO group). Intact rats receiving saline vehicle served as controls (Con group). Muscle wet weight was 32% greater in the FO than in the Con group: 162 +/- 8 vs. 123 +/- 16 mg. Muscle weight in the FO + GH/IGF-I group (196 +/- 14 mg) was 59 and 21% larger than in the Con and FO groups, respectively. Mean soleus fiber cross-sectional area of the FO + GH/IGF-I group (2,826 +/- 445 microm2) was increased compared with the Con (2,044 +/- 108 microm2) and FO (2,267 +/- 301 microm2) groups. The difference in fiber size between the FO and Con groups was not significant. Mean myonuclear number increased in FO (187 +/- 15 myonuclei/mm) and FO + GH/IGF-I (217 +/- 23 myonuclei/mm) rats compared with Con (155 +/- 12 myonuclei/mm) rats, although the difference between FO and FO + GH/IGF-I animals was not significant. The mean cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus (myonuclear domain) was similar across groups. These results demonstrate that the larger mean muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred when FO was combined with GH/IGF-I administration and that myonuclear number increased concomitantly with fiber volume. Thus there appears to be some mechanism(s) that maintains the myonuclear domain when a fiber hypertrophies.

  3. Variability and Reliability of Single Serum IGF-I Measurements: Impact on Determining Predictability of Risk Ratios in Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    MILANI, DANIELA; CARMICHAEL, JOHN D.; WELKOWITZ, JOAN; FERRIS, STEVEN; REITZ, RICHARD E.; DANOFF, ANN; KLEINBERG, DAVID L.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of investigators have studied the relationship between IGF-I and risk of developing cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Upper tertile, quartile, and quintile IGF-Is were associated with higher risk of developing cancer, and lowest quartile with cardiac disease and diabetes. As part of a study to correlate serum IGF-Is and growth bormone dynamics in aging, we measured fasting serum IGF-I at baseline and two weeks later in a group of 84 normal volunteers between the ages of 50 and 90 years. Although the correlation between the two IGF-Is was high (r=0.922; p<0.0001) there were substantial differences between the two IGF-I values ranging from -36.25 to +38.24% between individual IGF-I values at the two blood draws and a significant difference between the mean IGF-Is at visits 1 and 2 (mean l20.28±53.5 vs. l14.95±50.03; p=0.03). When considered in quartiles, IGF-I changed from one quartile to another in 34/84 (40.5%) of the volunteers. When the group was divided in halves, tertiles, quartiles, or quintiles there was an increasing number of subjects who changed from one subdivision to another as the number of gradations increased. These results suggest that the predictive outcomes of earlier studies that used single IGF-I samples for analysis of risk ratios according to tertiles, quartiles, or quintiles could have been different if a second IGF-I was used to establish the risk ratio. The results also suggest that variability in IGF-I should be taken into account when designing such studies. PMID:15126552

  4. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25509050

  5. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25490849

  6. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, cause of powdery mildew of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many wheat–growing regions of the world, powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease that results in significant yield losses. Using a microsatellite enrichment protocol, we developed primers for 10 microsatellite DNA loci to aid in studies of B. g. tritici popu...

  7. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607

  8. Growth hormone, IGF-I, and exercise effects on non-weight-bearing fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, E. J.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Talmadge, R. J.; Evans, J.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) with or without exercise (ladder climbing) in countering the effects of unweighting on fast muscles of hypophysectomized rats during 10 days of hindlimb suspension were determined. Compared with untreated suspended rats, muscle weights were 16-29% larger in GH-treated and 5-15% larger in IGF-I-treated suspended rats. Exercise alone had no effect on muscle weights. Compared with ambulatory control, the medial gastrocnemius weight in suspended, exercised rats was larger after GH treatment and maintained with IGF-I treatment. The combination of GH or IGF-I plus exercise in suspended rats resulted in an increase in size of each predominant fiber type, i.e., types I, I + IIa and IIa + IIx, in the medial gastrocnemius compared with untreated suspended rats. Normal ambulation or exercise during suspension increased the proportion of fibers expressing embryonic myosin heavy chain in hypophysectomized rats. The phenotype of the medial gastrocnemius was minimally affected by GH, IGF-I, and/or exercise. These results show that there is an IGF-I, as well as a GH, and exercise interactive effect in maintaining medial gastrocnemius fiber size in suspended hypophysectomized rats.

  9. IGF-I Signaling Is Essential for FSH Stimulation of AKT and Steroidogenic Genes in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Wu, Yanguang; Bennett, Jill; Winston, Nicola; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    FSH and IGF-I synergistically stimulate gonadal steroid production; conversely, silencing the FSH or the IGF-I genes leads to infertility and hypogonadism. To determine the molecular link between these hormones, we examined the signaling cross talk downstream of their receptors. In human and rodent granulosa cells (GCs), IGF-I potentiated the stimulatory effects of FSH and cAMP on the expression of steroidogenic genes. In contrast, inhibition of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activity or expression using pharmacological, genetic, or biochemical approaches prevented the FSH- and cAMP-induced expression of steroidogenic genes and estradiol production. In vivo experiments demonstrated that IGF-IR inactivation reduces the stimulation of steroidogenic genes and follicle growth by gonadotropins. FSH or IGF-I alone stimulated protein kinase B (PKB), which is also known as AKT and in combination synergistically increased AKT phosphorylation. Remarkably, blocking IGF-IR expression or activity decreased AKT basal activity and abolished AKT activation by FSH. In GCs lacking IGF-IR activity, FSH stimulation of Cyp19 expression was rescued by overexpression of constitutively active AKT. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that in human, mouse, and rat GCs, the well-known stimulatory effect of FSH on Cyp19 and AKT depends on IGF-I and on the expression and activation of the IGF-IR. PMID:23340251

  10. Mutations in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 cause short stature due to low IGF-I availability.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Barrios, Vicente; Domené, Horacio M; Kloverpris, Soren; Serra-Juhé, Clara; Desikan, Vardhini; Pozo, Jesús; Muzumdar, Radhika; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Hawkins, Federico; Jasper, Héctor G; Conover, Cheryl A; Frystyk, Jan; Yakar, Shoshana; Hwa, Vivian; Chowen, Julie A; Oxvig, Claus; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in multiple genes of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis have been identified in syndromes marked by growth failure. However, no pathogenic human mutations have been reported in the six high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) or their regulators, such as the metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) that is hypothesized to increase IGF-I bioactivity by specific proteolytic cleavage of IGFBP-3 and -5. Multiple members of two unrelated families presented with progressive growth failure, moderate microcephaly, thin long bones, mildly decreased bone density and elevated circulating total IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and -5, acid labile subunit, and IGF-II concentrations. Two different homozygous mutations in PAPPA2, p.D643fs25* and p.Ala1033Val, were associated with this novel syndrome of growth failure. In vitro analysis of IGFBP cleavage demonstrated that both mutations cause a complete absence of PAPP-A2 proteolytic activity. Size-exclusion chromatography showed a significant increase in IGF-I bound in its ternary complex. Free IGF-I concentrations were decreased. These patients provide important insights into the regulation of longitudinal growth in humans, documenting the critical role of PAPP-A2 in releasing IGF-I from its BPs. PMID:26902202

  11. Mechanical properties and structure-function relationships in articular cartilage repaired using IGF-I gene-enhanced chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Darvin J; Ortved, Kyla F; Nixon, Alan J; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of IGF-I gene therapy in enhancing the histologic and biochemical content of cartilage repaired by chondrocyte transplantation. However, there is little to no data on the mechanical performance of IGF-I augmented cartilage grafts. This study evaluated the compressive properties of full-thickness chondral defects in the equine femur repaired with and without IGF-I gene therapy. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three study cohorts based on chondrocyte treatment provided in each defect: (i) IGF-I gene delivered by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-5; (ii) AAV-5 delivering GFP as a reporter; (iii) naïve cells without virus. In each case, the opposite limb was implanted with a fibrin carrier without cells. Samples were prepared for confined compression testing to measure the aggregate modulus and hydraulic permeability. All treatment groups, regardless of cell content or transduction, had mechanical properties inferior to native cartilage. Overexpression of IGF-I increased modulus and lowered permeability relative to other treatments. Investigation of structure-property relationships revealed that Ha and k were linearly correlated with GAG content but logarithmically correlated with collagen content. This provides evidence that IGF-I gene therapy can improve healing of articular cartilage and can greatly increase the mechanical properties of repaired grafts. PMID:26308948

  12. Characterisation of a novel panel of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, using a next generation sequencing approach☆

    PubMed Central

    Cwiklinski, Krystyna; Allen, Katherine; LaCourse, James; Williams, Diana J.; Paterson, Steve; Hodgkinson, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica is an economically important pathogen of sheep and cattle and has been described by the WHO as a re-emerging zoonosis. Control is heavily reliant on the use of drugs, particularly triclabendazole and as a result resistance has now emerged. The population structure of F. hepatica is not well known, yet it can impact on host–parasite interactions and parasite control with drugs, particularly regarding the spread of triclabendazole resistance. We have identified 2448 potential microsatellites from 83 Mb of F. hepatica genome sequence using msatfinder. Thirty-five loci were developed and optimised for microsatellite PCR, resulting in a panel of 15 polymorphic loci, with a range of three to 15 alleles. This panel was validated on genomic DNA from 46 adult F. hepatica; 38 liver flukes sourced from a Northwest abattoir, UK and 8 liver flukes from an established isolate (Shrewsbury; Ridgeway Research). Evidence for null alleles was found at four loci (Fh_1, Fh_8, Fh_13 and Fh_14), which showed markedly higher levels of homozygosity than the remaining 11 loci. Of the 38 liver flukes isolated from cattle livers (n = 10) at the abattoir, 37 genotypes were identified. Using a multiplex approach all 15 loci could be amplified from several life cycle stages that typically yield low amounts of DNA, including metacercariae, the infective life cycle stage present on pasture, highlighting the utility of this multiplex microsatellite panel. This study reports the largest panel of microsatellite markers available to date for population studies of F. hepatica and the first multiplex panel of microsatellite markers that can be used for several life cycle stages. PMID:25796359

  13. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response, and growth factor synthesis after direct intraarticular injection of rAAV2-IGF-I and rAAV5-IGF-I in the equine middle carpal joint.

    PubMed

    Ortved, Kyla; Wagner, Bettina; Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James; Schaefer, Deanna; Nixon, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Intraarticular (IA) administration of viral vectors expressing a therapeutic transgene is an attractive treatment modality for osteoarthritis (OA) as the joint can be treated as a contained unit. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vivo can limit vector effectiveness. Transduction of articular tissues has been investigated; however, the immune response to IA vectors remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that IA rAAV2 and rAAV5 overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) would result in long-term IGF-I formation but would also induce neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and anti-capsid effector T cells. Twelve healthy horses were assigned to treatment (rAAV2 or rAAV5) or control (saline) groups. Middle carpal joints were injected with 5×10(11) vector genomes/joint. Synovial fluid was analyzed for changes in composition, NAb titers, immunoglobulin isotypes, proinflammatory cytokines, and IGF-I. Serum was analyzed for antibody titers and cytokines. A T cell restimulation assay was used to assess T cell responses. Injection of rAAV2- or rAAV5-IGF-I did not induce greater inflammation compared with saline. Synovial fluid IGF-I was significantly increased in both rAAV2- and rAAV5-IGF-I joints by day 14 and remained elevated until day 56; however, rAAV5 achieved the highest concentrations. A capsid-specific T cell response was not noted although all virus-treated horses had increased NAbs in serum and synovial fluid after treatment. Taken together, our data show that IA injection of rAAV2- or rAAV5-IGF-I does not incite a clinically detectable inflammatory or cell-mediated immune response and that IA gene therapy using minimally immunogenic vectors represents a clinically relevant tool for treating articular disorders including OA. PMID:25705927

  14. Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Response, and Growth Factor Synthesis After Direct Intraarticular Injection of rAAV2-IGF-I and rAAV5-IGF-I in the Equine Middle Carpal Joint

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Bettina; Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James; Schaefer, Deanna; Nixon, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intraarticular (IA) administration of viral vectors expressing a therapeutic transgene is an attractive treatment modality for osteoarthritis (OA) as the joint can be treated as a contained unit. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vivo can limit vector effectiveness. Transduction of articular tissues has been investigated; however, the immune response to IA vectors remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that IA rAAV2 and rAAV5 overexpressing insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) would result in long-term IGF-I formation but would also induce neutralizing antibodies (NAb) and anti-capsid effector T cells. Twelve healthy horses were assigned to treatment (rAAV2 or rAAV5) or control (saline) groups. Middle carpal joints were injected with 5×1011 vector genomes/joint. Synovial fluid was analyzed for changes in composition, NAb titers, immunoglobulin isotypes, proinflammatory cytokines, and IGF-I. Serum was analyzed for antibody titers and cytokines. A T cell restimulation assay was used to assess T cell responses. Injection of rAAV2- or rAAV5-IGF-I did not induce greater inflammation compared with saline. Synovial fluid IGF-I was significantly increased in both rAAV2- and rAAV5-IGF-I joints by day 14 and remained elevated until day 56; however, rAAV5 achieved the highest concentrations. A capsid-specific T cell response was not noted although all virus-treated horses had increased NAbs in serum and synovial fluid after treatment. Taken together, our data show that IA injection of rAAV2- or rAAV5-IGF-I does not incite a clinically detectable inflammatory or cell-mediated immune response and that IA gene therapy using minimally immunogenic vectors represents a clinically relevant tool for treating articular disorders including OA. PMID:25705927

  15. Liver-specific GH receptor gene-disrupted (LiGHRKO) mice have decreased endocrine IGF-I, increased local IGF-I, and altered body size, body composition, and adipokine profiles.

    PubMed

    List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Funk, Kevin; Jara, Adam; Kelder, Bruce; Wang, Feiya; Stout, Michael B; Zhi, Xu; Sun, Liou; White, Thomas A; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Pirtskhalava, Tamara; Tchkonia, Tamara; Jensen, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Wenjuan; Masternak, Michal M; Kirkland, James L; Miller, Richard A; Bartke, Andrzej; Kopchick, John J

    2014-05-01

    GH is an important regulator of body growth and composition as well as numerous other metabolic processes. In particular, liver plays a key role in the GH/IGF-I axis, because the majority of circulating "endocrine" IGF-I results from GH-stimulated liver IGF-I production. To develop a better understanding of the role of liver in the overall function of GH, we generated a strain of mice with liver-specific GH receptor (GHR) gene knockout (LiGHRKO mice). LiGHRKO mice had a 90% decrease in circulating IGF-I levels, a 300% increase in circulating GH, and significant changes in IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5, and IGFBP-7. LiGHRKO mice were smaller than controls, with body length and body weight being significantly decreased in both sexes. Analysis of body composition over time revealed a pattern similar to those found in GH transgenic mice; that is, LiGHRKO mice had a higher percentage of body fat at early ages followed by lower percentage of body fat in adulthood. Local IGF-I mRNA levels were significantly increased in skeletal muscle and select adipose tissue depots. Grip strength was increased in LiGHRKO mice. Finally, circulating levels of leptin, resistin, and adiponectin were increased in LiGHRKO mice. In conclusion, LiGHRKO mice are smaller despite increased local mRNA expression of IGF-I in several tissues, suggesting that liver-derived IGF-I is indeed important for normal body growth. Furthermore, our data suggest that novel GH-dependent cross talk between liver and adipose is important for regulation of adipokines in vivo. PMID:24517230

  16. EGF-mediated regulation of IGFBP-3 determines esophageal epithelial cellular response to IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Takaoka, Munenori; Smith, Caitlin E.; Mashiba, Michael K.; Okawa, Takaomi; Andl, Claudia D.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    IGF and EGF regulate various physiological and pathological processes. IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates cell proliferation in IGF-dependent and -independent fashions. Recently, we identified IGFBP-3 as a novel EGF receptor (EGFR) downstream target molecule in primary and immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells, suggesting an interplay between the EGF and IGF signaling pathways. However, the regulatory mechanisms for IGFBP-3 expression and its functional role in esophageal cell proliferation remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report that IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein were induced upon growth factor deprivation in primary and immortalized human esophageal cells through mechanisms requiring p53-independent de novo mRNA transcription and protein synthesis. This occurred in the face of the activated phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Secreted IGFBP-3 neutralized IGFs and prevented IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activation. In contrast, EGF suppressed IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression through activation of MAPK in an EGFR-tyrosine kinase-dependent manner to restore the cellular response to IGF-I. When stably overexpressed, wild-type IGFBP-3 but not I56G/L80G/L81G (GGG) mutant IGFBP-3, which has a reduced affinity to IGFs, prevented IGF-I from activating IGF-IR and Akt as well as stimulating cell proliferation. However, unlike other cell types where IGFBP-3 exerts antiproliferative effects, neither wild-type nor GGG mutant IGFBP-3 alone affected cell proliferation or EGFR activity. These results indicate that IGF signaling is subject to negative regulation through IGFBP-3 and positive regulation by EGF, the latter of which suppresses IGFBP-3. This provides a platform for understanding the novel cross talk between EGF- and IGF-mediated pathways. PMID:16210470

  17. Sequence-specific targeting of IGF-I and IGF-IR genes by camptothecins

    PubMed Central

    Oussedik, Kahina; François, Jean-Christophe; Halby, Ludovic; Senamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Toutirais, Géraldine; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Pommier, Yves; Pisano, Claudio; Arimondo, Paola B.

    2010-01-01

    We and others have clearly demonstrated that a topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitor, such as camptothecin (CPT), coupled to a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) through a suitable linker can be used to cause site-specific cleavage of the targeted DNA sequence in in vitro models. Here we evaluated whether these molecular tools induce sequence-specific DNA damage in a genome context. We targeted the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis and in particular promoter 1 of IGF-I and intron 2 of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in cancer cells. The IGF axis molecules represent important targets for anticancer strategies, because of their central role in oncogenic maintenance and metastasis processes. We chemically attached 2 CPT derivatives to 2 TFOs. Both conjugates efficiently blocked gene expression in cells, reducing the quantity of mRNA transcribed by 70–80%, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. We confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of these TFO conjugates was mediated by Top1-induced cleavage through the use of RNA interference experiments and a camptothecin-resistant cell line. In addition, induction of phospho-H2AX foci supports the DNA-damaging activity of TFO-CPT conjugates at specific sites. The evaluated conjugates induce a specific DNA damage at the target gene mediated by Top1.—Oussedik, K., François, J.-C., Halby, L., Senamaud-Beaufort, C., Toutirais, G., Dallavalle, S., Pommier, Y., Pisano, C., Arimondo, P. B. Sequence-specific targeting of IGF-I and IGF-IR genes by camptothecins. PMID:20179147

  18. IGF-I Stimulates Rab7-RILP Interaction During Neuronal Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Mona; Zaegel, Vincent; Mize-Berge, Janna; Heidenreich, Kim A.

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of autophagy represents a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders, but factors that regulate autophagic flux are largely unknown. When deprived of trophic factors, cultured Purkinje neurons die by an autophagy associated cell death mechanism. The accumulation of autophagic vesicles and cell death of Purkinje neurons is inhibited by insulin-like growth factor, by a mechanism that enhances autophagic vesicle turnover. In this report, we identify Rab7 as an IGF-I regulated target during neuronal autophagy. Purkinje neurons transfected with EGFP-Rab7-WT and constitutively active EGFP-Rab7-Q67L contained few RFP-LC3 positive autophagosomes and little co-localization with GFP-Rab7 under control conditions. Upon induction of autophagy, RFP-LC3 positive autophagosomes increased and co-localized with GFP-Rab7. Conversely, expression of the dominant negative mutant EGFP-Rab7-T22N increased the accumulation of autophagosomes under control conditions, which accumulated even further during trophic factor withdrawal. There was no vesicular co-localization between Rab7-T22N and RFP-LC3 under control or trophic factor withdrawal conditions. During prolonged trophic factor withdrawal, a condition that leads to the accumulation of autophagic vesicles and cell death, Rab7 activity decreased significantly. IGF-I, added at the time of trophic factor withdrawal, prevented the deactivation of Rab7 and increased the interaction of Rab7 with its interacting protein (RILP), restoring autophagic flux. These results provide a novel mechanism by which IGF-I regulates autophagic flux during neuronal stress. PMID:20849920

  19. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the black spiny tailed iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and their cross-utility in other Ctenosaura.

    PubMed

    Zarza, Eugenia; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Reynoso, Victor H; Emerson, Brent C

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Mexican black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and assessed levels of polymorphism in sampling sites located in the northern areas of the species' distribution range. Two to 19 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.15 to 0.96 were detected. These markers will be useful to describe population genetic structure, the extent of gene flow in contact zones, to study the mating system of the species and to address conservation genetics issues. Additionally, we evaluated the potential utility of these markers for studies of other species within the genus Ctenosaura (i.e. C. hemilopha, C. similis and C. oaxacana). PMID:21564576

  20. Microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-globin locus control region-hypersensitive Site 2: SPECIFICITY of Tunisian βs chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ben Mustapha, Maha; Moumni, Imen; Zorai, Amine; Douzi, Kaïs; Ghanem, Abderraouf; Abbes, Salem

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of sickle cell disease severity is attributed to several cis acting factors, among them the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and (AT) rich region in the β-locus control region (β-LCR). This contains five DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS) located 6 to 22 kb upstream to the ϵ gene. The most important of these is the HS2 (5' β-LCR-HS2), characterized by the presence of three different SNPs and a microsatellite region known to be in association with β(S) chromosomes in various populations. The aim of this study was to present the molecular investigation of the 5' β-LCR-HS2 site in normal and sickle cell disease individuals in order to determine if there is any correlation or specificity between these molecular markers, the β(S) Tunisian chromosomes and phenotypical expression of sickle cell disease. One hundred and twenty-four chromosomes from Tunisian individuals (49 β(S) carriers and 13 normal individuals) were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for the polymorphic short tandem microsatellite repeats (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(Y) and the three SNPs (rs7119428, rs9736333 and rs60240093) of the 5' β-LCR-HS2. Twelve configurations of the microsatellite motif were found with an ancestral configuration elaborated by ClustalW software. Normal and mutated alleles were observed at the homozygous and heterozygous states for the three SNPs. Correlation between microsatellites and SNPs suggests that mutant SNP alleles were mainly associated, in the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, with the (AT)(8)N(12)GT(AT)(7) configuration, whereas, normal SNP alleles were associated with the (AT)(X)N(12)(AT)(11) configurations in normal β(A) chromosomes. The correlation of these various configurations with Hb F expression was also investigated. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed the correlation between the homozygous sickle cell disease phenotype, mutated SNP alleles and the Benin microsatellite configuration (AT)(8)N(12)GT

  1. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome and a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers through next-generation sequencing for the brown brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira.

    PubMed

    Caparroz, Renato; Mantellatto, Aline M B; Bertioli, David J; Figueiredo, Marina G; Duarte, José Maurício B

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the brown brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira and a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454-pyrosequencing. De novo genome assembly recovered 98% of the mitochondrial genome with a mean coverage of 9-fold. The mitogenome consisted of 16,356 base pairs that included 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and the control region, as found in other deer. The genetic divergence between the mitogenome described here and a previously published report was ∼0.5%, with the control region and ND5 gene showing the highest intraspecific variation. Seven polymorphic loci were characterized using 15 unrelated individuals; there was moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean of 5.6 alleles/locus, mean expected heterozygosity = 0.70), with only one locus deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably because of null alleles. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium. The genetic variation of the mitogenome and characterization of microsatellite markers will provide useful tools for assessing the phylogeography and population genetic patterns in M. gouazoubira, particularly in the context of habitat fragmentation in South America. PMID:26500438

  2. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome and a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers through next-generation sequencing for the brown brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira

    PubMed Central

    Caparroz, Renato; Mantellatto, Aline M.B.; Bertioli, David J.; Figueiredo, Marina G.; Duarte, José Maurício B.

    2015-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the brown brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira and a set of polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified by 454-pyrosequencing. De novo genome assembly recovered 98% of the mitochondrial genome with a mean coverage of 9-fold. The mitogenome consisted of 16,356 base pairs that included 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and the control region, as found in other deer. The genetic divergence between the mitogenome described here and a previously published report was ∼0.5%, with the control region and ND5 gene showing the highest intraspecific variation. Seven polymorphic loci were characterized using 15 unrelated individuals; there was moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean of 5.6 alleles/locus, mean expected heterozygosity = 0.70), with only one locus deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, probably because of null alleles. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium. The genetic variation of the mitogenome and characterization of microsatellite markers will provide useful tools for assessing the phylogeography and population genetic patterns in M. gouazoubira, particularly in the context of habitat fragmentation in South America. PMID:26500438

  3. Rapid isolation of microsatellite DNAs and identification of polymorphic mitochondrial DNA regions in the fish rotan (Perccottus glenii) invading European Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Timothy L.; Eackles, Michael S.; Reshetnikov, Andrey N.

    2015-01-01

    Human-mediated translocations and subsequent large-scale colonization by the invasive fish rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877; Perciformes, Odontobutidae), also known as Amur or Chinese sleeper, has resulted in dramatic transformations of small lentic ecosystems. However, no detailed genetic information exists on population structure, levels of effective movement, or relatedness among geographic populations of P. glenii within the European part of the range. We used massively parallel genomic DNA shotgun sequencing on the semiconductor-based Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing platform to identify nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA sequences in P. glenii from European Russia. Here we describe the characterization of nine nuclear microsatellite loci, ascertain levels of allelic diversity, heterozygosity, and demographic status of P. glenii collected from Ilev, Russia, one of several initial introduction points in European Russia. In addition, we mapped sequence reads to the complete P. glenii mitochondrial DNA sequence to identify polymorphic regions. Nuclear microsatellite markers developed for P. glenii yielded sufficient genetic diversity to: (1) produce unique multilocus genotypes; (2) elucidate structure among geographic populations; and (3) provide unique perspectives for analysis of population sizes and historical demographics. Among 4.9 million filtered P. glenii Ion Torrent PGM sequence reads, 11,304 mapped to the mitochondrial genome (NC_020350). This resulted in 100 % coverage of this genome to a mean coverage depth of 102X. A total of 130 variable sites were observed between the publicly available genome from China and the studied composite mitochondrial genome. Among these, 82 were diagnostic and monomorphic between the mitochondrial genomes and distributed among 15 genome regions. The polymorphic sites (N = 48) were distributed among 11 mitochondrial genome regions. Our results also indicate that sequence reads generated

  4. Circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) correlate with disease status in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Caused by Mycobacterium leprae (ML), leprosy presents a strong immune-inflammatory component, whose status dictates both the clinical form of the disease and the occurrence of reactional episodes. Evidence has shown that, during the immune-inflammatory response to infection, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) plays a prominent regulatory role. However, in leprosy, little, if anything, is known about the interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems. Methods In the present retrospective study, we measured the serum levels of IGF-I and IGBP-3, its major binding protein. These measurements were taken at diagnosis in nonreactional borderline tuberculoid (NR BT), borderline lepromatous (NR BL), and lepromatous (NR LL) leprosy patients in addition to healthy controls (HC). LL and BL patients who developed reaction during the course of the disease were also included in the study. The serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated at diagnosis and during development of reversal (RR) or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) reaction by the solid phase, enzyme-labeled, chemiluminescent-immunometric method. Results The circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels showed significant differences according to disease status and occurrence of reactional episodes. At the time of leprosy diagnosis, significantly lower levels of circulating IGF-I/IGFBP-3 were found in NR BL and NR LL patients in contrast to NR BT patients and HCs. However, after treatment, serum IGF-I levels in BL/LL patients returned to normal. Notably, the levels of circulating IGF-I at diagnosis were low in 75% of patients who did not undergo ENL during treatment (NR LL patients) in opposition to the normal levels observed in those who suffered ENL during treatment (R LL patients). Nonetheless, during ENL episodes, the levels observed in RLL sera tended to decrease, attaining similar levels to those found in NR LL patients. Interestingly, IGF-I

  5. IRS-1 Functions as a Molecular Scaffold to Coordinate IGF-I/IGFBP-2 Signaling During Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xi, Gang; Shen, Xinchun; Rosen, Clifford J; Clemmons, David R

    2016-06-01

    Insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) function coordinately to stimulate AKT and osteoblast differentiation. IGFBP-2 binding to receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTPβ) stimulates polymerization and inactivation of phosphatase activity. Because phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is the primary target of RPTPβ, this leads to enhanced PTEN tyrosine phosphorylation and inactivation. However RPTPβ inactivation also requires IGF-I receptor activation. The current studies were undertaken to determine the mechanism by which IGF-I mediates changes in RPTPβ function in osteoblasts. IGFBP-2/IGF-I stimulated vimentin binding to RPTPβ and this was required for RPTPβ polymerization. Vimentin serine phosphorylation mediated its binding to RPTPβ and PKCζ was identified as the kinase that phosphorylated vimentin. To determine the mechanism underlying IGF-I stimulation of PKCζ-mediated vimentin phosphorylation, we focused on insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). IGF-I stimulated IRS-1 phosphorylation and recruitment of PKCζ and vimentin to phospho-IRS-1. IRS-1 immunoprecipitates containing PKCζ and vimentin were used to confirm that activated PKCζ directly phosphorylated vimentin. PKCζ does not contain a SH-2 domain that is required to bind to phospho-IRS-1. To determine the mechanism of PKCζ recruitment we analyzed the role of p62 (a PKCζ binding protein) that contains a SH2 domain. Exposure to differentiation medium plus IGF-I stimulated PKCζ/p62 association. Subsequent analysis showed the p62/PKCζ complex was co-recruited to IRS-1. Peptides that disrupted p62/PKCζ or p62/IRS-1 inhibited IGF-I/IGFBP-2 stimulated PKCζ activation, vimentin phosphorylation, PTEN tyrosine phosphorylation, AKT activation, and osteoblast differentiation. The importance of these signaling events for differentiation was confirmed in primary mouse calvarial osteoblasts. These results demonstrate the cooperative

  6. IGF-I: A Key Growth Factor that Regulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis from Embryonic to Adult Stages of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Defterali, Çağla; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type, and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB). By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis, and neuron integration in synaptic circuits. PMID:26941597

  7. Expression of IGF-I and Protein Degradation Markers During Hindlimb Unloading and Growth Hormone Administration in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinsoo, T. A.; Turtikova, O. V.; Shenkman, B. S.

    2013-02-01

    It is known that hindlimb unloading or spaceflight produce atrophy and a number of phenotypic alterations in skeletal muscles. Many of these processes are triggered by the axis growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I. However growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression relationship in rodent models of gravitational unloading is weakly investigated. We supposed the IGF-I is involved in regulation of protein turnover. In this study we examined the IGF-I expression by RT-PCR assay in the rat soleus, tibialis anterior and liver after 3 day of hindlimb suspension with growth hormone administration. Simultaneously were studied expression levels of MuRF-1 and MAFbx/atrogin as a key markers of intracellular proteolysis. We demonstrated that GH administration did not prevent IGF-I expression decreasing under the conditions of simulated weightlessness. It was concluded there are separate mechanisms of action of GH and IGF-I on protein metabolism in skeletal muscles. Gravitational unloading activate proteolysis independently of growth hormone activity.

  8. Nonviral-Mediated Hepatic Expression of IGF-I Increases Treg Levels and Suppresses Autoimmune Diabetes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Anguela, Xavier M.; Tafuro, Sabrina; Roca, Carles; Callejas, David; Agudo, Judith; Obach, Mercè; Ribera, Albert; Ruzo, Albert; Mann, Christopher J.; Casellas, Alba; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    In type 1 diabetes, loss of tolerance to β-cell antigens results in T-cell–dependent autoimmune destruction of β cells. The abrogation of autoreactive T-cell responses is a prerequisite to achieve long-lasting correction of the disease. The liver has unique immunomodulatory properties and hepatic gene transfer results in tolerance induction and suppression of autoimmune diseases, in part by regulatory T-cell (Treg) activation. Hence, the liver could be manipulated to treat or prevent diabetes onset through expression of key genes. IGF-I may be an immunomodulatory candidate because it prevents autoimmune diabetes when expressed in β cells or subcutaneously injected. Here, we demonstrate that transient, plasmid-derived IGF-I expression in mouse liver suppressed autoimmune diabetes progression. Suppression was associated with decreased islet inflammation and β-cell apoptosis, increased β-cell replication, and normalized β-cell mass. Permanent protection depended on exogenous IGF-I expression in liver nonparenchymal cells and was associated with increased percentage of intrapancreatic Tregs. Importantly, Treg depletion completely abolished IGF-I-mediated protection confirming the therapeutic potential of these cells in autoimmune diabetes. This study demonstrates that a nonviral gene therapy combining the immunological properties of the liver and IGF-I could be beneficial in the treatment of the disease. PMID:23099863

  9. IGF-I regulates redox status in breast cancer cells by activating the amino acid transport molecule xC−

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhe; Yee, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate cell growth in part by increasing amino acid uptake. xCT (SLC7A11) encodes the functional subunit of the cell surface transport system xC− which mediates cystine uptake, a pivotal step in glutathione synthesis and cellular redox control. In this study, we show that IGF-I regulates cystine uptake and cellular redox status by activating the expression and function of xCT in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer cells by a mechanism that relies on the IGF receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). Breast cancer cell proliferation mediated by IGF-I was suppressed by attenuating xCT expression or blocking xCT activity with the pharmacological inhibitor sulfasalazine (SASP). Notably, SASP sensitized breast cancer cells to inhibitors of the IGF-I receptor in a manner reversed by the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Thus, IGF-I promoted the proliferation of ER+ breast cancer cells by regulating xC− transporter function to protect cancer cells from ROS in an IRS-1 dependent manner. Our findings suggest that inhibiting xC− transporter function may synergize with modalities that target the IGF-I receptor to heighten their therapeutic effects. PMID:24686172

  10. IGF-I: A Key Growth Factor that Regulates Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis from Embryonic to Adult Stages of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Estévez, Vanesa; Defterali, Çağla; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The generation of neurons in the adult mammalian brain requires the activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs). This activation and the sequential steps of neuron formation from NSCs are regulated by a number of stimuli, which include growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) exert pleiotropic effects, regulating multiple cellular processes depending on their concentration, cell type, and the developmental stage of the animal. Although IGF-I expression is relatively high in the embryonic brain its levels drop sharply in the adult brain except in neurogenic regions, i.e., the hippocampus (HP) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb (SVZ-OB). By contrast, the expression of IGF-IR remains relatively high in the brain irrespective of the age of the animal. Evidence indicates that IGF-I influences NSC proliferation and differentiation into neurons and glia as well as neuronal maturation including synapse formation. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that IGF-I not only promote adult neurogenesis by regulating NSC number and differentiation but also by influencing neuronal positioning and migration as described during SVZ-OB neurogenesis. In this article we will revise and discuss the actions reported for IGF-I signaling in a variety of in vitro and in vivo models, focusing on the maintenance and proliferation of NSCs/progenitors, neurogenesis, and neuron integration in synaptic circuits. PMID:26941597

  11. Sequence-specific targeting of IGF-I and IGF-IR genes by camptothecins.

    PubMed

    Oussedik, Kahina; François, Jean-Christophe; Halby, Ludovic; Senamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Toutirais, Géraldine; Dallavalle, Sabrina; Pommier, Yves; Pisano, Claudio; Arimondo, Paola B

    2010-07-01

    We and others have clearly demonstrated that a topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitor, such as camptothecin (CPT), coupled to a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) through a suitable linker can be used to cause site-specific cleavage of the targeted DNA sequence in in vitro models. Here we evaluated whether these molecular tools induce sequence-specific DNA damage in a genome context. We targeted the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis and in particular promoter 1 of IGF-I and intron 2 of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in cancer cells. The IGF axis molecules represent important targets for anticancer strategies, because of their central role in oncogenic maintenance and metastasis processes. We chemically attached 2 CPT derivatives to 2 TFOs. Both conjugates efficiently blocked gene expression in cells, reducing the quantity of mRNA transcribed by 70-80%, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR. We confirmed that the inhibitory mechanism of these TFO conjugates was mediated by Top1-induced cleavage through the use of RNA interference experiments and a camptothecin-resistant cell line. In addition, induction of phospho-H2AX foci supports the DNA-damaging activity of TFO-CPT conjugates at specific sites. The evaluated conjugates induce a specific DNA damage at the target gene mediated by Top1. PMID:20179147

  12. The Role of GH/IGF-I Axis in Muscle Homeostasis During Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to reduced gravity during space travel profoundly alters the loads placed on bone and muscle. Astronauts suffer significant losses of muscle and bone strength during weightlessness. Exercise as a countermeasure is only partially effective in remedying severe muscle atrophy and bone demineralization. Similar wasting of muscles and bones affects people on Earth during prolonged bed rest or immobilization due to injury. In the absence of weight bearing activity, atrophy occurs primarily in the muscles that act in low power, routine movements and in maintaining posture. Hormonal disfunction could contribute in part to the loss of muscle and bone during spaceflight. Reduced levels of human Growth Hormone (hGH) were found in astronauts during space flight, as well as reduced GH secretory activity was observed from the anterior pituitary in 7-day space flight rats. Growth hormone has been shown to be required for maintenance of muscle mass and bone mineralization, in part by mediating the biosynthesis IGF-I, a small polypeptide growth factor. IGF biosynthesis and secretion plays an important role in potentiating muscle cell differentiation and has been shown to drive the expression of myogenin, a myogenic specific basic helix-loop-helix factor. IGF-I has also been shown to have an important role in potentiating muscle regeneration, repair and adult muscle hypertrophy.

  13. A low-fat, whole-food vegan diet, as well as other strategies that down-regulate IGF-I activity, may slow the human aging process.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2003-06-01

    A considerable amount of evidence is consistent with the proposition that systemic IGF-I activity acts as pacesetter in the aging process. A reduction in IGF-I activity is the common characteristic of rodents whose maximal lifespan has been increased by a wide range of genetic or dietary measures, including caloric restriction. The lifespans of breeds of dogs and strains of rats tend to be inversely proportional to their mature weight and IGF-I levels. The link between IGF-I and aging appears to be evolutionarily conserved; in worms and flies, lifespan is increased by reduction-of-function mutations in signaling intermediates homologous to those which mediate insulin/IGF-I activity in mammals. The fact that an increase in IGF-I activity plays a key role in the induction of sexual maturity, is consistent with a broader role for-IGF-I in aging regulation. If down-regulation of IGF-I activity could indeed slow aging in humans, a range of practical measures for achieving this may be at hand. These include a low-fat, whole-food, vegan diet, exercise training, soluble fiber, insulin sensitizers, appetite suppressants, and agents such as flax lignans, oral estrogen, or tamoxifen that decrease hepatic synthesis of IGF-I. Many of these measures would also be expected to decrease risk for common age-related diseases. Regimens combining several of these approaches might have a sufficient impact on IGF-I activity to achieve a useful retardation of the aging process. However, in light of the fact that IGF-I promotes endothelial production of nitric oxide and may be of especial importance to cerebrovascular health, additional measures for stroke prevention-most notably salt restriction-may be advisable when attempting to down-regulate IGF-I activity as a pro-longevity strategy. PMID:12699704

  14. Administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) peptides for three days stimulates proliferation of the small intestinal epithelium in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Steeb, C B; Trahair, J F; Read, L C

    1995-01-01

    It has previously been shown that longterm administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or the analogue Long R3 IGF-I (LR3IGF-I) selectively stimulate growth of the gastrointestinal tract in gut resected, dexamethasone treated, and normal rats. In this study, the short-term effects of IGF-I administration on intestinal proliferation have been investigated. Female rats (110 g, five-six/group) were infused for three days with 2.5 mg/kg/day of either IGF-I or LR3IGF-I and compared with vehicle treated or untreated control rats. LR3IGF-I but not IGF-I increased body weight and wet tissue weight of the small and large intestine (+20%), compared with controls. Tissue weight responses were independent of food intake and were reflected in the histology of the tissue. In LR3IGF-I treated animals, duodenal and ileal crypts length were increased by 13 and 22%, respectively, associated with an increase in crypt cell number. No such histological changes were seen in IGF-I treated rats. Tritiated thymidine labelling indices were significantly increased after administration of either IGF-I or LR3IGF-I (up to 14%) in both the duodenum and ileum. In IGF-I treated rats, increased nuclear labelling was not associated with an increase in the crypt compartment. In contrast, LR3IGF-I induced proportional increments in thymidine labelling and crypt size, suggesting that LR3IGF-I is not only more potent than the native peptide but also induced proliferative events more rapidly. In the colon, the thymidine labelling index was low, however, a non-significant increase in the number of cells labelled with thymidine was seen. These results suggest that within a three day treatment period intestinal mitogenesis is more advanced in animals treated with LR3IGF-I. The differences in proliferative response between the two peptides may be accounted for by variations in pharmacokinetics, clearance rates, and interactions with circulating and tissue specific binding proteins. PMID:8549937

  15. Administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) peptides for three days stimulates proliferation of the small intestinal epithelium in rats.

    PubMed

    Steeb, C B; Trahair, J F; Read, L C

    1995-11-01

    It has previously been shown that longterm administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) or the analogue Long R3 IGF-I (LR3IGF-I) selectively stimulate growth of the gastrointestinal tract in gut resected, dexamethasone treated, and normal rats. In this study, the short-term effects of IGF-I administration on intestinal proliferation have been investigated. Female rats (110 g, five-six/group) were infused for three days with 2.5 mg/kg/day of either IGF-I or LR3IGF-I and compared with vehicle treated or untreated control rats. LR3IGF-I but not IGF-I increased body weight and wet tissue weight of the small and large intestine (+20%), compared with controls. Tissue weight responses were independent of food intake and were reflected in the histology of the tissue. In LR3IGF-I treated animals, duodenal and ileal crypts length were increased by 13 and 22%, respectively, associated with an increase in crypt cell number. No such histological changes were seen in IGF-I treated rats. Tritiated thymidine labelling indices were significantly increased after administration of either IGF-I or LR3IGF-I (up to 14%) in both the duodenum and ileum. In IGF-I treated rats, increased nuclear labelling was not associated with an increase in the crypt compartment. In contrast, LR3IGF-I induced proportional increments in thymidine labelling and crypt size, suggesting that LR3IGF-I is not only more potent than the native peptide but also induced proliferative events more rapidly. In the colon, the thymidine labelling index was low, however, a non-significant increase in the number of cells labelled with thymidine was seen. These results suggest that within a three day treatment period intestinal mitogenesis is more advanced in animals treated with LR3IGF-I. The differences in proliferative response between the two peptides may be accounted for by variations in pharmacokinetics, clearance rates, and interactions with circulating and tissue specific binding proteins. PMID:8549937

  16. Mature IGF-I excels in promoting functional muscle recovery from disuse atrophy compared with pro-IGF-IA

    PubMed Central

    Park, SooHyun; Brisson, Becky K.; Liu, Min; Spinazzola, Janelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged disuse of skeletal muscle results in atrophy, and once physical activity is resumed, there is increased susceptibility to injury. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is considered a potential therapeutic target to attenuate atrophy during unloading and to enhance rehabilitation upon reloading of skeletal muscles, due to its multipronged actions on satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, as well as its actions on muscle fibers to boost protein synthesis and inhibit protein degradation. However, the form of IGF-I delivered may alter the success of treatment. Using the hindlimb suspension model of disuse atrophy, we compared the efficacy of two IGF-I forms in protection against atrophy and enhancement of recovery: mature IGF-I (IGF-IS) lacking the COOH-terminal extension, called the E-peptide, and IGF-IA, which is the predominant form retaining the E-peptide. Self-complementary adeno-associated virus harboring the murine Igf1 cDNA constructs were delivered to hindlimbs of adult female C57BL6 mice 3 days prior to hindlimb suspension. Hindlimb muscles were unloaded for 7 days and then reloaded for 3, 7, and 14 days. Loss of muscle mass following suspension was not prevented by either IGF-I construct. However, IGF-IS expression maintained soleus muscle force production. Further, IGF-IS treatment caused rapid recovery of muscle fiber morphology during reloading and maintained muscle strength. Analysis of gene expression revealed that IGF-IS expression accelerated the downregulation of atrophy-related genes compared with untreated or IGF-IA-treated samples. We conclude that mature-IGF-I may be a better option than pro-IGF-IA to promote skeletal muscle recovery following disuse atrophy. PMID:24371018

  17. The Role of GH and IGF-I in Mediating Anabolic Effects of Testosterone on Androgen-Responsive Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Carlo; Bhasin, Shalender; Tangherlini, Frances; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Ganno, Michelle; Zhang, Anqi; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Travison, Thomas G.; Jasuja, Ravi; Morris, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone (T) supplementation increases skeletal muscle mass, circulating GH, IGF-I, and im IGF-I expression, but the role of GH and IGF-I in mediating T’s effects on the skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. Here, we show that T administration increased body weight and the mass of the androgen-dependent levator ani muscle in hypophysectomized as well as castrated plus hypophysectomized adult male rats. T stimulated the proliferation of primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs) in vitro, an effect blocked by transfecting hSKMCs with small interference RNA targeting human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). In differentiation conditions, T promoted the fusion of hSKMCs into larger myotubes, an effect attenuated by small interference RNA targeting human IGF-IR. Notably, MKR mice, which express a dominant negative form of the IGF-IR in skeletal muscle fibers, treated with a GnRH antagonist (acyline) to suppress endogenous T, responded to T administration by an attenuated increase in the levator ani muscle mass. In conclusion, circulating GH and IGF-I are not essential for mediating T’s effects on an androgen-responsive skeletal muscle. IGF-I signaling plays an important role in mediating T’s effects on skeletal muscle progenitor cell growth and differentiation in vitro. However, IGF-IR signaling in skeletal muscle fibers does not appear to be obligatory for mediating the anabolic effects of T on the mass of androgen-responsive skeletal muscles in mice. PMID:21084444

  18. Differential regulation of IGF-binding proteins in rabbit costal chondrocytes by IGF-I and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Koedam, J A; Hoogerbrugge, C M; Van Buul-Offers, S C

    2000-06-01

    Cartilage is a primary target tissue for the IGFs. The mitogenic activity of these peptides is regulated by a family of high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP-1 to -6). We characterized the IGFBPs produced by cultured chondrocytes derived from rib cartilage of prepubertal rabbits. Culture medium, which had been conditioned by these cells for 48 h showed bands of 22 kDa, 24 kDa and a 31/32 kDa doublet by Western ligand blotting with [(125)I]IGF-II. When the cells were grown in the presence of increasing amounts of IGF-I or IGF-II, the 31/32 kDa doublet increased in intensity (reaching a plateau of about 11-fold stimulation between 2 and 10 nM IGF-I). The 22 kDa and 24 kDa bands increased only slightly while a 26 kDa band became faintly visible. By Western immunoblotting the 31/32 kDa doublet was identified as IGFBP-5. An IGF-I analog with reduced affinity for IGFBPs, Long-R3 IGF-I, also induced IGFBP-5, while insulin was less effective (2.2-fold stimulation at 10 nM). IGF-I protected IGFBP-5 against proteolytic degradation by conditioned medium. IGF-I also enhanced the level of IGFBP-5 mRNA. LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the intracellular signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, inhibited stimulation of IGFBP-5 by IGF-I. Dexamethasone suppressed IGFBP-5 (by 70% at 20 nM) but, at the same time, a 39/41 kDa doublet (presumably IGFBP-3) was induced. IGFBP-5 has been shown in several cell types to enhance the mitogenic activity of IGF-I. IGFBP-3 generally acts as a growth inhibitor. Therefore, the differential effects of dexamethasone on these regulatory proteins could account, at least in part, for the growth-arresting effect of this glucocorticoid. PMID:10828839

  19. Resolving the growth-promoting and metabolic effects of growth hormone: Differential regulation of GH-IGF-I system components.

    PubMed

    Norbeck, Lindsey A; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    Growth hormone regulates numerous processes in vertebrates including growth promotion and lipid mobilization. During periods of food deprivation, growth is arrested yet lipid depletion is promoted. In this study, we used rainbow trout on different nutritional regimens to examine the regulation of growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system elements in order to resolve the growth-promoting and lipid catabolic actions of GH. Fish fasted for 2 or 6 weeks displayed significantly reduced growth compared to their fed counterparts despite elevated plasma GH, while refeeding for 2 weeks following 4 weeks of fasting partially restored growth and lowered plasma GH. Fish fasted for 6 weeks also exhausted their mesenteric adipose tissue reserves. Sensitivity to GH in the liver was reduced in fasting fish as evidenced by reduced expression of GH receptor type 1 (GHR 1) and GHR 2 mRNAs and by reduced (125)I-GH binding capacity. Expression of GHR 1 and GHR 2 mRNAs also was reduced in the gill of fasted fish. In adipose tissue, however, sensitivity to GH, as indicated by GHR 1 expression and by (125)I-GH binding capacity, increased after 6 weeks of fasting in concert with the observed lipid depletion. Fasting-associated growth retardation was accompanied by reduced expression of total IGF-I mRNA in the liver, adipose and gill, and by reduced plasma levels of IGF-I. Sensitivity to IGF-I was reduced in the gill of fasted fish as indicated by reduced expression of type 1 IGF-I receptor (IGFR 1A and IGFR 1B) mRNAs. By contrast, fasting did not affect expression of IGFR 1 mRNAs or (125)I-IGF-I binding in skeletal muscle and increased expression of IGFR 1 mRNAs and (125)I-IGF-I binding in cardiac muscle. These results indicate that nutritional state differentially regulates GH-IGF-I system components in a tissue-specific manner and that such alterations disable the growth-promoting actions of GH and promote the lipid-mobilizing actions of the hormone. PMID:17376444

  20. Validation of serum IGF-I as a biomarker to monitor the bioactivity of exogenous growth hormone agonists and antagonists in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Sayyed Hamid; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Wirthgen, Elisa; Walpurgis, Katja; Toghiany Khorasgani, Mohaddeseh; Aghili, Zahra Sadat; Wilkinson, Ian Robert; Hoeflich, Andreas; Thevis, Mario; Ross, Richard J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The development of new growth hormone (GH) agonists and growth hormone antagonists (GHAs) requires animal models for pre-clinical testing. Ideally, the effects of treatment are monitored using the same pharmacodynamic marker that is later used in clinical practice. However, intact rodents are of limited value for this purpose because serum IGF-I, the most sensitive pharmacodynamic marker for the action of GH in humans, shows no response to treatment with recombinant human GH and there is little evidence for the effects of GHAs, except when administered at very high doses or when overexpressed. As an alternative, more suitable model, we explored pharmacodynamic markers of GH action in intact rabbits. We performed the first validation of an IGF-I assay for the analysis of rabbit serum and tested precision, sensitivity, linearity and recovery using an automated human IGF-I assay (IDS-iSYS). Furthermore, IGF-I was measured in rabbits of different strains, age groups and sexes, and we monitored IGF-I response to treatment with recombinant human GH or the GHA Pegvisomant. For a subset of samples, we used LC-MS/MS to measure IGF-I, and quantitative western ligand blot to analyze IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Although recovery of recombinant rabbit IGF-I was only 50% in the human IGF-I assay, our results show that the sensitivity, precision (1.7-3.3% coefficient of variation) and linearity (90.4-105.6%) were excellent in rabbit samples. As expected, sex, age and genetic background were major determinants of IGF-I concentration in rabbits. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 levels increased after single and multiple injections of recombinant human GH (IGF-I: 286±22 versus 434±26 ng/ml; P<0.01) and were highly correlated (P<0.0001). Treatment with the GHA lowered IGF-I levels from the fourth injection onwards (P<0.01). In summary, we demonstrated that the IDS-iSYS IGF-I immunoassay can be used in rabbits. Similar to rodents, rabbits display variations in IGF-I depending on sex, age and

  1. Differential effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-1 on protein metabolism in human skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Frost, R A; Lang, C H

    1999-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (BP-1) is a multifunctional protein that binds IGF-I in solution and integrins on the cell surface. BP-1 is overexpressed during catabolic illnesses, and the protein accumulates in skeletal muscle. To define a potential physiological role for BP-1 in regulating muscle protein balance, we have examined the effect of IGF-I and BP-1 on protein synthesis and degradation in human skeletal muscle cells. IGF-I-stimulated protein synthesis by 20%, and this was completely inhibited by either phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated BP-1. Half-maximal inhibition of protein synthesis occurred at a molar ratio of BP-1 to IGF-I of 1.5:1. BP-1 failed to form a complex with a truncated form of IGF-I (desIGF-I), and consequently, BP-1 failed to inhibit the ability of desIGF-I to stimulate protein synthesis. IGF-I and BP-1 dose-dependently inhibited protein degradation individually, and both BP-1 phosphovariants failed to block the ability of IGF-I to do the same. Blocking integrin receptor occupancy with the integrin antagonist echistatin blunted the ability of BP-1 to inhibit protein degradation, but had no significant effect on IGF-I-mediated changes in protein synthesis or degradation. The extracellular matrix protein vitronectin also inhibited protein degradation, but vitronectin receptor antibodies failed to block BP-1 action. In contrast, antibodies to the beta1 integrin subunit blocked BP-1-mediated inhibition of protein degradation. Rapamycin inhibited IGF-I-dependent protein synthesis, but not the ability of IGF-I to inhibit proteolysis. In contrast, rapamycin completely blocked the ability of BP-1 to inhibit proteolysis. Our results demonstrate that BP-1 inhibits IGF-I-mediated protein synthesis by binding to IGF-I. BP-1, acting independently of IGF-I, inhibits protein degradation. The IGF-independent response occurs via beta1 integrin binding and stimulation of a rapamycin-sensitive signal transduction pathway. PMID:10465265

  2. Cooperation between Shh and IGF-I in Promoting Myogenic Proliferation and Differentiation via the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways Requires Smo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Madhala-Levy, D; Williams, VC; Hughes, SM; Reshef, R; O, Halevy

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been shown to promote adult myoblast proliferation and differentiation and affect Akt phosphorylation via its effector Smoothened (Smo). Here, the relationship between Shh and IGF-I was examined with regard to myogenic differentiation via signaling pathways which regulate this process. Each factor enhanced Akt and MAPK/ERK (p42/44) phosphorylation and myogenic factor expression levels in a dose-responsive manner, while combinations of Shh and IGF-I showed additive effects. Blockage of the IGF-I effects by neutralizing antibody partially reduced Shh’s effects on signaling pathways, suggesting that IGF-I enhances, but is not essential for Shh effects. Addition of cyclopamine, a Smo inhibitor, reduced Shh- and IGF-I-induced Akt phosphorylation in a similar manner, implying that Shh affects gain of the IGF-I signaling pathway. This implication was also examined via a genetic approach. In cultures derived from Smomut (MCre;Smoflox/flox) mice lacking Smo expression specifically in hindlimb muscles, IGF-I-induced Akt and p42/44 phosphorylation was significantly reduced compared to IGF-I’s effect on Smocont cells. Moreover, remarkable inhibition of the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on myogenic differentiation was observed in Smomut cultures, implying that intact Smo is required for IGF-I effects in myoblasts. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that p-Tyr proteins, including the regulatory unit of PI3K (p85), are recruited to Smo in response to Shh. Moreover, IGF-IR was found to associate with Smo in response to Shh and to IGF-I, suggesting that Shh and IGF-I are already integrated at the receptor level, a mechanism by which their signaling pathways interact in augmenting their effects on adult myoblasts. PMID:21618536

  3. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb)

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Emilio J.; Azizi, Sheida; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs) was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1]). PMID:26904713

  4. Characterization data of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) IGF-I receptors (IGF-IRa/Rb).

    PubMed

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    In this data article we describe the coding sequence of two IGF-IR paralogues (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) obtained from gilthead sea bream embryos. The putative protein architecture (domains and other important motifs) was determined and, amino acid sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis of both receptors together with IGF-IR orthologues from different vertebrates was performed. Additionally, a semi-quantitative conventional PCR was done to analyze the mRNA expression of both receptors in different tissues of gilthead sea bream. These data will assist in further physiological studies in this species. In this sense, the expression of both receptors during ontogeny in muscle as well as the differential effects of IGF-I and IGF-II on their regulation during in vitro myogenesis has been recently studied (doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2015.11.011; [1]). PMID:26904713

  5. Production of recombinant porcine IGF-binding protein-5 and its effect on proliferation of porcine embryonic myoblast cultures in the presence and absence of IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Pampusch, M S; Xi, G; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Loseth, K J; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, W R; White, M E

    2005-04-01

    IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) is produced by porcine embryonic myogenic cell (PEMC) cultures and is secreted into the medium. IGFBP-5 may play some role in myogenesis and/or in changes in myogenic cell proliferation that accompany differentiation. IGFBP-5 reportedly may either suppress or stimulate proliferation or differentiation of cultured cells depending on cell type and culture conditions. Additionally, IGFBP-5 has been shown to possess both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions in some cell types. The goal of this study was to produce recombinant porcine IGFBP-5 (rpIGFBP-5) and assess its IGF-I-dependent and IGF-I-independent actions on the proliferation of PEMCs. To accomplish this, we have expressed porcine IGFBP-5 in the baculovirus system, purified and characterized the expressed rpIGFBP-5 and produced an anti-porcine IGFBP-5 antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of porcine IGFBP-5. rpIGFBP-5, purified to 98% homogeneity using nickel affinity chromatography and IGF-I affinity chromatography, suppressed IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs in a concentration-dependent manner (P>0.05). rpIGFBP-5 also suppressed Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs (P>0.05), even in the presence of significant molar excess of Long-R3-IGF-I compared with rpIGFBP-5, demonstrating the IGF-independent activity that rpIGFBP-5 possesses in PEMCs, since Long-R3-IGF-I is an IGF analog that has very low affinity for the IGFBPs but retains its ability to bind to the type I IGF receptor and thereby can stimulate proliferation. The anti-rpIGFBP-5 IgY produced against rpIGFBP-5 specifically recognized native porcine IGFBP-5 in PEMC media that also contained porcine IGFBP-2, -3, and -4. This antibody is capable of neutralizing the effects of both rpIGFBP-5 and endogenously produced porcine IGFBP-5 on PEMCs as well as detecting IGFBP-5 in Western blots. The production of rpIGFBP-5 and a neutralizing antibody to porcine IGFBP-5 provides a powerful tool to

  6. Influence of reproductive status sex hormones and temperature on plasma IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass (Morone Chrysops X Morone Saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) were determined in March, early April, and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Female fish were always larger than male fish, however plasma IGF-I concentrations w...

  7. Variations in the heme oxygenase-1 microsatellite polymorphism are associated with plasma CD14 and viral load in HIV-infected African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Seu, Lillian; Burt, Trevor D.; Witte, John S.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that maintains homeostasis during cellular stress. Given previous findings that shorter length variants of a HO-1 promoter-region GTn microsatellite polymorphism are associated with increased HO-1 expression in cell lines, we hypothesized that shorter variants would also be associated with increased levels of HO-1 expression, less inflammation, and lower levels of inflammation-associated viral replication in HIV-infected subjects. Healthy donors (n=20) with shorter GTn repeats had higher HO-1 mRNA transcript in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (r= −0.38, p=0.05). The presence of fewer GTn repeats in subjects with untreated HIV disease was associated with higher HO-1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood (r= −0.41, p=0.02); similar observations were made in CD14+ monocytes from antiretroviral-treated subjects (r= −0.36, p=0.04). In African-Americans, but not Caucasians, greater GTn repeats were correlated with higher soluble CD14 (sCD14) levels during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (r= 0.38, p=0.007) as well as higher mean viral load off-therapy (r= 0.24, p=0.04). These data demonstrate that the HO-1 GTn microsatellite polymorphism is associated with higher levels of HO-1 expression and that this pathway may have important effects on the association between inflammation and HIV replication. PMID:22048453

  8. Co-induction of hepatic IGF-I and progranulin mRNA by growth hormone in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambiccus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like IGF-I, progranulin (pgrn) is a growth factor involved in tumorigenesis and wound healing. We report here the identification and characterization of pgrn cDNA in tilapia and the regulation of its expression by growth hormone(GH). The tilapia pgrn cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR ampliWcation, using g...

  9. Growth hormone/IGF-I and/or resistive exercise maintains myonuclear number in hindlimb unweighted muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Roy, R. R.; Grindeland, R. E.; Mukku, V.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study of rats, we examined the role, during 2 wk of hindlimb suspension, of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration and/or brief bouts of resistance exercise in ameliorating the loss of myonuclei in fibers of the soleus muscle that express type I myosin heavy chain. Hindlimb suspension resulted in a significant decrease in mean soleus wet weight that was attenuated either by exercise alone or by exercise plus GH/IGF-I treatment but was not attenuated by hormonal treatment alone. Both mean myonuclear number and mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers expressing type I myosin heavy chain decreased after 2 wk of suspension compared with control (134 vs. 162 myonuclei/mm and 917 vs. 2,076 micron2, respectively). Neither GH/IGF-I treatment nor exercise alone affected myonuclear number or fiber CSA, but the combination of exercise and growth-factor treatment attenuated the decrease in both variables. A significant correlation was found between mean myonuclear number and mean CSA across all groups. Thus GH/IGF-I administration and brief bouts of muscle loading had an interactive effect in attenuating the loss of myonuclei induced by chronic unloading.

  10. Effects of selection for blood serum IGF-I concentration on reproductive performance of female Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Davis, M E; Moeller, S J; Ottobre, J S

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive performance of animals affects lifetime productivity. However, improvement of reproductive traits via direct selection is generally slow due to low heritability. Therefore, identification of indicator traits for reproductive performance may enhance genetic response. Previous studies showed that serum IGF-I concentration is a candidate indicator for growth and reproductive traits. The objective of our study was to estimate the variances or covariances of IGF-I concentration with reproductive traits. Data were collected from a divergent selection experiment for serum IGF-I concentration at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station owned by The Ohio State University. The study included a total of 2,662 calves in the 1989 to 2005 calf crops. Variance or covariance components were estimated for direct and maternal genetic effects, maternal environment effects, environment effects, and phenotypic effects using an animal model in a multiple-trait, derivative-free, restricted maximum likelihood (MTDFREML, Boldman et al., 1995) computer program. Direct additive genetic correlations suggest that selection for greater IGF-I concentration (heritability = 0.50 ± 0.07) could lead to increased conception rate (heritability = 0.11 ± 0.06, r = 0.32, P < 0.001) and calving rate (heritability = 0.13 ± 0.06, r = 0.43, P < 0.001) and decreased age at first calving in heifers (heritability = 0.35 ± 0.20, r = -0.40, P < 0.001). PMID:23894000

  11. Serum and intratumoural GH and IGF-I concentrations: prognostic factors in the outcome of canine mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Felisbina L; Pérez-Alenza, Dolores; Silvan, Gema; Peña, Laura; Lopes, Carlos S; Illera, Juan C

    2010-12-01

    The biological implication of the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in canine mammary tumours (CMT) has been recently demonstrated, however its clinical and prognostic implications are unknown. Our aim was to investigate its prognostic significance. Hormonal determinations were done by enzyme immunoassays techniques validated for canine species in serum and tumour tissue from 32 bitches with CMT and in serum and normal mammary tissue from 10 controls. Serum and tissular GH and IGF-I concentrations were significantly higher in the case of malignant tumour compared with benign and controls. GH and IGF-I elevated concentrations were significantly associated with tumour relapse and/or metastases during follow-up and in dogs with reduced survival times; however these parameters were not independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. This association demonstrates a link between high serum and intratumoural GH and IGF-I concentrations and a worse prognosis and opens the possibility to new anticancer endocrine therapies in dogs. PMID:20381105

  12. Long [R3] insulin-like growth factor-I reduces growth, plasma growth hormone, IGF binding protein-3 and endogenous IGF-I concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dunaiski, V; Dunshea, F R; Walton, P E; Goddard, C

    1997-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) improves growth performance in the pig. Analogues of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) that bind poorly to IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) stimulate growth in the rat but, in contrast, inhibit growth in the pig. This study was designed to determine the effect of IGF peptides alone or in combination with porcine GH (pGH) on growth characteristics and plasma hormone concentrations in finisher pigs. A four-day infusion of Long [R3] IGF-I (LR3IGF-I; 180 micrograms/kg/day) decreased the average daily gain, food intake, and plasma IGFBP-3, IGF-I and insulin concentrations. The mean plasma GH concentration was decreased by 23% and the area under the GH peaks was reduced by 60%. Co-administration of pGH (30 micrograms/kg/day) with LR3IGF-I had no interactive effect on growth performance, and plasma insulin, IGFBP-3 and IGF-I concentrations remained suppressed. The area under the GH peaks was not restored with this combination treatment although mean plasma GH concentrations were elevated in all animals receiving pGH. Infusion of IGF-I (180 micrograms/kg/day) decreased plasma insulin and mean GH concentrations but had no significant effect on IGFBP-3 concentrations. Average daily gain and feed intake were not changed by IGF-I treatment. A combination of IGF-I and pGH injection (30 micrograms/kg/day) increased plasma IGFBP-3 concentrations but plasma insulin levels remained suppressed. Plasma glucose levels were unaffected by any treatment. The study demonstrates that both IGF-I and LR3IGF-I suppress plasma GH concentrations in finisher pigs. This, in turn, may be responsible for the reduction in the plasma concentration of IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and insulin seen in LR3IGF-I-treated animals. The decrease in these parameters may contribute to the inhibitory effect of LR3IGF-I on growth performance in the pig. PMID:9488001

  13. Optimization of microsatellite analysis for genetic mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.E. )

    1993-02-01

    A method for typing microsatellite polymorphisms is described. It involves amplification using the polymerase chain reaction with one primer 5[prime] end-labeled with [sup 32]P. Alleles are separated by denaturing gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Standardized conditions allow accurate typing of almost all microsatellite polymorphisms, and results are usually obtained within 24 h. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  14. IGF-I and IGFBP-2 Stimulate AMPK Activation and Autophagy, Which Are Required for Osteoblast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xi, Gang; Rosen, Clifford J; Clemmons, David R

    2016-01-01

    IGF-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) coordinately stimulate osteoblast differentiation but the mechanisms by which they function have not been determined. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is induced during differentiation and AMPK knockout mice have reduced bone mass. IGF-I modulates AMPK in other cell types; therefore, these studies determined whether IGF-I/IGFBP-2 stimulate AMPK activation and the mechanism by which AMPK modulates differentiation. Calvarial osteoblasts and MC-3T3 cells expressed activated AMPK early in differentiation and AMPK inhibitors attenuated differentiation. However, expression of constitutively activated AMPK inhibited differentiation. To resolve this discrepancy we analyzed the time course of AMPK induction. AMPK activation was required early in differentiation (day 3-6) but down-regulation of AMPK after day 9 was also necessary. IGF-I/IGFBP-2 induced AMPK through their respective receptors and blocking-receptor activation blocked AMPK induction. To determine the mechanism by which AMPK functioned we analyzed components of the autophagosome. Activated AMPK stimulated ULK-1 S555 phosphorylation as well as beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light-chain phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3II) induction. Inhibition of AMPK attenuated these changes and direct inhibition of autophagy inhibited differentiation. Conversely, expression of activated AMPK was associated with persistence of these changes beyond day 9 and inhibited differentiation. Blocking AMPK activation after day 9 down-regulated these autophagosome components and rescued differentiation. This allowed induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin and AKT, which suppressed autophagy. The results show that early induction of AMPK in response to IGF-I/IGFBP-2 followed by suppression is required for osteoblast differentiation. AMPK functions through stimulation of autophagy. The findings suggest that these early catabolic changes are

  15. Serum levels of IGF-I and BRCA penetrance: a case control study in breast cancer families.

    PubMed

    Pasanisi, Patrizia; Bruno, Eleonora; Venturelli, Elisabetta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Peissel, Bernard; De Giacomi, Clelia; Bonanni, Bernardo; Berrino, Jacopo; Berrino, Franco

    2011-09-01

    High serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are associated with an increased risk of sporadic breast cancer (BC). The aim of the present work is to evaluate the association between IGF-I and hereditary BC risk, using a case-control approach. The work represents an "ad interim" cross-sectional analysis of an ongoing study with a prospective design whose aim is to recruit a cohort of women belonging to high genetic risk families to test potential modulators of penetrance and prognosis. The odd of exposure to high serum IGF-I levels among women with a previous diagnosis of BC ("cases") was compared with the odd among unaffected "controls". The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression, controlling for confounders. We analysed 308 women (209 cases and 99 controls) at high genetic risk of BC. The adjusted OR of BC for the upper tertile of serum IGF-I versus the lowest one was 3.5 (95%CI 1.4-8.8). Excluding from the analysis 64 women under current Tamoxifen or GnRH analogues treatment, the adjusted OR of BC became 3.7 (95%CI 1.4-9.9). The association became stronger restricting the analysis to the 161 women (97 cases and 64 controls) with a proven BRCA mutation. If confirmed by a prospective approach, the association between IGF-I and familial BC will open further options for reducing BC risk in susceptible women. PMID:21455766

  16. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulate GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Mora, S; Kaliman, P; Chillarón, J; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The heterologous expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in Xenopus oocytes has been shown to cause a differential targeting of these glucose-carrier isoforms to cellular membranes and a distinct induction of glucose transport activity. In this study we have evaluated the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on glucose uptake and glucose transporter distribution in Xenopus oocytes expressing mammalian GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose carriers. 2. Insulin and IGF-I stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes, but not in GLUT1-expressing oocytes or in water-injected oocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin and IGF-I on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes occurred via activation of the IGF-I receptor. 3. Subcellular-fractionation studies indicated that insulin and IGF-I stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface of the oocyte. 4. Incubation of intact oocytes with insulin stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, an effect that was blocked by the additional presence of wortmannin. Furthermore, wortmannin totally abolished the insulin-induced stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes. 5. In this study, both the insulin-induced GLUT4 carrier translocation and GLUT4-dependent insulin-stimulated glucose transport have been reconstituted in the Xenopus oocyte. These observations, together with the fact that wortmannin, as found in adipocytes, inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport in oocytes, suggest that the heterologous expression of GLUT4 in oocytes is a useful experimental model by which to study the cell biology of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7575481

  17. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulate GLUT4 glucose transporter translocation in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Mora, S; Kaliman, P; Chillarón, J; Testar, X; Palacín, M; Zorzano, A

    1995-10-01

    1. The heterologous expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT1 in Xenopus oocytes has been shown to cause a differential targeting of these glucose-carrier isoforms to cellular membranes and a distinct induction of glucose transport activity. In this study we have evaluated the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on glucose uptake and glucose transporter distribution in Xenopus oocytes expressing mammalian GLUT4 and GLUT1 glucose carriers. 2. Insulin and IGF-I stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes, but not in GLUT1-expressing oocytes or in water-injected oocytes. The stimulatory effect of insulin and IGF-I on 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes occurred via activation of the IGF-I receptor. 3. Subcellular-fractionation studies indicated that insulin and IGF-I stimulated translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface of the oocyte. 4. Incubation of intact oocytes with insulin stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, an effect that was blocked by the additional presence of wortmannin. Furthermore, wortmannin totally abolished the insulin-induced stimulation of 2-deoxyglucose uptake in GLUT4-expressing oocytes. 5. In this study, both the insulin-induced GLUT4 carrier translocation and GLUT4-dependent insulin-stimulated glucose transport have been reconstituted in the Xenopus oocyte. These observations, together with the fact that wortmannin, as found in adipocytes, inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport in oocytes, suggest that the heterologous expression of GLUT4 in oocytes is a useful experimental model by which to study the cell biology of insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation. PMID:7575481

  18. Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I Modulates Endothelial Blood-Brain Barrier Function in Ischemic Middle-Aged Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Bake, Shameena; Okoreeh, Andre K; Alaniz, Robert C; Sohrabji, Farida

    2016-01-01

    In comparison with young females, middle-aged female rats sustain greater cerebral infarction and worse functional recovery after stroke. These poorer stroke outcomes in middle-aged females are associated with an age-related reduction in IGF-I levels. Poststroke IGF-I treatment decreases infarct volume in older females and lowers the expression of cytokines in the ischemic hemisphere. IGF-I also reduces transfer of Evans blue dye to the brain, suggesting that this peptide may also promote blood-brain barrier function. To test the hypothesis that IGF-I may act at the blood-brain barrier in ischemic stroke, 2 approaches were used. In the first approach, middle-aged female rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with IGF-I after reperfusion. Mononuclear cells from the ischemic hemisphere were stained for CD4 or triple-labeled for CD4/CD25/FoxP3 and subjected to flow analyses. Both cohorts of cells were significantly reduced in IGF-I-treated animals compared with those in vehicle controls. Reduced trafficking of immune cells to the ischemic site suggests that blood-brain barrier integrity is better maintained in IGF-I-treated animals. The second approach directly tested the effect of IGF-I on barrier function of aging endothelial cells. Accordingly, brain microvascular endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats were cultured ex vivo and subjected to ischemic conditions (oxygen-glucose deprivation). IGF-I treatment significantly reduced the transfer of fluorescently labeled BSA across the endothelial monolayer as well as cellular internalization of fluorescein isothiocyanate-BSA compared with those in vehicle-treated cultures, Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that IGF-I improves blood-brain barrier function in middle-aged females. PMID:26556536

  19. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) interacts with thrombospondin-1 to induce negative regulatory effects on IGF-I actions.

    PubMed

    Moralez, Anna M; Maile, Laura A; Clarke, Jane; Busby, Walker H; Clemmons, David R

    2005-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) and thrombospondin-1 (TS-1) are both present in extracellular matrix (ECM). Both proteins have been shown to bind to one another with high affinity. The purpose of these studies was to determine how the interaction between IGFBP-5 and TS-1 modulates IGF-I actions in porcine aortic smooth muscle cells (pSMC) in culture. The addition of increasing concentrations of TS-1 to pSMC cultures enhanced the protein synthesis and cell migration responses to IGF-I; whereas the addition of IGFBP-5 alone resulted in minimal changes. In contrast, the addition of IGFBP-5 to cultures that were also exposed to IGF-I and TS-1 resulted in inhibition of protein synthesis. When the cell migration response was assessed, the response to IGF-I plus TS-1 was also significantly inhibited by the addition of IGFBP-5, whereas 1.0 microg/ml of IGFBP-5 alone had no effect on the response to IGF-I. To determine the molecular mechanism by which this inhibition occurred, a mutant form of IGFBP-5 that does not bind to IGF-I was tested. This mutant was equipotent compared to native IGFBP-5 in its ability to inhibit both protein synthesis and cell migration responses to IGF-I plus TS-1 thus excluding the possibility that IGFBP-5 was inhibiting the response to TS-1 and IGF-I by inhibiting IGF-I binding to the IGF-I receptor. To determine if an interaction between TS-1 and IGFBP-5 was the primary determinant of the inhibitory effect of IGFBP-5, an IGFBP-5 mutant that bound poorly to TS-1 was utilized. The addition of 1.0 microg/ml of this mutant did not inhibit the protein synthesis or cell migration responses to IGF-I plus TS-1. To determine the mechanism by which IGFBP-5 binding to TS-1 inhibited cellular responses to TS-1 plus IGF-I, TS-1 binding to integrin associated protein (IAP) was assessed. The addition of IGFBP-5 (1.0 microg/ml) inhibited TS-1-IAP association. In contrast, a mutant form of IGFBP-5 that bound poorly to TS-1 had a minimal

  20. Effects of Growth Hormone/IGF-I and Exercise on Unloaded Bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, J. S.; Arnaud, S. B.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in combination with exercise prevent muscle atrophy induced by unloading in the tail-suspension rat model for space flight (Gosselink et al, FASEB J 1994). This study evaluated the effects of these treatments on bone. Hypophysectomized rats were suspended (S) and treated with 1mg/kg/day CH plus IGF-I (H) or vehicle (Sal) daily by injection and exercised (Ex) by 3 climbs up a 1m ladder carrying a load equal to 30% the initial body weight (BW) 3x/day for 10 days. Tibial epiphysis (Epi) widths were measured by micrometry and femoral Bone Mineral Content (fBMC) in excised femurs by DEXA (Lunar DPX-L). Serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (Pi) were measured by COBAS Autoanalyzer (Roche Diag.). Ambulatory (Amb)-H treated rats showed growth rates of 6.6+-0.9 g/day, similar to S-H-Ex and higher than S-H (3.210.6, p less than 0.05) and S-Sal (-0.711.0, p less than 0.05). Epi widths were 10% lower in S-Sal, and S-Sal-Ex, and increased 100% in all H groups. fBMC was less in S than Amb, only when all S groups are compared to both Amb groups (p less than 0.03). H treatment increased fBMC (p less than 0.05) but reduced fBMC/100g BW in all H groups (p less than 0.001). The reduced density of H bone cannot be attributed to low circulating Ca. and Pi since they were higher in H than Sal (p less than 0.001). H treatment for 10 days in doses sufficient to support normal growth in BW failed to produce normal Epi widths or fBMC, even when combined with exercise. The suspension effect observed in Epi widths was not corrected by H or Ex alone, but was improved by H plus a This regimen. although effective in preventing muscle atrophy, failed to return bone measures, Epi widths and fBMC, to normal.

  1. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phylostomidae).

    PubMed

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Johnston, John J; Perkins, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    The common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) is one of three haematophagous species of bats and the only species in this genus. These New World bats prey on mammals and create significant economic impacts through transmission of rabies in areas where livestock are prevalent. Furthermore, in some portions of their range, it is not uncommon for them to prey upon humans. It is critical to the management of this species and for understanding the spread of bat rabies that detailed studies of D. rotundus population structure be conducted. To further such studies, we have characterized 12 microsatellite loci for this species. PMID:21585815

  2. Rapid, economical single-nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite discovery based on de novo assembly of a reduced representation genome in a non-model organism: a case study of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, J; Gauthier, D T; Carlsson, J E L; Coughlan, J P; Dillane, E; Fitzgerald, R D; Keating, U; McGinnity, P; Mirimin, L; Cross, T F

    2013-03-01

    By combining next-generation sequencing technology (454) and reduced representation library (RRL) construction, the rapid and economical isolation of over 25 000 potential single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and >6000 putative microsatellite loci from c. 2% of the genome of the non-model teleost, Atlantic cod Gadus morhua from the Celtic Sea, south of Ireland, was demonstrated. A small-scale validation of markers indicated that 80% (11 of 14) of SNP loci and 40% (6 of 15) of the microsatellite loci could be amplified and showed variability. The results clearly show that small-scale next-generation sequencing of RRL genomes is an economical and rapid approach for simultaneous SNP and microsatellite discovery that is applicable to any species. The low cost and relatively small investment in time allows for positive exploitation of ascertainment bias to design markers applicable to specific populations and study questions. PMID:23464553

  3. Linkage of morbid obesity with polymorphic microsatellite markers on chromosome 1q31 in a three-generation Canadian kindred

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.D.; Bulman, D.E.; Ebers, G.C. |

    1994-09-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder affecting Western societies. An estimated 3.7 million Canadians are considered to be overweight, a condition associated with hypertension, accelerated atherosclerosis, diabetes and a host of other medical problems. We have identified a 3 generation kindred in which morbid obesity appears to segregate in an autosomal dominant manner. All individuals were examined. Mass (kg) and heights (m) were measured in order to determine a body mass index (BMI) for each individual. Those individuals with BMI of greater than or equal to 30.0 were designated as affected. In the pedigree studied 25 individuals met this criteria and 12 of these were morbidly obese (BMI greater or equal to 40.0). A search of candidate genes proved unfruitful. A linkage study was initiated. All individuals in the pedigree were genotyped for microsatellite markers which were spaced every 20 centimorgans (cM). Positive evidence of linkage was detected with markers which map to 1q31-32 (lod score of 3.6 at {theta} = 0.05). Notably, strong effects for fatness in pigs have been found on pig chromosome 4 which has synteny with human chromosome 1q21-32. We are currently attempting to refine the position of this gene using linkage analysis with other microsatellite markers from this region of the genome. In addition we are screening other families in which obesity segregates for linkage to 1q31.

  4. Characterization of 17 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mammal chewing louse Geomydoecus ewingi (Insecta: Phthiraptera) for population genetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nessner, C E; Andersen, J J; Renshaw, M A; Giresi, M M; Light, J E

    2014-12-01

    We report 17 novel microsatellite loci in the parasitic chewing louse Geomydoecus ewingi, a common parasite of the pocket gopher, Geomys breviceps . Thirty-three G. ewingi individuals from 1 geographic locality and 3 pocket gopher hosts (populations) were genotyped at each locus. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 13. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.182 to 0.788. Four to 6 loci per louse population fell outside of Hardy-Weinberg expectations (HWE) and examination of population structure also revealed substantial homozygote excess as well as significant structure among louse populations. These findings are likely the consequence of biological characteristics of the lice (low dispersal abilities, population bottlenecks, etc.), which can result in inbreeding. Notably, when all louse individuals were analyzed together as 1 population, a Wahlund effect was detected, supporting that louse populations are restricted to 1 host individual. The microsatellite markers characterized in this study will be useful in future studies exploring the population dynamics in host-parasite systems, potentially yielding a better understanding of the processes underlying symbiotic associations. PMID:24992004

  5. THE LOCAL EXPRESSION AND ABUNDANCE OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR (IGF) BINDING PROTEINS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE ARE REGULATED BY AGE AND GENDER BUT NOT LOCAL IGF-I "IN VIVO"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We wished to determine whether sustained IGF-I production in skeletal muscle increases local IGF binding protein (IGFBP) abundance, thereby mitigating the long-term stimulation of muscle growth by IGF-I. Muscle growth of transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I in muscle (SIS2) and of wild-type (Wt) m...

  6. Blueberry Microsatellite Markers Identify Cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-six blueberry simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers or microsatellites were tested for the ability to amplify a polymorphic marker in eight American cranberry accessions. Sixteen SSRs resulted in informative and polymorphic SSR primer pairs and were used to fingerprint 16 economically important...

  7. The somatotropic axis in neonatal calves can be modulated by nutrition, growth hormone, and Long-R3-IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Hammon, H; Blum, J W

    1997-07-01

    Effects on the somatotropic axis [plasma levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II, IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and growth hormone (GH)] of feeding different amounts of colostrum or milk replacer, of Long-R3-IGF-I (administered subcutaneously or orally; 50 micrograms.kg body wt-1.day-1 for 7 days), and of subcutaneously injected recombinant bovine GH (rbGH; 1 mg.kg body wt-1.day-1 for 7 days) were evaluated in calves during the 1st wk of life. Plasma Long-R3-IGF-I increased after subcutaneous application but not with the oral dose. Endogenous IGF-I was higher in calves fed colostrum six times compared with those fed only milk replacer. Native IGF-I was highest in rbGH-injected calves but was lowered by the subcutaneous injection of Long-R3-IGF-I. IGF-II concentrations were not modified by any of the treatments. IGFBP-2 increased in calves fed only milk replacer and those receiving subcutaneous Long-R3-IGF-I. GH was not modulated by differences in nutrition but increased after rbGH administration and similarly in all groups after intravenous injection of GH-releasing factor analog GRF-(1-29). Parenteral administration of Long-R3-IGF-I decreased GH concentration but did not affect the secretory pattern. The data demonstrate that the somatotrophic axis is basically functioning in neonatal calves and is influenced by nutrition, GH, and Long-R3-IGF-I. PMID:9252489

  8. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-5 in the T47D human breast carcinoma cell line by IGF-I and retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shemer, J; Yaron, A; Werner, H; Shao, Z M; Sheikh, M S; Fontana, J A; LeRoith, D; Roberts, C T

    1993-11-01

    The T47D human breast carcinoma cell line has been shown to synthesize insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding proteins (IGFBPs) and IGF-I receptors, and to exhibit a mitogenic response to exogenous IGF-I. We have used T47D cells to investigate the regulation of IGFBPs by IGF-I and retinoic acid (RA), agents that affect cell proliferation and have been shown to regulate IGFBP levels in other cell types. Exposure of T47D cells to IGF-I resulted in the appearance of IGFBP-2, -4, and -5 in conditioned medium but had no effect on the levels of IGFBPs in Triton X-100-extracted cells. This effect was most pronounced for IGFBP-5 and was also elicited by an IGF-I analog that retains affinity for IGFBPs but not by insulin or IGF analogs that have decreased affinity for IGFBPs. Additionally, this effect was not associated with a change in IGFBP-5 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels; however, the appearance of IGFBP-5 in the conditioned medium was inhibited by an anti-IGF-I receptor antibody (alpha IR-3). RA decreased IGFBP-5 mRNA levels and cell-associated IGFBP-5 in both the presence and absence of IGF-I and inhibited the IGF-I-stimulated secretion of IGFBP-5 into T47D cell conditioned medium. These results suggest that IGF-I increases IGFBP-5 levels in the T47D cell line both through direct interaction with IGFBP-5 as well as through a receptor-mediated process that does not require direct interaction with IGFBPs. The latter results are consistent with an effect of IGF-I on a factor that may modulate an IGFBP protease activity. The inhibitory effect of RA, on the other hand, appears to be due primarily to regulation of IGFBP-5 mRNA levels. Thus, IGFBP-5 accumulation appears to be positively regulated by IGF-I, potentially at the level of susceptibility to proteolysis, and negatively regulated at the level of gene expression by RA. PMID:7521344

  9. Identification of new polymorphic microsatellite markers in the NA1 and NA2 lineages of Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora ramorum is a recently introduced pathogen consisting of three clonal lineages. Due to the very limited intra-lineage genetic variation, only a few polymorphic markers are available for use in studies involving the epidemiology and evolution of P. ramorum. A total of 159 primer pairs for...

  10. Evaluation of anonymous and expressed sequence tag derived polymorphic microsatellite markers in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphic genetic markers were identified and characterized using a partial genomic library of Heliothis virescens enriched for simple sequence repeats (SSR) and nucleotide sequences of expressed sequence tags (EST). Nucleotide sequences of 192 clones from the partial genomic library yielded 147 u...

  11. Autocrine/paracrine proliferative effect of ovarian GH and IGF-I in chicken granulosa cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ahumada-Solórzano, S Marisela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Carranza, Martha; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna-Acosta, José Luis; Harvey, Steve; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    It is known that growth hormone (GH) and its receptor (GHR) are expressed in granulosa cells (GC) and thecal cells during the follicular development in the hen ovary, which suggests GH is involved in autocrine/paracrine actions in the female reproductive system. In this work, we show that the knockdown of local ovarian GH with a specific cGH siRNA in GC cultures significantly decreased both cGH mRNA expression and GH secretion to the media, and also reduced their proliferative rate. Thus, we analyzed the effect of ovarian GH and recombinant chicken GH (rcGH) on the proliferation of pre-hierarchical GCs in primary cultures. Incubation of GCs with either rcGH or conditioned media, containing predominantly a 15-kDa GH isoform, showed that both significantly increased proliferation as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) quantification and ((3)H)-thymidine incorporation ((3)H-T) assays in a dose response fashion. Both, locally produced GH and rcGH also induced the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in GC cultures. Furthermore, GH increased IGF-I synthesis and its release into the GC culture incubation media. These results suggest that GH may act through local IGF-I to induce GC proliferation, since IGF-I immunoneutralization completely abolished the GH-induced proliferative effect. These data suggest that GH and IGF-I may play a role as autocrine/paracrine regulators during the follicular development in the hen ovary at the pre-hierarchical stage. PMID:27174747

  12. Development and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew, Sorex ugyunak (Mammalia: Sorcidae), through next-generation sequencing, and cross-species amplification in the masked shrew, S. cinereus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Sage, G.K.; Fowler, M.; Hope, A.G.; Cook, J.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    We used next generation shotgun sequencing to develop 21 novel microsatellite markers for the barren-ground shrew (Sorex ugyunak), which were polymorphic among individuals from northern Alaska. The loci displayed moderate allelic diversity (averaging 6.81 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 70 %). Two loci deviated from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) due to heterozygote deficiency. While the population did not deviate from HWE overall, it showed significant linkage disequilibrium suggesting this population is not in mutation-drift equilibrium. Nineteen of 21 loci were polymorphic in masked shrews (S. cinereus) from interior Alaska and exhibited linkage equilibrium and HWE overall. All loci yielded sufficient variability for use in population studies.

  13. IGF-I is distinctly located in the bony fish pituitary as revealed for Oreochromis niloticus, the Nile tilapia, using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Shved, Natallia; Moret, Olivier; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    In bony fish, IGF-I released from the liver under the control of pituitary GH is the main endocrine regulator of growth, maintenance and development, and the amount of circulating IGF-I regulates synthesis and release of GH. In mammals and amphibia, evidence indicates that anterior pituitary endocrine cells also contain IGF-I. However, only preliminary and conflicting data exist on IGF-I gene expression in bony fish pituitary. Thus, we investigated the presence of IGF-I in the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) pituitary by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry. The absolute amount of IGF-I mRNA in the whole pituitary (7.4+/-3.3 x 10(-3)pg/microg total RNA) was 1000-times lower than in liver (7.5+/-3.1 pg/microg total RNA). IGF-I peptide occurred in both neuro- and adenohypophysis but IGF-I gene expression was mainly restricted to the adenohypophysis. In the neurohypophysis, only few cells, probably pituicytes, contained IGF-I mRNA whereas IGF-I peptide was found also in numerous axons in the pars nervosa. In the adenohypophysis, both IGF-I mRNA and peptide were present in the majority of ACTH cells in all individuals investigated. In alpha-MSH cells, only IGF-I mRNA but no IGF-I peptide was detected likely suggesting an immediate release of IGF-I after synthesis. IGF-I mRNA and peptide were further observed in GH cells but their presence showed pronounced inter-individual differences likely due to the physiological, e.g., nutritional, status of the individual. IGF-I released from the GH cells may serve as auto/paracrine mediator of a negative feedback mechanism in addition to liver-derived endocrine IGF-I. Generally, the constitutive synthesis of IGF-I in ACTH cells and the varying content in GH and alpha-MSH cells suggest particular roles for IGF-I. Local IGF-I may regulate synthesis and release of pituitary hormones in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner as well as prevent apoptosis and stimulate proliferation of endocrine

  14. POLYMORPHIC CHLOROPLAST MICROSATELLITE MARKERS IN THE OCTOPLOID LEPIDIUM MEYENII (BRASSICACEAE) AND CROSS-SPECIES AMPLIFICATION IN LEPIDIUM

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nabeeh A.; Mummenhoff, Klaus; Quiros, Carlos F.; Tay, C. David; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2013-01-01

    Premise of the study As a crop and medicinal plant, the octoploid Andean endemic Lepidium meyenii suffers from taxonomic uncertainty. Few molecular markers are available to genotype individuals or track gene flow in wild and cultivated material. Methods and Results Using available sequence data, eight cpSSR primer pairs were developed for L. meyenii. Levels of polymorphism checked in 56 individual L. meyenii, including cultivated and wild material, revealed that the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to five, and intrapopulation allele frequencies ranged from 0.071 to 1.0. Polymerase-chain-reaction screens using our cpSSR primers in 27 other Lepidium species and three Coronopus species suggested a high degree of interspecific amplification. Conclusions These polymorphic cpSSR markers should prove useful in characterizing genetic variation among cultivated and wild L. meyenii. Additionally, interspecific amplifications suggest that these markers will be useful for the study of related taxa. PMID:21616787

  15. Cross-species amplification and polymorphism of microsatellite loci in Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazilian cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Leite, N A; Corrêa, A S; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Zucchi, M I; Omoto, C

    2016-01-01

    The Old World bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was recently discovered in Brazil. This species is closely related to the New World bollworm H. zea (Boddie), and mating between these species has already been reported under laboratory conditions. Here, we tested the cross-species amplification of 20 microsatellite (SSR) loci in field populations of H. armigera and H. zea collected from Brazilian cropping systems. Seven SSR loci were successfully amplified and polymorphic in both species except for the locus HaC14, which was monomorphic for H. zea. All SSR loci were in linkage equilibrium, and deviations from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium were only observed for the locus HarSSR1 in the HaRS-2 population, where null alleles were present. A moderate level of polymorphism was detected in H. armigera and H. zea populations with a mean allele number of 4.14, and 2.24, respectively. Interestingly, most of the populations of the recent invader H. armigera showed higher genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients than H. zea populations. The genetic identity of each species was recovered using a STRUCTURE analysis, where the populations formed two clusters (K = 2) according to their species. STRUCTURE also suggested the occurrence of potential hybrid offspring between H. armigera and H. zea individuals in natural conditions. These SSR loci will be valuable in characterizing population differentiation, invasion routes, adaptation, reproductive behavior, and intra- and interspecific gene flow in H. armigera and H. zea populations in Brazil, the USA, and other areas where these two pests occur. PMID:27173200

  16. The development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers through next generation sequencing and a preliminary population genetic analysis for the endangered Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam D; Van Rooyen, Anthony; Sweeney, Oisín F; Whiterod, Nick S; Weeks, Andrew R

    2013-07-01

    The Glenelg spiny crayfish, Euastacus bispinosus, is an iconic freshwater invertebrate of south eastern Australia and listed as 'endangered' under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, and 'vulnerable' under the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. The species has suffered major population declines as a result of over-fishing, low environmental flows, the introduction of invasive fish species and habitat degradation. In order to develop an effective conservation strategy, patterns of gene flow, genetic structure and genetic diversity across the species distribution need to be clearly understood. In this study we develop a suite of polymorphic microsatellite markers by next generation sequencing. A total of 15 polymorphic loci were identified and 10 characterized using 22 individuals from the lower Glenelg River. We observed low to moderate genetic variation across most loci (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.80; mean expected heterozygosity = 0.36) with no evidence of individual loci deviating significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Marker independence was confirmed with tests for linkage disequilibrium, and analyses indicated no evidence of null alleles across loci. Individuals from two additional sites (Crawford River, Victoria; Ewens Ponds Conservation Park, South Australia) were genotyped at all 10 loci and a preliminary investigation of genetic diversity and population structure was undertaken. Analyses indicate high levels of genetic differentiation among sample locations (F ST = 0.49), while the Ewens Ponds population is genetically homogeneous, indicating a likely small founder group and ongoing inbreeding. Management actions will be needed to restore genetic diversity in this and possibly other at risk populations. These markers will provide a valuable resource for future population genetic assessments so that an effective framework can be developed for implementing conservation strategies for E

  17. Alcohol-induced IGF-I resistance is ameliorated in mice deficient for mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Lynch, Christopher J; Vary, Thomas C

    2010-05-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication decreases skeletal muscle protein synthesis by impairing mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In 2 studies, we determined whether inhibition of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism ameliorates the inhibitory effect of alcohol on muscle protein synthesis by raising the plasma BCAA concentrations and/or by improving the anabolic response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In the first study, 4 groups of mice were used: wild-type (WT) and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) knockout (KO) mice orally administered saline or alcohol (5 g/kg, 1 h). Protein synthesis was greater in KO mice compared with WT controls and was associated with greater phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4E binding protein-1 (4EBP1), eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and 4EBP1-regulatory associated protein of mTOR (raptor) binding, but not mTOR-raptor binding. Alcohol decreased protein synthesis in WT mice, a change associated with less 4EBP1 phosphorylation, eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and raptor-4EBP1 binding, but greater mTOR-raptor complex formation. Comparable alcohol effects on protein synthesis and signal transduction were detected in BCATm KO mice. The second study used the same 4 groups, but all mice were injected with IGF-I (25 microg/mouse, 30 min). Alcohol impaired the ability of IGF-I to increase muscle protein synthesis, 4EBP1 and 70-kilodalton ribosomal protein S6 kinase-1 phosphorylation, eIF4E-eIF4G binding, and 4EBP1-raptor binding in WT mice. However, in alcohol-treated BCATm KO mice, this IGF-I resistance was not manifested. These data suggest that whereas the sustained elevation in plasma BCAA is not sufficient to ameliorate the catabolic effect of acute alcohol intoxication on muscle protein synthesis, it does improve the anabolic effect of IGF-I. PMID:20237068

  18. Population genetic structure of wild and farmed rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in New-Caledonia inferred from polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    de Garine-Wichatitsky, M; de Meeûs, T; Chevillon, C; Berthier, D; Barré, N; Thévenon, S; Maillard, J-C

    2009-12-01

    Historical records indicate that 12 rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) were introduced in New-Caledonia during the 1870s. We used eight polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci to assess the genetic differentiation and diversity of farmed and wild deer populations. Past genetic bottlenecks were detected in both sub-populations, although higher genetic diversity was maintained in farmed populations, probably due to the regular introduction of reproducers from wild populations and from other farms. The genetic structure of farmed and wild populations differed significantly. There was a significant isolation by distance for wild populations, whereas farmed populations were significantly differentiated between farms independently from their geographical proximity. Wild rusa deer consisted of small populations (with effective population sizes ranging between 7 and 19 individuals depending on the methods used), with a low parent-offspring dispersion range (0.20-2.02 km). Genetic tools and direct observations provided congruent estimates of dispersion and population sizes. We discuss the relevance of our results for management purposes. PMID:19680748

  19. Comparison of the Microsatellite and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Methods for Discriminating among Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle), Imported, and Crossbred Beef in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Young-Jo; Park, Hyun-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The identity of 45 Hanwo and 47 imported beef (non-Hanwoo) samples from USA and Australia were verified using the microsatellite (MS) marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) methods. Samples were collected from 19 supermarkets located in the city of Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea, from 2009 to 2011. As a result, we obtained a 100% concordance rate between the MS and SNP methods for identifying Hanwoo and non-Hanwoo beef. The MS method presented a 95% higher individual discriminating value for Hanwoo (97.8%) than for non-Hanwoo (61.7%) beef. For further comparison of the MS and SNP methods, blood samples were collected and tested from 54 Hanwoo × Holstein crossbred cattle (first, second, and third generations). By using the SNP and MS methods, we correctly identified all of the first-generation crossbred cattle as non-Hanwoo; in addition, among the second and third generation crossbreds, the ratio identified as Hanwoo was 20% and 10%, respectively. The MS method used in our study provides more information, but requires sophisticated techniques during each experimental process. By contrast, the SNP method is simple and has a lower error rate. Our results suggest that the MS and SNP methods are useful for discriminating Hanwoo from non-Hanwoo breeds. PMID:26761672

  20. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) induces myotube hypertrophy associated with an increase in anaerobic glycolysis in a clonal skeletal-muscle cell model.

    PubMed Central

    Semsarian, C; Sutrave, P; Richmond, D R; Graham, R M

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important autocrine/paracrine mediator of skeletal-muscle growth and development. To develop a definitive cultured cell model of skeletal-muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 cells were stably transfected with IGF-I and clonal lines developed and evaluated. Quantitative morphometric analysis showed that IGF-I-transfected myotubes had a larger area (2381+/-60 micrometer2 versus 1429+/-39 micrometer2; P<0.0001) and a greater maximum width (21.4+/-0.6 micrometer versus 13.9+/-0.3 micrometer; P<0.0001) than control C2C12 myotubes, independent of the number of cell nuclei per myotube. IGF-I-transfected myotubes had higher levels of protein synthesis but no difference in DNA synthesis when compared with control myotubes, indicating the development of hypertrophy rather than hyperplasia. Both lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotransferase activities were increased (3- and 5-fold respectively), and total lactate levels were higher (2.3-fold) in IGF-I-transfected compared with control myotubes, indicating an increase in anaerobic glycolysis in the hypertrophied myotubes. However, expression of genes involved in skeletal-muscle growth or hypertrophy in vivo, e.g. myocyte nuclear factor and myostatin, was not altered in the IGF-I myotubes. Finally, myotube hypertrophy could also be induced by treatment of C2C12 cells with recombinant IGF-I or by growing C2C12 cells in conditioned media from IGF-I-transfected cells. This quantitative model should be uniquely useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of skeletal-muscle hypertrophy. PMID:10191278

  1. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Char, D; Bagby, G J; Gelato, M C; Lang, C H

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) whether exogenous administration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) alters insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins (BPs) and 2) whether the enhanced endogenous production of TNF mediates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in the IGF system. The overnight infusion of murine TNF-alpha reduced circulating concentrations of both growth hormone (GH) and IGF-I in fasted rats. Furthermore, TNF-alpha decreased IGF-I content in liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and pituitary. In contrast, TNF-alpha increased IGF-I content in kidney and brain. IGFBP-1 was increased in plasma, liver, and muscle in response to TNF-alpha. In a second study, rats were injected with LPS after treatment with a neutralizing anti-TNF antibody (Ab), and blood and tissues were collected 4 h later. In LPS-treated rats, plasma concentrations of GH and IGF-I were reduced. LPS also decreased the IGF-I content in liver and skeletal muscle and increased plasma, liver, and muscle concentrations of IGFBP-1. Pretreatment with anti-TNF Ab attenuated the LPS-induced reduction in IGF-I and the increased IGFBP-1 in plasma and liver and completely prevented the decrease in IGF-I observed in muscle. In contrast, the LPS-induced decrease in plasma GH and the increased IGFBP-1 observed in muscle were unaltered by the anti-TNF Ab.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7503312

  2. Development and characterization of 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the faucet snail, Bithynia tentaculata (Gastroposa: Caenogastropoda; Bithyniidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henningsen, Justin P.; Lance, Stacey L.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Hagen, Chris; Laurila, Joshua; Cole, Rebecca A.; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Bithynia tentaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), a snail native to Europe, was introduced into the US Great Lakes in the 1870's and has spread to rivers throughout the Northeastern US and Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Trematode parasites, for which B. tentaculata is a host, have also been introduced and are causing widespread waterfowl mortality in the UMR. Waterfowl mortality is caused by ingestion of trematode-infected B. tentaculata or insects infected with parasites released from the snails. We isolated and characterized 17 microsatellite loci from the invasive faucet snail, B. tentaculata (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Bithyniidae). Loci were screened in 24 individuals of B. tentaculata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 6, observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.050 to 0.783, and the probability of identity values ranged from 0.10 to 0.91. These new loci provide tools for examining the origin and spread of invasive populations in the US and management activities to prevent waterfowl mortality.

  3. Seawater and freshwater challenges affect the insulin-like growth factors IGF-I and IGF-II in liver and osmoregulatory organs of the tilapia.

    PubMed

    Link, Karl; Berishvili, Giorgi; Shved, Natallia; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2010-10-01

    Contradictory studies suggest IGF-I in fish liver and gills is involved in osmoregulation, but nothing is known about the kidney and intestine's role nor about IGF-II's role in any organ. Tilapia were transferred from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) for 1week (wk) and retransferred to FW for another week. At 4h, 1d, 2d, 3d and 1wk after SW-transfer and FW-retransfer IGF-I, IGF-II and growth hormone receptor (GHR1) mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Hepatic IGF-I, IGF-II and GHR1 mRNA were downregulated in parallel after SW-transfer, recovered and were again downregulated after FW-retransfer. In gills, IGF-I, IGF-II and GHR1 were upregulated synchronously after SW-transfer and, partially also after FW-retransfer. The renal genes were downregulated after SW-transfer and partially upregulated after FW-retransfer. Persisting upregulation in intestinal IGF-I mRNA occurred after FW-retransfer. Thus, endocrine and auto/paracrine IGF-I and IGF-II seem to be involved in fish osmoregulation in an organ-specific manner. PMID:20621706

  4. Fasting modulates GH/IGF-I axis and its regulatory systems in the mammary gland of female mice: Influence of endogenous cortistatin.

    PubMed

    Villa-Osaba, Alicia; Gahete, Manuel D; Cordoba-Chacon, José; de Lecea, Luis; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M

    2016-10-15

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are essential factors in mammary-gland (MG) development and are altered during fasting. However, no studies have investigated the alterations in the expression of GH/IGF-I and its regulatory systems (somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin) in MG during fasting. Therefore, this study was aimed at characterizing the regulation of GH/IGF-I/somatostatin/cortistatin/ghrelin-systems expression in MG of fasted female-mice (compared to fed-controls) and the influence of endogenous-cortistatin (using cortistatin-knockouts). Fasting decreased IGF-I while increased IGF-I/Insulin-receptors expression in MGs. Fasting provoked an increase in GH expression that might be associated to enhanced ghrelin-variants/ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase enzyme expression, while an upregulation of somatostatin-receptors was observed. However, cortistatin-knockouts mice showed a decrease in GH and somatostatin receptor-subtypes expression. Altogether, we demonstrate that GH/IGF-I, somatostatin/cortistatin and ghrelin systems expression is altered in MG during fasting, suggesting a relevant role in coordinating its response to metabolic stress, wherein endogenous cortistatin might be essential for an appropriate response. PMID:27291340

  5. Identification of binding sites for an insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) in the median eminence of the rat brain by quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bohannon, N.J.; Figlewicz, D.P.; Corp, E.S.; Wilcox, B.J.; Porte, D. Jr.; Baskin, D.G.

    1986-08-01

    The microanatomical location of IGF-I binding in the rat brain was determined by in vitro autoradiography with slide-mounted sections of frozen brain. Sections incubated in 0.1 nM (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I produced a dense grain concentration in regions of the autoradiographic image corresponding to the external palisade zone of the median eminence; other hypothalamic regions were not so heavily labeled. This reaction was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 nM IGF-I. Measurement of binding by computer digital image analysis of autoradiographic images showed that specific binding for IGF-I in the median eminence was 41.3 +/- 8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2 (mean +/- SEM); nonspecific binding was 11.9 +/- 1.8 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In contrast, specific binding to other hypothalamic regions was uniformly lower. In a separate experiment, 1000 nM unlabeled insulin was added. Without insulin, specific binding was 23 +/- 0.9 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2; nonspecific binding was 8 +/- 0.5 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. In the presence of 1000 nM unlabeled insulin, specific binding for (/sup 125/I)-iodo-IGF-I was 23 +/- 1 X 10(-3) fmol/mm2. The results suggest that a high concentration of receptors for an IGF-I-like molecule is present in the median eminence.

  6. NKX3.1 Activates Expression of IGFBP-3 to Mediate IGF-I Signaling and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Muhlbradt, Erin; Asatiani, Ekaterina; Ortner, Elizabeth; Wang, Antai; Gelmann, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    NKX3.1 is a homeobox gene that codes for a haploinsufficient prostate cancer tumor suppressor. NKX3.1 protein levels are down regulated in the majority of primary prostate cancer tissues. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells increased IGFBP-3 mRNA expression 10-fold as determined by expression microarray analysis. In both stably and transiently transfected PC-3 cells and in LNCaP cells NKX3.1 expression increased IGFBP-3 mRNA and protein expression. In prostates of Nkx3.1 gene-targeted mice Igfbp-3 mRNA levels correlated with Nkx3.1 copy number. NKX3.1 expression in PC-3 cells attenuated the ability of IGF-I to induce phosphorylation of IGF-IR, IRS-1, PI3-kinase, and AKT. The effect of NKX3.1 on IGF-I signaling was not seen when cells were exposed to long-R3-IGF-I, an IGF-1 variant peptide that does not bind to IGFBP-3. Additionally, siRNA-induced knock down of IGFBP-3 expression partially reversed the attenuation of IGF-1R signaling by NKX3.1 and abrogated NKX3.1 suppression of PC-3 cell proliferation. Thus there is a close relationship in vitro and in vivo between NKX3.1 and IGFBP-3. The growth suppressive effects of NKX3.1 in prostate cells are mediated, in part, by activation of IGFBP-3 expression. PMID:19258508

  7. Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma: etiological factors or risk markers?

    PubMed

    Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen; Hüsing, Anika; Schock, Helena; Fedirko, Veronika; Trepo, Elisabeth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Benetou, Vassiliki; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Nöthlings, Ute; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Dorronsoro, Miren; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Werner, Mårten; Sund, Malin; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Gunter, Marc J; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Elevated prediagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk [OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), p(trend) = 0.009]. As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p = 0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with prediagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as prediagnostic risk marker for HCC. PMID:23801371

  8. Conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines demonstrate enhanced proliferation and migration in response to IGF-I

    SciTech Connect

    Rosendahl, Ann H.; Gundewar, Chinmay; Said Hilmersson, Katarzyna; Ni, Lan; Saleem, Moin A.; Andersson, Roland

    2015-01-15

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) play a key role in the dense desmoplastic stroma associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Studies on human PSCs have been minimal due to difficulty in maintaining primary PSC in culture. We have generated the first conditionally immortalized human non-tumor (NPSC) and tumor-derived (TPSC) pancreatic stellate cells via transformation with the temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen and human telomerase (hTERT). These cells proliferate at 33°C. After transfer to 37°C, the SV40LT is switched off and the cells regain their primary PSC phenotype and growth characteristics. NPSC contained cytoplasmic vitamin A-storing lipid droplets, while both NPSC and TPSC expressed the characteristic markers αSMA, vimentin, desmin and GFAP. Proteome array analysis revealed that of the 55 evaluated proteins, 27 (49%) were upregulated ≥3-fold in TPSC compared to NPSC, including uPA, pentraxin-3, endoglin and endothelin-1. Two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) were inversely expressed. Although discordant IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 levels, IGF-I was found to stimulate proliferation of both NPSC and TPSC. Both basal and IGF-I stimulated motility was significantly enhanced in TPSC compared to NPSC. In conclusion, these cells provide a unique resource that will facilitate further study of the active stroma compartment associated with pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • Generation of human conditionally immortalized human pancreatic stellate cell lines. • Temperature-sensitive SV40LT allows switch to primary PSC phenotype characteristics. • Proteome profiling revealed distinct expression patterns between TPSC and NPSC. • Enhanced IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and motility by TPSC compared to NPSC.

  9. IGF-I activity may be a key determinant of stroke risk--a cautionary lesson for vegans.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    2003-09-01

    IGF-I acts on vascular endothelium to activate nitric oxide synthase, thereby promoting vascular health; there is reason to believe that this protection is especially crucial to the cerebral vasculature, helping to ward off thrombotic strokes. IGF-I may also promote the structural integrity of cerebral arteries, thereby offering protection from hemorrhagic stroke. These considerations may help to explain why tallness is associated with low stroke risk, whereas growth hormone deficiency increases stroke risk--and why age-adjusted stroke mortality has been exceptionally high in rural Asians eating quasi-vegan diets, but has been declining steadily in Asia as diets have become progressively higher in animal products. There is good reason to suspect that low-fat vegan diets tend to down-regulate systemic IGF-I activity; this effect would be expected to increase stroke risk in vegans. Furthermore, epidemiology suggests that low serum cholesterol, and possibly also a low dietary intake of saturated fat--both characteristic of those adopting low-fat vegan diets--may also increase stroke risk. Vegans are thus well advised to adopt practical countermeasures to minimize stroke risk--the most definitive of which may be salt restriction. A high potassium intake, aerobic exercise training, whole grains, moderate alcohol consumption, low-dose aspirin, statin or policosanol therapy, green tea, and supplementation with fish oil, taurine, arginine, and B vitamins--as well as pharmacotherapy of hypertension if warranted--are other practical measures for lowering stroke risk. Although low-fat vegan diets may markedly reduce risk for coronary disease, diabetes, and many common types of cancer, an increased risk for stroke may represent an 'Achilles heel'. Nonetheless, vegans have the potential to achieve a truly exceptional 'healthspan' if they face this problem forthrightly by restricting salt intake and taking other practical measures that promote cerebrovascular health. PMID

  10. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on COPD patients with microsatellite polymorphism in the heme oxygenase-1 gene promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Fang, Li-Zhou; Liu, Ling; Fu, Wei-Ping; Dai, Lu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role as an antioxidant in the lung, and HO-1 gene promoter polymorphism has been shown to be associated with the severity and prognosis of COPD patients. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant/mucous modifier, has shown an uncertain benefit in COPD patients. We hypothesized that this polymorphism could be associated with the effectiveness of oral NAC. Methods A total of 368 patients with COPD were recruited and the polymorphisms of their HO-1 gene promoter were classified into three subclasses according to the number of (GT)n repeats, as previously reported: class S (<27 (GT)n repeats), class M (27–32 (GT)n repeats), and class L (>32 (GT)n repeats). These subjects were then classified as L+ group (with the L allele: L/L, L/M, L/S) and L− group (without the L allele: M/M, M/S, S/S). All the patients were allocated to standard therapy plus NAC 600 mg bid over a 1-year period and were observed over that year. Results The L− group saw improvements in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) (from 1.44±0.37 to 1.58±0.38, P=0.04) and FEV1% predicted (from 56.6±19.2 to 59.7±17.2, P=0.03). No improvement was found in forced vital capacity of each group and the decline of forced vital capacity in both of the groups was not statistical significant. The number of yearly COPD exacerbations of the L− group was 1.5±0.66 which was lower than the 2.1±0.53 of the L+ group (P<0.01). For the changes of St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, only the activity score of the L− group was more significant than that of the L+ group (P=0.02). The improvement of the outcome of 6-minute walking distance test in L− group (from 290.1±44.9 meters to 309.7±46.9 m) was higher than that in the L+ group (from 289.7±46.2 m to 300.3±44.2 m) (P=0.03). Conclusion A 600 mg bid oral NAC treatment for 1-year on COPD patients without the L allele can improve the FEV1, FEV1% predicted, the SGRQ activity score, and

  11. Polymorphisms of the Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3 Gene Are Associated with Resistance to High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE) in a Japanese Population: A Case Control Study Using Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Nobumitsu; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Droma, Yunden; Ito, Michiko; Katsuyama, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Keishi; Ota, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Introduction High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a hypoxia-induced, life-threatening, high permeability type of edema attributable to pulmonary capillary stress failure. Genome-wide association analysis is necessary to better understand how genetics influence the outcome of HAPE. Materials and Methods DNA samples were collected from 53 subjects susceptible to HAPE (HAPE-s) and 67 elite Alpinists resistant to HAPE (HAPE-r). The genome scan was carried out using 400 polymorphic microsatellite markers throughout the whole genome in all subjects. In addition, six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene encoding the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) were genotyped by Taqman® SNP Genotyping Assays. Results The results were analyzed using case-control comparisons. Whole genome scanning revealed that allele frequencies in nine markers were statistically different between HAPE-s and HAPE-r subjects. The SNP genotyping of the TIMP3 gene revealed that the derived allele C of rs130293 was associated with resistance to HAPE [odds ratio (OR) = 0.21, P = 0.0012) and recessive inheritance of the phenotype of HAPE-s (P = 0.0012). A haplotype CAC carrying allele C of rs130293 was associated with resistance to HAPE. Discussion This genome-wide association study revealed several novel candidate genes associated with susceptibility or resistance to HAPE in a Japanese population. Among those, the minor allele C of rs130293 (C/T) in the TIMP3 gene was linked to resistance to HAPE; while, the ancestral allele T was associated with susceptibility to HAPE. PMID:23991023

  12. Tissue-specific regulation of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins in response to TNFalpha.

    PubMed

    Lang, C H; Nystrom, G J; Frost, R A

    2001-08-01

    The circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is regulated by both its rate of synthesis and its ability to form stable complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). An equilibrium between IGF-I and IGFBPs is thought to help maintain muscle protein balance. In contrast, catabolic conditions disrupt the IGF system and result in the loss of skeletal muscle protein. We have examined the mechanisms by which tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), a catabolic cytokine, alters the IGF system. Conscious rats were infused intravenously with recombinant human TNFalpha or vehicle for 24 h. TNFalpha decreased the concentration of both total and free IGF-I in the plasma (30-40%). This change was associated with a reduction in IGF-I mRNA expression in liver (39%), gastrocnemius (73%), soleus (46%) and heart (63%), but a 2.5-fold increase in the whole kidney. In contrast, TNFalpha did not alter IGF-II mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. TNFalpha also increased IGFBP-1 in the blood (4-fold) and this response was associated with an increase in IGFBP-1 mRNA expression in both liver (3-fold) and kidney (9-fold). In contrast, IGFBP-3 levels in the blood were reduced 38% in response to the infusion of TNFalpha. This change was accompanied by a 60-80% reduction of IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver and kidney but no significant change in muscle. Hepatic mRNA levels of the acid-labile subunit were also reduced by TNFalpha (46%). Finally, tissue expression of mac25 (also referred to IGFBP-related protein-1) mRNA was increased in gastrocnemius (50%) but remained unchanged in liver and kidney. These results more fully characterize the changes in various elements of the IGF system and, thereby, provide potential mechanisms for the alterations in the circulating IGF system as well as for changes in tissue metabolism observed during catabolic insults associated with increased TNFalpha expression. PMID:11735242

  13. Progression of diabetic retinopathy and changes in serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

    PubMed

    Hyer, S L; Sharp, P S; Sleightholm, M; Burrin, J M; Kohner, E M

    1989-01-01

    The rise in serum IGF I concentration during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) may be a contributory factor in the deterioration of diabetic retinopathy that sometimes occurs during this treatment but the relation of serum levels to the severity of retinopathy has not been previously studied. In twelve non-obese insulin dependent diabetics (age range: 22-41 yrs) with mean +/- SD duration of diabetes: 14.8 +/- 4.7 yrs, serum IGF I concentration, HbA1 and retinopathy score were estimated prospectively over twelve months following the institution of CSII therapy. After four months of treatment, eight patients showed deterioration of retinopathy by at least one level of severity. Serum IGF I concentration rose from a mean +/- SEM of 155 +/- 17.7 micrograms/l at entry to 199 +/- 23.1 micrograms/l at four months and by twelve months had returned to near initial values 163 +/- 17.4 micrograms/l. There was however, no significant correlation between retinopathy score and serum IGF I level by analysis of variance for the whole group, or in the group of diabetics whose retinopathy deteriorated. The rise in IGF I concentration over the first four months and subsequent decline in IGF I values over the next eight months was inversely related to HbA1 concentration (r = -0.58; P less than 0.05). One patient with early ischaemic retinopathy on entry, experienced a marked rise in serum IGF I corresponding to a rapid tightening of glycaemic control. At four months she developed florid proliferative changes requiring panretinal laser therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2925151

  14. Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Crossland, Hannah; Kazi, Abid A.; Lang, Charles H.; Timmons, James A.; Pierre, Philippe; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Smith, Kenneth; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C2C12 skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr397 phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding. PMID:23695213

  15. Genomewide meta-analysis identifies loci associated with IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels with impact on age-related traits.

    PubMed

    Teumer, Alexander; Qi, Qibin; Nethander, Maria; Aschard, Hugues; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beekman, Marian; Berndt, Sonja I; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Broer, Linda; Cappola, Anne; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Ming-Huei; Chen, Tai C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Chung, Jonathan; Del Greco Miglianico, Fabiola; Eriksson, Joel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Friedrich, Nele; Gnewuch, Carsten; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grarup, Niels; Guo, Tingwei; Hammer, Elke; Hayes, Richard B; Hicks, Andrew A; Hofman, Albert; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Hu, Frank; Hunter, David J; Husemoen, Lise L; Isaacs, Aaron; Jacobs, Kevin B; Janssen, Joop A M J L; Jansson, John-Olov; Jehmlich, Nico; Johnson, Simon; Juul, Anders; Karlsson, Magnus; Kilpelainen, Tuomas O; Kovacs, Peter; Kraft, Peter; Li, Chao; Linneberg, Allan; Liu, Yongmei; Loos, Ruth J F; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lu, Yingchang; Maggio, Marcello; Magi, Reedik; Meigs, James; Mellström, Dan; Nauck, Matthias; Newman, Anne B; Pollak, Michael N; Pramstaller, Peter P; Prokopenko, Inga; Psaty, Bruce M; Reincke, Martin; Rimm, Eric B; Rotter, Jerome I; Saint Pierre, Aude; Schurmann, Claudia; Seshadri, Sudha; Sjögren, Klara; Slagboom, P Eline; Strickler, Howard D; Stumvoll, Michael; Suh, Yousin; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Cuilin; Svensson, Johan; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tare, Archana; Tönjes, Anke; Uh, Hae-Won; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van Heemst, Diana; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Völker, Uwe; Willems, Sara M; Ohlsson, Claes; Wallaschofski, Henri; Kaplan, Robert C

    2016-10-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis can be manipulated in animal models to promote longevity, and IGF-related proteins including IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) have also been implicated in risk of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Through genomewide association study of up to 30 884 adults of European ancestry from 21 studies, we confirmed and extended the list of previously identified loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations (IGF1, IGFBP3, GCKR, TNS3, GHSR, FOXO3, ASXL2, NUBP2/IGFALS, SORCS2, and CELSR2). Significant sex interactions, which were characterized by different genotype-phenotype associations between men and women, were found only for associations of IGFBP-3 concentrations with SNPs at the loci IGFBP3 and SORCS2. Analyses of SNPs, gene expression, and protein levels suggested that interplay between IGFBP3 and genes within the NUBP2 locus (IGFALS and HAGH) may affect circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations. The IGF-I-decreasing allele of SNP rs934073, which is an eQTL of ASXL2, was associated with lower adiposity and higher likelihood of survival beyond 90 years. The known longevity-associated variant rs2153960 (FOXO3) was observed to be a genomewide significant SNP for IGF-I concentrations. Bioinformatics analysis suggested enrichment of putative regulatory elements among these IGF-I- and IGFBP-3-associated loci, particularly of rs646776 at CELSR2. In conclusion, this study identified several loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations and provides clues to the potential role of the IGF axis in mediating effects of known (FOXO3) and novel (ASXL2) longevity-associated loci. PMID:27329260

  16. Reducing blood glucose levels in TIDM mice with an orally administered extract of sericin from hIGF-I-transgenic silkworm cocoons.

    PubMed

    Song, Zuowei; Zhang, Mengyao; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, we reported that the blood glucose levels of mice with type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM) was reduced with orally administered silk gland powder from silkworms transgenic for human insulin-like growth factor-I (hIGF-I). However, potential safety hazards could not be eliminated because the transgenic silk gland powder contained heterologous DNA, including the green fluorescent protein (gfp) and neomycin resistance (neo) genes. These shortcomings might be overcome if the recombinant hIGF-I were secreted into the sericin layer of the cocoon. In this study, silkworm eggs were transfected with a novel piggyBac transposon vector, pigA3GFP-serHS-hIGF-I-neo, containing the neo, gfp, and hIGF-I genes controlled by the sericin-1 (ser-1) promoter with the signal peptide DNA sequence of the fibrin heavy chain (Fib-H) and a helper plasmid containing the piggyBac transposase sequence under the control of the Bombyx mori actin 3 (A3) promoter, using sperm-mediated gene transfer to generate the transformed silkworms. The hIGF-I content estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was approximately 162.7 ng/g. To estimate the biological activity of the expressed hIGF-I, streptozotocin-induced TIDM mice were orally administered sericin from the transgenic silkworm. The blood glucose levels of the mice were significantly reduced, suggesting that the extract from the transgenic hIGF-I silkworm cocoons can be used as an orally administered drug. PMID:24632065

  17. Polymorphic human (CTAT)n microsatellite provides a conserved linkage marker for mouse mutants causing cleft palate, vestibular defects, obesity and ataxia

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Twirler mutation (Tw) causing cleft palate {plus_minus} cleft lip, vestibular defects and obesity is located within 0.5 cM of an ataxia locus (ax) on mouse chromosome 18. We identified a transgene-induced insertional mutation with vestibular and craniofacial defects that appears to be a new allele of Twirler. Mouse DNA flanking the transgene insertion site was isolated from a cosmid library. An evolutionarily conserved, zoo blot positive cosmid subclone was used to probe a human {lambda} genomic library. From the sequence of a highly homologous human {lambda} clone, we designed STS primers and screened a human P1 library. DNA from two positive P1 clones was hybridized with simple sequence probes, and a (CTAT){sub 12} repeat was detected. Analysis of 62 CEPH parents with primers flanking the repeat identified six alleles containing 9 to 14 copies of the repeat, at frequencies of 0.17, 0.17, 0.17, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.07, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was 49/62 with a calculated PIC value of 0.76. This polymorphic microsatellite marker, designated Umi3, was mapped to the predicted conserved human linkage group by analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels. The anticipated short distance between Umi3 and the disease genes will facilitate detection of linkage in small families. We would like to type appropriate human pedigrees with Umi3 in order to identify patients with inherited disorders homologous to the mouse mutations Twirler and ataxia.

  18. Human glioma cells transformed by IGF-I triple helix technology show immune and apoptotic characteristics determining cell selection for gene therapy of glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ly, A; Duc, H T; Kalamarides, M; Trojan, L A; Pan, Y; Shevelev, A; François, J-C; Noël, T; Kane, A; Henin, D; Anthony, D D; Trojan, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims—Insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) antisense cellular gene therapy of tumours is based on the following data: rat glioma or hepatoma cells transfected with the vector encoding IGF-I antisense cDNA lose their tumorigenicity and induce a tumour specific immune response involving CD8+ T cells. Recently, using the IGF-I triple helix approach in studies of tumorigenicity, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) antigens were demonstrated in rat glioma transfected cells. This study used comparative IGF-I antisense and triple helix technologies in human primary glioma cells to determine the triple helix strategy that would be most appropriate for the treatment of glioblastoma. Methods—The cells were transfected using the IGF-I triple helix expression vector, pMT-AG, derived from the pMT-EP vector. pMT-AG contains a cassette comprising a 23 bp DNA fragment transcribing a third RNA strand, which forms a triple helix structure within a target region of the human IGF-I gene. Using pMT-EP, vectors encoding MHC-I or B7 antisense cDNA were also constructed. Results—IGF-I triple helix transfected glioma cells are characterised by immune and apoptotic phenomena that appear to be related. The expression of MHC-I and B7 in transfected cells (analysed by flow cytometry) was accompanied by programmed cell death (detected by dUTP fluorescein terminal transferase labelling of nicked DNA and electron microscopic techniques). Cotransfection of these cells with MHC-I and B7 antisense vectors suppressed the expression of MHC-I and B7, and was associated with a pronounced decrease in apoptosis. Conclusion—When designing an IGF-I triple helix strategy for the treatment of human glioblastoma, the transfected tumour cells should have the following characteristics: the absence of IGF-I, thepresence of both MHC-I and B7 molecules, and signs of apoptosis. PMID:11477137

  19. Effects of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids on IGF-I receptor signalling in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seti, Hila; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Werner, Haim

    2009-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays a critical role in normal growth and development as well as in malignant states. Most of the biological activities of the IGFs are mediated by the IGF-IR, which is over-expressed in most tumours and cancer cell lines. Fatty acids have critical roles in both systemic physiological processes (e.g. metabolism) and cellular events (e.g. proliferation, apoptosis, signal transduction, and gene expression). Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA) are essential fatty acids of the omega-3 and omega-6 families, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interactions between fatty acids and the IGF signal transduction pathways, and to evaluate the impact of this interplay on colon cancer cells survival and proliferation. Results of Western blot analyses revealed that ALA and LA enhanced the ligand-induced IGF-IR phosphorylation and, in addition, increased receptor phosphorylation in an IGF-I independent manner. Furthermore, fatty acid treatment led to phosphorylation of downstream signalling molecules, including Akt and Erk. In addition, FACS analysis and apoptosis measurements indicated that ALA and LA have a potential mitogenic effect on HCT116 cells, as reflected by the number of cells in S phase and by a reduction of PARP cleavage, implying a reduction in apoptotic activity. In summary, our results provide evidence that omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids modulate IGF-I action in colon cancer cells. PMID:19480565

  20. Microsatellites from Conyza canadensis (horseweed)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from Conyza canadensis (horseweed). Primer pairs for 64 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 accessions of horseweed from North America. Most loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged ...

  1. Effect of recombinant porcine IGF-binding protein-3 on proliferation of embryonic porcine myogenic cell cultures in the presence and absence of IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Pampusch, M S; Kamanga-Sollo, E; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, W R

    2003-02-01

    IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-3 is produced by cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cell (PEMC) cultures and is secreted into the medium. Levels of secreted IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-3 mRNA are significantly reduced during differentiation and increase after differentiation is complete, suggesting that IGFBP-3 may play some role in myogenesis and/or in changes in myogenic cell proliferation that accompany differentiation. IGFBP-3 reportedly may either suppress or stimulate proliferation of cultured cells depending on cell type. Additionally, IGFBP-3 has been shown to affect proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms in some cell types but not all. Currently, the effect, if any, of IGFBP-3 on myogenic cell proliferation is not known. Consequently, the goal of this study was to assess the IGF-I-dependent and IGF-I-independent actions of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 on proliferation of cultured porcine myogenic cells. To facilitate these investigations, we have expressed porcine IGFBP-3 in the baculovirus system, purified and characterized the expressed recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 (rpIGFBP-3), and produced and characterized an anti-porcine IGFBP-3 antibody that neutralizes the biological activity of porcine IGFBP-3. rpIGFBP-3 suppressed IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMCs in a concentration-dependent manner with equimolar concentrations of IGF-I and rpIGFBP-3, resulting in complete suppression of IGF-I-stimulated proliferation. rpIGFBP-3 also suppressed Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of PEMC, indicating that rpIGFBP-3 possesses IGF-independent activity in this cell system. These data have established that IGFBP-3 has the potential to affect proliferation of PEMCs during critical periods of muscle development that may impact ultimate muscle mass achievable postnatally. PMID:12553871

  2. A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data Reveals an Association between Circulating Levels of IGF-I and Prostate Cancer Risk.

    PubMed

    Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Martin, Richard M; Holly, Jeff M P; Albanes, Demetrius; Black, Amanda; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chan, June M; Chen, Chu; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Cook, Michael B; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Donovan, Jenny L; Ferrucci, Luigi; Galan, Pilar; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward L; Gunter, Marc J; Habel, Laurel A; Hamdy, Freddie C; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Hercberg, Serge; Hoover, Robert N; Janssen, Joseph A M J L; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Le Marchand, Loic; Metter, E Jeffrey; Mikami, Kazuya; Morris, Joan K; Neal, David E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Ozasa, Kotaro; Palli, Domenico; Platz, Elizabeth A; Pollak, Michael N; Price, Alison J; Roobol, Monique J; Schaefer, Catherine; Schenk, Jeannette M; Severi, Gianluca; Stampfer, Meir J; Stattin, Pär; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Tangen, Catherine M; Touvier, Mathilde; Wald, Nicholas J; Weiss, Noel S; Ziegler, Regina G; Key, Timothy J; Allen, Naomi E

    2016-04-15

    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (Ptrend all ≤ 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (Ptrend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (Pheterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, Pheterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2288-300. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26921328

  3. Oral IGF-I alters the posttranslational processing but not the activity of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in formula-fed neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Stoll, B; Fan, M Z; Dudley, M A; Donovan, S M; Reeds, P J

    2001-09-01

    To determine the cellular mechanism whereby oral insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increases intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) activity, we studied 2-d-old pigs fed cow's milk formula (control, n = 5), formula + low IGF-I (0.5 mg/L; n = 6) or formula + high IGF-I (12.0 mg/L, n = 6) for 15 d. On d 15, intestinal protein synthesis and lactase processing were measured in vivo in fed pigs using a 6-h intravenous, overlapping infusion of multiple stable isotopes (2H(3)-Leu, 13C(1)-Leu, 13C(1)-Phe, 2H(5)-Phe, 13C(6)-Phe and 13C(9)-Phe). Morphometry and cell proliferation also were measured in the jejunum and ileum. Neither dose of IGF-I affected the masses of wet tissue, protein or DNA, or the villus height, cell proliferation or LPH-specific activity. Oral IGF-I decreased the synthesis and abundance of prolactase-phlorizin hydrolase (pro-LPH), but increased brush-border (BB)-LPH synthesis in the ileum. The BB-LPH processing efficiency was twofold to threefold greater in IGF-fed than in control pigs. In all pigs, villus height and the total mucosal and specific activity of LPH activity were greater in the ileum than in the jejunum, yet the synthesis of BB-LPH were significantly lower in the ileum than in the jejunum. We conclude that oral IGF-I increases the processing efficiency of pro-LPH to BB-LPH but does not affect LPH activity. Moreover, the posttranslational processing of BB-LPH is markedly lower in the ileum than in the jejunum. PMID:11533260

  4. The effect of polymorphism in gene of insulin-like growth factor-I on the serum periparturient concentration in Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, A; Sharifiyazdi, H; Ahmadi, MR; Ararooti, T; Ghasrodashti, A Rowshan; Kadivar, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between polymorphism within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of IGF-I gene and its periparturient concentration in Iranian Holstein dairy cows. Methods Blood samples (5 mL, n = 37) were collected by caudal venipuncture from each animal into sample tubes containing the EDTA and DNA was extracted from blood. In order to measure IGF-I concentration the collection of blood samples (n = 111) was also done at 14 d before calving (prepartum), 25 and 45 d postpartum. Results We found evidence for a significant effect of C to T mutation in position 512 of IGF-I gene on its serum concentration in dairy cows in Iran. Cows with CC genotype had significantly higher concentration (Mean±SD) of IGF-I at 14 d prepartum (91.8±18.1) µg/L compared to those with TT genotype (73.3±14.4) µg/L (P=0.04). A significant trend (quadratic) was found for IGF-I concentration, as higher in CC cows compared to ones with TT genotype, during the 14 d before calving to 45 d postpartum (P=0.01). Conclusions We concluded that C/T transition in the promoter region of IGF-I gene can influence the serum concentration of IGF-I in periparturient dairy cows. PMID:23569844

  5. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein from human decidua inhibits the binding and biological action of IGF-I in cultured choriocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ritvos, O.; Ranta, T.; Jalkanen, J.; Suikkari, A.M.; Voutilainen, R.; Bohn, H.; Rutanen, E.M.

    1988-05-01

    The placenta expresses genes for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and possesses IGF-receptors, suggesting that placental growth is regulated by IGFs in an autocrine manner. We have previously shown that human decidua, but not placenta, synthesizes and secretes a 34 K IGF-binding protein (34 K IGF-BP) called placental protein 12. We now used human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cell monolayer cultures and recombinant (Thr59)IGF-I as a model to study whether the decidual 34 K IGF-BP is able to modulate the receptor binding and biological activity of IGFs in trophoblasts. JEG-3 cells, which possess type I IGF receptors, were unable to produce IGF-BPs. Purified 34 K IGF-BP specifically bound (125I)iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. Multiplication-stimulating activity had 2.5% the potency of (Thr59)IGF-I, and insulin had no effect on the binding of (125I) iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I. 34 K IGF-BP inhibited the binding of (125I) iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I to JEG-3 monolayers in a concentration-dependent manner by forming with the tracer a soluble complex that could not bind to the cell surface as demonstrated by competitive binding and cross-linking experiments. After incubating the cell monolayers with (125I)iodo-(Thr59)IGF-I in the presence of purified binding protein, followed by cross-linking, no affinity labeled bands were seen on autoradiography. In contrast, an intensely labeled band at 40 K was detected when the incubation medium was analyzed, suggesting that (Thr59)IGF-I and 34 K IGF-BP formed a complex in a 1:1 molar ratio. Also, 34 K IGF-BP inhibited both basal and IGF-I-stimulated uptake of alpha-(3H)aminoisobutyric acid in JEG-3 cells. RNA analysis revealed that IGF-II is expressed in JEG-3 cells.

  6. Effects of insulin-like growth factor-I and its analogue, long-R3-IGF-I, on intestinal absorption of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose are less pronounced than gut mucosal growth responses.

    PubMed

    Garnaut, Sonja M; Howarth, Gordon S; Read, Leanna C

    2002-03-01

    The relationship between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) peptide-induced increases in bowel mass and functional improvement is unclear. We utilised three independent methods to investigate the effects of IGF-I peptides on intestinal absorption of the glucose analogue, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3MG) in rats. Rats received vehicle, IGF-I or the more potent analogue, long-R3-IGF-I via subcutaneously implanted mini-pump, for 7 days, at which time intestinal absorption was assessed by: (1) plasma 3MG appearance following oral gavage, (2) single-pass- or (3) recirculating-perfusion of a jejunal segment. 3MG (320 or 800 mg) was gavaged on day 7 to rats treated with vehicle, IGR-I or long-R3-IGF-I. With the lower 3MG dose, only long-R3-IGF-I increased (40%) the initial rate of 3MG appearance in plasma. IGF-I had no significant effect, whilst at the higher 3MG dose neither peptide was effective. Utilising perfusion techniques, long-R3-IGF-I, but not IGF-I, significantly increased 3MG uptake per cm of jejunum by up to 69%, although significance was lost when expressed as a function of tissue weight. Long-R3-IGF-I, but not native IGF-I, enhanced 3MG absorption from the intestinal lumen, presumably reflecting an increased mucosal mass rather than an up-regulation of specific epithelial glucose transporters. PMID:11999215

  7. Suppression of IGF-I signals in neural stem cells enhances neurogenesis and olfactory function during aging.

    PubMed

    Chaker, Zayna; Aïd, Saba; Berry, Hugues; Holzenberger, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways prolongs lifespan in various species, including mammals. Still, the cellular mechanisms by which IGF signaling controls the aging trajectory of individual organs are largely unknown. Here, we asked whether suppression of IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) in adult stem cells preserves long-term cell replacement, and whether this may prevent age-related functional decline in a regenerating tissue. Using neurogenesis as a paradigm, we showed that conditional knockout of IGF-1R specifically in adult neural stem cells (NSC) maintained youthful characteristics of olfactory bulb neurogenesis within an aging brain. We found that blocking IGF-I signaling in neural precursors increased cumulative neuroblast production and enhanced neuronal integration into the olfactory bulb. This in turn resulted in neuro-anatomical changes that improved olfactory function. Interestingly, mutants also displayed long-term alterations in energy metabolism, possibly related to IGF-1R deletion in NSCs throughout lifespan. We explored Akt and ERK signaling cascades and revealed differential regulation downstream of IGF-1R, with Akt phosphorylation preferentially decreased in IGF-1R(-/-) NSCs within the niche, and ERK pathway downregulated in differentiated neurons of the OB. These challenging experimental results were sustained by data from mathematical modeling, predicting that diminished stimulation of growth is indeed optimal for tissue aging. Thus, inhibiting growth and longevity gene IGF-1R in adult NSCs induced a gain-of-function phenotype during aging, marked by optimized management of cell renewal, and enhanced olfactory sensory function. PMID:26219530

  8. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of the craniofacial skeleton of mice lacking the IGF-I gene.

    PubMed

    McAlarney, M E; Rizos, M; Rocca, E G; Nicolay, O F; Efstratiadis, S

    2001-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factors are mediators of growth hormone and are believed to also stimulate growth independently. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) null mutant mice exhibit a lower rate of skeletal growth compared with their wild-type (control) littermates. Although their general body dimensions seem proportionate, their heads appear shortened with a blunt nose compared with the controls. The aim of this project was threefold: 1) to investigate whether differences in shape/form exist between the craniofacial skeleton of the IGF-I null mutant mice and their control littermates by using three techniques; 2) to determine whether the three techniques yield similar, different, or complementary information regarding the size and shape of specimens; and 3) to investigate whether the histological sections obtained from the craniofacial skeleton exhibit any differences between the two groups. Thirty adult male mice, 12 mutant and 18 wild type, obtained from 11 litters were examined. Lateral and superio-inferior radiographs of their head were analyzed by the procrustes, the macroelement, and the traditional cephalometric techniques. Later, the animals were processed for routine histological examination. The IGF null mutant mice demonstrated a generalized decrease of craniofacial size (43-64% of the normal adult size) and a non-allometric change of shape when compared with their wild-type littermates. While the mandible did not exhibit any shape changes, the facial and cranial areas demonstrated prominent changes. Examination of histological sections did not reveal any structural difference between the two groups at the adult stage. Furthermore, procrustes and macroelement techniques offer a more complete, detailed, and comprehensive description of the specimens compared. PMID:11683810

  9. Suppression of IGF-I signals in neural stem cells enhances neurogenesis and olfactory function during aging

    PubMed Central

    Chaker, Zayna; Aïd, Saba; Berry, Hugues; Holzenberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathways prolongs lifespan in various species, including mammals. Still, the cellular mechanisms by which IGF signaling controls the aging trajectory of individual organs are largely unknown. Here, we asked whether suppression of IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) in adult stem cells preserves long-term cell replacement, and whether this may prevent age-related functional decline in a regenerating tissue. Using neurogenesis as a paradigm, we showed that conditional knockout of IGF-1R specifically in adult neural stem cells (NSC) maintained youthful characteristics of olfactory bulb neurogenesis within an aging brain. We found that blocking IGF-I signaling in neural precursors increased cumulative neuroblast production and enhanced neuronal integration into the olfactory bulb. This in turn resulted in neuro-anatomical changes that improved olfactory function. Interestingly, mutants also displayed long-term alterations in energy metabolism, possibly related to IGF-1R deletion in NSCs throughout lifespan. We explored Akt and ERK signaling cascades and revealed differential regulation downstream of IGF-1R, with Akt phosphorylation preferentially decreased in IGF-1R−/− NSCs within the niche, and ERK pathway downregulated in differentiated neurons of the OB. These challenging experimental results were sustained by data from mathematical modeling, predicting that diminished stimulation of growth is indeed optimal for tissue aging. Thus, inhibiting growth and longevity gene IGF-1R in adult NSCs induced a gain-of-function phenotype during aging, marked by optimized management of cell renewal, and enhanced olfactory sensory function. PMID:26219530

  10. Comparison of SNPs and microsatellites in identifying offtypes of cacao clones from Cameroon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers are increasingly being used in crop breeding programs, slowly replacing microsatellites and other markers. SNPs provide many benefits over microsatellites, including ease of analysis and unambiguous results across various platforms. We compare SNPs to m...

  11. Comparative Performance of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and Microsatellite Markers for the Detection of Population Differentiation in Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from contiguous sequences assembled from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera midgut expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)-based assays confirmed variation at 20 biallel...

  12. Implantation of rAAV5-IGF-I transduced autologous chondrocytes improves cartilage repair in full-thickness defects in the equine model.

    PubMed

    Ortved, Kyla F; Begum, Laila; Mohammed, Hussni O; Nixon, Alan J

    2015-02-01

    Cartilage injury often precipitates osteoarthritis which has driven research to bolster repair in cartilage impact damage. Autologous chondrocytes transduced with rAAV5-IGF-I were evaluated in chondral defects in a well-established large animal model. Cartilage was harvested from the talus of 24 horses; chondrocytes were isolated and stored frozen. Twenty million cells were cultured and transduced with 10(5) AAV vg/cell prior to implantation. Chondrocytes from eight horses were transduced with rAAV5-IGF-I, chondrocytes from eight horses with rAAV5-GFP, and chondrocytes from eight horses were not transduced. A 15 mm full-thickness chondral defect was created arthroscopically in the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur in both femoropatellar joints. Treated defects were filled with naive or gene-enhanced chondrocytes, in fibrin vehicle. Control defects in the opposite limb received fibrin alone. rAAV5-IGF-I transduced chondrocytes resulted in significantly better healing at 8 week arthroscopy and 8 month necropsy examination when compared to controls. At 8 months, defects implanted with cells expressing IGF-I had better histological scores compared to control defects and defects repaired with naive chondrocytes. This included increased chondrocyte predominance and collagen type II, both features of hyaline-like repair tissue. The equine model closely approximates human cartilage healing, indicating AAV-mediated genetic modification of chondrocytes may be clinically beneficial to humans. PMID:25311491

  13. Level of maternal winter supplement and feed restriction during postweaning development influences circulating concentrations of IGF-I in heifers during the peripartum and rebreeding period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this research was to evaluate effects of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their daughters during postweaning development on circulating concentrations of IGF-I in the daughters before calving, after calving and before ...

  14. Level of maternal winter supplement and feed restriction during postweaning development influence circulating concentrations of IGF-I in heifers during the peripartum and rebreeding period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective of this research was to evaluate effects of 2 levels of supplemental feed provided to cows during late gestation and 2 levels of feed provided to their daughters during postweaning development on circulating concentrations of IGF-I in the daughters before calving, after calving and before ...

  15. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes. PMID:22648385

  16. Effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding protein mRNA concentrations in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of fasting on IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in channel catfish were examined. Fed control fish (Fed) were compared to fish that had been fasted for 30 days followed by 15 days of additional feeding (Restricted). Sequence alignment and similarity to orthologous protei...

  17. IGF-I and IGF-II effects on local IGF system and signaling pathways in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) cultured myocytes.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J; Salmerón, Cristina; Chan, Shu Jin; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have a fundamental role in a vast range of functions acting through a tyrosine-kinase receptor (IGF-IR). IGFs in muscle can affect the expression of components of the local IGF system, myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), proliferating (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) or differentiating molecules (myosin heavy chain, MHC) and, lead to the activation of different signaling pathways. The response of all these genes to IGFs incubation at two different times in day 4 cultured myocytes of gilthead sea bream was analyzed. Both IGFs increased the expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-5, but showed different effects on the receptors, with IGF-I suppressing the expression of both isoforms (IGF-IRa and IGF-IRb) and IGF-II up-regulating only IGF-IRb. Moreover, the protein levels of PCNA and target of rapamycin (TOR) increased after IGF-II incubation, although a decline in Myf5 and a rise in MHC gene expression was caused by IGF-I. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the importance of IGFs on controlling muscle development and growth in gilthead sea bream and suggest that each IGF may be preferentially acting through a specific IGF-IR. Moreover, the data support the hypothesis that IGF-II has a more important role during proliferation, whereas IGF-I seems to be relevant for the differentiation phase of myogenesis. PMID:26602376

  18. Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)-induced Chronic Gliosis and Retinal Stress Lead to Neurodegeneration in a Mouse Model of Retinopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Villacampa, Pilar; Ribera, Albert; Motas, Sandra; Ramírez, Laura; García, Miquel; de la Villa, Pedro; Haurigot, Virginia; Bosch, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) exerts multiple effects on different retinal cell types in both physiological and pathological conditions. Despite the growth factor's extensively described neuroprotective actions, transgenic mice with increased intraocular levels of IGF-I showed progressive impairment of electroretinographic amplitudes up to complete loss of response, with loss of photoreceptors and bipolar, ganglion, and amacrine neurons. Neurodegeneration was preceded by the overexpression of genes related to retinal stress, acute-phase response, and gliosis, suggesting that IGF-I altered normal retinal homeostasis. Indeed, gliosis and microgliosis were present from an early age in transgenic mice, before other alterations occurred, and were accompanied by signs of oxidative stress and impaired glutamate recycling. Older mice also showed overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that, when chronically increased, intraocular IGF-I is responsible for the induction of deleterious cellular processes that can lead to neurodegeneration, and they highlight the importance that this growth factor may have in the pathogenesis of conditions such as ischemic or diabetic retinopathy. PMID:23620587

  19. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  20. THE ONTOGENY OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I (IGF-I) MODULATION OF GH SECRETION FROM PORCINE ANTERIOR PITUITARY CELLS IN CULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ontogeny of IGF-I modulation of GH secretion from the anterior pituitary was studied. Anterior pituitary cells collected from 110 day old fetuses (n =4), 2- (n = 7), 4- (n =8) and 6- (n = 7) month old gilts were studied in primary culture. On day 4 of culture, 100,000 cells/well were challenge...

  1. Developmental oestrogen exposure differentially modulates IGF-I and TNF-α expression levels in immune organs of Yersinia ruckeri-challenged young adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Wenger, Michael; Shved, Natallia; Akgül, Gülfirde; Caelers, Antje; Casanova, Ayako; Segner, Helmut; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2014-09-01

    Intensified aquaculture has strong impact on fish health by stress and infectious diseases and has stimulated the interest in the orchestration of cytokines and growth factors, particularly their influence by environmental factors, however, only scarce data are available on the GH/IGF-system, central physiological system for development and tissue shaping. Most recently, the capability of the host to cope with tissue damage has been postulated as critical for survival. Thus, the present study assessed the combined impacts of estrogens and bacterial infection on the insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to 2 different concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and infected with Yersinia ruckeri. Gene expressions of IGF-I, IGF-II and TNF-α were measured in liver, head kidney and spleen and all 4 estrogen receptors (ERα1, ERα2, ERβ1 and ERβ2) known in rainbow trout were measured in liver. After 5 weeks of E2 treatment, hepatic up-regulation of ERα1 and ERα2, but down-regulation of ERß1 and ERß2 were observed in those groups receiving E2-enriched food. In liver, the results further indicate a suppressive effect of Yersinia-infection regardless of E2-treatment on day 3, but not of E2-treatment on IGF-I whilst TNF-α gene expression was not influenced by Yersinia-infection but was reduced after 5 weeks of E2-treatment. In spleen, the results show a stimulatory effect of Yersinia-infection, but not of E2-treatment on both, IGF-I and TNF-α gene expressions. In head kidney, E2 strongly suppressed both, IGF-I and TNF-α. To summarise, the treatment effects were tissue- and treatment-specific and point to a relevant role of IGF-I in infection. PMID:24874061

  2. Characteristics of binding of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II analogues to the type 1 IGF receptor determined by BIAcore analysis.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Briony E; Hartfield, Perry J; McNeil, Kerrie A; Surinya, Kathy H; Milner, Steven J; Cosgrove, Leah J; Wallace, John C

    2002-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding to the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R) elicits mitogenic effects, promotion of differentiation and protection from apoptosis. This study has systematically measured IGF1R binding affinities of IGF-I, IGF-II and 14 IGF analogues to a recombinant high-affinity form of the IGF1R using BIAcore technology. The analogues assessed could be divided into two groups: (a) those designed to investigate binding of IGF-binding protein, which exhibited IGF1R-binding affinities similar to those of IGF-I or IGF-II; (b) those generated to probe IGF1R interactions with greatly reduced IGF1R-binding affinities. The relative binding affinities of IGF-I analogues and IGF-I for the IGF1R determined by BIAcore analysis agreed closely with existing data from receptor-binding assays using cells or tissue membranes, demonstrating that BIAcore technology is a powerful tool for measuring affinities of IGFs for IGF1R. In parallel studies, IGF1R-binding affinities were related to ability to protect against serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis in three different assays including Hoechst 33258 staining, cell survival, and DNA fragmentation assays using the rat pheochromocytoma cell line, PC12. In this model system, IGF-I and IGF-II at low nanomolar concentrations are able to prevent apoptosis completely. We conclude that ability to protect against apoptosis is directly related to ability to bind the IGF1R. PMID:11846798

  3. Alcohol impairs insulin and IGF-I stimulation of S6K1 but not 4E-BP1 in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinayshree; Frost, Robert A; Lang, Charles H

    2002-11-01

    The present study determined whether acute alcohol (ethanol; EtOH) intoxication in rats impaired components of the insulin- and IGF-I-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle. Rats were administered EtOH, and 2.5 h thereafter either insulin, IGF-I, or saline was injected and the gastrocnemius removed. EtOH did not alter the total amount or tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, IGF-I receptor, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1, or protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt under basal or hormone-stimulated conditions. In contrast, the ability of insulin or IGF-I to phosphorylate T389 and T421/S424 on S6K-1 was markedly diminished by EtOH, and these changes were associated with a reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6. Under basal conditions, EtOH altered the distribution of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E, as evidenced by a decreased amount of active eIF4E. eIF4G complex, an increased amount of inactive eIF4E. 4E-binding protein (BP)1 complex, and decreased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. In contrast, EtOH did not impair the ability of either hormone to reverse the changes in eIF4E distribution or 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist was unable to attenuate either the basal EtOH-induced changes in eIF4E distribution or the impaired ability of IGF-I to stimulate S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation. Hence, acute alcohol intoxication alters selected aspects of translational control under both basal and anabolic hormone-stimulated conditions in skeletal muscle in a glucocorticoid-independent manner. PMID:12376318

  4. GH, IGF-I and GH receptors mRNA expression in response to growth impairment following a food deprivation period in individually housed cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    PubMed

    Delgadin, Tomás Horacio; Pérez Sirkin, Daniela Irina; Di Yorio, María Paula; Arranz, Silvia Eda; Vissio, Paula Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Cichlasoma dimerus is a social cichlid fish capable of growing at high rates under laboratory conditions, but knowledge on somatic growth regulation is still unclear. Growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis is the key regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates. Two types of growth hormone receptors have been described in teleost fish, named GH receptor type 1 (GHR1) and type 2 (GHR2). In addition, isoforms of these receptors lacking part of the intracellular region have been described. The aim of this study was to evaluate the somatic growth, liver histology and changes in the GH/IGF-I axis after 4 weeks of food deprivation in C. dimerus. Four-week fasted fish showed reductions in specific growth rates in body weight (p < 0.001) and standard length (p < 0.001). Additionally, the hepatosomatic index (p < 0.001) and hepatocyte area (p < 0.001) decreased in fasted fish, while no changes in glucose levels were detected in plasma. The starvation protocol failed to induce changes in GH mRNA levels in the pituitary and IGF-I mRNA levels in liver. In contrast, IGF-I mRNA levels in muscle decreased in fasted fish (p = 0.002). On the other hand, GHR2 (detected with primer sets designed over the extracellular and intracellular region) was upregulated by starvation both in liver and muscle (p < 0.05), while GHR1 remained unchanged. These results show that a fasting period reduced somatic growth both in length and body weight concomitantly with alterations on liver and muscle GHR2 and muscle IGF-I mRNA expression. PMID:25351458

  5. IGF-IR Signal Transduction Protein Content and Its Activation by IGF-I in Human Placentas: Relationship with Gestational Age and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Germán; Castro, Juan José; Garcia, Mirna; Kakarieka, Elena; Johnson, M. Cecilia; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The human placenta expresses the IGF-I and IGF-IR proteins and their intracellular signal components (IRS-1, AKT and mTOR). The aim of this study was to assess the IGF-IR content and activation of downstream signaling molecules in placentas from newborns who were classified by gestational age and birth weight. We studied placentas from 25 term appropriate (T-AGA), 26 term small (T-SGA), 22 preterm AGA (PT-AGA), and 20 preterm SGA (PT-SGA) newborns. The total and phosphorylated IGF-IR, IRS-1, AKT, and mTOR contents were determined by Western Blot and normalized by actin or with their respective total content. The effect of IGF-I was determined by stimulating placental explants with recombinant IGF-I 10-8 mol/L for 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Results The IGF-IR content was higher in T-SGA compared to T-AGA placentas, and the IRS-1 content was higher in PT-placentas compared with their respective T-placentas. The effect of IGF-I on the phosphorylated forms of IGF-IR was increased in T-SGA (150%) and PT-SGA (300%) compared with their respective AGA placentas. In addition, AKT serine phosphorylation was higher in PT-SGA compared to PT-AGA and T-SGA placentas (90% and 390% respectively). Conclusion The higher protein content and response to IGF-I of IGF-IR, IRS-1, and AKT observed in SGA placentas may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to fetal growth restriction. PMID:25050889

  6. Low dose of IGF-I increases cell size of skeletal muscle satellite cells via Akt/S6K signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chun-qi; Zhi, Rui; Yang, Zhou; Li, Hai-chang; Yan, Hui-chao; Wang, Xiu-qi

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I) on the size of pig skeletal muscle satellite cells (SCs). Using microarray, real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay analysis and western blot, we first showed that supplementation of low-dose of IGF-I in culture medium resulted in enlarged cell size of Lantang SCs, only Akt and S6K were up-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels among almost all of the mTOR pathway key genes, but had no effect on cell number. To elucidate the signaling mechanisms responsible for regulating cell size under low-dose of IGF-I treatment, we blocked Akt and S6K activity with the specific inhibitors MK2206 and PF4708671, respectively. Both inhibitors caused a decrease in cell size. In addition, MK2206 lowered the protein level of p-Akt (Ser473), p-S6K (Thr389), and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236), whereas PF4708671 lowered the protein level of p-S6K (Thr389) and p-rpS6 (Ser235/236). However, low dose of IGF-I didn't affect the protein level of p-mTOR (Ser2448) and p-mTOR (Ser2481). When both inhibitors were applied simultaneously, the effect was the same as that of the Akt inhibition alone. Taken together, we report for the first time that low-dose of IGF-I treatment increases cell size via Akt/S6K signaling pathway. PMID:25923195

  7. IGF-I binding and receptor signal transduction in primary cell culture of muscle cells of gilthead sea bream: changes throughout in vitro development.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, N; Sánchez-Gurmaches, J; García de la Serrana, D; Navarro, M I; Gutiérrez, J

    2007-12-01

    We examined the possibility of culturing muscle cells of gilthead sea bream in vitro and assessed variations in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding during myocyte development. The viability of the cell culture was determined by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis, which showed that the percentage of dead cells decreased with cell differentiation. The intracellular reduction of MTT into formazan pigment was preferentially carried out as cells differentiated (from day 4) indicating an increase in metabolic activity. IGF-I-binding assays demonstrated that the number of receptors increased from 190 +/- 0.09 fmol/mg protein in myocytes at day 5 to 360 +/- 0.09 fmol/mg protein in myotubes at day 12. The affinity of IGF-I receptors did not change significantly during cell development (from 0.89 +/- 0.09 to 0.98 +/- 0.09 nM). The activation of various kinase (ERK 1/2 MAPK and Akt/PKB) proteins by IGFs and insulin was studied by means of Western blot analysis. Levels of MAPK-P increased after IGF and insulin treatment during the first stages of cell culture, with a low response being observed at day 15, whereas IGFs displayed a stimulatory effect on Akt-P throughout the cell culture period, even on day 15. This study thus shows that (1) gilthead sea bream myocytes can be cultured, (2) they express functional IGF-I receptors that increase in number as they differentiate in vitro; (3) IGF signalling transduction through IGF-I receptors stimulates the MAPK and Akt pathways, depending on the development stage of the muscle cell culture. PMID:17940802

  8. Relationship between Aortic Intima-media Thickening, Serum IGF-I and Low-density Lipoprotein Particle Diameter in Newborns with Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Tsuboi, Tatsuo; Suzumura, Hiroshi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Much epidemiological evidence has linked low birth weight with late cardiovascular risk. In order to investigate the effect of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on early atherosclerosis in the fetus, we measured aortic wall thickness (abdominal aortic intima-media thickness: aIMT) by ultrasonography in 15 neonates with IUGR and in 31 neonates considered to be appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Furthermore, we evaluated the relationship between aIMT, serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size to investigate the possible effect of these atherosclerosis-related factors on the early atherosclerosis process. The results showed that the mean aIMT was significantly greater in the IUGR neonates than in the AGA neonates (least squares mean ± SE, 537 ± 24.8 vs. 471 ± 17.0 µm, p=0.037). The serum IGF-I levels were lower in the IUGR neonates than in the AGA neonates (27.9 ± 4.3 vs. 42.7 ± 2.9 ng/ml, p=0.009). A significant negative correlation was observed between aIMT and IGF-I in the IUGR neonates (r=–0.646, p=0.009); however, a positive correlation was observed between aIMT and IGF-I (r=0.416, p=0.020) in the AGA neonates. There appeared to be no relationship between aIMT and LDL particle diameter. Atherogenic small, dense LDL was not detected in the IUGR infants. In conclusion, neonates with IUGR have significant aortic thickening with decreased IGF-I, suggesting that prenatal events might predispose them to later cardiovascular risk. PMID:24790381

  9. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in severe iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Ozön, Alev; Yordam, Nurşen

    2002-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. It is well known that it has severe consequences such as brain damage, developmental delay, deficits in hearing and learning and lower intellectual attainment. It also has a negative impact on growth. In this study, we aimed to address this issue and we assessed height standard deviation scores of children living in an area of severe iodine deficiency in comparison to those living in a mild iodine deficiency area. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were also analyzed to investigate the mechanisms by which iodine depletion leads to growth failure. Pubertal children in a severe iodine deficient SID area had lower height standard deviation scores (HSDS), IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels than those living in mild iodine deficient MID area. Similar findings could not be elucidated in the prepubertal age group. The major determinants of HSDS were age, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and TSH. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were negatively correlated with T4. These findings suggest that iodine deficiency has a negative impact on growth, as well as IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. This effect seems to be due to the derangements in thyroid hormone economy arising from iodine depletion. The degree of this impact may be related to the duration of iodine depletion or may be dependent on the developmental stage of the organism at the time of iodine depletion. PMID:12405432

  10. The coordinate cellular response to insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) is regulated through vimentin binding to receptor tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTPβ).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinchun; Xi, Gang; Wai, Christine; Clemmons, David R

    2015-05-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) functions coordinately with IGF-I to stimulate cellular proliferation and differentiation. IGFBP-2 binds to receptor tyrosine phosphatase β (RPTPβ), and this binding in conjunction with IGF-I receptor stimulation induces RPTPβ polymerization leading to phosphatase and tensin homolog inactivation, AKT stimulation, and enhanced cell proliferation. To determine the mechanism by which RPTPβ polymerization is regulated, we analyzed the protein(s) that associated with RPTPβ in response to IGF-I and IGFBP-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Proteomic experiments revealed that IGF-I stimulated the intermediate filament protein vimentin to bind to RPTPβ, and knockdown of vimentin resulted in failure of IGFBP-2 and IGF-I to stimulate RPTPβ polymerization. Knockdown of IGFBP-2 or inhibition of IGF-IR tyrosine kinase disrupted vimentin/RPTPβ association. Vimentin binding to RPTPβ was mediated through vimentin serine phosphorylation. The serine threonine kinase PKCζ was recruited to vimentin in response to IGF-I and inhibition of PKCζ activation blocked these signaling events. A cell-permeable peptide that contained the vimentin phosphorylation site disrupted vimentin/RPTPβ association, and IGF-I stimulated RPTPβ polymerization and AKT activation. Integrin-linked kinase recruited PKCζ to SHPS-1-associated vimentin in response to IGF-I and inhibition of integrin-linked kinase/PKCζ association reduced vimentin serine phosphorylation. PKCζ stimulation of vimentin phosphorylation required high glucose and vimentin/RPTPβ-association occurred only during hyperglycemia. Disruption of vimetin/RPTPβ in diabetic mice inhibited RPTPβ polymerization, vimentin serine phosphorylation, and AKT activation in response to IGF-I, whereas nondiabetic mice showed no difference. The induction of vimentin phosphorylation is important for IGFBP-2-mediated enhancement of IGF-I-stimulated proliferation during hyperglycemia, and it

  11. Effects of human insulin and insulin aspart preparations on levels of IGF-I, IGFBPs and IGF bioactivity in patients with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin aspart (IAsp) and its biphasic preparations BIAsp50 and BIAsp70 (containing 50% and 70% IAsp, respectively) have distinct glucose-lowering properties as compared to human insulin (HI). We investigated whether this affected the circulating IGF-system which depends on the hepatic insulin exposure. Methods In a randomized, four-period crossover study, 19 patients with type 1 diabetes received identical doses (0.2 U/kg sc) of IAsp, BIAsp70, BIAsp50 and HI together with a standardized meal. Serum total IGF-I and IGFBP-1 to -3 were measured by immunoassays for nine hours post-prandially. Bioactive IGF was determined by an in-house, cell-based IGF-I receptor kinase activation (KIRA) assay. Results Despite marked differences in peripheral insulin concentrations and plasma glucose, the four insulin preparations resulted in parallel decreases in IGFBP-1 levels during the first 3 hours, and parallel increases during the last part of the study (3–9 hours). Thus, only minor significances were seen. Insulin aspart and human insulin resulted in a lower area under the curve (AUC) during the first 3 hours as compared to BIAsp70 (p = 0.009), and overall, human insulin resulted in a lower IGFBP-1 AUC than BIAsp70 (p = 0.025). Nevertheless, responses and AUCs of bioactive IGF were similar for all four insulin preparations. Changes in levels of bioactive IGF were inversely correlated to those of IGFBP-1, increasing during the first 3 hours, whereafter levels declined (-0.83 ≤ r ≤ -0.30; all p-values <0.05). Total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 remained stable during the 9 hours, whereas IGFBP-2 changed opposite of IGFBP-1, increasing after 3–4 hours whereafter levels gradually declined. The four insulin preparations resulted in similar profiles and AUCs of total IGF-I, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3. Conclusions Despite distinct glucose-lowering properties, the tested insulin preparations had similar effects on IGF-I concentration and IGF bioactivity, IGFBP-2

  12. Microsatellite characterization of Cimarron Uruguayo dogs

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Rosa; Llambí, Silvia; García, Cristina; Arruga, María Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Various genetic markers, including microsatellites, have been used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and heterozygosity in canine breeds. In this work, we used nine microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic variability in Cimarron Uruguayo dogs, the only officially recognized native canine breed in Uruguay. DNA from 30 Cimarron Uruguayo dogs from northeastern and southern Uruguay was analyzed. The allelic frequencies for each microsatellite, the genetic variability and the consanguinity were calculated, as were the polymorphic information content (PIC) and the probability of exclusion (PE). All of the microsatellites studied were polymorphic. FH 2361, FH 2305 and PEZ 03 were the most informative, with PIC values > 0.7, in agreement with results for other canine breeds. The PE values for the markers were within the ranges previously described and were generally greater for microsatellites with higher PIC values. The heterozygosity value (0.649) was considered high since only nine microsatellites were analyzed. Compared with data for other breeds, the results obtained here indicate that Cimarron Uruguayo dogs have high genetic diversity. PMID:21637561

  13. Inhibition of lung tumorigenesis by metformin is associated with decreased plasma IGF-I and diminished receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Brendan J.; Dallos, Matthew; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.; Memmott, Regan M.; Hollander, M. Christine; Gills, Joell J.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2013-01-01

    Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for type II diabetes and is associated with decreased cancer risk. Previously, we showed that metformin prevented tobacco carcinogen (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis in a non-diabetic mouse model, which was associated with decreased IGF-I/insulin receptor signaling but not activation of AMPK in lung tissues, as well as decreased circulating levels of IGF-1 and insulin. Here, we used liver-IGF-1-deficient (LID) mice to determine the importance of IGF-1 in NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis and chemoprevention by metformin. LID mice had decreased lung tumor multiplicity and burden compared to WT mice. Metformin further decreased lung tumorigenesis in LID mice without affecting IGF-1 levels, suggesting that metformin can act through IGF-1-independent mechanisms. In lung tissues, metformin decreased phosphorylation of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as levels of GTP-bound Ras independently of AMPK. Metformin also diminished plasma levels of several cognate ligands for these RTKs. Tissue distribution studies using [14C]-metformin showed that uptake of metformin was high in liver but 4 fold lower in lungs, suggesting that the suppression of RTK activation by metformin occurs predominantly via systemic, indirect effects. Systemic inhibition of circulating growth factors and local RTK signaling are new AMPK-independent mechanisms of action of metformin that could underlie its ability to prevent tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. PMID:23771523

  14. Distinct organ-specific up- and down-regulation of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in various organs of a GH-overexpressing transgenic Nile tilapia.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Berishvili, Giorgi; Mazel, Peter; Caelers, Antje; Hwang, Gyulin; Maclean, Norman; Reinecke, Manfred

    2010-04-01

    Several lines of GH-overexpressing fish have been produced and characterized concerning organ integrity, growth, fertility and health but few and contradictory data are available on IGF-I that mediates most effects of GH. Furthermore, nothing is known on IGF-II. Thus, the expression of both IGFs in liver and various extrahepatic sites of adult transgenic (GH-overexpressing) tilapia and age-matched wild-type fish was determined by real-time PCR. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were found in all organs investigated and were increased in gills, kidney, intestine, heart, testes, skeletal muscle and brain of the transgenics (IGF-I: 1.4-4-fold; IGF-II: 1.7-4.2-fold). Except for liver, brain and testis the increase in IGF-I mRNA was higher than that in IGF-II mRNA. In pituitary, no significant change in IGF-I or IGF-II mRNA was detected. In spleen, however, IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were both decreased in the transgenics, IGF-I mRNA even by the 19-fold. In agreement, in situ hybridisation revealed a largely reduced number of IGF-I mRNA-containing leukocytes and macrophages when compared to wild-type. These observations may contribute to better understanding the reported impaired health of GH-transgenic fish. Growth enhancement of the transgenics may be due to the increased expression of both IGF-I and IGF-II in extrahepatic sites. It is also reasonable that the markedly enhanced expression of liver IGF-II mRNA that may mimick an early developmental stage is a further reason for increased growth. PMID:19669925

  15. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  16. Development and characterization of microsatellite primers in Pogostemon cablin (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Sandes, S S; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Monteiro, M; Arrigoni-Blank, M F; Blank, A F

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed and optimized for patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) to characterize the patchouli Active Germplasm Bank of Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Creation of a genomic library for patchouli enabled the design of 12 microsatellite primers. Six of these microsatellites were polymorphic, revealing two well-defined groups of individuals that possess exclusive alleles. The data allowed us to characterize the patchouli active Germplasm Bank, identify its genetic diversity, and provide new information for researching this species. PMID:24065640

  17. The effect of experimentally induced chronic hyperglycaemia on serum and pancreatic insulin, pancreatic islet IGF-I and plasma and urinary ketones in the domestic cat (Felis felis).

    PubMed

    Link, Karl R J; Allio, Ileana; Rand, Jacqueline S; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Like in humans, diabetes mellitus is on the rise in cats. Feline diabetes is a suitable model for human type-2 diabetes. We investigated magnitude and timing of insulin suppression with induced hyperglycaemia and its relationship to plasma and urinary ketones and to pancreatic islet insulin. IGF-I is under discussion as a protective mechanism but little is known about its role in diabetes in general and its distinct localisation in feline pancreatic islets in particular. Thirteen healthy, adult cats were allocated to 2 groups and infused with glucose to maintain their blood glucose at a high or moderate concentration for 42 days resulting in insulin secretion suppression. After initial increase, insulin levels declined to baseline but were still detectable in the blood at a very low level after 6 weeks of glucose infusion and then increased after a 3 week recovery period. While IGF-I in healthy cats was primarily located in glucagon cells, in hyperglycaemia-challenge IGF-I was pronounced in the β-cells 3 weeks after ceasation of infusion. Six/8 cats developing glucose toxicity became ketonuric after 3-4 weeks. Gross lipaemia occurred approx 1 week prior to ketonuria. Ketonuric cats required 1-2 weeks of insulin therapy after-infusion until β-cell recovery. In conclusion, ketosis and hyperlipidaemia are likely to occur in diabetic cats with glucose at 30 mmol/L, especially after ≥2 weeks. Three weeks after ceasation of infusions, clinical and morphological recovery occurred. We propose a local protective effect of IGF-I to support survival and insulin production in the hyperglycaemic state and recovery period. PMID:23660449

  18. Cytokines modulate the sensitivity of human fibroblasts to stimulation with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) by altering endogenous IGF-binding protein production.

    PubMed

    Yateman, M E; Claffey, D C; Cwyfan Hughes, S C; Frost, V J; Wass, J A; Holly, J M

    1993-04-01

    Human dermal fibroblasts produce a number of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) including the main circulating form, IGFBP-3. It has been suggested that the regulation of IGFBP secretion may play a major role in modulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bioactivity. We have quantified the effects of two cytokines, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) which have opposing actions on fibroblast IGFBP-3 production, and examined their subsequent role in IGF-I mitogenesis. TGF-beta 1 caused a dose-dependent increase in IGFBP-3 in serum-free fibroblast-conditioned media. TGF-beta 1 (1 microgram/l) resulted in immunoreactive IGFBP-3 levels reaching 286.5 +/- 22.4% of control after 20 h, the increase being confirmed by Western ligand blot. TNF-alpha caused a dose-dependent decrease in fibroblast IGFBP-3 secretion, 1 microgram TNF-alpha/l reducing IGFBP-3 levels to 32.1 +/- 11.% of control. This effect was not due to cytotoxicity and was not cell-density-dependent. Fibroblast proliferation was examined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric cytochemical bioassay. The addition of IGF-I resulted in dose-dependent growth stimulation after 48 h, the effective range being 20-100 micrograms/l. The IGF-I analogue Long-R3-IGF-I which has little affinity for the IGFBPs was approximately 20-fold more potent in this assay, and was unaffected by exogenous IGFBP-3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7684061

  19. Proteolytic degradation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 by porcine ovarian granulosa cells in culture: regulation by IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Grimes, R W; Hammond, J M

    1994-01-01

    Porcine ovarian granulosa cells in culture secrete glycosylated insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which inhibits gonadotropin and IGF action in the ovary. Synthesis of IGFBP-3 is stimulated by IGF-I and attenuated by gonadotropin. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether IGFBP-3 levels were also regulated via proteolysis. Exogenously added nonglycosylated recombinant human IGFBP-3 (rhIGFBP-3) was significantly degraded over time by a soluble serine-specific protease, similar to plasmin, in control cultures and those treated with FSH, insulin, or several other classes of hormones. In contrast, degradation was greatly attenuated by the IGFs. Degraded rhIGFBP-3 exhibited much reduced affinity for [125I]IGF-II, suggesting that degradation could make available IGFs for cellular interaction. The mechanism of IGFBP-3 protease inhibition by IGFs is unclear. Mediation by IGF receptors is unlikely, as insulin at a dose that activated both insulin and type I IGF receptors did not alter intrinsic degradation of IGFBP-3 (as does IGF). Additionally, IGF-I attenuation of IGFBP-3 degradation was not inhibited by antagonism of receptor action with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Further, IGF-I inhibited degradation in cell-free conditioned medium. Direct stabilization of IGFBP-3 via binding of IGFs was suggested from these results. However, long R3 IGF-I attenuated IGFBP-3 degradation even though it has low affinity for IGFBPs. Inhibition of the protease by IGFs is also possible. We conclude that IGFs inhibit the degradation of exogenous nonglycosylated rhIGFBP-3. If active in vivo, this may serve to increase endogenous IGFBP-3 levels in follicular fluid. PMID:7506209

  20. [Effect of calcitonin on regional blood flow in bones, serum levels of IGF-I and osteocalcin, density and weight of bone ash in oophorectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Zák, J; Kapitola, J; Wallischová, J

    2003-01-01

    It is known that in cases of increased bone remodelation rate, i.e. after castration, local bone blood flow is also increased. But in case of adequate hormonal substitution, bone blood flow, similarly as the remodelation rate, return to normal ranges. Until now, there is no knowledge, if other drug can influence enhanced bone blood flow in oophorectomized animals. In this study authors treated oophorectomized female rats with calcitonin and followed bone blood flow, together with biochemical parameters of bone remodelation activity (osteocalcine), IGF-I levels, weight of bone ash and bone density. The female rats were divided in four groups: controls, oophorectomized, with calcitonin and oophorectomized with calcitonin. The bone blood flow was determined by method of body dispersion of radioactive strontium labelled microspheres. The results of this study show, that, in comparison with controls, the bone remodelation rate (documented with increased osteocalcine levels) and radioactive strontium labelled microspheres capture in bone in increased after oophorectomy (p < 0.05). Ash weight and bone density were decreased (p < 0.05). Simultaneously, the blood IGF-I levels were increased (p < 0.05). After oophorectomized animals were treated with calcitonin, all parameters mentioned above headed towards normal ranges in comparison with group of oophorectomized female rats without calcitonin (p < 0.05). Changes of serum IGF-I levels follow changes of microspheres capture in each group of animals. Authors support the hypothesis, that blood levels of IGF-I could influence local bone blood flow. Calcitonin treatment of oophorectomized animals diminishes also decrement of ash weight and bone density. Results of this work show, that similarly as hormonal substitution therapy after oophorectomy, calcitonin also diminishes increased bone blood flow and bone remodelation parameters. The degree of bone blood flow is probably connected with activity of bone remodelling. PMID

  1. Effect of exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in utero on fetal growth: potential role for the IGF-I and HPA axes.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Shmuel; Prokonov, Diana; Taler, Michal; Maayan, Rachel; Harell, Daniella; Gil-Ad, Irit; Weizman, Abraham

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the possible effect of fetal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on somatic growth and on hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axes, we compared the anthropometric parameters and hormonal profile of 21 SSRI-exposed infants and 20 matched controls. The SSRI group was characterized by lower crown-heel length (p < 0.01), smaller head circumference (p = 0.08), and higher percentage of infants with birth weight, birth length, and head circumference below the 10th percentile (p < 0.045, p = 0.08, p < 0.04, respectively), in addition to a significantly lower cord blood level of cortisol (p < 0.03) and higher level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (p < 0.004). Infants exposed to citalopram had a lower cord blood IGF-I level than infants exposed to paroxetine (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.003). Placental IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression was significantly higher in the SSRI group than in controls (p < 0.01). Urine 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) level was negatively correlated with birth weight (r = -0.71, p < 0.025) and with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) level (r = -0.71, p < 0.025). The Finnegan score was correlated with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (r = 0.8, p < 0.005) and cortisol (r = 0.62, p = 0.05). Fetal exposure to SSRIs causes impaired intrauterine growth accompanied by alterations in the IGF-I and HPA axes. The findings may raise concern regarding maternal use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:19262294

  2. Cloning of the human dopamine D5 receptor gene and identification of a highly polymorphic microsatellite for the DRD5 locus that shows tight linkage to the chromosome 4p reference marker RAF1P1

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrington, R.; Mankoo, B.; Kalsi, G.; Gurling, H.; Curtis, D. ); Attwood, J.; Povey, S. ); Buetow, K. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors identified a cosmid clone with exact sequence homology to part of the human dopamine D5 receptor gene (DRD5) after screening a cosmid library with the human DRD1 gene. The dopamine D5 receptor was mapped to chromosome 4p15.1-p15.3 by in situ hybridization and using a somatic cell hybrid panel. They report here the further localization of the DRD5 gene following identification of a highly polymorphic dinucleotide repeat sequence in the cosmid clone. The microsatellite (D5(CT/GT/GA)[sub n]) had 12 alleles with a polymorphic information content value of 0.77. Linkage analysis in 39 CEPH pedigrees demonstrated tight linkage to the chromosome 4p reference marker RAF1P1 (Z[sub maxf] 20.66 at [theta][sub f] 0.05 and Z[sub maxM] 16.57 at [theta][sub m] 0.07). 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. SELECTION OF INTERSPECIFIC SUGARCANE HYBRIDS USING MICROSATELLITE DNA MARKERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three types of species-specific DNA markers, namely, PCR, RAPD, and microsatellites, have been recently developed at the USDA-ARS, SRRC, Sugarcane Research Unit, Houma, Louisiana. Of these, the microsatellite markers are the most polymorphic and can produce distinctive fingerprints (or molecular al...

  4. Development of microsatellite loci for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii (Asteraceae)1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the endangered species Pityopsis ruthii and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results:A microsatellite enriched library was used to develop 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for P. ruthii. The loci ...

  5. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite Loci for Cornus sanguniea (Cornaceae) 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Cornus sanguinea and will permit genetic and conservation studies of the species. Methods and Results: A microsatellite-enriched library was used to develop 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for C. sanguinea. The loci amplified 5-11 allel...

  6. Interaction of Mechanical Load with Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) on Slow-Twitch Skeletal Muscle and Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linderman, Jon K.; Gosselink, Kristin L.; Wang, Tommy J.; Mukku, Venkat R.; Grindeland, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Exogenous humoral growth factors, combined with increased mechanical loading, reportedly induce hypertrophy of fast-, but not slow-twitch skeletal muscles, and have little effect in attenuating atrophy of slow-twitch muscle associated with exposure to microgravity in animals with intact neuroendocrine systems. These observations suggest that anabolic adjuvants and muscle tension do not interact to stimulate growth or maintenance of slow-twitch skeletal muscle. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a chronic increase in mechanical loading (synergistic ablation) or hindlimb unweighting (hindlimb suspension) interact with exogenous GH and IGF-I (Genentech, So San Francisco, CA) in the slow-twitch soleus muscles of female rats (approx. 250 g). Bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles induced 38% and 40% increases in the absolute (mg/pair) and relative (mg/100 g body weight) weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory rats. GH and IGF-I interacted with chronic loading to increase absolute soleus mass an additional 20% (p less than or = 0.05), and mixed and myofibrillar protein contents an additional 12% and 7%, respectively (NS). In contrast, hindlimb suspension (HLS) resulted in 20% and 18% decreases in the absolute and relative weights of the soleus, respectively (p less than or = 0.05); GH and IGF-I did not spare loss of soleus mass or protein content in HLS rats. HLS decreased tibial plate thickness approx. 11% (p less than or = 0.05), but not weights of the tibia or femus. GH and IGF-I increased tibial plate thickness approx. 30% (p less than or = 0.05), in ambulatory and HLS rats, and increased femur and tibial weights 12% (p less than or = 0.05) and 8% (NS), respectively, in ambulatory rats, but had no effect in HLS rats. Results of the present investigation suggest that GH and IGF-I can stimulate hypertrophy of slow-twitch skeletal muscle when chronically overloaded, but can also stimulate

  7. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  8. Molecular-genetic biodiversity in a natural population of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from "Evolution Canyon": microsatellite polymorphism, ploidy and controversial sexual status.

    PubMed

    Ezov, T Katz; Boger-Nadjar, E; Frenkel, Z; Katsperovski, I; Kemeny, S; Nevo, E; Korol, A; Kashi, Y

    2006-11-01

    The yeast S. cerevisiae is a central model organism in eukaryotic cell studies and a major component in many food and biotechnological industrial processes. However, the wide knowledge regarding genetics and molecular biology of S. cerevisiae is based on an extremely narrow range of strains. Studies of natural populations of S. cerevisiae, not associated with human activities or industrial fermentation environments, are very few. We isolated a panel of S. cerevisiae strains from a natural microsite, "Evolution Canyon" at Mount Carmel, Israel, and studied their genomic biodiversity. Analysis of 19 microsatellite loci revealed high allelic diversity and variation in ploidy level across the panel, from diploids to tetraploids, confirmed by flow cytometry. No significant differences were found in the level of microsatellite variation between strains derived from the major localities or microniches, whereas strains of different ploidy showed low similarity in allele content. Maximum genetic diversity was observed among diploids and minimum among triploids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clonal, rather than sexual, structure of the triploid and tetraploid subpopulations. Viability tests in tetrad analysis also suggest that clonal reproduction may predominate in the polyploid subpopulations. PMID:16980391

  9. Enhancement of maternal lactation performance during prolonged lactation in the mouse by mouse GH and long-R3-IGF-I is linked to changes in mammary signaling and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hadsell, Darryl L; Parlow, Albert F; Torres, Daniel; George, Jessy; Olea, Walter

    2008-07-01

    GH, prolactin (PRL), and IGF-I stimulate lactation-related metabolic processes in mammary epithelial cells. However, the ability of these factors to stimulate milk production in animals varies depending on species and experimental variables. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that transgenic overexpression of des(1-3)IGF-I within the mammary glands of lactating mouse dams increased lactation capacity during prolonged lactation. This work also suggested that some of the effects of the overexpressed IGF-I may have been mediated through elevated concentrations of IGF-I or PRL in the systemic circulation. In the present study, murine GH and PRL, and a human IGF-I analog, long-R3-IGF-I (LR3), were administered as s.c. injections to compare their ability to enhance milk production, and alter mammary gland signaling and gene expression. Lactation capacity, as measured by litter gain, was increased (P<0.05) by GH, but not by PRL. LR3 increased (P<0.05) mammary phospho-Akt and suppressors of cytokines signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene expression, and had a modest ability to increase (P<0.05) lactation capacity. GH both increased (P<0.05) mammary SOCS1 expression and decreased (P<0.05) mammary expression of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of serotonin and a potential feedback inhibitor of lactation. These results suggest that while both GH and IGF-I stimulate milk production in the lactating mouse, the effect of GH may be additionally mediated through IGF-I-independent effects associated with repression of mammary serotonin synthesis. PMID:18577570

  10. The local expression and abundance of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins in skeletal muscle are regulated by age and gender but not local IGF-I in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William T; Rosenberger, Judy; Lopez, Rusmely; Gomez, Adam; Cummings, Kathleen K; Fiorotto, Marta L

    2005-12-01

    We wished to determine whether sustained IGF-I production in skeletal muscle increases local IGF binding protein (IGFBP) abundance, thereby mitigating the long-term stimulation of muscle growth by IGF-I. Muscle growth of transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-I in muscle (SIS2) and of wild-type (Wt) mice was compared. At 3, 5, 10, and 20 wk of age, hind-limb muscle weights and IGFBP-3, -4, -5, and -6 mRNA and protein abundances were quantified. Additional mice were injected with IGF-I or LR3-IGF-I, and phosphorylation of the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) was compared. Muscle mass was 20% greater in SIS2 compared with Wt mice by 10 wk of age (P < 0.01), and this difference was maintained to 20 wk. IGFBP mRNA and protein abundances were unaffected by genotype. IGFBP-4 and -5 protein abundances increased with age, whereas for IGFBP-3 and -6, there was a sexual dimorphic response (P < 0.01); after 5 wk of age, IGFBP-3 decreased in males but increased in females, whereas IGFBP-6 decreased in females and remained unchanged in males. These protein expression patterns resulted from differences at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. LR3-IGF-I stimulated IGF-1R phosphorylation to a greater extent than IGF-I at both 5 and 10 wk of age (P < 0.01), regardless of gender or genotype (P > 0.21). Thus, variations in local IGF-I levels do not appear to regulate muscle IGFBP expression. The age- and gender-specific differences in muscle IGFBP expression are not sufficient to alter the response of the muscle to the IGFs but may impact the IGF-independent effects of these IGFBPs. PMID:16166219

  11. Mecasermin rinfabate: insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, mecaserimin rinfibate, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Insmed is developing mecasermin rinfabate, a recombinant complex of insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) and binding protein-3 (rhIGFBP-3) [insulin-like growth factor-I/insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3, SomatoKine], for a number of metabolic and endocrine indications. In the human body, IGF-I circulates in the blood bound to a binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), which regulates the delivery of IGF-I to target tissues, and particular proteases clip them apart in response to stresses and release IGF-I as needed. IGF-I, a naturally occurring hormone, is necessary for normal growth and metabolism. For the treatment of IGF-I deficiency, it is desirable to administer IGF-I bound to IGFBP-3 to maintain the normal equilibrium of these proteins in the blood. Mecasermin rinfabate (rhIGF-I/rhIGFBP-3) mimics the effects of the natural protein complex in the bloodstream and would augment the natural supply of these linked compounds. The most advanced indication in development of mecasermin rinfabate is the treatment of severe growth disorders due to growth hormone insensitivity syndrome (GHIS), also called Laron syndrome. GHIS is a genetic condition in which patients do not produce adequate quantities of IGF because of a failure to respond to the growth hormone signal. This results in a slower growth rate and short stature. Mecasermin rinfabate also has potential as replacement therapy for IGF-I, which may become depleted in indications such as major surgery, organ damage/failure, traumatic injury, cachexia and severe burn trauma. It also has potential for the treatment of osteoporosis. Mecasermin rinfabate was developed by Celtrix using its proprietary recombinant protein production technology. Subsequently, Celtrix was acquired by Insmed Pharmaceuticals on 1 June 2000. Insmed and Avecia of the UK have signed an agreement for manufacturing mecasermin rinfabate and its components, rhIGF-1 and rhIGFBP-3. CGMP clinical production of mecasermin rinfabate

  12. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinase in insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling cascades for progesterone and IGF-binding protein-1 production in human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Seto-Young, Donna; Zajac, Jacek; Liu, Hung-Ching; Rosenwaks, Zev; Poretsky, Leonid

    2003-07-01

    Insulin and IGF-I participate in the regulation of ovulation, steroidogenesis, and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) production in the ovary. Insulin and IGF-I actions in the ovary are closely related. For example, insulin may amplify IGF-I action in the ovary by up-regulating type I IGF receptors and inhibiting IGFBP-1 production, thus increasing the bioavailability of IGF-I. It is hypothesized that ovarian effects of insulin in insulin-resistant states are mediated via an insulin action pathway(s) distinct from those involved in glucose transport. We previously reported that insulin-induced stimulation of progesterone and inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in the human ovary are mediated by signaling pathways that are independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the enzyme whose activation is crucial for glucose transport. We now examined whether activation of MAPK is necessary to mediate insulin-induced or IGF-I-induced stimulation of progesterone or inhibition of IGFBP-1 production in human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were obtained during in vitro fertilization. Cells (0.5-1 x 10(5)) were incubated for 24 h in the presence of 0, 10, 10(2), or 10(3) ng/ml insulin or 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 ng/ml IGF-I and in the presence or absence of 1 micro M PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2 MAPK. The progesterone concentration in the tissue culture medium was measured by RIA (Pantex, Santa Monica, CA), and the IGFBP-1 concentration was measured by immunoradiometric assay (DSL-7800, Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc., Webster, TX). MAPK activity was assessed using the MAPK IP-Kinase assay kit (Upstate Biotechnology, Inc., Lake Placid, NY). ANOVA was used to compare mean values of progesterone or IGFBP-1 concentrations. MAPK was stimulated by insulin up to 350% of the baseline value. Progesterone production in human granulosa cells was stimulated by insulin in a dose-related manner to 123% of the control value (P < 0.001), and IGFBP-1 production was inhibited to 25

  13. Ten microsatellite loci from Zamia integrifolia (Zamiaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten microsatellite loci isolated from Zamia integrifolia are described. All 10 are polymorphic, with three to ten alleles across 36 members of a single population from South Florida. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.067 to 1. Two loci depart significantly from Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, and exhibit het...

  14. Microsatellites from Kousa dogwood (Cornus Kousa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite loci were identified from Cornus kousa ‘National’. Primer pairs for 86 loci were developed and of these eight were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 22 kousa cultivars. All optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 17. Observed h...

  15. Surface-expressed insulin receptors as well as IGF-I receptors both contribute to the mitogenic effects of human insulin and its analogues.

    PubMed

    Lundby, Anders; Bolvig, Pernille; Hegelund, Anne Charlotte; Hansen, Bo F; Worm, Jesper; Lützen, Anne; Billestrup, Nils; Bonnesen, Christine; Oleksiewicz, Martin B

    2015-07-01

    There is a medical need for new insulin analogues. Yet, molecular alterations to the insulin molecule can theoretically result in analogues with carcinogenic effects. Preclinical carcinogenicity risk assessment for insulin analogues rests to a large extent on mitogenicity assays in cell lines. We therefore optimized mitogenicity assay conditions for a panel of five cell lines. All cell lines expressed insulin receptors (IR), IGF-I receptors (IGF-IR) and hybrid receptors, and in all cell lines, insulin as well as the comparator compounds X10 and IGF-I caused phosphorylation of the IR as well as IGF-IR. Insulin exhibited mitogenicity EC(50) values in the single-digit nanomolar to picomolar range. We observed correlations across cell types between (i) mitogenic potency of insulin and IGF-IR/IR ratio, (ii) Akt phosphorylation and mitogenic potency and (iii) Akt phosphorylation and IR phosphorylation. Using siRNA-mediated knockdown of IR and IGF-IR, we observed that in HCT 116 cells the IR appeared dominant in driving the mitogenic response to insulin, whereas in MCF7 cells the IGF-IR appeared dominant in driving the mitogenic response to insulin. Together, our results show that the IR as well as IGF-IR may contribute to the mitogenic potency of insulin. While insulin was a more potent mitogen than IGF-I in cells expressing more IR than IGF-IR, the hyper-mitogenic insulin analogue X10 was a more potent mitogen than insulin across all cell types, supporting that the hyper-mitogenic effect of X10 involves the IR as well as the IGF-IR. These results are relevant for preclinical safety assessment of developmental insulin analogues. PMID:25413577

  16. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year ( P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter ( P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer ( P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF ( P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  17. Molecular epidemiology and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus species complex isolates in Delhi, India: evidence of genetic diversity by amplified fragment length polymorphism and microsatellite typing.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Kshitij; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140) from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR) technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole) demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of molecular

  18. Molecular Epidemiology and In-Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Aspergillus terreus Species Complex Isolates in Delhi, India: Evidence of Genetic Diversity by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Microsatellite Typing

    PubMed Central

    Kathuria, Shallu; Sharma, Cheshta; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Agarwal, Puneet; Agarwal, Kshitij; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Chowdhary, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus terreus is emerging as an etiologic agent of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals in several medical centers in the world. Infections due to A. terreus are of concern due to its resistance to amphotericin B, in vivo and in vitro, resulting in poor response to antifungal therapy and high mortality. Herein we examined a large collection of molecularly characterized, geographically diverse A. terreus isolates (n = 140) from clinical and environmental sources in India for the occurrence of cryptic A. terreus species. The population structure of the Indian A. terreus isolates and their association with those outside India was determined using microsatellite based typing (STR) technique and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (AFLP). Additionally, in vitro antifungal susceptibility of A. terreus isolates was determined against 7 antifungals. Sequence analyses of the calmodulin locus identified the recently described cryptic species A. hortai, comprising 1.4% of Aspergillus section Terrei isolates cultured from cases of aspergilloma and probable invasive aspergillosis not reported previously. All the nine markers used for STR typing of A. terreus species complex proved to be highly polymorphic. The presence of high genetic diversity revealing 75 distinct genotypes among 101 Indian A. terreus isolates was similar to the marked heterogeneity noticed in the 47 global A. terreus population exhibiting 38 unique genotypes mainly among isolates from North America and Europe. Also, AFLP analysis showed distinct banding patterns for genotypically diverse A. terreus isolates. Furthermore, no correlation between a particular genotype and amphotericin B susceptibility was observed. Overall, 8% of the A. terreus isolates exhibited low MICs of amphotericin B. All the echinocandins and azoles (voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole) demonstrated high potency against all the isolates. The study emphasizes the need of molecular

  19. Development of inhibitory antibodies to therapeutic factor VIII in severe hemophilia A is associated with microsatellite polymorphisms in the HMOX1 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Repessé, Yohann; Peyron, Ivan; Dimitrov, Jordan D; Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; Moshai, Elika Farrokhi; Costa, Catherine; Borel-Derlon, Annie; Guillet, Benoit; D’Oiron, Roseline; Aouba, Achille; Rothschild, Chantal; Oldenburg, Johannes; Pavlova, Anna; Kaveri, Srinivas V; Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1, a stress-inducible enzyme with anti-inflammatory activity, reduces the immunogenicity of therapeutic factor VIII in experimental hemophilia A. In humans, heme oxygenase-1 expression is modulated by polymorphisms in the promoter of the heme oxygenase-1-encoding gene (HMOX1). We investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in the HMOX1 promoter and factor VIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A. We performed a case-control study on 99 inhibitor-positive patients and 263 patients who did not develop inhibitors within the first 150 cumulative days of exposure to therapeutic factor VIII. Direct sequencing and DNA fragment analysis were used to study (GT)n polymorphism and single nucleotide polymorphisms located at −1135 and −413 in the promoter of HMOX1. We assessed associations between the individual allele frequencies or genotypes, and inhibitor development. Our results demonstrate that inhibitor-positive patients had a higher frequency of alleles with large (GT)n repeats (L: n≥30), which are associated with lesser heme oxygenase-1 expression (odds ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval 1.46–3.66; P<0.001]. Six genotypes (L/L, L/M, L/S, M/M, M/S and S/S) of (GT)n repeats were identified (S: n<21; M: 21≤n<30). The genotype group including L alleles (L/L, L/M and L/S) was statistically more frequent among inhibitor-positive than inhibitor-negative patients, as compared to the other genotypes (33.3% versus 17.1%) (odds ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.30–3.76; P<0.01). To our knowledge, this is the first association identified between HMOX1 promoter polymorphism and development of anti-drug antibodies. Our study paves the way towards modulation of the endogenous anti-inflammatory machinery of hemophilia patients to reduce the risk of inhibitor development PMID:23716558

  20. Relationship between nocturnal growth hormone concentrations, serum IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels, insulin sensitivity and GH receptor allelic variant in small for gestational age children.

    PubMed

    Mericq, Verónica; Román, Rossana; Iñiguez, Germán; Angel, Bárbara; Salazar, Teresa; Avila, Alejandra; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Cassorla, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone may help to increase final height in patients with short stature, but its efficacy is variable. It has been recently reported that the isoform of the GH receptor (GHR) that lacks exon 3 (d3-GHR) is associated with a greater growth response to GH therapy. We hypothesized that nocturnal growth hormone concentrations, basal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, and insulin sensitivity might show variations among individuals depending on their GHR allelic variant. To test this hypothesis, we studied 38 prepubertal LBW children with nocturnal GH concentrations, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels and insulin sensitivity during OGTT and Insulin test. The GHR allelic variant was analyzed through multiplex PCR analysis in DNA from peripheral leukocytes. Characteristics of the overnight GH secretion [(mean GH: 6.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.5 ng/ml), (AUC: 3,227 +/- 280 vs. 2,908 +/- 212 ng/ml.min), (peak number: 4.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.2), (amplitude: 12 +/- 1.1 vs. 10.8 +/- 1.1 ng/ml)] did not differ between groups (f1/f1 vs. f1/d3 plus d3/d3). In addition, we did not observe any significant differences in serum IGF-I SDS (-0.49 +/- 0.26 vs. -0.40 +/- 0.35) or IGFBP-3 SDS (-1.21 +/- 0.24 vs. -0.89 +/- 0.21) nor in insulin sensitivity (WIBSI: 12 +/- 1.2 vs. 10.8 +/- 1.1) in LBW children with full length GHR compared to children carrying at least one GHRd3 allele. The distribution of the f1/f1 allelic variant and fi/d3 or d3/d3 was similar in the LBW children with or without catch-up growth. These results suggest that the GHR allelic variant does not play a significant role in the regulation of GH-IGF-I/BP3 axis or in insulin sensitivity in prepubertal LBW children. PMID:17347571

  1. Insulin receptor/IGF-I receptor hybrids are widely distributed in mammalian tissues: quantification of individual receptor species by selective immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Bailyes, E M; Navé, B T; Soos, M A; Orr, S R; Hayward, A C; Siddle, K

    1997-10-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptor (IGFR) are both widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and are known to be capable of heteromeric assembly as insulin/IGF hybrid receptors, in addition to the classically described receptors. By selective immunoadsorption of radioligand/receptor complexes and by immunoblotting we have determined the fraction of insulin receptors and IGF receptors occurring as hybrids in different tissues. Microsomal membranes were isolated from tissue homogenates and solubilized with Triton X-100. Solubilized receptors were incubated with 125I-IGF-I, and radioligand/receptor complexes bound by IR-specific and IGFR-specific monoclonal antibodies were quantified. The fraction of IGF-I binding sites behaving as hybrids (anti-IR-bound/anti-IGFR-bound) was approx. 40% in liver and spleen, 70% in placenta, and 85-90% in skeletal muscle and heart, similar results being obtained in rabbit and human tissues. There was no correlation between the proportion of hybrids and the ratio of 125I-insulin/125I-IGF-I binding in different tissues. The fraction of 125I-insulin bound to hybrids was too low for accurate quantification, because of the relatively low affinity of hybrids for insulin. The fraction of insulin receptors present in hybrids was therefore determined by immunoblotting. Receptors in solubilized human placental microsomal membranes were precipitated with IR-specific or IGFR-specific monoclonal antibodies, and after SDS/PAGE, blots were prepared and probed with IR-specific and IGFR-specific antisera. It was found that 15% of IR and 80% of IGFR were present in hybrids. Consistent with these figures, the overall level of IR was estimated, by blotting with the respective antibodies at concentrations shown to give equal signals with equal amounts of receptor, to be 4-fold greater than IGFR. Overall it was concluded that a significant fraction of both IR and IGFR occurs as hybrids in most mammalian tissues

  2. Relationships among magnetic resonance imaging, histological findings, and IGF-I in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits* §

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xing-can; Weng, Jian; Chen, Xue-qun; Du, Ji-zeng; Zhu, Miao-ping; Pan, Yong-qing; Liu, Miao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationships among magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histological findings, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into experimental Group A (n=15) and control Group B (n=15). The 7.5 mg/kg (2 ml) of dexamethasone (DEX) and physiological saline (2 ml) were injected into the right gluteus medius muscle twice at one-week intervals in animals of Groups A and B, respectively. At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after obtaining an MRI, the rabbits were sacrificed and the femoral head from one side was removed for histological study of lacunae empty of osteocytes, subchondral vessels, and size of fat cells under microscopy, and the femoral head from the other side was removed for enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) for IGF-I. Results: At 4, 8 and 16 weeks after treatment, no necrotic lesions were detected in Group B, while they were detected in Group A. Light microscopy revealed that the fat cells of the marrow cavity were enlarged, subchondral vessels were evidently decreased, and empty bone lacunae were clearly increased. The IGF-I levels in Group A were significantly higher than those in Group B. At 8 weeks after the DEX injection, the MRI of all 20 femora showed an inhomogeneous, low signal intensity area in the femoral head, and at 16 weeks, the findings of all 10 femora showed a specific “line-like sign”. The MRI findings of all femora in Group B were normal. Conclusion: MRI is a highly sensitive means of diagnosing early experimental osteonecrosis of the femoral head. However, the abnormal marrow tissues appeared later than 4 weeks when the expression of IGF-I increased. This reparative factor has an early and important role in response to steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head, and provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the pathology and designing new therapies. PMID:18837481

  3. IGF-I Signaling in Osterix-Expressing Cells Regulates Secondary Ossification Center Formation, Growth Plate Maturation, and Metaphyseal Formation During Postnatal Bone Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongmei; Menendez, Alicia; Fong, Chak; ElAlieh, Hashem Z; Kubota, Takuo; Long, Roger; Bikle, Daniel D

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of IGF-I signaling in osterix (OSX)-expressing cells in the skeleton, we generated IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) knockout mice ((OSX)IGF-IRKO) (floxed-IGF-IR mice × OSX promoter-driven GFP-labeled cre-recombinase [(OSX)GFPcre]), and monitored postnatal bone development. At day 2 after birth (P2), (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in the osteoblasts in the bone surface of the metaphysis and in the prehypertrophic chondrocytes (PHCs) and inner layer of perichondral cells (IPCs). From P7, (OSX)GFP-cre was highly expressed in PHCs, IPCs, cartilage canals (CCs), and osteoblasts (OBs) in the epiphyseal secondary ossification center (SOC), but was only slightly expressed in the OBs in the metaphysis. Compared with the control mice, the IPC proliferation was decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. In these mice, fewer IPCs invaded into the cartilage, resulting in delayed formation of the CC and SOC. Immunohistochemistry indicated a reduction of vessel number and lower expression of VEGF and ephrin B2 in the IPCs and SOC of (OSX)IGF-IRKOs. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the mRNA levels of the matrix degradation markers, MMP-9, 13 and 14, were decreased in the (OSX)IGF-IRKOs compared with the controls. The (OSX)IGF-IRKO also showed irregular morphology of the growth plate and less trabecular bone in the tibia and femur from P7 to 7 weeks, accompanied by decreased chondrocyte proliferation, altered chondrocyte differentiation, and decreased osteoblast differentiation. Our data indicate that during postnatal bone development, IGF-I signaling in OSX-expressing IPCs promotes IPC proliferation and cartilage matrix degradation and increases ephrin B2 production to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and vascularization. These processes are required for normal CC formation in the establishment of the SOC. Moreover, IGF-I signaling in the OSX-expressing PHC is required for growth plate maturation and osteoblast differentiation in

  4. Acute in vivo elevation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 decreases plasma free IGF-I and muscle protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Vary, Thomas C; Frost, Robert A

    2003-09-01

    This study examined whether the acute elevation of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) decreases the plasma free IGF-I concentration and alters in vivo rates of muscle protein synthesis and glucose uptake. The plasma concentration of human IGFBP-1 was increased to approximately 95 ng/ml in conscious catheterized rats infused iv with human IGFBP-1 for 4 h. Infusion of IGFBP-1 also increased the concentration of endogenous (e.g. rat) IGFBP-1 in the blood, and this response was associated with a 2- to 3-fold elevation of IGFBP-1 mRNA in liver and kidney. IGFBP-1 did not significantly alter the plasma concentration of total IGF-I, but decreased circulating free IGF-I levels by about 50%. IGFBP-1 decreased protein synthesis in the predominantly fast-twitch gastrocnemius muscle (20%), and this change resulted from a decreased translational efficiency that was associated with a decreased phosphorylation of S6K1, but not 4E-BP1. Complementary studies demonstrated that IGFBP-1 also decreased the rates of protein synthesis under basal conditions and in response to stimulation by IGF-I when added in vitro to the fast-twitch epitrochlearis muscle. In contrast, IGFBP-1 did not alter in vivo-determined rates of protein synthesis in the slow-twitch soleus muscle, heart, liver, or kidney. The infusion of IGFBP-1 did not significantly alter the plasma glucose or lactate concentration or the whole body rate of glucose production or disposal. The above-mentioned changes were not mediated indirectly by changes in the plasma insulin or corticosterone concentrations, decreased high energy phosphate content in muscle, or hepatoxicity produced by the infused IGFBP-1. These results demonstrate that acute in vivo elevation in IGFBP-1, of the magnitude observed in various catabolic conditions, is capable of selectively decreasing protein synthesis in fast-twitch skeletal muscle and up-regulating the hepatic and renal syntheses of IGFBP-1 per se. Hence, elevations in circulating and tissue levels

  5. Combination treatment with ethyl pyruvate and IGF-I exerts neuroprotective effects against brain injury in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    RONG, ZHIHUI; PAN, RUI; CHANG, LIWEN; LEE, WEIHUA

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury causes severe brain damage in newborns. Following HI injury, rapidly accumulating oxidants injure neurons and interrupt ongoing developmental processes. The antioxidant, sodium pyruvate, has been shown to reduce neuronal injury in neonatal rats under conditions of oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and HI injury. In this study, we evaluated the effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) alone or in combination in a similar setting. For this purpose, we used an in vitro model involving primary neonatal rat cortical neurons subjected to OGD for 2.5 h and an in vivo model involving unilateral carotid ligation in rats on post-natal day 7 with exposure to 8% hypoxia for 2.5 h. The cultured neurons were examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability assays. For the in vivo experiments, behavioral development was evaluated by the foot fault test at 4 weeks of recovery. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride monohydrate and cresyl violet staining were used to evaluate HI injury. The injured neurons were Fluoro-Jade B-labeled, new neuroprecursors were double labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin, new mature neurons were BrdU-labeled and neuronal nuclei were labeled by immunofluorescence. Under conditions of OGD, the LDH levels increased and neuronal viability decreased. Treatment with 0.5 mM EP or 25 ng/ml IGF-I protected the neurons (P<0.05), exerting additive effects. Similarly, either the early administration of EP or delayed treatment with IGF-I protected the neonatal rat brains against HI injury and improved neurological performance and these effects were also additive. This effect may be the result of reduced neuronal injury, and enhanced neurogenesis and maturation. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that the combination of the early administration of EP with delayed treatment with IGF-I exerts neuroprotective effects against HI injury in neonatal rat brains. PMID

  6. A 4.5-megabase yeast artificial chromosome contig from human chromosome 13q14.3 ordering 9 polymorphic microsatellites (22 sequence-tagged sites) tightly linked to the Wilson disease locus.

    PubMed Central

    White, A; Tomfohrde, J; Stewart, E; Barnes, R; Le Paslier, D; Weissenbach, J; Cavalli-Sforza, L; Farrer, L; Bowcock, A

    1993-01-01

    We have previously performed a genetic analysis of multiply affected families to map a locus responsible for Wilson disease (WND) to a 0.3-centimorgan (cM) region within chromosome 13q14.3, between D13S31 and D13S59. Here we describe the construction of a contig of approximately 4.5 Mb, which spans this region and extends from D13S25 to D13S59. This contig consists of 28 genomic yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones. Five critical crossover events have been defined in this interval in two unaffected (Centre d'Etudes du Polymorphisme Humain) and three WND families. The combination of sequence tagged site content mapping of YACs with both polymorphic and nonpolymorphic markers and recombination breakpoint mapping resulted in the following order of polymorphic markers: centromere-RB1-D13S25-AFM205vh2-D13S31-D13S22 7-D13S228-AFM238vc3-D13S133- AFM084xc5-D13S137-D13S169, D13S155-D13S59-telomere. The recombination/physical distance ratio varies from approximately 3000 kb per cM in the region between D13S31 and D13S25 to 6000 kb per cM in the region between D13S31 and D13S59. Three WND families exhibiting recombination between the disease locus and D13S31 or D13S59 were genotyped for additional markers in this region and further refined the location of the WND gene to between D13S155 and D13S133. Nine of the markers in this region of < 1 cM are polymorphic microsatellites (seven have observed heterozygosities of 70% or above) that will be extremely useful in prenatal and preclinical diagnosis of this disease. This physical map is an essential step in the isolation of the WND gene and is a framework for the identification of candidate genes. PMID:8234264

  7. New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development.

    PubMed

    Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimarães, Patrícia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

  8. Fine Structures of the Oocyte in Relation to Serum, Follicular Fluid Steroid Hormones and IGF-I in the Ovulatory-Sized Follicles in One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    PubMed Central

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Mesbah, Seyed Fakhroddin; Davoodian, Najmeh; Kadivar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background The following study was carried out to determine the ultrastructural features of the oocyte of the ovulatory-sized follicles in relation to concentrations of steroids and IGF-I in the Follicular Fluid (FF) and serum in the dromedary camel. Methods Camel follicles with a clear and healthy appearance were categorized into three classes: follicles 10 to 13.9, 14-17.9 and 18-30 mm diameter. The FF and serum samples were assayed for estradiol-17β, progesterone and IGF-I. Recovered Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes (COCs) were prepared for transmission electron microscopy. Results The mean (±SD) FF concentrations of progesterone and IGF-I was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in follicles 18 to 30 mm diameter compared to other groups of follicles. There was no difference in the mean (±SD) serum estradiol-17β, progesterone and IGF-I concentrations between camels with different ovulatory-sized follicles (p > 0.05). Oocytes from follicles 18 to 30 mm diameter (group 3) showed more advanced signs of maturation including the disappearance of the nuclear envelope, increased number of microvilli in erect position, the increase in number and size of vesicles and more even distribution of the mitochondria throughout the ooplasm. Conclusion The final stages of oocyte maturation in dromedary camel is associated with increasing progesterone and IGF-I concentrations and constant high estradiol concentration in the follicular fluid which are paralleled with well-defined ultrastructural changes in oocytes. PMID:24551433

  9. Analysis of new microsatellite markers developed from reported sequences of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haiyang; Jiang, Liming; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xubo; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Quanqi

    2010-12-01

    The expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, were selected from GenBank to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites. A bioinformatic analysis of 11111 ESTs identified 751 SSR-containing ESTs, including 440 dinucleotide, 254 trinucleotide, 53 tetranucleotide, 95 pentanucleotide and 40 hexanucleotide microsatellites respectively. The CA/TG and GA/TC repeats were the most abundant microsatellites. AT-rich types were predominant among trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellites. PCR primers were designed to amplify 10 identified microsatellites loci. The PCR results from eight pairs of primers showed polymorphisms in wild populations. In 30 wild individuals, the mean observed and expected heterozygosities of these 8 polymorphic SSRs were 0.71 and 0.83 respectively and the average PIC value was 0.8. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful addition to the microsatellite markers that are now available for this species.

  10. rAAV-mediated overexpression of sox9, TGF-β and IGF-I in minipig bone marrow aspirates to enhance the chondrogenic processes for cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Frisch, J; Rey-Rico, A; Venkatesan, J K; Schmitt, G; Madry, H; Cucchiarini, M

    2016-03-01

    Administration of therapeutic gene sequences coding for chondrogenic and chondroreparative factors in bone marrow aspirates using the clinically adapted recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector may provide convenient, single-step approaches to improve cartilage repair. Here, we tested the ability of distinct rAAV constructs coding for the potent SOX9, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) candidate factors to modify marrow aspirates from minipigs to offer a preclinical large animal model system adapted for a translational evaluation of cartilage repair upon transplantation in sites of injury. Our results demonstrate that high, prolonged rAAV gene transfer efficiencies were achieved in the aspirates (up to 100% for at least 21 days) allowing to produce elevated amounts of the transcription factor SOX9 that led to increased levels of matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation and of the growth factors TGF-β and IGF-I that both increased cell proliferation, matrix synthesis and chondrogenic differentiation (although to a lower level than SOX9) compared with control (lacZ) condition. Remarkably, application of the candidate SOX9 vector also led to reduced levels of hypertrophic differentiation in the aspirates, possibly by modulating the β-catenin, Indian hedgehog and PTHrP pathways. The present findings show the benefits of modifying minipig marrow concentrates via rAAV gene transfer as a future means to develop practical strategies to promote cartilage repair in a large animal model. PMID:26583804

  11. Development of microsatellite markers for Crepis mollis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Muller, Ludo A. H.; Borsch, Thomas; Ismail, Sascha A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the threatened species Crepis mollis (Asteraceae) to investigate population and conservation genetics. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing was conducted on pooled genomic DNA from 10 individuals of two populations. Ten polymorphic and 10 monomorphic microsatellite loci with di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed and characterized in C. mollis. In the polymorphic markers, up to 17 alleles per locus were detected with an observed and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.120 to 0.780 and 0.102 to 0.834, respectively. Furthermore, the polymorphic markers were tested for cross-amplification in three congeneric species (C. biennis, C. foetida, and C. sancta) and amplified in up to three loci. Conclusions: The markers developed in this study are the first microsatellites tested on C. mollis and will be useful for performing population and conservation genetic studies in this threatened species. PMID:27437177

  12. Survey and Analysis of Microsatellites in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, M. Dharma; Muthulakshmi, M.; Madhu, M.; Archak, Sunil; Mita, K.; Nagaraju, J.

    2005-01-01

    We studied microsatellite frequency and distribution in 21.76-Mb random genomic sequences, 0.67-Mb BAC sequences from the Z chromosome, and 6.3-Mb EST sequences of Bombyx mori. We mined microsatellites of ≥15 bases of mononucleotide repeats and ≥5 repeat units of other classes of repeats. We estimated that microsatellites account for 0.31% of the genome of B. mori. Microsatellite tracts of A, AT, and ATT were the most abundant whereas their number drastically decreased as the length of the repeat motif increased. In general, tri- and hexanucleotide repeats were overrepresented in the transcribed sequences except TAA, GTA, and TGA, which were in excess in genomic sequences. The Z chromosome sequences contained shorter repeat types than the rest of the chromosomes in addition to a higher abundance of AT-rich repeats. Our results showed that base composition of the flanking sequence has an influence on the origin and evolution of microsatellites. Transitions/transversions were high in microsatellites of ESTs, whereas the genomic sequence had an equal number of substitutions and indels. The average heterozygosity value for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci surveyed in 13 diverse silkmoth strains having 2–14 alleles was 0.54. Only 36 (18.2%) of 198 microsatellite loci were polymorphic between the two divergent silkworm populations and 10 (5%) loci revealed null alleles. The microsatellite map generated using these polymorphic markers resulted in 8 linkage groups. B. mori microsatellite loci were the most conserved in its immediate ancestor, B. mandarina, followed by the wild saturniid silkmoth, Antheraea assama. PMID:15371363

  13. Identification of IGF-I in the calvarial suture of young rats: histochemical analysis of the cranial sagittal sutures in a hyperthyroid rat model.

    PubMed

    Akita, S; Hirano, A; Fujii, T

    1996-01-01

    Premature closure of cranial sutures has been known as one of the complications of juvenile or congenital hyperthyroidism. Thyroid hormone is an anabolic agent for bone formation in the early stages of childhood development. In children, excess thyroid hormone acts as an acceleration factor for the skeletal bone, whereas in adult hyperthyroidism, it causes bone mineral loss due to the high turnover rate of bone formation and consequently bone resorption. In addition, there are numerous literature descriptions concerning the interactions among bone metabolism, hormones, and growth factors, among which insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is the most abundantly found growth factor in osteoblasts and in bone models in vivo. We therefore investigated whether or not the cranial sutures show accelerated closure and how the local growth factors or cytokines participate and function in local bone metabolism after administration of exogenous excess thyroid hormone in a rat model. A total of 60 female Wistar rats, aged 10 days, were divided into two groups, the triiodothyronine (T3)-treated group (n = 30, T3 0.1 microgram/gm of body weight per day) and the control group (n = 30, saline vehicle only), and were maintained and subsequently sacrificed at 15, 30, and 60 days. The parameters of cranial width derived from the morphologic measurements of the skull indicated that the lambda-asterion distance at 30 days and the pterion-bregma distance at 60 days in the T3-treated group were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group. Furthermore, the fluorescent histologic findings showed fluorescent labeling with no interruption along the suture edges, suggesting continuous bone formation, and displayed narrowing of the suture gap of the sagittal suture in the T3-treated group. Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase staining showed very little osteoclastic activity in the sagittal suture, especially in the T3-treated group. The intensity of immunohistochemical

  14. Conservation of Human Microsatellites across 450 Million Years of Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing and comparison of vertebrate genomes have enabled the identification of widely conserved genomic elements. Chief among these are genes and cis-regulatory regions, which are often under selective constraints that promote their retention in related organisms. The conservation of elements that either lack function or whose functions are yet to be ascribed has been relatively little investigated. In particular, microsatellites, a class of highly polymorphic repetitive sequences considered by most to be neutrally evolving junk DNA that is too labile to be maintained in distant species, have not been comprehensively studied in a comparative genomic framework. Here, we used the UCSC alignment of the human genome against those of 11 mammalian and five nonmammalian vertebrates to identify and examine the extent of conservation of human microsatellites in vertebrate genomes. Out of 696,016 microsatellites found in human sequences, 85.39% were conserved in at least one other species, whereas 28.65% and 5.98% were found in at least one and three nonprimate species, respectively. An exponential decline of microsatellite conservation with increasing evolutionary time, a comparable distribution of conserved versus nonconserved microsatellites in the human genome, and a positive correlation between microsatellite conservation and overall sequence conservation, all suggest that most microsatellites are only maintained in genomes by chance, although exceptionally conserved human microsatellites were also found in distant mammals and other vertebrates. Our findings provide the first comprehensive survey of microsatellite conservation across deep evolutionary timescales, in this case 450 Myr of vertebrate evolution, and provide new tools for the identification of functional conserved microsatellites, the development of cross-species microsatellite markers and the study of microsatellite evolution above the species level. PMID:20333231

  15. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 15 MICROSATELLITE LOCI FOR Ophicephalus argus Cantor.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Xia, H; Bao, F

    2015-10-01

    The isolation and development of 15 polymorphic dinucleotide microsatellite loci were described for Ophicephalus argus from the Huaihe River. All loci were polymorphic in the 30 individuals tested. The number of alleles per variable locus ranged from nine to seventeen, with a mean of 12.00. These novel microsatellite loci showed high level of polymorphism. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.793 to 0.929 and from 0.841 to 0.952, respectively. Two loci were found deviated from HWE in the sampled population after Bonferroni correction. These microsatellite loci will be useful for revealing population structure, genetic diversity, and phylogeography of Ophicephalus argus. PMID:27169238

  16. Native and non-native structure in a protein-folding intermediate: spectroscopic studies of partially reduced IGF-I and an engineered alanine model.

    PubMed

    Hua, Q X; Narhi, L; Jia, W; Arakawa, T; Rosenfeld, R; Hawkins, N; Miller, J A; Weiss, M A

    1996-06-01

    The structure of a metastable folding intermediate of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and an engineered model are investigated by circular dichroism and two-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy. The intermediate, which contains two of three native disulfide bonds, was trapped by acid quenching and isolated by reverse-phase HPLC. The reduced cysteine residues were mapped to residues 47 and 52 (corresponding to A6-A11 in insulin). In the native state this disulfide bridge anchors an adjoining amphipathic alpha-helix (helix 2; residues 42 to 49) against the hydrophobic core. Comparison of CD and 1H-NMR spectra demonstrates that the acid-quenched intermediate is partially folded and contains elements of native secondary and tertiary structure. Spectra are similar to those of an equilibrium model in which the reduced cysteine residues are replaced by alanine. Complete 1H-NMR sequential assignment of the alanine model has been obtained and demonstrates that removal of the disulfide bond is associated with local unfolding of the adjoining alpha-helix. Native secondary structure (including helices 1 and 3) is otherwise retained and defines a folded subdomain. Long-range nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) within this subdomain are similar to those of native IGF-I; no non-native NOE is observed. Our results support the hypothesis that folding of the insulin motif is directed by a subset of native structural elements and that these elements form at an early step in the pathway. Formation of helix 2, despite its prominence in the native state, is likely to represent a late step. Hydrophobic collapse of this segment appears to precede helix formation. PMID:8656430

  17. Burn-induced increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in skeletal muscle is glucocorticoid independent but downregulated by IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Lang, Charles H; Huber, Danuta; Frost, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    The present study determined whether thermal injury increases the expression of the ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligases referred to as muscle ring finger (MuRF)-1 and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx; aka atrogin-1), which are muscle specific and responsible for the increased protein breakdown observed in other catabolic conditions. After 48 h of burn injury (40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn) gastrocnemius weight was reduced, and this change was associated with an increased mRNA abundance for atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 (3.1- to 8-fold, respectively). Similarly, burn increased polyUb mRNA content in the gastrocnemius twofold. In contrast, there was no burn-induced atrophy of the soleus and no significant change in atrogin-1, MuRF-1, or polyUb mRNA. Burns also did not alter E3 ligase expression in heart. Four hours after administration of the anabolic agent insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I to burned rats, the mRNA content of atrogin-1 and polyUb in gastrocnemius had returned to control values and the elevation in MuRF-1 was reduced 50%. In contrast, leucine did not alter E3 ligase expression. In a separate study, in vivo administration of the proteasome inhibitor Velcade prevented burn-induced loss of muscle mass determined at 48 h. Finally, administration of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 did not prevent burn-induced atrophy of the gastrocnemius or the associated elevation in atrogin-1, MuRF-1, or polyUb. In summary, the acute muscle wasting accompanying thermal injury is associated with a glucocorticoid-independent increase in the expression of several Ub E3 ligases that can be downregulated by IGF-I. PMID:16946078

  18. Multiplexed microsatellite recovery using massively parallel sequencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jennings, T.N.; Knaus, B.J.; Mullins, T.D.; Haig, S.M.; Cronn, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation and management of natural populations requires accurate and inexpensive genotyping methods. Traditional microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR), marker analysis remains a popular genotyping method because of the comparatively low cost of marker development, ease of analysis and high power of genotype discrimination. With the availability of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), it is now possible to sequence microsatellite-enriched genomic libraries in multiplex pools. To test this approach, we prepared seven microsatellite-enriched, barcoded genomic libraries from diverse taxa (two conifer trees, five birds) and sequenced these on one lane of the Illumina Genome Analyzer using paired-end 80-bp reads. In this experiment, we screened 6.1 million sequences and identified 356958 unique microreads that contained di- or trinucleotide microsatellites. Examination of four species shows that our conversion rate from raw sequences to polymorphic markers compares favourably to Sanger- and 454-based methods. The advantage of multiplexed MPS is that the staggering capacity of modern microread sequencing is spread across many libraries; this reduces sample preparation and sequencing costs to less than $400 (USD) per species. This price is sufficiently low that microsatellite libraries could be prepared and sequenced for all 1373 organisms listed as 'threatened' and 'endangered' in the United States for under $0.5M (USD).

  19. Genome-Wide Mining, Characterization, and Development of Microsatellite Markers in Gossypium Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Fang, Lei; Chen, Jiedan; Hu, Yan; Si, Zhanfeng; Wang, Sen; Chang, Lijing; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted to characterize microsatellites and develop markers, the distribution of microsatellites remains ambiguous and the use of microsatellite markers in genomic studies and marker-assisted selection is limited. To identify microsatellites for cotton research, we mined 100,290, 83,160, and 56,937 microsatellites with frequencies of 41.2, 49.1, and 74.8 microsatellites per Mb in the recently sequenced Gossypium species: G. hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii, respectively. The distributions of microsatellites in their genomes were non-random and were positively and negatively correlated with genes and transposable elements, respectively. Of the 77,996 developed microsatellite markers, 65,498 were physically anchored to the 26 chromosomes of G. hirsutum with an average marker density of 34 markers per Mb. We confirmed 67,880 (87%) universal and 7,705 (9.9%) new genic microsatellite markers. The polymorphism was estimated in above three species by in silico PCR and validated with 505 markers in G. hirsutum. We further predicted 8,825 polymorphic microsatellite markers within G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124. In our study, genome-wide mining and characterization of microsatellites, and marker development were very useful for the saturation of the allotetraploid genetic linkage map, genome evolution studies and comparative genome mapping. PMID:26030481

  20. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  1. Enhancement of maternal lactation performance during prolonged lactation in the mouse by mouse GH and long-R3-IGF-I is linked to changes in mammary signaling and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GH, prolactin (PRL), and IGF-I stimulate lactation-related metabolic processes in mammary epithelial cells. However, the ability of these factors to stimulate milk production in animals varies depending on species and experimental variables. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that transgen...

  2. Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers in Sagina nodosa (Caryophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarjinder; Edwards, Joan; Maroja, Luana S.

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed 10 novel microsatellite loci for Sagina nodosa, a diploid perennial arctic-alpine herb. To our knowledge, these are the first microsatellite loci for a Sagina species. • Methods and Results: We performed a low-coverage 454 next-generation sequencing of enriched genomic fragments derived from one individual to generate a massive library of contigs containing potential polymorphic microsatellites. We present data for 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci containing di-, tri-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeats with two to nine alleles per locus assessed in 29 individuals. • Conclusions: These polymorphic microsatellite loci in S. nodosa will provide insights on the population structure and life history of S. nodosa in Isle Royale and other North American populations. PMID:25202593

  3. A microsatellite genetic linkage map of black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Guannan; Jiang, Liming; He, Yan; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Zhigang; Jiang, Haibin; Zhang, Quanqi

    2014-12-01

    Ovoviviparous black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli) is an important marine fish species for aquaculture and fisheries in China. Genetic information of this species is scarce because of the lack of microsatellite markers. In this study, a large number of microsatellite markers of black rockfish were isolated by constructing microsatellite-enriched libraries. Female- and male-specific genetic linkage maps were constructed using 435 microsatellite markers genotyped in a full-sib family of the fish species. The female linkage map contained 140 microsatellite markers, in which 23 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1334.1 cM and average inter-marker space of 13.3 cM. The male linkage map contained 156 microsatellite markers, in which 25 linkage groups had a total genetic length of 1359.6 cM and average inter-marker distance of 12.4 cM. The genome coverage of the female and male linkage maps was 68.6% and 69.3%, respectively. The female-to-male ratio of the recombination rate was approximately 1.07:1 in adjacent microsatellite markers. This paper presents the first genetic linkage map of microsatellites in black rockfish. The collection of polymorphic markers and sex-specific linkage maps of black rockfish could be useful for further investigations on parental assignment, population genetics, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in related breeding programs.

  4. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in Quercus fabri (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z Z; Chen, W W; Bao, W; Wang, R; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Quercus fabri is a pioneer species of secondary succession in evergreen broadleaved forests in China. In this study, we isolated and developed 12 polymorphic and 2 monomorphic microsatellite loci for Q. fabri using the biotin-streptavidin capture method. We characterized 12 polymorphic loci in 52 individuals from two populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 23. The observed and expected heterozygosities per locus were 0.033-0.773 and 0.138-0.924, respectively. These microsatellite loci will facilitate the studies on genetic variation, mating system, and gene flow of Q. fabri. PMID:27420954

  5. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), but not IGF-I mRNA, in human preovulatory granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Geisthovel, F; Moretti-Rojas, I; Asch, R H; Rojas, F J

    1989-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play an important role as intra-ovarian regulators in several mammalian species. Recently, we and others have reported the presence of both IGF-I and IGF-II in human follicular fluid. The source of these follicular IGFs, however, has not been determined. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility that human ovarian granulosa cells are a production site of IGFs in vivo. We used cDNA probes to analyse directly IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression at the level of mRNA content in granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles of women undergoing either gamete intra-Fallopian transfer or in-vitro fertilization. Samples of granulosa cell RNA enriched for polyadenylated RNA [poly(A)+RNA] were hybridized with probes for human IGF-I, human IGF-II and human actin (as a control). Transfer blot analysis revealed that the enriched poly(A)+RNA of human granulosa cells from preovulatory follicles contained no detectable IGF-I mRNA. In contrast, three species of IGF-II mRNA of approximately 6.1, 4.9 and 2.1 kb were detected. These data suggest that IGF-II mRNA, but not IGF-I mRNA, is expressed in human granulosa cells collected immediately before ovulation. Our results support the concept that human ovarian IGF-II is produced locally and may function in an autocrine or paracrine fashion in the human ovary in vivo. PMID:2613863

  6. Tissue-specific regulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis during fasting and re-feeding: Importance of muscle expression of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in the tilapia.

    PubMed

    Fox, Bradley K; Breves, Jason P; Davis, Lori K; Pierce, Andrew L; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2010-05-01

    The effects of prolonged nutrient restriction (fasting) and subsequent restoration (re-feeding) on the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis were investigated in the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Mean weight and specific growth rate declined within 1 week in fasted fish, and remained lower than controls throughout 4 weeks of fasting. Plasma levels of IGF-I were lower than fed controls during 4 weeks of fasting, suggesting a significant catabolic state. Following re-feeding, fasted fish gained weight continuously, but did not attain the weight of fed controls at 8 weeks after re-feeding. Specific growth rate increased above the continuously-fed controls during the first 6 weeks of re-feeding, clearly indicating a compensatory response. Plasma IGF-I levels increased after 1 week of re-feeding and levels were not otherwise different from fed controls. Plasma GH levels were unaffected by either fasting or re-feeding. No consistent effect of fasting or re-feeding was observed on liver expression of GH receptor (GH-R), somatolactin (SL) receptor (SL-R), IGF-I or IGF-II. In contrast, muscle expression of GH-R increased markedly during 4 weeks of fasting, and then declined below control levels upon re-feeding for weeks 1 and 2. Similarly, muscle expression of SL-R increased after 4 weeks of fasting, and reduced below control levels after 1 and 2 weeks of re-feeding. On the other hand, muscle expression of IGF-I was strongly reduced throughout the fasting period, and levels recovered 2 weeks after re-feeding. Muscle expression of IGF-II was not affected by fasting, but was reduced after 1 and 2 weeks of re-feeding. These results indicate that GH/IGF axis, particularly muscle expression of GH-R, SL-R and IGF-I and -II, is sensitive to nutritional status in the tilapia. PMID:19932110

  7. Isolation and characterisation of the first microsatellite markers for Cyperus rotundus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyperus rotundus L. (purple nutsedge), is a weed that affects crops as cotton, soybean and vegetables, mainly in the South of the United States. We have developed 191 microsatellite markers, 39% of them being polymorphic when tested on 13 accessions of this weed. The microsatellites evidenced gene...

  8. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microsatellite-enriched partial genomic DNA library of Lygus hesperus was generated and screened by sequencing. Ten polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were characterized by genotyping 92 insect samples. The observed number of alleles ranged from 3 to 7 with an average of 4.6 (S.E. ±0.45) while...

  9. Nineteen Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Olympia Oyster, Ostrea conchaphila/lurida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate evaluation of remnant Ostrea conchaphila/lurida population structure is critical for developing appropriate restoration efforts. We report 19 polymorphic microsatellites suitable for analyses of population differentiation, pedigree reconstruction and linkage map construction. We screened cl...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE EUROPEAN GREEN CRAB (CARCINUS MAENAS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcinus maenas (Decapoda: Portunidae) has proven a highly successful invasive marine species whose potential economic and ecological impacts are of great concern worldwide. Here, we characterize fourteen polymorphic microsatellite loci in C. maenas and its sister species C. Ae...

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE WIDELY INTRODUCED ESTUARINE ANEMONE NEMATOSTELLA VECTENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We characterized ten polymorphic microsatellite loci from Nematostella vectensis, a burrowing anemone recently introduced to estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America and the southeast coast of England. Preliminary results indicate high variability and significant depar...

  12. Microsatellite markers for Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov., a new vegetable pathogen of the High North

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Sclerotinia subarctica nom. prov. In Alaska, this pathogen causes white mold vegetable diseases sympatrically with the cosmopolitan and closely related Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Eighteen alleles were observed across the 4...

  13. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P < 0.05). The whole-body crude protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). When 70.0% of FM protein was replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in hepatic target of rapamycin (TOR), dorsal muscle IGF-I and TOR expression levels among dietary treatments. Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  14. Evolutionary conservation of ten microsatellite loci in four species of Felidae.

    PubMed

    Menotti-Raymond, M A; O'Brien, S J

    1995-01-01

    Short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRP), or microsatellites, are widespread among vertebrate genomes and are useful in gene mapping and population studies due to a high level of length polymorphism. We describe here the isolation, characterization, and PCR amplification of 10 microsatellite loci from the domestic cat, Felis catus. The flanking primer sequences were conserved among other Felidae species, and amplification products demonstrated abundant polymorphism in puma, lion, cheetah, and domestic cat. The cheetah sample exhibited the lowest level of polymorphism for these loci among felid species. PMID:7658003

  15. Challenge with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) during early development persistently impairs growth, differentiation, and local expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in immune organs of tilapia.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; Häusermann, Eliane; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    The enormous expansion of world-wide aquaculture has led to increasing interest in the regulation of fish immune system. Estrogen has recently been shown to inhibit the endocrine (liver-derived) and autocrine/paracrine local insulin-like growth factor-I system in fish. In order to address the potential actions of estrogen on the IGF system in immune organs, tilapia were fed with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2)-enriched food from 10 to 40 days post fertilization (DPF) to induce functional feminization, an approach commonly used in aquaculture. EE2-treated and control fish were sampled at 75 and 165 DPF. The expression levels of ER-alpha, IGF-I, IGF-II and growth hormone receptor (GH-R) mRNA in spleen and head kidney were determined by real-time PCR and the expressing sites of IGF-I mRNA identified by in situ hybridisation. Ratios of spleen length and weight to body length and weight were determined. At 165 DPF, the length (4.9% vs. 7.6%) and weight (0.084% vs. 0.132%) ratios were significantly lowered in EE2-treated fish and number and size of the melanomacrophage centres were considerably reduced. At 75 DPF, both in spleen and head kidney of EE2-treated fish the expression levels of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were markedly diminished. The suppression was more pronounced for IGF-I (spleen: -12.071-fold; head kidney: -8.413-fold) than for IGF-II (spleen: -4.102-fold; head kidney: -1.342-fold). In agreement, clearly fewer leucocytes and macrophages in head kidney and spleen of EE2-treated fish contained IGF-I mRNA as shown by in situ hybridisation. ER-alpha mRNA expression in spleen was increased at 75 DPF but unchanged in head kidney. GH-R gene expression showed a mild upregulation at 165 DPF in both tissues. Thus, exposure to EE2 during early development affected distinctly the IGF system in tilapia immune organs. It led to lasting impairment of spleen growth and differentiation that can be attributed to an interaction of EE2 with IGF-I and, less pronouncedly, IGF

  16. Relationship of air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, photoperiod, wind speed and solar radiation with serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentration in Angus beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Sarko, T A; Bishop, M D; Davis, M E

    1994-07-01

    Eight paternal half-sib Angus calves born in late April and early May, 1988 were used to investigate the potential relationship of serum IGF-I concentration with photoperiod and various weather variables including minimum, maximum and average air temperatures, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed and solar radiation. To determine IGF-I concentration, blood samples were obtained at birth and then weekly until the calves reached 1 mo of age and bi-weekly thereafter. Blood sampling continued until the calves reached puberty as determined by progesterone and testosterone assays. Photoperiod and each weather variable were averaged over the 3 d prior to and including the day of blood sampling (4-d average). Data were divided into two periods: (1) birth through the end of the postweaning period and (2) postweaning period only. Serum IGF-I concentrations were analyzed using a model which included the fixed effects of sex and sample number, the random effect of calf nested within sex and the fixed interaction of sex x sample number, in addition to covariates for weight, photoperiod and weather variables. From birth through the end of the postweaning test, none of the weather variables or photoperiod had significant effects on serum IGF-I concentrations when each was fitted separately. For the postweaning period only, cubic regression coefficients for minimum and average temperatures were .0962 +/- .0325 ng/ml/degrees C3 and .0976 +/- .0272 ng/ml/degrees C3, respectively (P < .01). The quadratic regression coefficient for relative humidity during the postweaning period was -.2991 +/- .1142 ng/ml/%2 (P < .05). The quartic regression coefficient for wind speed during the postweaning period was -36.435 +/- 13.00 ng/ml/(km/hr)4 (P < .01). Maximum temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and photoperiod did not have significant effects on postweaning serum IGF-I concentrations. Based on these data, we conclude that temperature, humidity and wind speed were contributing

  17. Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Blair, M W; Giraldo, M C; Buendía, H F; Tovar, E; Duque, M C; Beebe, S E

    2006-06-01

    A diversity survey was used to estimate allelic diversity and heterozygosity of 129 microsatellite markers in a panel of 44 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes that have been used as parents of mapping populations. Two types of microsatellites were evaluated, based respectively on gene coding and genomic sequences. Genetic diversity was evaluated by estimating the polymorphism information content (PIC), as well as the distribution and range of alleles sizes. Gene-based microsatellites proved to be less polymorphic than genomic microsatellites in terms of both number of alleles (6.0 vs. 9.2) and PIC values (0.446 vs. 0.594) while greater size differences between the largest and the smallest allele were observed for the genomic microsatellites than for the gene-based microsatellites (31.4 vs. 19.1 bp). Markers that showed a high number of alleles were identified with a maximum of 28 alleles for the marker BMd1. The microsatellites were useful for distinguishing Andean and Mesoamerican genotypes, for uncovering the races within each genepool and for separating wild accessions from cultivars. Greater polymorphism and race structure was found within the Andean gene pool than within the Mesoamerican gene pool and polymorphism rate between genotypes was consistent with genepool and race identity. Comparisons between Andean genotypes had higher polymorphism (53.0%) on average than comparisons among Mesoamerican genotypes (33.4%). Within the Mesoamerican parental combinations, the intra-racial combinations between Mesoamerica and Durango or Jalisco race genotypes showed higher average rates of polymorphism (37.5%) than the within-race combinations between Mesoamerica race genotypes (31.7%). In multiple correspondance analysis we found two principal clusters of genotypes corresponding to the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools and subgroups representing specific races especially for the Nueva Granada and Peru races of the Andean gene pool. Intra population diversity

  18. Intrathecal administration of IGF-I by AAVrh10 improves sensory and motor deficits in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Homs, Judit; Pagès, Gemma; Ariza, Lorena; Casas, Caty; Chillón, Miguel; Navarro, Xavier; Bosch, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Different adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes efficiently transduce neurons from central and peripheral nervous systems through various administration routes. Direct administration of the vectors to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be an efficient and safe strategy. Here, we show that lumbar puncture of a nonhuman AAV leads to wide and stable distribution of the vector along the spinal cord in adult mice. AAVrh10 efficiently and specifically infects neurons, both in dorsal root ganglia (60% total sensory neurons) and in the spinal cord (up to one-third of α-motor neurons). As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the efficacy of AAVrh10 in a mouse model of diabetic neuropathy, in which intrathecal delivery of the vector coding for insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) favored the release of the therapeutic protein into the CSF through its expression by sensory and motor neurons. IGF-I–treated diabetic animals showed increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression, activation of Akt/PI3K pathway, and stimulated nerve regeneration and myelination in injured limbs. Moreover, we achieved restoration of nerve conduction velocities in both sensory and motor nerves by AAVrh10, whereas we reached only sensory nerve improvement with AAV1. Our results indicate that intrathecal injection of AAVrh10 is a promising tool to design gene therapy approaches for sensorimotor diseases. PMID:26015946

  19. MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR THE GRAPEVINE PATHOGEN, EUTYPA LATA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We isolated and characterized nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for Eutypa lata, a fungal pathogen responsible for Eutypa dieback of grapevine, in populations from two California vineyards (24 isolates per vineyard). Allele frequency ranged from two to 11 alleles per locus and haploid gene di...

  20. Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

  1. A microsatellite linkage map of striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Striped bass (Morone saxatilis) is of great importance for fisheries and aquaculture in the US. To construct a linkage map of striped bass, 480 microsatellite markers were screened for polymorphism among three parents of two half-sib mapping families that shared a common dam. A total of 289 markers ...

  2. Development and characterization of microsatellite primers for Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Mi; Shin, Yu Seung; Jeong, Ji Hee

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Although several microsatellite markers of Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae) have been reported in previous studies, we newly developed and evaluated polymorphic microsatellite markers of C. obtusa, an economically important species in Korea as a major forestation tree species, for further genetic studies. Methods and Results: Microsatellite-enrichment libraries were constructed according to the selective hybridization method. From this output, we obtained 10 polymorphic and five monomorphic microsatellite markers for C. obtusa. Five of these developed markers were successfully amplified for C. pisifera, a related species. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be valuable tools for further genetic studies of C. obtusa, and gathered genetic information may be useful for breeding program management. PMID:27213124

  3. Concentrations of Insulin Glargine and Its Metabolites During Long-Term Insulin Therapy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Comparison of Effects of Insulin Glargine, Its Metabolites, IGF-I, and Human Insulin on Insulin and IGF-I Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Varewijck, Aimee J.; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Schmidt, Ronald; Tennagels, Norbert; Janssen, Joseph A.M.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated 1) the ability of purified glargine (GLA), metabolites 1 (M1) and 2 (M2), IGF-I, and NPH insulin to activate the insulin receptor (IR)-A and IR-B and IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) in vitro; 2) plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 during long-term insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients; and 3) IR-A and IR-B activation in vitro induced by serum from patients treated with GLA or NPH insulin. A total of 104 patients (age 56.3 ± 0.8 years, BMI 31.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2, and A1C 9.1 ± 0.1% [mean ± SE]) were randomized to GLA or NPH insulin therapy for 36 weeks. Plasma concentrations of GLA, M1, and M2 were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry assay. IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation was induced by purified hormones or serum by kinase receptor activation assays. In vitro, M1 induced comparable IR-A, IR-B, and IGF-IR autophosphorylation (activation) as NPH insulin. After 36 weeks, M1 increased from undetectable (<0.2 ng/mL) to 1.5 ng/mL (0.9–2.1), while GLA and M2 remained undetectable. GLA dose correlated with M1 (r = 0.84; P < 0.001). Serum from patients treated with GLA or NPH insulin induced similar IR-A and IR-B activation. These data suggest that M1 rather than GLA mediates GLA effects and that compared with NPH insulin, GLA does not increase IGF-IR signaling during long-term insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23569175

  4. Establishment of a real-time RT-PCR for the determination of absolute amounts of IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression in liver and extrahepatic sites of the tilapia.

    PubMed

    Caelers, Antje; Berishvili, Giorgi; Meli, Marina L; Eppler, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Manfred

    2004-06-01

    We developed a one-tube two-temperature real-time RT-PCR that allows to absolutely quantify the gene expression of hormones using the standard curve method. As our research focuses on the expression of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in bony fish, we established the technique for IGF-I and IGF-II using the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as model species. As approach, we used primer extension adding a T7 phage polymerase promoter (21 nt) to the 5' end of the antisense primers. This procedure avoids the disadvantages arising from plasmids. Total RNA extracted from liver was subjected to conventional RT-PCR to create templates for in vitro transcription of IGF-I and IGF-II cRNA. Correct template sizes including the T7 promoter were verified (IGF-I: 91 nt; IGF-II: 94 nt). The PCR products were used to create IGF-I and IGF-II cRNAs which were quantified in dot blot by comparison with defined amounts of standardised kanamycin mRNA. Standardised threshold cycle (Ct) values for IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were achieved by real-time RT-PCR and used to create standard curves. To allow sample normalisation the standard curve was also established for beta-actin as internal calibrator (template: 86 nt), and validation experiments were performed demonstrating similar amplification efficiencies for target and reference genes. Based on the standard curves, the absolute amounts of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were determined for liver (IGF-I: 8.90+/-1.90 pg/microg total RNA, IGF-II: 3.59+/-0.98 pg/microg total RNA) and extrahepatic sites, such as heart, kidney, intestine, spleen, gills, gonad, and brain considering the different lengths of cRNAs and mRNAs by correction factors. The reliability of the method was confirmed in additional experiments. The amplification of descending dilutions of cRNA and total liver RNA resulted in parallel slopes of the amplification curves. Furthermore, amplification plots of the standard cRNA and the IGF-I and IGF-II mRNAs showed signals starting at the

  5. Effects of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-I/IGF-Binding Protein-3 Treatment on Glucose Metabolism and Fat Distribution in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients with Abdominal Obesity and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Madhu N.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Tai, Viva; Wen, Michael J.; Dyachenko, Artem; Weinberg, Melissa; Li, Xiaojuan; Lang, Thomas; Grunfeld, Carl; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Schambelan, Morris

    2010-01-01

    Context: HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy are at increased risk for excess visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Treatment with GH decreases visceral adiposity but worsens glucose metabolism. IGF-I, which mediates many of the effects of GH, improves insulin sensitivity in HIV-negative individuals. Objective: Our objective was to determine whether IGF-I, complexed to its major binding protein, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), improves glucose metabolism and alters body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. Methods: We conducted a pilot, open-label study in 13 HIV-infected men with excess abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance to assess the effect of 3 months of treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 on glucose metabolism and fat distribution. Glucose metabolism was assessed by oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Endogenous glucose production (EGP), gluconeogenesis, whole-body lipolysis, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were measured with stable isotope infusions. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scan. Results: Glucose tolerance improved and insulin-mediated glucose uptake increased significantly during treatment. EGP increased under fasting conditions, and suppression of EGP by insulin was blunted. Fasting triglycerides decreased significantly in association with a decrease in hepatic DNL. Lean body mass increased and total body fat decreased, whereas visceral adipose tissue did not change. Conclusions: Treatment with IGF-I/IGFBP-3 improved whole-body glucose uptake and glucose tolerance, while increasing hepatic glucose production. Fasting triglycerides improved, reflecting decreased DNL, and visceral adiposity was unchanged. PMID:20610601

  6. Microsatellite markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) amplify across species1

    PubMed Central

    Prebble, Jessica M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Meudt, Heidi M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed as polymorphic markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) for use in species delimitation and population and conservation genetic studies. Methods and Results: Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed on genomic DNA from seedlings of M. drucei. From trimmed paired-end sequences >400 bp, 484 microsatellite loci were identified. Twelve of 48 microsatellite loci tested were found to be polymorphic and consistently scorable when screened on 53 individuals from four populations representing the geographic range of M. drucei. They also amplify in all other species in the M. pygmaea species group, i.e., M. antarctica, M. brevis, M. glauca, and M. pygmaea, as well as 18 other Myosotis species. Conclusions: These 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers establish an important resource for research and conservation of the M. pygmaea species group and potentially other Southern Hemisphere Myosotis. PMID:26082880

  7. Dietary Hizikia fusiformis glycoprotein-induced IGF-I and IGFBP-3 associated to somatic growth, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Hee; Kim, Kang-Woong; Han, Hyon-Sob; Nam, Taek Jeong; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the effect of dietary glycoprotein extracted from the sea mustard Hizikia fusiformis (Phaeophyceae: Sargassaceae) as a dietary supplement on growth performance in association with somatotropin level, proximate compositions, and immunity in juvenile olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Water-ethanol extracted glycoprotein from H. fusiformis was supplemented to three fishmeal-based diets at the concentration of 0, 5, and 10gkg(-1) diet (designated as H0, H5, and H10, respectively). After a 12week-long feeding trial, growth performance and biochemical responses were analyzed including proximate composition, and whole body amino acids and fatty acids. We also measured plasma insulin like growth factor (IGF), IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) and interleukin (IL). The fish fed H5 showed the greatest weight gain among the dietary treatments. In parallel with the growth, the fish fed the diets containing H. fusiformis glycoprotein showed an increased plasma IGF-I activity and increased expression of 43-kDa IGFBP-3 compared to that in the control, whereas an opposite trend was observed for 34-kDa IGFBP-1. Although no differences were found in the level of whole body linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) among treatments, increases in arachidonic acid (ARA, C20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) were observed in fish fed H5 compared to control. IL-2 and -6 levels increased significantly in fish fed H10 compared to those in the control indicating increased immunity. These results suggest that supplementation of H. fusiformis glycoprotein in fish diet may be beneficial for fish growth and immunity in juvenile olive flounder. PMID:24064233

  8. Surgical castration but not immuncastration is associated with reduced hypothalamic GnIH and GHRH/GH/IGF-I axis function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Xingfa; Li, Junli; Cao, Xiaohan; Du, Xiaogang; Meng, Fengyan; Zeng, Xianyin

    2016-07-15

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a potent positive regulator of the growth axis. The present study was aimed to comparatively investigate the effects of surgical and immunologic castration on hypothalamic GnIH expression and endocrine function of the growth axis. Thirty-six prepubertal male rats were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 12): control, surgically castrated or immunized against 100-μg D-Lys6-GnRH-tandem peptide conjugated to ovalbumin in Specol adjuvant at 6 weeks of age (with a booster 8 weeks later). Blood samples were collected (for hormone and urea nitrogen concentrations) at 2-week intervals, and growth performance was evaluated. Compared to intact controls, surgical castration reduced (P < 0.05) messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of hypothalamic GnIH and growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), pituitary growth hormone (GH), and liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of GH and IGF-1 and increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of urea nitrogen. In contrast, immunocastration did not alter messenger RNA expressions of hypothalamic GnIH, GHRH and pituitary GH, and the serum concentrations of GH (P > 0.05). Moreover, serum concentrations of IGF-1 and urea nitrogen in immunocastrates were substantially higher and lower than those in surgical castrates, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared to surgical castrates, immuncastrates had superior feed conversion efficiency and faster daily weight gain (P < 0.05). We concluded that surgical castration but not immunocastration is associated with reduced hypothalamic GnIH and GHRH/GH/IGF-I axis function in male rats. PMID:27020878

  9. Reduction in Aβ-induced cell death in the hippocampus of 17β-estradiol-treated female rats is associated with an increase in IGF-I signaling and somatostatinergic tone.

    PubMed

    Perianes-Cachero, Aránzazu; Canelles, Sandra; Aguado-Llera, David; Frago, Laura M; Toledo-Lobo, María Val; Carrera, Iván; Cacabelos, Ramón; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Barrios, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    Several studies indicate that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-induced cell death and activates factors associated with learning and memory, a function involving the hippocampal somatostatinergic system. As alterations in somatostatin have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease, we examined whether E2 prevents changes in the hippocampal somatostatinergic system induced by Aβ25-35 and cell death, as well as the possible involvement of leptin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I signaling. We also measured the levels of Aβ proteases neprilysin and insulin-degrading-enzyme. Co-administration of E2 with Aβ25-35 reduced both its levels and cell death, in addition to preventing the Aβ-induced depletion of some somatostatinergic parameters. Activation of leptin and IGF-I pathways increased after E2 co-administration, and this correlated with changes in the somatostatinergic system. Changes in some components of this system were inversely related with Aβ levels and cell death. Moreover, neprilysin levels were increased only in Aβ plus E2-treated rats and E2 prevented the Aβ-induced insulin-degrading-enzyme reduction. Our results suggest that the E2-induced reduction in cell death is related to lower Aβ levels, probably because of IGF-I and somatostatin modulation of Aβ proteases. We asked how 17β-estradiol (E2) protects against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced cell death. E2 co-administration prevents Aβ-produced depletion of hippocampal somatostatin (SRIF) by an IGF-I-mediated mechanism, being related this protective effect with an increase in Aβ proteases. Our results suggest that the E2-induced reduction in cell death is related to lower Aβ levels, probably because of SRIF modulation of Aβ proteases. CREB, cAMP response element-binding protein; IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor-I; STAT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. PMID:26442993

  10. MICROSATELLITE DIVERSITY AND CROSSOVER REGIONS WITHIN HOMOZYGOUS AND HETEROZYGOUS SLA HAPLOTYPES OF DIFFERENT PIG BREEDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to investigate microsatellite (MS) diversity and find crossover regions at 42 polymorphic MS loci in the SLA genomic region of 72 pigs with different homozygous and heterozygous well-defined SLA haplotypes. We analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of the 42 MS markers in 23 SLA homozygous/h...

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the endangered New Zealand takahe (Gruiformes; Rallidae; Porphyrio hochstetteri).

    PubMed

    Grueber, Catherine E; King, Tania M; Waters, Jonathan M; Jamieson, Ian G

    2008-07-01

    Nineteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were characterized from the endangered takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri). Like many of New Zealand's other native avian species, levels of polymorphism were low, with variation detected at only 19 of 110 (17.3%) loci, and most polymorphic loci (78.9%) were diallelic (mean number of alleles = 2.3). Despite these low levels of variation, the microsatellites developed here will be useful for parentage assignment for confirming pedigrees, and investigating relationships between genetic variation, pedigree-based inbreeding and reproductive success in this highly endangered species. PMID:21585919

  12. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Bonatelli, Isabel A S; Carstens, Bryan C; Moraes, Evandro M

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats) are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms. PMID:26561396

  14. Microsatellite analyses across three diverse vertebrate transcriptomes (Acipenser fulvescens, Ambystoma tigrinum, and Dipodomys spectabilis).

    PubMed

    Doyle, Jacqueline M; Siegmund, Gregor; Ruhl, Joseph D; Eo, Soo Hyung; Hale, Matthew C; Marra, Nicholas J; Waser, Peter M; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Historically, many population genetics studies have utilized microsatellite markers sampled at random from the genome and presumed to be selectively neutral. Recent studies, however, have shown that microsatellites can occur in transcribed regions, where they are more likely to be under selection. In this study, we mined microsatellites from transcriptomes generated by 454-pyrosequencing for three vertebrate species: lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), and kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). We evaluated (i) the occurrence of microsatellites across species; (ii) whether particular gene ontology terms were over-represented in genes that contained microsatellites; (iii) whether repeat motifs were located in untranslated regions or coding sequences of genes; and (iv) in silico polymorphism. Microsatellites were less common in tiger salamanders than in either lake sturgeon or kangaroo rats. Across libraries, trinucleotides were found more frequently than any other motif type, presumably because they do not cause frameshift mutations. By evaluating variation across reads assembled to a given contig, we were able to identify repeat motifs likely to be polymorphic. Our study represents one of the first comparative data sets on the distribution of vertebrate microsatellites within expressed genes. Our results reinforce the idea that microsatellites do not always occur in noncoding DNA, but commonly occur in expressed genes. PMID:24099393

  15. Using Next Generation RAD Sequencing to Isolate Multispecies Microsatellites for Pilosocereus (Cactaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Bonatelli, Isabel A. S.; Carstens, Bryan C.; Moraes, Evandro M.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers (also known as SSRs, Simple Sequence Repeats) are widely used in plant science and are among the most informative molecular markers for population genetic investigations, but the development of such markers presents substantial challenges. In this report, we discuss how next generation sequencing can replace the cloning, Sanger sequencing, identification of polymorphic loci, and testing cross-amplification that were previously required to develop microsatellites. We report the development of a large set of microsatellite markers for five species of the Neotropical cactus genus Pilosocereus using a restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) on a Roche 454 platform. We identified an average of 165 microsatellites per individual, with the absolute numbers across individuals proportional to the sequence reads obtained per individual. Frequency distribution of the repeat units was similar in the five species, with shorter motifs such as di- and trinucleotide being the most abundant repeats. In addition, we provide 72 microsatellites that could be potentially amplified in the sampled species and 22 polymorphic microsatellites validated in two populations of the species Pilosocereus machrisii. Although low coverage sequencing among individuals was observed for most of the loci, which we suggest to be more related to the nature of the microsatellite markers and the possible bias inserted by the restriction enzymes than to the genome size, our work demonstrates that an NGS approach is an efficient method to isolate multispecies microsatellites even in non-model organisms. PMID:26561396

  16. Microsatellites Are Molecular Clocks That Support Accurate Inferences about History

    PubMed Central

    Mullikin, James C.; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite length mutations are often modeled using the generalized stepwise mutation process, which is a type of random walk. If this model is sufficiently accurate, one can estimate the coalescence time between alleles of a locus after a mathematical transformation of the allele lengths. When large-scale microsatellite genotyping first became possible, there was substantial interest in using this approach to make inferences about time and demography, but that interest has waned because it has not been possible to empirically validate the clock by comparing it with data in which the mutation process is well understood. We analyzed data from 783 microsatellite loci in human populations and 292 loci in chimpanzee populations, and compared them with up to one gigabase of aligned sequence data, where the molecular clock based upon nucleotide substitutions is believed to be reliable. We empirically demonstrate a remarkable linearity (r2 > 0.95) between the microsatellite average square distance statistic and sequence divergence. We demonstrate that microsatellites are accurate molecular clocks for coalescent times of at least 2 million years (My). We apply this insight to confirm that the African populations San, Biaka Pygmy, and Mbuti Pygmy have the deepest coalescent times among populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project. Furthermore, we show that microsatellites support unbiased estimates of population differentiation (FST) that are less subject to ascertainment bias than single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) FST. These results raise the prospect of using microsatellite data sets to determine parameters of population history. When genotyped along with SNPs, microsatellite data can also be used to correct for SNP ascertainment bias. PMID:19221007

  17. Isolation and cross-familial amplification of 41 microsatellites for the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, G.M.L.; King, T.L.; St. -Cyr, J.; Valcourt, M.; Bernatchez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis; Osteichthyes: Salmonidae) is a phenotypically diverse fish species inhabiting much of North America. But relatively few genetic diagnostic resources are available for this fish species. We isolated 41 microsatellites from S. fontinalis polymorphic in one or more species of salmonid fish. Thirty-seven were polymorphic in brook charr, 15 in the congener Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and 14 in the lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush). Polymorphism was also relatively high in Oncorhynchus, where 21 loci were polymorphic in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and 16 in cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) but only seven and four microsatellite loci were polymorphic in the more distantly related lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), respectively. One duplicated locus (Sfo228Lav) was polymorphic at both duplicates in S. fontinalis. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

  19. Microsatellite loci analysis for individual identification in Shiba Inu.

    PubMed

    Arata, Sayaka; Asahi, Ai; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Eighteen autosomal microsatellite loci were examined using 275 Shiba Inus in Japan. Eighteen dogs representing eight trios were obtained from four breeders to calculate mutation rates, and 257 dogs kept by owners were collected through veterinary clinics throughout Japan to calculate population genetic parameters and estimate discrimination power. After two loci (INU005 and AHTk253) were excluded, average expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphic information content (PIC) and fixation index (F) were 0.665, 0.623 and 0.046, respectively. The combined power of discrimination over the 16 microsatellite markers was more than 0.9999. Therefore, it is suggested that these 16 microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) are applicable for individual identification and parentage testing of domestic Shiba Inu in Japan. PMID:26537551

  20. Microsatellite loci analysis for individual identification in Shiba Inu

    PubMed Central

    ARATA, Sayaka; ASAHI, Ai; TAKEUCHI, Yukari; MORI, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen autosomal microsatellite loci were examined using 275 Shiba Inus in Japan. Eighteen dogs representing eight trios were obtained from four breeders to calculate mutation rates, and 257 dogs kept by owners were collected through veterinary clinics throughout Japan to calculate population genetic parameters and estimate discrimination power. After two loci (INU005 and AHTk253) were excluded, average expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphic information content (PIC) and fixation index (F) were 0.665, 0.623 and 0.046, respectively. The combined power of discrimination over the 16 microsatellite markers was more than 0.9999. Therefore, it is suggested that these 16 microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) are applicable for individual identification and parentage testing of domestic Shiba Inu in Japan. PMID:26537551

  1. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Belini, Camila M. B.; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Figueira, Glyn M.; Bajay, Miklos M.; Campos, Jaqueline B.; Viana, João P. G.; Pinheiro, José B.; Zucchi, Maria I.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest that is used for the production of essential oil. Microsatellite markers were developed for this species to investigate the genetic diversity of three natural populations. Methods and Results: Seventeen out of 27 microsatellite loci identified in a genomic library used for the characterization of 315 individuals derived from three natural populations of B. dracunculifolia resulted in successful amplifications. Eleven polymorphic loci, ranging from two to seven alleles per locus, were obtained with expected and observed heterozygosity values ranging between 0.068 and 0.775 and 0.046 and 0.667, respectively. Conclusions: The microsatellite loci described in this study are tools that can be used for further studies of population genetics of B. dracunculifolia with a focus on deforested areas and conservation of natural populations. PMID:27011894

  2. Genetic polymorphisms and protein structures in growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin in Mehraban sheep.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, A; Behzadi, Sh; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Roh, S-G; Katoh, K

    2013-09-15

    The somatotropic axis, the control system for growth hormone (GH) secretion and its endogenous factors involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy partitioning, has promising potentials for producing economically valuable traits in farm animals. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes of factors involved in the somatotropic axis for growth hormone (GH1), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin (LEP), using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods in 452 individual Mehraban sheep. A nonradioactive method to allow SSCP detection was used for genomic DNA and PCR amplification of six fragments: exons 4 and 5 of GH1; exon 10 of GH receptor (GHR); exon 1 of ghrelin (GHRL); exon 1 of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and exon 3 of leptin (LEP). Polymorphisms were detected in five of the six PCR products. Two electrophoretic patterns were detected for GH1 exon 4. Five conformational patterns were detected for GH1 exon 5 and LEP exon 3, and three for IGF-I exon 1. Only GHR and GHRL were monomorphic. Changes in protein structures due to variable SNPs were also analyzed. The results suggest that Mehraban sheep, a major breed that is important for the animal industry in Middle East countries, has high genetic variability, opening interesting prospects for future selection programs and preservation strategies. PMID:23747407

  3. Development of microsatellites in Labisia pumila (Myrsinaceae), an economically important Malaysian herb1

    PubMed Central

    Tnah, Lee Hong; Lee, Chai Ting; Lee, Soon Leong; Ng, Chin Hong; Ng, Kevin Kit Siong

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The exploitation of Labisia pumila for commercial demand is gradually increasing. It is therefore important that conservation is prioritized to ensure sustainable utilization. We developed microsatellites for L. pumila var. alata and evaluated their polymorphism across var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata. • Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic microsatellites of L. pumila were developed using the magnetic bead hybridization selection approach. A total of 84, 48, and 66 alleles were observed in L. pumila var. alata, var. pumila, and var. lanceolata, respectively. The species is likely a tetraploid, with the majority of the loci exhibiting up to four alleles per individual. • Conclusions: This is the first report on the development of microsatellites in L. pumila. The microsatellites will provide a good basis for investigating the population genetics of the species and will serve as a useful tool for DNA profiling. PMID:25202631

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in the African deciduous tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Demenou, Boris B.; Migliore, Jérémy; Tosso, Felicien; Kaymak, Esra; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellites were designed and characterized in the African timber forest tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae). Due to their high variability, these markers are suitable to investigate gene flow patterns and the structure of genetic diversity. Methods and Results: From a genomic library obtained by next-generation sequencing, seven monomorphic and 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed. The polymorphic microsatellites displayed two to 27 alleles (mean 11.4; expected heterozygosity range 0.283–0.940, mean 0.736) in one population from southeastern Cameroon. Genotypes were typical of an outbreeding diploid species, although null alleles explain a significant heterozygote deficit in three loci. Cross-amplification in three congeneric species (T. ivorensis, T. avicennioides, and T. mantaly) failed, suggesting that T. superba is rather divergent. Conclusions: This set of newly developed microsatellite markers will be useful for assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history of T. superba in tropical African forests. PMID:26697276

  5. Influence of iodine supplementation on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in severe iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ozön, Alev; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer; Yordam, Nurşen

    2004-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is an important public health problem worldwide. In addition to severe consequences such as brain damage, developmental delay, deficits in hearing and learning, it also has a negative impact on growth. The negative impact of severe iodine deficiency (SID) on insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) was shown previously. In this study we aimed to analyze the impact of iodine supplementation on growth and growth factors of children with SID. One hundred and four children (63 boys and 41 girls) aged 5-15 years participated in the study. Height standard deviation scores (HSDS), and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were assessed both before and six months after a single dose of iodized oil. Serum levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were also analysed to investigate the mechanisms by which alterations of iodine status may influence growth. Pubertal children had lower HSDS six months after iodine supplementation, while that of prepubertal children remained unchanged. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels decreased significantly and FT4 levels were suppressed six months after the supplementation, while TSH was normalized. These findings suggest a negative impact of iodine supplementation on growth factors in the short-term, which may be a direct effect of iodine repletion or an indirect effect caused by alterations in thyroid function. It may also be related to the method of supplementation used. Further studies are necessary to resolve these issues, as well as to examine the impact of iodine supplementation on growth in the long-term. PMID:15641262

  6. Inheritance of 15 microsatellites in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas: segregation and null allele identification for linkage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Guo, Ximing; Zhang, Guofan

    2009-02-01

    Microsatellites were screened in a backcross family of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Fifteen microsatellite loci were distinguishable and polymorphic with 6 types of allele-combinations. Null alleles were detected in 46.7% of loci, accounting for 11.7% of the total alleles. Four loci did not segregate in Mendelian Ratios. Three linkage groups were identified among 7 of the 15 segregating loci. Fluorescence-based automated capillary electrophoresis (ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer) that used to detect the microsatellite loci, has been proved a fast, precise, and reliable method in microsatellite genotyping.

  7. Practical Approach for Typing Strains of Leishmania infantum by Microsatellite Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bulle, Béatrice; Millon, Laurence; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Gállego, Montserrat; Gambarelli, Françoise; Portús, Montserrat; Schnur, Lee; Jaffe, Charles L.; Fernandez-Barredo, Salceda; Alunda, José María; Piarroux, Renaud

    2002-01-01

    Currently the universally accepted standard procedure for characterizing and identifying strains of Leishmania is isoenzyme analysis. However, in the Mediterranean area, despite their very wide geographical distribution, most Leishmania infantum strains belong to zymodeme MON-1. In order to increase our understanding of polymorphism in strains of L. infantum, we developed PCR assays amplifying 10 microsatellites and sequenced PCR products. The discriminative power of microsatellite analysis was tested by using a panel of 50 L. infantum strains collected from patients and dogs from Spain, France, and Israel, including 32 strains belonging to zymodeme MON-1, 8 strains belonging to zymodemes MON-24, MON-29, MON-33, MON-34, or MON-80, and 10 untyped strains. Five of the microsatellites were polymorphic, revealing 22 genotypes, whereas the five remaining microsatellites were not variable. In particular, MON-1 strains could be separated into 13 different closely related genotypes. MON-33 and MON-34 strains also gave two additional genotypes closely related to MON-1, while MON-29, MON-24, and MON 80 strains exhibited more divergent genotypes. Among the foci examined, the Catalonian focus displayed a high polymorphism, probably reflecting isoenzyme polymorphism, while the Israeli focus exhibited a low polymorphism that could be consistent with the recent reemergence and rapid spread of canine leishmaniasis in northern and central Israel. The strains originating from the south of France and the Madrid, Spain, area displayed significant microsatellite polymorphism even though they were monomorphic by isoenzyme analysis. In conclusion, microsatellite polymorphism exhibits a high discriminative power and appears to be suitable for characterization of closely related strains of L. infantum in epidemiological studies. PMID:12202583

  8. Estimating microsatellite based genetic diversity in Rhode Island Red chicken.

    PubMed

    Das, A K; Kumar, S; Rahim, A

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate microsatellite based genetic diversity in two lines (the selected RIR(S) and control line RIR(C)) of Rhode Island Red (RIR) chicken. Genomic DNA of 24 randomly selected birds maintained at Central Avian Research Institute (India) and 24 microsatellite markers were used. Microsatellite alleles were determined on 6% urea-PAGE, recorded using GelDoc system and the samples were genotyped. Nei's heterozygosity and Botstein's polymorphic information content (PIC) at each microsatellite locus were estimated. Wright's fixation indices and gene flow were estimated using POPGENE software. All the microsatellite loci were polymorphic and the estimated PIC ranged from 0.3648 (MCW0059) to 0.7819 (ADL0267) in RIR(S) and from 0.2392 (MCW0059) to 0.8620 (ADL0136) in RIR(C). Most of the loci were highly informative (PIC>0.50) in the both lines, except for five loci in RIR(S) and six loci in RIR(C) line. Nei's heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.4800 (MCW0059) to 0.8056 (ADL0267) in RIR(S) and from 0.2778 (MCW0059) to 0.875 (ADL0136) in RIR(C). Out of 24 loci, 15 (62.5%) in RIR(S) and 14 loci (58.33%) in RIR(C) revealed moderate to high negative FIS index indicating heterozygote excess for these loci in corresponding lines, but the rest revealed positive FIS indicating heterozygosity deficiency. A mean FIS across the both lines indicated overall 10.77% heterozygosity deficit and a mean FIT indicated 17.19% inbreeding co-efficient favoring homozygosity over the two lines. The mean FST indicated that 10.18% of the microsatellite variation between the two lines was due to their genetic difference. PMID:27175188

  9. The advantage of absolute quantification in comparative hormone research as indicated by a newly established real-time RT-PCR: GH, IGF-I, and IGF-II gene expression in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Caelers, Antje; Berishvili, Giorgi; Reinecke, Manfred

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a real-time RT-PCR that absolutely quantifies the gene expression of hormones using the standard curve method. The method avoids cloning procedures by using primer extension to create templates containing a T7 promoter gene sequence. It is rapid since neither separate reverse transcriptions nor postamplification steps are necessary, and its low detection level (2 pg/mug total RNA) allows precise absolute quantification. Using the method, we have quantified the gene expression of GH, IGF-I, and IGF-II in the tilapia. PMID:15891047

  10. IGF-I induces upregulation of DDR1 collagen receptor in breast cancer cells by suppressing MIR-199a-5p through the PI3K/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, Maria Luisa; Presti, Anna Rita Lo; Malaguarnera, Roberta; Ragusa, Marco; Sciortino, Daniela; Morrione, Andrea; Maggiolini, Marcello; Vella, Veronica; Belfiore, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) is a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase that contributes to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhances cancer progression. Our previous data indicate that, in breast cancer cells, DDR1 interacts with IGF-1R and positively modulates IGF-1R expression and biological responses, suggesting that the DDR1-IGF-IR cross-talk may play an important role in cancer. In this study, we set out to evaluate whether IGF-I stimulation may affect DDR1 expression. Indeed, in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) IGF-I induced significant increase of DDR1 protein expression, in a time and dose dependent manner. However, we did not observe parallel changes in DDR1 mRNA. DDR1 upregulation required the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway while the ERK1/2, the p70/mTOR and the PKC pathways were not involved. Moreover, we observed that DDR1 protein upregulation was induced by translational mechanisms involving miR-199a-5p suppression through PI3K/AKT activation. This effect was confirmed by both IGF-II produced by cancer-associated fibroblasts from human breast cancer and by stable transfection of breast cancer cells with a human IGF-II expression construct. Transfection with a constitutively active form of AKT was sufficient to decrease miR-199a-5p and upregulate DDR1. Accordingly, IGF-I-induced DDR1 upregulation was inhibited by transfection with pre-miR-199a-5p, which also impaired AKT activation and cell migration and proliferation in response to IGF-I. These results demonstrate that, in breast cancer cells, a novel pathway involving AKT/miR-199a-5p/DDR1 plays a role in modulating IGFs biological responses. Therefore, this signaling pathway may represent an important target for breast cancers with over-activation of the IGF-IR axis. PMID:26655502

  11. Characterization of 19 microsatellite loci in the clonal monkshood Aconitum kusnezoffii (Ranunculaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xing-Yue; Tian, Hao; Liao, Wan-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from Aconitum kusnezoffii (Ranunculaceae) to estimate male and female reproductive success and evaluate the effects of clonal growth on sexual reproduction. Methods and Results: A genomic enrichment approach was used to develop microsatellite markers. In three investigated A. kusnezoffii populations, a total of 19 microsatellite loci were successfully amplified, and 13 of these loci were polymorphic. Most of the primer pairs designed for the identified loci also amplified corresponding microsatellite loci in A. barbatum var. puberulum and A. alboviolaceum. Conclusions: The identified microsatellite loci will be useful for quantifying male and female fitness in A. kusnezoffii and evaluating the effects of clonal growth on sexual reproduction. PMID:27347450

  12. Design and Implementation of Degenerate Microsatellite Primers for the Mammalian Clade

    PubMed Central

    Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Beck, Josephine S.; Gemmell, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    Microsatellites are popular genetic markers in molecular ecology, genetic mapping and forensics. Unfortunately, despite recent advances, the isolation of de novo polymorphic microsatellite loci often requires expensive and intensive groundwork. Primers developed for a focal species are commonly tested in a related, non-focal species of interest for the amplification of orthologous polymorphic loci; when successful, this approach significantly reduces cost and time of microsatellite development. However, transferability of polymorphic microsatellite loci decreases rapidly with increasing evolutionary distance, and this approach has shown its limits. Whole genome sequences represent an under-exploited resource to develop cross-species primers for microsatellites. Here we describe a three-step method that combines a novel in silico pipeline that we use to (1) identify conserved microsatellite loci from a multiple genome alignments, (2) design degenerate primer pairs, with (3) a simple PCR protocol used to implement these primers across species. Using this approach we developed a set of primers for the mammalian clade. We found 126,306 human microsatellites conserved in mammalian aligned sequences, and isolated 5,596 loci using criteria based on wide conservation. From a random subset of ∼1000 dinucleotide repeats, we designed degenerate primer pairs for 19 loci, of which five produced polymorphic fragments in up to 18 mammalian species, including the distinctly related marsupials and monotremes, groups that diverged from other mammals 120–160 million years ago. Using our method, many more cross-clade microsatellite loci can be harvested from the currently available genomic data, and this ability is set to improve exponentially as further genomes are sequenced. PMID:22216321

  13. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the critically endangered cactus Ariocarpus bravoanus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S L; Rodriguez, V M; Hardesty, B D; Bárcenas Luna, Rolando T; Hernández, Héctor M; Robson, R M; Hawkins, J A

    2008-09-01

    Ariocarpus bravoanus is common in trade but critically endangered in its natural habitat. With the ultimate aim of developing a certification scheme to aid in the conservation of this species, we have isolated A. bravoanus microsatellites from a nonenriched library. Fifty-four sequences contained a microsatellite array, of which eight were polymorphic among 23 individuals, 20 from one population and three plants from trade. PMID:21585974

  14. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Eriosomatinae).

    PubMed

    Lavandero, Blas; Figueroa, Christian C; Ramirez, Claudio C; Caligari, Peter D S; Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Eight novel microsatellite primer pairs are presented for Eriosoma lanigerum, representing the first microsatellite markers available for this genus. Loci were characterized for 27 individuals from one single orchard in Central Chile. All loci were polymorphic within E. lanigerum (three to 11 alleles per locus; observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.41 to 0.93), and are therefore useful for population genetic studies within the species. PMID:21564633

  15. Development of microsatellite markers in Fragaria, their use in genetic diversity analysis, and their potential for genetic linkage mapping.

    PubMed

    Hadonou, A M; Sargent, D J; Wilson, F; James, C M; Simpson, D W

    2004-06-01

    We have developed 21 new microsatellites in the model diploid perennial species Fragaria vesca from an enriched genomic library developed using F. vesca 'Ruegen'. The transferability of the primer pairs to other Fragaria species was high; all 31 primer pairs produced amplicons in 3 accessions of the octoploid strawberry Fragaria x ananassa, whereas 24 (77%) amplified a product in 7 other diploid Fragaria species. We analysed the allelic variation among 15 F. vesca accessions using the 21 microsatellites reported here and 10 F. vesca microsatellites described previously. The level of polymorphism detected at these microsatellite loci was high; five loci were monomorphic. Only two microsatellites were required to unambiguously discriminate among the 15 F. vesca accessions. A preliminary survey of segregation in an F2 progeny indicates that 20 of the 26 polymorphic loci (77%) could be mapped. PMID:15190360

  16. An Integrated Chromosome Map of Microsatellite Markers and Inversion Breakpoints for an Asian Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Maryam; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Baricheva, Elina; Karagodin, Dmitrii; Tu, Zhijian

    2011-01-01

    Anopheles stephensi is one of the major vectors of malaria in the Middle East and Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. Understanding the population genetic structure of malaria mosquitoes is important for developing adequate and successful vector control strategies. Commonly used markers for inferring anopheline taxonomic and population status include microsatellites and chromosomal inversions. Knowledge about chromosomal locations of microsatellite markers with respect to polymorphic inversions could be useful for better understanding a genetic structure of natural populations. However, fragments with microsatellites used in population genetic studies are usually too short for successful labeling and hybridization with chromosomes. We designed new primers for amplification of microsatellite loci identified in the A. stephensi genome sequenced with next-generation technologies. Twelve microsatellites were mapped to polytene chromosomes from ovarian nurse cells of A. stephensi using fluorescent in situ hybridization. All microsatellites hybridized to unique locations on autosomes, and 7 of them localized to the largest arm 2R. Ten microsatellites were mapped inside the previously described polymorphic chromosomal inversions, including 4 loci located inside the widespread inversion 2Rb. We analyzed microsatellite-based population genetic data available for A. stephensi in light of our mapping results. This study demonstrates that the chromosomal position of microsatellites may affect estimates of population genetic parameters and highlights the importance of developing physical maps for nonmodel organisms. PMID:21810771

  17. Characterization of microsatellite DNA markers for the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii: Primer note

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackler, J.C.; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Two trinucleotide and seven tetranucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated from an alligator snapping turtle Macrochelys temminckii. To assess the degree of variability in these nine microsatellite loci, we genotyped 174 individuals collected from eight river drainage basins in the southeastern USA. These markers revealed a moderate degree of allelic diversity (six to 16 alleles per locus) and observed heterozygosity (0.166-0.686). These polymorphic microsatellite loci provide powerful tools for population genetic studies for a species that is afforded some level of conservation protection in every state in which it occurs. ?? 2006 The Authors.

  18. Genomic microsatellites as evolutionary chronometers: a test in wild cats.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Carlos A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Nelson, George; Goldstein, David; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2002-03-01

    Nuclear microsatellite loci (2- to 5-bp tandem repeats) would seem to be ideal markers for population genetic monitoring because of their abundant polymorphism, wide dispersal in vertebrate genomes, near selective neutrality, and ease of assessment; however, questions about their mode of generation, mutation rates and ascertainment bias have limited interpretation considerably. We have assessed the patterns of genomic diversity