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Sample records for igf-i microsatellite polymorphisms

  1. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  2. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 polymorphisms in relation to circulating levels among African American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; Schroeder, Jane C.; North, Kari E.; Poole, Charles; West, Suzanne L.; Travlos, Gregory S.; Baird, Donna D.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor-one (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels have been associated with common diseases. Although family-based studies suggest that genetic variation contributes to circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, analyses of associations with multiple IGF-I and IGFBP-3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been limited, especially among African Americans. We evaluated 30 IGF-I and 15 IGFBP-3 SNPs and estimated diplotypes in association with plasma IGF-I and IGFBP-3 among 984 premenopausal African American and Caucasian women. In both races, IGFBP-3 rs2854746 (Ala32Gly) was positively associated with plasma IGFBP-3 (CC versus GG mean difference among Caucasians = 631 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 398, 864; African Americans = 897 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval: 656, 1138), and IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the rs2854746 GG genotype had lower mean IGFBP-3 levels than referent diplotypes with the CG genotype, while IGFBP-3 diplotypes with the CC genotype had higher mean IGFBP-3 levels. IGFBP-3 rs2854744 (−202 A/C) was in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2854746 in Caucasians only, but was associated with plasma IGFBP-3 in both races. Eight additional IGFBP-3 SNPs were associated with 5% or greater differences in mean IGFBP-3 levels, with generally consistent associations between races. Twelve IGF-I SNPs were associated with 10% or greater differences in mean IGF-I levels, but associations were generally discordant between races. Diplotype associations with plasma IGF-I did not parallel IGF-I SNP associations. Our study supports that common IGFBP-3 SNPs, especially rs2854746, influence plasma IGFBP-3 levels among African Americans and Caucasians, but provides less evidence that IGF-I SNPs affect plasma IGF-I levels. PMID:19240240

  3. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  4. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chanjuan; Ma, Rongnuan; Yue, Xiangpeng; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao

    2010-04-01

    The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen) was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2), respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05). However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p < 0.05). Chest circumference (p < 0.05) was larger in Guanzhong goats with the GG genotype. In Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CC genotype, milk yields were significantly higher during the first and second lactations (p < 0.05). Hence, the g.5752 G > C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics. PMID:21637481

  5. Genetic Polymorphisms in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 Are Associated with Prostate Cancer in the Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Qi; Cao, Qiang; Qin, Chao; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Pu; Cai, Hongzhou; Meng, Xiaoxin; Ju, Xiaobing; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Li, Jie; Hua, Lixin; Yin, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family that play important roles in carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that the functional polymorphisms in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 may be associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Chinese population. This hospital-based case-control study included 664 PCa patients and 702 cancer-free controls. Nine SNPs in IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were genotyped using the TaqMan assay. The genetic associations between the pathogenesis and progression of PCa were assessed by logistic regression. We found that the genotype and allele frequency distribution of rs6218, rs35767 and rs5742612 were significantly different when comparing PCa cases to controls (P  = 0.005, 0.005 and 0.020, respectively). In the combined analysis, individuals with 2–6 risk alleles had an elevated risk of PCa compared to those with 0–1 risk alleles. We also found that the association between the combined risk alleles and the risk of PCa appeared stronger in the following subgroups: individuals older than 71 years of age (OR  = 1.41, 95%CI  = 1.05–1.91, P  = 0.020), nonsmokers (OR  = 1.68, 95%CI  = 1.21–2.32, P  = 0.002), nondrinkers (OR  = 1.32, 95%CI  = 1.02–1.61, P  = 0.002), and those with a negative family history of PCa (OR  = 1.28, 95%CI  = 1.02–1.71, P  = 0.022). Our results indicate that the three SNPs (rs6218, rs35767 and rs5742612) and the joint genotypes with 2–6 risk alleles, may contribute to the susceptibility to PCa, but not the progression, in the Chinese population. PMID:24586243

  6. Long, polymorphic microsatellites in simple organisms.

    PubMed

    Field, D; Wills, C

    1996-02-22

    We have examined the phylogenetic distribution of the longest, perfect microsatellites in GenBank. Despite the large contributions of model higher-eukaryotic organisms to GenBank, the selective cloning of long microsatellites from these organisms as genetic markers, and the relative lack of concentration on the microsatellites in lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes, we found that simple organisms, defined here as slime molds, fungi, protists, prokaryotes, viruses, organelles and plasmids, contributed 78 of the 375 examined sequences. These 78 simple-organism microsatellites are characterized predominantly by trinucleotide repeats, nearly half of which lie in exons, and in general show a bias towards A+T rich motifs. Simple-organism microsatellites represented more than once in GenBank displayed length polymorphisms when independent clones were compared. These facts collectively raise speculation as to the role of these 'junk' sequences in such highly economical genomes, especially when precise changes in long microsatellites are known to regulate critical virulence factors in several prokaryotes. Regardless of their biological significance, simple-organism microsatellites may provide a general source of molecular markers to track disease outbreaks and the evolution of microorganisms in unprecedented detail. PMID:8728984

  7. Polymorphic microsatellites and Wilson disease (WD)

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E. A.; White, A.; Tomfohrde, J.; Osborne-Lawrence, S.; Prestridge, L.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; Scheinberg, I. H.; George-Hyslop, P. St; Giagheddu, M.; Kim, J.-W.; Seo, J. K.; Lo, W. H.-y.; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I. A.; Limborska, S. A.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.; Bowcock, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD), an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, has been previously mapped to chromosome 13q. Highly informative PCR-based polymorphic microsatellites closely linked to the WD locus (WND) at 13q14.3, as well as sequence-tagged sites for closely linked loci, are described. Two polymorphic microsatellite markers at D13S118 and D13S119 lie within 3 cM of WND. Two others (D13S227 and D13S228) were derived from a yeast artificial chromosome containing D13S31. These were placed on a genetic linkage map of chromosome 13 and were typed in 74 multiplex WD families from a variety of geographic origins (166 affected members). Multipoint analysis provides very high odds that the location of WND is between D13S31/D13S227/D13S228 and D13S59. Previous odds with RFLP-based markers were only 7:1 more likely than any other location. Current odds are 5,000:1. Preclinical testing of three cases of WD by using the highly informative polymorphic microsatellite markers is described. The markers described here ensure that 95% of predictive tests using DNA from both parents and from at least one affected sib will have an accuracy >99%. PMID:8213814

  8. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) gene polymorphism with the susceptibility to development of prostate cancer and influence on serum levels of IGF-I, and IGFBP-3.

    PubMed

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Shiva

    2011-06-01

    The bioavailability of IGF-I is controlled by the binding protein, IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). In addition, IGFBP-3 is a strong anti-proliferative protein that provokes apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer. We conducted this study to investigate the association between IGFBP-3 gene polymorphism and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and the incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). DNA isolation was performed in peripheral blood samples obtained from all participants. Required areas were amplified with polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RLFP) technique by using proper primers belonging to this gene area. We also measured serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. The IGFBP-3 -202 A/C polymorphism genotype frequencies showed a significant difference between PCa patients and controls (χ(2)=6.27, df=2.0, P=0.026), as well as between BPH patients and controls (χ(2)=11.57, df=4.0, P=0.014). The AA genotype frequency was significantly decreased in PCa and BPH patients compared to control group and the risk of PCa and BPH occurrence of this genotype was decreased accordingly (PCa; OR=0.28, 95% CI=0.17-0.44, P=0.0001; BPH: OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.29-0.77, P=0.001). Age-adjusted mean serum IGFBP-3 concentrations were highest in the individuals with the AA genotype and diminished significantly in a stepwise manner in the presence of 1 or 2 copies of the C allele (4577 ng/ml, 3929 ng/ml and 3349 ng/ml, respectively). Patients with PCa and BPH had lower serum IGF-1 (P=0.001, and P=0.01, respectively) and IGFBP-3 levels (P=0.001, and P=0.01, respectively) compared with controls. The AA genotype at IGFBP-3 gene polymorphism is associated with reduced risks of PCa and BPH. Both IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations, are associated with modified risks of PCa and BPH. PMID:21536469

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia marginata.

    PubMed

    Johny, S; Chakraborty, S; Gadagkar, R; Nagaraju, J

    2009-07-01

    We report here development and characterization of 48 novel microsatellite markers for Ropalidia marginata, a tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp from peninsular India. Thirty-two microsatellites showed polymorphism in a wild population of R. marginata (N = 38) collected from Bangalore, India. These markers will facilitate answering some interesting questions in ecology and evolutionary biology of this wasp, such as population structure, serial polygyny, intra-colony genetic relatedness and the pattern of queen succession. PMID:21564866

  10. Genomic and genotyping characterization of haplotype-based polymorphic microsatellites in Prunus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient utilization of microsatellites in genetic studies remains impeded largely due to the unknown status of their primer reliability, chromosomal location, and allele polymorphism. Discovery and characterization of microsatellite polymorphisms in a taxon will disclose the unknowns and gain new ...

  11. IGF-I abuse in sport.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Dashwood, Alexander; Thomas, Nicholas J; Skingle, Alexander J; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-09-01

    It is widely believed that growth hormone (GH) is abused by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic effects. Many of the physiological effects of GH are mediated by the production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Both GH and IGF-I appear on the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of abuse with exogenous IGF-I. IGF-I has effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism and some of these actions could prove beneficial to competitive athletes. No studies have demonstrated a positive effect of IGF-I on physical performance in healthy individuals but this has not yet been studied in appropriately designed trials. Two pharmaceutical preparations of IGF-I have recently become available for the treatment of growth disorders in children. This availability is likely to increase the prevalence of IGF-I abuse. Combining IGF-I with its binding protein IGFBP-3 in one preparation has the potential to reduce the side-effect profile but the adverse effects of long term IGF-I abuse are currently unknown. Detection of abuse with IGF-I is a major challenge for anti-doping authorities. It is extremely difficult to distinguish the exogenous recombinant form of the hormone from endogenously-produced IGF-I. One approach currently being investigated is based on measuring markers of GH and IGF-I action. This has already proved successful in the fight against GH abuse and, it is hoped, will subsequently lead to a similar test for detection of IGF-I abuse. PMID:20443773

  12. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers from Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Liu, Yiman; Ding, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in Zizania latifolia Turcz. (Poaceae), a perennial aquatic plant widespread in Eastern Asia. The microsatellite-enriched library was constructed using the fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats method. These markers revealed two to 14 alleles, with an average of 5.6 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.071 to 0.690 and from 0.174 to 0.812, respectively. These markers will be useful for studying of gene flow and evaluating the genetic diversity of the Zizania latifolia population. PMID:21564779

  13. Polymorphic microsatellite markers in Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae).

    PubMed

    Quan, Zhiwu; Pan, Lei; Ke, Weidong; Ding, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and identified in the aquatic plant Euryale ferox Salisb. (Nymphaeaceae). This species, which belongs to basal Magnoliophyta, reproduces sexually. All of these 11 microsatellite markers yielded 25 alleles in a survey of a wild population of 34 individuals. Two or three alleles per locus were detected, with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.056 to 0.634 and observed heterozygosity from 0.000 to 0.088. These simple sequence repeat markers will be useful for evaluating the genetic structure of the E. ferox population in the future. PMID:21564641

  14. Humanin: Functional Interfaces with IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Kim, S-J; Cohen, P; Yen, K

    2016-08-01

    Humanin is the first newly discovered peptide encoded in the mitochondrial genome in over three decades. It is the first member of a novel class of mitochondrial derived peptides. This small, 24 amino acid peptide was initially discovered to have neuroprotective effects and subsequent experiments have shown that it is beneficial in a diverse number of disease models including stroke, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over a decade ago, our lab found that humanin bound IGFBP-3 and more recent studies have found it to decrease circulating IGF-I levels. In turn, IGF-I also seems to regulate humanin levels and in this review, we cover the known interaction between humanin and IGF-I. Although the exact mechanism for how humanin and IGF-I regulate each other still needs to be elucidated, it is clear that humanin is a new player in IGF-I signaling. PMID:27082450

  15. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Linum usitatissimum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Long, Songhua; He, Dongfeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Yufu; Liu, Jia; Chen, Xinbo

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-five microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized in Linum usitatissimum using enriched genomic libraries. These loci were screened in eight cultivars from different countries and regions and were found to be polymorphic, with the number of alleles per locus ranging from two to six, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranging from 0.125 to 0.375 (mean 0.013) and from 0.233 to 0.842 (mean 0.601), respectively. These polymorphic new microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic linkage map construction, germplasm classification and identification, gene identification and quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection in breeding in L. usitatissimum. PMID:19882206

  16. Ten polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus.

    PubMed

    Kolomyjec, Stephen H; Grant, Tom R; Blair, David

    2008-09-01

    We identified and optimized 10 microsatellite loci for the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus (Monotremata: Ornithorhynchidae), and screened 21 individuals from the southern tablelands area of New South Wales, Australia. Each polymorphic locus possessed between two and 12 alleles with observed heterozygosities between 0.118 and 0.950. The intent of this effort was to provide informative loci for studies on the population genetics of this species. PMID:21585993

  17. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from Coilia ectenes.

    PubMed

    Rong, X J; Xu, Y J; Wang, Q Y; Liao, M J; Liu, X Z; Pan, C Y; Zhang, Z; Wang, Y G

    2013-01-01

    Coilia ectenes (Jordan and Seale 1905) is an important anadromous species that is an important resource at risk of extinction because of over-fishing, pollution, and coastal construction. To evaluate the genetic diversity of C. ectenes for use in breeding programs, elite microsatellite-enriched libraries were constructed and novel microsatellite markers were developed, and applied to genetically detect wild populations. Out of 92 randomly selected and sequenced clones, 89 contained a CA or GA repeat motif. Twenty-two pairs of primers were designed to investigate the polymorphism and genetic structure of a wild population collected from the Yellow River estuary, China. It was found that 2 loci were monomorphic and 20 loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic loci ranged from 3 to 13, with an average of 7.9. The expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with an average of 0.68. The isolated polymorphic markers are expected to be of use in future genetic breeding programs for C. ectenes, and in the assessment of genetic variation within this species. PMID:24338395

  18. High polymorphism at microsatellite loci in the Chinese donkey.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R F; Xie, W M; Zhang, T; Lei, C Z

    2016-01-01

    To reveal the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds, 415 individuals representing ten breeds were investigated using ten microsatellite markers. The observed number of alleles, mean effective number of alleles (NE), mean expected heterozygosity (HE), and polymorphic information content (PIC) of each breed and polymorphic locus were analyzed. The results showed that seven (HTG7, HTG10, AHT4, HTG6, HMS6, HMS3, and HMS7) of ten microsatellite loci were polymorphic. The mean PIC, HE, and NE of seven polymorphic loci for the ten donkey breeds were 0.7679, 0.8072, and 6.0275, respectively. These results suggest that domestic Chinese donkey breeds possess higher levels of genetic diversity and heterozygosity than foreign donkeys. A neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's standard genetic distance showed that there was close genetic distance among Xinjiang, Qingyang, Xiji, and Guanzhong donkey breeds. In addition, Mongolia and Dezhou donkey breeds were placed in the same category. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the genetic relationships between Chinese donkey breeds are consistent with their geographic distribution and breeding history. PMID:27420967

  19. Polymorphic microsatellites for forensic identification of agarwood (Aquilaria crassna).

    PubMed

    Eurlings, Marcel C M; van Beek, Henry Heuveling; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    Tropical agarwood (Aquilaria) is in danger of extinction in the wild due to illegal logging. Its resin (Gaharu) is used for the production of highly valued incense throughout Asia. We have isolated and characterized microsatellite loci of Aquilaria crassna to detect the geographic origin of agarwood for forensic applications using a modified enrichment procedure based on the capture of repetitive sequences from restricted genomic DNA. We assessed the polymorphisms of five microsatellites amplified from fresh leaves of 22 trees from seven plantations in Vietnam and Thailand and dried leaves of a herbarium specimen of one wild tree. Cross specificity of these markers was confirmed on two related Aquilaria species occurring in China and Vietnam and one microsatellite locus was successfully amplified from wood and incense samples. Four of the loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15. The loci characterized here can provide a starting point for forensic identification of traded material and certification of sustainably produced agarwood. PMID:20056366

  20. Polymorphism, monomorphism, and sequences in conserved microsatellites in primate species.

    PubMed

    Blanquer-Maumont, A; Crouau-Roy, B

    1995-10-01

    Dimeric short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in the mammalian genome. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis, for the identification of individuals, and may be useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. In this paper, we analyze the variability and the sequences of a segment including three microsatellites, first described in man, in several species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and macaque) using the heterologous primers (man primers). This region is located on the human chromosome 6p, near the tumor necrosis factor genes, in the major histocompatibility complex. The fact that these primers work in all species studied indicates that they are conserved throughout the different lineages of the two superfamilies, the Hominoidea and the Cercopithecidea, represented by the macaques. However, the intervening sequence displays intraspecific and interspecific variability. The sites of base substitutions and the insertion/deletion events are not evenly distributed within this region. The data suggest that it is necessary to have a minimal number of repeats to increase the rate of mutation sufficiently to allow the development of polymorphism. In some species, the microsatellites present single base variations which reduce the number of contiguous repeats, thus apparently slowing the rate of additional slippage events. Species with such variations or a low number of repeats are monomorphic. These microsatellite sequences are informative in the comparison of closely related species and reflect the phylogeny of the Old World monkeys, apes, and man. PMID:7563137

  1. Development of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in Siganus fuscescens.

    PubMed

    Mao, X Q; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Shangguan, J B; Yuan, Y; Huang, Y S; Li, B B

    2016-01-01

    Rabbitfish, Siganus fuscescens, is widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific regions and eastern Mediterranean. Its dwelling place includes reef flats, coral reef regions, and seagrass meadows in tropical area and reef areas or shallow waters in locations at high latitudes. In the present study, 10 new polymorphic microsatellite markers were screened from 30 wild S. fuscescens individuals, using a method of fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. The number of polymorphic alleles per locus was 3 to 5 with a mean of 4.3, while the value of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.283 to 0.680. The values of the observed and expected heterozygosities were in the range 0.3333-0.8462 and 0.3011-0.7424, respectively. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not observed in this study. These polymorphic loci are expected to be effective in evaluating the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow and in determining the paternity in S. fuscescens, as well as for conservation management. PMID:27525874

  2. Genetic diversity in Capsicum germplasm based on microsatellite and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Rai, Ved Prakash; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Rai, Ashutosh; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singh, Major; Singh, Sheo Pratap; Rai, Awadesh Bahadur; Paliwal, Rajneesh

    2013-10-01

    A sound knowledge of the genetic diversity among germplasm is vital for strategic germplasm collection, maintenance, conservation and utilisation. Genomic simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (RAMPO) markers were used to analyse diversity and relationships among 48 pepper (Capsicum spp.) genotypes originating from nine countries. These genotypes covered 4 species including 13 germplasm accessions, 30 improved lines of 4 domesticated species and 5 landraces derived from natural interspecific crosses. Out of 106 SSR markers, 25 polymorphic SSR markers (24 %) detected a total of 76 alleles (average, 3.04; range, 2-5). The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.69 (range, 0.29-0.92). Seventeen RAMPO markers produced 87 polymorphic fragments with average PIC of 0.63 (range, 0.44-0.81). Dendrograms based on SSRs and RAMPOs generated two clusters. All 38 Capsicum annuum genotypes and an interspecific landrace clustered together, whereas nine non-annuum (three Capsicum frutescens, one Capsicum chinense, one Capsicum baccatum and four interspecific landraces) genotypes clustered separately. Genetic variation within non-annuum genotypes was greater than the C. annuum genotypes. Distinctness of interspecific derivative landraces grown in northeast India was validated; natural crossing between sympatric Capsicum species has been proposed as the mechanism of their origin. PMID:24431527

  3. Fragile X syndrome: diagnosis using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R I; Shen, Y; Holman, K; Kozman, H; Hyland, V J; Mulley, J C; Sutherland, G R

    1991-01-01

    We describe two highly polymorphic microsatellite AC repeat sequences, VK23AC and VK14AC, which are closely linked to the fragile X at Xq27.3. Both VK23AC (DXS297) and VK14AC (DXS292) are proximal to the fragile site. Two-point linkage analysis in 31 fragile X families gave (a) a recombination frequency of 1% (range 0.00%-4%) with a maximum lod score of 32.04 for DXS297 and (b) a recombination frequency of 7% (range of 3%-15%) with a maximum lod score of 12.87 for DXS292. Both of these polymorphisms are applicable to diagnosis by linkage in families with fragile X syndrome. A multipoint linkage map of genetic markers at Xq27.3 was constructed from genotyping these polymorphisms in the CEPH pedigrees. The DXS292 marker is in the DXS98-DXS297 interval and in 3 cM proximal to DXS297. Images Figure 2 PMID:2035525

  4. Genetic Variation Between Two Cucumber Genotypes Inferred from Genome-wide Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability at microsatellite loci has been used widely to infer the extent of genetic diversity among related plant taxa. However, typically, only the most polymorphic loci in the genome were analyzed that may result in a biased, and generally overestimated picture of genome-wide microsatellite div...

  5. Characteristics of Eleven Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have isolated and characterized an additional 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the invasive ant Solenopsis invicta from a population within the United States. Primers were developed for the new microsatellite regions and their variability was tested on 96 worker ants collected from monogyne ...

  6. Development of 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blackberry rust fungus Phragmidium violaceum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Uredinales fungus Phragmidium violaceum, which causes leaf rust on European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. aggregate). Allele frequency ranged between two and seventeen alleles per locus with no evidence of linkage disequilibrium amon...

  7. Testosterone and Estradiol Regulate Free IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and Dimeric IGF-I/IGFBP-1 Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.; Frystyk, Jan; Iranmanesh, Ali; Ørskov, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The present study tests the clinical postulate that elevated testosterone (Te) and estradiol (E2) concentrations modulate the effects of constant iv infusion of saline vs recombinant human IGF-I on free IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and dimeric IGF-I/IGFBP-1 concentrations in healthy aging adults. To this end, comparisons were made following administration of placebo (Pl) vs Te in 8 older men (age 61 ± 4 y) and after Pl vs E2 in 8 postmenopausal women (62 ± 3 y). In the saline session: (i) E2 lowered and Te increased total IGF-I; (ii) E2 specifically elevated IGFBP-1 by 1.5-fold and suppressed free IGF-I by 34%; and (iii) E2 increased binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1 by 5-fold more than Te. During IGF-I infusion: (i) total and free IGF-I rose 1.4–2.0 fold [Pl] and 2.1–2.5 fold [Te] more rapidly in men than women; (ii) binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1 increased 3.4-fold more rapidly in men [Te] than women [E2]; and (iii) end-infusion free IGF-I was 1.6-fold higher in men than women. In summary, E2 compared with Te supplementation lowers concentrations of total and ultrafiltratably free IGF-I and elevates those of IGFBP-1 and binary IGF-I/IGFBP-1, thus putatively limiting IGF-I bioavailability. If free IGF-I mediates certain biological actions, then exogenous Te and E2 may modulate the tissue effects of total IGF-I concentrations unequally. PMID:15713723

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND MAPPING OF NINETEEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE MARKERS FOR RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nineteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for QTL mapping and population genetics studies in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The amount of polymorphism, percent heterozygosity, ability of each marker to amplify genomic DNA from other salmonids and two point linkage data wer...

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci isolated from the Squalidus argentatus using PCR-Based Isolation of Microsatellite Arrays (PIMA).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lin, Hung-Du; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Ju, Yu-Min; Liu, Zhi-Zhi; Liu, Dong; Yang, Jin-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the cyprinid fish S. argentatus. These new markers were tested on 43 individuals collected from Yangtze River and Qiantang River. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus, in two populations ranged from 3 to 14, from 0.333 to 0.954 and from 0.480 to 0.928, respectively. Only two loci are significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the pairwise comparisons of these loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will enable us to study the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species in the future. PMID:22016617

  10. New polymorphic microsatellite markers in the human MHC class III region.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaka, Y; Makino, S; Nakajima, K; Tomizawa, M; Oka, A; Bahram, S; Kulski, J K; Tamiya, G; Inoko, H

    2001-05-01

    The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region spanning approximately 760 kb is characterized by a remarkably high gene density with 59 expressed genes (one gene every 12.9 kb). Recently, susceptibility loci to numerous diseases, such as Graves disease, Crohn disease, and SLE have been suggested to be localized to this region, as assessed by associations mainly with genetic polymorphisms of TNF and TNF-linked microsatellite loci. However, it has been difficult to precisely localize these susceptibility loci to a single gene due to a paucity to date of polymorphic markers in the HLA class III region. To facilitate disease mapping within this region, we have analyzed 2 approximately 5 bases short tandem repeats (microsatellites) in this region. A total of 297 microsatellites were identified from the genomic sequence, consisting of 69 di-, 62 tri-, 107 tetra-, and 59 penta-nucleotide repeats. It was noted that among them as many as 17 microsatellites were located within the coding sequence of expressed genes (NOTCH4, PBX2, RAGE, G16, LPAAT, PPT2, TNXB, P450-CYP21B, G9a, HSP70-2, HSP70-1, HSP-hom, MuTSH5 and BAT2). Eight microsatellite repeats were collected as polymorphic markers due to their high number of alleles (11.9 on average) as well as their high polymorphic content value (PIC) (0.63). By combining the 38 and the 22 polymorphic microsatellites we have previously collected in the HLA class I and class II regions, respectively, we have now established a total of 68 novel genetic markers which are uniformly interspersed with a high density of one every 63.3 kb throughout the HLA region. This collection of polymorphic microsatellites will enable us to search for the location of any disease susceptible loci within the HLA region by association analysis. PMID:11556964

  11. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for Haumania danckelmaniana and transferability to H. liebrechtsiana (Marantaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Alexandra C.; Hardy, Olivier J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the species Haumania danckelmaniana (Marantaceae) from central tropical Africa. Methods and Results: Microsatellite isolation was performed simultaneously on three different species of Marantaceae through a procedure that combines multiplex microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing. From 80 primers selected for initial screening, 20 markers positively amplified in H. danckelmaniana, of which 10 presented unambiguous amplification products within the expected size range and eight were polymorphic with four to nine alleles per locus. Positive transferability with the related species H. liebrechtsiana was observed for the same 10 markers. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers are suitable for studies in genetic diversity and structure, mating system, and gene flow in H. danckelmaniana and the closely related species H. liebrechtsiana. PMID:27011899

  12. Development of 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) via 454 pyrosequencing1

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Sina; Wöhrmann, Tina; Huettel, Bruno; Weising, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed in Vinca minor (Apocynaceae) to evaluate the level of clonality, population structure, and genetic diversity of the species within its native and introduced range. Methods and Results: A total of 1371 microsatellites were found in 43,565 reads from 454 pyrosequencing of genomic V. minor DNA. Additional microsatellite loci were mined from publicly available cDNA sequences. After several rounds of screening, 18 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or tetranucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in two native Italian populations, with two to 11 alleles per locus. Clonal growth predominated in two populations from the introduced range in Germany. Five loci successfully cross-amplified in three additional Vinca species. Conclusions: The novel polymorphic microsatellite markers are promising tools for studying clonality and population genetics of V. minor and for assessing the historical origin of Central European populations. PMID:25995978

  13. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) using a 454 sequencing approach1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chang-Han; Liu, Yun-Jiao; Zhang, Cai-Yun; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun; Hao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers from Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) were developed for testing deep lineage divergence and speciation events. Methods and Results: A total of 3112 microsatellites were identified from 61,755 unique reads though 454 pyrosequencing technology. Twenty-nine microsatellite loci were selected for PCR amplification and polymorphic analyses. Among the 29 tested markers, 17 microsatellite loci were further used for genotyping in three wild P. sikkimensis populations. The number of alleles varied from one to eight, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.111 to 1.000. Ten simple sequence repeat loci could be successfully cross-amplified in two Primula species. The transferability values were 76.5% in P. florindae and 58.8% in P. alpicola, respectively. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers will be valuable for testing the hypothesis of lineage divergence, genetic introgression, and cryptic speciation events between P. sikkimensis and its closely related taxa. PMID:27437171

  14. Development of 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Ficus tikoua (Moraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu-Shui; Tan, Lu; Hu, Dai-Mei; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed to facilitate studies on the fine-scale population genetic structure of Ficus tikoua (Moraceae), a prostrate shrub known to have highly restricted gene flow. Methods and Results: Microsatellite primers were developed using the biotin-streptavidin capture method and scanned for polymorphism within 76 individuals sampled from three natural F. tikoua populations. Fourteen loci were shown to be polymorphic, with allele numbers ranging from three to 16. The observed and expected heterozygosity in the three populations ranged from 0 to 1 and from 0 to 0.87, respectively. Substantial divergence was found among the populations at some loci. All loci can be successfully amplified in at least eight other Ficus species, indicating good transferability within the genus. Conclusions: The 14 microsatellite loci will be a helpful tool for assessing the fine-scale genetic structure of F. tikoua. PMID:27011895

  15. Evidence for synergistic action of transthyretin and IGF-I over the IGF-I receptor.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marta; Leal, Sónia S; Gomes, Cláudio M; Saraiva, Maria João

    2016-04-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) has a neuroprotective role in the central nervous system (CNS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebral ischemia. Increased levels of TTR and activated insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) are associated with reduced neurodegeneration in an AD mouse model. In the present study, we found that TTR and IGF-I have a synergistic effect on activation of one of the IGF-IR signaling pathways. Hippocampus of TTR null mice present decreased levels of phosphorylated IGF-IR and Akt when compared with TTR wild type littermate animals. Cell studies reveal the synergistic effect of TTR and IGF-I in promoting IGF-IR signaling even under glutamate induced toxicity. TTR:IGF-IR complexes are identified and a bio-layer interferometry assay demonstrated an interaction between TTR and IGF-IR with a KD ranging from 99 to 744nM. In summary, our results point to a new TTR role through the IGF-I axis, mediated through TTR-IGF-IR interactions. PMID:26804653

  16. Role of IGF-I signaling in muscle bone interactions.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Tahimic, Candice; Chang, Wenhan; Wang, Yongmei; Philippou, Anastassios; Barton, Elisabeth R

    2015-11-01

    Skeletal muscle and bone rely on a number of growth factors to undergo development, modulate growth, and maintain physiological strength. A major player in these actions is insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). However, because this growth factor can directly enhance muscle mass and bone density, it alters the state of the musculoskeletal system indirectly through mechanical crosstalk between these two organ systems. Thus, there are clearly synergistic actions of IGF-I that extend beyond the direct activity through its receptor. This review will cover the production and signaling of IGF-I as it pertains to muscle and bone, the chemical and mechanical influences that arise from IGF-I activity, and the potential for therapeutic strategies based on IGF-I. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions". PMID:26453498

  17. Recombinant IGF-I: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Bright, George M

    2016-06-01

    Normal linear growth in humans requires GH and IGF-I. Diminished GH action resulting in reduced availability of IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins is the hallmarks of GH Insensitivity Syndromes (GHIS). The deficiencies are the perceived mechanisms for the growth failure of affected patients and the therapeutic targets for the restoration of normal growth. Early treatment attempts with pituitary-derived GH had limited effects in GHIS patients. Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) treatment initially provides accelerated growth to GHIS children and provides substantial benefit. But, in general, catch up growth is less substantial with rhIGF-I treatment of GHIS than with rhGH treatment of GH Deficiency. Few classic GHIS patients have reached heights in the normal range (height SD score between -2.0 SD and +2.0 SD) with rhIGF-I monotherapy. A potential explanation is that while rhIGF-I treatment increases circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3, such treatment reduces endogenous GH levels by negative feedback inhibition of pituitary GH release. In as much as both GH and IGF-I are required for good catch up growth, the loss of any residual GH signaling during IGF-I monotherapy in GHIS patients may attenuate possible catch up growth. Consistent with this explanation is the finding that, as predicted by the preclinical studies by Ross Clark, combination of rhGH & rhIGF-1 provides better growth responses than rhIGF-1 monotherapy in prepubertal children with short stature and low IGF-I levels despite normal stimulated GH responses. In the future, rhGH and rhIGF-I combination therapy can potentially improve growth outcomes over that seen with rhIGF-I monotherapy in all GHIS patients except in those with a total lack of functional GH signaling. Future alternative treatments for GHIS subjects may also include the use of post-growth hormone receptor signaling agonists which restore both GH signaling and IGF-I exposures or the addition of long-acting rh

  18. Reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism reveals enhanced polymorphisms in the 3' end of simple sequence repeats in the pepper genome.

    PubMed

    Min, Woong-Ki; Han, Jung-Heon; Kang, Won-Hee; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2008-09-30

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes and are informative genetic markers. Despite many advantages of SSR markers such as a high degree of allelic polymorphisms, co-dominant inheritance, multi-allelism, and genome-wide coverage in various plant species, they also have shortcomings such as low polymorphic rates between genetically close lines, especially in Capsicum annuum. We developed an alternative technique to SSR by normalizing and alternating anchored primers in random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). This technique, designated reverse random amplified microsatellite polymorphism (rRAMP), allows the detection of nucleotide variation in the 3' region flanking an SSR using normalized anchored and random primer combinations. The reproducibility and frequency of polymorphic loci in rRAMP was vigorously enhanced by translocation of the 5' anchor of repeat sequences to the 3' end position and selective use of moderate arbitrary primers. In our study, the PCR banding pattern of rRAMP was highly dependent on the frequency of repeat motifs and primer combinations with random primers. Linkage analysis showed that rRAMP markers were well scattered on an intra-specific pepper map. Based on these results, we suggest that this technique is useful for studying genetic diversity, molecular fingerprinting, and rapidly constructing molecular maps for diverse plant species. PMID:18483466

  19. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mojave desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, B E; Peacock, M M; Kirchoff, V S; Tracy, C R

    2008-09-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions to amplify 14 tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Across three populations (87 individuals) located in the Mojave Desert, USA, the markers yielded a range of four to 33 alleles and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.733 (range 0.433 to 0.933). We neither detected linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci nor did we find a consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellites are designed for PCR multiplexing, and provide higher throughput capacity to aid in conservation genetics studies for this threatened species. PMID:21585998

  20. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Donald C.; Butler IV, Mark J.; Preziosi, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%). These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus. PMID:26855853

  1. Development and characterization of polymorphic microRNA-based microsatellite markers in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolei; Gui, Songtao; Pan, Lei; Hu, Jihong; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Polymorphic microRNA (miRNA)–based microsatellite markers were developed to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae). Methods and Results: A total of 485 miRNA-based microsatellites were found from the genomic DNA sequences of N. nucifera. After several rounds of screening, 21 primer pairs flanking di-, tri-, or pentanucleotide repeats were identified that revealed high levels of genetic diversity in four populations with two to five alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 1.000 and from 0.000 to 0.803, respectively. Conclusions: The polymorphic microsatellite markers will be useful for studying the genetic diversity and population structure of N. nucifera. PMID:26819861

  2. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Truelove, Nathan; Behringer, Donald C; Butler Iv, Mark J; Preziosi, Richard F

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%). These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus. PMID:26855853

  3. Identification of common, unique and polymorphic microsatellites among 73 cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Ritika; Kapil, Aditi; Attarwala, Kherunnisa; Rai, Piyush Kant; Shanker, Asheesh

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellites also known as Simple Sequence Repeats are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nucleotides. These repeats are found in coding as well as non-coding regions of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and play a significant role in the study of gene regulation, genetic mapping, DNA fingerprinting and evolutionary studies. The availability of 73 complete genome sequences of cyanobacteria enabled us to mine and statistically analyze microsatellites in these genomes. The cyanobacterial microsatellites identified through bioinformatics analysis were stored in a user-friendly database named CyanoSat, which is an efficient data representation and query system designed using ASP.net. The information in CyanoSat comprises of perfect, imperfect and compound microsatellites found in coding, non-coding and coding-non-coding regions. Moreover, it contains PCR primers with 200 nucleotides long flanking region. The mined cyanobacterial microsatellites can be freely accessed at www.compubio.in/CyanoSat/home.aspx. In addition to this 82 polymorphic, 13,866 unique and 2390 common microsatellites were also detected. These microsatellites will be useful in strain identification and genetic diversity studies of cyanobacteria. PMID:27030027

  4. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers from the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Ong, C C; Teh, C H; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K; Yap, C K

    2008-04-01

    We report on the characterization of 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci in P. viridis, the first set of such markers developed and characterized for this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, whereas the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.0447 to 0.4837. These markers should prove useful as powerful genetic markers for this species. PMID:18666563

  5. Ten polymorphic microsatellite loci identified from a small insert genomic library for Peronospora tabacina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci for the oomycete obligate biotrophic pathogen Peronospora tabacina of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) were developed. Loci were characterized using 44 isolates of P. tabacina collected from tobacco plants growing in Europe, Near East, and North and South America. ...

  6. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  7. Development and Characterization of Novel, Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Oat Crown Rust, Puccinia coronata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of 37 novel and polymorphic microsatellite markers for oat crown rust, Puccinia coronata. The allelic diversity ranged from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.971, and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.057 to 0.848. Twenty-two of t...

  8. Characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite markers in Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an important predator of arthropod pests in vegetable crops. A partial genomic library enriched for microsatellite sequences was screened to identify marker loci and for the design of primers. Nine polymorphic loci were identified in 96 adults ...

  9. Transcriptional regulation of IGF-I expression in skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Allen, D. L.; Haddad, F.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of transcription in the regulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I expression in skeletal muscle. RT-PCR was used to determine endogenous expression of IGF-I pre-mRNA and mRNA in control (Con) and functionally overloaded (FO) rat plantaris. The transcriptional activities of five different-length IGF-I promoter fragments controlling transcription of a firefly luciferase (FLuc) reporter gene were tested in vitro by transfection of myoblasts or in vivo during FO by direct gene transfer into the plantaris. Increased endogenous IGF-I gene transcription during 7 days of plantaris FO was evidenced by an approximately 140-160% increase (P < 0.0001) in IGF-I pre-mRNA (a transcriptional marker). IGF-I mRNA expression also increased by approximately 90% (P < 0.0001), and it was correlated (R = 0.93; P < 0.0001) with the pre-mRNA increases. The three longest IGF-I exon 1 promoters induced reporter gene expression in proliferating C2C12 and L6E9 myoblasts. In differentiated L6E9 myotubes, promoter activity increased approximately two- to threefold over myoblasts. Overexpression of calcineurin and MyoD increased the activity of the -852/+192 promoter in C2C12 myotubes by approximately 5- and approximately 18-fold, respectively. However, FO did not induce these exogenous promoter fragments. Nevertheless, the present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the IGF-I gene is transcriptionally regulated during muscle hypertrophy in vivo as evidenced by the induction of the endogenous IGF-I pre-mRNA during plantaris FO. The exon 1 promoter region of the IGF-I gene is sufficient to direct inducible expression in vitro; however, an in vivo response to FO may require elements outside the -852/+346 region of the exon 1 IGF-I promoter or features inherent to the endogenous IGF-I gene.

  10. Pituitary and hypothalamic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-I receptor expression in food-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Olchovsky, D; Song, J; Gelato, M C; Sherwood, J; Spatola, E; Bruno, J F; Berelowitz, M

    1993-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate a possible role for the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) system in mediating the suppression of growth hormone (GH) secretion observed in food-deprived rats by measuring IGF-I mRNA, receptor concentration and receptor mRNA in neuroendocrine tissues (hypothalamus and pituitary). Rats were deprived of food (food-deprived) for 72 h or had free access to food (fed). Tissues were processed for measurement of steady-state levels of: (a) IGF-I and IGF-I receptor mRNA (by solution hybridization/RNase protection assay); (b) IGF-I in serum and tissue extracts (by RIA) and (c) IGF-I displaceable [125I]IGF-I binding to plasma membrane preparations. Food deprivation resulted in decreased serum and liver levels of IGF-I. Kidney IGF-I mRNA levels were reduced 80% in food-deprived rats with a concomitant increase in IGF-I receptor concentration and mRNA levels. Refeeding of food-deprived rats fully normalized these perturbations. Pituitary IGF-I content was reduced 50% in food-deprived rats while IGF-I mRNA levels were unaffected. A modest increase was seen in pituitary IGF-I receptor concentration; however, IGF-I receptor mRNA levels were not changed. Hypothalamic IGF-I mRNA content was reduced in 72 h food-deprived rats while IGF-I receptor binding capacity and mRNA were unaffected. In conclusion, IGF-I mRNA levels are decreased in liver, kidney and hypothalamus together with a reduction in plasma IGF-I in food-deprived rats but is unaffected in anterior pituitary. IGF-I receptor gene expression and binding capacity are coordinately regulated in kidney and hypothalamus, but not in the pituitary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349028

  11. Isolation of 91 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western Mediterranean endemic Carex helodes (Cyperaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Juan M.; Escudero, Marcial; Jordano, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Carex helodes (Cyperaceae), a western Mediterranean endemic that is locally distributed in southern Portugal and southwestern Spain and rare in northern Morocco. Methods and Results: One hundred nine nuclear microsatellite markers were developed using a shotgun pyrosequencing method, resulting in 91 polymorphic and 18 monomorphic loci when tested using 19 individuals sampled from five populations from Portugal, Spain, and Morocco. Loci averaged 3.23 alleles per locus (SD = 1.15). In a single population (Cortelha population, Portugal), the 34 most polymorphic loci showed a mean observed heterozygosity of 0.357 (SD = 0.292) and mean expected heterozygosity of 0.384 (SD = 0.255). Conclusions: Next-generation sequencing allowed us to develop a high number of genetic markers with levels of polymorphism adequate to study gene flow among populations. However, when genotyping the individuals within a population, we found low levels of variation. PMID:26819859

  12. Isolation and characterization of 48 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the blood clam Scapharca broughtonii (Arcidae).

    PubMed

    Tian, J-T; Liu, Z-H; Zhou, L-Q; Wu, B; Liu, P; Yang, A-G

    2012-01-01

    Blood clams (Scapharca broughtonii) are widely cultivated and consumed in noutheast Asia. Forty-eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed for this clam using magnetic-bead hybridization enrichment. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 14. Polymorphism of these loci was assessed in 30 individuals from a population collected from coastal areas of Qingdao, China. The values of observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus ranged from 0.1034 to 0.9655, from 0.1831 to 0.9208, and from 0.1638 to 0.8964, respectively. Forty-three of 48 loci conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci would be useful for molecular genetic breeding, population genetics, genome mapping, and other relevant research on S. broughtonii. PMID:23096914

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue fox (Alopex lagopus).

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Guo, P C; Lu, J Y; Bai, C Y; Zhao, Z H; Yan, S Q

    2016-01-01

    The blue fox, belonging to the family Canidae, is a coat color variant of the native arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). To date, microsatellite loci in blue fox are typically amplified using canine simple sequence repeat primers. In the present study, we constructed an (AC)n enrichment library, and isolated and identified 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for blue fox. The number of alleles per locus is from two to seven based on 24 examined individuals. The expected and observed heterozygosities were in the range of 0.3112 to 0.8236 and 0.2917 to 0.8750, respectively. The polymorphic information content per locus ranged from 0.2583 to 0.8022. These polymorphic markers can be useful for future population genetic studies of both farmed blue foxes and wild arctic foxes. PMID:27323129

  14. Development and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Faqi; Li, Yinhu; Gao, Qingbo; Lei, Shuyun; Khan, Gulzar; Yang, Huiling; Chen, Shilong

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Saxifraga egregia (Saxifragaceae) is a perennial herb that is endemic to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We developed 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for S. egregia to investigate its population genetics. Methods and Results: Forty-eight pairs of microsatellite primers (including 36 monomorphic loci) were isolated and characterized by magnetic bead enrichment. Twelve of these markers showed polymorphism, and the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 14 across 50 individuals from three populations of S. egregia. No linkage disequilibrium was detected in any pair of loci. Conclusions: These polymorphic markers are expected to be helpful in further studies on the systematics and phylogeography of S. egregia in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. PMID:26312195

  15. EWS/FLI-responsive GGAA-microsatellites exhibit polymorphic differences between European and African populations

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Robert; Monument, Michael J.; Watkins, W. Scott; Smith, Richard; Boucher, Kenneth M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of Ewing sarcoma development remain obscure. The incidence of Ewing sarcoma is ten-fold less in Africans as compared to Europeans, irrespective of geographic location, suggesting population-specific genetic influences. Since GGAA-containing microsatellites within key target genes are necessary for Ewing sarcoma-specific EWS/FLI DNA binding and gene activation, and gene expression is positively correlated with the number of repeat motifs in the promoter/enhancer region, we sought to determine if significant polymorphisms exist between African and European populations which might contribute to observed differences in Ewing sarcoma incidence and outcomes. GGAA-microsatellites upstream of two critical EWS/FLI-target genes, NR0B1 and CAV1, were sequenced from subjects of European and African descent. While the characteristics of the CAV1 promoter microsatellites were similar across both populations, the NR0B1 microsatellite in African subjects was significantly larger, harboring more repeat motifs, a greater number of repeat segments, and longer consecutive repeats, than in European subjects. These results are biologically intriguing as NR0B1 was the most highly enriched EWS/FLI bound gene in prior studies, and is absolutely necessary for oncogenic transformation in Ewing sarcoma. These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms in the NR0B1 gene might influence disease susceptibility and prognosis in Ewing sarcoma in unanticipated ways. PMID:22749036

  16. Isolation and characterization of 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koizumi, Noriyuki; Quinn, Thomas W.; Park, Myeongsoo; Fike, Jennifer A.; Nishida, Kazuya; Takemura, Takeshi; Watabe, Keiji; Mori, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Twenty one polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) were isolated and characterized. The number of observed alleles per locus in 32 individuals ranged from 3 to 30. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.125 to 0.969 and from 0.175 to 0.973, respectively. All loci conformed to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, no linkage disequilibrium was observed between pairs of loci and no loci showed evidence of null alleles. These microsatellite loci will be useful for investigating the intraspecific genetic variation and population structure of this species.

  17. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector for citrus greening disease Huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed from microsatellite-enriched DNA libraries and mined from an EST library of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the devastating citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Analysis of 288 individuals from Florida, Texas, and Brazil showed allelic di...

  18. Polymorphic microsatellites in the human bloodfluke, Schistosoma japonicum, identified using a genomic resource

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Re-emergence of schistosomiasis in regions of China where control programs have ceased requires development of molecular-genetic tools to track gene flow and assess genetic diversity of Schistosoma populations. We identified many microsatellite loci in the draft genome of Schistosoma japonicum using defined search criteria and selected a subset for further analysis. From an initial panel of 50 loci, 20 new microsatellites were selected for eventual optimization and application to a panel of worms from endemic areas. All but one of the selected microsatellites contain simple tri-nucleotide repeats. Moderate to high levels of polymorphism were detected. Numbers of alleles ranged from 6 to 14 and observed heterozygosity was always >0.6. The loci reported here will facilitate high resolution population-genetic studies on schistosomes in re-emergent foci. PMID:21299863

  19. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers based on expressed sequence tags in Populus cathayana (Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Tian, Z Z; Zhang, F Q; Cai, Z Y; Chen, S L

    2016-01-01

    Populus cathayana occupies a large area within the northern, central, and southwestern regions of China, and is considered to be an important reforestation species in western China. In order to investigate the population genetic structure of this species, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified based on expressed sequence tags from de novo sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. All microsatellite primers were tested on 48 P. cathayana individuals from four locations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 1.000, and the null-allele frequency ranged from 0.000 to 0.904. These microsatellite markers may be a useful tool in genetic studies on P. cathayana and closely related species. PMID:27525845

  20. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for the threatened Arnica montana (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Duwe, Virginia K.; Ismail, Sascha A.; Buser, Andres; Sossai, Esther; Borsch, Thomas; Muller, Ludo A. H.

    2015-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate population genetic structure in the threatened species Arnica montana. • Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers with di-, tetra-, and hexanucleotide repeat motifs were developed for A. montana using 454 pyrosequencing without and with library-enrichment methods, resulting in 56,545 sequence reads and 14,467 sequence reads, respectively. All loci showed a high level of polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from four to 11 in five individuals from five populations (25 samples) and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.192 to 0.648 across the loci. • Conclusions: This set of microsatellite markers is the first one described for A. montana and will facilitate conservation genetic applications as well as the understanding of phylogeographic patterns in this species. PMID:25606354

  1. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers and genetic diversity in wild bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus (Pallas, 1769).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arti; Lal, Kuldeep K; Punia, Peyush; Singh, Rajeev K; Mohindra, Vindhya; Sah, Rama S; Kumar, Rajesh; Luhariya, Rupesh K; Dwivedi, Arvind K; Masih, Prachi; Mishra, R M; Jena, J K

    2013-12-01

    Six polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci were identified in the primitive fish, bronze featherback, Notopterus notopterus for the first time and demonstrated significant population genetic structure. Out of the six primers, one primer (NN90) was specific to N. notopterus (microsatellite sequence within the RAG1 gene) and five primers were product of successful cross-species amplification. Sixty-four primers available from 3 fish species of order Osteoglossiformes and families Notopteridae and Osteoglossidae were tested to amplify homologous microsatellite loci in N. notopterus. Fifteen primer pairs exhibited successful cross-priming PCR product. However, polymorphism was detected only at five loci. To assess the significance of these six loci (including NN90) in population genetic study, 215 samples of N. notopterus from five rivers, viz Satluj, Gomti, Yamuna, Brahmaputra and Mahanadi were analyzed. The five sample sets displayed different diversity levels and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.6036 to 0.7373. Significant genotype heterogeneity (P < 0.0001) and high FST (0.2205) over all loci indicated that the samples are not drawn from the same genepool. The identified microsatellite loci are promising for use in fine-scale population structure analysis of N. notopterus. PMID:24072656

  2. Development of 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci in invasive silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Broadhurst, Linda; Legoff, Isabelle; Henery, Martin; Blin, Aurélie; Ducatillion, Catherine; Ferrando, Nathalie; Malausa, Thibaut

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for silver wattle, Acacia dealbata (Fabaceae), which is both an ornamental and an invasive weed species. It is native to southeastern Australia and invasive in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Methods and Results: The pyrosequencing of a microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library of A. dealbata produced 33,290 sequences and allowed the isolation of 201 loci with a minimum of seven repeats of microsatellite motifs. Amplification tests led to the setup of two multiplex PCR mixes allowing the amplification of 21 loci. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on a sample of 32 individuals collected in southeastern Australia. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between two and 11, and between 0.11 and 0.88, respectively. Conclusions: The level of polymorphism of this set of 23 microsatellites is large enough to provide valuable information on the genetic structure and the invasion history of A. dealbata. PMID:25995979

  3. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Selliera radicans (Goodeniaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Pilkington, Kay M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for species in the genus Selliera (Goodeniaceae) for future investigations of population genetic structure and interspecific hybridization within the genus. Methods and Results: Using 454 pyrosequencing, 15 new markers were developed from microsatellite loci isolated from S. radicans. Primers for the new markers amplify di- and trinucleotide repeat loci from the three Selliera species screened. Ten of the new markers are polymorphic in S. radicans and six of those 10 loci were found to be polymorphic within each congener. For the focal species, S. radicans, the average number of alleles per locus is 3.7 (SE = 0.60) and the average observed and expected heterozygosities are 0.23 (SE = 0.07) and 0.47 (SE = 0.08), respectively. Conclusions: The new markers provide an important resource for future investigations in the genus Selliera for both population genetics and research into hybridization between species.

  4. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) using next-generation sequencing1

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Michelle F.; Graf, René; Holderegger, Rolf; Rico, Yessica; Wagner, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We developed novel microsatellite markers for the perennial plant Pulsatilla vulgaris (Ranunculaceae) to investigate the effects of fragmentation on gene flow in this imperiled species. Methods and Results: We identified microsatellites and developed primers based on 454 shotgun sequences. We identified 14 markers that were polymorphic and produced clean bands. Of these, eight could be analyzed as diploids. Genotyping of 97 individuals across two populations revealed these markers to be highly polymorphic with seven to 17 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosity from 0.41 to 0.83. Conclusions: The markers are highly informative and will be used to test if the reintroduction of shepherding in southern Germany improves genetic connectivity among fragmented populations of P. vulgaris. The combination of diploid and tetraploid markers presented here will be useful in resolving the polyploidization history of this and related species. PMID:26191465

  5. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Fang, L; Liu, J L; He, Z; Hu, H Y

    2015-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Rondani) is a common pupal parasitoid of many fly pests that is distributed worldwide. This organism can be used for biological control in orchards or livestock farms. Identifying polymorphic microsatellite loci would be useful for analyzing the population genetic structure of the parasitoid. In the current study, based on a modified biotin-capture method, 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the insect, 7 of which did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The allelic number per locus varied from 3-7 (N = 30). The expected and observed heterozygosities of 10 loci ranged from 0.369-0.775 and from 0.300-0.867, respectively. PMID:25867324

  6. Development of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Seychelles palm Lodoicea maldivica (Arecaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Emma J.; Määttänen, Kirsti; Kaiser-Bunbury, Christopher N.; Buser, Andres; Fleischer-Dogley, Frauke; Kettle, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: The evolutionarily and ecologically distinct coco de mer palm Lodoicea maldivica (Arecaceae) is endemic to two islands in the Seychelles. Before colonization of the islands by man, the endangered palm formed large monodominant stands, but its natural range is now restricted to four main populations and several patches of isolated individuals. Microsatellite markers were designed to investigate the genetic structure of the remaining natural populations of L. maldivica. Methods and Results: We developed 12 polymorphic and three monomorphic microsatellite markers for this species, with a mean number of alleles per locus of 13.2 (range 5–21) and expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.31–0.91 for the polymorphic loci. Conclusions: These markers enable us to study the patterns of genetic diversity, contemporary seed dispersal, and the fine-scale spatial genetic structure of this important conservation flagship species. PMID:27144106

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Twelve Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Cocoa Mirid Bug Sahlbergella Singularis

    PubMed Central

    Babin, Régis; Fenouillet, Catherine; Legavre, Thierry; Blondin, Laurence; Calatayud, Caroline; Risterucci, Ange-Marie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Mirids are the primary pests affecting cocoa production in Africa, but no genetic studies have been conducted on these insects. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Sahlbergella singularis. A microsatellite-enriched genomic DNA library was developed and screened to identify marker loci. Twelve polymorphic loci were identified by screening 28 individuals collected from one presumed population in cocoa plantations in Southern Cameroon. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 25, whereas the observed and the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.179 to 0.786 and from 0.671 to 0.946, respectively. Tests showed significant deviations from HW equilibrium for four loci, but no linkage disequilibrium was detected at any of the loci. No cross-species amplification was observed in two other mirid pests in Africa. PMID:22605986

  8. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  9. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Reveal Genetic Differentiation between Two Sympatric Types of Galaxea fascicularis

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Yuichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Satoh, Noriyuki; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The reef-building, scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis, is classified into soft and hard types, based on nematocyst morphology. This character is correlated with the length of the mitochondrial non-coding region (mt-Long: soft colony type, and nematocysts with wide capsules and long shafts; mt-Short: hard colony type, and nematocysts with thin capsules and short shafts). We isolated and characterized novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for G. fascicularis using next-generation sequencing. Based upon the mitochondrial non-coding region, 53 of the 97 colonies collected were mt-Long (mt-L) and 44 were mt-Short (mt-S). Among the 53 mt-L colonies, 27 loci were identified as amplifiable, polymorphic microsatellite loci, devoid of somatic mutations and free of scoring errors. Eleven of those 27 loci were also amplifiable and polymorphic in the 44 mt-S colonies; these 11 are cross-type microsatellite loci. The other 16 loci were considered useful only for mt-L colonies. These 27 loci identified 10 multilocus lineages (MLLs) among the 53 mt-L colonies (NMLL/N = 0.189), and the 11 cross-type loci identified 7 MLLs in 44 mt-S colonies (NMLL/N = 0.159). Significant genetic differentiation between the two types was detected based on the genetic differentiation index (FST = 0.080, P = 0.001). Bayesian clustering also indicated that these two types are genetically isolated. While nuclear microsatellite genotypes also showed genetic differentiation between mitochondrial types, the mechanism of divergence is not yet clear. These markers will be useful to estimate genetic diversity, differentiation, and connectivity among populations, and to understand evolutionary processes, including divergence of types in G. fascicularis. PMID:26147677

  10. Microsatellite polymorphism in the sexually transmitted human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis indicates a genetically diverse parasite.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Melissa; Zubacova, Zuzana; Dunn, Linda A; Upcroft, Jacqui; Sullivan, Steven A; Tachezy, Jan; Carlton, Jane M

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing appreciation of serious health sequelae from widespread Trichomonas vaginalis infection, new tools are needed to study the parasite's genetic diversity. To this end we have identified and characterized a panel of 21 microsatellites and six single-copy genes from the T. vaginalis genome, using seven laboratory strains of diverse origin. We have (1) adapted our microsatellite typing method to incorporate affordable fluorescent labeling, (2) determined that the microsatellite loci remain stable in parasites continuously cultured for up to 17 months, and (3) evaluated microsatellite marker coverage of the six chromosomes that comprise the T. vaginalis genome, using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We have used the markers to show that T. vaginalis is a genetically diverse parasite in a population of commonly used laboratory strains. In addition, we have used phylogenetic methods to infer evolutionary relationships from our markers in order to validate their utility in future population analyses. Our panel is the first series of robust polymorphic genetic markers for T. vaginalis that can be used to classify and monitor lab strains, as well as provide a means to measure the genetic diversity and population structure of extant and future T. vaginalis isolates. PMID:20813140

  11. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba is a pelagic crustacean, abundant in high-density swarms (10 000 – 30 000 ind/m2) with a circumpolar distribution and a key role in the food web of the Southern Ocean. Only three EST derived microsatellite markers have been used in previous genetic studies, hence we developed additional highly polymorphic microsatellite markers to allow robust studies of the genetic variability and population differentiation within this species. Findings The microsatellite markers described here were obtained through an enriched genomic library, followed by 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 10 microsatellite markers were tested in 32 individuals from the Antarctic Peninsula. One of the tested loci was fixed for one allele while the other was variable. Of the remaining nine markers, seven showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The mean number of alleles was 14.9. Conclusions These markers open perspectives for population genetic studies of this species to unravel genetic structure, dispersal and population biology, vital information for future conservation. PMID:24490686

  12. Genetic polymorphism of Hucul horse population based on 17 microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Fornal, Agnieszka; Radko, Anna; Piestrzyńska-Kajtoch, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) loci, i.e. microsatellites are a class of genetic markers commonly used for population studies and parentage control. This study determined the usefulness of microsatellite markers recommended by International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for identification and pedigree analysis in horses based on the example of Polish Hucul horse population (Equus caballus). The set of seventeen microsatellites loci was tested (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG10, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, VHL20, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, LEX3) for 216 individuals. All samples were genotyped and mean number of alleles per locus was estimated (7.00). Means of observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity were calculated 0.7288 and 0.7027, respectively. The observed heterozygosity was similar to the results of research on Hucul horse population in another area of Carpathians Mountains. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) for analyses of seventeen microsatellite markers indicates the usefulness of this set of markers for Hucul horse parentage testing. PMID:24432328

  13. Influence of Intron II microsatellite polymorphism in human toll-like receptor 2 gene in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Naveen Chandra; Neela, Venkata Sanjeev Kumar; Devalraju, Kamakshi Prudhula; Jain, Suman; SivaSai, Krovvidi S R; Valluri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Jonnalagada, Subbanna; Anandaraj, M P J S

    2013-08-01

    Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection caused by the obligate intracellular organism Mycobacterium leprae. TLR2 plays a key role when activated by M. leprae lipoproteins initiating protective responses which induce bacterial killing and therefore control of disease spread. Microsatellite polymorphisms in intron2 of TLR2 gene have been reported to be associated with development of clinical features of several infectious diseases. The study aims to evaluate the influence of GT microsatellite on the expression of TLR2 which could make humans prone to M. leprae infections. A total of 279 individuals were enrolled in the study, 88 were leprosy patients, 95 were house hold contacts (HHC) and 96 were healthy controls (HC). Genotyping was done using PCR-Sequencing method. TLR2 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured using ELISA in MLSA stimulated cell culture supernatants. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square (χ(2)) test and t-tests. Allele/genotype of TLR2 microsatellite which includes longer GT repeats was associated with low TLR2 mRNA expression and high IL-10 production while that including shorter GT repeats was associated with high TLR2 mRNA expression and low IL-10 production. High IL10 producing allele of TLR2 microsatellite might predispose house hold contacts to leprosy. PMID:23619473

  14. Molecular characterization of twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers in the polyploid fruit tree species Syzygium samarangense (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Lai, J M; Tsai, C C; Yen, C R; Ko, Y Z; Chen, S R; Weng, I S; Lin, Y S; Chiang, Y C

    2015-01-01

    Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. & Perry (wax apple) is an important commercial fruit tree in Southeast Asia. Here, microsatellite markers were developed to evaluate genetic diversity and distinguish cultivars in this species. In total, 161 microsatellite loci with sufficient flanking sequences to design primer sets were isolated from wax apple using a magnetic bead-enrichment method. Fifty-eight primer sets were designed based on the flanking sequences of each single sequence repeat (SSR) locus and were tested using 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. Twenty SSR loci were found to be polymorphic and transferable across the 14 wax apple cultivars/lines. The number of alleles and effective number of alleles detected per locus ranged from 4 to 12 and from 1.697 to 9.800, respectively. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.150 to 0.595 (mean = 0.414). Polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.502 to 0.866 (mean = 0.763). These new microsatellite loci will be of value for characterization of genetic diversity in wax apples and for the identification of cultivars. PMID:26505454

  15. A genome-wide microsatellite polymorphism database for the indica and japonica rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghua; Deng, Yajun; Tan, Jun; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun; Xue, Qingzhong

    2007-02-28

    Microsatellite (MS) polymorphism is an important source of genetic diversity, providing support for map-based cloning and molecular breeding. We have developed a new database that contains 52 845 polymorphic MS loci between indica and japonica, composed of ample Class II MS markers, and integrated 18 828 MS loci from IRGSP and genetic markers from RGP. Based on genetic marker positions on the rice genome (http://rise.genomics.org.cn/rice2/index.jsp ), we determined the approximate genetic distances of these MS loci and validated 100 randomly selected markers experimentally with 90% success rate. In addition, we recorded polymorphic MS positions in indica cv. 9311 that is the most important paternal parent of the two-line hybrid rice in China. Our database will undoubtedly facilitate the application of MS markers in genetic researches and marker-assisted breeding. The data set is freely available from www.wigs.zju.edu.cn/achievment/polySSR. PMID:17452422

  16. Microsatellite DNA polymorphisms and the relation with body weight in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuli; Shan, Xue; Qiu, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangying; Chang, Yaqing

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between microsatellite polymorphism and body weight of captive bred Chinese sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in two local populations in Dalian. Among ten loci discovered, nine show changes except for AJ07 loci. Seven loci were found highly polymorphic in both populations. For each locus in two populations, the average number of alleles is 6.428 6 and 6.285 7, the average observed heterozygosity at 0.225 7 and 0.245 9, the expected heterozygosity at 0.776 8 and 0.748 8, the polymorphism information content (PIC) at 0.709 2 and 0.674 6, respectively. Further analysis show significant correlation between A. japonicus body weight and occurrence markers AJ02 and AJ04. The findings of the relation may be helpful for molecular breeding, as well as the marker-assisted selection of sea cucumbers.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Developed for Orthops palus (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Atiama, M.; Delatte, H.; Deguine, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), or plant bugs, are one of the most diverse and species-rich families of insects. Most of them are phytophagous, but some are insect predators and used for biocontrol. Among this family, the mango bug, Orthops palus (Taylor 1947), is one of the most important pest of mango in Reunion Island. We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to study the population genetics of this pest species. The microsatellite markers were characterized by genotyping 78 field-collected insects sampled at different localities in Reunion Island. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 13 and heterozygosity levels ranged between 0.40 and 0.94. Several loci were not at Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for the tested populations. These markers are the first to be developed for a species of the genus Orthops. PMID:26922804

  18. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in Spondias radlkoferi (Anacardiaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Barajas, Esther; Sork, Victoria L.; González-Zamora, Arturo; Rocha-Ramírez, Víctor; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for Spondias radlkoferi to assess the impact of primate seed dispersal on the genetic diversity and structure of this important tree species of Anacardiaceae. • Methods and Results: Fourteen polymorphic loci were isolated from S. radlkoferi through 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of genomic DNA. The number of alleles ranged from three to 12. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.382 to 1.00 and from 0.353 to 0.733, respectively. The amplification was also successful in S. mombin and two genera of Anacardiaceae: Rhus aromatica and Toxicodendron radicans. • Conclusions: These microsatellite loci will be useful to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of S. radlkoferi and related species, and will allow us to investigate the effects of seed dispersal by spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) on the genetic structure and diversity of S. radlkoferi populations in a fragmented rainforest. PMID:25383270

  19. Isolation and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers Developed for Orthops palus (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Atiama, M; Delatte, H; Deguine, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha), or plant bugs, are one of the most diverse and species-rich families of insects. Most of them are phytophagous, but some are insect predators and used for biocontrol. Among this family, the mango bug, Orthops palus (Taylor 1947), is one of the most important pest of mango in Reunion Island. We developed 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci to study the population genetics of this pest species. The microsatellite markers were characterized by genotyping 78 field-collected insects sampled at different localities in Reunion Island. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 13 and heterozygosity levels ranged between 0.40 and 0.94. Several loci were not at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the tested populations. These markers are the first to be developed for a species of the genus Orthops. PMID:26922804

  20. Newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers for frogs of the genus Ascaphus.

    PubMed

    Spear, Stephen F; Baumsteiger, Jason; Storfer, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    Thirteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified and developed for the coastal tailed frog, Ascaphus truei, from sites within the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, USA. These tetranucleotide repeat loci were highly variable, averaging 19 alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity of 0.91. In addition, these loci cross-amplify in the sister species, Ascaphus montanus. These markers will prove useful in identifying fine-scale genetic structure, as well as provide insight into the evolution and conservation of this group across fragmented landscapes. PMID:21585935

  1. Isolation and multiplex genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in the snakehead murrel, Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Min-Pau, Tan; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-04-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (Channidae), a valuable tropical freshwater fish species. Among 25 specimens collected from Kedah state in Malaysia, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.120 to 0.880 and 0.117 to 0.698, respectively. A single locus (CS1-C07) was significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. These novel markers would be useful for population genetic studies of the C. striata. PMID:21734840

  2. Isolation and multiplex genotyping of polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers in the snakehead murrel, Channa striata

    PubMed Central

    Jamsari, Amirul Firdaus Jamaluddin; Min-Pau, Tan; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor

    2011-01-01

    Seven polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the snakehead murrel, Channa striata (Channidae), a valuable tropical freshwater fish species. Among 25 specimens collected from Kedah state in Malaysia, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.120 to 0.880 and 0.117 to 0.698, respectively. A single locus (CS1-C07) was significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. These novel markers would be useful for population genetic studies of the C. striata. PMID:21734840

  3. Polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pause, K.C.; Nourisson, C.; Clark, A.; Kellogg, M.E.; Bonde, R.K.; McGuire, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are marine mammals that inhabit the coastal waters and rivers of the southeastern USA, primarily Florida. Previous studies have shown that Florida manatees have low mitochondrial DNA variability, suggesting that nuclear DNA loci are necessary for discriminatory analyses. Here we report 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci with an average of 4.2 alleles per locus, and average heterozygosity of 50.1%. These loci have been developed for use in population studies, parentage assignment, and individual identification. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Demographic estimates from Y chromosome microsatellite polymorphisms: Analysis of a worldwide sample

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Polymorphisms in microsatellites on the human Y chromosome have been used to estimate important demographic parameters of human history. We compare two coalescent-based statistical methods that give estimates for a number of demographic parameters using the seven Y chromosome polymorphisms in the HGDP-CEPH Cell Line Panel, a collection of samples from 52 worldwide populations. The estimates for the time to the most recent common ancestor vary according to the method used and the assumptions about the prior distributions of model parameters, but are generally consistent with other global Y chromosome studies. We explore the sensitivity of these results to assumptions about the prior distributions and the evolutionary models themselves. PMID:15588495

  5. Identification and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the red-crowned crane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Zhang, Z H; Shen, F J; Hou, R; Zhang, W P; Liu, Y L; Tu, K Y; Yang, A L

    2015-01-01

    We isolated and characterized microsatellite loci for the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from a microsatellite-enriched database, which was obtained using high-throughput sequencing technology. We designed primer sets for 445 microsatellite loci and after initial screening, 34 loci were genotyped in 31 red-crowned cranes. The number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 10. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.197 to 0.935 and 0.453 to 0.887, respectively; the mean polymorphic information content was 0.663. Loci Lia10943, Lia60455, Lia48514, Lia62171, Lia1059, and Lia5286 deviated from expectation of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; however, significant linkage disequilibrium was not observed among the 34 loci. Using these 34 markers, we successfully completed parental identification for 19 cranes. The probability of exclusion for 7 selected loci (Lia271333, Lia3745, Lia11091, Lia45761, Lia16468, Lia21909, and Lia22355) was >0.9977 and analyses with more loci increased the combination efficiency. These 34 markers were also proven to be efficient for individual identification. We recommend that this marker system be used in the systematic control of pedigree management and future genetic variation studies of red-crowned cranes. PMID:26634480

  6. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for Potato Wart from Next-Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marie-Claude; van der Lee, Theo A J; Bonants, Peter J M; Smith, Donna S; Li, Xiang; Lévesque, C André; Bilodeau, Guillaume J

    2016-06-01

    Synchytrium endobioticum is the fungal agent causing potato wart disease. Because of its severity and persistence, quarantine measures are enforced worldwide to avoid the spread of this disease. Molecular markers exist for species-specific detection of this pathogen, yet markers to study the intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum were not available. Whole-genome sequence data from Dutch pathotype 1 isolate MB42 of S. endobioticum were mined for perfect microsatellite motifs. Of the 62 selected microsatellites, 21 could be amplified successfully and displayed moderate levels of polymorphism in 22 S. endobioticum isolates from different countries. Nineteen multilocus genotypes were observed, with only three isolates from Canada displaying identical profiles. The majority of isolates from Canada clustered genetically. In contrast, most isolates collected in Europe show no genetic clustering associated with their geographic origin. S. endobioticum isolates with the same pathotype displayed highly variable genotypes and none of the microsatellite markers correlated with a specific pathotype. The markers developed in this study can be used to assess intraspecific genetic diversity of S. endobioticum and allow track and trace of genotypes that will generate a better understanding of the migration and spread of this important fungal pathogen and support management of this disease. PMID:26828229

  7. Role of IGF-I in follistatin-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Caroline; Kalista, Stéphanie; Loumaye, Audrey; Ritvos, Olli; Lause, Pascale; Ferracin, Benjamin; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-15

    Follistatin, a physiological inhibitor of myostatin, induces a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass, requiring the type 1 IGF-I receptor/Akt/mTOR pathway. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IGF-I and insulin, two ligands of the IGF-I receptor, in the follistatin hypertrophic action on skeletal muscle. In a first step, we showed that follistatin increases muscle mass while being associated with a downregulation of muscle IGF-I expression. In addition, follistatin retained its full hypertrophic effect toward muscle in hypophysectomized animals despite very low concentrations of circulating and muscle IGF-I. Furthermore, follistatin did not increase muscle sensitivity to IGF-I in stimulating phosphorylation of Akt but, surprisingly, decreased it once hypertrophy was present. Taken together, these observations indicate that increased muscle IGF-I production or sensitivity does not contribute to the muscle hypertrophy caused by follistatin. Unlike low IGF-I, low insulin, as obtained by streptozotocin injection, attenuated the hypertrophic action of follistatin on skeletal muscle. Moreover, the full anabolic response to follistatin was restored in this condition by insulin but also by IGF-I infusion. Therefore, follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy requires the activation of the insulin/IGF-I pathway by either insulin or IGF-I. When insulin or IGF-I alone is missing, follistatin retains its full anabolic effect, but when both are deficient, as in streptozotocin-treated animals, follistatin fails to stimulate muscle growth. PMID:26219865

  8. Development and characterization of 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the balloon flower Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae).

    PubMed

    Song, J Y; Lee, G-A; Yoon, M-S; Ma, K-H; Choi, Y-M; Lee, J-R; Park, H-J; Lee, M-C

    2012-01-01

    The balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC.) is a perennial flowering plant of the Campanulaceae family; it is the only member of the genus Platycodon. Information on the genetic diversity of balloon flower populations is of great importance for the conservation and germplasm utilization of this flowering plant. Twenty-two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and characterized with eight balloon flower accessions collected from South Korea and China. Eighty-one alleles were detected among the eight balloon flower accessions. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to six, with a mean of four alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.000 to 0.875 (mean = 0.355) and 0.117 to 0.766 (mean = 0.489), respectively. The polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.110 to 0.733, with a mean of 0.449. These new microsatellite markers will be useful for population and conservation genetic studies of P. grandiflorum. PMID:23079820

  9. Evolution of an intronic microsatellite polymorphism in Toll-like receptor 2 among primates.

    PubMed

    Yim, Jae-Joon; Adams, Amelia A; Kim, Ju Han; Holland, Steven M

    2006-09-01

    Nonhuman primates express varying responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: New World monkeys appear to be resistant to tuberculosis (TB) while Old World monkeys seem to be particularly susceptible. The aim of this study was to elucidate the presence of the regulatory guanine-thymine (GT) repeat polymorphisms in intron 2 of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) associated with the development of TB in humans and to determine any variations in these microsatellite polymorphisms in primates. We sequenced the region encompassing the regulatory GT repeat microsatellites in intron 2 of TLR2 in 12 different nonhuman primates using polymerase chain reaction amplification, TA cloning, and automatic sequencing. The nonhuman primates included for this study were as follows: chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), Celebes ape (Macaca nigra), rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina), patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas), spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi), Woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), tamarin (Saguinus labiatus), and ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). Nucleotide sequences encompassing the regulatory GT repeat region are similar across species and are completely conserved in great apes. However, Old World monkeys lack GT repeats altogether, while New World monkeys and ring-tailed lemurs have much more complex structures around the position of the repeats. In conclusion, the genetic structures encompassing the regulatory GT repeats in intron 2 of human TLR2 are similar among nonhuman primates. The sequence is most conserved in New World monkeys and less in Old World monkeys. PMID:16912902

  10. Assessment of use of microsatellite polymorphism analysis for improving spatial distribution tracking of echinococcus multilocularis.

    PubMed

    Knapp, J; Bart, J M; Glowatzki, M L; Ito, A; Gerard, S; Maillard, S; Piarroux, R; Gottstein, B

    2007-09-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)--caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis--is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe. PMID:17634311

  11. Assessment of Use of Microsatellite Polymorphism Analysis for Improving Spatial Distribution Tracking of Echinococcus multilocularis▿

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, J.; Bart, J. M.; Glowatzki, M. L.; Ito, A.; Gerard, S.; Maillard, S.; Piarroux, R.; Gottstein, B.

    2007-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE)—caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis—is a severe zoonotic disease found in temperate and arctic regions of the northern hemisphere. Even though the transmission patterns observed in different geographical areas are heterogeneous, the nuclear and mitochondrial targets usually used for the genotyping of E. multilocularis have shown only a marked genetic homogeneity in this species. We used microsatellite sequences, because of their high typing resolution, to explore the genetic diversity of E. multilocularis. Four microsatellite targets (EmsJ, EmsK, and EmsB, which were designed in our laboratory, and NAK1, selected from the literature) were tested on a panel of 76 E. multilocularis samples (larval and adult stages) obtained from Alaska, Canada, Europe, and Asia. Genetic diversity for each target was assessed by size polymorphism analysis. With the EmsJ and EmsK targets, two alleles were found for each locus, yielding two and three genotypes, respectively, discriminating European isolates from the other groups. With NAK1, five alleles were found, yielding seven genotypes, including those specific to Tibetan and Alaskan isolates. The EmsB target, a tandem repeated multilocus microsatellite, found 17 alleles showing a complex pattern. Hierarchical clustering analyses were performed with the EmsB findings, and 29 genotypes were identified. Due to its higher genetic polymorphism, EmsB exhibited a higher discriminatory power than the other targets. The complex EmsB pattern was able to discriminate isolates on a regional and sectoral level, while avoiding overdistinction. EmsB will be used to assess the putative emergence of E. multilocularis in Europe. PMID:17634311

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among wild and cultivated Tunisian plums (Prunus spp) using random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Ben Mustapha, S; Baraket, G; Abdallah, D; Salhi-Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers to study the genetic diversity and relationships among cultivars belonging to Prunus salicina and P. domestica and their wild relatives (P. insititia and P. spinosa) was investigated. A total of 226 of 234 bands were polymorphic (96.58%). The 226 random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers were screened using 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA and inter-simple sequence repeat primers combinations for 54 Tunisian plum accessions. The percentage of polymorphic bands (96.58%), the resolving power of primers values (135.70), and the polymorphic information content demonstrated the efficiency of the primers used in this study. The genetic distances between accessions ranged from 0.18 to 0.79 with a mean of 0.24, suggesting a high level of genetic diversity at the intra- and interspecific levels. The unweighted pair group with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal component analysis discriminated cultivars efficiently and illustrated relationships and divergence between spontaneous, locally cultivated, and introduced plum types. These procedures showed continuous variation that occurs independently of the status of the species and geographical origin of the plums. In this study, random amplified microsatellite polymorphism was found to be as a reliable molecular marker for fingerprinting and for examining the diversity study of the plum and its relatives. PMID:25867340

  13. GH/IGF-I Transgene Expression on Muscle Homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    We propose to test the hypothesis that the growth hormone/ insulin like growth factor-I axis through autocrine/paracrine mechanisms may provide long term muscle homeostasis under conditions of prolonged weightlessness. As a key alternative to hormone replacement therapy, ectopic production of hGH, growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), and IGF-I will be studied for its potential on muscle mass impact in transgenic mice under simulated microgravity. Expression of either hGH or IGF-I would provide a chronic source of a growth-promoting protein whose biosynthesis or secretion is shut down in space. Muscle expression of the IGF-I transgene has demonstrated about a 20% increase in hind limb muscle mass over control nontransgenic litter mates. These recent experiments, also establish the utility of hind-limb suspension in mice as a workable model to study atrophy in weight bearing muscles. Thus, transgenic mice will be used in hind-limb suspension models to determine the role of GH/IGF-I on maintenance of muscle mass and whether concentric exercises might act in synergy with hormone treatment. As a means to engineer and ensure long-term protein production that would be workable in humans, gene therapy technology will be used by to monitor muscle mass preservation during hind-limb suspension, after direct intramuscular injection of a genetically engineered muscle-specific vector expressing GHRH. Effects of this gene-based therapy will be assessed in both fast twitch (medial gastrocnemius) and slow twitch muscle (soleus). End-points include muscle size, ultrastructure, fiber type, and contractile function, in normal animals, hind limb suspension, and reambutation.

  14. Clinical and Biochemical Function of Polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-Microsatellites in Ewing Sarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Monument, Michael J.; Johnson, Kirsten M.; McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Abegglen, Lisa; Watkins, W. Scott; Jorde, Lynn B.; Womer, Richard B.; Beeler, Natalie; Monovich, Laura; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Bridge, Julia A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Krailo, Mark D.; Randall, R. Lor; Lessnick, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite. Objectives Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target) in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes. Results A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20–26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21–25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes. Conclusions These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma. PMID:25093581

  15. A genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Robert C.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Chen, Ming-Huei; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Döring, Angela; Lam, Carolyn S.P.; Friedrich, Nele; Newman, Anne; Müller, Martina; Yang, Qiong; Homuth, Georg; Cappola, Anne; Klopp, Norman; Smith, Holly; Ernst, Florian; Psaty, Bruce M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Biffar, Reiner; Rotter, Jerome I.; Gieger, Christian; Sullivan, Lisa S.; Völzke, Henry; Rice, Kenneth; Spyroglou, Ariadni; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Ida Chen, Y.-D.; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Nauck, Matthias; Strickler, Howard D.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Reincke, Martin; Pollak, Michael N.; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are involved in cell replication, proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis, carbohydrate homeostasis and bone metabolism. Circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations predict anthropometric traits and risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. In a genome-wide association study of 10 280 middle-aged and older men and women from four community-based cohort studies, we confirmed a known association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the IGFBP3 gene region on chromosome 7p12.3 with IGFBP-3 concentrations using a significance threshold of P < 5 × 10−8 (P = 3.3 × 10−101). Furthermore, the same IGFBP3 gene locus (e.g. rs11977526) that was associated with IGFBP-3 concentrations was also associated with the opposite direction of effect, with IGF-I concentration after adjustment for IGFBP-3 concentration (P = 1.9 × 10−26). A novel and independent locus on chromosome 7p12.3 (rs700752) had genome-wide significant associations with higher IGFBP-3 (P = 4.4 × 10−21) and higher IGF-I (P = 4.9 × 10−9) concentrations; when the two measurements were adjusted for one another, the IGF-I association was attenuated but the IGFBP-3 association was not. Two additional loci demonstrated genome-wide significant associations with IGFBP-3 concentration (rs1065656, chromosome 16p13.3, P = 1.2 × 10−11, IGFALS, a confirmatory finding; and rs4234798, chromosome 4p16.1, P = 4.5 × 10−10, SORCS2, a novel finding). Together, the four genome-wide significant loci explained 6.5% of the population variation in IGFBP-3 concentration. Furthermore, we observed a borderline statistically significant association between IGF-I concentration and FOXO3 (rs2153960, chromosome 6q21, P = 5.1 × 10−7), a locus associated with longevity. These genetic loci deserve further investigation to elucidate the biological basis for the observed associations and clarify their possible role in IGF

  16. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-04-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  17. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongwon; Bhuiyan, Md. Shamsul Alam; Sultana, Hasina; Heo, Jung Min; Lee, Jun Heon

    2016-01-01

    Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS) markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market. PMID:26949947

  18. A polymorphic microsatellite from the Squalius alburnoides complex (Osteichthyes, Cyprinidae) cloned by serendipity can be useful in genetic analysis of polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Boto, Luis; Cunha, Carina; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    A new microsatellite locus (SAS1) for Squalius alburnoides was obtained through cloning by serendipity. The possible usefulness of this new species-specific microsatellite in genetic studies of this hybrid-species complex, was explored. The polymorphism exhibited by SAS1 microsatellite is an important addition to the set of microsatellites previously used in genetic studies in S. alburnoides complex, that mostly relied in markers described for other species. Moreover, the SAS1 microsatellite could be used to identify the parental genomes of the complex, complementing other methods recently described for the same purpose.. PMID:21931529

  19. Microsatellite Markers of Willow Species and Characterization of 11 Polymorphic Microsatellites for Salix eriocephala (Salicaceae), a Potential Native Species for Biomass Production in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Brouillet, Luc; Labrecque, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Biomass produced from dedicated plantations constitutes a source of renewable energy and is expected to play an important role in several countries in the coming decades. The cultivation of woody crops such as willows therefore raises several environmental issues. In North America, several native willows are potentially interesting for biomass producers. Willow trees are diverse but few species used for environmental applications have been the object of molecular genetic studies. Based on the sequenced poplar genome, 24 microsatellite markers were assayed on five native North American willow species: Salix amygdaloides, S. discolor, S. eriocephala, S. interior and S. nigra. Polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to characterize the allele data on the shrub Salix eriocephala, a North American species with economic potential. Eleven markers amplified and confirmed the potential of this species. Analysis of samples from six populations in eastern Canada showed that all markers were variable as well as polymorphic in at least one population. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 (mean 2.95) and showed that these microsatellite markers can be used to assess genetic diversity of North American willow species. PMID:27137372

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and especially IGF-I variants are anabolic in dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Chandler, C S; Francis, G L; Read, L C; Ballard, F J

    1992-02-15

    The administration of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps partially reversed a catabolic state produced by the co-administration of 20 micrograms of dexamethasone/day to 150 g male rats. Marked dose-dependent effects on body weight and nitrogen retention were produced, with the highest IGF-I dose, 695 micrograms/day, giving a 6 g increase in body weight over 7 days, compared with a 19 g loss in the dexamethasone-only group and an 18 g gain in pair-fed controls. Two IGF-I analogues that bind poorly to IGF-binding proteins, the truncated form, des(1-3)IGF-I, and a variant with an N-terminal extension as well as arginine at residue 3, LR3IGF-I, were approx. 2.5-fold more potent than IGF-I. The response with LR3IGF-I was particularly striking because this peptide binds 3-fold less well than IGF-I to the type 1 IGF receptor. The increased potencies of the IGF-I variants may relate to the substantially increased plasma levels of IGF-binding proteins, particularly IGFBP-3, produced by the combined treatment of dexamethasone with IGF-I or the variants. These binding proteins would be expected to decrease the transfer of IGF-I, but not that of the variants, from blood to tissue sites of action. Measurements of muscle protein synthesis at the end of the treatment period and muscle protein breakdown by 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion throughout the experiment indicated coordinate anabolic effects of the IGF peptides on both processes. Thus 3MH excretion was decreased at the highest IGF-I dose from 83.5 +/- 4.2 (S.E.M.) mumol/kg per 7 days to 65.1 +/- 2.2, compared with 54.9 +/- 1.2 in the pair-fed controls. Part of this response in 3MH excretion may have reflected a decrease in gut protein breakdown, because IGF-I and especially the IGF analogues increased the gut weight by up to 45%. Notwithstanding the effects on protein synthesis and breakdown, the fractional carcass weights remained low in the IGF-treated groups, although the

  1. Molecular characterization and differentiation of five horse breeds raised in Algeria using polymorphic microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Berber, N; Gaouar, S; Leroy, G; Kdidi, S; Tabet Aouel, N; Saïdi Mehtar, N

    2014-10-01

    In this study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on five horse breeds raised in Algeria (Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, Thoroughbred and French Trotter). All microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all the breeds. A total of 123 alleles from 14 microsatellite loci were detected in 201 horses. The average number of alleles per locus was the highest in the Arab-Barb horses (7.86) and lowest in the thoroughbred breed (5.71), whereas the observed and expected heterozygosities per breed ranged from 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.752 (Barb) and 0.71 (Thoroughbred) to 0.77 (Arab-Barb), respectively. The genetic differentiation between the breeds was significant (p < 0.01) based on the infinitesimal model (FST ). Three different approaches for evaluating the genetic relationships were applied. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis showed that a significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the native horse populations and the other breeds. The Barb and Arab-Barb breeds seem to be the most genetically related and support the decision to consider the breeds as same population. PMID:24834806

  2. Microsatellite Polymorphism in Natural Populations of the Wild Plant Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Innan, H.; Terauchi, R.; Miyashita, N. T.

    1997-01-01

    Variation in repeat number at 20 microsatellite loci of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in a worldwide sample of 42 ecotypes to investigate the pattern and level of polymorphism in repetitive sequences in natural plant populations. There is a substantial amount of variation at microsatellite loci despite the selfing nature of this plant species. The average gene diversity was 0.794 and the average number of alleles per locus was 10.6. The distribution of alleles was centered around the mean of repeat number at most loci, but could not be regarded as normal. There was a significantly positive correlation between the number of repeats and the amount of variation. For most loci, the observed number of alleles was between the expected values of the infinite allele and stepwise mutation models. The two models were rejected by the sign test. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in 12.1% of the pairwise comparisons between loci. In phylogenetic tree, there was no association between ecotype and geographic origin. This result is consistent with the recent expansion of A. thaliana throughout the world. PMID:9258686

  3. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the Alaska blackfish (Esociformes: Dallia pectoralis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Sage, George K.; DeWilde, Rachel L.; López, J. Andres; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Blackfishes (Esociformes: Esocidae: Dallia), small fishes with relictual distributions, are unique in being the only primary freshwater fish genus endemic to Beringia. Although the number of species of Dallia is debated, disjunct populations and distinct mitochondrial divisions that predate the end of the last glacial maximum are apparent. We developed sixteen polymorphic microsatellites from the Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) to study genetic diversity in Dallia. Genotypes from two populations, Denali (n = 31) and Bethel (n = 35), demonstrated the usefulness of the loci for population-level investigation. Observed and expected heterozygosity averaged 18.6 and 19.8 % in Denali and 61.1 and 63.7 % in Bethel. Number of alleles at each locus averaged 3.50 in Denali and 9.63 in Bethel. The observed signature of variability and structuring between populations is consistent with mitochondrial data.

  4. Eight polymorphic microsatellite markers isolated from the widespread avian louse Colpocephalum turbinatum (Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Menoponidae).

    PubMed

    Peters, Maureen B; Whiteman, Noah K; Hagen, Cris; Parker, Patricia G; Glenn, Travis C

    2009-05-01

    We report eight novel microsatellite loci for Colpocephalum turbinatum, a parasitic louse of the endangered Galápagos hawk (Buteo galapagoensis). Two island populations of C. turbinatum (N = 30) were genotyped for each locus. We found between two and 12 alleles per locus, polymorphic information content from 0.268 to 0.798, observed heterozygosity from 0.067 to 0.667 and no linkage disequilibrium was detected between loci. These markers will be useful in understanding contemporary gene flow of C. turbinatum among islands in the Galápagos and in understanding transmission dynamics between B. galapagoensis hosts, within and between social groups. Because this louse is unusually widespread among avian host taxa, parasitizing at least 53 bird species in the Falconiformes, Strigiformes and Columbiformes, these markers are likely to be useful outside the context of the Galápagos Islands. PMID:21564787

  5. Development of eight polymorphic microsatellites for a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii Hance (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Run; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Bin; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Sedum alfredii is a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator distributed in East Asia. A total of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. These loci were screened in 25 individuals from one heavy metal-tolerant population and one nontolerant population, respectively. The average allele number of these markers was 5.25 per locus, ranging from two to nine. Population-specific alleles were found at each locus. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.640 and from 0.451 to 0.819. Significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected at both the species and the population level. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected at population level. PMID:21585968

  6. Characterization of novel polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers of Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino.

    PubMed

    Tang, Q; Chen, J H; Zang, G G; Luan, M B

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, 59 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Boehmeria tricuspis (Hance) Makino were developed from the specific length amplified fragment sequencing data library of genome. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0000 to 1.0000 and from 0.0769 to 0.6751, respectively. Among the 59 loci, 25 displayed significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (P < 0.05). The developed simple sequence repeat markers should be useful for studying population genetics in B. tricuspis (Hance) Makino, for providing further knowledge on its population differentiation, breeding system, and dispersal ability, as well as quantitative trait locus mapping. These markers could also be valuable genetic resources for closely related species. PMID:27173265

  7. Development and characterization of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Landínez-García, Ricardo M.

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical freshwater fish Ichthyoelephas longirostris (Characiformes: prochilodontidae) is a short-distance migratory species endemic to Colombia. This study developed for the first time a set of 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci by using next-generation sequencing to explore the population genetics of this commercially exploited species. Nineteen of these loci were used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of 193 I. longirostris in three Colombian rivers of the Magdalena basin. Results showed that a single genetic stock circulates in the Cauca River, whereas other single different genetic stock is present in the rivers Samaná Norte and San Bartolomé-Magdalena. Additionally, I. longirostris was genetically different among and across rivers. This first insight about the population genetic structure of I. longirostris is crucial for monitoring the genetic diversity, the management and conservation of its populations, and complement the genetic studies in Prochilodontidae.

  8. PERMANENT GENETIC RESOURCES: Eighteen new polymorphic microsatellite markers for the endangered Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Tringali, Michael D; Seyoum, Seifu; Carney, Susan L; Davis, Michelle C; Rodriguez-Lopez, Marta A; Reynolds Iii, John E; Haubold, Elsa

    2008-03-01

    Here we describe 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci for Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee), isolated using a polymerase chain reaction-based technique. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to four (mean = 2.5) in specimens from southwest (n = 58) and northeast (n = 58) Florida. Expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.11 to 0.67 (mean = 0.35) and from 0.02 to 0.78 (mean = 0.34), respectively. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium occurred at two loci. There was no evidence of genotypic disequilibrium for any pair of loci. For individual identification, mean random-mating and θ-corrected match probabilities were 9.36 × 10(-7) and 1.95 × 10(-6) , respectively. PMID:21585782

  9. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for a federally threatened species, Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae), and co-occurring congeners1

    PubMed Central

    Hamstead, Jacqueline W.; Snider, Brandon L.; Oaks, Robyn; Fitzgerald, Evan; Woodward, Jason; Teat, Alyssa; Hay, Nikolai M.; Estep, Matt C.; Murrell, Zack E.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty microsatellite loci were developed for the federally threatened species Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae) to examine genetic diversity and to distinguish this species from co-occurring congeners, H. heterophylla and H. minor. Methods and Results: Next-generation sequencing approaches were used to identify microsatellite loci and design primers. One hundred fifty-two primer pairs were screened for repeatability, and 20 of these were further characterized for polymorphism. In H. naniflora, the number of alleles identified for polymorphic loci ranged from two to 23 (mean ∼8.8), with a mean heterozygosity of 0.39. Conclusions: These 16 polymorphic primers for H. naniflora will be useful tools in species identification and quantifying genetic diversity within the genus. PMID:26191466

  10. Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Panulirus ornatus and their Cross-species Primer Amplification in Panulirus homarus.

    PubMed

    Delghandi, Madjid; Afzal, Hasifa; Al Hinai, Manal Saif Nasser; Al-Breiki, Rafaida Dhuhai Gharib; Jerry, Dean R; Dao, Hoc Tan

    2016-10-01

    Polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated for Panulirus ornatus using 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. Fifteen markers containing perfect di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide motifs were consistently co-amplified in five multiplexes in a panel of 91 randomly selected samples. Observed number of alleles varied from 2 to 14 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.090 to 0.79 and 0.08 to 0.87, respectively. Ten loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after sequential Bonferroni correction. Genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis between all pairs of the loci showed significant departure from the null hypothesis between 11 loci. The microsatellite markers were also amplified successfully in related Panulirus homarus species with adequate level of polymorphism. The successful cross-species primer amplification of the 15 microsatellites indicates the potential of the developed markers to be transferred to other Panulirus species. The 15 novel microsatellite markers reported in this work add to the previously characterized markers by our group, exhibit adequate levels of polymorphism for wide range of future studies investigating population structure, genetic diversity, and evolutionary relationships among Panulirus species. PMID:27565876

  11. Genetic polymorphism of microsatellite dna in two populations of northern sheatfish (Silurus soldatovi).

    PubMed

    Quan, Ying-Chun; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liang, Li-Qun

    2006-10-01

    In this article, population variations and genetic structures of two populations of northern sheatfish (Silurus soldatovi) were analyzed using 24 microsatellite loci enriched from southern catfish (S. meriaionalis Chen) by magnetic beads. Gene frequency (P), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He), polymorphism information contents (PIC), and number of effective alleles (Ne) were determined. One population was wild, ripe individuals collected from Heilongjiang River (HNS); the other was cultured fry collected from Songhuajiang River (SNS). The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested by the genetic departure index (d). The coefficient of gene differentiation G(ST) and Phi(ST) by AMOVA (Analysis of Molecular Variety) was imputed using Arlequin software in this study. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed by UPGMA method based on the pairwise Nei's standard distances using PHYLIP. A total of 1,357 fragments with sizes ranging between 102 bp and 385 bp were acquired by PCR amplifications. The average number of alleles of the two populations was 8.875. Results indicated that these microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic and could be used as genetic markers. The mean values of the parameters P, Ho, He, PIC, and Ne were 0.165, 0.435, 0.758, 0.742, and 5.019 for HNS and 0.147, 0.299, 0.847, 0.764, and 5.944 for SNS, respectively. Although there were differences, there were no significant differentiations except for the locus HLJcf37. These populations to a certain extent deviated from HWE, such as excessive and deficient heterozygote numbers. The value of G(ST) was 0.078 and above 98% of the variation were differences among individuals within the population, so the variation between populations was insignificant. Cluster analysis also showed that the relationships among individuals were very close. In conclusion, the microsatellite markers that were developed through this study are useful for genetic analysis and the genetic culture

  12. Polymorphism and Locus-Specific Effects on Polymorphism at Microsatellite Loci in Natural Drosophila Melanogaster Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schlotterer, C.; Vogl, C.; Tautz, D.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the natural variation at microsatellite loci in two African and five non-African populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Ten dinucleotide simple sequence loci were cloned from chromosomally mapped P1 clones and typed for single individuals from isofemale lines of the respective populations. We find that the African populations harbor the largest degree of diversity, while the non-African populations show a lower diversity. This supports previous results that D. melanogaster originated in Africa and spread across the rest of the world in historic times. Using genetic distance measures, we find also a distinct population subdivision between the non-African populations. Most interestingly, we find for some loci in some populations a strongly reduced variability, which cannot be explained by bottleneck effects. Employing a conservative test based on the variance in repeat number, we find that at least one locus in one population deviates significantly from the expectations of mutation-drift equilibrium. We suggest that this may be due to a recent selective sweep in this chromosomal region that may have been caused by a linked locus that was involved in local adaptation of the population. PMID:9136020

  13. Gene-based microsatellites for cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): prevalence, polymorphisms, and cross-taxa utility

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Adebola AJ; Anderson, James V; Kolade, Olufisayo A; Ugwu, Chike D; Dixon, Alfred GO; Ingelbrecht, Ivan L

    2009-01-01

    Background Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a starchy root crop grown in tropical and subtropical climates, is the sixth most important crop in the world after wheat, rice, maize, potato and barley. The repertoire of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for cassava is limited and warrants a need for a larger number of polymorphic SSRs for germplasm characterization and breeding applications. Results A total of 846 putative microsatellites were identified in silico from an 8,577 cassava unigene set with an average density of one SSR every 7 kb. One hundred and ninety-two candidate SSRs were screened for polymorphism among a panel of cassava cultivars from Africa, Latin America and Asia, four wild Manihot species as well as two other important taxa in the Euphorbiaceae, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and castor bean (Ricinus communis). Of 168 markers with clean amplification products, 124 (73.8%) displayed polymorphism based on high resolution agarose gels. Of 85 EST-SSR markers screened, 80 (94.1%) amplified alleles from one or more wild species (M epruinosa, M glaziovii, M brachyandra, M tripartita) whereas 13 (15.3%) amplified alleles from castor bean and 9 (10.6%) amplified alleles from leafy spurge; hence nearly all markers were transferable to wild relatives of M esculenta while only a fraction was transferable to the more distantly related taxa. In a subset of 20 EST-SSRs assessed by fluorescence-based genotyping the number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 10 with an average of 4.55 per locus. These markers had a polymorphism information content (PIC) from 0.19 to 0.75 with an average value of 0.55 and showed genetic relationships consistent with existing information on these genotypes. Conclusion A set of 124 new, unique polymorphic EST-SSRs was developed and characterized which extends the repertoire of SSR markers for cultivated cassava and its wild relatives. The markers show high PIC values and therefore will be useful for cultivar identification

  14. Myostatin inhibits IGF-I-induced myotube hypertrophy through Akt

    PubMed Central

    Morissette, Michael R.; Cook, Stuart A.; Buranasombati, Cattleya; Rosenberg, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a highly conserved negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Loss of functional myostatin in cattle, mice, sheep, dogs, and humans results in increased muscle mass. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this increase in muscle growth are not fully understood. Previously, we have reported that phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle growth and Akt activation are enhanced in myostatin knockout mice compared with controls. Here we report that skeletal muscle from myostatin knockout mice show increased Akt protein expression and overall activity at baseline secondary to an increase in Akt mRNA. We examined the functional role of myostatin modulation of Akt in C2C12 myotubes, a well-established in vitro model of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Adenoviral overexpression of myostatin attenuated the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated increase in myotube diameter, as well as IGF-I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of myostatin by overexpression of the NH2-terminal portion of myostatin was sufficient to increase myotube diameter and Akt phosphorylation. Coexpression of myostatin and constitutively active Akt (myr-Akt) restored the increase in myotube diameter. Conversely, expression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt) with the inhibitory myostatin propeptide blocked the increase in myotube diameter. Of note, ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F box mRNA were increased in skeletal muscle from myostain knockout mice. Together, these data suggest myostatin regulates muscle growth at least in part through regulation of Akt. PMID:19759331

  15. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumorigenesis and aging process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in primary confluent cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IGF-I enhanced cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. -- Abstract: Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, {gamma}H2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-{beta}-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-{beta}-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging.

  16. Effect of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 on IGF-I and long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of L6 myogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Xi, G; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, William R

    2004-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I stimulates both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic precursor cells. In vivo, IGFs are bound to one of the members of a family of six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBP 1-6) that regulate their biological activity. One of these binding proteins, IGFBP-3, affects cell proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms and it has generally been shown to suppress proliferation of cultured cells; however, it also may stimulate proliferation depending upon the cell type and the assay conditions. Cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMCs) produce IGFBP-3 and its level drops significantly immediately prior to differentiation. Additionally, IGFBP-3 suppresses both IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of embryonic porcine myogenic cells. In this study, we have examined the effects of recombinant porcine IGFBP-3 (rpIGFBP-3) on IGF-I- and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation and differentiation of the L6 myogenic cell line. L6 cells potentially provide a good model for studying the actions of IGFBP-3 on muscle because they contain no non-muscle cells and they do not produce detectable levels of IGFBP-3. RpIGFBP-3 suppresses both IGF-I and Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated proliferation of L6 cells, indicating that it suppresses proliferation via both IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms. Our data also show that rpIGFBP-3 causes IGF-independent suppression of proliferation without increasing the level of phosphosmad-2 in L6 cultures. Additionally, rpIGFBP-3 suppresses IGF-I-stimulated differentiation of L6 cells. In contrast, however, rpIGFBP-3 does not suppress Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated differentiation. This suggests that rpIGFBP-3 does not have IGF-independent effects on L6 cell differentiation. PMID:15254966

  17. IGF-I enhances cellular senescence via the reactive oxygen species-p53 pathway.

    PubMed

    Handayaningsih, Anastasia-Evi; Takahashi, Michiko; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Suda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2012-08-24

    Cellular senescence is characterized by growth arrest, enlarged and flattened cell morphology, the expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), and by activation of tumor suppressor networks. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a critical role in cellular growth, proliferation, tumorigenesis, and regulation of aging. In the present study, we show that IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in mouse, rat, and human primary cells in the confluent state. IGF-I induced expression of a DNA damage marker, γH2AX, the increased levels of p53 and p21 proteins, and activated SA-β-gal. In the confluent state, an altered downstream signaling of IGF-I receptor was observed. Treatment with a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-acetylcystein (NAC) significantly suppressed induction of these markers, indicating that ROS are involved in the induction of cellular senescence by IGF-I. In p53-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts, the IGF-I-induced augmentation of SA-β-gal and p21 was inhibited, demonstrating that p53 is required for cellular senescence induced by IGF-I. Thus, these data reveal a novel pathway whereby IGF-I enhances cellular senescence in the ROS and p53-dependent manner and may explain the underlying mechanisms of IGF-I involvement in tumorigenesis and in regulation of aging. PMID:22877754

  18. Multiplex preamplification PCR and microsatellite validation enables accurate single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of historical fish scales.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matt J; Pascal, Carita E; Grauvogel, Zac; Habicht, Christopher; Seeb, James E; Seeb, Lisa W

    2011-03-01

    Incorporating historical tissues into the study of ecological, conservation and management questions can broaden the scope of population genetic research by enhancing our understanding of evolutionary processes and anthropogenic influences on natural populations. Genotyping historical and low-quality samples has been plagued by challenges associated with low amounts of template DNA and the potential for pre-existing DNA contamination among samples. We describe a two-step process designed to (i) accurately genotype large numbers of historical low-quality scale samples in a high-throughput format and (ii) screen samples for pre-existing DNA contamination. First, we describe how an efficient multiplex preamplification PCR of 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can generate highly accurate genotypes with low failure and error rates in subsequent SNP genotyping reactions of individual historical scales from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Second, we demonstrate how the method can be modified for the amplification of microsatellite loci to detect pre-existing DNA contamination. A total of 760 individual historical scale and 182 contemporary fin clip samples were genotyped and screened for contamination. Genotyping failure and error rates were exceedingly low and similar for both historical and contemporary samples. Pre-existing contamination in 21% of the historical samples was successfully identified by screening the amplified microsatellite loci. The advantages of automation, low failure and error rates, and ability to multiplex both the preamplification and subsequent genotyping reactions combine to make the protocol ideally suited for efficiently genotyping large numbers of potentially contaminated low-quality sources of DNA. PMID:21429180

  19. Characterization of ten highly polymorphic microsatellite loci for the intertidal mussel Perna perna, and cross species amplification within the genus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The brown mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) is a dominant constituent of intertidal communities and a strong invader with multiple non-native populations distributed around the world. In a previous study, two polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and used to determine population-level genetic diversity in invasive and native P. perna populations. However, higher number of microsatellite markers are required for reliable population genetic studies. In this context, in order to understand P. perna origins and history of invasion and to compare population genetic structure in native versus invaded areas, we developed 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Findings Described microsatellite markers were developed from an enriched genomic library. Analyses and characterization of loci using 20 individuals from a population in Western Sahara revealed on average 11 alleles per locus (range: 5–27) and mean gene diversity of 0.75 (range: 0.31 - 0.95). One primer pair revealed possible linkage disequilibrium while heterozygote deficiency was significant at four loci. Six of these markers cross-amplified in P. canaliculus (origin: New Zealand). Conclusions Developed markers will be useful in addressing a variety of questions concerning P. perna, including dispersal scales, genetic variation and population structure, in both native and invaded areas. PMID:23039168

  20. Organ-specific expression of IGF-I during early development of bony fish as revealed in the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry: indication for the particular importance of local IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Berishvili, Giorgi; Shved, Natallia; Eppler, Elisabeth; Clota, Frederic; Baroiller, Jean-François; Reinecke, Manfred

    2006-08-01

    The cellular sites of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) synthesis in the early developing tilapia (0-140 days post fertilization, DPF) were investigated. IGF-I mRNA and peptide appeared in liver as early as 4 DPF and in gastro-intestinal epithelial cells between 5-9 DPF. In exocrine pancreas, the expression of IGF-I started at 4 DPF and continued until 90 DPF. IGF-I production was detected in islets at 6 DPF in non-insulin cells and occurred throughout life. In renal tubules and ducts, IGF-I production started at 8 DPF. IGF-I production in chondrocytes had its onset at 4 DPF, was more pronounced in growing regions and was also found in adults. IGF-I mRNA and peptide appeared in the cytoplasm of skeletal muscle cells at 4 DPF. In gill chloride cells, IGF-I production started at 6 DPF. At 13 DPF, IGF-I was detected in cardiac myocytes. IGF-I-producing epidermal cells appeared at 5 DPF. In brain and ganglia, IGF-I was expressed in virtually all neurones from 6 to 29 DPF, their number decreasing with age. Neurosecretory IGF-I-immunoreactive axons were first seen in the neurohypophysis around 17 DPF. Endocrine cells of the adenohypophysis exhibited IGF-I mRNA at 28 DPF and IGF-I immunoreactivity at 40 DPF. Thus, IGF-I appeared early (4-5 DPF), first in liver, the main source of endocrine IGF-I, and then in organs involved in growth or metabolism. The expression of IGF-I was more pronounced during development than in juvenile and adult life. Local IGF-I therefore seems to have a high functional impact in early growth, metabolism and organogenesis. PMID:16596395

  1. Detection of Sequence Polymorphism in Rubus Occidentalis L. Monomorphic Microsatellite Markers by High Resolution Melting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. Development of microsatellite primers through the identification of appropriate repeate...

  2. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the sand pocket mouse Chaetodipus arenarius, an endemic from the Baja California Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munguia-Vega, A.; Rodriguez-Estrella, R.; Nachman, M.; Culver, M.

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated from an enriched genomic library of the sand pocket mouse Chaetodipus arenarius. The mean number of alleles per locus was 11.53 (range five to 19) and the average observed heterozygosity was 0.764 (range 0.121 to 1.0). The markers will be used for detecting the impact of human-induced habitat fragmentation on patterns of gene flow, genetic structure, and extinction risk. In addition, these markers will be useful across the genus because most of the loci cross-amplified and were polymorphic in three other species of Chaetodipus. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids of term pregnancy dogs.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Tea; Comin, Antonella; Rota, Alessandro; Peric, Tanja; Contri, Alberto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) play an essential role in fetal growth and development. To date, fetal fluids IGF-I and NEFA levels at term canine pregnancy are unknown and could be related to the neonatal development and breed size. For these reasons, the aims of the present study were as follows: (1) to evaluate IGF-I and NEFA concentrations in fetal fluids collected from normally developed and viable newborn puppies born at term of normal pregnancies; (2) to assess possible differences between IGF-I and NEFA levels in amniotic compared with allantoic fluid; (3) to detect possible relationship between breed body size and IGF-I and NEFA amniotic and allantoic concentrations; (4) to evaluate possible differences in IGF-I fetal fluids levels between male and female puppies; and (5) to assess possible correlations between the two hormones in each type of fluid. The study enrolled 25 pure breed bitches submitted to elective Cesarean section at term because of the high risk of dystocia or previous troubles at parturition. At surgery, amniotic and allantoic fluids were collected and assayed for IGF-I and NEFA. IGF-I and NEFA amounts in both amniotic and allantoic fluids of different breed size bitches (small: ≤10 kg; medium: 11-25 kg; large: 26-40 kg) were detected, as well as the effect of gender on IGF-I levels. On a total of 73 amniotic and 76 allantoic samples collected by normal, viable, and mature newborns, the mean IGF-I concentration was significantly higher in amniotic than in allantoic fluid in all three groups, but the amniotic IGF-I levels were significantly lower in small and medium size bitches when compared with large ones. No significant differences were found in allantoic IGF-I concentrations among size groups. A significant effect of the puppy gender on IGF-I content in both fetal fluids was not reported. Regarding NEFA, in all the three groups, the mean NEFA concentration did not significantly differ

  4. A new source of polymorphic DNA markers for sperm typing: Analysis of microsatellite repeats in single cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, R.; Schmitt, K.; Zhang, L.; Arnheim, N. ); Weber, J.L. )

    1992-11-01

    The authors show that dinucleotide and tetranucleotide repeat polymorphisms can be analyzed in single cells without using radioactivity or denaturing gels. This provides a new source of DNA polymorphisms for genetic mapping by sperm typing. The recombination fraction between two CA repeat polymorphisms was determined after whole genome amplification of single sperm, followed by typing of two different aliquots, one aliquot for each polymorphic locus. Single-cell analysis of microsatellites may also be valuable both for preimplantation genetic disease diagnosis based on single-blastomere or polar-body analysis and for the typing of forensic or ancient DNA samples containing very small amounts of nucleic acid. 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites

    SciTech Connect

    Bowcock, A.M.; Tomfohrde, J. ); Weissenbach, J. ); Bonne-Tamir, B.; George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Farrer, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability to the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. The authors have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with >70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of >4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here, the authors present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084[times]c5 alleles and WND allels in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084[times]c5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [[theta

  6. Development and characterization of seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in Bembidion atrocaeruleum (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Matt J; Finn, Debra S; Williams, Mike; Sadler, Jonathan P

    2014-01-01

    We isolated seven polymorphic microsatellite loci from a ground beetle (Bembidion atrocaeruleum, Coleoptera, Carabidae (Stephens, 1826)) associated with naturally and regularly disturbed floodplain habitat in northwest Europe. Loci were tested on 157 individuals collected from five distinct habitat patches across two adjacent drainage basins in Wales, United Kingdom, to assess their potential for revealing population structure across a relatively short spatial extent. Alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12. For a central representative population, expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 (mean: 0.63), and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.16 to 0.94 (mean: 0.56). Analysis of molecular variance indicated significant structure among populations, even when one locus potentially containing null alleles was removed. These loci have the potential to aid the study of dispersal mechanisms of this important riparian species along and between river corridors, a recurring question in floodplain conservation studies. In addition, given the diversity of the Bembidion genus, they may have utility in the study of sister species. PMID:25502039

  7. Refining the position of Wilson disease by linkage disequilibrium with polymorphic microsatellites.

    PubMed Central

    Bowcock, A. M.; Tomfohrde, J.; Weissenbach, J.; Bonne-Tamir, B.; St George-Hyslop, P.; Giagheddu, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Farrer, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is due to an inability of the liver to eliminate copper. Copper buildup in the liver, brain, kidney, and other tissues can result in liver cirrhosis, neurologic and psychiatric defects, and other problems. We have localized the disease-containing region to between D13S31 and D13S59, with > 70 multiply affected families, and have constructed a YAC contig of > 4.5 Mb that spans these loci and orders nine highly polymorphic microsatellites. Here we present an analysis of disequilibrium with markers in this interval and provide evidence for strong allelic associations between AFM084xc5 alleles and WND alleles in European, Middle Eastern, and East Asian populations. Significant but weaker allelic associations were also observed between WND alleles and alleles at D13S137 and D13S169. The strength of the association between AFM084xc5 and WND in all non-Sardinian populations combined (linkage-disequilibrium coefficient [phi] = .61) suggests that the number of mutations accounting for WND is less than expected on the basis of the variety of clinical symptoms that are observed. PMID:8279473

  8. INFLUENCE OF GENDER, SEX HORMONES AND TEMPERATURE ON PLASMA IGF-I CONCENTRATIONS IN SUNSHINE BASS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass were determined in March, early April and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Growth and IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass fed with estrogen, testosterone, methyl testosterone or a control ...

  9. IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of IGF-I in modulating GH and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight (BW) and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25µg (n = 4) or 75µg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blo...

  10. Maternal BMI, IGF-I Levels, and Birth Weight in African American and White Infants.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Adriana C; Murtha, Amy P; Murphy, Susan K; Fortner, Kimberly; Overcash, Francine; Henry, Nikki; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Forman, Michele R; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    At birth, elevated IGF-I levels have been linked to birth weight extremes; high birth weight and low birth weight are risk factors for adult-onset chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. We examined associations between plasma IGF-I levels and birth weight among infants born to African American and White obese and nonobese women. Prepregnancy weight and height were assessed among 251 pregnant women and anthropometric measurements of full term infants (≥37 weeks of gestation) were taken at birth. Circulating IGF-I was measured by ELISA in umbilical cord blood plasma. Linear regression models were utilized to examine associations between birth weight and high IGF-I, using the bottom two tertiles as referents. Compared with infants with lower IGF-I levels (≤3rd tertile), those with higher IGF-I levels (>3rd tertile) were 130 g heavier at birth, (β-coefficient = 230, se = 58.0, P = 0.0001), after adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, gestational age, delivery route, maternal BMI and smoking. Stratified analyses suggested that these associations are more pronounced in infants born to African American women and women with BMI ≥30 kg/m(2); the cross product term for IGF-I and maternal BMI was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.0004). Our findings suggest that the association between IGF-I levels and birth weight depends more on maternal obesity than African American race/ethnicity. PMID:23861689

  11. Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by the liver in response to the endocrine GH stimulus, but it is also secreted by multiple tissues for autocrine/paracrine purposes. IGF-I is partly responsible for systemic GH activities although it possesses a wide number of own properties (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions). IGF-I is a closely regulated hormone. Consequently, its logical therapeutical applications seems to be limited to restore physiological circulating levels in order to recover the clinical consequences of IGF-I deficiency, conditions where, despite continuous discrepancies, IGF-I treatment has never been related to oncogenesis. Currently the best characterized conditions of IGF-I deficiency are Laron Syndrome, in children; liver cirrhosis, in adults; aging including age-related-cardiovascular and neurological diseases; and more recently, intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this review is to summarize the increasing list of roles of IGF-I, both in physiological and pathological conditions, underlying that its potential therapeutical options seem to be limited to those proven states of local or systemic IGF-I deficiency as a replacement treatment, rather than increasing its level upper the normal range. PMID:23148873

  12. A major gene for IGF-I serum concentration interacts with diet in Mexican Americans

    SciTech Connect

    Blangero, J.; Mahaney, M.C.; Comuzzie, A.G.

    1994-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important regulator of cell growth/differentiation and exhibits insulin-like metabolic effects on glucose homeostasis. Serum levels of IGF-I decrease markedly with age and are partly regulated by nutritional factors such as protein intake. To better understand the role of genes and genotype x environment interaction in the determination of normal IGF-I variation, we measured IGF-I serum levels in 422 Mexican Americans distributed in 23 pedigrees. Information on dietary intake was obtained for each individual using a food frequency questionnaire. Using an extension of segregation analysis that allows for genotype x environment interaction, we found clear evidence for the effect of a major gene influencing IGF-I levels. The estimated frequency of an allele (A) associated with lowered IGF-I levels was 0.54{+-}0.05. Likelihood ratio tests also revealed strong evidence for genotype x sex, genotype x age, and genotype x diet interaction. Individuals with genotypes AA and Aa showed a less marked decline in IGF-I levels with age than that observed for the aa genotype. Similarly, in aa individuals, IGF-I concentration exhibited a much stronger positive relationship with the relative intake of dietary protein and carbohydrate than that observed in the other genotypes. Because of this genotype x environment interaction, the relative phenotypic variance attributable to the major gene is highly dependent upon age and diet.

  13. ARE THE METABOLIC EFFECTS OF GH AND IGF-I SEPARABLE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IGF-I mediates some, but not all of the metabolic actions of GH and it has both GH-like and insulin-like actions in vivo. GH and IGF-I both have a net anabolic effect in man enhancing whole body protein synthesis over a period of weeks and perhaps months. Both hormones favorably improve body compos...

  14. A comparison of single nucleotide polymorphism and microsatellite markers for analysis of parentage and kinship in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Lucia R; Solomon, Joseph W; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2015-05-01

    The development of genetic markers has revolutionized molecular studies within and among populations. Although poly-allelic microsatellites are the most commonly used genetic marker for within-population studies of free-living animals, biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, have also emerged as a viable option for use in nonmodel systems. We describe a robust method of SNP discovery from the transcriptome of a nonmodel organism that resulted in more than 99% of the markers working successfully during genotyping. We then compare the use of 102 novel SNPs with 15 previously developed microsatellites for studies of parentage and kinship in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) that live in highly kin-structured groups. For 95% of the offspring surveyed, SNPs and microsatellites identified the same genetic father, but only when behavioural information about the likely parents at a nest was included to aid in assignment. Moreover, when such behavioural information was available, the number of SNPs necessary for successful parentage assignment was reduced by half. However, in a few cases where candidate fathers were highly related, SNPs did a better job at assigning fathers than microsatellites. Despite high variation between individual pairwise relatedness values, microsatellites and SNPs performed equally well in kinship analyses. This study is the first to compare SNPs and microsatellites for analyses of parentage and relatedness in a species that lives in groups with a complex social and kin structure. It should also prove informative for those interested in developing SNP loci from transcriptome data when published genomes are unavailable. PMID:25224810

  15. Microsatellite polymorphism and its association with body weight and selected morphometrics of farm red fox (Vulpes vulpes L.).

    PubMed

    Zatoń-Dobrowolska, Magdalena; Mucha, Anna; Wierzbicki, Heliodor; Morrice, David; Moska, Magdalena; Dobrowolski, Maciej; Przysiecki, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphism of 30 canine-derived microsatellites was studied in a group of 200 red foxes kept on 2 Polish farms. 22 out of 30 microsatellites were selected to study association between marker genotypes and body weight (BW), body length (BL), body circumference (BC), tail length (TL), ear height (EH), length of the right front limb (FRLL), length of the right rear limb (RRLL), length of the right front foot (FRFL) and length of the right rear foot (RRFL). A total of 112 alleles and 243 genotypes were found at 22 autosomal microsatellite loci. Three monomorphic loci deemed as uninformative were excluded from the study. The association between marker genotypes and the studied traits was analysed using general linear model (GLM) procedure and least squares means (LSM). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was estimated to assess non-random association between microsatellite loci. Out of 19 microsatellites studied four markers showed no association with the studied traits, three markers had a significant effect on one trait, and another three markers had significant effect on two traits. Among ten microsatellites with significant effect on four economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL) four were associated with two characters: marker FH2613 with BW and BC, marker FH2097withBL and BC, marker ZUBECA6 with BW and BC, whereas marker REN75M10 was associated with BL and TL. The strongest LD (r(2) ranged from 0.15 to 0.33) was estimated between nine loci with significant effect on economically important traits (BW, BL, BC, TL). PMID:24819338

  16. Distinct Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Runs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Microsatellite Markers; Implications for Use of Mixed Marker Haplotypes in LD-based Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-A; Sohn, Kwang-Min; Cho, Seung-Hee; Hwang, Hyokkee; Kim, Sun Woo; Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Hee-Jin; Kim, Min Ji; Cho, Sang Sun; Park, Jun Hee

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that the haplotypic relationship between microsatellite markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is of considerable importance, as microsatellite markers can potentially be incorporated into haplotypes containing SNPs to increase marker density across a region of interest. However, SNPs and microsatellite markers have different mutation rates and durations, and it is conceivable that the linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns between the genetic markers may considerably differ. We assessed the LD patterns using 1,661 SNPs and 65 microsatellite markers along chromosome 22 and investigated whether common patterns of LD between the two genetic markers are deduced from the results. The results demonstrated that the patterns of LD among microsatellite markers varied considerably and the LD runs of SNPs and microsatellite markers showed distinct patterns. Microsatellite markers have a much higher mutation rate and the evolution of microsatellite markers is a more complex process which has distinct mutation properties from those of SNPs. We consider that these might contribute to the different LD patterns between the two genetic markers. Therefore, it would seem inadvisable to make assumptions about persistence of LD across even a relatively small genetic distance among microsatellite markers and to construct mixed marker haplotypes/LD maps employing microsatellite markers. PMID:17596648

  17. Alterations in hepatic production and peripheral clearance of IGF-I after endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Char, D; Kolasa, A J; Pan, W; Maitra, S R; Patlak, C S; Spolarics, Z; Gelato, M C; Lang, C H

    1995-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a rapid and sustained reduction in the circulating concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which may be responsible, in part, for the alterations in protein metabolism observed in these animals. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this drop was due to a decreased hepatic production of IGF-I and/or an increased clearance of the peptide from the blood. Four hours after intravenous injection of LPS the plasma IGF-I concentration was decreased 50%. IGF-I release by in situ perfused livers from control rats was constant throughout the 60-min perfusion period and averaged 111 +/- 3 ng/min. In contrast, hepatic IGF-I output was decreased 46% by in vivo LPS. In contrast, livers from LPS-injected rats released more IGF binding proteins-1, -2 and -4 than did control livers. Hepatic cell isolation indicated that LPS decreased the IGF-I content in Kupffer and parenchymal cells, but not endothelial cells, by approximately 45%. Pharmacokinetic analysis of blood 125I-IGF-I decay curves indicated that the half-life for whole body clearance of 125I-IGF-I from the circulation was not altered by LPS. However, LPS increased 125I-IGF-I uptake by spleen, liver, lung, and kidney while decreasing uptake by the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that the LPS-induced decrease in blood IGF-I concentration is primarily due to a reduction in hepatic production, not a change in whole body peptide clearance, and that a decreased production by both parenchymal and Kupffer cells contributes to this alteration. PMID:7543247

  18. Microsatellite Interruptions Stabilize Primate Genomes and Exist as Population-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Individual Human Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Guruprasad; Hile, Suzanne E.; Breski, Amanda; Wang, Yanli; Kelkar, Yogeshwar; Makova, Kateryna D.; Eckert, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units in length. We detected ∼26,000–40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two- to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors. Modeling the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene sequence, we observed that a single base substitution interruption reduced strand slippage error rates five- to 50-fold, relative to a perfect repeat, during synthesis by DNA polymerases α, β, or η. Computationally, we demonstrate that iMSs arise primarily by base substitution mutations within individual human genomes. Our biochemical survey of human DNA polymerase α, β, δ, κ, and η error rates within certain microsatellites suggests that interruptions are created most frequently by low fidelity polymerases. Our combined computational and biochemical results demonstrate that iMSs are abundant in human genomes and are sources of population-specific genetic variation that may affect genome stability. The

  19. Acute IGF-I infusion stimulates whole body protein synthesis but does not reduce proteolysis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis increases in response to a physiological rise in total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in neonatal pigs. To determine the response of whole body protein synthesis and degradation to IGF-I, fasted 7-day-old pigs (n=4/dose) were infused with IGF-I (0, 20, or 50 ...

  20. Stratified control of IGF-I expression by hypoxia and stress hormones in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Thomas L.; Yun, Zhong; Madri, Joseph A.; Centrella, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bone cells respond to the integrated effects of local and systemic regulation. Here we show that hypoxia and the stress hormones PGE2 and glucocorticoid interact in complex ways in osteoblasts, converging on insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression. Whereas hypoxia alone rapidly increased transcription factor HIF activity, it suppressed DNA synthesis, had no significant effects on protein synthesis or alkaline phosphatase activity, and drove discrete changes in a panel of osteoblast mRNAs. Notably, hypoxia increased expression of the acute phase response transcription factors C/EBPδ which can induce IGF-I in response to PGE2, but conversely prevented the stimulatory effect of PGE2 on IGF-I mRNA. However, unlike its effect on C/EBPδ, hypoxia suppressed expression of the obligate osteoblast transcription factor Runx2, which can activate an upstream response element in the IGF-I gene promoter. Hypoxic inhibition of IGF-I and Runx2 were enforced by glucocorticoid, and continued with prolonged exposure. Our studies thus reveal that IGF-I expression is stratified by two critical transcriptional elements in osteoblasts, which are resolved by the individual and combined effects of hypoxic stress and stress hormones. In so doing, hypoxia suppresses Runx2, limits the enhancing influence of PGE2, and interacts with glucocorticoid to reduce IGF-I expression by osteoblasts. PMID:24440782

  1. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entire set of 221 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers from the International Sugarcane Microsatellite Consortium for their utility on molecular characterization of elite U.S. germplasm. Five elite U.S. sugarcane clones were tested, including two cu...

  2. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System.

    PubMed

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health. PMID:26821056

  3. Effects of IGF-I bioavailability on bovine preantral follicular development in vitro.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Fiona H; Campbell, Bruce K; Armstrong, David G; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of regulation of IGF-I bioavailability on preantral follicle development in vitro. Bovine preantral follicles were cultured for 6 days in serum-free medium with increasing doses of Long R3 (LR3) IGF-I (an analog with low affinity for IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs)), or human recombinant IGF-I (hrIGF-I). Follicle diameter and estradiol production were measured every second day. On day 6, ratios of oocyte/follicle diameter and oocyte morphology were assessed by histological examination, and IGFBP-2 and -3 were detected by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization respectively. Both types of IGF-I increased follicle diameter in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and increased estradiol production over control levels (P < 0.05). However, follicles treated with LR3 IGF-I and the highest concentration of hrIGF-I (1000 ng/ml) had smaller oocyte/follicle ratios, and increased oocyte degeneration, compared with controls or follicles treated with physiological concentrations of hrIGF-I (P < 0.05). IGFBPs were detected in cultured preantral follicles, indicating a requirement for regulation of IGF bioavailability during the early stages of follicular development. Specifically, IGFBP-3 mRNA was found to be expressed in oocytes, and IGFBP-2 immunoreactivity was detected in oocytes and granulosa cells of cultured follicles. In summary, the regulation of IGF-I bioavailability by IGFBPs is necessary for the co-ordination of oocyte and follicle development in vitro. PMID:17636166

  4. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D’Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health. PMID:26821056

  5. Nonradioactive assay for new microsatellite polymorphisms at the 5' end of the dystrophin gene, and estimation of intragenic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Oudet, C; Heilig, R; Hanauer, A; Mandel, J L

    1991-01-01

    Indirect tracking of mutation by DNA polymorphisms is still essential for carrier and prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, at least in the families where no deletion can be detected. Because of the relatively high level of intragenic recombination, informative and easily testable markers at both ends of the gene are necessary for efficient and accurate diagnosis. We report the characterization of two polymorphic microsatellite sequences (TG repeats) at the 5' end of the dystrophin gene, within 40 kb of the muscle-specific promoter. The most useful one (5' DYS MSA) has 10 alleles with a 57% heterozygosity and can be tested on small polyacrylamide gels in a nonradioactive PCR-based assay. Despite its large number of alleles, this microsatellite shows strong linkage disequilibrium with a two-allele polymorphism reported by Roberts et al., an indication of the stability of this type of sequences. We have used the new microsatellites at the 5' end, along with one we reported previously for the 3' end, to type the families in the CEPH (Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain) panel. While the number of informative families has increased by a factor of about two with respect to the study of Abbs et al., the estimates of the recombination fractions are in good agreement with this previous report, suggesting a 11% recombination across the gene (3% between the 5' end and the pERT87 region, 8% between pERT87 and the 3' end), which is about fivefold more than expected. However, these estimates still have wide confidence limits. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1867193

  6. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the three-toed box turtle (Terrapene carolina triunguis) and cross-amplification in other Terrapene species.

    PubMed

    Buchman, A B; Deaton, R; Randle, C P; Brummel, T; Wilson, E D; Lutterschmidt, W I

    2009-07-01

    We isolated and characterized eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for a Texas population of three-toed box turtle, Terrapene carolina triunguis, using a refined hybridization capture procedure. All eight primer pairs amplified successfully at all loci in seven Texas ornate box turtles (T. ornata ornata). Due to the decline and conservation concerns of North American box turtles, these isolated microsatellites may be a most valuable tool for evaluating baseline population genetic structure for threatened box turtle populations. PMID:21564865

  7. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwasniewski, Wojciech; Gozdzicka-Jozefiak, Anna; Wolun-Cholewa, Maria; Polak, Grzegorz; Sierocinska-Sawa, Jadwiga; Kwasniewska, Anna; Kotarski, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF‑1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI‑H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF‑1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF‑1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)‑1 and IGFBP‑3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF‑1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF‑1, IGFBP‑1, IGFBP‑3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=-0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P=0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with

  8. Microsatellite polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene is associated with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    KWASNIEWSKI, WOJCIECH; GOZDZICKA-JOZEFIAK, ANNA; WOLUN-CHOLEWA, MARIA; POLAK, GRZEGORZ; SIEROCINSKA-SAWA, JADWIGA; KWASNIEWSKA, ANNA; KOTARSKI, JAN

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common type of gynecological malignancy. Studies have demonstrated that the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway is implicated in the development of endometrial tumors and that the serum levels of IGF-1 are affected by estrogen. Most EC cells with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H) accumulate mutations at a microsatellite sequence in the IGF-1 gene. The present study investigated the CA repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF-1 gene among Caucasian females with endometrial hyperplasia, EC and healthy control subjects, whose blood serum and surgical tissue specimens were analyzed. Differences or correlations between the analyzed parameters [serum levels of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3 as well as estrogens among the polymorphisms] were verified using the χ2, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis or Spearman's rank correlation tests. A PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis was used for identification of (CA)n repeats in the P1 region of IGF-1. ELISA was used to determine the blood serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrogens. Furthermore, IGF-1 was assessed in endometrial tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. The present study indicated no statistically significant differences between serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 and estrone, estriol and estradiol in the control and study groups. A significant correlation was identified between the IGF-1 levels and estrone levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.41, P=0.012) as well as a highly negative correlation between IGF-1 levels and the estradiol levels in the MSI-H polymorphism (r=−0.6, P=0.002). Genotypes without the 19 CA allele were predominantly found in EC. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that the number of IGF-1-expressing cells was significantly elevated in MSI-H type 18-20 (P= 0.0072), MSI-L type 19-20 (P=0.025) and microsatellite-stable MSS type 19-19 (P=0.024) compared with those in the MSI-H 20

  9. Overexpression of IGF-I in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice does not prevent unloading-induced atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, D. S.; Booth, F. W.; DeMayo, F.; Schwartz, R. J.; Gordon, S. E.; Fiorotto, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the association between local insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) overexpression and atrophy in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that endogenous skeletal muscle IGF-I mRNA expression would decrease with hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice, and that transgenic mice overexpressing human IGF-I (hIGF-I) specifically in skeletal muscle would exhibit less atrophy after HU. Male transgenic mice and nontransgenic mice from the parent strain (FVB) were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): 1) transgenic, weight-bearing (IGF-I/WB); 2) transgenic, hindlimb unloaded (IGF-I/HU); 3) nontransgenic, weight-bearing (FVB/WB); and 4) nontransgenic, hindlimb unloaded (FVB/HU). HU groups were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days. Body mass was reduced (P < 0.05) after HU in both IGF-I (-9%) and FVB mice (-13%). Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the relative abundance of mRNA for the endogenous rodent IGF-I (rIGF-I) was unaltered by HU in the gastrocnemius (GAST) muscle of wild-type FVB mice. High-level expression of hIGF-I peptide and mRNA was confirmed in the GAST and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles of the transgenic mice. Nevertheless, masses of the GAST and TA muscles were reduced (P < 0.05) in both FVB/HU and IGF-I/HU groups compared with FVB/WB and IGF-I/WB groups, respectively, and the percent atrophy in mass of these muscles did not differ between FVB and IGF-I mice. Therefore, skeletal muscle atrophy may not be associated with a reduction of endogenous rIGF-I mRNA level in 14-day HU mice. We conclude that high local expression of hIGF-I mRNA and peptide in skeletal muscle alone cannot attenuate unloading-induced atrophy of fast-twitch muscle in mice.

  10. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Sarah M.; Truelove, Nathan K.; Box, Stephen J.; Preziosi, Richard F.; Salinas de Leon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus) is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11–49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species. PMID:26557418

  11. Isolation and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the endangered Galapagos-endemic whitespotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus).

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Alicia C; Griffiths, Sarah M; Truelove, Nathan K; Box, Stephen J; Preziosi, Richard F; Salinas de Leon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The white-spotted sandbass (Paralabrax albomaculatus) is a commercially important species in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, but is classified as endangered in the IUCN Red List. For this study, 10 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized using Illumina paired-end sequencing. These loci can be used for genetic studies of population structure and connectivity to aid in the management of the white-spotted sandbass and other closely-related species. The 10 characterized loci were polymorphic, with 11-49 alleles per locus, and observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.575 to 0.964. This set of markers is the first to be developed for this species. PMID:26557418

  12. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the perennial herb Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Higashi, Hiroyuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in the vulnerable plant Hepatica nobilis var. japonica (Ranunculaceae) to investigate its genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow. Methods and Results: Fourteen microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 12, and the expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.043 to 0.855. Eleven markers were successfully amplified in the cultivar ‘Mego’ from Japan. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow of H. nobilis var. japonica. PMID:25798342

  13. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for Japanese yew, Taxus cuspidata, and T. cuspidata var. nana (Taxaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Taxus cuspidata (Taxaceae), which is well known for the effective anticancer metabolite paclitaxel (e.g., taxol), is an evergreen needle-leaved tree widely distributed in eastern Eurasia including Japan. We developed 15 microsatellite markers from this species and confirmed their utility for the dwarf variety nana, which is common in alpine regions along the Sea of Japan. Methods and Results: Thirteen polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation in three populations of T. cuspidata. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 11 to 31, with an average of 18.5; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.78 to 0.95, with an average of 0.89. All loci were successfully amplified in T. cuspidata var. nana and showed high polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers will be useful for investigating speciation and range formation of T. cuspidata in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for the conservation of Taxus species. PMID:27437172

  15. Phosphorylation of IGFBP-1 at discrete sites elicits variable effects on IGF-I receptor autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Abu Shehab, Majida; Iosef, Cristiana; Wildgruber, Robert; Sardana, Girish; Gupta, Madhulika B

    2013-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and leucine deprivation cause hyperphosphorylation of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) at discrete sites that markedly enhanced IGF-I affinity and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated cell growth. In this study we investigated the functional role of these phosphorylation sites using mutagenesis. We created three IGFBP-1 mutants in which individual serine (S119/S169/S98) residues were substituted with alanine and S101A was recreated for comparison. The wild-type (WT) and mutant IGFBP-1 were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and IGFBP-1 in cell media was isolated using isoelectric-focusing-free-flow electrophoresis. BIACore analysis indicated that the changes in IGF-I affinity for S98A and S169A were moderate, whereas S119A greatly reduced the affinity of IGFBP-1 for IGF-I (100-fold, P < .0001). Similar results were obtained with S101A. The IGF-I affinity changes of the mutants were reflected in their ability to inhibit IGF-I-induced receptor autophosphorylation. Employing receptor-stimulation assay using IGF-IR-overexpressing P6 cells, we found that WT-IGFBP-1 inhibited IGF-IRβ autophosphorylation (~2-fold, P < .001), possibly attributable to sequestration of IGF-I. Relative to WT, S98A and S169A mutants did not inhibit receptor autophosphorylation. S119A, on the other hand, greatly stimulated the receptor (2.3-fold, P < .05). The data with S101A matched S119A. In summary, we show that phosphorylation at S98 and S169 resulted in milder changes in IGF-I action; nonetheless most dramatic inhibitory effects on the biological activity of IGF-I were due to IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119. Our results provide novel demonstration that IGFBP-1 phosphorylation at S119 can enhance affinity for IGF-I possibly through stabilization of the IGF-IGFBP-1 complex. These data also propose that the synergistic interaction of distinct phosphorylation sites may be important in eliciting more pronounced effects on IGF-I affinity that needs further

  16. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia (O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, igf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  17. Genetic variants in IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and adiponectin genes and colon cancer risk in African Americans and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Keku, Temitope O.; Vidal, Adriana; Oliver, Shannon; Hoyo, Catherine; Hall, Ingrid J.; Omofoye, Seun; McDoom, Maya; Worley, Kendra; Galanko, Joseph; Sandler, Robert S.; Millikan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Evaluating genetic susceptibility may clarify effects of known environmental factors and also identify individuals at high risk. We evaluated the association of four insulin-related pathway gene polymorphisms in insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) (CA)n repeat, insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-II) (rs680), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) (rs2854744), and adiponectin (APM1 rs1501299) with colon cancer risk, as well as relationships with circulating IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3, and C-peptide in a population-based study. Methods Participants were African Americans (231cases, 306 controls) and Whites (297 cases, 530 controls). Consenting subjects provided blood specimens, and lifestyle/diet information. Genotyping for all genes except IGF-I was performed by the 5′-exonuclease (Taqman) assay. The IGF-I (CA)n repeat was assayed by PCR, and fragment analysis. Circulating proteins were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results The IGF-I (CA)19 repeat was higher in White controls (50%) than African American controls (31%). Whites homozygous for the IGF-I (CA)19 repeat had a nearly two fold increase in risk of colon cancer (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.15–2.73), but not African Americans (OR= 0.73, 95%CI 0.50–1.51). We observed an inverse association between the IGF-II Apa1 A-variant and colon cancer risk (OR= 0.49, 95%CI 0.28–0.88) in Whites only. Carrying the IGFBP-3 variant alleles was associated with lower IGFBP-3 protein levels, a difference most pronounced in Whites (p- trend < 0.05). Conclusions These results support an association between insulin pathway-related genes and elevated colon cancer risk in Whites but not in African Americans. PMID:22565227

  18. Ethinylestradiol differentially interferes with IGF-I in liver and extrahepatic sites during development of male and female bony fish.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Segner, Helmut; Eppler, Elisabeth; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-12-01

    Growth and sexual development are closely interlinked in fish; however, no reports exist on potential effects of estrogen on the GH/IGF-I-axis in developing fish. We investigate whether estrogen exposure during early development affects growth and the IGF-I system, both at the systemic and tissue level. Tilapia were fed from 10 to 40 days post fertilization (DPF) with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE(2)). At 50, 75, 90, and 165 DPF, length, weight, sex ratio, serum IGF-I (RIA), pituitary GH mRNA and IGF-I, and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA in liver, gonads, brain, and gills (real-time PCR) were determined and the results correlated to those of in situ hybridization for IGF-I. Developmental exposure to EE(2) had persistent effects on sex ratio and growth. Serum IGF-I, hepatic IGF-I mRNA, and the number of IGF-I mRNA-containing hepatocytes were significantly decreased at 75 DPF, while liver ERalpha mRNA was significantly induced. At 75 DPF, a transient decline of IGF-I mRNA and a largely reduced number of IGF-I mRNA-containing neurons were observed in the female brain. In both sexes, pituitary GH mRNA was significantly suppressed. A transient downregulation of IGF-I mRNA occurred in ovaries (75 DPF) and testes (90 DPF). In agreement, in situ hybridization revealed less IGF-I mRNA signals in granulosa and germ cells. Our results show for the first time that developmental estrogen treatment impairs GH/IGF-I expression in fish, and that the effects persist. These long-lasting effects both seem to be exerted indirectly via inhibition of pituitary GH and directly by suppression of local IGF-I in organ-specific cells. PMID:18000313

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its receptor (IGF-1R) in the rat anterior pituitary.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Jevdjovic, Tanja; Maake, Caroline; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    Few and controversial results exist on the cellular sites of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I synthesis and the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) in mammalian anterior pituitary. Thus, the present study analysed IGF-I and the IGF-1R in rat pituitary. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed IGF-I and IGF-1R mRNA expression in pituitary. The sequences of both were identical to the corresponding sequences in other rat organs. In situ hybridization localized IGF-I mRNA in endocrine cells. The majority of the growth hormone (GH) cells and numerous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cells exhibited IGF-1R-immunoreactivity at the cell membrane. At lower densities, IGF-1 receptors were also present at the other hormone-producing cell types, indicating a physiological impact of IGF-I for all endocrine cells. IGF-I-immunoreactivity was located constantly in almost all ACTH-immunoreactive cells. At the ultrastructural level, IGF-I-immunoreactivity was confined to secretory granules in co-existence with ACTH-immunoreactivity, indicating a concomitant release of both hormones. Occasionally, IGF-I-immunoreactivity was detected in an interindividually varying number of GH cells. In some individuals, weak IGF-I-immunoreactions were also detected also in follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone cells. Thus, IGF-I seems to be produced as a constituent in ACTH cells, possibly indicating its particular importance in stress response. Generally, IGF-I from the endocrine cells may regulate synthesis and/or release of hormones in an autocrine/paracrine manner as well as prevent apoptosis and stimulate proliferation. Production of IGF-I in GH cells may depend on the physiological status, most likely the serum IGF-I level. IGF-I released from GH cells may suppress GH synthesis and/or release by an autocrine feedback mechanism in addition to the endocrine route. PMID:17241280

  20. Fibronectin glycation increases IGF-I induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The advanced glycation end products, namely AGEs, contribute to long-termed complications of diabetes mellitus, including macroangiopathy, where smooth muscle cells (SMC) proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays an important role. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of an AGE-modified extracellular matrix protein on IGF-I induced SMC proliferation and on the IGF-I-IGF binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4) axis under basal conditions and after stimulation with PDGF-BB. IGF-I resulted in significantly higher thymidine incorporation in SMC seeded on AGE-modified fibronectin (AGE-FN) in comparison to cells seeded on fibronectin (FN). This augmented proliferation could not be accounted for by increased expression of IGF-IR, by decreased secretion of IGFBP-4, a binding protein that inhibits IGF-I mitogenic effects or by increased IGF-IR autophosphorylation. PDGF-BB did not modulate IGF-IR and IGFBP-4 mRNA expression in any of the substrata, however, this growth factor elicited opposite effects on the IGFBP-4 content in the conditioned media, increasing it in cells plated on FN and diminishing it in cells plated on AGE-FN. These findings suggest that one mechanism by which AGE-modified proteins is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated atherosclerosis might be by increasing SMC susceptibility to IGF-I mitogenic effects. PMID:22553932

  1. First Insights into the Genetic Diversity of the Pinewood Nematode in Its Native Area Using New Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci

    PubMed Central

    Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D.; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. PMID:23554990

  2. New polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Korean manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and their application to wild populations.

    PubMed

    Kim, E M; An, H S; Kang, J H; An, C M; Dong, C M; Hong, Y K; Park, J Y

    2014-01-01

    Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) is a valuable and intensively exploited shellfish species in Korea. Despite its importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. For the genetic characterization of R. philippinarum, expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite markers were developed using next-generation sequencing. A total of 5879 tandem repeats containing di- to hexanucleotide repeat motifs were obtained from 236,746 reads (mean = 413 bp). Of the 62 loci screened, 24 (38.7%) were successfully amplified, and 10 were polymorphic in 144 individuals from 2 manila clam populations (Incheon and Geoje, Korea). The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 17 in the Incheon population and from 3 to 13 in the Geoje population (overall AR = 7.21). The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were estimated to be 0.402 and 0.555, respectively. Hence, there is less genetic variability in the Geoje population than in the Incheon population, although no significant reductions of genetic diversity were found between the populations (P > 0.05). However, significant genetic differentiation was detected between the populations (FST = 0.064, P < 0.001). Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding coefficients (mean FIS = 0.22-0.26) were detected in both populations. The 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci used in this study will be useful for future genetic mapping studies and for characterizing population structures, monitoring genetic diversity for successful aquaculture management, and developing conservation strategies for manila clam populations in Korea. PMID:25299201

  3. First insights into the genetic diversity of the pinewood nematode in its native area using new polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Mallez, Sophie; Castagnone, Chantal; Espada, Margarida; Vieira, Paulo; Eisenback, Jonathan D; Mota, Manuel; Guillemaud, Thomas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, native to North America, is the causative agent of pine wilt disease and among the most important invasive forest pests in the East-Asian countries, such as Japan and China. Since 1999, it has been found in Europe in the Iberian Peninsula, where it also causes significant damage. In a previous study, 94 pairs of microsatellite primers have been identified in silico in the pinewood nematode genome. In the present study, specific PCR amplifications and polymorphism tests to validate these loci were performed and 17 microsatellite loci that were suitable for routine analysis of B. xylophilus genetic diversity were selected. The polymorphism of these markers was evaluated on nematodes from four field origins and one laboratory collection strain, all originate from the native area. The number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity varied between 2 and 11 and between 0.039 and 0.777, respectively. First insights into the population genetic structure of B. xylophilus were obtained using clustering and multivariate methods on the genotypes obtained from the field samples. The results showed that the pinewood nematode genetic diversity is spatially structured at the scale of the pine tree and probably at larger scales. The role of dispersal by the insect vector versus human activities in shaping this structure is discussed. PMID:23554990

  4. Development and Characterization of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Sedum sarmentosum (Crassulaceae) and Their Cross-Species Transferability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Fu-Yuan; Wan, Ding-Rong; Wang, Sha; Xu, Dong-Mei; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Sedum sarmentosum is an important Chinese medicinal herb that exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-nociceptive properties. However, little is known about its genetic background. The first set of 14 microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for S. sarmentosum using an SSR-enriched library. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were acquired with satisfactory amplifications and a polymorphic pattern in 48 S. sarmentosum individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 15. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.0833 to 0.8750 and 0.2168 to 0.9063, respectively. Two loci showed significant departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species amplification was carried out in other Sedum species. High rates of cross-species amplification were observed. The transferability value ranged from 85.7% in S. lineare to 64.3% in S. ellacombianum. These markers will be valuable for studying the genetic variation, population structure and germplasm characterization of S. sarmentosum and related Sedum species. PMID:26556327

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) misuse in athletes and potential methods for detection.

    PubMed

    Guha, Nishan; Cowan, David A; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2013-12-01

    To athletes, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an attractive performance-enhancing drug, particularly as an alternative to growth hormone (GH) because IGF-I mediates many of the anabolic actions of GH. IGF-I has beneficial effects on muscle protein synthesis and glycogen storage that could enhance performance in several sporting disciplines. Recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) is used in clinical practice, but a variety of IGF-I compounds and IGF-I analogues are also advertised on the internet and many have been available on the black market for several years. Although methods for detecting GH misuse are now well established and there have been several cases in which athletes have tested positive for GH, no test is yet in place for detecting IGF-I misuse. The GH-2004 research group has been investigating methods for detection of IGF-I misuse and a test is being developed on the basis of the principles of the successful GH-2000 marker method, in which markers from the IGF axis and markers of collagen and bone turnover are used to detect GH misuse. Commercial immunoassays for these markers have been validated for anti-doping purposes but new methods, including IGF-I measurement by use of mass spectrometry, should improve the performance of the tests and help in the detection of athletes who are doping with these peptide hormones. PMID:23934394

  6. Tissue identity testing of cancer by short tandem repeat polymorphism: pitfalls of interpretation in the presence of microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Much, Melissa; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Tissue identity testing by short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism offers discriminating power in resolving tissue mix-up or contamination. However, one caveat is the presence of microsatellite unstable tumors, in which genetic alterations may drastically change the STR wild-type polymorphism leading to unexpected allelic discordance. We examined how tissue identity testing results can be altered by the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Eleven cases of MSI-unstable (9 intestinal and 2 endometrial adenocarcinomas) and 10 cases of MSI-stable tumors (all colorectal adenocarcinomas) were included. All had been previously tested by polymerase chain reaction testing at 5 National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommended MSI loci and/or immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). Tissue identity testing targeting 15 STR loci was performed using AmpF/STR Identifiler Amplification. Ten of 11 MSI-unstable tumors demonstrated novel alleles at 5 to 12 STR loci per case and frequently with 3 or more allelic peaks. However, all affected loci showed identifiable germline allele(s) in MSI-high tumors. A wild-type allelic profile was seen in 7 of 10 MSI-stable tumors. In the remaining 3 cases, isolated novel alleles were present at a unique single locus in addition to germline alleles. Loss of heterozygosity was observed frequently in both MSI-stable (6/11 cases) and MSI-unstable tumors (8/10 cases). In conclusion, MSI may significantly alter the wild-type allelic polymorphism, leading to potential interpretation errors of STR genotyping. Careful examination of the STR allelic pattern, high index of suspicion, and follow-up MSI testing are crucial to avoid erroneous conclusions and subsequent clinical and legal consequences. PMID:24444463

  7. Effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on total and free IGF-I concentrations, IGF-binding proteins, and glycemic response in humans.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, S A; Bukar, J; Chen, S A; Celniker, A C; Compton, P G; Cook, J; Albu, J; Perlman, A J; Hoffman, A R

    1992-07-01

    To examine the effects of repeated administration of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) on IGF-I levels, free IGF-I pharmacokinetics, glycemic response, and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP), we administered rhIGF-I (0.03 mg/kg iv bolus) to 12 healthy males each morning for 5 consecutive days. Serum was collected over 24 h on days 1 and 5 for measurement of total and free IGF-I, glucose, insulin, and IGFBP. Total IGF-I was measured by RIA after acid/ethanol extraction. Free IGF-I was separated from binding protein-complexed IGF-I using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography before measurement by RIA. IGFBP were quantitated by optical densitometry of Western ligand blots. Total IGF-I increased significantly from 0-24 h after administration on day 1 (mean +/- SD, micrograms/L: 120 +/- 44 to 166 +/- 51, P = 0.0002) but did not increase significantly from 24 h on day 1 to 0 h on day 5 (166 +/- 51 to 178 +/- 62) or from 0-24 h on day 5 (178 +/- 62 to 209 +/- 89). The area under the total IGF-I concentration curve was greater on day 5 than day 1 (311 +/- 99 min.g/L vs. 249 +/- 77, P = 0.0001). There were no significant differences in free IGF-I concentration or pharmacokinetic parameters or in the degree or timing of hypoglycemia between days 1 and 5. Plasma insulin levels decreased significantly following rhIGF-I administration (day 1 baseline: 53 +/- 11 pmol/L, nadir: 18 +/- 6 pmol/L at 30 min, P = 0.003); day 5 baseline: 47 +/- 15 pmol/L, nadir: 16 +/- 8 pmol/L at 30 min, P = 0.0003. Western ligand blotting revealed the transient appearance of a 30-kilodalton band which migrates in a manner similar to IGFBP-1. This band was undetectable at baseline, peaked between 150 and 210 min after rhIGF-I administration, and diminished by 480-600 min. The response was similar on days 1 and 5. There were no substantial changes in the serum levels of any other IGFBP. In summary, repeated iv bolus administration of rhIGF-I increased the level of total

  8. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  9. IGF-I levels and depressive disorders: results from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP).

    PubMed

    Sievers, C; Auer, M K; Klotsche, J; Athanasoulia, A P; Schneider, H J; Nauck, M; Völzke, H; John, U; Schulz, A; Freyberger, H J; Friedrich, N; Biffar, R; Stalla, G K; Wallaschofski, H; Grabe, H J

    2014-06-01

    In vitro and in vivo models revealed that the somatotropic system exerts central effects on the central nervous system. Disturbances to this system such as in the case of growth hormone deficiency or growth hormone excess, are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, there is no epidemiological data available regarding the influence of growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), on depressive disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endogenous IGF-I levels may predict depression in humans. We included 4079 adult subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study with a 5-year follow-up period. The main predictor was the baseline IGF-I value categorized in three levels as <10th percentile, between the 10th and the 90th percentile (the reference group) and >90th percentile. The outcome measure was the incidence of depressive disorders according to the Composite International Diagnostic-Screener (CID-S). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, females with IGF-I levels below the 10th percentile had a higher incidence of depressive disorders during follow-up (OR 2.70 95% CI 1.38-5.28, p=0.004) compared to females within the reference group (10th-90th percentile). Among males, those with IGF-I levels above the 90th percentile had a higher risk of depressive disorder (OR 3.26 95% CI 1.52-6.98, p=0.002) than those within the 10th-90th percentile. In conclusion we can demonstrate that low IGF-I levels in females and high IGF-I levels in males predict the development of depressive disorders in this general adult population sample. PMID:24507017

  10. Systemic administration of rhIGF-I enhanced regeneration after sciatic nerve crush in mice.

    PubMed

    Contreras, P C; Steffler, C; Yu, E; Callison, K; Stong, D; Vaught, J L

    1995-09-01

    Despite numerous reports suggesting that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) may be involved in the survival and regeneration of damaged neurons in vitro and after local administration in vivo, there have been few studies on the effect of IGF-I administered systemically on regeneration of damaged nerves in vivo and the functional consequences of enhanced regeneration. In an earlier study, recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) administered systemically enhanced the rate of regeneration after a sciatic crush as measured by the number of nerve fibers/muscle section. The purpose of this study was to follow up this finding by evaluating whether rhIGF-I administered peripherally enhances the rate of functional recovery. In this study following nerve injury, mice lost the ability to grip a wire screen with their hind paws and to walk normally as indicated by a decrease in toe spread, internal toe spread and an increase in the angle between hind feet. The ability of injured mice treated with rhIGF-I to grip an inverted screen returned to control levels significantly faster than that of vehicle-treated mice (day 12 vs. day 15, respectively). Similarly, rhIGF-I treatment of injured mice resulted in toe spread, internal toe spread and angle values that were significantly better than that of vehicle-treated mice and returned to control levels faster than vehicle-treated injured mice. There was a parallel loss of innervation after sciatic nerve crush as measured by a loss in choline acetyltransferase activity in the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562520

  11. Localized infusion of IGF-I results in skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. R.; McCue, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) peptide levels have been shown to increase in overloaded skeletal muscles (G. R. Adams and F. Haddad. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2509-2516, 1996). In that study, the increase in IGF-I was found to precede measurable increases in muscle protein and was correlated with an increase in muscle DNA content. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that direct IGF-I infusion would result in an increase in muscle DNA as well as in various measurements of muscle size. Either 0.9% saline or nonsystemic doses of IGF-I were infused directly into a non-weight-bearing muscle of rats, the tibialis anterior (TA), via a fenestrated catheter attached to a subcutaneous miniosmotic pump. Saline infusion had no effect on the mass, protein content, or DNA content of TA muscles. Local IGF-I infusion had no effect on body or heart weight. The absolute weight of the infused TA muscles was approximately 9% greater (P < 0.05) than that of the contralateral TA muscles. IGF-I infusion resulted in significant increases in the total protein and DNA content of TA muscles (P < 0.05). As a result of these coordinated changes, the DNA-to-protein ratio of the hypertrophied TA was similar to that of the contralateral muscles. These results suggest that IGF-I may be acting to directly stimulate processes such as protein synthesis and satellite cell proliferation, which result in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  12. Effects of dietary genistein on GH/IGF-I axis of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2016-09-01

    There is considerable concern that isoflavones, such as genistein in fish feed composed of soybean protein, aff ects somatic growth in fish. Our previous works demonstrated that 30 and 300 μg/g dietary genistein had no significant eff ect on growth performance in Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus), but the higher level of genistein (3 000 μg/g) significantly depressed growth. This study was conducted to further examine the eff ects of dietary genistein on the endocrine disruption on growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis in Nile tilapia ( O. niloticus). Juvenile fish were fed by hand twice daily to satiation with one of four isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, each containing either 0, 30, 300 or 3 000 μg/g genistein. Following an 8-week feeding period, plasma GH and IGF-I levels were investigated by radioimmunoassay and gene expression levels of gh, ghrelin, gnrhs, ghr, npy, npyrs, pacap, ghrs, i gf-I, igf-Ir, and igfbp3 were examined by real-time PCR. The results show that no significant change in plasma GH and IGF-I levels in fish fed with diets containing 30 μg/g and 300 μg/g genistein. mRNA expression of genes along the GH/IGF-I axis remained unaff ected, except for igf-Ir, which was stimulated by the 300 μg/g genistein diet. While in fish fed the 3 000 μg/g genistein diet, the plasma GH and IGF-I levels decreased, and mRNA expression of gh, ghr2, npyr1, igf-I, and igf-Ir were also significantly depressed. In contrast, npy and igfbp3 mRNA expression were enhanced. This study provides convincing evidence for growth impediment by genistein by disturbing the GH/IGF-I axis in Nile tilapia O. niloticus.

  13. Characterization of 22 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci in the cosmopolitan fungal plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two microsatellite loci were characterized in the soilborne plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae by analysis of the genome sequence. All loci were polymorphic in at least two of three populations of V. dahliae tested and collected from lettuce, spinach and tomato. These loci were us...

  14. Genetic diversity and origin of cultivated potatoes based on plastid microsatellite polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined, with 15 plastid microsatellite loci and with the 241 bp deletion marker characteristic of Chilean S. tuberosum, 392 accessions of cultivated and wild potato species, mostly from the experimental subset of the Russian National potato collection, recently characterized by nuclear microsat...

  15. Chararacteristics of Thirteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Corn Earworm, Helicovepa zea (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm, Helicovepa zea, is an important pest of cotton in the United States. Lack of suitable genetic markers have hindered population genetic studies of this species. Although a number of simple sequence repeat (SSR or microsatellite) markers developed for other species had been evaluated on...

  16. DNA polymorphisms at bermudagrass microsatellite loci and their use in genotype fingerprinting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economically important, turf-type bermudagrasses include diploid Cynodon transvaalensis, tetraploid C. dactylon, and sterile triploid hybrids produced by crosses of these species. The objective of this study was to develop a set of microsatellite markers that could be used to distinguish among c...

  17. Highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers for sugarcane germplasm evaluation and variety identity testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate 152 sugarcane microsatellite (SSR) markers originally developed in India for their transferability to germplasm being used by sugarcane breeders in the U.S. The commercial sugarcane cultivar, LCP 85-384, was used for the initial screening of the SSR marker...

  18. High resolution melting detects sequence polymorphism in rubus occidentalis L. monomorphic microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microsatellite, or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, are valuable as co-dominant genetic markers with a variety of applications such as DNA fingerprinting, linkage mapping, and population structure analysis. However, primer pairs designed from the regions that flank SSRs often generate fragment...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SEVEN POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and conditions to amplify seven microsatellite DNA loci isolated from the Common Loon (Gavia immer). The PCR primers were tested on 83 individuals from ten locations in North America, including breeding, migration stopover, and...

  20. Retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism, an electrophoretic approach for studying genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum geographical isolates.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Li, Xiao-Yan; Zou, Feng-Cai; Li, Hai-Long; Ai, Lin; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) was used to examine genetic variability among Schistosoma japonicum isolates from different endemic provinces in mainland China, using S. japonicum from Japan and the Philippines for comparison. Of the 50 primer combinations screened, eight produced highly reproducible REMAP fragments. Using these primers, 190 distinct DNA fragments were generated in total, of which 147 (77.37%) were polymorphic, indicating considerable genetic variation among the 43 S. japonicum isolates examined. The percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) among S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, Japan, and the Philippines was 77.37%; PPB values of 18.42% and 53.68% were found among isolates from southwestern (SW) China and the lower Yangtze/Zhejiang province in eastern (E) China, respectively. Based on REMAP profiles, unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) dendrogram analysis revealed that all of the S. japonicum samples grouped into three distinct clusters: parasites from mainland China, Japan, and the Philippines were clustered in each individual clade. Within the mainland China cluster, SW China isolates (from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces) grouped together, whereas worms from E China (Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Hunan, and Hubei provinces) grouped together. These results demonstrated that the REMAP marker system provides a reliable electrophoretic technique for studying genetic diversity and population structures of S. japonicum isolates from mainland China, and could be applied to other pathogens of human and animal health significance. PMID:23019103

  1. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship among Tunisian cactus species (Opuntia) as revealed by random amplified microsatellite polymorphism markers.

    PubMed

    Bendhifi Zarroug, M; Baraket, G; Zourgui, L; Souid, S; Salhi Hannachi, A

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica is one of the most economically important species in the Cactaceae family. Increased interest in this crop stems from its potential contribution to agricultural diversification, application in the exploitation of marginal lands, and utility as additional income sources for farmers. In Tunisia, O. ficus indica has been affected by drastic genetic erosion resulting from biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, it is imperative to identify and preserve this germplasm. In this study, we focused on the use of random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms to assess genetic diversity among 25 representatives of Tunisian Opuntia species maintained in the collection of the National Institute of Agronomic Research of Tunisia. Seventy-two DNA markers were screened to discriminate accessions using 16 successful primer combinations. The high percentage of polymorphic band (100%), the resolving power value (5.68), the polymorphic information content (0.94), and the marker index (7.2) demonstrated the efficiency of the primers tested. Therefore, appropriate cluster analysis used in this study illustrated a divergence among the cultivars studied and exhibited continuous variation that occurred independently of geographic origin. O. ficus indica accessions did not cluster separately from the other cactus pear species, indicating that their current taxonomical classifications are not well aligned with their genetic variability or locality of origin. PMID:25730081

  2. Effects of rhIGF-I administration on bone turnover during short-term fasting.

    PubMed Central

    Grinspoon, S K; Baum, H B; Peterson, S; Klibanski, A

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a nutritionally dependent bone trophic hormone which stimulates osteoblast function and collagen synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that in the fasting state, IGF-I levels would decline significantly and would establish a model in which we could investigate the effects of IGF-I administration on bone turnover. We therefore studied 14 normal women ages 19-33 (mean, 24 +/- 4 [SD] years) during a complete 10-d fast. After 4 d of fasting, subjects were randomized to receive rhIGF-I or placebo subcutaneously twice a day for 6 d. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation (osteocalcin and type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide [PICP]) and resorption (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide [N-telopeptide] and hydroxyproline). Serum levels of PICP and osteocalcin decreased from 143 +/- 52 to 60 +/- 28 ng/ml (P = 0.001) and from 7.6 +/- 5.4 to 4.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml (P = 0.001) respectively with 4 d of fasting. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline decreased from 96 +/- 63 to 47 +/- 38 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) and from 28 +/- 17 to 14 +/- 11 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) respectively. Mean IGF-I levels decreased from 310 +/- 81 to 186 +/- 78 ng/ml (P = 0.001). In the second part of the experimental protocol, serum osteocalcin and PICP levels increased 5- and 3-fold, respectively with rhIGF-I administration and were significantly elevated compared with the placebo group at the end of treatment (20.9 +/- 17.3 vs. 5.9 +/- 6.4 ng/ml for osteocalcin [P < 0.05] and 188 +/- 45 vs. 110 +/- 37 ng/ml for PICP [P < 0.05]). In contrast, all four markers of bone resorption, including urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, N-telopeptide and hydroxyproline were unchanged with rhIGF-I administration. This report is the first to demonstrate that bone turnover falls rapidly with acute caloric deprivation in normal women. RhIGF-I administration

  3. Failure of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 to diagnose growth hormone insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, H; Dattani, M; Nanduri, V; Hindmarsh, P; Preece, M; Brook, C

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Growth hormone insufficiency (GHI) is diagnosed conventionally by short stature and slow growth, and is confirmed by diminished peak GH response to a provocation test. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) have previously been considered individually
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that the combined analysis of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 could act as a surrogate marker for the diagnosis of GHI.
DESIGN—Reference ranges for IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were calculated using 521 normal individuals. A retrospective analysis was performed on 318 children referred for investigation of short stature.
RESULTS—No significant difference was found between either the IGF-I or IGFBP-3 standard deviation scores (SDSs) in children with and without GHI. If the requirement were for both tests to be positive (< −2 SDS) for a diagnosis of GHI, then 99% of children without GHI would be correctly identified; however, the sensitivity of the test was only 15%.
CONCLUSIONS—Neither IGF-I nor IGFBP-3 alone is a marker for GHI. In addition, they cannot be used as an effective screening test in combination.

 PMID:10208950

  4. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7–23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  5. IGF-I and TGF-beta1 have distinct effects on phenotype and proliferation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Simmons, James G; Pucilowska, Jolanta B; Keku, Temitope O; Lund, P Kay

    2002-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) are upregulated in myofibroblasts at sites of fibrosis in experimental enterocolitis and in Crohn's disease (CD). We compared the sites of expression of IGF-I and TGF-beta1 in a rat peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) model of chronic granulomatous enterocolitis and fibrosis. We used the human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblast/myofibroblast cell line to test the hypothesis that TGF-beta1 and IGF-I interact to regulate proliferation, collagen synthesis, and activated phenotype typified by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and organization into stress fibers. IGF-I potently stimulated while TGF-beta1 inhibited basal DNA synthesis. TGF-beta1 and IGF-I each had similar but not additive effects to induce type I collagen. TGF-beta1 but not IGF-I potently stimulated expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and stress fiber formation. IGF-I in combination with TGF-beta1 attenuated stress fiber formation without reducing alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. Stress fibers were not a prerequisite for increased collagen synthesis. TGF-beta1 upregulated IGF-I mRNA, which led us to examine the effects of IGF-I in cells previously activated by TGF-beta1 pretreatment. IGF-I potently stimulated proliferation of TGF-beta1-activated myofibroblasts without reversing activated fibrogenic phenotype. We conclude that TGF-beta1 and IGF-I both stimulate type I collagen synthesis but have differential effects on activated phenotype and proliferation. We propose that during intestinal inflammation, regulation of activated phenotype and proliferation may require sequential actions of TGF-beta1 and IGF-I, but they may act in concert to increase collagen deposition. PMID:12181198

  6. Polymorphic heterologous microsatellite loci for population genetics studies of the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Pelecaniformes, Threskiornithidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Castro e Souza, Andiara Silos Moraes; Miño, Carolina Isabel; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2012-01-01

    We screened 44 heterologous microsatellites isolated in species of the families Threskiornithidae, Ciconiidae and Ardeidae for their use in a migratory waterbird, the white-faced ibis Plegadis chihi (Vieillot, 1817) (Threskiornithidae). Of the screened loci, 57% amplified successfully and 24% were polymorphic. In two breeding colonies from southern Brazil (N = 131) we detected 32 alleles (2–10 alleles/locus). Average He over all loci and colonies was 0.55, and the combined probability of excluding false parents, 98%. There was no departure from HWE in any loci or population. Eru6 and Eru4 loci were in non-random association in the Alvorada colony, and NnNF5 and Eru5 in both populations. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the genetic diversity was contained within populations. Structure analysis suggested a single population, and FST value showed weak genetic structuring (FST = 0.009, p = 0.05). The two populations are apparently connected through gene-flow. The panel of six microsatellites optimized here was sufficiently informative for characterizing the genetic diversity and structure in these natural populations of the white-faced ibis. The information generated could be useful in future studies of genetic diversity, relatedness and the mating system in Plegadis chihi and related species. PMID:22481877

  7. Loss of serum IGF-I input to the brain as an early biomarker of disease onset in Alzheimer mice

    PubMed Central

    Trueba-Sáiz, A; Cavada, C; Fernandez, A M; Leon, T; González, D A; Fortea Ormaechea, J; Lleó, A; Del Ser, T; Nuñez, A; Torres-Aleman, I

    2013-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) enters the brain and promotes clearance of amyloid peptides known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Both patients and mouse models of AD show decreased level of circulating IGF-I enter the brain as evidenced by a lower ratio of cerebrospinal fluid/plasma IGF-I. Importantly, in presymptomatic AD mice this reduction is already manifested as a decreased brain input of serum IGF-I in response to environmental enrichment. To explore a potential diagnostic use of this early loss of IGF-I input, we monitored electrocorticogram (ECG) responses to systemic IGF-I in mice. Whereas control mice showed enhanced ECG activity after IGF-I, presymptomatic AD mice showed blunted ECG responses. Because nonhuman primates showed identically enhanced electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in response to systemic IGF-I, loss of the EEG signature of serum IGF-I may be exploited as a disease biomarker in AD patients. PMID:24301648

  8. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Killarney Fern (Vandenboschia speciosa, Hymenophyllaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    García-López, M. del Carmen; Schuler, Samira Ben-Menni; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Nieto-Lugilde, Marta; Terrón-Camero, Laura; Aguilera, Ismael Mazuecos; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: We characterize 10 microsatellite loci in the endangered fern Vandenboschia speciosa (Hymenophyllaceae), enabling studies on the genetic population structure of this Macaronesian-European species using DNA hypervariable markers. Methods and Results: Ten primer sets were developed and tested on 47 individuals in a total of two Iberian populations of V. speciosa. The primers amplified di- and hexanucelotide repeats. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.107 to 0.807 among the populations analyzed. Conclusions: The 10 microsatellite markers developed will be useful in characterizing the genetic diversity of V. speciosa and understanding its population structure (including the possible structure between sporophyte and gametophyte phases) and biogeographic history, and will provide important genetic data for the conservation of this species. PMID:26649267

  9. Long R3 insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) infusion stimulates organ growth but reduces plasma IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF binding protein concentrations in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Conlon, M A; Tomas, F M; Owens, P C; Wallace, J C; Howarth, G S; Ballard, F J

    1995-08-01

    We have tested whether an animal with substantial amounts of both IGF-I and IGF-II in circulation, such as the guinea pig, would respond to chronic IGF infusion in the same manner as the adult rat, which has negligible amounts of IGF-II in blood. Female guinea pigs of 350 g body weight were continuously infused for 7 days with recombinant guinea pig IGF-I or -II (120 or 360 micrograms/day) or long R3 IGF-I (LR3IGF-I) (120 micrograms/day), an analogue which has much reduced affinities for IGF binding proteins. IGF-I or IGF-II infusion led to substantial increases in plasma IGF-I or IGF-II respectively in comparison with vehicle-infused animals. Nevertheless, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and carcass composition were not significantly affected by any treatment (significance was deemed to be P < 0.05). Amongst the tissues examined only the fractional weight (g/kg body weight) of the adrenals was increased, and that only by the higher dose (360 micrograms/day) of IGF-I. However, the fractional weight of adrenals, gut, kidneys and spleen were significantly increased by LR3IGF-I, but again overall growth was not stimulated. A possible explanation for the lack of IGF-I effects is that total circulating IGF concentrations were not increased by these treatments. IGF-II significantly raised total IGF concentrations at the higher dose only. Plasma IGF-I was reduced by IGF-II infusion, as was plasma IGF-II by IGF-I infusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7561636

  10. Growth hormone, IGF-I and insulin and their abuse in sport

    PubMed Central

    Holt, R I G; Sönksen, P H

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread anecdotal evidence that growth hormone (GH) is used by athletes for its anabolic and lipolytic properties. Although there is little evidence that GH improves performance in young healthy adults, randomized controlled studies carried out so far are inadequately designed to demonstrate this, not least because GH is often abused in combination with anabolic steroids and insulin. Some of the anabolic actions of GH are mediated through the generation of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and it is believed that this is also being abused. Athletes are exposing themselves to potential harm by self-administering large doses of GH, IGF-I and insulin. The effects of excess GH are exemplified by acromegaly. IGF-I may mediate and cause some of these changes, but in addition, IGF-I may lead to profound hypoglycaemia, as indeed can insulin. Although GH is on the World Anti-doping Agency list of banned substances, the detection of abuse with GH is challenging. Two approaches have been developed to detect GH abuse. The first is based on an assessment of the effect of exogenous recombinant human GH on pituitary GH isoforms and the second is based on the measurement of markers of GH action. As a result, GH abuse can be detected with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Testing for IGF-I and insulin is in its infancy, but the measurement of markers of GH action may also detect IGF-I usage, while urine mass spectroscopy has begun to identify the use of insulin analogues. PMID:18376417

  11. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 and 1298 polymorphisms, folate intake, and microsatellite instability in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Allison M; Sandler, Robert; Carethers, John M; Millikan, Robert C; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O

    2005-08-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene plays a critical role in folate metabolism. Studies on the association between MTHFR polymorphisms and length changes in short tandem repeat DNA sequences [microsatellite instability (MSI)] are inconsistent. Using data from colon cancer cases (n=503) enrolled as part of an existing population-based case-control study, we investigated the association between MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 polymorphisms and MSI. We also examined whether the association was modified by folate intake. Participants were case subjects enrolled as part of the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Consenting cases provided information about lifestyle and diet during in-home interviews as well as blood specimens and permission to obtain tumor blocks. DNA from normal and tumor tissue sections was used to determine microsatellite status (MSI). Tumors were classified as MSI if two or more microsatellite markers (BAT25, BAT26, D5S346, D2S123, and D17S250) had changes in the number of DNA sequence repeats compared with matched nontumor tissue. Tumors with one positive marker (MSI-low) or no positive markers (microsatellite stable) were grouped together as non-MSI tumors (microsatellite stable). MTHFR 677 and MTHFR 1298 genotypes were determined by real-time PCR using the 5' exonuclease (Taqman) assay. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). MSI was more common in proximal tumors (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7-8.4) and in current smokers (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.6-9.7). Compared with MTHFR 677 CC referent, MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with MSI among White cases (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.16-0.81) but not significant among African Americans. Although not statistically significant, a similar inverse association was observed between MTHFR 677 CT/TT genotype and MSI among the entire case subjects (OR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.26-1.10). Among those with adequate folate intake (>400 microg total folate

  12. A moderate elevation of circulating levels of IGF-I does not alter ErbB2 induced mammary tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that moderately elevated levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women. How circulating IGF-I may promote breast cancer incidence is unknown, however, increased IGF-I signaling is linked to trastuzumab resistance in ErbB2 positive breast cancer. Few models have directly examined the effect of moderately high levels of circulating IGF-I on breast cancer initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of circulating IGF-I to independently initiate mammary tumorigenesis and/or accelerate the progression of ErbB2 mediated mammary tumor growth. Methods We crossed heterozygous TTR-IGF-I mice with heterozygous MMTV-ErbB2 mice to generate 4 different genotypes: TTR-IGF-I/MMTV-ErbB2 (bigenic), TTR-IGF-I only, MMTV-ErbB2 only, and wild type (wt). Virgin females were palpated twice a week and harvested when tumors reached 1000 mm3. For study of normal development, blood and tissue were harvested at 4, 6 and 9 weeks of age in TTR-IGF-I and wt mice. Results TTR-IGF-I and TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic mice showed a moderate 35% increase in circulating total IGF-I compared to ErbB2 and wt control mice. Elevation of circulating IGF-I had no effect upon pubertal mammary gland development. The transgenic increase in IGF-I alone wasn't sufficient to initiate mammary tumorigenesis. Elevated circulating IGF-I had no effect upon ErbB2-induced mammary tumorigenesis or metastasis, with median time to tumor formation being 30 wks and 33 wks in TTR-IGF-I/ErbB2 bigenic and ErbB2 mice respectively (p = 0.65). Levels of IGF-I in lysates from ErbB2/TTR-IGF-I tumors compared to ErbB2 was elevated in a similar manner to the circulating IGF-I, however, there was no effect on the rate of tumor growth (p = 0.23). There were no morphological differences in tumor type (solid adenocarcinomas) between bigenic and ErbB2 mammary glands. Conclusion Using the first

  13. Dephosphorylation of human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases.

    PubMed Central

    Peraldi, P; Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1992-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor exhibits structural and functional similarities to the insulin receptor. Although the regulation of the insulin-receptor tyrosine kinase has been extensively investigated, the mechanisms involved in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor have received only little attention. To obtain a better understanding of the mode of IGF-I action, we have investigated the effects of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) on the phosphorylation status of the IGF-I receptor. The dephosphorylation of the human IGF-I receptor by membrane-associated tyrosine phosphatases was studied by an immuno-enzymic assay based on the recognition of phosphotyrosine residues by anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies. Using intact IGF-I receptors as substrates, we show that they could be completely dephosphorylated by different cellular PTPases. Three pieces of evidence indicate that receptor dephosphorylation takes place on phosphotyrosine, i.e. the inhibition profile of phosphatase activity by zinc and vanadate, its absolute requirement for thiol compounds and the diminution of [32P]phosphotyrosine labelling of the beta subunit assessed by SDS/PAGE and phosphoamino acid analysis. Tyrosine kinase activity and autophosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor were decreased in a dose-dependent manner by PTPases, indicating that partial dephosphorylation of the receptor was associated with a decrease in its intrinsic activity. The sensitivity of the activated human IGF-I receptor to dephosphorylation on tyrosine leads to the speculation that IGF-I receptor activity might be regulated by mechanisms such as those described for the insulin receptor. Further investigation of the pathways of IGF-I receptor dephosphorylation will contribute to define the role(s) of PTPases in the overall mechanism of IGF-I signalling. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:1322128

  14. Development of Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers of Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a North American Pest Invading Asia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenxia; Shang, Xingpu

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for epidemiological studies on the black locust gall midge Obolodiplosis robiniae (Haldeman) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a native North America pest introduced to Europe and Asia. Polymorphism at each locus was tested on 68 individuals from six populations reared from infected host leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L. collected in China. Fourteen loci were found to be polymorphic, with the number of alleles ranging from 3 to 10. The observed heterozygosity varied evenly from 0.2667 to 0.6540. For populations, the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.1429 to 1.000. The allele frequency of the predominant allele varied from 0.250 to 0.500. All loci with negative FST values indicated heterozygote excess in each locus with six populations. Of 14 loci, four were observed to have FST values up to 0.05, which indicated negligible genetic differentiation within the population. Significant deviations (P < 0.05) from the expected Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, as evaluated using the Markov chain algorithm for each locus and for all six populations, were observed, and genotypic linkage disequilibrium was clearly detected. These markers represent a useful tool to design strategies for integrated pest management and in the study of population evolution in this important introduced pest. PMID:26386040

  15. Patterns of microsatellite polymorphism in the range-restricted bonobo (Pan paniscus): considerations for interspecific comparison with chimpanzees (P. troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Reinartz, G E; Karron, J D; Phillips, R B; Weber, J L

    2000-03-01

    The endangered great ape, Pan paniscus (bonobo) has the smallest range of the African apes. Virtually nothing is known about the genetic diversity or genetic structure of this species, while substantial amounts of polymorphism have been reported for the bonobo's widespread congener, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes). Given its restricted range, what is the extent of genetic variation in the bonobo relative to the chimpanzee, and is the bonobo genetically depauperate? To investigate patterns of genetic polymorphism, bonobos of wild origin were genotyped for 28 microsatellite loci. The mean number of alleles per locus (5.2) and the mean observed heterozygosity (0.52) in bonobos were similar to variation observed in a wild chimpanzee community (P. t. schweinfurthii). The rarer bonobo is not genetically depauperate and may have genetic diversity comparable to the eastern chimpanzee subspecies. Bonobos have approximately 55% of the allelic diversity and 66% of the observed heterozygosity exhibited by all three chimpanzee subspecies sampled across equatorial Africa. Resampling techniques were used to quantify the effects of sample size differences and number and choice of loci between bonobos and chimpanzees. The examination of these variables underscores their importance in accurately interpreting interspecific comparisons of diversity estimates. PMID:10736029

  16. Development of 22 Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci for the Critically Endangered Morato’s Digger Toad, Proceratophrys moratoi

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Maurício Papa; Costa, William Pinheiro; Silva, Carla Cristina; Pimentel, Shirlei Maria Recco

    2012-01-01

    The Morato’s digger toad (Proceratophrys moratoi) inhabits Brazilian moist savannas and is critically endangered due to its very limited geographic distribution, reduced number of isolated populations, and evidence of population decline and local extinctions. With the objective of providing tools for the genetic study of the species, 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and screened using DNA extracted from samples of oral mucosa cells obtained from 113 individuals representing five remnant P. moratoi populations in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. These markers presented 2–18 alleles per locus, polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.02–0.87, observed heterozygosity of 0.02–0.96 and expected heterozygosity of 0.02–0.87. Three of the loci deviated significantly from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in one of the populations, possibly due to the presence of null alleles. Significant linkage disequilibrium was also detected between three pairs of loci. The molecular markers developed in this study were able to discriminate each of the individuals sampled (identity analysis). This means that they will be extremely useful for future genetic studies applied to the conservation of P. moratoi, providing a baseline for estimating the levels of genetic diversity, pedigrees, inbreeding, and population structure, which will be essential for the development of effective genetic management programs. PMID:23202897

  17. Increased weight gain, nitrogen retention and muscle protein synthesis following treatment of diabetic rats with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and des(1-3)IGF-I.

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, F M; Knowles, S E; Owens, P C; Read, L C; Chandler, C S; Gargosky, S E; Ballard, F J

    1991-01-01

    We have examined the effects of infusing recombinant human growth hormone (hGH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), the truncated IGF-I analogue, des(1-3)IGF-I, and insulin over a 7-day period in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. IGF-I at a dose of 1.05 or 1.08 mg/kg per day in two experiments increased body weight and nitrogen retention above those of vehicle-infused controls to about 30% of the improvement achieved with 25 or 30 units of insulin/kg per day, but only in the second experiment were the differences statistically significant (P less than 0.05). A 2.5-fold higher IGF-I dose, or des(1-3)IGF-I at 1.08 mg/kg per day, gave effects that were approx. 70% of those obtained with insulin. hGH at 1.38 mg/kg per day was not effective. The IGF peptides, unlike insulin, did not ameliorate the diabetic glucosuria. The improvements in nitrogen balance could be accounted for in part by increases in muscle protein synthesis. Muscle protein breakdown, as assessed by 3-methylhistidine excretion, was inhibited by insulin, but not by the IGF peptides. Carcass fat increased substantially following insulin administration. This did not occur with the IGF peptides, suggesting that IGF predominantly stimulates the growth of lean tissue. IGF-I concentrations and IGF-I-binding proteins in plasma were increased by IGF-I, especially at the higher dose, whereas hGH produced only a transient increase in IGF-I. Des(1-3)IGF-I induced binding proteins, but had only a slight effect on measured IGF-I concentrations. We conclude that IGF peptides stimulate muscle protein synthesis and improve nitrogen balance in diabetes without obviously influencing the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism. Moreover, des(1-3)IGF-I is at least as potent as the full-length IGF-I. Images Fig. 2. PMID:1710892

  18. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor phosphorylation in µ-calpain knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous cellular processes are controlled by insulin and IGF-I signaling pathways. Due to previous work in our laboratories, we hypothesized that insulin (IR) and type 1 IGF-I (IGF-IR) receptor signaling is decreased due to increased protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) activity. C57BL/6J mice...

  19. REGULATION OF ERK EXPRESSION BY MUSCLE IGF-I "IN VIVO" DETERMINES THE CAPACITY FOR MYONUCLEAR PROLIFERATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local IGF-I enhances muscle growth by stimulating protein synthesis and myonuclear accretion. This response, however, is not sustained upon chronic exposure to high levels of IGF-I, and we determined previously that this limited response was associated with a decrease in the amount of muscle ERK pro...

  20. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in the brine shrimp Artemia (Branchiopoda, Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J; Green, A J; Figuerola, J; Amat, F; Rico, C

    2009-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia is a complex genus containing sexual species and parthenogenetic lineages. Artemia franciscana is native to America and its cysts (diapausing eggs) are used worldwide as a food source in aquaculture. As a consequence, this anostracan has become an invasive species in many hypersaline aquatic ecosystems of other continents. Parthenogenetic Artemia lineages occur only in the Old World. Ten and five microsatellite markers were developed to characterize two populations for A. franciscana and two populations for diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, respectively. For A. franciscana the number of alleles ranged from 11 to 58 per locus, while for parthenogens the number of alleles ranged from three to 10. The levels of heterozygosity in A. franciscana and in parthenogens ranged from 0.115 to 0.976 and from 0.000 to 0.971, respectively. These microsatellite loci showed a high population assignment power, which will be useful for future studies of population genetics and invasive processes in Artemia. PMID:21564689

  1. Persistent IGF-I overexpression in skeletal muscle transiently enhances DNA accretion and growth.

    PubMed

    Fiorotto, Marta L; Schwartz, Robert J; Delaughter, M Craig

    2003-01-01

    Adult transgenic mice with muscle-specific overexpression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I have enlarged skeletal muscles. In this study, we; 1) characterized the development of muscle hypertrophy with respect to fiber type, age, and sex; 2) determined the primary anabolic process responsible for development of hypertrophy; and 3) identified secondary effects of muscle hypertrophy on body composition. Transgene expression increased with age and was present only in fibers expressing type IIB fast myosin heavy chain. Muscle masses were greater by 5 wk of age, and by 10 wk of age the differences were maximal despite continued transgene expression. Total DNA and RNA contents of the gastrocnemius muscle were greater for transgenic mice than for nontransgenic littermates. The differences were maximal by 5 wk of age and preceded the increase in protein mass. The accelerated protein deposition ceased when the protein/DNA ratio attained the same value as in nontransgenic controls. Despite localization of IGF-I expression to muscle without changes in plasma IGF-I concentrations, genotype also modified the normal age and sex effects on fat deposition and organ growth. Thus, enhanced DNA accretion by IGF-I was primarily responsible for stimulating muscle growth. In turn, secondary effects on body composition were incurred that likely reflect the impact of muscle mass on whole body metabolism. PMID:12528713

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Stimulation of Osteoblastogenesis in Human MSCs Requires IGF-I Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaonan; Glowacki, Julie; Hahne, Jochen; Xie, Li; LeBoff, Meryl S; Zhou, Shuanhu

    2016-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an adrenal steroid that circulates in high concentrations in humans in its sulfated form, DHEAS. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggested that low DHEAS levels may be associated with low bone mass. Previously, we and others showed that the effects of DHEA on the skeleton may be conferred partly by their ability to inhibit skeletal catabolic agents, for example, bone resorptive cytokine IL-6. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anabolic effects of DHEA on osteoblastogenesis require IGF-I signaling pathways. Using both primary cultures and a cell line of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), we show that DHEA and other steroids stimulate osteoblastogenesis as shown by alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast gene induction. The stimulation by DHEA on both IGF-I gene expression and osteoblastogenesis in hMSCs requires IGF-I receptor, PI3K, p38 MAPK, or p42/44 MAPK signaling pathways. This study adds information to indicate that DHEA may be useful for treating bone diseases through its inhibition of skeletal catabolic IL-6 and stimulation of anabolic IGF-I-mediated mechanisms. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1769-1774, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26682953

  3. Targeting quiescent tumor cells via oxygen and IGF-I supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Alastair H; Baker, Jennifer H E; Minchinton, Andrew I

    2012-02-01

    Conventional chemotherapy targets proliferating cancer cells, but most cells in solid tumors are not in a proliferative state. Thus, strategies to enable conventional chemotherapy to target noncycling cells may greatly increase tumor responsiveness. In this study, we used a 3-dimensional tissue culture system to assay diffusible factors that can limit proliferation in the context of the tumor microenvironment, with the goal of identifying targets to heighten proliferative capacity in this setting. We found that supraphysiologic levels of insulin or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in combination with oxygen supplementation were sufficient to initiate proliferation of quiescence cells in this system. At maximal induction with IGF-I, net tissue proliferation increased 3- to 4-fold in the system such that chemotherapy could trigger a 3- to 6-fold increase in cytotoxicity, compared with control conditions. These effects were confirmed in vivo in colon cancer xenograft models with demonstrations that IGF-I receptor stimulation was sufficient to generate a 45% increase in tumor cell proliferation, along with a 25% to 50% increase in chemotherapy-induced tumor growth delay. Although oxygen was a dominant factor limiting in vitro tumor cell proliferation, we found that oxygen supplementation via pure oxygen breathing at 1 or 2 atmospheres pressure (mimicking hyperbaric therapy) did not decrease hypoxia in the tumor xenograft mouse model and was insufficient to increase tumor proliferation. Thus, our findings pointed to IGF-I receptor stimulation as a rational strategy to successfully increase tumor responsiveness to cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:22158947

  4. A novel, non-invasive transdermal fluid sampling methodology: IGF-I measurement following exercise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study tested the hypothesis that transdermal fluid (TDF) provides a more sensitive and accurate measure of exercise-induced increases in insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) than serum, and that these increases are detectable proximal, but not distal, to the exercising muscle. A novel, noninvas...

  5. LOCAL IGF-I ENHANCES THE SENSITIVITY OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS TO INSULIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the immature muscle is highly sensitive to insulin and nutrients. We hypothesized that the sensitivity is due to local IGFs expressed at a significant level by immature muscle. To test the hypothesis, 3-wk-old transgenic mice with high muscle-specific IGF-I expr...

  6. Acute regulation of IGF-I by alterations in post-exercise macronutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise ...

  7. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Provenzano, Paolo P; Alejandro-Osorio, Adriana L; Grorud, Kelley W; Martinez, Daniel A; Vailas, Arthur C; Grindeland, Richard E; Vanderby, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) plays a crucial role in wound healing and tissue repair. We tested the hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I, or growth hormone (GH), or both (GH+IGF-I) would improve healing in collagenous connective tissue, such as ligament. These hypotheses were examined in rats that were allowed unrestricted activity after injury and in animals that were subjected to hindlimb disuse. Male rats were assigned to three groups: ambulatory sham-control, ambulatory-healing, and hindlimb unloaded-healing. Ambulatory and hindlimb unloaded animals underwent surgical disruption of their knee medial collateral ligaments (MCLs), while sham surgeries were performed on control animals. Healing animals subcutaneously received systemic doses of either saline, GH, IGF-I, or GH+IGF-I. After 3 weeks, mechanical properties, cell and matrix morphology, and biochemical composition were examined in control and healing ligaments. Results Tissues from ambulatory animals receiving only saline had significantly greater strength than tissue from saline receiving hindlimb unloaded animals. Addition of IGF-I significantly improved maximum force and ultimate stress in tissues from both ambulatory and hindlimb unloaded animals with significant increases in matrix organization and type-I collagen expression. Addition of GH alone did not have a significant effect on either group, while addition of GH+IGF-I significantly improved force, stress, and modulus values in MCLs from hindlimb unloaded animals. Force, stress, and modulus values in tissues from hindlimb unloaded animals receiving IGF-I or GH+IGF-I exceeded (or were equivalent to) values in tissues from ambulatory animals receiving only saline with greatly improved structural organization and significantly increased type-I collagen expression. Furthermore, levels of IGF-receptor were significantly increased in tissues from hindlimb unloaded animals treated with IGF-I. Conclusion These results

  8. Contribution of Residue B5 to the Folding and Function of Insulin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sohma, Youhei; Hua, Qing-xin; Liu, Ming; Phillips, Nelson B.; Hu, Shi-Quan; Whittaker, Jonathan; Whittaker, Linda J.; Ng, Aubree; Roberts, Charles T.; Arvan, Peter; Kent, Stephen B. H.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Proinsulin exhibits a single structure, whereas insulin-like growth factors refold as two disulfide isomers in equilibrium. Native insulin-related growth factor (IGF)-I has canonical cystines (A6—A11, A7–B7, and A20—B19) maintained by IGF-binding proteins; IGF-swap has alternative pairing (A7–A11, A6—B7, and A20—B19) and impaired activity. Studies of mini-domain models suggest that residue B5 (His in insulin and Thr in IGFs) governs the ambiguity or uniqueness of disulfide pairing. Residue B5, a site of mutation in proinsulin causing neonatal diabetes, is thus of broad biophysical interest. Here, we characterize reciprocal B5 substitutions in the two proteins. In insulin, HisB5 → Thr markedly destabilizes the hormone (ΔΔGu 2.0 ± 0.2 kcal/mol), impairs chain combination, and blocks cellular secretion of proinsulin. The reciprocal IGF-I substitution ThrB5 → His (residue 4) specifies a unique structure with native 1H NMR signature. Chemical shifts and nuclear Overhauser effects are similar to those of native IGF-I. Whereas wild-type IGF-I undergoes thiol-catalyzed disulfide exchange to yield IGF-swap, HisB5-IGF-I retains canonical pairing. Chemical denaturation studies indicate that HisB5 does not significantly enhance thermodynamic stability (ΔΔGu 0.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol), implying that the substitution favors canonical pairing by destabilizing competing folds. Whereas the activity of ThrB5-insulin is decreased 5-fold, HisB5-IGF-I exhibits 2-fold increased affinity for the IGF receptor and augmented post-receptor signaling. We propose that conservation of ThrB5 in IGF-I, rescued from structural ambiguity by IGF-binding proteins, reflects fine-tuning of signal transduction. In contrast, the conservation of HisB5 in insulin highlights its critical role in insulin biosynthesis. PMID:19959476

  9. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Based on 27 Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meece, J.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Fisher, M.C.; Henk, D.A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Reed, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Blastomyces dermatitidis, a thermally dimorphic fungus, is the etiologic agent of North American blastomycosis. Clinical presentation is varied, ranging from silent infections to fulminant respiratory disease and dissemination to skin and other sites. Exploration of the population genetic structure of B. dermatitidis would improve our knowledge regarding variation in virulence phenotypes, geographic distribution, and difference in host specificity. The objective of this study was to develop and test a panel of microsatellite markers to delineate the population genetic structure within a group of clinical and environmental isolates of B. dermatitidis. We developed 27 microsatellite markers and genotyped B. dermatitidis isolates from various hosts and environmental sources (n = 112). Assembly of a neighbor-joining tree of allele-sharing distance revealed two genetically distinct groups, separated by a deep node. Bayesian admixture analysis showed that two populations were statistically supported. Principal coordinate analysis also reinforced support for two genetic groups, with the primary axis explaining 61.41% of the genetic variability. Group 1 isolates average 1.8 alleles/locus, whereas group 2 isolates are highly polymorphic, averaging 8.2 alleles/locus. In this data set, alleles at three loci are unshared between the two groups and appear diagnostic. The mating type of individual isolates was determined by PCR. Both mating type-specific genes, the HMG and ??-box domains, were represented in each of the genetic groups, with slightly more isolates having the HMG allele. One interpretation of this study is that the species currently designated B. dermatitidis includes a cryptic subspecies or perhaps a separate species. ?? 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

  11. Cloning, characterization and tissue specific expression of Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xi-Lian; Zhu, Mu-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-He; Hou, Rong; Shen, Fu-Jun; Li, Fu-Zhen; Zhang, An-Ju

    2006-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) plays an important role in regulating gonad function, which is essential for normal reproduction in animals, especially in sexual receptivity and reproductive behavior. In this study, a cDNA encoding Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) IGF-I was isolated from liver total RNA using RT-PCR. The IGF-I cDNA of Amur tiger (ATIGF-I) was highly homologous to that of other animals, 84.8% to rat, 93.7% to human and horse. Alignment analysis showed that the cysteine residues and many amino acid residues of putative mature ATIGF-I are highly conserved in mammalian species, confirming the high sequence homology observed in other species. DNA encoding the mature ATIGF-I peptide was ligated with pET-DsbA expression vector and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 with IPTG induction. The recombinant proteins expressed existed mostly in the soluble protein fraction, and were purified with metal affinity resins. Western blotting confirmed that the recombinant proteins reacted with antibodies against IGF-I. The results obtained here should be useful for large-scale production of biological active ATIGF-I protein, as well as for further research on growth, development, and reproduction in the Amur tiger. Tissue specific expression of ATIGF-I mRNA in the Amur tiger was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), The major ATIGF-I mRNA expression tissue was the liver, while medium signals were found in the uterus, ovary, and pituitary, and minor signals were detected in various tissues including the heart, spleen, pancreas, and kidney. The results indicate that IGF-I might play an important role in the reproductive system and in cub development in the Amur tiger. PMID:16926496

  12. Sleep extension increases IGF-I concentrations before and during sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Arnal, Pierrick J; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to suppress circulating trophic factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This experiment examined the effect of an intervention involving 6 nights of extended sleep before total sleep deprivation on this catabolic profile. In a randomized crossover design, 14 young men (age range: 26-37 years) were either in an extended (EXT; time in bed: 2100-0700 h) or habitual (HAB: 2230-0700 h) sleep condition, followed by 3 days in the laboratory with blood sampling at baseline (B), after 24 h of sleep deprivation (24h-SD), and after 1 night of recovery sleep (R). In the EXT condition compared with the HAB condition, free IGF-I levels were significantly higher at B, 24h-SD, and R (P < 0.001), and those of total IGF-I at B and 24h-SD (P < 0.05). EXT did not influence growth hormone, IGF binding protein 3, BDNF, insulin, and glucose levels. The only effect of 24 h of sleep deprivation was for insulin levels, which were significantly higher after R compared with B. In a healthy adult, additional sleep over 1 week increased blood concentrations of the anabolic factor IGF-I before and during 24 h of sleep deprivation and after the subsequent recovery night without effects on BDNF. With further research, these findings may prove to be important in guiding effective lifestyle modifications to limit physical or cognitive deficits associated with IGF-I decrease with age. PMID:27560704

  13. Differential effects of STAT proteins on growth hormone-mediated IGF-I gene expression.

    PubMed

    Varco-Merth, Ben; Rotwein, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role regulating somatic growth and in controlling metabolism and other physiological processes in humans and other animal species. GH acts by binding to the extracellular part of its transmembrane receptor, leading to induction of multiple intracellular signal transduction pathways that culminate in changes in gene and protein expression. A key agent in GH-stimulated growth is the latent transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5B, one of four STAT proteins induced by the GH receptor in cultured cells and in vivo. As shown by genetic and biochemical studies, GH-activated STAT5B promotes transcription of the gene encoding the critical growth peptide, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and natural null mutations of STAT5B in humans lead to growth failure accompanied by diminished IGF-I expression. Here we have examined the possibility that other GH-activated STATs can enhance IGF-I gene transcription, and thus potentially contribute to GH-regulated somatic growth. We find that human STAT5A is nearly identical to STAT5B in its biochemical and functional responses to GH but that STAT1 and STAT3 show a weaker profile of in vitro binding to STAT DNA elements from the IGF-I gene than STAT5B, and are less potent inducers of gene transcription through these elements. Taken together, our results offer a molecular explanation for why STAT5B is a key in vivo mediator of GH-activated IGF-I gene transcription and thus of GH-regulated somatic growth. PMID:25205818

  14. Antagonists of IGF:Vitronectin Interactions Inhibit IGF-I-Induced Breast Cancer Cell Functions.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Abhishek S; Shooter, Gary K; Shokoohmand, Ali; McGovern, Jacqui; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Croll, Tristan I; Cane, Gaëlle; Leavesley, David I; Söderberg, Ola; Upton, Zee; Hollier, Brett G

    2016-07-01

    We provide proof-of-concept evidence for a new class of therapeutics that target growth factor:extracellular matrix (GF:ECM) interactions for the management of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) forms multiprotein complexes with IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) and the ECM protein vitronectin (VN), and stimulates the survival, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. For the first time we provide physical evidence for IGFBP-3:VN interactions in breast cancer patient tissues; these interactions were predominantly localized to tumor cell clusters and in stroma surrounding tumor cells. We show that disruption of IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complexes with L(27)-IGF-II inhibits IGF-I:IGFBP:VN-stimulated breast cancer cell migration and proliferation in two- and three-dimensional assay systems. Peptide arrays screened to identify regions critical for the IGFBP-3/-5:VN and IGF-II:VN interactions demonstrated IGFBP-3/-5 and IGF-II binds VN through the hemopexin-2 domain, and VN binds IGFBP-3 at residues not involved in the binding of IGF-I to IGFBP-3. IGFBP-interacting VN peptides identified from these peptide arrays disrupted the IGF-I:IGFBP:VN complex, impeded the growth of primary tumor-like spheroids and, more importantly, inhibited the invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells in 3D assay systems. These studies provide first-in-field evidence for the utility of small peptides in antagonizing GF:ECM-mediated biologic functions and present data demonstrating the potential of these peptide antagonists as novel therapeutics. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1602-13. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196774

  15. PKC{eta} is a negative regulator of AKT inhibiting the IGF-I induced proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shahaf, Galit; Rotem-Dai, Noa; Koifman, Gabriela; Raveh-Amit, Hadas; Frost, Sigal A.; Livneh, Etta

    2012-04-15

    The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in human cancers, including breast cancer, and its activation appears to be critical for tumor maintenance. Some malignant cells are dependent on activated AKT for their survival; tumors exhibiting elevated AKT activity show sensitivity to its inhibition, providing an Achilles heel for their treatment. Here we show that the PKC{eta} isoform is a negative regulator of the AKT signaling pathway. The IGF-I induced phosphorylation on Ser473 of AKT was inhibited by the PKC{eta}-induced expression in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells. This was further confirmed in shRNA PKC{eta}-knocked-down MCF-7 cells, demonstrating elevated phosphorylation on AKT Ser473. While PKC{eta} exhibited negative regulation on AKT phosphorylation it did not alter the IGF-I induced ERK phosphorylation. However, it enhanced ERK phosphorylation when stimulated by PDGF. Moreover, its effects on IGF-I/AKT and PDGF/ERK pathways were in correlation with cell proliferation. We further show that both PKC{eta} and IGF-I confer protection against UV-induced apoptosis and cell death having additive effects. Although the protective effect of IGF-I involved activation of AKT, it was not affected by PKC{eta} expression, suggesting that PKC{eta} acts through a different route to increase cell survival. Hence, our studies show that PKC{eta} provides negative control on AKT pathway leading to reduced cell proliferation, and further suggest that its presence/absence in breast cancer cells will affect cell death, which could be of therapeutic value.

  16. Association between Serum IGF-I levels and Postoperative Delirium in Elderly Subjects Undergoing Elective Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Timothy E.; Allen, John C.; Rivelli, Sarah K.; Patterson, Stephanie C.; Metcalf, Meredith R.; Flink, Benjamin J.; Mirrakhimov, Aibek E.; Lagoo, Sandhya A.; Vail, Thomas P.; Young, Christopher C.; Moon, Richard E.; Trzepacz, Paula T.; Kwatra, Madan M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is mixed for an association between serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and postoperative delirium (POD). The current study assessed preoperative serum IGF-I levels as a predictor of incident delirium in non-demented elderly elective knee arthroplasty patients. Preoperative serum levels of total IGF-I were measured using a commercially available Human IGF-I ELISA kit. POD incidence and severity were determined using DSM-IV criteria and the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98), respectively. Median IGF-I levels in delirious (62.6 ng/ml) and non-delirious groups (65.9 ng/ml) were not significantly different (p = 0.141). The ratio (95% CI) of geometric means, D/ND, was 0.86 (0.70, 1.06). The Hodges-Lehmann median difference estimate was 7.23 ng/mL with 95% confidence interval (−2.32, 19.9). In multivariate logistic regression analysis IGF-I level was not a significant predictor of incident POD after correcting for medical comorbidities. IGF-I levels did not correlate with DRS-R98 scores for delirium severity. In conclusion, we report no evidence of association between serum IGF-I levels and incidence of POD, although the sample size was inadequate for a conclusive study. Further efforts to investigate IGF-I as a delirium risk factor in elderly should address comorbidities and confounders that influence IGF-I levels. PMID:26846868

  17. Elevated GH/IGF-I promotes mammary tumors in high-fat, but not low-fat, fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gahete, Manuel D; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Lantvit, Daniel D; Ortega-Salas, Rosa; Sanchez-Sanchez, Rafael; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José; Swanson, Steven M; Castaño, Justo P; Luque, Raúl M; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2014-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are thought to promote breast cancer based on reports showing circulating IGF-I levels correlate, in epidemiological studies, with breast cancer risk. Also, mouse models with developmental GH/IGF-I deficiency/resistance are less susceptible to genetic- or chemical-induced mammary tumorigenesis. However, given the metabolic properties of GH, medical strategies have been considered to raise GH to improve body composition and metabolic function in elderly and obese patients. Since hyperlipidemia, inflammation, insulin resistance and obesity increase breast cancer risk, elevating GH may serve to exacerbate cancer progression. To better understand the role GH/IGF-I plays in tumor formation, this study used unique mouse models to determine if reducing GH/IGF-I in adults protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz[α]anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumor development, and if moderate elevations in endogenous GH/IGF-I alter DMBA-induced tumorigenesis in mice fed a standard-chow diet or in mice with altered metabolic function due to high-fat feeding. We observed that adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice, which also have reduced IGF-I levels, were less susceptible to DMBA-treatment. Specifically, fewer adult-onset isolated GH-deficient mice developed mammary tumors compared with GH-replete controls. In contrast, chow-fed mice with elevated endogenous GH/IGF-I (HiGH mice) were not more susceptible to DMBA-treatment. However, high-fat-fed, HiGH mice showed reduced tumor latency and increased tumor incidence compared with diet-matched controls. These results further support a role of GH/IGF-I in regulating mammary tumorigenesis but suggest the ultimate consequences of GH/IGF-I on breast tumor development are dependent on the diet and/or metabolic status. PMID:25085903

  18. Regulation of Human Trophoblast GLUT1 Glucose Transporter by Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I)

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Marc U.; Schneider, Henning; Malek, Antoine; Palta, Vidya; Surbek, Daniel V.; Sager, Ruth; Zamudio, Stacy; Illsley, Nicholas P.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose transport to the fetus across the placenta takes place via glucose transporters in the opposing faces of the barrier layer, the microvillous and basal membranes of the syncytiotrophoblast. While basal membrane content of the GLUT1 glucose transporter appears to be the rate-limiting step in transplacental transport, the factors regulating transporter expression and activity are largely unknown. In view of the many studies showing an association between IGF-I and fetal growth, we investigated the effects of IGF-I on placental glucose transport and GLUT1 transporter expression. Treatment of BeWo choriocarcinoma cells with IGF-I increased cellular GLUT1 protein. There was increased basolateral (but not microvillous) uptake of glucose and increased transepithelial transport of glucose across the BeWo monolayer. Primary syncytial cells treated with IGF-I also demonstrated an increase in GLUT1 protein. Term placental explants treated with IGF-I showed an increase in syncytial basal membrane GLUT1 but microvillous membrane GLUT1 was not affected. The placental dual perfusion model was used to assess the effects of fetally perfused IGF-I on transplacental glucose transport and syncytial GLUT1 content. In control perfusions there was a decrease in transplacental glucose transport over the course of the perfusion, whereas in tissues perfused with IGF-I through the fetal circulation there was no change. Syncytial basal membranes from IGF-I perfused tissues showed an increase in GLUT1 content. These results demonstrate that IGF-I, whether acting via microvillous or basal membrane receptors, increases the basal membrane content of GLUT1 and up-regulates basal membrane transport of glucose, leading to increased transepithelial glucose transport. These observations provide a partial explanation for the mechanism by which IGF-I controls nutrient supply in the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25157747

  19. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in a growth-enhanced transgenic (GH-overexpressing) bony fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): indication for a higher impact of autocrine/paracrine than of endocrine IGF-I.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Caelers, Antje; Shved, Natallia; Hwang, Guylin; Rahman, Azizur M; Maclean, Norman; Zapf, Jürgen; Reinecke, Manfred

    2007-08-01

    Several lines of growth hormone (GH)-overexpressing fish have been produced and analysed for growth and fertility parameters. However, only few data are available on the growth-promoting hormone insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) that mediates most effects of GH, and these are contradictory. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and radiochromatography we investigated IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in an adult (17 months old) transgenic (GH-overexpressing) tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The transgenics showed an around 1.5-fold increase in length and an approximately 2.3-fold higher weight than the non-transgenics. Using radioimmunoassay, the serum IGF-I levels were lower (6.22 +/- 0.75 ng/ml) in transgenic than in wild-type (15.01 +/- 1.49 ng/ml) individuals (P = 0.0012). Radioimmunoassayable IGF-I in transgenic liver was 4.2-times higher than in wild-type (16.0 +/- 2.21 vs. 3.83 +/- 0.71 ng/g, P = 0.0017). No hepatocytes in wild-type but numerous hepatocytes in transgenic liver contained IGF-I-immunoreactivity. RT-PCR revealed a 1.4-times higher IGF-I mRNA expression in the liver of the transgenics (10.51 +/- 0.82 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.49 pg/microg total RNA, P = 0.0032). In correspondence, in situ hybridization showed more IGF-I mRNA containing hepatocytes in the transgenics. A twofold elevated IGF-I mRNA expression was determined in the skeletal muscle of transgenics (0.33 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.01 pg/microg total RNA, P < 0.0001). Both liver and serum of transgenics showed increased IGF-I binding. The increased IGFBP content in the liver may lead to retention of IGF-I, and/or the release of IGF-I into the circulation may be slower resulting in accumulation of IGF-I in the hepatocytes. Our results indicate that the enhanced growth of the transgenics likely is due to enhanced autocrine/paracrine action of IGF-I in extrahepatic sites, as shown here for skeletal muscle. PMID:17431805

  20. Geographic distribution of chromosome and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms in Oncorhynchus mykiss native to western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Thorgaard, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome studies of native populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead and rainbow trout) in western Washington and southern British Columbia revealed the presence of two evolutionarily distinct chromosome lineages. Populations between, and including, the Elwha River, Washington, and Chilliwack River, British Columbia, contained 2n = 60 chromosomes. Populations on the central Washington coast contained 2n = 58 chromosomes. The north Washington coast and western Strait of Juan de Fuca contained individuals with 58, 59, or 60 chromosomes, suggesting this is a transition zone between 58 and 60 chromosome groups. The differences in chromosomal structure between 2n = 58 and 2n = 60 groups are presumably a Robertsonian rearrangement and an inversion. Allelic variation at three microsatellite loci (One ??6, One ??11 and Omy 77) also was examined, and no significant variation was detected among the 58 and 60 chromosome races. A hypothesis is presented concerning the origin of the 60 chromosome lineage.

  1. Very low microsatellite polymorphism and large heterozygote deficits suggest founder effects and cryptic structure in the parasite Perkinsus olseni.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Román; Cao, Asunción; Pardo, Belén G; Fernández, Sergio; Villalba, Antonio; Martínez, Paulino

    2011-07-01

    Twelve microsatellite markers were used to characterize 130 clonal cultures of Perkinsus olseni derived from 30 clams from six different geographic locations. Only two loci were polymorphic in the four populations studied from Spanish coast (mean sample size = 31.2), and a third locus was variable in only two populations. In contrast, five parasites isolated from five clams from Japan and New Zealand showed variation at nine loci. Low genetic variation (2.08 ± 0.64 alleles per locus; mean genetic diversity: 0.101 ± 0.022), and very high F(IS) values (0.857 on average) were observed in Spanish populations. A total of 39 multilocus genotypes (MLGs) were identified in the whole sample (121 clonal isolates after excluding incomplete MLGs due to missing data). A three-level hierarchical analysis of molecular variance found significant levels of genetic variation within infrapopulations (all the parasites in a single host; Φ(IS) = 0.679) and among infrapopulations within the component population (all the parasites among a host population; Φ(SC) = 0.579). Differences among the component population from different geographic locations were not significant (Φ(CT) = 0.057). These results suggest that an important fraction of F(IS) is explained by the Wahlund effect, but also strong inbreeding within infrapopulations. Another explanation for the high F(IS) within infrapopulations is the presence of haploid and diploid stages in the clam. Although fully aquatic system provides many opportunities for mixing of parasites from different clams, results are consistent with the consideration of all P. olseni in a clam as a cohesive genetic unit (i.e., deme). If the parasite was introduced into the Spanish coast with the importation of infected clams from Asia and Oceania, the low microsatellite polymorphism could be reflecting founder effects in the recent evolutionary history of P. olseni. The loss of alleles would be intensified in a scenario structured in numerous demes

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) protects cultured equine Leydig cells from undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M J; Roser, J F

    2010-12-01

    Leydig cells located in the interstitial space of the testicular parenchyma produce testosterone which plays a critical role in the maintenance and restoration of spermatogenesis in many species, including horses. For normal spermatogenesis, maintaining Leydig cells is critical to provide an optimal and constant level of testosterone. Recently, an anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I in testicular cells in rats has been reported, but a similar effect of IGF-I on equine Leydig cells remains to be elucidated. If IGF-I also protects stallion testicular cells from undergoing apoptosis, then IGF-I may have potential as a treatment regime to prevent testicular degeneration. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF-I on cultured equine Leydig cells. Testes were collected from 5 post-pubertal stallions (2-4 years old) during routine castrations. A highly purified preparation of equine Leydig cells was obtained from a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Purity of equine Leydig cells was assessed using histochemical 3β-HSD staining. Equine Leydig cells and selected doses of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-I; Parlow A.F., National Hormone and Peptide Program, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) were added to wells of 24 or 96 well culture plates in triplicate and cultured for 24 or 48 h under 95% air:5% CO(2) at 34°C. After 24 or 48 h incubation, apoptotic rate was assessed using a Cell Death Detection ELISA kit. Significantly lower apoptotic rates were observed in equine Leydig cells cultured with 5, 10, or 50ng/ml of rhIGF-I compared with control cells cultured without rhIGF-I for 24h. Exposure to 1, 5, 10 or 50 ng/ml of rhIGF-I significantly decreased apoptotic rate in equine Leydig cells cultured for 48 h. After 48 h incubation, cells were labeled with Annexin V and propodium iodine to determine the populations of healthy, apoptotic, and necrotic cells by counting stained cells using a Nikon Eclipse inverted fluorescence microscope. As a percentage of

  3. Microsatellite polymorphism among Chrysanthemum sp. polyploids: the influence of whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Gao, Ri; Wang, Jingjing; Dong, Bin; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Polyploidy is common among flowering plants, including the Asteraceae, a relatively recent angiosperm group. EST-SSRs were used to characterize polymorphism among 29 Chrysanthemum and Ajania spp. accessions of various ploidy levels. Most EST-SSR loci were readily transferable between the species, 29 accessions were separated into three groups in terms of the number of fragments. It inferred that the formation from tetraploid to hexaploid and from octoploid to decaploid may be a recent event, while from the diploid to the tetraploid may be an ancient one in the Chrysanthemum lineage. EST-SSR polymorphism was found and some transcripts containing an SSR were transcribed differently in the de novo autotetraploid C. nankingense and C. lavandulifolium than in their progenitor diploid. EST-SSR could provide a potential molecular basis of adaptation during evolution, while whole genome duplication has a major effect on the mutational dynamics of EST-SSR loci, which could also affect gene regulation. PMID:25339092

  4. Benefits of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV)-Mediated Insulinlike Growth Factor I (IGF-I) Overexpression for the Long-Term Reconstruction of Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage by Modulation of the IGF-I Axis

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Anja; Madry, Henning; Venkatesan, Jagadeesh K; Schmitt, Gertrud; Frisch, Janina; Wezel, Anna; Jung, Jochen; Kohn, Dieter; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Trippel, Stephen B; Cucchiarini, Magali

    2012-01-01

    Administration of therapeutic genes to human osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage is a potential approach to generate effective, durable treatments against this slow, progressive disorder. Here, we tested the ability of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of human insulinlike growth factor (hIGF)-I to reproduce an original surface in human OA cartilage in light of the pleiotropic activities of the factor. We examined the proliferative, survival and anabolic effects of the rAAV-hIGF-I treatment in primary human normal and OA chondrocytes in vitro and in explant cultures in situ compared with control (reporter) vector delivery. Efficient, prolonged IGF-I secretion via rAAV stimulated the biological activities of OA chondrocytes in all the systems evaluated over extended periods of time, especially in situ, where it allowed for the long-term reconstruction of OA cartilage (at least for 90 d). Remarkably, production of high, stable amounts of IGF-I in OA cartilage using rAAV advantageously modulated the expression of central effectors of the IGF-I axis by downregulating IGF-I inhibitors (IGF binding protein [IGFBP]-3 and IGFBP4) while up-regulating key potentiators (IGFBP5, the IGF-I receptor and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 [MAPK/ERK-1/2] and phosphatidylinisitol-3/Akt [PI3K/Akt] signal transduction pathways), probably explaining the enhanced responsiveness of OA cartilage to IGF-I treatment. These findings show the benefits of directly providing an IGF-I sequence to articular cartilage via rAAV for the future treatment of human osteoarthritis. PMID:22160392

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) analogue, LR(3)IGF-I, ameliorates the loss of body weight but not of skeletal muscle during food restriction.

    PubMed

    Tomas, F M

    2001-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is known to have anabolic effects in freely fed rats. We have investigated the ability of infused LR(3)IGF-I, an analogue of IGF-I, to attenuate the loss of lean tissue due to food restriction in young (5 weeks) and adult (12 weeks) rats. Groups of rats received food at 100%, 78%, 56% or 33% of ad libitum levels. Within each nutrition group the rats were continuously infused with LR(3)IGF-I at (98 nmol/day)/kg body weight or vehicle for 7 days. At each level of food intake, rats infused with LR(3)IGF-I maintained higher body weight (around 3-8%;P< 0.001) and nitrogen retention (P< 0.001) than those infused with vehicle alone but muscle protein was not conserved. LR(3)IGF-I infusion increased fat loss only in young rats (P< 0.05) despite a reduction in plasma insulin levels in both age groups (P< 0.01). Muscle protein turnover rates were unaffected by LR(3)IGF-I in young rats. In adult rats LR(3)IGF-I exacerbated the effects of food restriction through increased rates of protein breakdown, reduced RNA content and reduced rates of protein synthesis (P< 0.05) despite their larger fat reserves. Although young and adult rats show differing metabolic responses, we conclude that infusion of LR(3)IGF-I to either group during short-term food restriction does not ameliorate the loss of lean tissue by allowing more efficient utilization and/or partitioning of nutrients. PMID:11472075

  6. Microsatellite polymorphisms in DNA repair genes XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC5 in patients with gynecological tumors: association with late clinical radiosensitivity and cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    De Ruyck, K; Wilding, C S; Van Eijkeren, M; Morthier, R; Tawn, E J; Thierens, H

    2005-09-01

    This study investigates the association of microsatellite polymorphisms in XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC5 with the development of late radiation-induced radiotherapy reactions and examines the correlation between these microsatellites and cancer incidence. Sixty-two women with cervical or endometrial cancer treated with radiotherapy were included in the study. According to the CTCAEv3.0 scale, 22 patients showed late adverse radiotherapy reactions (grade 2 or more). PCR on lymphocyte DNA followed by automated fragment analysis was performed to examine the number of tandem repeat units at each locus. No significant association was found between the repeat length at any of the microsatellites in XRCC1, XRCC3 or XRCC5 and the incidence of late radiotherapy complications. Since higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for the rare XRCC1 [AC]11 and [AC]21 repeats (OR = 2.65, P = 0.325 and OR = 8.67, P = 0.093, respectively), the possible involvement of these small and large repeats in clinical radiosensitivity cannot be completely ruled out. When specific numbers of repeats were examined, no significant correlation was found between the microsatellite repeat length in XRCC1 and XRCC5 and cancer incidence. A weak correlation between XRCC3 [AC]16 homozygotes and cancer incidence was found (OR = 2.56, P = 0.055). A large-scale multicenter study of cancer patients with a high number of radiosensitive individuals is needed to clarify the value of rare polymorphic microsatellite repeats in XRCC1 and XRCC3 as a biomarker of clinical radiosensitivity or increased cancer risk. PMID:16137195

  7. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass but is dispensable for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in female mice.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johan; Windahl, Sara H; Saxon, Leanne; Sjögren, Klara; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Low circulating IGF-I is associated with increased fracture risk. Conditional depletion of IGF-I produced in osteoblasts or osteocytes inhibits the bone anabolic effect of mechanical loading. Here, we determined the role of endocrine IGF-I for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in young adult and old female mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, serum IGF-I reduced by ≈70%) and control mice. The right tibia was subjected to short periods of axial cyclic compressive loading three times/wk for 2 wk, and measurements were performed using microcomputed tomography and mechanical testing by three-point bending. In the nonloaded left tibia, the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice had lower cortical bone area and increased cortical porosity, resulting in reduced bone mechanical strength compared with the controls. Mechanical loading induced a similar response in LI-IGF-I(-/-) and control mice in terms of cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume fraction. In fact, mechanical loading produced a more marked increase in cortical bone mechanical strength, which was associated with a less marked increase in cortical porosity, in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice compared with the control mice. In conclusion, liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass, cortical porosity, and mechanical strength under normal (nonloaded) conditions. However, despite an ∼70% reduction in circulating IGF-I, the osteogenic response to mechanical loading was not attenuated in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice. PMID:27221117

  8. A survey on the expression of IGF-I in the early developing bony fish with special emphasis on the tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Eppler, Elisabeth; Segner, Helmut; Reinecke, Manfred

    2005-04-01

    The present study investigates the expression of IGF-I in the early developing tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). IGF-I was detected very early in ontogeny (4-5 days postfertilization, DPF), first in liver and in organs involved in growth and metabolism, thus suggesting a high physiological impact of IGF-I in growth, metabolism, and organogenesis. PMID:15891092

  9. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shell, Wyatt A; Rehan, Sandra M

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata's distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  10. Development of Multiple Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Using Genome-Wide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shell, Wyatt A.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    The small carpenter bee, Ceratina calcarata (Robertson), is a widespread native pollinator across eastern North America. The behavioral ecology and nesting biology of C. calcarata has been relatively well-studied and the species is emerging as a model organism for both native pollinator and social evolution research. C. calcarata is subsocial: reproductively mature females provide extended maternal care to their brood. As such, studies of C. calcarata may also reveal patterns of relatedness and demography unique to primitively social Hymenoptera. Here, we present 21 microsatellite loci, isolated from the recently completed C. calcarata genome. Screening in 39 individuals across their distribution revealed that no loci were in linkage disequilibrium, nor did any deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg following sequential Bonferroni correction. Allele count ranged from 2 to 14, and observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 (mean 0.47) and 0.26 to 0.88 (mean 0.56), respectively. These markers will enable studies of population-wide genetic structuring across C. calcarata’s distribution. Such tools will also allow for exploration of between and within-colony relatedness in this subsocial native pollinator. PMID:27324584

  11. Early pregnancy IGF-I and placental GH and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lundin, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling may promote ovarian tumor development by exerting mitotic, antiapoptotic and proangiogenic effects. During pregnancy, maternal production of IGF-I is regulated by placental growth hormone (GH). Parity is an established protective factor for ovarian cancer, however, no prior study has evaluated placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Prior prospective studies on the association between IGF-I and EOC in nonpregnant populations were inconclusive and did not address associations in subtypes of EOC. Among members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort, we identified 1,045 EOC cases, diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011 and 2,658 individually matched controls. Placental GH and IGF-I were measured in serum from the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis or selection as control. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tertiles and a doubling of hormone concentrations. Higher IGF-I was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in risk for invasive [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.79 (0.62-1.02); ptrend  = 0.07] and endometrioid tumors [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.55 (0.28-1.07); ptrend  = 0.07]. The protective association between higher IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged <55 years at diagnosis [ORT3 vs. T1 : 0.74 (0.57-0.96); ptrend  = 0.03]. Our study provides the first data on placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and EOC risk overall and by subtype. Our data suggest higher IGF-I levels in pregnancy may be associated with lower risk of invasive and endometrioid EOC. PMID:25516257

  12. Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. ); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. )

    1994-01-18

    At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

  13. Genepool Variation in Genus Glycine Subgenus Soja Revealed by Polymorphic Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Powell, W.; Morgante, M.; Doyle, J. J.; McNicol, J. W.; Tingey, S. V.; Rafalski, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    A combination of nuclear and chloroplast simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have been used to investigate the levels and pattern of variability detected in Glycine max and G. soja genotypes. Based on the analysis of 700 soybean genotypes with 115 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes, 12 accessions were identified that represent 92% of the allelic variability detected in this genepool. These 12 core genotypes together with a sample of G. max and G. soja accessions were evaluated with 11 nuclear SSRs that detected 129 alleles. Compared with the other G. max and G. soja genotypes sampled, the core genotypes represent 40% of the allelic variability detected with SSRs. Despite the multi-allelic nature of soybean SSRs, dendrograms representing phenetic relationships between accessions clustered according to their subspecies origin. In addition to biparentally inherited nuclear SSRs, two uniparentally (maternally) transmitted chloroplast SSRs were also studied. A total of seven haplotypes were identified, and diversity indices of 0.405 +/- 0.088 and 0.159 +/- 0.071 were obtained for the two chloroplast SSRs. The availability of polymorphic SSR loci in the chloroplast genome provides new opportunities to investigate cytonuclear interactions in plants. PMID:8889540

  14. GH, IGF-I and binding proteins in altered nutritional states.

    PubMed

    Ross, R J

    2000-06-01

    Nutritional state has profound actions at all levels of the GH/IGF-I axis and growth hormone has potent effects on nutritional state. The growth promoting effects of GH on linear height in children has long been recognised and, more recently, the important action of GH in maintaining adult body composition have been appreciated. The strong anabolic actions of GH have made it a drug of abuse among athletes and, of interest, clinicians, as a potent anti-catabolic therapy. In this review we consider the effects of nutrition on the GH/IGF-I axis and then discuss its potential use as an anti-catabolic agent. We also note the recent study in critically ill patients which has been associated with a poor outcome using high dose GH therapy. PMID:10997619

  15. BDNF, IGF-I, Glucose and Insulin during Continuous and Interval Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tonoli, C; Heyman, E; Roelands, B; Buyse, L; Piacentini, F; Berthoin, S; Bailey, S; Pattyn, N; Meeusen, R

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) can have a significant impact on brain function, mostly ascribed to episodes of hypoglycemia and chronic hyperglycemia. Exercise has positive effects on acute and chronic glycemic control in T1D, and has beneficial effects on cognitive function by increasing neurotrophins such as BDNF and IGF-I in non-diabetic humans. The present study examines the effects of different types of exercise intensities on neurotrophins in T1D. 10 participants with type 1 diabetes were evaluated in 3 sessions: high-intensity exercise (10×[60 s 90%Wmax, 60 s 50 W]), continuous exercise (22 min, 70% VO2 max) and a control session. Blood glucose, serum free insulin, serum BDNF and IGF-I were assessed pre/post all the trials and after recovery. Blood glucose significantly decreased after both exercise intensities and BDNF levels increased, with a dose-response effect for exercise intensity on BDNF. IGF-I changed over time, but without a difference between the different exercise protocols. Both exercise intensities change neurotrophins in T1D, but also exhibit a dose response effect for BDNF. The intensity-dependent findings may aid in designing exercise prescriptions for maintaining or improving neurological health in T1D, but both types of exercise can be implemented. PMID:26212245

  16. Methodology for Anti-Gene Anti-IGF-I Therapy of Malignant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Trojan, Jerzy; Pan, Yuexin X.; Wei, Ming X.; Ly, Adama; Shevelev, Alexander; Bierwagen, Maciej; Ardourel, Marie-Yvonne; Trojan, Ladislas A.; Alvarez, Alvaro; Andres, Christian; Noguera, Maria C.; Briceno, Ignacio; Aristizabal, Beatriz H.; Kasprzak, Heliodor; Duc, Huynh T.; Anthony, Donald D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the criteria for methodology of cellular “anti-IGF-I” therapy of malignant tumours and particularly for glioblastoma multiforme. The treatment of primary glioblastoma patients using surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy was followed by subcutaneous injection of autologous cancer cells transfected by IGF-I antisense/triple helix expression vectors. The prepared cell “vaccines” should it be in the case of glioblastomas or other tumours, have shown a change of phenotype, the absence of IGF-I protein, and expression of MHC-I and B7. The peripheral blood lymphocytes, PBL cells, removed after each of two successive vaccinations, have demonstrated for all the types of tumour tested an increasing level of CD8+ and CD8+28+ molecules and a switch from CD8+11b+ to CD8+11. All cancer patients were supervised for up to 19 months, the period corresponding to minimum survival of glioblastoma patients. The obtained results have permitted to specify the common criteria for “anti-IGF-I” strategy: characteristics sine qua non of injected “vaccines” (cloned cells IGF-I(−) and MHC-I(+)) and of PBL cells (CD8+ increased level). PMID:22400112

  17. The Effect of Skeletal Unloading on Bone Formation: Role of IGF-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Kostenuik, P.; Holton, E. M.; Halloran, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    skeletal unloading. We have focussed on the role of IGF- 1 as the local factor mediating the effects of skeletal unloading on bone formation. IGF-I is produced by bone cells and chondrocytes; these cells have receptors for IGF-I, and respond to IGF-I with an increase in proliferation and function (e.g. collagen, and glycosaminoglycan production, respectively). IGF-I production by bone is under hormonal control, principally by GH and PTH, and IGF-I is thought to mediate some if not all of the effects of GH and PTH on bone growth. Thus, systemic changes in hormones such as GH and PTH may still have effects which vary from bone to bone depending on the loading history.

  18. Isolation and characterization of 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the migratory freshwater fish Leporinus obtusidens (Characiformes: Anostomidae) using 454 shotgun pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Villanova, G V; Vera, M; Díaz, J; Martinez, P; Calcaterra, N B; Arranz, S E

    2015-03-01

    Twenty polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Neotropical fish Leporinus obtusidens using a next generation sequencing approach and tested in two other characifomes species, Schizodon platae and Prochilodus lineatus. Microsatellite loci alleles in L. obtusidens ranged between 2 and 20 alleles per locus (mean = 5·7), with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0·097 to 0·956 (mean = 0·578) and observed heterozygosity values ranging from 0·000 to 0·800 (mean = 0·400) in a sample of 20 specimens from the lower Paraná River (Argentina). Most of these markers will be a valuable tool for captive breeding and stocking programmes, as well as for analyses of population connectivity and genetic structure in this broadly distributed Neotropical migratory fish. PMID:25683648

  19. Three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the glaucoma locus GLC1B by datamining tetranucleotide repeats on chromosome 2p12-q12

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In order to identify new markers around the glaucoma locus GLC1B as a tool to refine its critical region at 2p11.2-2q11.2, we searched the critical region sequence obtained from the UCSC database for tetranucleotide (GATA)n and (GTCT)n repeats of at least 10 units in length. Three out of four potential microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic, heterozygosity ranging from 64.56% to 79.59%. The identified markers are useful not only for GLC1B locus but also for the study of other disease loci at 2p11.2-2q11.2, a region with scarcity of microsatellite markers. PMID:21637444

  20. Three novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for the glaucoma locus GLC1B by datamining tetranucleotide repeats on chromosome 2p12-q12.

    PubMed

    Murga-Zamalloa, Carlos; Guevara-Fujita, Maria Luisa; Estrada-Cuzcano, Alejandro; Fujita, Ricardo

    2009-10-01

    In order to identify new markers around the glaucoma locus GLC1B as a tool to refine its critical region at 2p11.2-2q11.2, we searched the critical region sequence obtained from the UCSC database for tetranucleotide (GATA)n and (GTCT)n repeats of at least 10 units in length. Three out of four potential microsatellite loci were found to be polymorphic, heterozygosity ranging from 64.56% to 79.59%. The identified markers are useful not only for GLC1B locus but also for the study of other disease loci at 2p11.2-2q11.2, a region with scarcity of microsatellite markers. PMID:21637444

  1. Variability and Reliability of Single Serum IGF-I Measurements: Impact on Determining Predictability of Risk Ratios in Disease Development

    PubMed Central

    MILANI, DANIELA; CARMICHAEL, JOHN D.; WELKOWITZ, JOAN; FERRIS, STEVEN; REITZ, RICHARD E.; DANOFF, ANN; KLEINBERG, DAVID L.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, a number of investigators have studied the relationship between IGF-I and risk of developing cancer, diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Upper tertile, quartile, and quintile IGF-Is were associated with higher risk of developing cancer, and lowest quartile with cardiac disease and diabetes. As part of a study to correlate serum IGF-Is and growth bormone dynamics in aging, we measured fasting serum IGF-I at baseline and two weeks later in a group of 84 normal volunteers between the ages of 50 and 90 years. Although the correlation between the two IGF-Is was high (r=0.922; p<0.0001) there were substantial differences between the two IGF-I values ranging from -36.25 to +38.24% between individual IGF-I values at the two blood draws and a significant difference between the mean IGF-Is at visits 1 and 2 (mean l20.28±53.5 vs. l14.95±50.03; p=0.03). When considered in quartiles, IGF-I changed from one quartile to another in 34/84 (40.5%) of the volunteers. When the group was divided in halves, tertiles, quartiles, or quintiles there was an increasing number of subjects who changed from one subdivision to another as the number of gradations increased. These results suggest that the predictive outcomes of earlier studies that used single IGF-I samples for analysis of risk ratios according to tertiles, quartiles, or quintiles could have been different if a second IGF-I was used to establish the risk ratio. The results also suggest that variability in IGF-I should be taken into account when designing such studies. PMID:15126552

  2. Early pregnancy IGF-I and placental GH and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: A nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Helena; Fortner, Renée T; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Grankvist, Kjell; Pukkala, Eero; Lehtinen, Matti; Lundin, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling may promote ovarian tumor development by exerting mitotic, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic effects. During pregnancy, maternal production of IGF-I is regulated by placental growth hormone (GH). Parity is an established protective factor for ovarian cancer, however, no prior study has evaluated placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Prior prospective studies on the association between IGF-I and EOC in non-pregnant populations were inconclusive and did not address associations in subtypes of EOC. Among members of the Finnish Maternity Cohort and the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort we identified 1,045 EOC cases, diagnosed after recruitment (1975-2008) and before March 2011, and 2,658 individually matched controls. Placental GH and IGF-I were measured in serum from the last pregnancy before EOC diagnosis or selection as control. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] for tertiles and a doubling of hormone concentrations. Higher IGFI was associated with a non-significant decrease in risk for invasive (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.79 [0.62-1.02]; ptrend=0.07) and endometrioid tumors (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.55 [0.28-1.07]; ptrend=0.07). The protective association between higher IGF-I levels and risk of invasive EOC was stronger in analyses limited to women aged <55 years at diagnosis (ORT3 vs. T1: 0.74 [0.57-0.96]; ptrend=0.03). Our study provides the first data on placental GH and IGF-I in pregnancy and EOC risk overall and by subtype. Our data suggest higher IGF-I levels in pregnancy may be associated with lower risk of invasive and endometrioid EOC. PMID:25516257

  3. Maintenance of myonuclear domain size in rat soleus after overload and growth hormone/IGF-I treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, G. E.; Allen, D. L.; Linderman, J. K.; Grindeland, R. E.; Roy, R. R.; Mukku, V. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of functional overload (FO) combined with growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I (GH/IGF-I) administration on myonuclear number and domain size in rat soleus muscle fibers. Adult female rats underwent bilateral ablation of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles and, after 7 days of recovery, were injected three times daily for 14 days with GH/IGF-I (1 mg/kg each; FO + GH/IGF-I group) or saline vehicle (FO group). Intact rats receiving saline vehicle served as controls (Con group). Muscle wet weight was 32% greater in the FO than in the Con group: 162 +/- 8 vs. 123 +/- 16 mg. Muscle weight in the FO + GH/IGF-I group (196 +/- 14 mg) was 59 and 21% larger than in the Con and FO groups, respectively. Mean soleus fiber cross-sectional area of the FO + GH/IGF-I group (2,826 +/- 445 microm2) was increased compared with the Con (2,044 +/- 108 microm2) and FO (2,267 +/- 301 microm2) groups. The difference in fiber size between the FO and Con groups was not significant. Mean myonuclear number increased in FO (187 +/- 15 myonuclei/mm) and FO + GH/IGF-I (217 +/- 23 myonuclei/mm) rats compared with Con (155 +/- 12 myonuclei/mm) rats, although the difference between FO and FO + GH/IGF-I animals was not significant. The mean cytoplasmic volume per myonucleus (myonuclear domain) was similar across groups. These results demonstrate that the larger mean muscle weight and fiber cross-sectional area occurred when FO was combined with GH/IGF-I administration and that myonuclear number increased concomitantly with fiber volume. Thus there appears to be some mechanism(s) that maintains the myonuclear domain when a fiber hypertrophies.

  4. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25509050

  5. [Differences in dynamics of insulin and insulin-like growth I (IGF-I) receptors internalization in isolated rat hepatocytes].

    PubMed

    Kolychev, A P; Ternovskaya, E E; Arsenieva, A V; Shapkina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Insulin and IGF-I are two related peptides performing in the mammalian body functionally different roles of the metabolic and growth hormones, respectively. Internalization of the insulin-receptor complex (IRC) is the most important chain of mechanism of the action of hormone. To elucidate differences in the main stages of internalization of the two related hormones, the internalization dynamics of 125I-insulin and 125I-IGF-I was traced in isolated rat hepatocytes at 37 and 12 degrees C. There were established marked differences in the process of internalization of labeled hormones, which is stimulated by insulin and IGF-I. At 37 degrees C the insulin-stimulated internalization, unlike the process initiated by IGF-I, did not reach the maximal level for 1 h of incubation. However, essential differences in the internalization course of these two related peptide were obvious at the temperature of 12 degrees C. The internalization level of insulin receptors at 12 degrees C decreased by one third in spite of a significant increase of the insulin receptor binding on the hepatocytes plasma membrane. At 12 degrees C a slight decrease of the proportion of intracellular 125I-IGF-I correlated with a decrease in the 125I-IGF-I binding to receptors on the cell membrane. Internalization of IGF-I receptors was not affected by low temperature, as neither its level, nor the rate changed at 12 degrees C. The paradoxical decrease of the insulin-stimulated internalization at low temperature seems to represent a peculiar "inhibition mechanism" of immersion of IRC into the cell, which leads to accumulation of the complexes on the cell surface and possibly to a readjustment of the insulin biological activity. The resistance of internalization of the IGF-I receptor to cold seems to be related to the more ancient origin of this mechanism in the poikilothermal vertebrates. PMID:25490849

  6. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, cause of powdery mildew of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many wheat–growing regions of the world, powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease that results in significant yield losses. Using a microsatellite enrichment protocol, we developed primers for 10 microsatellite DNA loci to aid in studies of B. g. tritici popu...

  7. Mechanical properties and structure-function relationships in articular cartilage repaired using IGF-I gene-enhanced chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Darvin J; Ortved, Kyla F; Nixon, Alan J; Bonassar, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of IGF-I gene therapy in enhancing the histologic and biochemical content of cartilage repaired by chondrocyte transplantation. However, there is little to no data on the mechanical performance of IGF-I augmented cartilage grafts. This study evaluated the compressive properties of full-thickness chondral defects in the equine femur repaired with and without IGF-I gene therapy. Animals were randomly assigned to one of three study cohorts based on chondrocyte treatment provided in each defect: (i) IGF-I gene delivered by recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-5; (ii) AAV-5 delivering GFP as a reporter; (iii) naïve cells without virus. In each case, the opposite limb was implanted with a fibrin carrier without cells. Samples were prepared for confined compression testing to measure the aggregate modulus and hydraulic permeability. All treatment groups, regardless of cell content or transduction, had mechanical properties inferior to native cartilage. Overexpression of IGF-I increased modulus and lowered permeability relative to other treatments. Investigation of structure-property relationships revealed that Ha and k were linearly correlated with GAG content but logarithmically correlated with collagen content. This provides evidence that IGF-I gene therapy can improve healing of articular cartilage and can greatly increase the mechanical properties of repaired grafts. PMID:26308948

  8. IGF-I Signaling Is Essential for FSH Stimulation of AKT and Steroidogenic Genes in Granulosa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Baumgarten, Sarah C.; Wu, Yanguang; Bennett, Jill; Winston, Nicola; Hirshfeld-Cytron, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    FSH and IGF-I synergistically stimulate gonadal steroid production; conversely, silencing the FSH or the IGF-I genes leads to infertility and hypogonadism. To determine the molecular link between these hormones, we examined the signaling cross talk downstream of their receptors. In human and rodent granulosa cells (GCs), IGF-I potentiated the stimulatory effects of FSH and cAMP on the expression of steroidogenic genes. In contrast, inhibition of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) activity or expression using pharmacological, genetic, or biochemical approaches prevented the FSH- and cAMP-induced expression of steroidogenic genes and estradiol production. In vivo experiments demonstrated that IGF-IR inactivation reduces the stimulation of steroidogenic genes and follicle growth by gonadotropins. FSH or IGF-I alone stimulated protein kinase B (PKB), which is also known as AKT and in combination synergistically increased AKT phosphorylation. Remarkably, blocking IGF-IR expression or activity decreased AKT basal activity and abolished AKT activation by FSH. In GCs lacking IGF-IR activity, FSH stimulation of Cyp19 expression was rescued by overexpression of constitutively active AKT. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that in human, mouse, and rat GCs, the well-known stimulatory effect of FSH on Cyp19 and AKT depends on IGF-I and on the expression and activation of the IGF-IR. PMID:23340251

  9. Mutations in pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 cause short stature due to low IGF-I availability.

    PubMed

    Dauber, Andrew; Muñoz-Calvo, María T; Barrios, Vicente; Domené, Horacio M; Kloverpris, Soren; Serra-Juhé, Clara; Desikan, Vardhini; Pozo, Jesús; Muzumdar, Radhika; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Hawkins, Federico; Jasper, Héctor G; Conover, Cheryl A; Frystyk, Jan; Yakar, Shoshana; Hwa, Vivian; Chowen, Julie A; Oxvig, Claus; Rosenfeld, Ron G; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in multiple genes of the growth hormone/IGF-I axis have been identified in syndromes marked by growth failure. However, no pathogenic human mutations have been reported in the six high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) or their regulators, such as the metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma protein A2 (PAPP-A2) that is hypothesized to increase IGF-I bioactivity by specific proteolytic cleavage of IGFBP-3 and -5. Multiple members of two unrelated families presented with progressive growth failure, moderate microcephaly, thin long bones, mildly decreased bone density and elevated circulating total IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and -5, acid labile subunit, and IGF-II concentrations. Two different homozygous mutations in PAPPA2, p.D643fs25* and p.Ala1033Val, were associated with this novel syndrome of growth failure. In vitro analysis of IGFBP cleavage demonstrated that both mutations cause a complete absence of PAPP-A2 proteolytic activity. Size-exclusion chromatography showed a significant increase in IGF-I bound in its ternary complex. Free IGF-I concentrations were decreased. These patients provide important insights into the regulation of longitudinal growth in humans, documenting the critical role of PAPP-A2 in releasing IGF-I from its BPs. PMID:26902202

  10. Aging influences steroid hormone release by mink ovaries and their response to leptin and IGF-I

    PubMed Central

    Sirotkin, Alexander V.; Mertin, Dušan; Süvegová, Karin; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Kotwica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of our study was to understand whether ovarian steroid hormones, and their response to the metabolic hormones leptin and IGF-I leptin, could be involved in the control of mink reproductive aging via changes in basal release of ovarian progesterone and estradiol. For this purpose, we compared the release of progesterone and estradiol by ovarian fragments isolated from young (yearlings) and old (3-5 years of age) minks cultured with and without leptin and IGF-I (0, 1, 10 or 100 ng/ml). We observed that isolated ovaries of older animals produced less progesterone but not less estradiol than the ovaries of young animals. Leptin addition stimulated estradiol release by the ovarian tissue of young animals but inhibited it in older females. Leptin did not influence progesterone output by the ovaries of either young or older animals. IGF-I inhibited estradiol output in young but not old animals, whereas progesterone release was inhibited by IGF-I irrespective of the animal age. Our observations demonstrate the involvement of both leptin and IGF-I in the control of mink ovarian steroid hormones release. Furthermore, our findings suggest that reproductive aging in minks can be due to (a) reduction in basal progesterone release and (b) alterations in the response of estradiol but not of progesterone to leptin and IGF-I. PMID:26794607